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Sample records for stamina walk test

  1. Comparison of two 6-minute walk tests to assess walking capacity in polio survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Merel-Anne; Verduijn, Suzan; Bon, Jurgen; Bredt, Nicoline; Nollet, Frans

    2017-11-21

    To compare walking dynamics and test-retest reliability for 2 frequently applied walk tests in polio survivors: the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to walk as far as possible; and the 6-minute walking energy cost test (WECT) at comfortable speed. Observational study. Thirty-three polio survivors, able to walk ≥ 150 m. On the same day participants performed a 6MWT and a WECT, which were repeated 1-3 weeks later. For each test, distance walked, heart rate and reduction in speed were assessed. The mean distance walked and mean heart rate were significantly higher in the 6MWT (441 m (standard deviation) (SD 79.7); 118 bpm (SD 19.2)) compared with the WECT (366 m (SD 67.3); 103 bpm (SD 14.3)); pwalked distance was 42 m (9.7% change from the mean) and 50 m (13.7%) on the 6MWT and WECT, respectively. Both the 6MWT and the WECT are reliable to assess walking capacity in polio survivors, with slightly superior sensitivity to detect change for the 6MWT. Differences in walking dynamics confirm that the tests cannot be used interchangeably. The 6MWT is recommended for measuring maximal walking capacity and the WECT for measuring submaximal walking capacity.

  2. Differences in walking pattern during 6-min walk test between patients with COPD and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annegarn, Janneke; Spruit, Martijn A; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Willems, Paul J B; van de Bool, Coby; Schols, Annemie M W J; Wouters, Emiel F M; Meijer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    To date, detailed analyses of walking patterns using accelerometers during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) have not been performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during the 6MWT compared to healthy elderly subjects. 79 COPD patients and 24 healthy elderly subjects performed the 6MWT wearing an accelerometer attached to the trunk. The accelerometer features (walking intensity, cadence, and walking variability) and subject characteristics were assessed and compared between groups. Moreover, associations were sought with 6-min walk distance (6MWD) using multiple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. COPD patients walked with a significantly lower walking intensity, lower cadence and increased walking variability compared to healthy subjects. Walking intensity and height were the only two significant determinants of 6MWD in healthy subjects, explaining 85% of the variance in 6MWD. In COPD patients also age, cadence, walking variability measures and their interactions were included were significant determinants of 6MWD (total variance in 6MWD explained: 88%). COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during 6MWT compared to healthy subjects. These differences in walking pattern partially explain the lower 6MWD in patients with COPD.

  3. The 2-min walk test is sufficient for evaluating walking abilities in sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, L N; Lowes, L P; Dvorchik, I; Yin, H; Maus, E G; Flanigan, K M; Mendell, J R

    2014-03-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis causes progressive functional loss due to declining muscle strength. Although the underlying cause is unknown, clinical trials are underway to improve strength and function. Selection of appropriate outcome measures is critical for the success of these trials. The 6-min walk test has been the de facto standard for assessing function in neuromuscular disease; however, the optimal walking test has not been determined in this disease. In this study, 67 individuals with sporadic inclusion body myositis completed a battery of quantitative strength and functional tests including timed walking tests, patient-reported outcomes, and other tasks. The 2-min and 6-min walk tests are highly correlated to each other (r=0.97, pwalk test, but 7% of subjects were unable to walk the full 6-min of the 6-min walk test due to fatigue. The 2-min walk test demonstrates similar correlation to all outcomes compared to the 6-min walk test, is less fatiguing and better tolerated. Results suggest that the 2-min walk test is a better alternative to tests of longer duration. Further research is needed to determine longitudinal changes on this outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Six Minute Walk Test Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, M.

    2017-12-01

    Background and Purpose: Heart failure is the leading cause of death and often alters or severely restricts human mobility, an essential life function. Motion capture is an emerging tool for analyzing human movement and extremity articulation, providing quantitative information on gait and range of motion. This study uses BioStamp mechanosensors to identify differences in motion for the duration of the Six Minute Walk Test and signature patterns of muscle contraction and posture in patients with advanced heart failure compared to healthy subjects. Identification and close follow up of these patterns may allow enhanced diagnosis and the possibility for early intervention before disease worsening. Additionally, movement parameters represent a new family of potential biomarkers to track heart failure onset, progression and therapy. Methods: Prior to the Six Minute Walk Test, BioStamps (MC10) were applied to the chest, upper and lower extremities of heart failure and healthy patients and data were streamed and recorded revealing the pattern of movement in three separate axes. Conjointly, before and after the Six Minute Walk Test, the following vitals were measured per subject: heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, dyspnea and leg fatigue (self-reported with Borg scale). During the test, patients were encouraged to walk as far as they can in 6 minutes on a 30m course, as we recorded the number of laps completed and oxygen saturation every minute. Results and Conclusions: The sensors captured and quantified whole body and regional motion parameters including: a. motion extent, position, acceleration and angle via incorporated accelerometers and gyroscopes; b. muscle contraction via incorporated electromyogram (EMG). Accelerometry and gyroscopic data for the last five steps of a healthy and heart failure patient are shown. While significant differences in motion for the duration of the test were not found, each category of patients had a distinct

  5. Going places: Does the two-minute walk test predict the six-minute walk test in lower extremity amputees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lauren; Thomson, Penny; Besemann, Markus; Dudek, Nancy

    2015-03-01

    Assessing a patient's ability to walk the distance required for community ambulation (at least 300 m) is important in amputee rehabilitation. During the 2-min walk test, most amputees cannot walk 300 m. Thus, the 6-min walk test may be preferred, but it has not been fully validated in this population. This study examined the convergent and discriminative validity of the 6-min walk test and assessed whether the 2-min test could predict the results of the 6-min test. A total of 86 patients with unilateral or bilateral amputations at the Syme, transtibial, knee disarticulation or transfemoral level completed the 6-min walk test, 2-min walk test, Timed Up and Go test, Locomotor Capabilities Index version 5, Houghton Scale of Prosthetic Use, and Activity-Specific Balance Confidence scale. The 6-min walk test correlated with the other tests (R = 0.57-0.95), demonstrating convergent validity. It demonstrated discriminative validity with respect to age, aetiology of amputation, and K-level (p amputee ambulation. However, the results suggest that it may not be necessary, since the 2-min walk test strongly predicts the 6-min walk test. Clinicians could therefore save time by using the shorter test.

  6. Two- and 6-minute walk tests assess walking capability equally in neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Linda Kahr; Knak, Kirsten Lykke; Witting, Nanna; Vissing, John

    2016-02-02

    This methodologic study investigates if the 2-minute walk test (2MWT) can be a valid alternative to the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to describe walking capability in patients with neuromuscular diseases. Patients (n = 115) with different neuromuscular diseases were invited to participate on 2 test days, each consisting of 1 2MWT and 1 6MWT separated by a minimum 30-minute period of rest. The order of the walk tests was randomly assigned via sealed envelopes. A group of 38 healthy controls completed 1 6MWT. The mean walking distance for the 2MWT was 142.8 meters and for the 6MWT 405.3 meters. The distance walked in the 2MWT was highly correlated to the distance walked in the 6MWT (r = 0.99, p walking speed from the first to last minute in the 6MWT, both among patients and healthy controls, which was not evident in the 2MWT. Results were consistent across diagnoses and levels of disease severity. The 2MWT is a potential alternative to the 6MWT to describe walking capability among patients with neuromuscular diseases during clinical trials. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Two- and 6-minute walk tests assess walking capability equally in neuromuscular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Kahr; Knak, Kirsten Lykke; Witting, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This methodologic study investigates if the 2-minute walk test (2MWT) can be a valid alternative to the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to describe walking capability in patients with neuromuscular diseases. METHODS: Patients (n = 115) with different neuromuscular diseases were invited...... to participate on 2 test days, each consisting of 1 2MWT and 1 6MWT separated by a minimum 30-minute period of rest. The order of the walk tests was randomly assigned via sealed envelopes. A group of 38 healthy controls completed 1 6MWT. RESULTS: The mean walking distance for the 2MWT was 142.8 meters...... and for the 6MWT 405.3 meters. The distance walked in the 2MWT was highly correlated to the distance walked in the 6MWT (r = 0.99, p walking speed from the first to last minute in the 6MWT, both among patients and healthy controls, which was not evident in the 2MWT...

  8. Measuring walking speed in COPD: test-retest reliability of the 30-metre walk test and comparison with the 6-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Mikael; Moberg, Linda; Svantesson, Ulla; Sundbom, Ann; Johansson, Henrik; Emtner, Margareta

    2011-12-01

    To examine test-retest reliability of the 30-metre walk test (30mWT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to compare the 30mWT with the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Forty-nine subjects with stable COPD were included. The 30mWT consists of walking at different walking intensities over a distance of 30 metres - self-selected speed (ss-30mWT) and maximal speed (ms-30mWT). The test was conducted twice and the time to walk 30 metres was recorded. The 6MWT was performed in duplicate on the same day. Test-retest reliability was high: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC(2.1)) = 0.93 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.97) for maximal walking speed and 0.87 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.93) for self-selected walking speed. Both maximal and self-selected speed had a standard error of measurement (SEM) of 0.07 m/s and SEM% was 4.4 for maximal speed and 5.9 for self-selected speed. The correlation, criterion validity, between ms-30mWT and the 6MWT was r=0.78 (pwalking ability) in patients with COPD. It may be well suited for primary care settings.

  9. Walking in postpoliomyelitis syndrome: The relationships between time-scored tests, walking in daily life and perceived mobility problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horemans, Herwin L. D.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.; Beelen, Anita; Stam, Henk J.; Nollet, Frans

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare walking test results with walking in daily life, and to investigate the relationships between walking tests, walking activity in daily life, and perceived mobility problems in patients with post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Subjects: Twenty-four ambulant patients with

  10. Reliability and Validity of the 50-ft Walk Test for Idiopathic Toe Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Catie; Haddad, Amanda; Maus, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the 50-ft walk test (FWT) for children with idiopathic toe walking (ITW). Thirty children, 6 to 13 years old, with ITW participated. During the 50-FWT, an accelerometer counted total steps. A physical therapist counted the number of toe-walking steps. The number of toe-walking steps was divided by the total steps to calculate a toe-walking percentage. Interrater reliability was assessed by correlating the toe-walking percentage obtained by 2 raters using an intraclass correlation coefficient. Concurrent validity was evaluated by correlating the toe-walking percentage calculated by the GAITRite and therapist using a Spearman ρ. There was excellent interrater reliability and concurrent validity. Experience level did not impact the therapist's ability to identify a toe-walking step. The 50-FWT demonstrated excellent interrater reliability and concurrent validity. It can be used to obtain a percentage of toe walking in children 6-13 years of age with ITW.

  11. Relationship between walk tests and parental reports of walking abilities in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jimmy; Mackey, Anna H; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Stott, N Susan

    2011-02-01

    To test the strength of association between 2 clinic-based measures of walking ability, the 1-minute walk test (1MWT) and the six-minute walk test (6MWT), and the parental report of usual walking performance, measured by the ABILOCO-Kids logit score, in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Observational study. Tertiary level outpatient clinics. Children and youth with CP (N=60; 32 boys, 28 girls; mean age, 11.2y [range, 5-18y]), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I to IV. Not applicable. The 10-item ABILOCO-Kids questionnaire, the 1MWT, and the 6MWT. ABILOCO-Kids logit scores were significantly correlated with the 1MWT (ρ=.70, Pwalking distance, depending on GMFCS level (P=.06 1MWT; P=.14 6MWT). The strongest relationship was observed at GMFCS level II, where ABILOCO-Kids score predicted 33% of variance in 1MWT (P=.003) and 31% of 6MWT (P=.003). The weakest relationship was at GMFCS level I, where ABILOCO-Kids score predicted only 5% of the variance in 1MWT (P=.33) and 16% of the variance in 6MWT (P=.08). Parental perceptions of their child's walking ability in the community correlate with clinic-based walking tests in ambulatory children with CP, providing evidence of convergent validity for the 1MWT and 6MWT. However, parents report a much wider range of walking abilities in children who function at a high level (GMFCS I) than is reflected by their walk test results. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Determining factors of walking distance during 6-minutes walk test in COPD patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyneel, M; Jacob, V; Sanida, C; Ferrali, O; Ameye, L; Ninane, V; Sergysels, R

    2012-11-01

    In stable COPD, we studied the factors determining six-minute walking distance and dyspnea at the end of the test. Patients were evaluated by tests of lung function, St Georges' respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) and 6MWT with inspiratory capacity measurements (IC) and continuous oxymetry. Eighty-two patients (mean FEV(1): 56+19% predicted) were studied. Mean 6-minute walking distance was 477+89m, (72+14% PV). Walking distance during 6MWT (m) was correlated with FEV(1), IC/TLC ratio, TLC, pre-test IC and DLco/VA. When expressed as a percent of predicted values, walking distance was correlated with FRC, pre-test IC and SGRQ activity score. End-test dyspnea was correlated with FRC, pre-test dyspnea and SGRQ activity and total scores. The factors determining 6-minute walking distance and end-test dyspnea are complex and include both functional and non-functional factors. In COPD, 6MWT is thus an investigation that has additional integrative value. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. The shuttle walk test: a new approach to functional walking capacity measurements for patients after stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bloemendaal, Maijke; Kokkeler, Astrid M; van de Port, Ingrid G

    2012-01-01

    To determine the construct validity, test-retest reliability, and measurement error of the shuttle walk test (SWT) for patients after stroke. Clinimetric study. Three rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands. A sample of patients after stroke (N=75; mean age ± SD, 58.8±9.8y) who are capable of walking without physical assistance. Patients were excluded if they had sustained a subarachnoid hemorrhage or a stroke in the cerebellum or brainstem, or had any other conditions that limited their walking capacity more than the current stroke, or had sensory aphasia. Not applicable. Construct validity (6-minute walk test [6MWT]) and test-retest reliability of the SWT were assessed. Measurement error was determined with the standard error of measurement (SEM), limits of agreement, and smallest detectable differences (SDDs). Construct validity was confirmed by high significant correlations (r(p)≥.65, Pwalking distance in favor of the 6MWT. Test-retest reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficient model 2,1 [ICC(2,1)]=.961 [.936-.977]). SEM was 6.0%, and the SDDs for individual and group were 302.0m (37%) and 38.7m (5%), respectively. The SWT is a valid and reliable measure and therefore a feasible instrument to determine functional walking capacity of patients after stroke, especially in high-speed walkers. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The shuttle walk test: a new approach to functional walking capacity measurements for patients after stroke?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendaal, M.; Kokkeler, A.M.; Port, I.G. van de

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the construct validity, test-retest reliability, and measurement error of the shuttle walk test (SWT) for patients after stroke. DESIGN: Clinimetric study. SETTING: Three rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of patients after stroke (N=75; mean

  15. Evaluation of the six-minute walk test in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Kirstin N; Roche, Brian M; Schwartz, Denise S; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Hamlin, Robert L

    2004-03-01

    To determine the feasibility for use of a 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) and document that the distance walked in 6 minutes decreases when a dog has CHF. 16 young mature male hound-crossbred dogs weighing between 25 and 37 kg. An unobstructed path (22.73 m) was measured in a hallway. Each dog was walked on a leash for 6 minutes; each dog was allowed to set its own pace. At the end of 6 minutes (as measured by use of a stopwatch), the total distance walked was measured. Heart rate (HR) obtained by auscultation and mean systemic arterial pressure (MAP) obtained by oscillometry were recorded before and after the 6-MWT. Heart failure was induced by use of rapid ventricular pacing. Mean of the distance walked, HR, and MAP before and after the 6-MWT were compared between the control period and after dogs developed induced CHF. Dogs with CHF had a significant increase in resting HR, significant decrease in MAP, and a significant decrease in the distance walked in 6 minutes. The MAP increased slightly after exercise during the control period but decreased slightly after exercise during the CHF period. Fractional shortening decreased significantly when dogs had CHF. Analysis of these results indicated that the distance walked in 6 minutes decreased significantly when a dog had CHF. The 6-MWT requires little time, space, or equipment and may replace the treadmill exercise test.

  16. TESTING OF BIST AND TURKDEX: RANDOM WALK AND MARKETEFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizay DAVER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We implemented several parametric and non-parametrictests to investigaterandom walk hypothesis and market efficiency theorem for Turkey’s two mainmarkets, Turkish Derivatives Exchange andBorsaİst anbul(new name for İstanbulStock Exchange. 12/02/2007– 08/02/2013 period is our testing period and weuseddaily log returns. According to our findings in the very short term nullhypothesis of random walk is accepted.

  17. Community walking can be assessed using a 10-metre timed walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, J C E; de Groot, V; Knol, D L; Polman, C H; Lankhorst, G J; Beckerman, H

    2011-08-01

    A decline in mobility is a common feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Community walking scales are used to categorize patients in their ability to move independently. The first purpose of this study was to determine which specific gait speed corresponded with the categories of the Modified Functional Walking Categories (MFWC). The second purpose was to determine the Minimally Important Change (MIC) in absolute gait speed using the MFWC and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) as external criteria. MS patients were measured six times in 6 years. Gait velocity was measured with the 10-metre timed walk test (10-m TWT), the severity of MS was determined with the EDSS, and community walking was assessed with the MFWC. For each category of the MFWC, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to find the best possible cut-off point on the 10-m TWT. The MIC in absolute gait speed was determined using a change of one category on the MFWC or one point on the EDSS. A strong relationship was found between gait speed and the MFWC; all areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were between 0.74 and 0.86. The MIC in absolute gait speed could not be determined, because the AUCs were below the threshold of 0.70 and changes in gait speed were small. Gait speed is related to community walking, but an MIC in absolute gait speed could not be determined using a minimally important change on the MFWC or the EDSS as external criteria.

  18. Validity of the shuttle walk test as a functional assessment of walking ability in individuals with polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Peter G; Teunissen, Laurien L; van den Berg, Leonard H; Notermans, Nicolette C; Schröder, Carin D; Bongers, Bart C; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the validity of the shuttle walk test (SWT) to evaluate walking ability in patients with polyneuropathy. Forty-one patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) and 49 patients with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) performed both the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and the SWT. Face validity was assessed by evaluating whether patients considered both tests to reflect their walking ability (Likert scale: 1 = not at all, 10 = very well). Concurrent validity was determined by Spearman rank-correlation analyses performed on the outcomes of both tests. Mean (SD) scores for how well the 10MWT and SWT reflected daily walking ability were 6.8 (1.3) and 7.4 (1.6) (p = 0.117) in patients with CIAP and 6.9 (1.2) and 7.9 (1.0) (p = 0.001) in patients with MMN, respectively. Correlation scores between both tests ranged from -0.70 to -0.82, except for 18 patients with MMN with a "normal" walking speed at the 10MWT (-0.21). The SWT seems a valid instrument for assessing walking ability in individuals with CIAP and MMN. Moreover, the SWT seems to be useful for investigating the symptoms elicited by walking long distances and may be more sensitive to changes when compared to the 10MWT. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients with polyneuropathy mainly experience problems when walking long distances. The 10-meter walk test does not possess sufficient psychometrics to diagnose walking abilities in these circumstances. The shuttle walk test is a valid instrument for assessing walking ability in individuals with polyneuropathy and might be the preferred instrument of choice when compared to the 10-meter walk test.

  19. Comparison of bioenergetics of walking during a multistage incremental shuttle walk test and a 6-min walk test in active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Mario; Duvergé, Sébastien; Kalinova, Émilia; Bui, Hung Tien; Comtois, Alain S

    2017-04-01

    The goal of the present research was to compare the bioenergetics variability of walking, during the 6-min walk test (6-MWT) and a multistage incremental shuttle walk test (MISWT) in an active older population. Twenty-two healthy physically active older adults with a group mean age of 70.4 ± 5.8 years completed the 6-MWT and the MISWT. Heart rate (HR), walking speed and walking [Formula: see text]O 2 were measured throughout each test with a portable metabolic cart. Strong correlations were found for the [Formula: see text]O 2 peak and the walking speed (r = 0.91 and r = 0.89 respectively for 6-MWT and MISWT). Differences in [Formula: see text]O 2 peak values were analysed with a paired Student's t test. Repeated measures ANOVA were conducted to detect differences between tests. The Bland and Altman plot indicates that the average difference between both tests was 2.5 ml kg -1  min -1 . MISWT [Formula: see text]O 2 peak means were significantly greater than the 6-MWT [Formula: see text]O 2 peak mean values (21.6 ± 5.3 vs. 18.9 ± 4.5 ml kg -1  min -1 ) which indicate bioenergetics differences between the two walking tests. Thus, the MISWT and 6-MWT elicited different walking [Formula: see text]O 2 peak and HR suggesting that the MISWT field test challenge the participants to a higher level of cardiovascular and respiratory stress. The walking [Formula: see text]O 2 peak recorded for the MISWT was significantly greater than the 6-MWT. Consequently, both tests seem to measure different facets of the aerobic capacity. MISWT seems to be a better indicator of maximal aerobic power whereas the 6-MWT provides more relevant information regarding aerobic endurance in aging population.

  20. [Six-minute walk test in children with neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Anleu, Israel Didier; Baños-Mejía, Benjamín Omar; Galicia-Amor, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Background: neuromuscular diseases affect the motor unit. When they evolve, respiratory complications are common; the six-minute walk test plays an important role in the assessment of functional capacity. Methods: prospective, transversal, descriptive and observational study. We studied seven children with a variety of neuromuscular diseases and spontaneous ambulation. We tested their lung function, and administered a six-minute walk test and a test of respiratory muscle strength to these children. Results: the age was 9.8 ± 2.4 years. All patients were males. Forced vital capacity decreased in three patients (42.8 %), forced expiratory volume during the first second (2.04 ± 1.4 L) and peak expiratory flow (4.33 ± 3.3 L/s) were normal. The maximum strength of respiratory muscles was less than 60 % of predicted values. The distance covered in the six-minute walk test was lower when compared with healthy controls (29.9 %). Conclusions: the six-minute walk test can be a useful tool in early stages of this disease, since it is easy to perform and well tolerated by the patients.

  1. A Random Walk Test for Functional Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Mingotti, Nicola; Lillo Rodríguez, Rosa Elvira; Romo Urroz, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a Random Walk test for Functional Autoregressive Processes of Order One. The test is non parametric, based on Bootstrap and Functional Principal Components. The power of the test is shown through an extensive Montecarlo simulation. We apply the test to two real dataset, Bitcoin prices and electrical energy consumption in France. The authors acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competition, research project ECO2012-38442.

  2. Reliability of the 2- and 6-minute walk tests in neuromuscular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knak, Kirsten Lykke; Andersen, Linda Kahr; Witting, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The 2- and 6-minute walk tests are used to evaluate walking capacity, but reliability has been sparsely investigated in patients with neuromuscular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative and absolute reliability of the 2- and 6-minute walk tests in patients...... with neuromuscular diseases. DESIGN: Each patient performed a 2- and a 6-minute walk test on 2 test days separated by 1-2 weeks. SUBJECTS: A total of 93 adult patients (mean age 53 years, age range 22-83 years) with 12 different neuromuscular diseases were included. RESULTS: The mean walking distance increased by 4.......3 and 11.2 m (p walk tests, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient in the 2- and 6-minute walk tests was 0.99 (p walk test and 14.0 m in the 6-minute walk test. Minimal detectable difference...

  3. Estimating endurance shuttle walk test speed using the six-minute walk test in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Sally L; Ng, Cindy; McKeough, Zoe J; Jenkins, Sue; Hill, Kylie; Alison, Jennifer A

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to derive and validate an equation to estimate the speed for the endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) using results from the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Participants with diagnosed COPD (n = 84) performed two incremental shuttle walk tests (ISWTs) and two 6MWTs. ESWT speed was calculated from the ISWT results using the original published method. An equation was derived, which directly related six-minute walk distance (6MWD) to ESWT speed. The derived equation was validated in a different group of people with COPD (n = 52). There was a strong correlation between average 6MWD and the calculated ESWT speed (r = 0.88, p speed (kilometre per hour) was estimated using the following equation: 0.4889 + (0.0083 × 6MWD). The mean difference (±limits of agreement) between ESWT speeds was calculated using the original published method and found to be 0.03 (±0.77) km/hour. When the ISWT is not the test of choice for clinicians, the 6MWT can be used to accurately estimate the speed for the ESWT.

  4. 10 CFR 431.304 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. 431.304 Section 431.304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Walk-in Coolers and Walk-in Freezers Test Procedures § 431.304 Uniform test method for the measurement of energy...

  5. Walking tests during the exercise training: specific use for the cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, J-M; Hannequin, A; Besson, D; Benaïm, S; Krawcow, C; Laurent, Y; Gremeaux, V

    2013-10-01

    Walk tests, principally the six-minute walk test (6mWT), constitute a safe, useful submaximal tool for exercise tolerance testing in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The 6mWT result reflects functional status, walking autonomy and efficacy of CR on walking endurance, which is more pronounced in patients with low functional capacity (heart failure - cardiac surgery). The 6mWT result is a strong predictor of mortality. However, clinically significant changes and reliability are still subject to debate - probably because of the ambiguity in terms of the target speed (either comfortable or brisk walking). Of the other time-based walk tests, the 2-minute-walk test is the only one applicable during CR, reserved for patients with severe disabilities by its psychometric properties. Fixed-distance tests (principally the 200m fast walk test) and incremental shuttle walking, tests explore higher levels of effort and may represent a safe and inexpensive alternative to laboratory-based tests during CR. These walking tests may be useful for personalizing prescription of training programs. However, the minimum clinically significant difference has not yet been determined. Lastly, walking tests appear to be potential useful tools in promoting physical activity and behavioural changes at home. Thus, validation of other walk tests with better psychometric properties will be necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Walking tests during the exercise training: Specific use for the cardiac rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Casillas, J.-M.; Hannequin, A.; Besson, D.; Benaïm, S.; Krawcow, C.; Laurent, Y.; Gremeaux, V.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Walk tests, principally the six-minute walk test (6mWT), constitute a safe, useful submaximal tool for exercise tolerance testing in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The 6mWT result reflects functional status, walking autonomy and efficacy of CR on walking endurance, which is more pronounced in patients with low functional capacity (heart failure - cardiac surgery). The 6mWT result is a strong predictor of mortality. However, clinically significant changes and reliability ...

  7. Does the six-minute walk test measure walking performance or physical fitness in persons with multiple sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Pilutti, Lara A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    There is psychometric evidence that supports the six-minute walk (6MW) as a measure of walking performance, whereas other psychometric data support it as a submaximal measure of physical fitness in persons with MS. The current cross-sectional study compared measures of walking performance and physical fitness as head-to-head predictors of 6MW distance in a sample of persons with MS across the disability spectrum. All participants completed the 6MW test, as well as other measures of walking performance (i.e., timed-25 foot walk, gait velocity captured by a GaitRite electronic walkway) and physical fitness (i.e., peak aerobic capacity, lower limb muscular strength). 6MW distance was strongly associated with measures of walking performance and physical fitness, though the correlations were significantly stronger for measures of walking performance than physical fitness (z >  4.04, p   0.85), and measures of physical fitness explained minimal variance in 6MW distance over-and-above that of measures of walking performance (ΔR2 fitness in MS.

  8. Study on Assessment of Physical Endurance in Older Persons : Availability of 400-m Walking Performance Test

    OpenAIRE

    芳賀, 脩光; 衣笠, 隆; 仲真, 迅; 十枝内, 厚次; 宮崎, 裕美; 岩下, 太郎; 伊藤, 稔; 渡部, 和彦; 佐藤, 祐造; 大野, 秀樹; Shukoh, HAGA; Takashi, KINUGASA; Hayashi, NAKAMA; Koji, TOSHINAI; Hiromi, MIYAZAKI

    1999-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated physical endurance as measured by a walking performance test. We investigated a 400-m walking test which indirectly assesses physical endurance in older people. In Study I, fifty-three healthy subjects aged 67.8±0.7 years performed and incremental treadmill walking test, and a 400-m walking test. The RPE 11(fairly light)level by the Borg scale was regarded as the exercise intensity during the 400-m walking test. Mean value of pred.VO_2max and VO_2@VT were 25.8ml/kg/...

  9. Walking skill can be assessed in older adults: validity of the Figure-of-8 Walk Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rebecca J; Brach, Jennifer S; Piva, Sara R; VanSwearingen, Jessie M

    2010-01-01

    The Figure-of-8 Walk Test (F8W) involves straight and curved paths and was designed to represent walking skill in everyday life. The purposes of this study were to validate the measure in older adults with walking difficulties and to explore correlates of the curved-path walking measure not represented by a straight-path walking measure. Fifty-one community-dwelling older adults with mobility disability participated in 2 baseline visits as part of an intervention study. The F8W time, steps, and smoothness and measures of gait (gait speed, modified Gait Abnormality Rating Scale [GARS-M]), physical function (Late Life Function and Disabilities Index [LLFDI], Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly [SAFFE], Gait Efficacy Scale [GES], Physical Performance Test [PPT], and fall history), and movement control and planning (gait variability, Trail Making Test B [Trails B]) were recorded in each test session. Bivariate correlations for the F8W with each variable were conducted to examine concurrent and construct validity. Adjusted linear regression analyses were performed to explore the variance in mobility explained by F8W independent of gait speed. Figure-of-8 Walk Test time correlated with gait (gait speed, r=-.570; GARS-M, r=.281), physical function (LLFDI function, r=-.469; SAFFE restriction subscale, r=.370; PPT, r=-.353), confidence in walking (GES, r=-.468), and movement control (step length coefficient of variation, r=.279; step width coefficient of variation, r=-.277; Trails B, r=.351). Figure-of-8 Walk Test steps correlated with step width variability (r=-.339) and was related to fear of falling (t=-2.50). All correlations were significant (Pwalking skill among older adults with mobility disability and may provide information complementary to gait speed.

  10. Assessing the reliability and validity of a shorter walk test compared with the 10-Meter Walk Test for measurements of gait speed in healthy, older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Denise M; Fritz, Stacy L; Krotish, Debra E

    2013-01-01

    Walking speed is associated with several health-related outcomes. Research examining how differences in test walking distance affect walking speed reliability and validity is limited. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and concurrent validity of gait speed measurements obtained from a 4-Meter Walk Test compared with the commonly used 10-Meter Walk Test. A second objective was to similarly examine 2 different timing methods: stopwatch and automatic timers. Forty-three healthy, older adults (mean age = 84.3 ± 6.9 years) performed 3 consecutive walking trials on the 4- and 10-Meter Walk Tests at their self-selected walking speed. Gait speed measurements for both tests were shown to have excellent test-retest reliability (ICC values of 0.96-0.98), with similar results for stopwatch and automatic timer assessments (ICC values of 0.99-1.00). Standard error of the measurement (SEM) values were small (0.004-0.008 m/s) across measurement methods. While the ICC value for gait speed measurements between the 2 walk tests was 0.93, the Bland-Altman analysis revealed a discrepancy of ±0.15 to ±0.17 m/s between measurement methods. Both 4- and 10-m gait speed assessments had excellent test-retest reliability with similar SEM and minimal detectable change values. There was little difference in SEM values between the 2 timing methods. While the mean difference in gait speed between the 4- and 10-Meter Walk Tests was small, the range of the measurement differences was large enough to potentially mask meaningful changes in gait speed over time if both methods were used interchangeably. While the reliability of both walking tests is excellent, the 4-Meter Walk Test does not exhibit a high enough degree of concurrent validity with the 10-Meter Walk Test to be used interchangeably for gait speed assessments in healthy, older adults. We therefore recommend using the 10-Meter Walk Test to obtain the most valid clinical assessment of walking speed when

  11. Validity and reliability of the 10-m walk test and the 6-min walk test in spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scivoletto, G; Tamburella, F; Laurenza, L; Foti, C; Ditunno, J F; Molinari, M

    2011-06-01

    The 10-m walk test (10MWT) and the 6-min walk test (6MWT) have been recommended for assessment of walking in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. The study was designed on test-retest analysis of the 10MWT and 6MWT. The objective of this study was to assess validity/reliability of different methods of performing the tests. The study was set at an SCI unit of a rehabilitation hospital. A total of 37 patients; whose median age was 58.5 years (interquartile range 40-66, full range 19-77); median time since onset of SCI was 24 months (interquartile range 16.25-70.5, full range 6-109). Non-traumatic etiology in 20 out of 37 patients; level: 12C, 14T and 11L; American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade: 35D/2C. Assessment with the 10MWT (with or without dynamic start) and the 6MWT (short or long track) by two blinded raters to evaluate inter/intra-rater reliabilities. The 10MWT was performed in a median of 19 s (25th-75th interquartile range 13-28) with the dynamic start and of 18.4 s (25th-75th interquartile range 12.6-29.9) with the static start (P=0.092). The correlation between the results of the two methods was between 0.98 and 0.99. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were between 0.95 and 0.99 for both the methods. The 6MWT showed significant differences according to the track length: patients walked a median of 226.7 m (25th-75th interquartile range 123.2-319) on the longer track and of 187.6 m (25th-75th interquartile range 69.7-240.6) on the short one (P<0.001). The correlation between the results of the two methods was between 0.91 and 0.93. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were between 0.98 and 0.99. The 10MWT shows high inter/intra-rater reliability and shows comparable results with both dynamic and static start. The different testing conditions of the 6MWT (track/turns) results in significant differences that need standardization for use in future trials.

  12. Stamina paneb liikuma / Urmo Raiend ; küsis Ülli Pink

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raiend, Urmo

    2009-01-01

    Spordiklubi Stamina korraldatavatest rahvaspordi üritustest ja -sarjadest: Mayeri Järvejooksud, Eesti Energia kepikõnnisari, Swedbanki Tervisejooksusari, Deloitte'i rahvatriatlonisari, rulluisusari, SL Õhtulehe Rahvajooks

  13. 75 FR 186 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    .... Daily Energy Consumption Coefficients 14. Definition of Refrigeration System 15. Measurements and... definition. DOE also evaluated several available industry test procedures to measure the energy performance... Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Walk...

  14. Tandem walking as a quick screening test for vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Stitz, Jasmine; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Williams, Susan P; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2017-12-11

    Although many screening tests of balance are available, few of them have been well validated for clinical or research uses. The goal of this study was to test an updated version of an old test, Tandem Walking, to determine how useful it is for screening patients with vestibular disorders. Case-control study. Subjects were 90 adult patients with vestibular disorders and 292 healthy adult controls. They were tested on the number of correct tandem steps they could perform with arms crossed and eyes closed in a series of 10 steps. Correct steps could be nonconsecutive. Subjects were given one practice trial with eyes open and three experimental trials with eyes closed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. ROC values, sensitivity, and specificity were, at best, only moderate, no matter how the age range was cut. Even for subjects in the age group with the highest ROC value (i.e., age less than 50 years), ROC = 0.8, sensitivity = 0.77, and specificity = 0.72. These results indicate that 23% of patients will not be identified. Therefore, we recommend that if this test is used for screening patients in the clinic or healthy volunteers, the result should be interpreted with care. 3b Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Six-minute walk test closely correlates to "real-life" outdoor walking capacity and quality of life in patients with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanstig, Joakim; Broeren, Monica; Hensäter, Marlene; Perlander, Angelica; Osterberg, Klas; Jivegård, Lennart

    2014-08-01

    We used outdoor walking distance measured during 40 minutes as "real-life" outdoor walking capacity in 49 patients with intermittent claudication (IC). The outdoor walking distance was measured by a global positioning system application for a smartphone. The relationships of self-reported maximum walking distance (SR-MWD), the MWD on a graded treadmill test, and the 6-minute maximum walk distance (6MWD) vs outdoors walking capacity were investigated. Also studied were the associations of SR-MWD, MWD, and 6MWD with health-related quality of life assessed with the disease-specific instrument the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQoL). In this prospective observational cohort study, 49 IC patients underwent an outdoor walking capacity test for 40 minutes, and MWD and 6MWD were measured. SR-MWD was recorded, and all subjects completed the VascuQoL questionnaire. Associations between the different walk estimates and outdoor walking capacity and health-related quality of life were investigated by correlation analysis (Spearman ρ). Outdoor walking distance during 40 minutes was a median 2495 m (range, 1110-3300 m). SR-MWD correlated moderately and MWD correlated strongly to outdoor walking capacity (r = 0.56 and r = 0.65; P walking capacity (r = 0.78; P walked during the 6-minute walk test is closely correlated to outdoor walking capacity and health-related quality of life in IC patients. Our data support the use of 6MWD for routine clinical evaluation of walking capacity in IC patients. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sideways walk test: Reliability and association with lower limb motor function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shamay S M; Lau, Bobby K C; Law, Gilbert T C; Wom, Choco W K; Liu, Tai-Wa; Tam, Eric W C; Tse, Mimi M Y; Fong, Shirley S M

    2016-10-05

    To investigate (i) the intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of sideways walk test times and counts in individuals with stroke; (ii) their correlations with stroke-specific measures of impairment; (iii) the cut-off sideways walk test times and counts between stroke survivors and healthy controls; and (iv) the minimum detectable changes in the sideways walk test times and counts. Cross-sectional study. University-based rehabilitation centre. Twenty-nine older adults with stroke and 32 healthy controls. The sideways walk test was conducted together with Fugl-Meyer motor assessments of the lower extremities, lower limb muscle strength tests, the Five-Times-Sit-To-Stand test, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go test, and Activity-based Confidence and Community Integration Measure questionnaires. The sideways walk test times and counts demonstrated good to excellent intra-rater, inter-rater, and test-retest reliabilities. The sideways walk test times and counts were significantly correlated with motor control and ankle dorsiflexor and plantarflexor strength of the affected leg, balance performance and functional mobility. The cut-off sideways walk test time and count that best discriminated between individuals with stroke and controls were 10.74 s and 8.83 steps, respectively. The minimal detectable change in the sideways walk test time in that situation was 1.85 s, and the count minimum detectable change was 1.12 steps. The sideways walk test is a reliable and easy-to-administer clinical test for assessing sideways walking ability of individuals with chronic stroke.

  17. How does wearable robotic exoskeleton affect overground walking performance measured with the 10-m and six-minute walk tests after a basic locomotor training in healthy individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Dany H; Cunha, Jérémie Da; Boyer-Delestre, Mael; Bosquet, Laurent; Duclos, Cyril

    2017-10-01

    It is still unknown to what extent overground walking with a WRE is equivalent to natural overground walking without a WRE. Hence, the interpretability of the 10-m (10MWT) and six-minute (6MWT) walk tests during overground walking with a WRE against reference values collected during natural overground walking without a WRE is challenging. This study aimed to 1) compare walking performance across three different overground walking conditions: natural walking without a WRE, walking with a WRE providing minimal assistance (active walking), and walking with a WRE proving complete assistance (passive walking) and 2) assess the association and the agreement between the 10MWT and the 6MWT during passive and active walking with a WRE. Seventeen healthy individuals who underwent basic locomotor training with a WRE performed the 10MWT (preferred and maximal speeds) and the 6MWT under the three conditions. For the 10MWT, the speed progressively and significantly decreased from natural walking without a WRE (preferred: 1.40±0.18m/s; maximal: 2.16±0.19m/s), to active walking with a WRE (preferred: 0.48±0.10m/s; maximal: 0.61±0.14m/s), and to passive walking with a WRE (preferred: 0.38±0.09m/s; maximal: 0.42±0.10m/s). For the 6MWT, total distances decreased from walking without a WRE (609±53.9m), to active walking with a WRE (196.6±42.6m), and to passive walking with a WRE (144.3±33.3m). The 10MWT and 6MWT provide distinct information and can't be used interchangeably to document speed only during active walking with the WRE. Speed and distance drastically decrease during active and, even more so, passive walking with the WRE in comparison to walking without a WRE. Selection of walking tests should depend on the level of assistance provided by the WRE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Six-Minute Walk Test as a Measure of Walking Capacity in Ambulatory Individuals With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjak, Mohammed; Langford, Velma; Holsten, Scott; Rozario, Nigel; Patterson, Charity G Moore; Bravver, Elena; Bockenek, William L; Brooks, Benjamin R

    2017-11-01

    To determine the validity of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as an outcome measure to evaluate walking capacity in ambulatory patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Observational study. Multidisciplinary ALS clinic at an academic medical center. Patients with ALS (N=186) who ambulate without (stage I) or with (stage II) an assistive device. Not applicable. Walking distance obtained from the 6MWT. Participants performed the 6MWT, 25-foot walk test (25FWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, lower extremity maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R), and forced vital capacity (FVC). Walking capacity was reduced to 66% predicted of healthy subjects (75.2%±22% in stage I; 42.6%±22% in stage II). The 6MWT correlated with all other outcome measures in ambulatory patients with ALS (25FWT: r=-.74, P≤.0001; TUG test: r=-.80, P≤.0001; MVIC: r=.64, P≤.0001; percent predicted FVC: r=.25, P≤.0007; ALSFRS-R: r=.52, P≤.0001; ALSFRS-R gross motor subscore: r=.71, P≤.0001). When ambulatory patients with ALS were stratified by stage of ambulation, the 6MWT was associated with all other outcome measures in stage I (25FWT: r=-.56, P≤.0001; TUG test: r=-.66, P≤.0001; MVIC: r=.51, P≤.0001; percent predicted FVC: r=.40, P≤.02; ALSFRS-R: r=.52, P≤.0001; ALSFRS-R gross motor subscore: r=.61, P≤.0001). In stage II, the 6MWT correlated with the 25FWT (r=-.83, P≤.0001), TUG test (r=-.77, P≤.0001), MVIC (r=.47, P≤.0001), and ALSFRS gross motor subscore (r=.61, P≤.0001), but not with percent predicted FVC (r=.09, P≤.513) or ALSFRS-R (r=.21, P≤.141). The 6MWT is a valid measure of walking capacity of ambulatory patients with ALS that is associated with measures of lower extremity muscle strength and function in both stages of ambulation. The discordance between the 6MWT with the ALSFRS-R and percent predicted FVC in stage II ambulatory patients with ALS indicates that the 6MWT is an independent measure

  19. Reference value for the 6-minute walk test in children and adolescents : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylius, C. F.; Paap, D.; Takken, T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The 6-minute walk test is a submaximal exercise test used to quantify the functional exercise capacity in clinical populations. It measures the distance walked within a period of 6-minutes. Obtaining reference values in the pediatric population is especially demanding due to factors as

  20. Six-minute-walk test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polkey, Michael I; Spruit, Martijn A; Edwards, Lisa D

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes other than spirometry are required to assess nonbronchodilator therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Estimates of the minimal clinically important difference for the 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD) have been derived from narrow cohorts using nonblinded intervention.......Outcomes other than spirometry are required to assess nonbronchodilator therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Estimates of the minimal clinically important difference for the 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD) have been derived from narrow cohorts using nonblinded intervention....

  1. Preliminary study of novel, timed walking tests for children with spina bifida or cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra J; Lanovaz, Joel; Bisaro, Derek; Oates, Alison; Musselman, Kristin E

    2016-01-01

    Walking assessment is an important aspect of rehabilitation practice; yet, clinicians have few psychometrically sound options for evaluating walking in highly ambulatory children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of two new measures of walking function-the Obstacles and Curb tests-relative to the 10-Meter Walk test and Timed Up and Go test in children with spina bifida or cerebral palsy. A total of 16 ambulatory children with spina bifida (n=9) or cerebral palsy (n=7) (9 boys; mean age 7years, 7months; standard deviation 3years, 4months) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children participated. Children completed the walking tests, at both self-selected and fast speeds, twice. To evaluate discriminative validity, scores were compared between typically developing and spina bifida/cerebral palsy groups. Within the spina bifida/cerebral palsy group, inter-test correlations evaluated convergent validity and intraclass correlation coefficients evaluated within-session test-retest reliability. At fast speeds, all tests showed discriminative validity (pspina bifida/cerebral palsy comparisons) and convergent validity (rho=0.81-0.90, p⩽0.001, for inter-test correlations). At self-selected speeds, only the Obstacles test discriminated between groups (p=0.001). Moderately strong correlations (rho=0.73-0.78, p⩽0.001) were seen between the 10-Meter Walk test, Curb test, and Timed Up and Go test. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.81 to 0.97, with higher test-retest reliability for tests performed at fast speeds rather than self-selected speeds. The Obstacles and Curb tests are promising measures for assessing walking in this population. Performing tests at fast walking speeds may improve their validity and test-retest reliability for children with spina bifida/cerebral palsy.

  2. Six-Minute Walk Test in Patients With Down Syndrome : Validity and Reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, Jeroen C.; Thoonsen, Hanneke; Duffels, Marielle G.; de Bruin-Bon, Rianne A.; Huisman, Sylvia A.; van Dijk, Arie P.; Hoendermis, Elke S.; Berger, Rolf M.; Bouma, Berto J.; Mulder, Barbara J.

    Vis JC, Thoonsen H, Duffels MG, de Bruin-Bon RA, Huisman SA, van Dijk AP, Hoendermis ES, Berger RM, Bouma BJ, Mulder BJ. Six-minute walk test in patients with Down syndrome: validity and reproducibility. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2009;90:1423-7. Objectives: To examine the validity of the six-minute walk

  3. Development of 1-Mile Walk Tests to Estimate Aerobic Fitness in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hoyong; Collier, David N.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Kemble, C. David; Mahar, Matthew T.

    2018-01-01

    To examine the reliability and validity of 1-mile walk tests for estimation of aerobic fitness (VO[subscript 2max]) in 10- to 13-year-old children and to cross-validate previously published equations. Participants (n = 61) walked 1-mile on two different days. Self-reported physical activity, demographic variables, and aerobic fitness were used in…

  4. Knuckle-walking anteater: a convergence test of adaptation for purported knuckle-walking features of African Hominidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Caley M

    2005-11-01

    Appeals to synapomorphic features of the wrist and hand in African apes, early hominins, and modern humans as evidence of knuckle-walking ancestry for the hominin lineage rely on accurate interpretations of those features as adaptations to knuckle-walking locomotion. Because Gorilla, Pan, and Homo share a relatively close common ancestor, the interpretation of such features is confounded somewhat by phylogeny. The study presented here examines the evolution of a similar locomotor regime in New World anteaters (order Xenarthra, family Myrmecophagidae) and uses the terrestrial giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) as a convergence test of adaptation for purported knuckle-walking features of the Hominidae. During the stance phase of locomotion, Myrmecophaga transmits loads through flexed digits and a vertical manus, with hyperextension occurring at the metacarpophalangeal joints of the weight-bearing rays. This differs from the locomotion of smaller, arboreal anteaters of outgroup genera Tamandua and Cyclopes that employ extended wrist postures during above-branch quadrupedality. A number of features shared by Myrmecophaga and Pan and Gorilla facilitate load transmission or limit extension, thereby stabilizing the wrist and hand during knuckle-walking, and distinguish these taxa from their respective outgroups. These traits are a distally extended dorsal ridge of the distal radius, proximal expansion of the nonarticular surface of the dorsal capitate, a pronounced articular ridge on the dorsal aspects of the load-bearing metacarpal heads, and metacarpal heads that are wider dorsally than volarly. Only the proximal expansion of the nonarticular area of the dorsal capitate distinguishes knuckle-walkers from digitigrade cercopithecids, but features shared with digitigrade primates might be adaptive to the use of a vertical manus of some sort in the stance phase of terrestrial locomotion. The appearance of capitate nonarticular expansion and the dorsal ridge of the

  5. Mobility limitation in self-described well-functioning older adults : importance of endurance walk testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonsick, Eleanor M; Newman, Anne B; Visser, Marjolein; Goodpaster, Bret; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Rubin, Susan; Nevitt, Michael C; Harris, Tamara B

    BACKGROUND: Mobility limitations are prevalent, potentially reversible precursors to mobility loss that may go undetected in older adults. This study evaluates standardized administration of an endurance walk test for identifying unrecognized and impending mobility limitation in community elders.

  6. Utility of Walk Tests in Evaluating Functional Status Among Participants in an Outpatient Cardiac Rehabilitation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kristie M; Anderson, Derek R; Landers, Jacob D; Emery, Charles F

    2017-09-01

    Although walk tests are frequently used in cardiac rehabilitation (CR), no prior study has evaluated the capacity of these measures to predict peak oxygen uptake during exercise testing ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2peak). This study evaluated the interrelationship of objective measures of exercise performance (walk and exercise testing) among patients entering CR as well as a novel measure of functional status assessment for use in CR. Forty-nine patients (33 males) referred to an outpatient CR program were evaluated with objective measures of ambulatory functional status (peak oxygen uptake [(Equation is included in full-text article.)O2peak], 6-minute walk test [6MWT], and 60-ft walk test [60ftWT]). All measures of functional status were moderately to highly intercorrelated (r values from 0.50 to 0.88; P values text article.)O2peak and other measures. Measures of functional status, including (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2peak, 6MWT, and 60ftWT, were highly correlated among CR patients, suggesting the plausibility of using them interchangeably to fit the needs of the patient and testing environment. Among women, walk tests may not be appropriate substitutes for (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2peak. Because of the brevity of the 60ftWT, it may be particularly useful for measuring functional status in patients with greater symptoms and those with comorbidities limiting walking.

  7. The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrochon, Anaick; Kemoun, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility) in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test), to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI) were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test) and motor functions (10-meter walking test). All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT]), and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abiliTIES: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI) of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment.

  8. Graduated Compression Stockings Does Not Decrease Walking Capacity and Muscle Oxygen Saturation during 6-Minute Walk Test in Intermittent Claudication Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Bruno Remígio; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Germano Soares, Antônio Henrique; Domingues, Wagner Jorge Ribeiro; Saes, Glauco Fernandes; Duarte, Flávio Henrique; da Cruz, Aline de Paula; Wolosker, Nelson; Puech-Leão, Pedro; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Zerati, Antonio Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the effects of graduated compression stoking (GCS) on walking capacity and oxygen saturation in intermittent claudication (IC) patients. Eighteen patients with IC performed the 6-minute walking test in 2 conditions in random order: GCS or placebo sock. Onset claudication distance and total walking distance were obtained. The calf muscle oxygen saturation was continuously monitored before, during, and after 6-minute walk test. Comparisons of the walking capacity and StO 2 parameters between GCS and placebo conditions were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The onset claudication distance (GCS: 120 ± 99 meters vs. placebo: 150 ± 126 meters; P = 0.798) and total walking distance (GCS: 330 ± 108 meters vs. placebo: 324 ± 60 meters; P = 0.130) were similar between conditions. There were no differences in StO 2 parameters between conditions (P > 0.05). GCS does not decrease walking performance and calf muscle oxygenation saturation during 6-minute walk test in patients with IC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Six-minute walking distance and decrease in oxygen saturation during the six-minute walk test in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, Johannes M.; Hegeman, Anneke K.; van der Krieke-van der Horst, Merel; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Hillege, Hans L.; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of the 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD), transcutaneous saturation (tcSO2) and heart rate (HR) obtained during the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods: This was an observational study with forty-seven

  10. Validity of the 6min walk test in outpatients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Buys, Roselien; Sienaert, Pascal; Wyckaert, Sabine; De Herdt, Amber; De Hert, Marc; Probst, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. People with bipolar disorder have a reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and its assessment within a multidisciplinary treatment therefore is necessary. We investigated the validity of the 6min walk test in people with bipolar disorder. A secondary aim was to assess clinical and demographic characteristics that might interfere with cardiorespiratory fitness performance. 19 (5♂) outpatients (47.1±8.3 years) underwent a 6min walk test and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a cycle ergometer and completed the Positive-and-Negative-Affect-Schedule (PANAS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The distance achieved on the 6min walk test correlated moderately with peak oxygen uptake obtained during the maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The variance in age, weight and the PANAS negative score explained 70% of the variance in the distance achieved on the 6min walk test. The 6min walk test can be used as a measure-of-proxy to gauge cardiorespiratory fitness in people with bipolar disorder when maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test equipment is not available. Negative mood should be considered when evaluating the cardiorespiratory fitness of this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of straight- and curved-path walking tests among mobility-limited older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonkor, Charles A; Thomas, Julia C; Holt, Nicole; Latham, Nancy; Vanswearingen, Jessie; Brach, Jennifer Sokol; Leveille, Suzanne G; Jette, Alan; Bean, Jonathan

    2013-12-01

    Habitual gait speed (HGS) and the figure-of-8 walking test (F8WT) are measures of walking ability that have been associated with mobility outcomes and disability among older adults. Our objective was to contrast the physiologic, health, and behavioral attributes underlying performance of these two walking tests among older adults with mobility limitations. HGS and F8WT were the primary outcomes. HGS was measured as time needed to walk a 4-m straight course at usual pace from standstill position. F8WT was measured as time to walk in a figure-of-8 pattern at self-selected usual pace from standstill position. Separate multivariable linear regression models were constructed that predicted walking performance. Independent variables included physiologic, cognitive-behavioral health attributes, and demographic information. Of 430 participants, 414 completed both walking tests. Participants were 67.7% female, had a mean age of 76.5 ± 7.0 years and a mean of 4.1 ± 2.0 chronic conditions. Mean HGS was 0.94 ± 0.23 m/s and mean F8WT was 8.80 ± 2.90 seconds. Within separate multivariable linear regression models (HGS: R (2) = .46, p model sensory loss. Cognitive and physiologic attributes uniquely associated with F8WT were cognitive processing speed and self-efficacy, and reaction time and heel-to-floor time. Pain and peak leg press strength were associated with only HGS. Both HGS and F8WT are useful tests of walking performance. Factors uniquely associated with F8WT suggest that it may be well suited for use among older adult patients with balance problems or at risk for falls.

  12. Do functional walk tests reflect cardiorespiratory fitness in sub-acute stroke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayley Mark T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT has been employed as a measure of functional capacity, but its relationship to cardiorespiratory fitness in stroke is not well established. Gait speed measured over short distances is commonly used as an index of walking competency following stroke. We evaluated the relationship between the 6MWT, aerobic fitness (VO2peak and walking competency in sub-acute stroke. Methods Thirty-six individuals (mean age ± SD, 64.6 ± 14.4 years; time post-stroke 16.2 ± 13.3 days were evaluated using the 6MWT (distance, speed, heart rate, a maximal exercise test (VO2peak, heart rate, exercise test duration, and walking competency using a five meter walk (speed, symmetry ratio. Correlation analyses were used to examine the relationships between these outcomes. Results There was a strong correlation between the 6MWT and five meter walk velocity for preferred (r = 0.79 and fast (r = 0.82 speed (p 2peak (r = 0.56, p Conclusion The speed selected during the 6MWT was strongly related to the velocities selected during the five meter walk distance (intermediate to the selected preferred and fast speeds. Although the 6MWT may be challenging to the cardiorespiratory system, it appears to be more strongly influenced by potential limits to walking speed rather than cardiorespiratory capacity. As a result, this test is not, by itself, an adequate measure of aerobic fitness early after stroke.

  13. The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrochon A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaick Perrochon, Gilles Kemoun Laboratoire Mobilité, Vieillissement, Exercice (MOVE, EA 6314, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Poitiers, 8 Allée Jean Monnet, 86000 Poitiers, France; ISIS, Research Institute on Handicap and Aging, Paris, France Background: Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test, to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Methods: Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test and motor functions (10-meter walking test. All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT], and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Results: Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abilities: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Conclusion: The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment. Keywords: spatial navigation, walking, trail making test, detection, mild cognitive impairment

  14. 76 FR 65362 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers and the Certification for Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures... a recently promulgated test procedure (i.e., the April 15, 2011 final rule) when certifying walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. This document also adopts regulatory text changes to reflect the U.S...

  15. Walking ability in patients with glioblastoma: prognostic value of the Berg Balance Scale and the 10 meter walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljehult, Monique Mesot; Buus, Lise; Liljehult, Jacob; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh

    2017-11-01

    Primary brain tumors frequently cause considerable functional impairments and the survival time when diagnosed with glioblastoma is 14.6 months. The aim of this study was to examine if baseline postural control and walking ability in patients with glioblastoma could predict long term walking ability and 1 year mortality. Data were gathered from prospective recordings in a brain cancer database supplemented by retrospective review of electronic patient records. We included 109 patients with glioblastoma, 47 women and 62 men with mean age 65 years. At admission 84 patients were tested with Berg Balance Scale and 57 were tested with 10 meter walk test. Binary logistic regression analysis showed no statistical significance in favour of the 10 meter walk test. Berg Balance Scale showed an ability to predict walking ability 4-8 months after admission. The risk of dying within a year was 6.9 times higher in patients who lost their ability to walk within 4-8 months of the first admission. This study showed that Berg Balance Scale has some ability to predict the loss of walking ability 4-8 months after admission. This could be an important indicator pin pointing patients most in need of more intensive specialized neurorehabilitation efforts early in the disease course.

  16. Feasibility and Reliability of Two Different Walking Tests in People with Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninge, A.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to describe feasibility and test-retest reliability of the six-minute walking distance test (6MWD) and an adapted shuttle run test (aSRT) in persons with severe intellectual and sensory (multiple) disabilities. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven persons with severe multiple disabilities, with Gross Motor…

  17. Feasibility and Reliability of Two Different Walking Tests in People With Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe feasibility and test-retest reliability of the six-minute walking distance test (6MWD) and an adapted shuttle run test (aSRT) in persons with severe intellectual and sensory (multiple) disabilities. Materials and Methods Forty-seven persons with

  18. Comparison of walking performance over the first 2 minutes and the full 6 minutes of the Six-Minute Walk Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W; Bubela, Deborah; Magasi, Susan; McCreath, Heather; Wang, Ying-Chih; Reuben, David; Rymer, William Z; Gershon, Richard

    2014-04-25

    Although the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), as recommended by the American Thoracic Society, is widely used as a measure of functional endurance, it may not be applicable in some settings and populations. We sought to examine, therefore, performance over the first 2 minutes and the full 6 minutes of the 6MWT. Specifically, we investigated completion rates, distances walked, test-retest reliability, and the relationship between distances walked over the first 2 and the full 6 minutes of the 6MWT. Community-dwelling children and adults age 3-85 years (n = 337) were asked to walk back and forth on a 15.24 meter (50 ft) course as far as possible without running over a 6 minute period. Test completion and the distance covered by the participants at 2 and 6 minutes were documented. The reliability of distances covered at 2 and 6 minutes was determined by retesting a subsample of 54 participants 6 to 10 days later. The relationship between distances covered at 2 and 6 minutes was determined for the 330 participants completing the 6MWT. All 337 participants completed at least 2 minutes of walking, but 7 children less than 5 years of age ceased walking before 6 minutes had elapsed. For the remaining 330 participants the mean distance walked was 186 meters at 2 minutes and 543 meters at 6 minutes. The distances covered at 2 and 6 minutes were reliable between sessions (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.888 and 0.917, respectively). The distances covered over 2 and 6 minutes were highly correlated (r = 0.968). The completion rate, values obtained, test-retest reliability, and relationship of the distances walked in 2 and 6 minutes support documentation of 2 minute distance during the 6MWT. The findings also provide support for use of a Two-Minute Walk Test as the endurance component in the Motor Battery of the NIH Toolbox.

  19. Reliability of the Fox-walk test in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberkt, C.A.; Friden, C.; Grooten, W.J.; Opava, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Fox-walk test is a new method used to estimate aerobic capacity outside a clinical environment, which may be useful in the implementation of daily health-enhancing physical activity. The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability of the test in people with rheumatoid arthritis

  20. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL ABILITIES OF TRAINEES OF NORDIC WALKING WITH UKK2-TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Čokorilo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The research included (N=60 females from the territory of Municipality of Novi Sad. The sample of individuals included females of the average age of 58.5 ±6.90, average body mass of 70.9 kg±15.32, and average body height of 164.8 m±7.24. The walking test of 2 kilometres of length offers the possibility to determine the Fitness Index (general ability and evaluate maximal consumption of oxygen VO2max. Since the individuals were older, very demanding tests were not recommendable, so we chose UKK test of 2 kilometre walking. Although it engages great muscle groups, it is not considered a risky activity which can bring to quick body exhaustion. Nordic walking is very convenient for intensifying of the training, and the important thing is that it protects joints. The use of sticks off-loads the whole passive composition for moving, such as ligaments and connective tissues, back and joints (especially knees, for some 15 to 35 tonnes per hour. Because of that, Nordic walking is ideal as a rehabilitation sport for people with orthopaedic disorders. The protocol of the test requires observation of the air temperature in the span of 5 - 25°C, moderate humidity, casual clothes or sweat suit and appropriate clothes and sneakers, and 5 to 10 minutes of warm-up: stretching of the spine muscles, legs muscles, and fast walking of 200 meters. After such preparations, the test starts, and each individual sets own tempo of walking. After 2 kilometres, we measure achieved time and the value of the pulse

  1. Test of Random Walk Behavior in Karachi Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mudassar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Study was carried out to check the random behavior of the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE 100 Index during the period of past three financial years to know whether investors could generate abnormal profits during the period or otherwise. Tests used were Runs Test, ADF Test, PP Test and Autocorrelation Function Test. During the study it was found that the performance of KSE 100 Index remained in weak form of inefficiency and investors have been able to generate excessive returns on their investment most of the times.

  2. Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Test: A Unique Test of Spaceflight Induced Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Fisher, E. A.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Harm, D. L.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement and quantification of posture and locomotion following spaceflight is an evolving process. Based on the data obtained from the current investigation we believe that the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC) provides a unique procedure for quantifying postflight ataxia. As a part of an ongoing investigation designed to look at functional changes in astronauts returning from spaceflight seven astronauts (5 short duration with flights of 12-16 days; 2 long duration crewmembers with flights of 6 months) were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short duration only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. The WOFEC consisted of walking for 10 steps (repeated twice) with the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed. The performance metric (scored by three examiners from video) was the percentage of correct steps completed over the three trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember side-stepped, opened their eyes, or paused for more than three seconds between steps. The data reveled a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short duration crew) and on the first day following landing (long duration) with partial recovery the following day, and full recovery beginning on day sixth after flight. Both short and long duration fliers appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. Postflight, deviation from a straight path was common, and seemed to be determined by the angle of foot placement relative to their body. While deviation from a straight line could be either left or right, primary deviations were observed to occur to the right. Furthermore, the test for two crewmembers elicited motion sickness symptoms. These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after returning from spaceflight. The WOFEC test has value providing the investigator or crew surgeon with a simple method to quantify vestibular

  3. Reference values for the 6-minute walk test in healthy children and adolescents in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silvia; Hildenbrand, Florian F; Treder, Ursula; Fischler, Manuel; Keusch, Stephan; Speich, Rudolf; Fasnacht, Margrit

    2013-08-05

    The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple, low tech, safe and well established, self-paced assessment tool to quantify functional exercise capacity in adults. The definition of normal 6MWT in children is especially demanding since not only parameters like height, weight and ethnical background influence the measurement, but may be as crucial as age and the developmental stage. The aim of this study is establishing reference values for the 6MWT in healthy children and adolescents in Switzerland and to investigate the influence of age, anthropometrics, heart rate, blood pressure and physical activity on the distance walked. Children and adolescents between 5-17 years performed a 6MWT. Short questionnaire assessments about their health state and physical activities. anthropometrics and vitals were measured before and after a 6-minute walk test and were previously defined as secondary outcomes. Age, height, weight and the heart rate after the 6MWT all predicted the distance walked according to different regression models: age was the best single predictor and mostly influenced walk distance in younger age, anthropometrics were more important in adolescents and females. Heart rate after the 6MWT was an important distance predictor in addition to age and outreached anthropometrics in the majority of subgroups assessed. The 6MWT in children and adolescents is feasible and practical. The 6MWT distance depends mainly on age; however, heart rate after the 6MWT, height and weight significantly add information and should be taken into account mainly in adolescents. Reference equations allow predicting 6-minute walk test distance and may help to better assess and compare outcomes in young patients with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and are highly warranted for different populations.

  4. Assessing Walking Ability in People with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy Using the 10 Meter Timed Walk and the 6 Minute Walk Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonis, Adine; Taylor, Graham P

    2016-01-01

    Five to ten million persons, are infected by HTLV-1 of which 3% will develop HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) a chronic, disabling inflammation of the spinal cord. Walking, a fundamental, complex, multi-functional task is demanding of multiple body systems. Restricted walking ability compromises activity and participation levels in people with HAM (pwHAM). Therapy aims to improve mobility but validated measures are required to assess change. Prospective observational study. To explore walking capacity in pwHAM, walking endurance using the 6 minute walk (6MW), and gait speed, using the timed 10m walk (10mTW). Out-patient setting in an inner London Teaching hospital. Prospective documentation of 10mTW and 6MW distance; walking aid usage and pain scores measured twice, a median of 18 months apart. Data analysis was completed for twenty-six pwHAM, (8♂; 18♀; median age: 57.8 years; median disease duration: 8 years). Median time at baseline to: complete 10m was 17.5 seconds, versus 21.4 seconds at follow up; 23% completed the 6MW compared to 42% at follow up and a median distance of 55m was covered compared to 71m at follow up. Using the 10mTW velocity to predict the 6MW distance, overestimated the distance walked in 6 minutes (pWalking capacity in pwHAM should be measured using the 10mTW for gait speed and the 6MW for endurance.

  5. Feasibility of a Walk Test to Assess the Cardiorespiratory Fitness of Naval Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise . 19(2):S29, 1987. 8. Conway, T.L., Trent, L.K., and Conway, S.W. Physical readiness and...R., et al. Estimation of V02 max from a one-mile track walk, gender, age, and body weight. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise . 19:253-259...Lea & Febiger, 1986. 18. O’Hanley, S., Ward, A., and Zwirin, L. Validation of a one-mile walk test in 70-79 year olds. Medicine

  6. Walking Versus Jogging in Stages III and IV of the Bruce Treadmill Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, D.; Schwane, J.

    Observations during research involving the Bruce Treadmill Test (BTMT) indicating that Stage III for females and Stage IV for males represented speeds which are intermediate between comfortable walking and confortable jogging for many subjects, prompted this study to determine ways to obtain more consistent group results. Twenty-eight subjects…

  7. Development and Psychometric Testing of the Dogs and WalkinG Survey (DAWGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A.; McDonough, Meghan H.; Edwards, Nancy E.; Lyle, Roseann M.; Troped, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Dog owners represent 40% of the population, a promising audience to increase population levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a new instrument to assess social-cognitive theory constructs related to dog walking. Method: Dog owners ("N" = 431) completed the…

  8. Do exchange rates follow random walks? A variance ratio test of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The random-walk hypothesis in foreign-exchange rates market is one of the most researched areas, particularly in developed economies. However, emerging markets in sub-Saharan Africa have received little attention in this regard. This study applies Lo and MacKinlay's (1988) conventional variance ratio test and Wright's ...

  9. Reliability and validity of a twelve-minute walking test for coronary heart disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greef, M.H.; Sprenger, S.R.; Elzenga, C.T.; Popkema, D.Y.; Bennekers, J.H.; Niemeijer, M.G.; Middel, B.; Mook, G.A.

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a 12-min. walking test for coronary heart disease patients. CHD patients (28 men, 18 women) were recruited out of 86 CHD patients of the Martini Hospital Groningen, The Netherlands. 46 CHD patients (age M=66.0 yr., SD=6.8) participated in the

  10. Do muscle strengthening exercises improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia G. Reis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Walking speed seems to be related to aerobic capacity, lower limb strength, and functional mobility, however it is not clear whether there is a direct relationship between improvement in muscle strength and gait performance in early postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of muscle strengthening exercises on the performance of the 6-minute walk test in women within 5 years of menopause. METHODS: The women were randomized into control group (n=31, which performed no exercise, and exercise group (n=27, which performed muscle strengthening exercises. The exercises were performed twice a week for 3 months. The exercise protocol consisted of warm-up, stretching, and strengthening of the quadriceps, hamstring, calf, tibialis anterior, gluteus maximus, and abdominal muscles, followed by relaxation. Muscular strength training started with 60% of 1MR (2 series of 10-15 repetitions, reaching 85% until the end of the 3-month period (4 series of 6 repetitions each. RESULTS: The between-group comparisons pre- and post-intervention did not show any difference in distance walked, heart rate or blood pressure (p>0.05, but showed differences in muscle strength post-intervention, with the exercise group showing greater strength (p CONCLUSION: The results suggest that muscle strengthening of the lower limbs did not improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in this population of postmenopausal women.

  11. Decreased Variability of the 6-Minute Walk Test by Heart Rate Correction in Patients with Neuromuscular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, Kira Philipsen; Witting, Nanna; Vissing, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The 6-minute walk test is widely used to assess functional status in neurological disorders. However, the test is subject to great inter-test variability due to fluctuating motivation, fatigue and learning effects. We investigated whether inter-test variability of the 6MWT can be reduced...... cardiac arrhythmias, if they received drug treatment for hypertension or any other medical conditions that could interfere with the interpretation of the heart rate and walking capability. All completed three 6-minute walk tests on three different test-days. Heart rate was measured continuously. RESULTS......: Successive standard 6-minute walk tests showed considerable learning effects between Tests 1 and 2 (4.9%; P = 0.026), and Tests 2 and 3 (4.5%; P = 0.020) in patients. The same was seen in controls between Tests 1 and 2 (8.1%; P = 0.039)). Heart rate correction abolished this learning effect. CONCLUSION...

  12. Screening for physical inactivity among adults: the value of distance walked in the six-minute walk test. A cross-sectional diagnostic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Fornias Sperandio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Accelerometry provides objective measurement of physical activity levels, but is unfeasible in clinical practice. Thus, we aimed to identify physical fitness tests capable of predicting physical inactivity among adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Diagnostic test study developed at a university laboratory and a diagnostic clinic. METHODS: 188 asymptomatic subjects underwent assessment of physical activity levels through accelerometry, ergospirometry on treadmill, body composition from bioelectrical impedance, isokinetic muscle function, postural balance on a force platform and six-minute walk test. We conducted descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression including age, sex, oxygen uptake, body fat, center of pressure, quadriceps peak torque, distance covered in six-minute walk test and steps/day in the model, as predictors of physical inactivity. We also determined sensitivity (S, specificity (Sp and area under the curve of the main predictors by means of receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity was 14%. The mean number of steps/day (≤ 5357 was the best predictor of physical inactivity (S = 99%; Sp = 82%. The best physical fitness test was a distance in the six-minute walk test and ≤ 96% of predicted values (S = 70%; Sp = 80%. Body fat > 25% was also significant (S = 83%; Sp = 51%. After logistic regression, steps/day and distance in the six-minute walk test remained predictors of physical inactivity. CONCLUSION: The six-minute walk test should be included in epidemiological studies as a simple and cheap tool for screening for physical inactivity.

  13. 78 FR 20695 - Walk-Through Metal Detectors and Hand-Held Metal Detectors Test Method Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1621] Walk-Through Metal Detectors and Hand-Held Metal Detectors Test Method Validation AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, DOJ... minimum performance standards for walk-through metal detectors and hand-held metal detectors. In order to...

  14. Construct Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of the Walking Questionnaire in People With a Lower Limb Amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Fred A.; Rommers, Gerardus M.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Roorda, Leo D.

    Objective: To investigate the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Walking Questionnaire, a patient-reported measure of activity limitations in walking in people with a lower limb amputation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Outpatient department of a rehabilitation center.

  15. Validity and reliability of the one-mile walk test (the Rockport Fitness Walk Test among 70-to-79 year old women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Marques

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the reliability and concurrent validity of the One-Mile Walk Test (OMWT (The Rockport Fitness Walk Test, Kline et al., 1987, as a preditor of the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max among women aged 70 to 79 years. The study used a convenient sample, composed by 30 healthy seniors from Florianópolis, SC. Data collection was structured in three phases: 1 answering questionnaires on sociodemographics, on readiness for physical activity (PAR-Q and on physical activity level (IPAQ. Anthropometric variables were measured and the participant performed the first evaluation of the RFWT. Afterwards, the subject visited the laboratory for a treadmill walk and for a trial of the equipments (K4 b2 - COSMED to be used during the stress test (ST for directly measuring the VO2max; 2 the seniors performed the ST following an incremental test protocol, from 2.4 km.h-1 to 5.6 km.h-1 with grades varying from 0% to 15%; 3 the second RFWT. The statistical analyses included the criteria suggested by Lohman (1992 for validity and the procedures were performed using the SPSS (v. 7.5 and MedCalc (v. 9.1. The level of significance was established at 5%. For reliability, the generalized (GE and sex-specific equations (SSE presented high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC=0.942 and 0.948, p < 0,001 for predicted VO2max and low standard error of the estimate (1.14 and 1.48 ml O2.kg-1.min-1. For validity, the predicted VO2max was underestimated by both equations (GE=17.11±5.97 ml O2.kg-1.min-1; SSE=17.15±4.99 ml O2.kg-1.min-1 vs measured VO2max=26.67±3.53 ml O2.kg-1.min-1 (p < 0.001, and low correlation coeficients (r=0.488 and 0.471 between predicted and measured VO2max were observed. The equations presented high constant error (-9.56 and –9.53 ml O2.kg-1.min-1, with only 16.7% of agreement between the methods. Therefore, the RFWT was reliable, however, not valid for predicting VO2max among active elderly women aged 70 to

  16. Can change in prolonged walking be inferred from a short test of gait speed among older adults who are initially well-functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel K; Neogi, Tuhina; King, Wendy C; LaValley, Michael P; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Nevitt, Michael C; Harris, Tamara B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Strotmeyer, Elsa S; Zhang, Yuqing

    2014-09-01

    The ability to walk for short and prolonged periods of time is often measured with separate walking tests. It is unclear whether decline in the 2-minute walk coincides with decline in a shorter 20-m walk among older adults. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of change in the 20-m walk and 2-minute walk over 8 years among a large cohort of older adults. Should change be similar between tests of walking ability, separate retesting of prolonged walking may need to be reconsidered. A longitudinal, observational cohort study was conducted. Data were from 1,893 older adults who were well-functioning (≥70 years of age). The 20-m walk and 2-minute walk were repeatedly measured over 8 years to measure change during short and prolonged periods of walking, respectively. Change was examined using a dual group-based trajectory model (dual model), and agreement between walking trajectories was quantified with a weighted kappa statistic. Three trajectory groups for the 20-m walk and 2-minute walk were identified. More than 86% of the participants were in similar trajectory groups for both tests from the dual model. There was high chance-corrected agreement (kappa=.84; 95% confidence interval=.82, .86) between the 20-m walk and 2-minute walk trajectory groups. One-third of the original Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study cohort was excluded from analysis due to missing clinic visits, followed by being excluded for health reasons for performing the 2-minute walk, limiting generalizability to healthy older adults. Patterns of change in the 2-minute walk are similar to those in the 20-m walk. Thus, separate retesting of the 2-minute walk may need to be reconsidered to gauge change in prolonged walking. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  17. Factors associated with the 6-minute walk test in nursing home residents and community-dwelling older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballer, Vicent-Benavent; Lisón, Juan Francisco; Rosado-Calatayud, Pedro; Amer-Cuenca, Juan José; Segura-Orti, Eva

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The main objective of this study was to determine the contributions and extent to which certain physical measurements explain performance in the 6-minute walk test in healthy older adults living in a geriatric nursing home and for older adults dwelling in the community. [Subjects] The subjects were 122 adults aged 65 and older with no cognitive impairment who were independent in their daily activities. [Methods] The 6-minute walk test, age, body mass index, walking speed, chair stand test, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up-and-Go test, rectus femoris cross-sectional area, Short Physical Performance Battery, and hand-grip strength were examined. [Results] Strong significant associations were found between mobility, lower-limb function, balance, and the 6-minute walk test. A stepwise multiple regression on the entire sample showed that lower-limb function was a significant and independent predictor for the 6-minute walk test. Additionally, lower-limb function was a strong predictor for the 6-minute walk test in our nursing home group, whereas mobility was found to be the best predictor in our community-dwelling group. [Conclusion] Better lower-limb function, balance, and mobility result in a higher distance covered by healthy older adults. Lower-limb function and mobility appeared to best determine walking performance in the nursing home and community-dwelling groups, respectively. PMID:26696740

  18. Reliability of the 6-min walk test after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    reliability, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC(2,1)), standard error of measurement (SEM), and smallest real difference (SRD) were calculated. RESULTS: The patients walked on average 14.1 m longer at the second (397.2 m) compared to the first (383.1 m) test trial. The ICC(2,1), SEM, and SRD were 0...

  19. Reproducibility of the self-controlled six-minute walking test in heart failure patients

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    Guilherme Veiga Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The six-minute walk test (6WT has been proposed to be a submaximal test, but could actually demand a high level of exercise intensity from the patient, expressed by a respiratory quotient >1.0, following the guideline recommendations. Standardizing the 6WT using the Borg scale was proposed to make sure that all patients undergo a submaximal walking test. PURPOSE: To test the reproducibility of the six-minute treadmill cardiopulmonary walk test (6CWT using the Borg scale and to make sure that all patients undergo a submaximal test. METHODS: Twenty-three male heart failure patients (50±9 years were included; these patients had both ischemic (5 and non-ischemic (18 heart failure with a left ventricle ejection fraction of 23±7%, were diagnosed as functional class NYHA II-III and were undergoing optimized drug therapy. Patients were guided to walk at a pace between "relatively easy and slightly tiring" (11 and 13 on Borg scale. The 6CWT using the Borg scale was performed two times on a treadmill with zero inclination and patient control of speed with an interval of 24 hours. During the sixth minute, we analyzed ventilation (VE, L/min, respiratory quotient, Oxygen consumption (VO2, ml/kg/min, VE/VCO2 slope, heart rate (HR, bpm, systolic blood pressure (SBP, mmHg, diastolic (DBP, mmHg blood pressure and distance. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficients at the sixth minute were: HR (r i=0.96, p<0.0001, VE (r i=0.84, p<0.0001, SBP (r i=0.72, p=0.001, distance (r i=0.88, p<0.0001, VO2 (r i=0.92, p<0.0001, SlopeVE/VCO2 (r i=0.86, p<0.0001 and RQ<1 (r i=0.6, p=0.004. CONCLUSION: Using the 6CWT with the Borg scale was reproducible, and it seems to be an appropriate method to evaluate the functional capacity of heart failure patients while making sure that they undergo a submaximal walking test.

  20. Reference equation for the 2-minute walk test in adults and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Jessyca Pr; de Camargo, Anderson A; Santos, Jenifer; Lanza, Fernanda C; Dal Corso, Simone

    2014-04-01

    The 2-min walk test (2MWT) has been used in several health conditions, but the interpretation of its results is limited due to a lack of reference values. The aim of this study was to establish a reference equation to predict the distance walked (DW) in the 2MWT for healthy adults and the elderly and to test its reproducibility. We evaluated 390 healthy subjects (195 male), 18-89 y old, with normal spirometry and no history of previous chronic diseases. Two 2MWTs were performed on the same day, 30 min apart. To test the reliability of the prediction equation, 70 subjects (35 male) were prospectively included in the study. Men walked farther than women (221 [202-240] vs 199 [164-222] m, respectively; P model to predict DW (R(2) = 0.51). There was no difference between the DW by the subjects (197 [182-216] m) and that estimated by the prediction equation (197 [179-222] m) (P = .68). We established a prediction equation that may be used as a reference to interpret performance on the 2MWT of adults and the elderly with different health conditions.

  1. Norepinephrine remains increased in the six-minute walking test after heart transplantation

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    Guilherme Veiga Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the neurohormonal activity in heart transplant recipients and compare it with that in heart failure patients and healthy subjects during rest and just after a 6-minute walking test. INTRODUCTION: Despite the improvements in quality of life and survival provided by heart transplantation, the neurohormonal profile is poorly described. METHODS: Twenty heart transplantation (18 men, 49±11 years and 8.5±3.3 years after transplantation, 11 heart failure (8 men, 43±10 years, and 7 healthy subjects (5 men 39±8 years were included in this study. Blood samples were collected immediately before and during the last minute of the exercise. RESULTS: During rest, patients' norepinephrine plasma level (659±225 pg/mL was higher in heart transplant recipients (463±167 pg/mL and heathy subjects (512±132, p<0.05. Heart transplant recipient's norepinephrine plasma level was not different than that of healthy subjects. Just after the 6-minute walking test, the heart transplant recipient's norepinephrine plasma level (1248±692 pg/mL was not different from that of heart failure patients (1174±653 pg/mL. Both these groups had a higher level than healthy subjects had (545±95 pg/mL, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Neurohormonal activity remains increased after the 6-minute walking test after heart transplantation.

  2. Clinical correlation between the 6-min walk test andcardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Serap; Savcı, Sema; Kardibak, Didem; Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Akdeniz, Bahri; Özpelit, Ebru; Sevinç, Can

    2016-12-20

    The aims of the present study were to assess the relationship between the distance walked during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and exercise capacity as determined by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and to investigate the prognostic value of the 6MWT in comparison to clinical parameters of CPET and echocardiography findings. Thirty PAH patients participated in the study. Subject characteristics and New York Heart Association (NYHA) classifications were recorded. All subjects completed the 6MWT and CPET. Relationships among the variables were analyzed by the Pearson correlation test. Correlation coefficients between 6MWT distance and other variables were determined by linear regression analysis. Distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly correlated with the following exercise parameters: peak oxygen consumption, work load, and metabolic equivalents. Additionally, cardiac index was correlated with peak oxygen consumption and metabolic equivalents. We also showed that cardiac index and age were two significant determinants for exercise performance, accounting for 35.4% of the variance in the 6MWT. The 6MWT provides information that may be a better index for the patient's NYHA functional class determination than maximal exercise testing.

  3. Saving Time for Patients with Moderate to Severe COPD: Endurance Test Speed Set Using Usual and Fast Walk Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmage, Thomas E; Rozenberg, Dmitry; Malek, Nina; Evans, Rachael A; Goldstein, Roger S

    2014-09-25

    Background : For assessing the effects of interventions on exercise tolerance, the tolerable duration (t limit ) of a high-intensity constant-speed endurance test is recommended. The test intensity is determined by the test speed ( s test ) which should be individualized to target a t limit of 3 to 15 minutes. We determined the accuracy of setting the s test to achieve a targeted t limit of 3 to 15 minutes using the participant's easily measured and non-fatiguing usual ( s usual ) and fast ( s fast ) walk speeds. Methods : Participants with COPD were asked to walk at their usual and fast walk speeds to establish their s usual and s fast . This required that they walk for less than 1 minute. The individualized s test was calculated from a previously developed equation (0.57 x [ s fast - s usual ]) + s usual . Participants then completed a constant-speed endurance test, walking at this calculated s test to intolerance, to determine if the resultant t limit occurred within 3 to 15 minutes. Results : Twenty-nine participants (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV 1 ] standard deviation [SD ]=43 [25] %predicted; FEV 1 to forced vital capacity [FVC]ratio= 41 [13]%; s usual = 57.3 [10.4] meters per minute (m·min -1 ); s fast = 71.7 [10.7] m·min -1 ) completed the study. During testing, 24 (83%) participants used supplemental oxygen and 16 (55%) used a walking aid. The derived s test was 65.6 [10.3] m·min -1 with the observed t limit of 6.0 [5.0] minute. Twenty-four of 29 (83 %) endurance tests were within 3 to 15 minutes. Conclusion : Using the usual and fast walk speeds provides a simple, quick, inexpensive method for clinicians to set an acceptable endurance walk speed.

  4. Six minute walk test in respiratory diseases: A university hospital experience

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    Al Ameri Hatem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Six minutes walk test (6MWT, is a sub-maximal exercise test, used as a clinical indicator of the functional capacity, in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Its safety, validity, reliability and its correlation with several physiological instruments, are well studied. However, there are no published data on 6MWT, in the Saudi population. We are reviewing our experience with 6MWT and assessing its safety and its correlation with pulmonary function variables, in patients with pulmonary diseases, in our local population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We consecutively studied patients with pulmonary diseases, who underwent 6MWT and pulmonary function test in King Khalid University Hospital, from June 2003 to December 2004. The 6MWTs were conducted according to the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Spirometry, lung volumes and diffusion capacity measurements were correlated with the absolute walked distance. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty nine tests were performed. All patients were of the Saudi community (59% female, with mean age of 43±15 years. Out of 129 patients, 65 patients had proven respiratory diagnosis. In all patients, the test were performed with no serious complications. The six minute walk distance (6MWD had correlation with patient′s height (r=+0.40, P < 0.001, but not with patients′ weight, BMI, borg scale, or oxygen saturation. The 6MWD correlated significantly with Dlco (r=+0.52, P < 0.01, FVC (r=+0.46, r< 0.001 and had a weaker relation with FEV1 (r=+0.31, P < 0.05. The test had no significant correlation with lung volumetric parameters (TLC, FRC and RV. CONCLUSION: 6MWT is simple and safe test in evaluating patients with chronic pulmonary diseases in the Saudi population. In our study, 6MWD showed correlation with spirometric parameters and diffusion capacity. Further studies are needed to evaluate 6MWT in a more homogenous patients′ population.

  5. A simple method to derive speed for the endurance shuttle walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kylie; Dolmage, Thomas E; Woon, Lynda; Coutts, Debbie; Goldstein, Roger; Brooks, Dina

    2012-12-01

    The original method for determining endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) speed involves components that are time consuming for clinicians. We sought to determine: (i) whether components described in the original method for determining ESWT speed held true and; (ii) the agreement between speeds derived using the original method and that equivalent to 85% of the peak speed achieved during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) performed two ISWTs and one ESWT on separate days, wearing a calibrated portable gas analysis unit. A retrospective analysis of these data allowed us to determine whether: (i) the peak rate of oxygen uptake (V˙O₂peak) can be accurately estimated from the incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD) and; (ii) ESWTs performed at a speed derived using the original method elicited 85% of V˙O₂peak. Agreement between walks speeds was determined using Bland-Altman analysis. Twenty-two participants (FEV₁ 48 ± 13% predicted, age 66 ± 8 yr) completed the study. The V˙O₂peak estimated from the ISWD was less than that measured during the ISWT (mean difference -4.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), -6.0 to -2.9 ml· kg⁻¹·min⁻¹). The ESWT and ISWT elicited similar V˙O₂peak (mean difference -0.2; 95% CI, -1.5 to 1.2 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹). The mean difference (±limits of agreement) between ESWT speeds was 0.15 (±0.34) km·h⁻¹. Components of the original method for determining the ESWT speed did not hold true in our sample. ESWT speed can be derived by calculating 85% of the peak speed achieved during the ISWT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability and validity of the 6-min walk test in adults and seniors with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Oviedo, Guillermo R; Javierre, Casimiro; Fortuño, Jesús; Barnet-López, Silvia; Niño, Oscar; Alamo, Juan; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) have significantly lower rates of physical activity and fitness than adults without ID. The 6-min walk test (6 MWT) is an inexpensive and simple way to test mobility and submaximal work capacity. To evaluate the test-retest reliability and validity of the 6 MWT in adults and seniors with ID and explore factors contributing to the 6 MWT distance (6 MWD). 46 participants with mild, moderate and severe ID levels (age=41 ± 11 years) performed the 6 MWT three times (T1; T2; T3) to determine test-retest reliability. To test validity, peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was measured using a treadmill protocol. To analyze factors contributing to the 6 MWD, sex, height, fat mass % and fat free mass %, ID level, isometric leg strength and relative VO2 peak were also measured. The walking distances for T1, T2 and T3 were 460.3 ± 76.9; 489.4 ± 81.2 and 491.4 ± 77.9 m, respectively. The 6 MWDs between T1-T2 and T1-T3 were significantly different (preliability. Relative VO2 peak and isometric leg strength significantly contributed to the 6 MWD (R(2)=0.55). The 6 MWT is an easy, inexpensive, reliable and valid test in adults and seniors with ID. Familiarization is necessary to obtain reliable values. Relative VO2 peak and leg strength have significant impact on the distance walked. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of physical performance using the 6-minute walk test in children receiving treatment for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Mary C; Garwick, Ann W; Neglia, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    The study of physical performance in children with cancer is emerging as an important variable in symptom research. Studies have shown that children with cancer experience deficits in physical performance during treatment that may be present years after therapy. The aim of this study was to determine if distance on the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) changed in children during the first 3 cycles of cancer treatment and to compare the distances walked with healthy norms. This is a secondary data analysis of 19 boys and 10 girls, aged 6 to 17 years, who were newly diagnosed with cancer and were part of a larger study that measured changes in fatigue and physical performance during the first 3 cycles of chemotherapy. Participants performed the 6MWT between days 15 and 29 of the first and third cycles of chemotherapy. Pediatric cancer patients did not have a significant change in the distance walked at cycle 3 of chemotherapy compared with cycle 1. When compared with 2 different normative data sets for healthy children, most children with cancer performed significantly below their peers. Children had poor strength and endurance after 3 cycles of chemotherapy even when their disease was responding to treatment. Interventions are needed to promote rehabilitation and maintenance of physical performance, as both are important to quality of life and ongoing child development. Children receiving cancer treatment who are ambulatory may appear to be functioning normally but are in fact severely deconditioned compared with their healthy peers.

  8. Cortical and subcortical lesions impair skilled walking in the ladder rung walking test: a new task to evaluate fore- and hindlimb stepping, placing, and co-ordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Gerlinde A; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2002-04-15

    The ladder rung walking test is a new task to assess skilled walking and measure both forelimb and hindlimb placing, stepping, and inter-limb co-ordination. Rats spontaneously walk from a starting location to a goal along a horizontal ladder. The spacing between the rungs of the ladder is variable and can be changed to prevent the animal from learning either the absolute or relative location of the rungs. The testing procedure requires minimal training and allows detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis using video recording. The utility of the test is described with postoperative data obtained from animals with unilateral neocortical strokes produced by pial stripping over the motor cortex, neonatal and adult unilateral corticospinal tract lesions produced by tract section at the pyramids, and unilateral dopamine depletions produced by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the nigrostriatal bundle. In addition, a group of aged rats was examined. Deficits in limb placing, stepping and co-ordination displayed by the animals demonstrate that this test can discriminate between lesions of the motor system or age-associated impairments. The test is useful for assessing loss and recovery of function due to brain or spinal cord injury, the effectiveness of treatment therapies, as well as compensatory processes through which animals adapt to nervous system injury.

  9. Environmental and Physiological Factors Associated With Stamina in Dogs Exercising in High Ambient Temperatures

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    Patrick J. Robbins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This IACUC approved study was performed to evaluate the environmental, physiological, and hematological components that contribute to stamina following successive bouts of exercise that included searching (5-min, agility (5-min, and ball retrieve (<10-min. Regularly exercised dogs (N = 12 were evaluated on five separate occasions. The population consisted of eight males and four females ranging in age from 8 to 23 months, which included six Labrador retrievers, three German shepherds, and one each English springer spaniel, German wirehaired pointer, and Dutch shepherd. The exercise period was up to 30 min with 5 min of intermittent rest between the exercise bouts or until a designated trainer determined that the dog appeared fatigued (e.g., curled tongue while panting, seeking shade, or voluntary reluctance to retrieve. At the end of the exercise period, pulse rate (PR, core temperature, blood lactate, and venous blood gas were collected. The median outdoor temperature was 28.9°C (84°F (IQR; 27.2–30°C/81–86°F and median humidity was 47% (IQR; 40–57%. Median duration of exercise was 27 min (IQR; 25–29. No dog showed signs of heat stress that required medical intervention. The components used to measure stamina in this study were total activity, post-exercise core body temperature (CBT, and increase in CBT. When controlling for breed, total activity, as measured by omnidirectional accelerometer device, could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: pre-exercise activity (p = 0.008, post-exercise activity (p < 0.001, outdoor temperature (p = 0.005, reduction in base excess in extracellular fluid compartment (BEecf (p = 0.044, and decrease in TCO2 (p = 0.005. When controlling for breed and sex, increase in CBT could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: study day (p = 0.005, increase in PR (p < 0.001, increase in lactate (p = 0

  10. Environmental and Physiological Factors Associated With Stamina in Dogs Exercising in High Ambient Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Patrick J; Ramos, Meghan T; Zanghi, Brian M; Otto, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    This IACUC approved study was performed to evaluate the environmental, physiological, and hematological components that contribute to stamina following successive bouts of exercise that included searching (5-min), agility (5-min), and ball retrieve (dogs ( N  = 12) were evaluated on five separate occasions. The population consisted of eight males and four females ranging in age from 8 to 23 months, which included six Labrador retrievers, three German shepherds, and one each English springer spaniel, German wirehaired pointer, and Dutch shepherd. The exercise period was up to 30 min with 5 min of intermittent rest between the exercise bouts or until a designated trainer determined that the dog appeared fatigued (e.g., curled tongue while panting, seeking shade, or voluntary reluctance to retrieve). At the end of the exercise period, pulse rate (PR), core temperature, blood lactate, and venous blood gas were collected. The median outdoor temperature was 28.9°C (84°F) (IQR; 27.2-30°C/81-86°F) and median humidity was 47% (IQR; 40-57%). Median duration of exercise was 27 min (IQR; 25-29). No dog showed signs of heat stress that required medical intervention. The components used to measure stamina in this study were total activity, post-exercise core body temperature (CBT), and increase in CBT. When controlling for breed, total activity, as measured by omnidirectional accelerometer device, could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: pre-exercise activity ( p  = 0.008), post-exercise activity ( p  < 0.001), outdoor temperature ( p  = 0.005), reduction in base excess in extracellular fluid compartment (BEecf) ( p  = 0.044), and decrease in TCO 2 ( p  = 0.005). When controlling for breed and sex, increase in CBT could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: study day ( p  = 0.005), increase in PR ( p  < 0.001), increase in lactate ( p  = 0.001), reduction in BEecf ( p

  11. Timed up & go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T; Bandholm, Thomas; Holm, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Kristensen MT, Bandholm T, Holm B, Ekdahl C, Kehlet H. Timed Up & Go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Timed Up & Go (TUG) test scores and type of walking aid used during the test, and to determine...... the feasibility of using the rollator as a standardized walking aid during the TUG in patients with hip fracture who were allowed full weight-bearing (FWB). DESIGN: Prospective methodological study. SETTING: An acute orthopedic hip fracture unit at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=126; 90 women......, 36 men) with hip fracture with a mean age +/- SD of 74.8+/-12.7 years performed the TUG the day before discharge from the orthopedic ward. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The TUG was performed with the walking aid the patient was to be discharged with: a walker (n=88) or elbow...

  12. Comparison of Resistance-Based Walking Cardiorespiratory Test to The Bruce Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Christopher P; Bamman, Marcas; Naidu, Avantika; Brown, David A

    2017-12-11

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is assessed through graded exercise tests that determine the maximum amount of sustained mechanical work that an individual can perform while also providing health and fitness related information. This manuscript describes a novel method to perform graded exercise tests that uses posteriorly directed resistive forces. The purpose of this investigation is to validate a novel resistance based test in comparison to a traditional speed and incline based test in a cohort of non-impaired individuals. Twenty non-impaired individuals, 8 males, 12 females, mean age 28.4± 9.6, range 20-54 years old. Participants performed two maximal exercise tests. The speed and incline based test used the Bruce protocol and increased treadmill incline and speed every three minutes. The resistance based test used a robotic device interfaced with the treadmill that provided specified horizontal resistive forces at the center of mass calculated to match each Bruce Protocol stage while individuals walked at 1.1 m/s. Participants obtained ∼3% higher maximum V˙O2 measure using the speed and incline based method (dependent t-test p=0.08). V˙O2 peaks between tests were strongly correlated (r=0.93, ptests. We found a significant linear relationship between mass-specific work rate and measured V˙O2 stage-by-stage for both tests, but no significant difference between each linear fit (p=0.84). These data suggest horizontal resistive forces while walking on a treadmill, can be used to increase aerobic effort in a way that closely simulates work rates of the Bruce Protocol.

  13. Six-minute walk test is reliable and valid in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway Young, Sally; Montes, Jacqueline; Kramer, Samantha S; Marra, Jonathan; Salazar, Rachel; Cruz, Rosangel; Chiriboga, Claudia A; Garber, Carol Ewing; De Vivo, Darryl C

    2016-11-01

    The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) was adopted as a clinical outcome measure for ambulatory spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). However, a systematic review of measurement properties reported significant variation among chronic pediatric conditions. Our purpose was to assess the reliability/validity of the 6MWT in SMA. Thirty participants performed assessments, including the 6MWT, strength, and function. Reproducibility was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients. Criterion/convergent validity were determined using Pearson correlation coefficients. Test-retest reliability was excellent. The 6MWT was associated positively with peak oxygen uptake, Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded (HFMSE), lower extremity manual muscle testing, knee flexion hand-held dynamometry, and inversely with 10-m walk/run. The 6MWT discriminates between disease severity, unlike the HFMSE. This study documents measurement properties of reproducibility, positive criterion validity, and convergent validity with established clinical assessments and reaffirms the value of the 6MWT as a pivotal outcome measure in SMA clinical trials. Muscle Nerve 54: 836-842, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Healthy adults maximum oxygen uptake prediction from a six minute walking test

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    Nury Nusdwinuringtyas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A parameter is needed in medical activities or services to determine functional capacity. This study is aimed to produce functional capacity parameter for Indonesian adult as maximum O2.Methods: This study used 123 Indonesian healthy adult subjects (58 males and 65 females with a sedentary lifestyle, using a cross-sectional method.Results: Designed by using the followings: distance, body height, body weight, sex, age, maximum heart rate of six minute walking test and lung capacity (FEV and FVC, the study revealed a good correlation (except body weight with maximum O2. Three new formulas were proposed, which consisted of eight, six, and five variable respectively. Test of the new formula gave result of maximum O2 that is relevant to the golden standard maximum O2 using Cosmed® C-Pex.Conclusion: The Nury formula is the appropriate predictor of maximum oxygen uptake for healthy Indonesians adult as it is designed using Indonesian subjects (Mongoloid compared to the Cahalin’s formula (Caucasian. The Nury formula which consists of five variables is more applicable because it does not require any measurement tools neither specific competency. (Med J Indones 2011;20:195-200Keywords: maximum O2, Nury’s formula, six minute walking test

  15. Reference Equation for Six Minute Walk Test in Healthy Western India Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lalita; Mesquita, Anthony Menezes; Vadala, Rohit; Dias, Amit

    2016-05-01

    The Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) is used to assess disease progression and survival in chronic cardiopulmonary disorders. However, variability is noted in the six minute walk test distance (6MWD) in different populations. We aimed to develop a reference equation for 6MWD in healthy Western India population and compare the results with previously published Indian and Caucasian reference equations. Total 174 healthy subjects between 25 to 75 years performed the 6MWT. Variables assessed were age, height, weight, body mass index and sex. Predicted equations were derived using multiple linear regression and compared with the equations for North Indian male, South Indian and Caucasian population using Bland - Altman method. The 6MWD mean (SD) was 512.38 (67.84) m for men and 457.27 (56.75) m for women with p=0.001. The 6MWD correlated with age (r=-0.44), height (r=0.43), weight (r=0.21) in univariate analysis. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed age and sex to be independent predictors of 6MWD, R(2) =0.307. The reference equation for healthy Western India population is 553.289 + (-2.11 x age) + (45.323 x sex; men=1 and women =0). Bland Altman analysis showed that the mean bias was 50.87m (95% limits of agreement 134.77 to - 33.0) for North Indian male equation, 50.75m (95% limits of agreement 105.72 to - 4.22) for South Indian equation and 122.72m (95%limits of agreement 254.11 to - 8.67) for Enright and Sherrill's equation. The North Indian male, South Indian and Caucasian equations significantly over-estimated the predicted walk distance for our healthy population. Hence, there is a need to develop subgroup population specific reference equations.

  16. The six-minute walk test in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhamad, Esam H

    2009-01-01

    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is a useful tool to assess prognosis and functional impairment in various pulmonary diseases. To evaluate functional capacity during various stages of pulmonary sarcoidosis and develop a scoring system clinical radiological physiological score (CRP) that can potentially be used to assess the functional status among patients with sarcoidosis. We performed a retrospective study on 26 patients diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis from 2001 to 2007. All patients completed the 6MWT. The parameters assessed during the test included spirometry, arterial blood gas, 6-min walk distance (6MWD), Borg dyspnea score, and initial and end oxygen saturation. Females covered a significantly shorter distance than males (343 m (223-389) vs. 416.5 m (352-500); P < 0.0001). In addition, females had a significantly lower SpO 2 at the end of the 6MWT than males (90.5 (61-99) vs. 96 (75-98); P < 0.03). The 6MWD was inversely correlated with the final Borg score (r = ?0.603, P = 0.004) and the CRP score (r = -0.364, P = 0.047) and positively correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) % (r 0.524, P = 0.006) and forced vital capacity (FVC) % (r = 0.407, P = 0.039). Female gender, FEV 1 %, final Borg score, FVC%, CRP score, and SpO 2 at the end of the 6MWT are associated with reduced 6MWD. It appears that Saudi patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis have a markedly reduced walking distance compared with other races. The effect of race and ethnicity and the utility of the CRP score as a potential marker to assess functional status require further exploration. (author)

  17. ENGINEERING DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF HEEL TESTING EQUIPMENT IN THE EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF SAFE WALKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental test methods for the evaluation of the resistance of heels of ladies' shoes in the case of impact loads are fully defined by International Organization for Standardization (ISO procedures that indicate all the conditions of experiment. A first Standard (ISO 19553 specifies the test method for determining the strength of the heels in the case of single impact. The result offers a valuation of the liability to fail under the sporadic heavy blows. A second Standard (ISO 19556 details a method for testing the capability of heels of women' shoes to survive to the repetition of small impacts provoked by normal walking. These Standards strictly define the features for two different testing devices (with specific materials, geometries, weights, etc. and all the experimental procedures to be followed during tests. On the contrary, this paper describes the technical solutions adopted to design one single experimental device able to perform impact testing of heels in both conditions. Joining the accuracy of mechanic movements with the speed of an electronic control system, a new and flexible equipment for the complete characterization of heels respect to (single or fatigue impacts was developed. Moreover a new level of performances in experimental validation of heel resistance was introduced by the versatility of the user-defined software control programs, able to encode every complex time-depending cycle of impact loads. Dynamic simulations permitted to investigate the impacts on heel in different conditions of testing, optimizing the machine design. The complexity of real stresses on shoes during an ordinary walk and in other common situations (as going up and downstairs was considered for a proper dimensioning.

  18. Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Test as a Measure of Postflight Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Fisher, E. A.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Harm, D.L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Astronauts returning from space flight universally exhibit impaired posture and locomotion. Measurement of this impairment is an evolving process. The walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC) provides a unique procedure for quantifying postflight ataxia. Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing NASA interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance. METHODS: Seven astronauts (5 short duration with flights of 12-16 days; 2 long duration crewmembers with flights of 6 months) were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short duration only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. The WOFEC consisted of walking for 10 steps (repeated twice) with the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed. The performance metric (scored by three examiners from video) was the percentage of correct steps completed over the three trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened their eyes, or paused for more than three seconds between steps. RESULTS/ CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short duration crew) and on first day following landing (long duration) with partial recovery the following day, and full recovery beginning on day sixth after flight. Both short and long duration fliers appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. Postflight, deviation from a straight path was common, and the test for two crewmembers elicited motion sickness symptoms. These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after returning from spaceflight. The WOFEC test has value providing the investigator or crew surgeon with a simple method to quantify vestibular ataxia, as well as providing instant feedback of postural ataxia without the use of complex test equipment.

  19. Spatio-temporal gait disorder and gait fatigue index in a six-minute walk test in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Jimenez, Jose; Latorre-Roman, Pedro; Santos-Campos, Maria; Orantes-Gonzalez, Eva; Soto-Hermoso, Victor M

    2016-03-01

    Gait disorders in fibromyalgia patients affect several gait parameters and different muscle recruitment patterns. The aim of this study was to assess the gait differences observed during a six-minute walk test between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Forty-eight women with fibromyalgia and 15 healthy women were evaluated. Fibromyalgia patients met the American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia selected of an ambulatory care. Both patients and controls had a negative history of musculoskeletal disease, neurological disorders, and gait abnormalities. The 15 controls were healthy women matched to the patients in age, height and body weight. Spatio-temporal gait variables and the rate of perceived exertion during the six-minute walk test (all subjects) and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (fibromyalgia subjects) were evaluated. All walking sets on the GaitRITE were collected and the gait variables were selected at three stages during the six-minute walk test: two sets at the beginning, two sets at 3 min and two sets at the end of the test. In addition, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was used for the fibromyalgia patients. Fibromyalgia patients showed a significant decrease in all spatio-temporal gait variables at each of the three stages and had a lower walk distance covered in the six-minute walk test and higher rate of perceived exertion. No correlations were found between the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and gait variables. The fibromyalgia and control subjects showed lower gait fatigue indices between the middle and last stages. Gait analysis during a six-minute walk test is a good tool to assess the fatigue and physical symptoms of patients with fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Minimal important difference in field walking tests in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis following exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A L; Hill, C J; Cecins, N; Jenkins, S; McDonald, C F; Burge, A T; Rautela, L; Stirling, R G; Thompson, P J; Holland, A E

    2014-09-01

    The 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD) are clinically meaningful measures of exercise capacity in people with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, but the change in walking distance which constitutes clinical benefit is undefined. This study aimed to determine the minimal important difference for the 6MWD and ISWD in non-CF bronchiectasis. Thirty-seven participants with mean FEV1 70% predicted completed both field walking tests before and after an 8-week exercise program. The minimal important difference was calculated using a distribution-based and anchor-based method, with the global rating of change scale used. The mean change in 6MWD in participants who reported themselves to be unchanged was 10 m, compared to 36 m (small change) and 45 m (substantial change) (p = 0.01). For the ISWD, the mean change in participants who reported themselves to be unchanged was 33 m, compared to 54 m (small change) and 73 m (substantial change) (p = 0.04). The anchor-based method defined the minimal important difference for 6MWD as 24.5 m (AUC 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.91) and for ISWD as 35 m (AUC 0.88, 95% CI 0.73-0.99), based on participant's global rating of change. The distribution-based method indicated a value of 22.3 m for the 6MWD and 37 m for the ISWD. There was excellent agreement between the two methods for the 6MWD (kappa = 0.91) and the ISWD (kappa = 0.92). Small changes in 6MWD and ISWD may represent clinically important benefits in people with non-CF bronchiectasis. These data are likely to assist in the interpretation of change in exercise capacity following intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interrater Reliability of the 6-Minute Walk Test in Women With Hip Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jan; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Holtze, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    -related pain was assessed with the Verbal Ranking Scale. RESULTS: Participants (all women) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 78.1 (5.9) years performed the test at a mean of 31.5 (5.8) days postsurgery. Of the participants, 10 had a cervical fracture and 10 had a trochanteric fracture. Excellent......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is widely used as a clinical outcome measure. However, the reliability of the 6MWT is unknown in individuals who have recently experienced a hip fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative and absolute interrater reliability...... of the 6MWT in individuals with hip fracture. METHODS: Two senior physical therapy students independently examined a convenience sample of 20 participants in a randomized order. Their assessments were separated by 2 days and followed the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. Hip fracture...

  2. Interrater Reliability of the 6-Minute Walk Test in Women With Hip Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Overgaard, Jan; Holtze, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    -related pain was assessed with the Verbal Ranking Scale. Results: Participants (all women) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 78.1 (5.9) years performed the test at a mean of 31.5 (5.8) days postsurgery. Of the participants, 10 had a cervical fracture and 10 had a trochanteric fracture. Excellent......Background and Purpose: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is widely used as a clinical outcome measure. However, the reliability of the 6MWT is unknown in individuals who have recently experienced a hip fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative and absolute interrater reliability...... of the 6MWT in individuals with hip fracture. Methods: Two senior physical therapy students independently examined a convenience sample of 20 participants in a randomized order. Their assessments were separated by 2 days and followed the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society. Hip fracture...

  3. Test-retest reliability of the soleus H-reflex excitability measured during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate with what accuracy the soleus H-reflex modulation and excitability could be measured during human walking on two occasions separated by days. The maximal M-wave (Mmax) was measured at rest in the standing position. During treadmill walking every stimulus...... in every sweep. The Pearson product was used to identify one participant at a time on Day 1 among all seven participants on Day 2. For both normalization procedures 5 of 7 participants were identified by this test. Since 5 of 7 participants were recognized between days, it must be recommended to use 10......% lower on Day 2 than on Day 1 (p=.32). However, when the peak H-reflex was normalized to Mmax in every sweep, Day 2 showed a significant 15% lower amplitude (p=.037). The same pattern was found for the mean H-reflex. Spearman's Rho was .92 when normalized to resting Mmax but .88 when normalized to Mmax...

  4. Correlation of levels of obstruction in COPD with lactate and six-minute walk test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Brasil Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a leading cause of morbid-mortality world wide, leading not only to pulmonary damage but also to multisystemic impairment, with repercussions on skeletal muscles and the ability to undertake effort, as measured in the six-minute walk test (6-MWT. Aims: To correlate the level of obstruction in COPD with lactate concentration and heart rate (HR at rest, and distance walked. To correlate distance walked with blood gas analysis and correlate desaturation in 6-MWT with post 6-MWT lactate concentration and heart rate. Methods: COPD patients underwent spirometry, blood gas analysis and 6-MWT to evaluate distance walked, heart rate, capillary lactate (CL concentration pre– and post 6MWT, and desaturation with 6-MWT. Results: 91 patients with all levels of obstruction were evaluated. HR and CL increased significantly post 6-MWT. The decrease in peripheral saturation of haemoglobin to oxygen observed with 6-MWT was also significant. The distance walked was shorter the greater the obstruction. The correlation analysis was significantly positive between FEV1 and distance walked, negative between FEV1 and HR at rest and negative between distance walked and PaCO2, and not significant for the other variables. Conclusions: Increased obstruction in COPD and higher PaCO2 values contribute to a reduction in distance walked in 6-MWT. The level of obstruction in COPD leads to a haemodynamic impairment with increased HR at rest of these patients. Resumo: Contextualização: A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica (DPOC, importante causa de morbimortalidade em todo mundo, leva não só ao comprometimento pulmonar, mas também a alterações sistémicas, com repercussões sobre músculos esqueléticos e a capacidade de realizar esforços, mensurável pelo teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6’. Objectivos: correlacionar obstrução da DPOC com lactato de repouso, frequ

  5. Could the two-minute step test be an alternative to the six-minute walk test for patients with systolic heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węgrzynowska-Teodorczyk, Kinga; Mozdzanowska, Dagmara; Josiak, Krystian; Siennicka, Agnieszka; Nowakowska, Katarzyna; Banasiak, Waldemar; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-08-01

    The consequence of exercise intolerance for patients with heart failure is the difficulty climbing stairs. The two-minute step test is a test that reflects the activity of climbing stairs. The aim of the study design is to evaluate the applicability of the two-minute step test in an assessment of exercise tolerance in patients with heart failure and the association between the six-minute walk test and the two-minute step test. Participants in this study were 168 men with systolic heart failure (New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I-IV). In the study we used the two-minute step test, the six-minute walk test, the cardiopulmonary exercise test and isometric dynamometer armchair. Patients who performed more steps during the two-minute step test covered a longer distance during the six-minute walk test (r = 0.45). The quadriceps strength was correlated with the two-minute step test and the six-minute walk test (r = 0.61 and r = 0.48). The greater number of steps performed during the two-minute step test was associated with higher values of peak oxygen consumption (r = 0.33), ventilatory response to exercise slope (r = -0.17) and longer time of exercise during the cardiopulmonary exercise test (r = 0.34). Fatigue and leg fatigue were greater after the two-minute step test than the six-minute walk test whereas dyspnoea and blood pressure responses were similar. The two-minute step test is well tolerated by patients with heart failure and may thus be considered as an alternative for the six-minute walk test. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  6. The CHOICE study: a "taste-test" of utilitarian vs. leisure walking among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Castro, Cynthia M; Buman, Matthew P; King, Abby C

    2012-01-01

    Utilitarian walking (e.g., walking for transport) and leisure walking (e.g., walking for health/recreation) are encouraged to promote health, yet few studies have explored specific preferences for these two forms of physical activity or factors that impact such preferences. A quasi-experimental crossover design was used to evaluate how training underactive midlife and older adults in each type of walking impacted total steps taken and how it was linked to their subsequent choice of walking types. Participants (N = 16) were midlife and older adults (M age = 64 ± 8 years) who were mostly women (81%) and white (75%). To control for order effects, participants were randomized to instruction in either utilitarian or leisure walking for 2 weeks and then the other type for 2 weeks. Participants then entered a 2-week "free choice" phase in which they chose any mixture of the walking types. Outcome variables included walking via OMRON pedometer and the ratio of utilitarian versus leisure walking during the free-choice phase. Participants completed surveys about their neighborhood (NEWS) and daily travel to multiple locations. Instruction in leisure-only, utilitarian-only, and a freely chosen mixture of the two each resulted in significant increases in steps taken relative to baseline (ps traveling greater distances to locations were associated with engagement in more utilitarian walking. In contrast, good walking paths, neighborhood aesthetics, easy access to exercise facilities, and perceiving easier access to neighborhood services were associated with more leisure walking. Results from this pilot study suggest that midlife and older adults may most easily meet guidelines through either leisure only or a mixture of leisure and utilitarian walking, and tailored suggestions based on the person's neighborhood may be useful.

  7. Explaining modified 2-min walk test outcomes in male Veterans with traumatic or nontraumatic lower-limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Brian J; Fields, Thomas T; Stephenson, Ryan O; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer; Christiansen, Cory L

    2016-01-01

    Little evidence exists to support the presence of differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters and ambulation ability between those individuals with traumatic and nontraumatic lower-limb amputation (LLA). We conducted an exploratory study of 81 male Veterans with unilateral amputation to quantify differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters and ambulatory mobility between Veterans with traumatic and nontraumatic LLA. Furthermore, we identified variables that significantly contributed to the explanation of variability in modified 2-min walk test distance. All participants completed the modified 2-min walk test and a spatiotemporal gait analysis using an instrumented walkway during a routine physical therapy visit. Veterans with nontraumatic LLA walked significantly shorter mean distances during a modified 2-min walk test than Veterans with traumatic LLA. Variables identified as significant contributors to modified 2-min walk test variability were amputated limb stance time, amputated limb step length, and percentage of the gait cycle spent in double support. These findings demonstrate that differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters and ambulatory mobility exist between Veterans with traumatic and nontraumatic LLA and identify important spatiotemporal parameters of gait contributing to this decline. These parameters should be considered as targets for intervention and future investigation.

  8. Strong correlation between the 6-minute walk test and accelerometry functional outcomes in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Zoe E; Ryan, Monique M; Kornberg, Andrew J; Walker, Karen Z; Truby, Helen

    2015-03-01

    Accelerometry provides information on habitual physical capability that may be of value in the assessment of function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This preliminary investigation describes the relationship between community ambulation measured by the StepWatch activity monitor and the current standard of functional assessment, the 6-minute walk test, in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 13). All participants completed a 6-minute walk test and wore the StepWatch™ monitor for 5 consecutive days. Both the 6-minute walk test and StepWatch accelerometry identified a decreased capacity for ambulation in boys with Duchenne compared to healthy controls. There were strong, significant correlations between 6-minute walk distance and all StepWatch parameters in affected boys only (r = 0.701-0.804). These data proffer intriguing observations that warrant further exploration. Specifically, accelerometry outcomes may compliment the 6-minute walk test in assessment of therapeutic interventions for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Effect of Treadmill Exercise Using 80% Intensity of Six Minute Walk Test on Walking Distance and Quality of Life in Moderate Stage Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Arisanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle dysfunction poses as one of the systemic manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the impact of inactivity and deconditioning from early fatigue to the end of declining quality of life (QoL. Giving pulmonary rehabilitation program of treadmill exercise will overcome the problem, but standard method for moderate stage of COPD is not yet available. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treadmill exercise using 80% intensity of six minute walk test on walking distance and QoL in moderate stage COPD in order to overcome muscle dysfunction. Samples were taken from Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Respirology subdivision of Internal Medicine outpatient clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, from March 2012–April 2013. Data analysis was tested using t-test for comparison of two independent mean data. Otherwise, non parametric test of Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon Match Pair test. Thirty three subjects of moderate stage COPD were divided into 2 groups (intervention and control. Intervention group received treadmill exercise with 80% intensity from preliminary 6MWT for 30–60 minutes/session, 3 session/week for 6 weeks. Significant increase on walking distance was found in intervention group (70.66 m compared to control group (7.43 m after 6 weeks (p≤0.05. QoL using St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ showed significant decrease in intervention group for all components in the end of 6 weeks (total p=0.0038, symptoms p=0.0162, activities p=0.0043 and impact p=0.0057, p≤0.05. Eighty percent intensity of 6MWT in treadmill exercise for 6 weeks was well tolerated and could overcome skeletal muscle dysfunction in moderate stage COPD. It also revealed higher values in aerobic capacity and QoL compared to previous studies. In conclusion, treadmill exercise using 80% intensity of 6MWT provides further walking distance and higher QoL compared to control in moderate stage COPD.

  10. Inter-Rater Reliability and Agreement of the 6-Minute Walk Test in Women With Hip Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Overgaard, Jan; Tange Kristensen, Morten

    Introduction: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT)(1) is widely used as a clinical outcome measure. However, the reliability and agreement of the 6MWT is unknown in individuals with hip fractures. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relative inter-rater reliability and agreement of the 6......MWT in individuals with hip fractures. Methods: Two senior physiotherapy students independently examined (randomized order) a convenient sample of 20 participants; their assessments were separated by two days, and testing followed instructions from the American Thoracic Society(1). Hip pain...... = -0.196, P = 0.41). On the contrary, participants walked a mean of 21.7 ± 22.6 meters longer, at the second trial (P = 0.002). Participants with moderate hip fracture- related pain walked a shorter distance than those with no or light pain during the first test (P = 0.04), while this was not the case...

  11. Potensi Kapsul Bee Pollen Plus sebagai Food Supplement Inovatif Peningkat Stamina dalam Rangka Pencegahan Penggunaan Doping pada Atlet Makassar : Uji Coba pada Mahasiswa UKM Sepak Bola

    OpenAIRE

    Utomo, Emilia; Saidah, Lia Nurmilatun; Utami, Iin Fadhilah; Sartini, Sartini

    2017-01-01

    Doping used for stamina enhancement and athletes' performance is actually a medicine that has negative effects on health and potentially causes an addiction. Therefore, it is necessary supplements that can increase the stamina and endurance of an athlete and at the same time could minimize the possibility of doping USAge. Bee pollen is one of the products of bees which is rich nutrients. The nutrients content of Bee pollen such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and polyp...

  12. Pilot Field Test: The Ability to Ambulate Following Landing as Assessed with Seat Egress, Walk and Obstacle Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E. A.; Fomina, E. V; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    To date, changes in functional performance have been systematically studied after short-duration space flight. As important as the postflight functional changes have been, full functional recovery has never been investigated or established for long-duration flights. The Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment, conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S, is comprised of several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. The objective of the Seat Egress - Walk and Obstacle Test, developed by NASA's Russian collaborators at the Institute for Biomedical Problems, is to address this gap in knowledge. This will allow us to characterize the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission requirements that they will be expected to perform after an unassisted landing following 6 to 12 months in microgravity.

  13. Investigation of exclusive narghile smokers: deficiency and incapacity measured by spirometry and 6-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Saad, Helmi; Babba, Maya; Boukamcha, Rafik; Ghannouchi, Ines; Latiri, Imed; Mezghenni, Sonia; Zedini, Chakib; Rouatbi, Sonia

    2014-11-01

    Studies on the submaximal aerobic capacity of exclusive narghile smokers (ENS) seem necessary in view of effective prevention of cardiorespiratory diseases. The goal of the study was to assess, by 6-min walk test (6MWT) data, the submaximal aerobic capacity of ENS, to identify factors influencing their 6-min walk distance (6MWD), and to compare their data with those of a healthy non-smoker (HNS) group. Seventy 20-60-y-old male ENS were included. Narghile use (narghile-years) and anthropometric, clinical, spirometric, and 6MWT data were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors influencing 6MWD. Data of a subgroup of 40-60-y-old ENS (n = 25) were compared with those of an age-matched HNS group (n = 53). The median (first to third quartile) for age and narghile use were 32 (26-43) and 17 (8-32) narghile-years, respectively. The profile of ENS performing the 6MWT was as follows: at the end of the 6MWT, 34% and 9% had a low heart rate ( 5/10, visual analog scale), respectively; 3% had an oxyhemoglobin saturation decrease of > 5 points during the test; and 20% had an abnormal 6MWD (less than the lower limit of the normal range). The factors that significantly influenced the 6MWD, explaining 38% of its variability, are included in the following equation: 6MWD (m) = 742.63 - 5.20 × body mass index (kg/m(2)) + 25.23 × FEV1 (L) - 0.44 × narghile use (narghile-years). Compared with HNS, the subgroup of ENS had a significantly lower 6MWD (98 ± 7 vs 87 ± 9% predicted, respectively). Narghile use may play a role in reducing submaximal aerobic capacity. The present study suggests that a program of pulmonary rehabilitation is an excellent axis to follow. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  14. Field Test: Results of Tandem Walk Performance Following Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Gadd, N. E.; May-Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coordinated locomotion has proven to be challenging for many astronauts following long duration spaceflight. As NASA's vision for spaceflight points toward interplanetary travel, we must prepare for unassisted landings, where crewmembers may need to perform mission critical tasks within minutes of landing. Thus, it is vital to develop a knowledge base from which operational guidelines can be written that define when astronauts can be expected to safely perform certain tasks. Data obtained during the Field Test experiment (FT) will add important insight to this knowledge base. Specifically, we aim to develop a recovery timeline of functional sensorimotor performance during the first 24 hours and several days after landing. METHODS: FT is an ongoing study of 30 long-duration ISS crewmembers. Thus far, 9 have completed the full FT (5 U.S. Orbital Segment [USOS] astronauts and 4 Russian cosmonauts) and 4 more consented and launching within the next year. This is in addition to the eighteen crewmembers that participated in the pilot FT (11 USOS and 7 Russian crewmembers). The FT is conducted three times preflight and three times during the first 24 hours after landing. All crewmembers were tested in Kazakhstan in either the medical tent at the Soyuz landing site (one hour post-landing), or at the airport (four hours post-landing). The USOS crewmembers were also tested at the refueling stop (12 hours post-landing) and at the NASA Johnson Space Center (24 hours post-landing) and a final session 7 days post-landing. Crewmembers are instrumented with 9 inertial measurement unit sensors that measure acceleration and angular displacement (APDM's Emerald Sensors) and foot pressure-sensing insoles that measure force, acceleration, and center of pressure (Moticon GmbH, Munich, Germany) along with heart rate and blood pressure recording instrumentation. The FT consists of 12 tasks, but here we will focus on the most challenging task, the Tandem Walk, which was also

  15. Some Tests of Random Walk Hypothesis for Bulgarian Foreign Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolai Gueorguiev

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to check if the exchange rate in newly emerged, relatively thin foreign exchange markets, follows a random walk pattern. The findings of the current study cast doubts on random walk presence in Bulgarian exchange rates against major international currencies. It turns out that the series of daily returns are stationary but correlated and therefore can be modelled better by higher-order ARIMA processes than by random walk.

  16. [A new procedure for the estimation of physical fitness of patients during clinical rehabilitation using the 6-minutes walk test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, W; Marek, E; Friz, Y; Vogel, P; Mückenhoff, K; Kotschy-Lang, N

    2010-03-01

    AIMS OF THE INVESTIGATION: The repetition of the 6-minutes walk test (6 MWT) in older patients is frequently performed in order to document the maximal walking distance, although it is not recommended in any guidelines on exercise tests and although there is common consent to save clinical resources in terms of time and staff. Therefore, we have examined whether and to what extent the repetition of the walk tests helps patients to get more familiar with this kind of exercise test. Thus the acquired physiological data should reliably describe the physical fitness of the patients at the beginning and at the end of their clinical rehabilitation. 35 patients performed their walk tests before and after 3 - 4 weeks of clinical rehabilitation. Each test has been repeated after one hour of recovery. The patients were instructed to walk during 6 minutes as fast as possible. They were equipped with a mobile pulse oximeter for recording oxygen saturation and heart rate. The distance, S, and the heart rate, fc, were measured. Measurements were performed every 30 seconds and recorded. The efficiency, E (E = S/6/fc), was calculated as the ratio of distance per minute and the mean heart rate during the test. In the first test the patients walked 416 +/- 63 m at a heart rate of 104.7 +/- 15.7 beats/min, in the first repeated test 454 +/- 71 m at a heart of 106.3 +/- 17.4 beats/min. In the second test, after clinical therapy, they walked 438 +/- 58 m at a heart rate of 106.3 +/- 17.4 beats/min, in the second repeated test 473 +/- 56 m at 108.6 +/- 13.2/min. The difference of the walking distances of the tests at the entrance were found to be 38.4 +/- 26.2 m (+ 9.3 +/- 6.2%), at the end of clinical rehabilitation 35 +/- 26 m (+ 8.4 +/- 6.4%). Both differences are found to be independent from the distance of the first test. They are not significantly different. The efficiency was not significantly different in the initial and final test (0.673 +/- 0.129 and 0.689 +/- 0.085 m

  17. Right to try? Phosphoethanolamine, di Bella and Stamina cases: an Italo-Brazilian analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBOSA, Elina Magnan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an analysis of court orders that determine experimental therapies and provides a comparative study of the Italian Di Bella and Stamina cases and the Brazilian Phosphoethanolamine case. The judicial sentences on the three cases were considered, along with their medical outcome and media repercussion. As a result of the comparison, it was observed that the Brazilian Constitutional Court is tending towards the non-recognition of a “right to try”, even though the Court’s official opinion remains to be seen. In Italy, on the other hand, after the negative judicial and medical experience concerning two emblematic cases, the opinion of the Italian Constitutional Court seems to have changed, indicating that the State is no longer forced to provide experimental therapies through the public health system. In the scope of these judicial lawsuits that claim compassionate cures, the technical framework, represented by the good clinical practices guidelines, comes about as the “zipper” that binds together law, science and ethics.

  18. A sequence polymorphism in MSTN predicts sprinting ability and racing stamina in thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Emmeline W; Gu, Jingjing; Eivers, Suzanne S; Fonseca, Rita G; McGivney, Beatrice A; Govindarajan, Preethi; Orr, Nick; Katz, Lisa M; MacHugh, David E; MacHugh, David

    2010-01-20

    Variants of the MSTN gene encoding myostatin are associated with muscle hypertrophy phenotypes in a range of mammalian species, most notably cattle, dogs, mice, and humans. Using a sample of registered Thoroughbred horses (n = 148), we have identified a novel MSTN sequence polymorphism that is strongly associated (g.66493737C>T, P = 4.85x10(-8)) with best race distance among elite racehorses (n = 79). This observation was independently validated (P = 1.91x10(-6)) in a resampled group of Thoroughbreds (n = 62) and in a cohort of Thoroughbreds (n = 37, P = 0.0047) produced by the same trainer. We observed that C/C horses are suited to fast, short-distance races; C/T horses compete favorably in middle-distance races; and T/T horses have greater stamina. Evaluation of retrospective racecourse performance (n = 142) and stallion progeny performance predict that C/C and C/T horses are more likely to be successful two-year-old racehorses than T/T animals. Here we describe for the first time the identification of a gene variant in Thoroughbred racehorses that is predictive of genetic potential for an athletic phenotype.

  19. A sequence polymorphism in MSTN predicts sprinting ability and racing stamina in thoroughbred horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmeline W Hill

    Full Text Available Variants of the MSTN gene encoding myostatin are associated with muscle hypertrophy phenotypes in a range of mammalian species, most notably cattle, dogs, mice, and humans. Using a sample of registered Thoroughbred horses (n = 148, we have identified a novel MSTN sequence polymorphism that is strongly associated (g.66493737C>T, P = 4.85x10(-8 with best race distance among elite racehorses (n = 79. This observation was independently validated (P = 1.91x10(-6 in a resampled group of Thoroughbreds (n = 62 and in a cohort of Thoroughbreds (n = 37, P = 0.0047 produced by the same trainer. We observed that C/C horses are suited to fast, short-distance races; C/T horses compete favorably in middle-distance races; and T/T horses have greater stamina. Evaluation of retrospective racecourse performance (n = 142 and stallion progeny performance predict that C/C and C/T horses are more likely to be successful two-year-old racehorses than T/T animals. Here we describe for the first time the identification of a gene variant in Thoroughbred racehorses that is predictive of genetic potential for an athletic phenotype.

  20. Reduction and technical simplification of testing protocol for walking based on repeatability analyses: An Interreg IVa pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the most appropriate gait measurement protocols to be used in our future studies in the Mobility in Ageing project. A group of young healthy volunteers took part in the study. Each subject carried out a 10-metre walking test at five different speeds (preferred, very slow, very fast, slow, and fast. Each walking speed was repeated three times, making a total of 15 trials which were carried out in a random order. Each trial was simultaneously analysed by three observers using three different technical approaches: a stop watch, photo cells and electronic kinematic dress. In analysing the repeatability of the trials, the results showed that of the five self-selected walking speeds, three of them (preferred, very fast, and very slow had a significantly higher repeatability of the average walking velocity, step length and cadence than the other two speeds. Additionally, the data showed that one of the three technical methods for gait assessment has better metric characteristics than the other two. In conclusion, based on repeatability, technical and organizational simplification, this study helped us to successfully define a simple and reliable walking test to be used in the main study of the project.

  1. Reliability of 4-meter and 10-meter walk tests after lower extremity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Bayram; Baris, Refik Hilmi; Yuksel, Ertugrul; Cekmece, Senol; Kalkan, Serpil; Karatosun, Vasfi

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the test-retest reliability of the 4-meter walk test (4 MWT) and 10-meter walk test (10 MWT) in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery during inpatient rehabilitation. In all, 102 patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA), lower extremity fracture (LEF) and soft tissue operation were recruited. Patients performed two 4 MWT and two 10 MWT trials on the same day. The same researcher performed all the measurements to avoid inter-rater variability. The 4 MWT and 10 MWT were shown to have excellent test-retest reliability. The ICCs for the 4 MWT and 10 MWT were found as 0.94 and 0.95, respectively. The SEMs for the 4 MWT and 10 MWT were 2.0 and 5.5 seconds, respectively. The smallest real difference at the 95% confidence level (SRD95) was 5.5 seconds for the 4 MWT and 12.2 seconds for 10 MWT and SRD95 percentage was 31.2 for the 4 MWT and 28.5 for the 10 MWT. Both the 4 MWT and the 10 MWT have excellent reliability in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery such as TKA, THA, LEF and soft tissue operation during inpatient rehabilitation. Clinicians and researchers can be confident that changes above the SRD95s for the different patient groups, for both sexes and with regard to weight-bearing status, represent a real clinical change in rehabilitation process. Implications for Rehabilitation The 4 MWT and the 10 MWT are simple methods and were also shown to be reliable measurement methods in many patient groups. This study illustrates that the test-retest reliability of the 4 MWT and 10 MWT are excellent in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery during inpatient rehabilitation (ICC: 0.94 for 4 MWT, ICC: 0.95 for 10 MWT). Clinicians and researchers can be confident that changes above the SRD95s for the different patient groups, for both sexes and with regard to weight-bearing status represent a real clinical change in rehabilitation process.

  2. Predicting the probability of falls in community-dwelling elderly individuals using the trail-walking test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Minoru; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2010-11-01

    Falling is a common problem in the fast-growing elderly population. Multitasking or engaging in two or more activities at the same time is common in daily living. To determine the usefulness of the trail-walking test (TWT) for predicting a fall in community-dwelling elderly individuals. This was a prospective study in which the TWT was used to evaluate the risk of falling among a group of community-dwelling elderly individuals (n = 171) with a mean age of 80.5 ± 5.6 years. The following tests were conducted: TWT, trail-making test (TMT), timed-up-and-go test (TUG), functional reach (FR) test, one-leg standing (OLS) test, and 10-m walking time test. Test-retest reliability was assessed by repeating the TWT within 2 weeks of the first trial, and there was a 1-year follow-up. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to analyze whether the TWT, TMT, TUG, FR, OLS, or 10-m walking tests predicted falling. The test-retest reliability of TWT was high (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.945, p test of those evaluated for assessing the risk of fall among our elderly cohort.

  3. Evaluation of exercise tolerance patients in cardiac rehabilitation D model based on 6 Minute Walk Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielawa Lukasz.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the results of 6-minute walk test depending on gender, age, left ventricular ejection fraction, the primary disease and BMI. Patients underwent assessment of Cardiac Rehabilitation Department in Szymbark in 2012 (80 people. Duration of rehabilitation for all patients was 21 days. The test was performed at the beginning and end of the cycle. Following the 3-week cardiac rehabilitation in the model D in a group of 80 patients with a mean age of 72 years achieved a statistically significant improvement in exercise capacity, expressed in the increase in test 6MWT distance by an average of 52 meters. In the study, men received final results statistically superior to women. The largest increase in the distance gained to patients after aortic valve prosthesis. People who are obese with a body mass index BMI over 30 have an average trip distance underperform both at baseline, final, and in the resulting increase of the distance than those with a BMI under 30. Prevention of obesity, one of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease should be the goal of training during cardiac rehabilitation patient education.

  4. Two-minute walk test performance by adults 18 to 85 years: normative values, reliability, and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W; Wang, Ying-Chih; Gershon, Richard C

    2015-03-01

    To provide (1) normative reference values for the 2-minute walk test (2MWT), (2) reference equations for the 2MWT, and (3) information on the reliability and responsiveness of the 2MWT across the adult lifespan. Cross-sectional study. General community settings. A population-based sample of adult participants (N=1137) contributed data to this study, which was part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function Norming Project. Not applicable. 2MWT. Overall, the distance participants walked ranged from 64.6 to 300.8m (mean, 180.9m). Men walked farther than did women (189.4m vs 176.0m; t=6.8; df=1,135; PRehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 75 FR 55067 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... C1303 Methodology 6. Heat Transfer Through Concrete a. Floorless Coolers b. Pre-Installed Freezer Floor... structural members. (7) Alternatives to ASTM C1303. (8) Heat transfer through concrete. (9) U-factor of glass..., ``Standard Test Method for Predicting Long-Term Thermal Resistance of Closed-Cell Foam Insulation.'' This...

  6. More Stamina, a Gamified mHealth Solution for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Research Through Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonopoulou, Vasiliki; Rivera Romero, Octavio

    2018-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the world’s most common neurologic disorders. Fatigue is one of most common symptoms that persons with MS experience, having significant impact on their quality of life and limiting their activity levels. Self-management strategies are used to support them in the care of their health. Mobile health (mHealth) solutions are a way to offer persons with chronic conditions tools to successfully manage their symptoms and problems. Gamification is a current trend among mHealth apps used to create engaging user experiences and is suggested to be effective for behavioral change. To be effective, mHealth solutions need to be designed to specifically meet the intended audience needs. User-centered design (UCD) is a design philosophy that proposes placing end users’ needs and characteristics in the center of design and development, involving users early in the different phases of the software life cycle. There is a current gap in mHealth apps for persons with MS, which presents an interesting area to explore. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the design and evaluation process of a gamified mHealth solution for behavioral change in persons with MS using UCD. Methods Building on previous work of our team where we identified needs, barriers, and facilitators for mHealth apps for persons with MS, we followed UCD to design and evaluate a mobile app prototype aimed to help persons with MS self-manage their fatigue. Design decisions were evidence-driven and guided by behavioral change models (BCM). Usability was assessed through inspection methods using Nielsen’s heuristic evaluation. Results The mHealth solution More Stamina was designed. It is a task organization tool designed to help persons with MS manage their energy to minimize the impact of fatigue in their day-to-day life. The tool acts as a to-do list where users can input tasks in a simple manner and assign Stamina Credits, a representation of perceived

  7. More Stamina, a Gamified mHealth Solution for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Research Through Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, Guido; Mylonopoulou, Vasiliki; Rivera Romero, Octavio

    2018-03-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the world's most common neurologic disorders. Fatigue is one of most common symptoms that persons with MS experience, having significant impact on their quality of life and limiting their activity levels. Self-management strategies are used to support them in the care of their health. Mobile health (mHealth) solutions are a way to offer persons with chronic conditions tools to successfully manage their symptoms and problems. Gamification is a current trend among mHealth apps used to create engaging user experiences and is suggested to be effective for behavioral change. To be effective, mHealth solutions need to be designed to specifically meet the intended audience needs. User-centered design (UCD) is a design philosophy that proposes placing end users' needs and characteristics in the center of design and development, involving users early in the different phases of the software life cycle. There is a current gap in mHealth apps for persons with MS, which presents an interesting area to explore. The purpose of this study was to describe the design and evaluation process of a gamified mHealth solution for behavioral change in persons with MS using UCD. Building on previous work of our team where we identified needs, barriers, and facilitators for mHealth apps for persons with MS, we followed UCD to design and evaluate a mobile app prototype aimed to help persons with MS self-manage their fatigue. Design decisions were evidence-driven and guided by behavioral change models (BCM). Usability was assessed through inspection methods using Nielsen's heuristic evaluation. The mHealth solution More Stamina was designed. It is a task organization tool designed to help persons with MS manage their energy to minimize the impact of fatigue in their day-to-day life. The tool acts as a to-do list where users can input tasks in a simple manner and assign Stamina Credits, a representation of perceived effort, to the task to help energy management

  8. The Importance of the 6 Minute Walk test in the assessment of Romanian teenagers with cystic fibrosis

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    Ornela O. Cluci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of lung function is the central part of the patients with cystic fibrosis assessment but we consider that exercise testing become an important tool in the continuous evaluation which is an indicative of prognosis and functional capacity and care of these patients. The 6 minute walk test is used to assess the individual’s response to exercise. The aim of the study is to design an exercise training program, based on 6 minute walk test and to evaluate the effects of this complex protocol including incentive therapy, individualized supervised training program: swimming, trampoline, walking, jogging, aerobic gymnastic, cycling 3 times per week and airway clearance techniques. Material and method: We conducted a 6-month study, on 20 patients from the Romanian National Cystic Fibrosis Center, aged between 12 and 18. The inclusion criteria were: FEV1 or FVC lower than 60% of predicted, SpO2 lower than 94% at rest. Results and discussions: The initial assessment showed limitations of exercise due to poor skeletal muscle mass, pulmonary status and respiratory muscle strength. After combining airway clearance techniques, incentive therapy and individualized physical training, we observed improvements regarding pulmonary function, ease of breathing and significant increased of fitness (6 minutes walking distance increased from 518.2±108.9 meters to 604.9±68 meters. A positive correlation was observed between skeletal muscle mass and distance achieved to 6 minute walk test, at the end of the study. Conclusion: The proposed rehabilitation protocol of young cystic fibrosis patients is efficient and creates pleasure and joy during physiotherapy which enhanced the patient’s adherence to the program.

  9. Measuring Steady-State Oxygen Uptake during the 6-Min Walk Test in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: Feasibility and Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais, Desiree B.; Robitaille, Nancy-Michelle; Dumas, Francine; Boucher, Normand; Richards, Carol L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of measuring steady-state oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O[subscript 2]) during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) who walk without support and whether there is construct validity for net 6MWT V[Combining Dot Above]O[subscript 2] as a measure of their walking ability.…

  10. Concurrent validity of walking speed values calculated via the GAITRite electronic walkway and 3 meter walk test in the chronic stroke population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Denise M; Middleton, Addie; Donley, Jonathan W; Blanck, Erika L; Fritz, Stacy L

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide novel information regarding the concurrent validity (primary aim) and reliability (secondary aim) of walking speed (WS) calculated via the GAITRite electronic walkway system and 3 meter walk test (3MWT) in the chronic stroke population. The 3MWT is a feasible option for clinicians working in environments where space is limited. Psychometric properties of the test have not been established. Participants with chronic stroke were stratified into three groups: (1) household ambulators (HA) (self-selected WS  0.8 m/s, 26 participants, 71 observations). Three consecutive trials of GAITRite and 3MWT were performed at participant's self-selected WS. Average WS measurements differed significantly (p < 0.05) between GAITRite and 3MWT for all three groups. HA group: GAITRite 0.25 (0.11) m/s, 3MWT 0.27 (0.11) m/s; LCA group: GAITRite 0.56 (0.11) m/s, 3MWT 0.52 (0.10) m/s; CA group: GAITRite 1.03 (0.16) m/s, 3MWT 0.89 (0.15) m/s. Both WS measures had excellent within-session reliability (ICC's ranging from 0.85 to 0.97, SEM95 from 0.04 to 0.12 m/s and MDC95 from 0.05 to 0.16 m/s). Reliability was highest for HA on both measures. Although both the 3MWT and the GAITRite are reliable measures of WS for individuals with chronic stroke, the two measures do not demonstrate concurrent validity.

  11. Usefulness of the 6-minute walk test as a screening test for pulmonary arterial enlargement in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oki Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yutaro Oki,1,2 Masahiro Kaneko,3 Yukari Fujimoto,1 Hideki Sakai,2 Shogo Misu,1,2 Yuji Mitani,1,4 Takumi Yamaguchi,1,2 Hisafumi Yasuda,1 Akira Ishikawa1 1Department of Community Health Sciences, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 2Department of Rehabilitation, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kobe City Medical Center West Hospital, Kobe, 4Department of Rehabilitation, Sapporo Nishimaruyama Hospital, Sapporo, Japan Purpose: Pulmonary hypertension and exercise-induced oxygen desaturation (EID influence acute exacerbation of COPD. Computed tomography (CT-detected pulmonary artery (PA enlargement is independently associated with acute COPD exacerbations. Associations between PA to aorta (PA:A ratio and EID in patients with COPD have not been reported. We hypothesized that the PA:A ratio correlated with EID and that results of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT would be useful for predicting the risk associated with PA:A >1.Patients and methods: We retrospectively measured lung function, 6MWT, emphysema area, and PA enlargement on CT in 64 patients with COPD. The patients were classified into groups with PA:A ≤1 and >1. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to determine the threshold values with the best cutoff points to predict patients with PA:A >1.Results: The PA:A >1 group had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1:FVC ratio, diffusion capacity of lung carbon monoxide, 6MW distance, and baseline peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2, lowest SpO2, highest modified Borg scale results, percentage low-attenuation area, and history of acute COPD exacerbations ≤1 year, and worse BODE (Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index results (P<0.05. Predicted PA:A >1 was determined for SpO2 during 6MWT (best cutoff point 89%, area under the curve 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.88–1. SpO2 <90% during 6MWT showed a sensitivity of 93.1, specificity of 94

  12. Does the incremental shuttle walk test require maximal effort in young obese women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Jürgensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifaceted treatment approach that includes nutritional counseling, structured exercise training, and increased daily physical activity. Increased body mass elicits higher cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic demands to varying degrees during exercise. With functional capacity assessment, this variability can be evaluated so individualized guidance for exercise training and daily physical activity can be provided. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses obtained during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX on a treadmill to responses obtained by the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT in obese women and to propose a peak oxygen consumption (VO2 prediction equation through variables obtained during the ISWT. Forty obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 performed one treadmill CPX and two ISWTs. Heart rate (HR, arterial blood pressure (ABP and perceived exertion by the Borg scale were measured at rest, during each stage of the exercise protocol, and throughout the recovery period. The predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax was calculated (210 – age in years (16 and compared to the HR response during the CPX. Peak VO2 obtained during CPX correlated significantly (P<0.05 with ISWT peak VO2 (r=0.79 as well as ISWT distance (r=0.65. The predictive model for CPX peak VO2, using age and ISWT distance explained 67% of the variability. The current study indicates the ISWT may be used to predict aerobic capacity in obese women when CPX is not a viable option.

  13. Comparison of the Sit-to-Stand Test with 6 min walk test in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalevli, S; Ozden, A; Itil, O; Akkoclu, A

    2007-02-01

    To discuss the utility of Sit-to-Stand Test (STST) compared to the 6min walking test (6MWT) for the evaluation of functional status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Fifty-three patients with stable COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1)) 46+/-9% predicted, mean age 71+/-12 year) and 15 healthy individuals (mean FEV(1) 101+/-13% predicted and mean age 63+/-8) were included. Functional performance was evaluated by STST and 6MWT. During the tests, severity of dyspnea (by Modified Borg Scale), heart rate, pulsed oxygen saturation (SpO(2), by Modified Borg Scale) (by pulse oxymeter), blood pressure were measured. The pulmonary function (by spirometry), quadriceps femoris muscle strength (by manual muscle test) and quality of life (by Nottingham Health Profile Survey) were evaluated. The STST and 6MWT results were lower in COPD group than the healthy group (P<0.05). During the 6MWT the rise in the heart rate, systolic blood pressure and the decrease in SpO(2) were statistically significant according to STST in COPD groups (P<0.05). The STST and 6MWT were strongly correlated with each other in both groups (P<0.05). Similarly, they were correlated with age, quality of life, peripheral muscle strength and dyspnea severity in COPD groups (P<0.05). Similar to 6MWT, STST is also able to determine the functional state correctly. Additionally, it produces less hemodynamical stress compared to the 6MWT. In conclusion, STST can be used as an alternative of the 6MWT in patients with COPD.

  14. The 1-Minute Sit-to-Stand Test in Adults With Cystic Fibrosis: Correlations With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, and Quadriceps Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Mathieu; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Mely, Laurent; Vallier, Jean-Marc

    2016-12-01

    Exercise testing is part of the regular assessment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We aimed to evaluate (1) the convergent validity of the 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test in CF by investigating its relationships with peak oxygen uptake (peak V̇ O 2 ), quadriceps strength, and quality of life and (2) to compare these associations with those of the 6-min walk test (6MWT). Twenty-five adults with CF (FEV 1 = 59 ± 24%) performed the STS test, the 6MWT, quadriceps strength assessment, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Physical activity level, quality of life, and self-esteem were assessed by questionnaires. STS repetitions, 6-min walk distance, quadriceps strength, and peak V̇ O 2 were, respectively, 71 ± 12, 90 ± 10, 93 ± 29, and 62 ± 16% of predicted. The STS test had moderate associations with peak V̇ O 2 (r = 0.56, P = .004), quadriceps strength (r = 0.52, P = .008), and some questionnaire items (eg, perceived physical strength, r = 0.67, P test was strongly associated with oxygen desaturation during CPET (r = 0.80, P test as compared with CPET (P test cannot be used as a replacement for CPET to accurately assess peak exercise capacity in CF. The STS test may have utility in detecting patients with CF who may exhibit a high level of oxygen desaturation during heavy exercise. Further studies should identify the factors contributing to STS performance to confirm the potential interest of STS repetitions × body weight outcome as a useful submaximal exercise parameter in CF. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Reliability, validity, and norms of the 2-min walk test in children with and without neuromuscular disorders aged 6-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Tamis W; Choi, H L

    2018-06-01

    The 2-min walk test may be more appropriate functional exercise test for young children. This study aimed to examine the 2-min walk test's reliability; validity; and minimal clinically important difference; and to establish norms for children aged 6-12. Sixty-one healthy children were recruited to examine the 2-min walk test's reliability. Forty-six children with neuromuscular disorders (63% cerebral palsy) were recruited to test the validity. The normative study involved 716 healthy children without neuromuscular disorders (male = 51%, female = 49%). They walked at a self-selected speed for 2 min along a smooth, flat path 15 m in length. The mean distance covered in the 2-min walk test was 152.8 m (SD =27.5). No significant difference was found in the children's test-retest results (p > 0.05). The intra- and inter-rater reliability were high (all intra-class correlation coefficients >0.8). All children, except one with neuromuscular disorders, completed the 2-min walk test, of which the minimal clinically important difference at 95% confidence interval was 23.2 m for the entire group, 15.7 m for children walking with aids, and 16.6 m for those walking independently. The 2-min walk test is a feasible, reliable, and valid exercise test for children with and without neuromuscular disorders aged 6-12. The first normative references and minimal clinically important difference for children with neuromuscular disorders were established for children of this age group. Implications for rehabilitation The 2-min walk test is a feasible, safe, reliable, and valid time-based walk test for children aged 6-12 years. Normative references have been established for healthy children aged 6-12 years. Minimal clinically important difference at 95% confidence interval were calculated for children with neuromuscular disorders who walked without aids (i.e., independent and stand-by supervision) and those who walked with aids equal to 16.6 and 15.7 m, respectively

  16. Factors Shaping the Decision of College Students to Walk or Drive under the Influence of Alcohol: A Test of Rational Choice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…

  17. Inter-rater reliability and agreement of the 6-minute walk test in females with hip fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jan; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Tange Kristensen, Morten

    The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is widely used as a clinical outcome measure. However, the reliability and agreement of the 6MWT is unknown in individuals with hip fractures. To evaluate the relative inter-rater reliability and agreement of the 6MWT in individuals with hip fractures. Two senior...... physiotherapy students independently examined (randomized order) a convenient sample of 20 participants; their assessments were separated by two days, and testing followed instructions from the American Thoracic Society. Hip pain was assessed with the Verbal Ranking Scale. Participants (all women) with a mean...... (SRD) were calculated as 21.4 meters and 59.4 meters, respectively. Bland-Altman plots revealed no significant difference (mean of 3.2 ± 31.5 meters, P = 0.83) between the two raters, and no heteroscedasticity was seen (r = -0.196, P = 0.41). On the contrary, participants walked a mean of 21.7 ± 22...

  18. Heart rate recovery after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test in older adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-03-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is an independent predictor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. To investigate the usefulness of HRR in cardiorespiratory exercise testing in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the aims of this study were (a) to assess HRR in older adults with ID after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT) and (b) its association with personal characteristics (gender, age, distance walked on the ISWT, level of ID, genetic syndrome causing ID, autism, behavioral problems, and peak heart rate (HRpeak)). HRR was assessed after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test in 300 older adults (>50 years) with borderline to profound ID. HRR was defined as the change from HRpeak during the ISWT to heart rate measured after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min of passive recovery. The largest decrease in heart rate was in the first minute of recovery leveling off toward the fifth minute of recovery. An abnormal HHR (≤12 bpm) was seen in 36.1% of the participants with Down syndrome (DS) and in 30.7% of the participants with ID by other causes. After the fifth minute the heart rates of 69.4% of the participants with DS and of 61.4% of the participants with ID by other causes returned to resting levels. HRpeak and distance walked on the ISWT were positively related to all HRR measures. More severe ID was negatively related and having DS positively related to HRR after 3-5 min of recovery. The other characteristics were not significantly associated to HRR. HRR is a potentially useful outcome measure in cardiorespiratory fitness testing of older adults with ID with a direct, objective, and non-invasive measurement. Further research is needed to identify the relation between HRR and adverse health outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anxiety sensitivity predicts increased perceived exertion during a 1-mile walk test among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Brown, Richard A; Price, Lawrence H; Desaulniers, Julie; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-12-01

    Smoking increases risk of early morbidity and mortality, and risk is compounded by physical inactivity. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety-relevant somatic sensations) is a cognitive factor that may amplify the subjective experience of exertion (effort) during exercise, subsequently resulting in lower engagement in physical activity. We examined the effect of anxiety sensitivity on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physiological arousal (heart rate) during a bout of exercise among low-active treatment-seeking smokers. Adult daily smokers (n = 157; M age  = 44.9, SD = 11.13; 69.4% female) completed the Rockport 1.0 mile submaximal treadmill walk test. RPE and heart rate were assessed during the walk test. Multi-level modeling was used to examine the interactive effect of anxiety sensitivity × time on RPE and on heart rate at five time points during the walk test. There were significant linear and cubic time × anxiety sensitivity effects for RPE. High anxiety sensitivity was associated with greater initial increases in RPE during the walk test, with stabilized ratings towards the last 5 min, whereas low anxiety sensitivity was associated with lower initial increase in RPE which stabilized more quickly. The linear time × anxiety sensitivity effect for heart rate was not significant. Anxiety sensitivity is associated with increasing RPE during moderate-intensity exercise. Persistently rising RPE observed for smokers with high anxiety sensitivity may contribute to the negative experience of exercise, resulting in early termination of bouts of prolonged activity and/or decreased likelihood of future engagement in physical activity.

  20. [Measuring gait velocity in the elderly with a gait analysis system and a 10-meter walk test. A comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewerka, G; Wewerka, G; Iglseder, B

    2015-01-01

    Gait disorders are common in the elderly, compromising quality of life and increasing the risk for falls. Mobility and fall risk assessment usually includes measurement of gait velocity. Computerized gait analyses are able to measure additional gait parameters. This study addressed the question whether elderly patients (n=66) change their self-selected gait speed when walking on a computerized platform compared to a 10-m walk test. A second aim was to compare gait velocity, gait parameters, and clinical measurements (TUG, POMA) in subgroups of patients with a history of a fall (n=27) vs. without a history of a fall (n=39). Our results demonstrate that gait velocity was significantly reduced in the subgroup of fallers, but not in the group of nonfallers. Moreover, other gait parameters and the clinical tests differed significantly between fallers and nonfallers. A possible explanation could be the visual requirements of the test environment, which may influence the walking speed in terms of a dual-task paradigm in those participants with mobility problems.

  1. Duration of pulmonary rehabilitation to achieve a plateau in quality of life and walk test in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanes, Ingrid; Güell, Rosa; Casan, Pere; Sotomayor, Coloma; Gonzalez, Araceli; Feixas, Teresa; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Guyatt, Gordon

    2009-05-01

    To address the minimum duration of pulmonary rehabilitation necessary for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to achieve a plateau in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) and exercise tolerance. COPD patients with a dyspnea rating of at least 2 on the Medical Research Council scale participated in an outpatient rehabilitation program of 3 weekly sessions for 12 weeks. Measurements included HRQL and exercise tolerance 2 weeks before the program started and every 2 weeks thereafter. Patients were considered to have reached a plateau if they showed no improvement beyond 20% of the minimal important difference between 2 consecutive evaluations on HRQL score or walk tests. Twenty-eight patients participated. The number of patients achieving stability after 8 weeks, showing continued improvement after 8 weeks, and demonstrating an erratic pattern of change was as follows: for physical function 16 (56%), 10 (37%) and 2 (7%) patients; for emotional function 22 (79%), 5 (18%) and 1 (4%); and for 6-min walk test 21 (75%), 5 (18%) and 2 (7%). More severe patients demonstrated a greater likelihood (76%) of achieving stability in physical function at 12 weeks than did less severe patients (27%; p on difference=0.003). The likelihood of stability at 12 weeks in emotional function and the 6-min walk test did not differ by severity. A program of 3 weekly 3-h sessions of outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program should last at least 8 weeks in order to achieve optimal HRQL and exercise tolerance for most patients.

  2. Outcome of aerobic exercises on 6-minute walk test in post-stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andleeb, U.; Qamar, M.M.; Afridi, M.S.; Asim, H.M.; Basharat, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the outcome of aerobic exercises on 6MWT in stroke survivors Methodology: This study is quasi-experimental done in a tertiary care hospital and included a total of 104 ambulatory stroke patients. Subjects walked on self-selected speed on a treadmill along a prescribed course for 10 weeks. Results: The ratio of male patients was more as compared to females (67.31% vs. 32.69). Only 3 out of total 104 patients were lost to follow-up. No difference was observed post exercise in the mean HR beats/minute (P=0.432). Moreover, no difference was observed in the mean systolic (P=0.543) and diastolic BP of the patients with treadmill training (P=0.367). However, aerobic exercises improved walking and endurance in stroke survivors from 196+-120m at baseline to 230 +-132m after aerobic training (P=0.001). Conclusions: Treadmill walking improved patients walking ability for long distances and if they retain and improve it further, they can ambulate functionally and independently. (author)

  3. clinical correlates of 6-minute walk test in type 2 diabetes patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Email: adeniyifatai@yahoo.co.uk; fadeniyi@comui.edu.ng. SUMMARY. Physical exercise is adjudged effective in the prevention and co-management of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). .... (M, F) = (Male, Female); 6MWD = 6 Minute Walk Distance; FBG = Fasting Blood Glucose; BMI = Body Mass Index; WC = Waist Circumference;.

  4. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables.METHODS:this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL questionnaire (PAQLQ and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%.RESULTS:40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3 ± 2.1 years, mean height was 1.5 ± 0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8 ± 12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9% ± 19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r = 0.373, p = 0.018 and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r = -0.518, p < 0.001. Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r = -0.311, p = 0.051.CONCLUSIONS:asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  5. Gait characteristics and influence of fatigue during the 6-minute walk test in patients with post-polio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreede, Katarina Skough; Henriksson, Jan; Borg, Kristian; Henriksson, Marketta

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate gait in patients with post-polio syndrome, using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) combined with three-dimensional kinematic analysis. Descriptive study. Eighteen patients and 11 healthy controls. Kinematic data were obtained during a 6MWT by a Vicon motion capture system. Distance, heart rate, leg tiredness, dyspnoea and exertion were also recorded. Patients with post-polio syndrome showed larger increases in leg tiredness (p post-polio syndrome, and this was reflected in the kinematic data. Walking speed was negatively correlated with the increased hip flexion, but not with the ankle plantar-flexion at foot-off in the patients with post-polio syndrome. The three-dimensional results underscore the importance of hip function in this patient group.

  6. 76 FR 48745 - Energy Conservation Program: Compliance Date Regarding the Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers and the Certification for Metal Halide Lamp Ballasts and Fixtures... rule) when certifying walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. This document also proposes regulatory text changes to reflect U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) intent that only manufacturers of components of walk...

  7. Normative Two-Minute Walk Test Distances for Boys and Girls 3 to 17 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W; Wang, Ying-Chih; Bubela, Deborah; Gershon, Richard C

    2018-02-01

    To provide normative reference values for the 2-minute walk test (2MWT) for children and adolescents. A population-based sample of 2,631 boys and girls (3-17 years) contributed data to this 2011 study which was part of the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function Norming Project. The 2MWT was performed over a 50 foot (15.2 meter) out-and-back course. Overall, the mean (standard deviation) distance walked by the participants was 186.2 (33.9) meters. As a general linear model demonstrated that gender (F = 11.0, p =.001) and age (F = 127.6, p <.001) affected 2MWT distance, separate norms are provided for each gender and age stratum (e.g., 3-year-old boys,16-year-old girls). Based on these findings and correlational and regression analysis, separate explanatory equations for 2MWT distance for boys and girls are provided. The separate equations for boys and girls include age, age squared, height, and body mass as variables that explain around 40% of the variance in 2MWT distance. The study presents norms for the 2MWT performed by American boys and girls. The norms can be used to determine the presence of limitations in walking endurance in this population.

  8. Quantum centrality testing on directed graphs via P T -symmetric quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaac, J. A.; Wang, J. B.; Abbott, P. C.; Ma, X. S.

    2017-09-01

    Various quantum-walk-based algorithms have been proposed to analyze and rank the centrality of graph vertices. However, issues arise when working with directed graphs: the resulting non-Hermitian Hamiltonian leads to nonunitary dynamics, and the total probability of the quantum walker is no longer conserved. In this paper, we discuss a method for simulating directed graphs using P T -symmetric quantum walks, allowing probability-conserving nonunitary evolution. This method is equivalent to mapping the directed graph to an undirected, yet weighted, complete graph over the same vertex set, and can be extended to cover interdependent networks of directed graphs. Previous work has shown centrality measures based on the continuous-time quantum walk provide an eigenvectorlike quantum centrality; using the P T -symmetric framework, we extend these centrality algorithms to directed graphs with a significantly reduced Hilbert space compared to previous proposals. In certain cases, this centrality measure provides an advantage over classical algorithms used in network analysis, for example, by breaking vertex rank degeneracy. Finally, we perform a statistical analysis over ensembles of random graphs, and show strong agreement with the classical PageRank measure on directed acyclic graphs.

  9. Hand grip endurance test relates to clinical state and prognosis in COPD patients better than 6-minute walk test distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovarik M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Miroslav Kovarik,1,2 Vera Joskova,1,2 Anna Patkova,1,2 Vladimir Koblizek,3 Zdenek Zadak,2 Miloslav Hronek1,2 1Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 2Department of Research and Development, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Purpose: Patients with COPD present peripheral muscle dysfunction and atrophy, expressed as muscle strength and endurance reduction. The goal of this study was direct dynamometric assessment of hand grip endurance and strength in relation to the stage of disease, multidimensional predictors of mortality, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous study determining these parameters.Patients and methods: In this observational study, 58 consecutive outpatients with stable COPD and 25 volunteers without respiratory problems were compared. All COPD subjects underwent a comprehensive examination to determine COPD severity, prognostic scales, and 6MWT. Body composition, basic spirometric parameters, and hand grip strength and endurance were determined in all study participants.Results: Patients in the COPD group had a 15% decrease in maximum strength (P=0.012 and a 28% decrease in area under the force/time curve (AUC of the endurance test (P<0.001 compared to the control group. Dynamometric parameters were significantly negatively associated with the stage of disease and values of multivariable prediction indexes, and positively associated with the results of 6MWT. In most cases, closer associations were found with AUC than with 6MWT and in the gender-specific groups.Conclusion: Both hand grip strength and endurance are impaired in COPD patients in comparison with the control group. In particular, AUC could be considered as an attractive option not only to

  10. Minimal important difference and responsiveness of 2-minute walk test performance in people with COPD undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston KN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kylie Nicole Johnston, Adrian James Potter, Anna Caroline Phillips School of Health Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background and objectives: Field exercise tests (eg, 6-minute walk test [6MWT] are important measures of functional exercise capacity in people with COPD. Shorter tests such as the 2-minute walk test (2MWT may offer advantages in some populations but lack information about responsiveness to change. This study examined responsiveness, minimal important difference (MID, test–retest reliability, and construct validity of the 2MWT in people with stable COPD attending outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation (PR.Methods: At pre-PR assessment, study participants completed a 2MWT twice in addition to usual measures (6MWT and Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire. At post-PR assessment following a standard PR program, measures were repeated and global rating of change scores obtained (patient and therapist. Pre–post program change scores were examined for correlations with change in 2-minute walk distance (2MWD and used (where r≥0.3 to estimate the MID through anchor-based methods. Distribution-based estimates based on standard error of measurement were examined. Test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] and Bland–Altman agreement and validity (Pearson correlation with 6-minute walk distance [6MWD] were reported.Results: Fifty-nine people (28 men with stable COPD, mean age 68 years (SD 10 years, and percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second 48% (SD 20% attended pre-PR assessment. Test–retest ICC for same-session 2MWD was 0.985. A mean difference of 2.4 m (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7–4.0 m, P=0.006 occurred between the first and second trials. 2MWD and 6MWD were highly correlated (r=0.87, P<0.001. Forty-one participants completed PR and were included in responsiveness and MID analysis. Mean 2MWD improved significantly

  11. Reproducibility, validity and predictors of six-minute walk test in overweight and obese adolescents with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmahgoub, Sami S; Van de Velde, Annemie; Peersman, Wim; Cambier, Dirk; Calders, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    To assess the reproducibility and validity of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) and predictors of the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) in adolescents with overweight or obesity and intellectual disability (ID). Sixty-one adolescents with overweight or obesity and mild-to-moderate ID (intelligent quotient [IQ] 40-70; age 14-22 years) participated in this study. To test reproducibility, 39 of the participants performed the 6MWT twice with an interval of 1 week. To test validity (n = 39), peak oxygen uptake (peak VO(2)) was measured on a bicycle ergometer. For the predictor study (n = 61), weight, height, peak VO(2) and quadriceps strength were measured, and IQ and orthopedic conditions were collected from the participants' medical records. There was no significant difference between the means of the two 6MWTs (571.3 vs. 576.5 m; p = 0.452). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.82, indicating good reliability. The smallest real difference was 82.6 m. 6MWD correlated significantly with relative peak VO(2) (β = 0.69) indicating validity. Relative peak VO(2), height, IQ, body mass index (BMI) and quadriceps strength are predictors of the 6MWD in this population. 6MWT is a reliable and valid test in adolescents with overweight or obesity and ID. Low IQ, overweight/obesity and low physical fitness contribute to the outcome of the 6MWT.

  12. [A new procedure for the estimation of physical fitness of patients during clinical rehabilitation using the 6-minute-walk-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, W; Marek, E; Vogel, P; Mückenhoff, K; Kotschy-Lang, N

    2008-11-01

    AIMS OF THE INVESTIGATION: The 6-minute-walk-test (6-MW) is an effective tool for measuring physical fitness in elderly patients. The increased walking distance is taken as a parameter for improved physical conditions. Frequently an unaltered walking distance is found after clinical treatment, but heart rate is significantly lower in the second challenge, indicating an improved physical fitness. This positive effect is not recognised when only the walking distance is analysed. An analysis of the 6-MW test was performed on 263 patients before and after 3 - 4 weeks clinical rehabilitation. In a control group of 26 patients 6-MW was repeated after recovery at the beginning and the end of the clinical treatment. Instrumented by a mobile pulse oximeter for recording oxygen saturation and heart rate, patients were instructed to walk as fast as they can do during 6 minutes. Measurements were performed every 30 seconds and printed out. Two new parameters, efficiency (E = S/f (C)), the ratio of distance and mean heart rate, and the theoretical increase in walking distance (S (z) = Delta f (C1)/Delta f (C2) x S (2) - S (1)) were introduced and tested. S (z) = theoretical increase in distance, Delta f (C1) = difference in heart rate at rest and mean heart rate at steady state during the first walk test with distance, S1. Delta f (C2), and S2 are measured during the second walk. Thus, the increase in distance is calculated under the assumption that the second walk test would have been performed by the patient with the same difference in heart rate that he/she achieved in the first walk. The patient groups walked 353 +/- 80 m at 106 +/- 14.3 beats/min in the 1st. 6-MW and 368 +/- 76.9 m at a heart rate of 105 +/- 14.0 beats/min in the final test. The increase of the walking distance was most significant in patients with shorter distances in the 1st 6-MW. A significant increase in the walking distance and in efficiency was found in patients with shorter walking distances or

  13. Criterion-Related Validity of the Distance- and Time-Based Walk/Run Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Bocanegra-Parrilla, Raúl; Ornelas, Martha; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the distance- and time-based walk/run tests for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness among apparently healthy children and adults. Relevant studies were searched from seven electronic bibliographic databases up to August 2015 and through other sources. The Hunter-Schmidt's psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the following walk/run tests: 5,000 m, 3 miles, 2 miles, 3,000 m, 1.5 miles, 1 mile, 1,000 m, ½ mile, 600 m, 600 yd, ¼ mile, 15 min, 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min. From the 123 included studies, a total of 200 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ranged from low to moderate (rp = 0.42-0.79), with the 1.5 mile (rp = 0.79, 0.73-0.85) and 12 min walk/run tests (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.83) having the higher criterion-related validity for distance- and time-based field tests, respectively. The present meta-analysis also showed that sex, age and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests. When the evaluation of an individual's maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory test is not feasible, the 1.5 mile and 12 min walk/run tests represent useful alternatives for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. As in the assessment with any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the walk/run field tests is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  14. Criterion-Related Validity of the Distance- and Time-Based Walk/Run Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mayorga-Vega

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the distance- and time-based walk/run tests for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness among apparently healthy children and adults.Relevant studies were searched from seven electronic bibliographic databases up to August 2015 and through other sources. The Hunter-Schmidt's psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the following walk/run tests: 5,000 m, 3 miles, 2 miles, 3,000 m, 1.5 miles, 1 mile, 1,000 m, ½ mile, 600 m, 600 yd, ¼ mile, 15 min, 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min.From the 123 included studies, a total of 200 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ranged from low to moderate (rp = 0.42-0.79, with the 1.5 mile (rp = 0.79, 0.73-0.85 and 12 min walk/run tests (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.83 having the higher criterion-related validity for distance- and time-based field tests, respectively. The present meta-analysis also showed that sex, age and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests.When the evaluation of an individual's maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory test is not feasible, the 1.5 mile and 12 min walk/run tests represent useful alternatives for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. As in the assessment with any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the walk/run field tests is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  15. Criterion-Related Validity of the Distance- and Time-Based Walk/Run Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Bocanegra-Parrilla, Raúl; Ornelas, Martha; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the distance- and time-based walk/run tests for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness among apparently healthy children and adults. Materials and Methods Relevant studies were searched from seven electronic bibliographic databases up to August 2015 and through other sources. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the following walk/run tests: 5,000 m, 3 miles, 2 miles, 3,000 m, 1.5 miles, 1 mile, 1,000 m, ½ mile, 600 m, 600 yd, ¼ mile, 15 min, 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min. Results From the 123 included studies, a total of 200 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ranged from low to moderate (rp = 0.42–0.79), with the 1.5 mile (rp = 0.79, 0.73–0.85) and 12 min walk/run tests (rp = 0.78, 0.72–0.83) having the higher criterion-related validity for distance- and time-based field tests, respectively. The present meta-analysis also showed that sex, age and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests. Conclusions When the evaluation of an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory test is not feasible, the 1.5 mile and 12 min walk/run tests represent useful alternatives for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. As in the assessment with any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the walk/run field tests is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26987118

  16. Predicting the probability of falls in community-dwelling elderly individuals using the trail-walking test

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Minoru; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2010-01-01

    Background Falling is a common problem in the fast-growing elderly population. Multitasking or engaging in two or more activities at the same time is common in daily living. Objective To determine the usefulness of the trail-walking test (TWT) for predicting a fall in community-dwelling elderly individuals. Methods This was a prospective study in which the TWT was used to evaluate the risk of falling among a group of community-dwelling elderly individuals (n = 171) with a mean age of 80.5 ± 5...

  17. Improved Leg Tracking Considering Gait Phase and Spline-Based Interpolation during Turning Motion in Walk Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanori Yorozu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Falling is a common problem in the growing elderly population, and fall-risk assessment systems are needed for community-based fall prevention programs. In particular, the timed up and go test (TUG is the clinical test most often used to evaluate elderly individual ambulatory ability in many clinical institutions or local communities. This study presents an improved leg tracking method using a laser range sensor (LRS for a gait measurement system to evaluate the motor function in walk tests, such as the TUG. The system tracks both legs and measures the trajectory of both legs. However, both legs might be close to each other, and one leg might be hidden from the sensor. This is especially the case during the turning motion in the TUG, where the time that a leg is hidden from the LRS is longer than that during straight walking and the moving direction rapidly changes. These situations are likely to lead to false tracking and deteriorate the measurement accuracy of the leg positions. To solve these problems, a novel data association considering gait phase and a Catmull–Rom spline-based interpolation during the occlusion are proposed. From the experimental results with young people, we confirm   that the proposed methods can reduce the chances of false tracking. In addition, we verify the measurement accuracy of the leg trajectory compared to a three-dimensional motion analysis system (VICON.

  18. Chest tcpO2 changes during constant-load treadmill walking tests in patients with claudication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, N; Leftheriotis, G; Abraham, P; Feuilloy, M; Mahe, G; Saumet, J-L

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chest transcutaneous-pO 2 at rest (ΔtcpO 2 ) mimic absolute changes in arterial-pO 2 during moderate exercise, although the absolute starting values may dramatically differ. We retrospectively studied 485 patients (group 1), prospectively studied 292 new patients (group 2) and estimated the intra-test and the test–retest reproducibility of ΔtcpO 2 during constant-load treadmill tests: 3.2 km h −1 , 10% grade, using the cross correlation technique. Patients were classified into groups according to their best fit to nine pre-defined mathematic models. Respectively, 71% and 76% of patients of groups 1 and 2 fitted with a model showing a ΔtcpO 2 increase during and a decrease following exercise. Another 18% and 12% of the patients of groups 1 and 2 respectively fitted with a model that showed an abrupt decrease at exercise onset, a slow increase during walking and an overshoot in the recovery period, referred here as a walking-induced transcutaneous hack (WITH) profile. The mean r max value for the cross-correlation analysis was 0.919 ± 0.091 and 0.800 ± 0.129 for intra-test and test–retest reproducibility. Most profiles show the expected ΔtcpO 2 exercise-induced increase. Future studies are needed to confirm and explain the WITH profiles that we found, and screen for potential-associated diseases

  19. Improved Leg Tracking Considering Gait Phase and Spline-Based Interpolation during Turning Motion in Walk Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorozu, Ayanori; Moriguchi, Toshiki; Takahashi, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Falling is a common problem in the growing elderly population, and fall-risk assessment systems are needed for community-based fall prevention programs. In particular, the timed up and go test (TUG) is the clinical test most often used to evaluate elderly individual ambulatory ability in many clinical institutions or local communities. This study presents an improved leg tracking method using a laser range sensor (LRS) for a gait measurement system to evaluate the motor function in walk tests, such as the TUG. The system tracks both legs and measures the trajectory of both legs. However, both legs might be close to each other, and one leg might be hidden from the sensor. This is especially the case during the turning motion in the TUG, where the time that a leg is hidden from the LRS is longer than that during straight walking and the moving direction rapidly changes. These situations are likely to lead to false tracking and deteriorate the measurement accuracy of the leg positions. To solve these problems, a novel data association considering gait phase and a Catmull–Rom spline-based interpolation during the occlusion are proposed. From the experimental results with young people, we confirm that the proposed methods can reduce the chances of false tracking. In addition, we verify the measurement accuracy of the leg trajectory compared to a three-dimensional motion analysis system (VICON). PMID:26404302

  20. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motl Robert W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2 over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001 such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84. Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking.

  1. Assessing Minimal Detectable Changes and Test-Retest Reliability of the Timed Up and Go Test and the 2-Minute Walk Test in Patients With Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ertugrul; Kalkan, Serpil; Cekmece, Senol; Unver, Bayram; Karatosun, Vasfi

    2017-02-01

    Two-minute walk test (2MWT) and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) are simple, quick, and can be applied in a short time as part of the routine medical examination. They were shown to be reliable and valid tests in many patient groups. The aims of the present study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability of data for the TUG and 2MWT and (2) to determine minimal detectable change (MDC) scores for the TUG and 2MWT in patients with TKA. Forty-eight patients with total knee arthroplasty, operated by the same surgeon, were included in this study. Patients performed trials for TUG and 2MWT twice on the same day. Between the first and second trials, patients waited for an hour on sitting position to prevent fatigue. The TUG and 2MWT showed an excellent test-retest reliability in this study. Intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC(2,1)] for TUG and 2MWT were 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. Standard error of measurement and MDC 95 for TUG were 0.82 and 2.27, respectively. Standard error of measurement and MDC 95 for 2MWT were 5.40 and 14.96, respectively. The TUG and 2MWT have an excellent test-retest reliability in patients with TKA. Clinicians and researchers can be confident that changes in TUG time above 2.27 seconds and changes in 2MWT distances above 14.96 meters, represent a "real" clinical change in an individual patient with TKA. We, therefore, recommend the use of these 2 tests as complementary outcome measures for functional evaluation in patients TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Tandem Step Test as a Quantitative Measure of Ataxia After Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E. A.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Posture and locomotion are among the functions most affected by space flight. Postflight ataxia can be quantified easily by using the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC). Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both postflight functional performance of astronauts and related physiological changes. METHODS Five astronauts with flight durations of 12 to 16 days participated in this study. Performance measurements were obtained in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The WOFEC test consisted of walking with the feet placed heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and eyes closed, for 10 steps. A trial was initiated after the eyes were closed and the front foot was aligned with the rear foot. The performance metric was the average percentage of correct steps completed over 3 trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened eyes, or paused for more than 3 seconds between steps. Step accuracy was scored independently by 3 examiners. RESULTS Immediately after landing subjects seemed to be unaware of their foot position relative to their body or the floor. The percentage of correct steps was significantly decreased on landing day. Partial recovery was observed the next day, and full recovery to baseline on the sixth day post landing. CONCLUSION These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after they return from space flight. Although this simple test is intended to complement the FTT battery of tests, it has some stand-alone value as it provides investigators with a means to quantify vestibular ataxia as well as provide instant feedback on postural stability without the use of complex test equipment.

  3. Node-avoiding Levy flight - A numerical test of the epsilon expansion. [random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, J. W.; Nakanishi, H.

    1985-01-01

    A study is conducted of an extension of Levy flight to include self-repulsion in the path of the walk. The extension is called node-avoiding Levy flight and its equivalence to the n approaches 0 limit of a statistical mechanical model for a magnetic system with long-range interactions between the spins is shown. By use of this equivalence it is possible to make a detailed comparison beween the results of the epsilon expansion for the magnetic model, a Monte Carlo simulation of the Levy flight model, and the results of a Flory-type argument. This is the first comparison of the epsilon expansion for epsilon much less than 1 with a numerical simulation for any model. Some speculations are made on applications of the model of node-avoiding Levy flight.

  4. Reproducibility and Validity of the 6-Minute Walk Test Using the Gait Real-Time Analysis Interactive Lab in Patients with COPD and Healthy Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wai-Yan; Meijer, Kenneth; Delbressine, Jeannet M; Willems, Paul J; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Spruit, Martijn A

    2016-01-01

    The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in a regular hallway is commonly used to assess functional exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, treadmill walking might provide additional advantages over overground walking, especially if virtual reality and self-paced treadmill walking are combined. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the reproducibility and validity of the 6MWT using the Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL) in patients with COPD and healthy elderly. Sixty-one patients with COPD and 48 healthy elderly performed two 6MWTs on the GRAIL. Patients performed two overground 6MWTs and healthy elderly performed one overground test. Differences between consecutive 6MWTs and the test conditions (GRAIL vs. overground) were analysed. Patients walked further in the second overground test (24.8 m, 95% CI 15.2-34.4 m, pelderly improved their second GRAIL test (49.6 m, 95% CI 37.0-62.3 m). The GRAIL 6MWT was reproducible (intra-class coefficients = 0.65-0.80). The best GRAIL 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in patients was shorter than the best overground 6MWD (-27.3 ± 49.1 m, pelderly walked further on the GRAIL than in the overground condition (23.6 ± 41.4 m, pelderly. The GRAIL 6MWD seems to be more comparable to the 6MWDs assessed overground than previous studies on treadmills have reported. Furthermore, good construct validity and reproducibility were established in assessing the 6MWD using the GRAIL in patients with COPD and healthy elderly.

  5. Six-minute walk test and respiratory muscle strength in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Mancuzo, Eliane Viana; Rezende, Camila Farnese; Côrrea, Ricardo de Amorim

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate respiratory muscle strength and six-minute walk test (6MWT) variables in patients with uncontrolled severe asthma (UCSA). This was a cross-sectional study involving UCSA patients followed at a university hospital. The patients underwent 6MWT, spirometry, and measurements of respiratory muscle strength, as well as completing the Asthma Control Test (ACT). The Mann-Whitney test was used in order to analyze 6MWT variables, whereas the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether there was an association between the use of oral corticosteroids and respiratory muscle strength. We included 25 patients. Mean FEV1 was 58.8 ± 21.8% of predicted, and mean ACT score was 14.0 ± 3.9 points. No significant difference was found between the median six-minute walk distance recorded for the UCSA patients and that predicted for healthy Brazilians (512 m and 534 m, respectively; p = 0.14). During the 6MWT, there was no significant drop in SpO2. Mean MIP and MEP were normal (72.9 ± 15.2% and 67.6 ± 22.2%, respectively). Comparing the patients treated with at least four courses of oral corticosteroids per year and those treated with three or fewer, we found no significant differences in MIP (p = 0.15) or MEP (p = 0.45). Our findings suggest that UCSA patients are similar to normal subjects in terms of 6MWT variables and respiratory muscle strength. The use of oral corticosteroids has no apparent impact on respiratory muscle strength.

  6. Reproducibility for Heart Rate Variability Analysis during 6-Min Walk Test in Patients with Heart Failure and Agreement between Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Lays Magalhães; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Umeda, Iracema Ioco Kikuchi; Kawauchi, Tatiana Satie; Taboada, Adriana Marques Fróes; Azevedo, Raymundo Soares; Pereira Filho, Horacio Gomes; Grupi, César José; Souza, Hayala Cristina Cavenague; Moreira, Dalmo Antônio Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a useful method to assess abnormal functioning in the autonomic nervous system and to predict cardiac events in patients with heart failure (HF). HRV measurements with heart rate monitors have been validated with an electrocardiograph in healthy subjects but not in patients with HF. We explored the reproducibility of HRV in two consecutive six-minute walk tests (6MW), 60-minute apart, using a heart rate monitor (PolarS810i) and a portable electrocardiograph (called Holter) in 50 HF patients (mean age 59 years, NYHA II, left ventricular ejection fraction ~35%). The reproducibility for each device was analysed using a paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Additionally, we assessed the agreement between the two devices based on the HRV indices at rest, during the 6MW and during recovery using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), 95% confidence intervals and Bland-Altman plots. The test-retest for the HRV analyses was reproducible using Holter and PolarS810i at rest but not during recovery. In the second 6MW, patients showed significant increases in rMSSD and walking distance. The PolarS810i measurements had remarkably high concordance correlation [0.86rates, a small effect in increasing differences between Holter and Polar in R-R intervals was observed. In conclusion, our study showed good reproducibility of HRV at rest in two consecutive 6MW using Holter and PolarS810i. Additionally, PolarS810i produced good agreements in short-term HRV indices based on Holter simultaneous recordings at rest, during the 6MW and recovery in HF patients. PMID:27936043

  7. Resting and exercise haemodynamics in relation to six-minute walk test in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Kaye, David; Borlaug, Barry A

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are characterized by functional impairment and an abnormal haemodynamic response to exercise. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) serves as a standardized test for functional capacity quantification in heart failure patients, a...

  8. MRC chronic Dyspnea Scale: Relationships with cardiopulmonary exercise testing and 6-minute walk test in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manali, Effrosyni D; Lyberopoulos, Panagiotis; Triantafillidou, Christina; Kolilekas, Likourgos F; Sotiropoulou, Christina; Milic-Emili, Joseph; Roussos, Charis; Papiris, Spyros A

    2010-05-28

    Exertional dyspnea is the most prominent and disabling feature in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The Medical Research Chronic (MRC) chronic dyspnea score as well as physiological measurements obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) are shown to provide information on the severity and survival of disease. We prospectively recruited IPF patients and examined the relationship between the MRC score and either CPET or 6MWT parameters known to reflect physiologic derangements limiting exercise capacity in IPF patients Twenty-five patients with IPF were included in the study. Significant correlations were found between the MRC score and the distance (r = -.781, p MRC score and VO2 peak/kg (r = -.731, p MRC is the distance walked at the 6MWT. In this population of IPF patients a good correlation was found between the MRC chronic dyspnoea score and physiological parameters obtained during maximal and submaximal exercise testing known to reflect ventilatory impairment and exercise limitation as well as disease severity and survival. This finding is described for the first time in the literature in this group of patients as far as we know and could explain why a simple chronic dyspnea score provides reliable prognostic information on IPF.

  9. Multimodel inference applied to oxygen recovery kinetics after 6-min walk tests in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baty, Florent; Ritz, Christian; Jensen, Signe Marie

    2017-01-01

    6-min walk tests (6MWT) are routinely performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) kinetics during 6MWT can be modeled and derived parameters provide indicators of patients' exercise capacity. Post-exercise [Formula: see text] recovery...... also provides important parameters of patients' fitness which has not been extensively investigated in COPD. Several nonlinear regression models with different underlying biological assumptions may be suitable for describing recovery kinetics. Multimodel inference (model averaging) can then be used...... to capture the uncertainty in considering several models. Our aim was to apply multimodel inference in order to better understand the physiological underpinnings of [Formula: see text] recovery after 6MWT in patients with COPD. 61 patients with COPD (stages 2 to 4) were included in this study. Oxygen...

  10. Reference values for the incremental shuttle walk test in patients with cardiovascular disease entering exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernando M F; Almodhy, Meshal; Pepera, Garyfalia; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios M; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2017-01-01

    The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is used to assess functional capacity of patients entering cardiac rehabilitation. Factors such as age and sex account for a proportion of the variance in test performance in healthy individuals but there are no reference values for patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to produce reference values for the ISWT. Participants were n = 548 patients referred to outpatient cardiac rehabilitation who underwent a clinical examination and performed the ISWT. We used regression to identify predictors of performance and produced centile values using the generalised additive model for location, scale and shape model. Men walked significantly further than women (395 ± 165 vs. 269 ± 118 m; t = 9.5, P < 0.001) so data were analysed separately by sex. Age (years) was the strongest predictor of performance in men (β = -5.9; 95% CI: -7.1 to -4.6 m) and women (β = -4.8; 95% CI: -6.3 to 3.3). Centile curves demonstrated a broadly linear decrease in expected ISWT values in males (25-85 years) and a more curvilinear trend in females. Patients entering cardiac rehabilitation present with highly heterogeneous ISWT values. Much of the variance in performance can be explained by patients' age and sex. Comparing absolute values with age-and sex-specific reference values may aid interpretation of ISWT performance during initial patient assessment at entry to cardiac rehabilitation.

  11. Cardiac Rehabilitation Increases the Reliability of the 6-Minute Walk Test in Patients After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayta, Emrulah; Korkmaz, Özge

    2017-12-07

    Few data are available on the capacity for functional exercise after cardiac rehabilitation in patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical and biochemical factors that affect the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) results in patients who have undergone CABG. Data were prospectively collected from 56 patients consecutively admitted at our hospital between January 2013 and May 2015 for a 3-month cardiac rehabilitation program. Data were analysed retrospectively up to 90 days after cardiac surgery. In addition to clinical and biochemical parameters, the functional capacity of patients was evaluated by an exercise 6-minute walking test and echocardiography. Functional capacity was evaluated at baseline and after three months of cardiac rehabilitation. Results: Before cardiac rehabilitation, the 6MWT values were negatively correlated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and abdominal and buttock diameters (r = -0.375, -0.386, and -0.370, respectively; P < .05), and were positively correlated with metabolic equivalent (MET) values (r = 0.493, P < .05). After cardiac rehabilitation, the 6MWT values were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and abdominal and buttock diameters (r = -0.382, -0.274, and -0.405, respectively; P < .05) and were positively correlated with MET and VO2 max values (r = 0.456 and 0.573, respectively; P < 0.05). Before cardiac rehabilitation, VO2 max and FEV1/FEVC values were found as factors that significantly increased 6MWT values (P < .05). After cardiac rehabilitation, VO2 max values were found as factors that significantly increased 6MWT values (P < .05). Overall, in current clinical settings, cardiac rehabilitation increases the reliability of the 6MWT. Improvement in pulmonary function after cardiac rehabilitation reduces the impact of pulmonary function on 6MWT values. The functional capacity of patients may be more reliably determined by 6MWT after cardiac

  12. Stamina pistilloida, the Pea ortholog of Fim and UFO, is required for normal development of flowers, inflorescences, and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S; Hofer, J; Murfet, I

    2001-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of two severe alleles at the Stamina pistilloida (Stp) locus reveals that Stp is involved in a wide range of developmental processes in the garden pea. The most severe allele, stp-4, results in flowers consisting almost entirely of sepals and carpels. Production of ectopic secondary flowers in stp-4 plants suggests that Stp is involved in specifying floral meristem identity in pea. The stp mutations also reduce the complexity of the compound pea leaf, and primary inflorescences often terminate prematurely in an aberrant sepaloid flower. In addition, stp mutants were shorter than their wild-type siblings due to a reduction in cell number in their internodes. Fewer cells were also found in the epidermis of the leaf rachis of stp mutants. Examination of the effects of stp-4 in double mutant combinations with af, tl, det, and veg2-2-mutations known to influence leaf, inflorescence, and flower development in pea-suggests that Stp function is independent of these genes. A synergistic interaction between weak mutant alleles at Stp and Uni indicated that these two genes act together, possibly to regulate primordial growth. Molecular analysis revealed that Stp is the pea homolog of the Antirrhinum gene Fimbriata (Fim) and of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Differences between Fim/UFO and Stp mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggest that expansion of Stp activity into the leaf was an important step during evolution of the compound leaf in the garden pea.

  13. Burst Speed of Wild Fishes under High-Velocity Flow Conditions Using Stamina Tunnel with Natural Guidance System in River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Mattashi; Yamamoto, Yasuyuki; Yataya, Kenichi; Kamiyama, Kohhei

    Swimming experiments were conducted on wild fishes in a natural guidance system stamina tunnel (cylindrical pipe) installed in a fishway of a local river under high-velocity flow conditions (tunnel flow velocity : 211 to 279 cm·s-1). In this study, the swimming characteristics of fishes were observed. The results show that (1) the swimming speeds of Tribolodon hakonensis (Japanese dace), Phoxinus lagowshi steindachneri (Japanese fat-minnow), Plecoglossus altivelis (Ayu), and Zacco platypus (Pale chub) were in proportion to their body length under identical water flow velocity conditions; (2) the maximum burst speed of Japanese dace and Japanese fat-minnow (measuring 4 to 6 cm in length) was 262 to 319 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (225 to 230 cm·s-1), while the maximum burst speed of Ayu and Pale chub (measuring 5 cm to 12 cm in length) was 308 to 355 cm·s-1 under high flow velocity conditions (264 to 273 cm·s-1) ; (3) the 50cm-maximum swimming speed of swimming fishes was 1.07 times faster than the pipe-swimming speed; (4) the faster the flow velocity, the shorter the swimming distance became.

  14. Walk a Mile in My Shoes: Stakeholder Accounts of Testing Experience with a Computer-Administered Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Janna; Cheng, Liying

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the trend to elicit multiple stakeholder responses to operational tests as part of test validation, this exploratory mixed methods study examines test-taker accounts of an Internet-based (i.e., computer-administered) test in the high-stakes context of proficiency testing for university admission. In 2013, as language testing…

  15. The 10m incremental shuttle walk test is a highly reliable field exercise test for patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation: a retest reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lisa C; Taylor, Nicholas F; McBurney, Helen

    2016-09-01

    To determine the retest reliability of the 10m incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in a mixed cardiac rehabilitation population. Participants completed two 10m ISWTs in a single session in a repeated measures study. Ten participants completed a third 10m ISWT as part of a pilot study. Hospital physiotherapy department. 62 adults aged a mean of 68 years (SD 10) referred to a cardiac rehabilitation program. Retest reliability of the 10m ISWT expressed as relative reliability and measurement error. Relative reliability was expressed in a ratio in the form of an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and measurement error in the form of the standard error of measurement (SEM) and 95% confidence intervals for the group and individual. There was a high level of relative reliability over the two walks with an ICC of .99. The SEMagreement was 17m, and a change of at least 23m for the group and 54m for the individual would be required to be 95% confident of exceeding measurement error. The 10m ISWT demonstrated good retest reliability and is sufficiently reliable to be applied in practice in this population without the use of a practice test. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiorespiratory Responses and Prediction of Peak Oxygen Uptake during the Shuttle Walking Test in Healthy Sedentary Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Camila D. C.; Lacerda, Ana Cristina Rodrigues; Lage, Vanessa K. S.; Lima, Liliana P.; Fonseca, Sueli F.; de Avelar, Núbia C. P.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Mendonça, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The application of the Shuttle Walking Test (SWT) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and the intensity of this test in healthy participants has rarely been studied. This study aimed to assess and correlate the cardiorespiratory responses of the SWT with the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CEPT) and to develop a regression equation for the prediction of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) in healthy sedentary adult men. Methods In the first stage of this study, 12 participants underwent the SWT and the CEPT on a treadmill. In the second stage, 53 participants underwent the SWT twice. In both phases, the VO2 peak, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Results Similar results in VO2 peak (P>0.05), R peak (P>0.05) and predicted maximum HR (P>0.05) were obtained between the SWT and CEPT. Both tests showed strong and significant correlations of VO2 peak (r = 0.704, P = 0.01) and R peak (r = 0.737, P0.05) was found. Conclusions The SWT produced maximal cardiorespiratory responses comparable to the CEPT, and the developed equation showed viability for the prediction of VO2 peak in healthy sedentary men. PMID:25659094

  17. The Feasibility and Validity of Body-Worn Sensors to Supplement Timed Walking Tests for Children with Neurological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarajah, Lavan; Kane, Kyra J; Lanovaz, Joel; Bisaro, Derek; Oates, Alison; Ye, Ming; Musselman, Kristin E

    2018-08-01

    The 10-meter walk test (10 mWT) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) are assessments of speed/time with a ceiling effect in pediatric populations. This study aimed to (1) determine whether collecting spatiotemporal data with inertial sensors (Mobility Lab, APDM Inc.) during these tests improves their discriminative validity, and (2) evaluate the clinical feasibility of Mobility Lab. Fifteen children with spina bifida (SB) or cerebral palsy (CP) (7.9 ± 3.1 years old) and fifteen age- and sex-matched typically-developing (TD) children completed the 10 mWT and TUG wearing Mobility Lab. Spatiotemporal data were compared between groups. Mobility Lab's potential to distinguish children with SB/CP from TD children was examined using conditional logistic regression. Feasibility was evaluated through participant adherence and a clinical utility scale. For the 10 mWT, group differences (p Children with SB/CP took significantly longer to turn during the TUG. These five variables together distinguished the two groups (p = 0.006). 78% of participants with SB/CP completed the testing protocol. Mobility Lab scored 4/10 on the clinical utility scale. Instrumenting the 10 mWT and TUG improves the tests' ability to discriminate between children with SB/CP and TD children.

  18. Confiabilidade do teste da caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com miastenia gravis generalizada Reliability of the six-minute walk test in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regiane Resqueti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou determinar a confiabilidade do teste da caminhada de seis minutos (TC6M como um teste de capacidade funcional em pacientes com miastenia gravis generalizada (MG. Foram selecionados 11 pacientes com MG - 5 homens, 6 mulheres - com idade de 55±9 anos, avaliados inicialmente quanto à função fulmonar, que se submeteram a três TC6M em dias diferentes. Durante e/ou após cada teste foram medidas freqüência cardíaca e saturação de oxigênio (por oxímetro portátil, sensação de dispnéia (pela escala de Borg e distância percorrida. Nos três testes as distâncias percorridas foram 498 m, 517 m e 520 m (respectivamente 99%, 103% e 104% do valor predito. Em média, a freqüência cardíaca, dispnéia e saturação de oxigênio mostraram comportamento constante nos três testes. Foram encontradas alta confiabilidade relativa, com coeficiente de correlação interclasse maior que 0,90 entre os testes (TC6M1-TC6M2, 0,960; TC6M1-TC6M3, 0,945; e TC6M2-TC6M3, 0,970 e confiabilidade absoluta de 4%, 3,5% e 4,8%, com reprodutibilidade de 11%, 9,8% e 13,4%, respectivamente para o primeiro, segundo e terceiro testes. Os limites superiores e inferiores de concordância e o valor médio das médias das diferenças (bias calculados pelo teste de Bland-Altman mostraram-se clinicamente aceitáveis. Conclui-se que o TC6M se mostrou seguro, confiável e reprodutível, podendo ser aplicado para avaliação e seguimento da tolerância ao exercício em pacientes com MG generalizada.The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the six minutes walking test (6MWT as a functional capacity test for patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (MG. Eleven patients with generalized MG (5 men, six women, aged 55±9 years, were first assessed as to pulmonary function and then submitted to three 6MWT in different days. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were measured (by means of portable oxymeter during, and dyspnea (by the Borg scale and

  19. MRC chronic Dyspnea Scale: Relationships with cardiopulmonary exercise testing and 6-minute walk test in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Exertional dyspnea is the most prominent and disabling feature in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The Medical Research Chronic (MRC) chronic dyspnea score as well as physiological measurements obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) are shown to provide information on the severity and survival of disease. Methods We prospectively recruited IPF patients and examined the relationship between the MRC score and either CPET or 6MWT parameters known to reflect physiologic derangements limiting exercise capacity in IPF patients Results Twenty-five patients with IPF were included in the study. Significant correlations were found between the MRC score and the distance (r = -.781, p dyspnea score provides reliable prognostic information on IPF. PMID:20509928

  20. Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary limb modifications must be integrated with basic walking patterns during visually guided walking. Here we tested whether voluntary gait modifications can become more automatic with practice. We challenged walking control by presenting visual stepping targets that instructed subjects...... visually guided walking....

  1. Sf36 physical functioning scale and 2-minute walk test advocated as core qualifiers to evaluate physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swuste, J.M.; Beelen, J.A.J.M.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Nollet, F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To select a questionnaire and walking capacity test based on comparison of clinimetric properties and mutual association to be used as "core" qualifiers for physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. Design: Repeated-measures at 3-week intervals. Subjects:

  2. SF36 physical functioning scale and 2-minute walk test advocated as core qualifiers to evaluate physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke M.; Beelen, Anita; Lankhorst, Gustaaf J.; Nollet, Frans; Stolwijk-Swüste, J. M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; Dekker, J.; van Dijk, G. M.; van den Ende, C. H. M.; Post, B.; de Haan, R. J.; Speelman, H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To select a questionnaire and walking capacity test based on comparison of clinimetric properties and mutual association to be used as "core" qualifiers for physical functioning in patients with late-onset sequelae of poliomyelitis. DESIGN: Repeated-measures at 3-week intervals. SUBJECTS:

  3. Pilot Field Test: Results of Tandem Walk Performance Following Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerisano, J. M.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated locomotion has proven to be challenging for many astronauts following long duration spaceflight. As NASA's vision for spaceflight points toward interplanetary travel and missions to distant objects, astronauts will not have assistance once they land. Thus, it is vital to develop a knowledge base from which operational guidelines can be written that define when astronauts can be expected to safely perform certain tasks. Data obtained during the Field Test experiment will add important insight to this knowledge base. Specifically, we aim to develop a recovery timeline of functional sensorimotor performance during the first 24 hours and several days after landing. A forerunner of the full Field Test study, the Pilot Field Test (PFT) comprised a subset of the tasks and measurements to be included in the ultimate set.

  4. A Case Study on the Walking Speed of Pedestrian at the Bus Terminal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Mohamad Ali, Mohd; Salleh Abustan, Muhamad; Hidayah Abu Talib, Siti; Abustan, Ismail; Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd; Gotoh, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    Walking speed is one of the factors in understanding the pedestrian walking behaviours. Every pedestrian has different level of walking speed that are regulated by some factors such as gender and age. This study was conducted at a bus terminal area with two objectives in which the first one was to determine the average walking speed of pedestrian by considering the factors of age, gender, people with and without carrying baggage; and the second one was to make a comparison of the average walking speed that considered age as the factor of comparison between pedestrian at the bus terminal area and crosswalk. Demographic factor of pedestrian walking speed in this study are gender and age consist of male, female, and 7 groups of age categories that are children, adult men and women, senior adult men and women, over 70 and disabled person. Data of experiment was obtained by making a video recording of the movement of people that were walking and roaming around at the main lobby for 45 minutes by using a camcorder. Hence, data analysis was done by using software named Human Behaviour Simulator (HBS) for analysing the data extracted from the video. The result of this study was male pedestrian walked faster than female with the average of walking speed 1.13m/s and 1.07m/s respectively. Averagely, pedestrian that walked without carrying baggage had higher walking speed compared to pedestrian that were carrying baggage with the speed of 1.02m/s and 0.70m/s respectively. Male pedestrian walks faster than female because they have higher level of stamina and they are mostly taller than female pedestrian. Furthermore, pedestrian with baggage walks slower because baggage will cause distractions such as pedestrian will have more weight to carry and people tend to walk slower.

  5. MRC chronic Dyspnea Scale: Relationships with cardiopulmonary exercise testing and 6-minute walk test in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussos Charis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exertional dyspnea is the most prominent and disabling feature in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. The Medical Research Chronic (MRC chronic dyspnea score as well as physiological measurements obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT are shown to provide information on the severity and survival of disease. Methods We prospectively recruited IPF patients and examined the relationship between the MRC score and either CPET or 6MWT parameters known to reflect physiologic derangements limiting exercise capacity in IPF patients Results Twenty-five patients with IPF were included in the study. Significant correlations were found between the MRC score and the distance (r = -.781, p 2 at the initiation and the end (r = -.542, p = 0.005 and r = -.713, p VO2 peak/kg (r = -.731, p 2 at peak exercise (r = -. 682, p 2 slope (r = .731, p 2 at AT (r = .630, p = 0.002 and the Borg scale at peak exercise (r = .50, p = 0.01 for the CPET. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the only variable independently related to the MRC is the distance walked at the 6MWT. Conclusion In this population of IPF patients a good correlation was found between the MRC chronic dyspnoea score and physiological parameters obtained during maximal and submaximal exercise testing known to reflect ventilatory impairment and exercise limitation as well as disease severity and survival. This finding is described for the first time in the literature in this group of patients as far as we know and could explain why a simple chronic dyspnea score provides reliable prognostic information on IPF.

  6. Testing for multigroup equivalence of a measuring instrument: a walk through the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Barbara M

    2008-11-01

    This article presents an overview and application of the steps taken in testing for the equivalence of a measuring instrument across one or more groups. Following a basic description of, and rationale underlying these steps, the process is illustrated with data comprising response scores to four nonacademic subscales (Physical SC [Ability], Physical SC [Appearance], Social SC [Peers], and Social SC [Parents]) of the Self Description Questionnaire-I for Australian (N = 497) and Nigerian (N = 439) adolescents. All tests for validity and equivalence are based on the analysis of covariance structures within the framework of CFA models using the EQS 6 program. Prospective impediments to equivalence are suggested and additional caveats proposed in the special case where the groups under study represent different cultures.

  7. Respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function in children with rhinitis and asthma after a six-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Alice de Almeida; Barros, Camila Moraes; Santos, Cássia Giulliane Costa; Dos Santos, Maria Renata Aragão; Silva, José Rodrigo Santos; Silva Junior, Walderi Monteiro da; Simões, Silvia de Magalhães

    2018-03-01

    Rhinitis and asthma decrease quality of life. Few studies have assessed the performance of children with asthma or rhinitis under submaximal exercise. We evaluated maximal respiratory pressures, spirometric parameters, and ability to sustain submaximal exercise in these children before and after the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), compared to healthy children. This cross-sectional, analytical study included 89 children aged 6-12 years in outpatient follow-up: 27 healthy (H), 31 with rhinitis (R), and 31 with mild asthma under control (A). Pulmonary function parameters and maximal respiratory pressures were measured before and 5, 10, and 30 minutes after the 6MWT. Wilcoxon test was used to compare numerical numerical variables between two groups and analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison among three groups. Total distance traveled in the 6MWT was similar among the three groups. Compared to pre-test values, VEF1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second), VEF0.75 (Forced Expiratory Volume in 0.75 second), and FEF25-75 (Forced Expiratory Flow 25-75% of the Forced Vital Capacity - CVF - curve) decreased significantly after the 6MWT in group A, and VEF0.75, FEF25-75, and VEF1/CVF decreased significantly in group R. Groups A and R had lower Maximum Inspiratory Pressure values than group H before and after the 6MWT at all time points assessed. The findings suggest that children with rhinitis and mild asthma present with alterations in respiratory muscle strength and pulmonary function not associated with clinical complaints, reinforcing the concept of the united airways.

  8. Noninvasive Assessment of Neuromuscular Disease in Dogs: Use of the 6-minute Walk Test to Assess Submaximal Exercise Tolerance in Dogs with Centronuclear Myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda-Gonzalez, S; Talarico, L; Todhunter, R

    2016-05-01

    Noninvasive methods of quantitating exercise tolerance in dogs with neuromuscular disease are needed both for clinical and research use. The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) has been validated as a reliable test of exercise tolerance in dogs with pulmonary and cardiac disease, but not in dogs with neuromuscular disease. Distance walked and number of steps taken during 6MWT will differ between Labrador retriever dogs with centronuclear myopathy (CNM) and control (ie, healthy) littermates. Eight purebred Labrador retrievers were drawn from a purpose-bred research colony (status: 3 clear, 2 carrier, and 3 homozygous mutants for the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like A (PTPLA) gene mutation associated with CNM). Pilot, prospective, Case-controlled study. Researchers were blinded to disease status. Each dog was leash-trained and acclimatized to the testing area (length, 12.8 m). At the start of testing, each animal was fitted with a pedometer, a timer was started, and dogs were allowed to walk at their own pace for 6 minutes. Distance walked and pedometer readings were recorded. Degree of paresis varied among affected dogs, and was reflected by significant differences in distance walked between CNM-affected dogs and those with clear and carrier genotypes (P = .048). Pedometer readings did not vary according to genotype (P = .86). The 6MWT appears to differentiate between the ambulatory capacity of normal and CNM-affected dogs. Additional studies are needed to confirm this relationship in a larger number of dogs, and to evaluate the ability of the 6MWT to differentiate between dogs with variable severity of neuromuscular disease-associated exercise intolerance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Evaluation of functional capacity of elderly through the test of six-minute walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Macedo de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a capacidade funcional de idosos praticantes de atividade física por meio do teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6. Método: Estudo exploratório de abordagem quantitativa, com 40 idosos atendidos no Centro de Atenção à Saúde do Idoso (CASI, de Piripiri (PI. Foi calculada a distância prevista por meio de dados antropométricos e foi aplicado o TC6 para identificar a distância real percorrida. Resultados: Os achados apontaram que a maioria dos participantes era do sexo feminino, com 66 a 70 anos, casados, renda de um salário mínimo, baixa escolaridade. Os indivíduos considerados hipertensos e diabéticos apresentaram valor percorrido menor do que os indivíduos sem a patologia. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a distância média prevista e a distância média percorrida. Conclusão: Os idosos que praticam atividade física apresentaram um nível de capacidade funcional satisfatória conforme mostraram os valores das distâncias percorridas no teste de caminhada de seis minutos. Descritores: Idoso, Aptidão física, Funcionalidade.

  10. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  11. Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  12. Integrated method development of general and special students stamina involved in the fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Alekseev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : testing the effectiveness of methods of development of general and special endurance cadets wrestlers. Material : the experiment was attended by 20 students aged 18-20 years (10-12 years experience of employment, qualifications - candidates for the master of sports and master of sports. Classes are held 10 times a week, lasting for 120 minutes. Results : the developed methodology based on the application of a special set of exercises. Technique promotes rapid increase endurance level students. The directions of increasing endurance and performance of students. As an exercise for the development of general endurance recommended: motocross race, gymnastics, sports (rugby, soccer. As an exercise for the development of special endurance recommended: Attempted partner with high intensity (8-9 shots in 10 seconds Perform five series, consisting of 5 spurts (the maximum number of shots in 10 seconds And run shots at a moderate pace (4 -5 throws for 10 seconds ; training and educational training bout, fight quadruples (fight lasts until the transition to the fight lying down or throw up. Conclusions : the increase in special endurance cadets should be in parallel with the improvement of overall fitness.

  13. Prediction of gross motor development and independent walking in infants born very preterm using the Test of Infant Motor Performance and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuysink, Jacqueline; van Haastert, Ingrid C; Eijsermans, Maria J C; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; Helders, Paul J M; de Vries, Linda S; van der Net, Janjaap

    2013-09-01

    One objective of a neonatal follow-up program is to examine and predict gross motor outcome of infants born preterm. To assess the concurrent validity of the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS), the ability to predict gross motor outcome around 15 months corrected age (CA), and to explore factors associated with the age of independent walking. 95 infants, born at a gestational age motor outcome at 15 months CA. The AIMS-scores at 6 months CA predicted the AIMS-scores at 15 months CA with an explained variance of 19%. Median walking age was 15.7 months CA, with which only the hazard ratio of the AIMS at 6 months CA and ethnicity were significantly associated. Prediction of gross motor development at 15 months CA and independent walking was not possible prior to 6 months CA using the AIMS, with restricted predictive value. Cultural and infant factors seem to influence the onset of independent walking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Haemodynamic effects of dual-chamber pacing versus ventricular pacing during a walk test in patients with depressed or normal left ventricular function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Adele; Salvatore, Marco; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimages of the National Council of Research, Naples (Italy); Duilio, Carlo; Santomauro, Maurizio [University Federico II, Department of Clinical Medicine, Cardiovascular and Immunological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    Dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing provides haemodynamic benefits compared with ventricular pacing at rest, but it is unclear whether this also holds true during physical exercise in patients with heart failure. This study assessed the haemodynamic response to a walk test during dual-chamber pacing and ventricular pacing in patients with depressed or normal left ventricular (LV) function. Twelve patients with an LV ejection fraction <50% and 11 patients with an LV ejection fraction {>=}50% underwent two randomised 6-min walk tests under dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing and ventricular pacing at a fixed rate of 70 beats/min. All patients had a dual-chamber pacemaker implanted for complete heart block. LV function was monitored by a radionuclide ambulatory system. In patients with depressed LV function, the change from dual-chamber pacing to ventricular pacing induced a decrease in end-systolic volume at the peak of the walk test (P<0.05), with no difference in end-diastolic volume. As a consequence, higher increases in LV ejection fraction (P<0.0001) and stroke volume (P<0.01) were observed during ventricular pacing. No difference in cardiac output was found between the two pacing modes. In patients with normal LV function, the change from dual-chamber pacing to ventricular pacing induced a significant decrease in cardiac output (P<0.005 at rest and P<0.05 at the peak of the walk test). Compared with dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing, ventricular pacing improves cardiac function and does not affect cardiac output during physical activity in patients with depressed LV function, whereas it impairs cardiac output in those with normal function. (orig.)

  15. Correlation of 6-min walk test with left ventricular function and quality of life in heart failure due to Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambela, Mayara C; Mediano, Mauro F F; Ferreira, Roberto R; Japiassú, André M; Waghabi, Mariana C; da Silva, Gilberto M S; Saraiva, Roberto M

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the correlation of the total distance walked during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) with left ventricular function and quality of life in patients with Chagas Disease (ChD) complicated by heart failure. This is a cross-sectional study of adult patients with ChD and heart failure diagnosed based on Framingham criteria. 6MWT was performed following international guidelines. New York Heart Association functional class, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) serum levels, echocardiographic parameters and quality of life (SF-36 and MLHFQ questionnaires) were determined and their correlation with the distance covered at the 6MWT was tested. Forty adult patients (19 male; 60 ± 12 years old) with ChD and heart failure were included in this study. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 35 ± 12%. Only two patients (5%) ceased walking before 6 min had elapsed. There were no cardiac events during the test. The average distance covered was 337 ± 105 metres. The distance covered presented a negative correlation with BNP (r = -0.37; P = 0.02), MLHFQ quality-of-life score (r = -0.54; P = 0.002), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (r = -0.42; P = 0.02) and the degree of diastolic dysfunction (r = -0.36; P = 0.03) and mitral regurgitation (r = -0.53; P = 0.0006) and positive correlation with several domains of the SF-36 questionnaire. The distance walked during the 6MWT correlates with BNP, quality of life and parameters of left ventricular diastolic function in ChD patients with heart failure. We propose this test to be adopted in endemic areas with limited resources to aid in the identification of patients who need referral for tertiary centres for further evaluation and treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gender disparity of changes in heart rate during the six-minute walk test among patients with chronic obstructive airway disease

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeil Alibakhshi; Luis Lores Obradors; Raffaele Fiorillo; Mostafa Ghaneii; Ali Qazvini

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. Clarify; COPD is the fifth leading cause of death and disease burden globally. Aims The purpose of this study is to compare the gender disparity of changes in heart rate during 6-minute walk test (6MWT) among patients with chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD). We also aimed to assess the relationship between change in heart rate and body mas...

  17. Haemodynamic effects of dual-chamber pacing versus ventricular pacing during a walk test in patients with depressed or normal left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Adele; Salvatore, Marco; Cuocolo, Alberto; Duilio, Carlo; Santomauro, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing provides haemodynamic benefits compared with ventricular pacing at rest, but it is unclear whether this also holds true during physical exercise in patients with heart failure. This study assessed the haemodynamic response to a walk test during dual-chamber pacing and ventricular pacing in patients with depressed or normal left ventricular (LV) function. Twelve patients with an LV ejection fraction <50% and 11 patients with an LV ejection fraction ≥50% underwent two randomised 6-min walk tests under dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing and ventricular pacing at a fixed rate of 70 beats/min. All patients had a dual-chamber pacemaker implanted for complete heart block. LV function was monitored by a radionuclide ambulatory system. In patients with depressed LV function, the change from dual-chamber pacing to ventricular pacing induced a decrease in end-systolic volume at the peak of the walk test (P<0.05), with no difference in end-diastolic volume. As a consequence, higher increases in LV ejection fraction (P<0.0001) and stroke volume (P<0.01) were observed during ventricular pacing. No difference in cardiac output was found between the two pacing modes. In patients with normal LV function, the change from dual-chamber pacing to ventricular pacing induced a significant decrease in cardiac output (P<0.005 at rest and P<0.05 at the peak of the walk test). Compared with dual-chamber rate-modulated pacing, ventricular pacing improves cardiac function and does not affect cardiac output during physical activity in patients with depressed LV function, whereas it impairs cardiac output in those with normal function. (orig.)

  18. Random walk polynomials and random walk measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.; Schrijner, Pauline

    1993-01-01

    Random walk polynomials and random walk measures play a prominent role in the analysis of a class of Markov chains called random walks. Without any reference to random walks, however, a random walk polynomial sequence can be defined (and will be defined in this paper) as a polynomial sequence{Pn(x)}

  19. Updated assessment of the six-minute walk test as predictor of acute radiation-induced pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingfang; Zhang, Junan; Zhou, Sumin; Das, Shiva; Hollis, Donna R; Folz, Rodney J; Wong, Terence Z; Marks, Lawrence B

    2007-03-01

    To assess the utility of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as a predictor of symptomatic radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP). As part of a prospective trial to study radiation-induced lung injury, 53 patients receiving thoracic radiotherapy (RT) underwent a pre-RT 6MWT, pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and had >or=3-month follow-up for prospective assessment of Grade 2 or worse RP (requiring medications or worse). Dosimetric parameters (e.g., the percentage of lung receiving >or=30 Gy) were extracted from the lung dose-volume histogram. The correlations between the 6MWT and PFT results were assessed using Pearson's correlation. The receiver operating characteristic technique was used in patient subgroups to evaluate the predictive capacities for RP of the dosimetric parameters, 6MWT results, and PFT results, or the combination (using discriminant analysis) of all three metrics. ROCKIT software was used to compare the receiver operating characteristic areas between each predictive model. The association of the decline in 6MWT with the development of RP was evaluated using Fisher's exact test. The pre-RT PFT and 6MWT results correlated weakly (r = 0.44-0.57, p or=30 Gy, receiver operating characteristic area 0.73, p = 0.03). Including the PFT or 6MWT results with the percentage of lung receiving >or=30 Gy did not improve the predictions. The predictive abilities of dosimetric-based models improved when the analysis was restricted to those patients whose tumors were not causing regional lung dysfunction. No correlation was found between the decline in the 6MWT result and the RP rate (p = 0.6). Although the PFTs and 6MWT are related to each other, the correlation coefficients were weak, suggesting that they could be measuring different physiologic functions. In the present data set, the addition of the PFTs or 6MWT did not increase the ability of the dosimetric parameters to predict for acute symptomatic RP. Additional work is needed to better understand the interaction

  20. An Evaluation of Prediction Equations for the 6 Minute Walk Test in Healthy European Adults Aged 50-85 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Mota, Jorge; Carvalho, Joana; Nevill, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    This study compared actual 6 minute walk test (6MWT) performance with predicted 6MWT using previously validated equations and then determined whether allometric modelling offers a sounder alternative to estimating 6MWT in adults aged 50-80 years. We compared actual 6MWT performance against predicted 6MWT in 125 adults aged 50-85 years (62 male, 63 female). In a second sample of 246 adults aged 50-85 years (74 male, 172 female), a new prediction equation for 6MWT performance was developed using allometric modelling. This equation was then cross validated using the same sample that the other prediction equations were compared with. Significant relationships were evident between 6MWT actual and 6MWT predicted using all of the commonly available prediction equations (all Pequation (P>0.05). A series of paired t-tests indicated significant differences between 6MWT actual and 6MWT predicted for all available prediction equations (all Pequation (P = .540). The Iwama et al equation also had similar bias (79.8m) and a coefficient of variation of over 15%. Using sample 2, a log-linear model significantly predicted 6MWT from the log of body mass and height and age (P = 0.001, adjusted R2 = .526), predicting 52.6% of the variance in actual 6MWT. When this allometric equation was applied to the original sample, the relationship between 6MWT actual and 6MWT predicted was in excess of values reported for the other previously validated prediction equations (r = .706, P = 0.001). There was a significant difference between actual 6MWT and 6MWT predicted using this new equation (P = 0.001) but the bias, standard deviation of differences and coefficient of variation were all less than for the other equations. Where actual assessment of the 6MWT is not possible, the allometrically derived equation presented in the current study, offers a viable alternative which has been cross validated and has the least SD of differences and smallest coefficient of variation compared to any of the

  1. RIVERSIDE WALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández Marmisole

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, and as part of the Neighborhood Law (Ley de Barrios of Catalonia there is a strategic plan to integrate neighborhoods Baró de Viver and Bon Pastor in the city of Barcelona. The guidelines of the plan are to improve public space and to better connect neighborhoods to each other and the adjoining districts and municipalities. Within the strategy includes opening the Besos River to the urban territory through green corridors and installation of equipment. In this sense, the argument is to provide qualified public space to encourage the urban cohesiveness of the neighborhoods through the creation of a new Riverside Walk. The project consists in converting an urban highway into a pacified walk. The stroll also attempts to pacify the area by removing the visual and acoustic pollution caused by the Ronda Litoral (Highway next to the Besos River. In response to this problem the project consists in covering the Ronda Litoral, creating 1.5km of qualified public space, where a set of vegetation and the generation of sun areas will create different spaces that invigorate the territory and connect the neighborhoods. The platform covering the Ronda Litoral includes peaceful meetings with each and every one of the streets that are right with it. The Riverside Walk will be found within less than 400m from 4 metro stations and will have three pedestrian walkways as an access to Barcelona from the neighboring municipality of Santa Coloma. The installation of common equipment, to be shared by the two neighborhoods in the central part of the Riverside Walk is a guiding principle of the integrated strategy. Within the guidelines of the plan for the area of Ley de Barrios lies the importance of public participation; in that sense it is contemplated a participatory process from the initial design phase of the stroll, where subject for debate, reflection and proposal neighbors will design the walk and their equipment. The process will contemplate since the

  2. Long-term impact of pre-operative physical rehabilitation protocol on the 6-min walk test of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.L. dos Santos Alves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monitored physical activities in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS have been shown to improve physical performance, endurance and cardiopulmonary function and may be assessed by the 6-min walk test (6MWT. We aimed to evaluate the long-term results of the 6MWT after a rehabilitation protocol employed before surgical correction for AIS. Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial studied the impact of a 4-month pre-operative physical rehabilitation protocol on post-operative cardiopulmonary function and physical endurance, by using the 6MWT, in patients with AIS submitted to surgical correction, comparing them to matched controls without physical rehabilitation. Studied variables were heart and respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral blood oxygen saturation, Borg score, and distance walked. Patients were assessed at baseline, after 4 months of rehabilitation, and 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. Results: A total of 50 patients with AIS were included in the study and allocated blindly, by simple randomization, into either one of the two groups, with 25 patients each: study group (pre-operative physical rehabilitation and control group. The physical rehabilitation protocol promoted significant progressive improvement in heart and respiratory rate, peripheral blood oxygen saturation, distance walked, and level of effort assessed by the Borg scale after surgery. Conclusions: Post-surgical recovery, evaluated by 6MWT, was significantly better in patients who underwent a 4-month pre-operative physical rehabilitation protocol. Keywords: Scoliosis, Exercise, Exercise movement techniques, Exercise therapy, Exercise test

  3. Toe Walking in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normally, toe walking is unlikely to be a cause for concern. Toe walking sometimes can result from certain conditions, including cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy and autism spectrum disorder. Symptoms Toe walking is walking on the toes ...

  4. Reliability and validity of heart rate variability threshold assessment during an incremental shuttle-walk test in middle-aged and older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, V.Z.; Guerra, R.L.F. [Laboratório de Estudos da Motricidade Humana, Departamento de Ciências do Movimento Humano, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    Studies on the assessment of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during walking are scarce. We determined the reliability and validity of HRVT assessment during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in healthy subjects. Thirty-one participants aged 57 ± 9 years (17 females) performed 3 ISWTs. During the 1st and 2nd ISWTs, instantaneous heart rate variability was calculated every 30 s and HRVT was measured. Walking velocity at HRVT in these tests (WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2) was registered. During the 3rd ISWT, physiological responses were assessed. The ventilatory equivalents were used to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and the WV at VT (WV-VT) was recorded. The difference between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (median and interquartile range = 4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h); the correlation between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was significant (r = 0.84); the intraclass correlation coefficient was high (0.92; 0.82 to 0.96), and the agreement was acceptable (-0.08 km/h; -0.92 to 0.87). The difference between WV-VT and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h) and the agreement was acceptable (0.04 km/h; -1.28 to 1.36). HRVT assessment during walking is a reliable measure and permits the estimation of VT in adults. We suggest the use of the ISWT for the assessment of exercise capacity in middle-aged and older adults.

  5. Reliability and validity of heart rate variability threshold assessment during an incremental shuttle-walk test in middle-aged and older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado, V.Z.; Guerra, R.L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the assessment of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) during walking are scarce. We determined the reliability and validity of HRVT assessment during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in healthy subjects. Thirty-one participants aged 57 ± 9 years (17 females) performed 3 ISWTs. During the 1st and 2nd ISWTs, instantaneous heart rate variability was calculated every 30 s and HRVT was measured. Walking velocity at HRVT in these tests (WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2) was registered. During the 3rd ISWT, physiological responses were assessed. The ventilatory equivalents were used to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and the WV at VT (WV-VT) was recorded. The difference between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (median and interquartile range = 4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h); the correlation between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was significant (r = 0.84); the intraclass correlation coefficient was high (0.92; 0.82 to 0.96), and the agreement was acceptable (-0.08 km/h; -0.92 to 0.87). The difference between WV-VT and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h) and the agreement was acceptable (0.04 km/h; -1.28 to 1.36). HRVT assessment during walking is a reliable measure and permits the estimation of VT in adults. We suggest the use of the ISWT for the assessment of exercise capacity in middle-aged and older adults

  6. Reliability and validity of heart rate variability threshold assessment during an incremental shuttle-walk test in middle-aged and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Z. Dourado

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the assessment of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT during walking are scarce. We determined the reliability and validity of HRVT assessment during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT in healthy subjects. Thirty-one participants aged 57 ± 9 years (17 females performed 3 ISWTs. During the 1st and 2nd ISWTs, instantaneous heart rate variability was calculated every 30 s and HRVT was measured. Walking velocity at HRVT in these tests (WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was registered. During the 3rd ISWT, physiological responses were assessed. The ventilatory equivalents were used to determine ventilatory threshold (VT and the WV at VT (WV-VT was recorded. The difference between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (median and interquartile range = 4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h; the correlation between WV-HRVT1 and WV-HRVT2 was significant (r = 0.84; the intraclass correlation coefficient was high (0.92; 0.82 to 0.96, and the agreement was acceptable (-0.08 km/h; -0.92 to 0.87. The difference between WV-VT and WV-HRVT2 was not statistically significant (4.8; 4.8 to 5.4 vs 4.8; 4.2 to 5.4 km/h and the agreement was acceptable (0.04 km/h; -1.28 to 1.36. HRVT assessment during walking is a reliable measure and permits the estimation of VT in adults. We suggest the use of the ISWT for the assessment of exercise capacity in middle-aged and older adults.

  7. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background With quantitative sensory testing (QST) we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet). Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep mechano-nociceptive stimuli and hypoesthesia to non-noxious cutaneous stimuli. The purpose of the present paper was to extend the group analysis into individual sensory profiles of victims’ feet to explore possible relations between external violence (torture), reported pain, sensory symptoms and QST data to help clarify the underlying mechanisms. Methods We employed interviews and assessments of the pain and sensory symptoms and QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15), or had not (n=17) been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area and stimulus dependence were used to characterize the pain. QST included thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, cold-pain, heat-pain, deep pressure pain and wind-up to cutaneous noxious stimuli. An ethnically matched control group was available.The normality criterion, from our control group data, was set as the mean +/− 1.28SD, thus including 80% of all values.QST data were transformed into three categories in relation to our normality range; hypoesthesia, normoesthesia or hyperesthesia/hyperalgesia. Results Most patients, irrespective of having been exposed to falanga or not, reported severe pain when walking. This was often associated with hyperalgesia to deep mechanical pressure. Hypoesthesia to mechanical stimuli co-occurred with numbness, burning and with deep mechanical hyperalgesia more often than not, but otherwise, a hypoesthesia to cutaneous sensory modalities did not co-occur systematically to falanga, pain or sensory symptoms. Conclusion In torture victims, there seem to be overriding mechanisms, manifested by hyperalgesia to pressure pain, which is usually

  8. Metabolic equivalents fail to indicate metabolic load in post-myocardial infarction patients during the modified Bruce treadmill walking test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf-May, K; Meadows, S; Ferrett, D; Kearney, E

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the suitability of metabolic equivalents (METs) for determining exercise intensity in phase-IV post-myocardial infarction (MI) men during the modified Bruce treadmill walking test (MBWT). Twenty phase-IV post-MI men (mean±SD, aged 64.4±5.8 years) and 20 healthy non-cardiac male controls (59.8±7.6 years) participated. Participants performed a MBWT. Throughout the participants' heart rate (HR), heart rhythm, expired air parameters and ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were measured. MET values were compared between groups and those currently ascribed to each stage of the MBWT. General linear model analysis found no significant differences between groups during the MBWT for V O 2 , V CO 2 , HR, METs or RPEs (Borg 6-20 scale). Ascribed METs did not differ from mean METs of post-MIs or controls other than at stage 5 where post-MI METs were significantly lower. Irrespective, the post-MI group worked at a higher percentage of their anaerobic threshold (AT) (respiratory exchange ratio, RER=1.0) ( F (2,5) =7.22, p<0.008), higher RER ( F (2,5) =11.25, p<0.001) with increased breathing frequency ( F (2,5) =7.22, p<0.001). Regression analysis revealed AT to be V O 2 25.6 (mL/kg/min) for post-MI versus V O 2 31.1 (mL/kg/min) for controls. Gross energy expenditure (kcal/min) was greater for the post-MI group compared with controls ( F (2,5) =11.22, p<0.001). Throughout the MBWT, post-MI group worked at a higher %AT/MET than controls ( F (2,196) =211.76, p<0.01). Body composition did not strongly influence %AT/MET, parameters of V O 2 , METs or RPE. During the MBWT, post-MI men worked more anaerobically per MET (%AT/MET) than controls. Therefore, current METs based on non-cardiac individuals appear unsuitable in determining the full metabolic load of the exercise intensity for cardiac patients during the MBWT.

  9. Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation Change Patterns During 6-min Walk Test in Subjects With Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Terada, Jiro; Yahaba, Misuzu; Kawata, Naoko; Jujo, Takayuki; Nagashima, Kengo; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-12-26

    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is commonly performed to assess functional status in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, changes in heart rate and oxygen saturation ( S pO 2 ) patterns during 6MWT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remain unclear. Thirty-one subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were retrospectively evaluated to examine the relationships between the change in heart rate (Δheart rate), heart rate acceleration time, slope of heart rate acceleration, heart rate recovery during the first minute after 6MWT (HRR1), change in S pO 2 (Δ S pO 2 ), S pO 2 reduction time, and S pO 2 recovery time during 6MWT, and the severity of pulmonary hemodynamics assessed by right heart catheterization and echocardiography. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension had significantly longer heart rate acceleration time (144.9 ± 63.9 s vs 96.0 ± 42.5 s, P = .033), lower Δheart rate (47.4 ± 16.9 vs 61.8 ± 13.6 beats, P = .02), and lower HRR1 (13.3 ± 9.0 beats vs 27.1 ± 9.2 beats, P pulmonary hypertension. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension also had significantly longer S pO 2 reduction time (178.3 ± 70.3 s vs 134.3 ± 58.4 s, P = .03) and S pO 2 recovery time (107.6 ± 35.3 s vs 69.8 ± 32.7 s, P = .004) than did subjects with mild chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed only mean pulmonary arterial pressure independently was associated with heart rate acceleration time and slope of heart rate acceleration. Heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT is predominantly associated with pulmonary hemodynamics in subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Evaluating heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT may serve a safe and convenient way to follow the change in pulmonary hemodynamics. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prip Karen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With quantitative sensory testing (QST we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet. Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep mechano-nociceptive stimuli and hypoesthesia to non-noxious cutaneous stimuli. The purpose of the present paper was to extend the group analysis into individual sensory profiles of victims’ feet to explore possible relations between external violence (torture, reported pain, sensory symptoms and QST data to help clarify the underlying mechanisms. Methods We employed interviews and assessments of the pain and sensory symptoms and QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15, or had not (n=17 been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area and stimulus dependence were used to characterize the pain. QST included thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, cold-pain, heat-pain, deep pressure pain and wind-up to cutaneous noxious stimuli. An ethnically matched control group was available.The normality criterion, from our control group data, was set as the mean +/− 1.28SD, thus including 80% of all values.QST data were transformed into three categories in relation to our normality range; hypoesthesia, normoesthesia or hyperesthesia/hyperalgesia. Results Most patients, irrespective of having been exposed to falanga or not, reported severe pain when walking. This was often associated with hyperalgesia to deep mechanical pressure. Hypoesthesia to mechanical stimuli co-occurred with numbness, burning and with deep mechanical hyperalgesia more often than not, but otherwise, a hypoesthesia to cutaneous sensory modalities did not co-occur systematically to falanga, pain or sensory symptoms. Conclusion In torture victims, there seem to be overriding mechanisms, manifested by hyperalgesia to pressure pain

  11. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics in patients with COPD during the Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab-based 6-minute walk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wai-Yan; Spruit, Martijn A; Delbressine, Jeannet M; Willems, Paul J; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Meijer, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Overground gait assessment is limited by the analysis of multiple strides or both spatiotemporal gait characteristics, while fixed speed treadmill walking restricts natural gait speed variations. The Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL)-based 6-minute walk test (6MWT) enables 3D motion analysis and self-paced treadmill walking, and could provide insight in gait alterations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study is to compare spatiotemporal gait characteristics between patients with COPD and healthy elderly during the GRAIL-based 6MWT. Eighty COPD patients (60% male; 62±7 years; FEV1:56±19% predicted) and 38 healthy elderly (63% male; 62±6 years; FEV1:119±17% predicted) performed two GRAIL-based 6MWTs. Mean differences and coefficient of variation of spatiotemporal gait characteristics were calculated using the trial with the largest walk distance. Sub-analyses were conducted to account for walking speed differences between groups, and muscle strength and COPD severity within the patient group. COPD patients showed increased temporal gait characteristics, decreased stride and step lengths, and increased gait variability compared to healthy elderly (pgait characteristics, while COPD severity is associated with stride time (left MD:-0.02s, CI:-0.04-0.01, p = 0.003; right MD:-0.02s, CI:-0.04-0.01, p = 0.003). COPD patients performed the GRAIL-based 6MWT differently compared to healthy elderly. Further research should use other variability measures to investigate gait characteristics in COPD, to assess subtle alterations in gait and to enable development of rehabilitation strategies to improve gait, and possibly balance and fall risk in COPD. Other lower limb muscle groups should be considered when investigating gait alterations in COPD. COPD patients have different gait characteristics compared to healthy elderly. Independent of walking speed, COPD patients demonstrate increased stride length variability

  12. Walking to transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Using a real-life setting, WalkBostons project focused on developing and testing techniques to broaden the scope and range of public participation in transportation planning in a large neighborhood in Boston. The team explored methods of seeking o...

  13. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for sit-to-stand-to-sit tests, the six-minute walk test, the one-leg heel-rise test, and handgrip strength in people undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ortí, Eva; Martínez-Olmos, Francisco José

    2011-08-01

    Determining the relative and absolute reliability of outcomes of physical performance tests for people undergoing hemodialysis is necessary to discriminate between the true effects of exercise interventions and the inherent variability of this cohort. The aims of this study were to assess the relative reliability of sit-to-stand-to-sit tests (the STS-10, which measures the time [in seconds] required to complete 10 full stands from a sitting position, and the STS-60, which measures the number of repetitions achieved in 60 seconds), the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the one-leg heel-rise test, and the handgrip strength test and to calculate minimal detectable change (MDC) scores in people undergoing hemodialysis. This study was a prospective, nonexperimental investigation. Thirty-nine people undergoing hemodialysis at 2 clinics in Spain were contacted. Study participants performed the STS-10 (n=37), the STS-60 (n=37), and the 6MWT (n=36). At one of the settings, the participants also performed the one-leg heel-rise test (n=21) and the handgrip strength test (n=12) on both the right and the left sides. Participants attended 2 testing sessions 1 to 2 weeks apart. High intraclass correlation coefficients (≥.88) were found for all tests, suggesting good relative reliability. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals were as follows: 8.4 seconds for the STS-10, 4 repetitions for the STS-60, 66.3 m for the 6MWT, 3.4 kg for handgrip strength (force-generating capacity), 3.7 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the right leg, and 5.2 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the left leg. Limitations A limited sample of patients was used in this study. The STS-16, STS-60, 6MWT, one-leg heel rise test, and handgrip strength test are reliable outcome measures. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals for these tests will help to determine whether a change is due to error or to an intervention.

  14. Teste de caminhada e rendimento escolar em crianças respiradoras bucais Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Vilas Boas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, vários trabalhos sobre respiração bucal (RB têm surgido na literatura; em contrapartida, pouco se conhece sobre vários aspectos desta síndrome, incluindo gravidade, repercussões sobre o rendimento físico e escolar. OBJETIVO: Comparar o rendimento físico pelo teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6' e rendimento escolar de crianças e adolescentes com RB e respiradores nasais (RN. MÉTODO: Estudo de corte transversal descritivo e prospectivo em crianças RB e RN que foram submetidas ao TC6' e avaliação do rendimento escolar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 156 escolares, 87 meninas (60 RN e 27 RB e 69 meninos (44 RN e 25 RB. Foram analisadas variáveis durante o TC6': frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória, saturação periférica de oxigênio, distância percorrida em seis minutos e escala de Borg modificada. Todos os valores das variáveis estudadas foram estatisticamente diferentes entre os grupos RB e RN, com exceção do rendimento escolar e FC no TC6'. CONCLUSÃO: A RB afeta o rendimento físico e não o rendimento escolar, sendo observado padrão alterado no TC6' no grupo RB. Uma vez que os RB desse estudo foram classificados como não graves outros estudos comparando as variáveis de rendimento escolar e TC6' são necessários para o melhor entendimento do processo dos desempenhos físico e escolar em crianças com RB.In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. OBJECTIVE: Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB children and adolescents. METHOD: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. RESULTS: We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB and 69

  15. HIV-infected Children in Malawi Have Decreased Performance on the 6-minute Walk Test With Preserved Cardiac Mechanics Regardless of Antiretroviral Treatment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims Sanyahumbi, Amy E; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Guffey, Danielle; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter N; McCrary, Madeline; Minard, Charles G; van der Horst, Charles; Sable, Craig A

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) determine if cardiac disease can be detected in HIV-infected children by strain imaging and 2) to evaluate differences in exercise performance between HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV-infected children not yet on ART and in HIV-uninfected children by 6-minute walk tests (6MWTs). This cross-sectional study evaluated cardiac function by echocardiogram and exercise performance by 6MWT in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children 4-18 years of age in Lilongwe, Malawi. Analyses compared HIV uninfected, HIV infected not yet on ART, and HIV infected on ART. Comparisons used χ test, t test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. No differences were found in ejection fraction, shortening fraction or strain in 73 children not yet on ART, 149 on ART and 77 HIV-uninfected controls. As viral load increased, children had worse circumferential strain. In addition, children receiving ART had better circumferential strain than those not yet on ART. Increased CD4 percentage was associated with better longitudinal strain and farther 6MWT distance. As longitudinal strain worsened, the 6MWT distance decreased. HIV-infected children not yet on ART walked a mean of 25.8 m less than HIV-uninfected children, and HIV-infected children on ART walked 25.9 m less (P = 0.015 comparing 3 groups). HIV-uninfected children performed better on the 6MWT than HIV-infected children. Lower viral load, being on ART, and higher CD4 percentage were associated with better strain measures. Better longitudinal strain was associated with a farther 6MWT distance. Overall, ejection fraction, shortening fraction and strain measures between groups were similar, so cardiac strain did not detect cardiac dysfunction in this young population.

  16. Nordic walking versus walking without poles for rehabilitation with cardiovascular disease: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girold, Sébastien; Rousseau, Jérome; Le Gal, Magalie; Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Le Henaff, Jacqueline

    2017-07-01

    With Nordic walking, or walking with poles, one can travel a greater distance and at a higher rate than with walking without poles, but whether the activity is beneficial for patients with cardiovascular disease is unknown. This randomized controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether Nordic walking was more effective than walking without poles on walk distance to support rehabilitation training for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Patients were recruited in a private specialized rehabilitation centre for cardiovascular diseases. The entire protocol, including patient recruitment, took place over 2 months, from September to October 2013. We divided patients into 2 groups: Nordic Walking Group (NWG, n=21) and Walking Group without poles (WG, n=21). All patients followed the same program over 4 weeks, except for the walk performed with or without poles. The main outcome was walk distance on the 6-min walk test. Secondary outcomes were maximum heart rate during exercise and walk distance and power output on a treadmill stress test. We included 42 patients (35 men; mean age 57.2±11 years and BMI 26.5±4.5kg/m 2 ). At the end of the training period, both groups showed improved walk distance on the 6-min walk test and treatment stress test as well as power on the treadmill stress test (Ptraining period, Nordic walking training appeared more efficient than training without poles for increasing walk distance on the 6-min walk test for patients with ACS and PAOD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Correlação entre o índice tornozelo-braço antes e após teste de deslocamento bidirecional progressivo Correlation between ankle-brachial index before and after shuttle walk test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio Teixeira da Cunha-Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A alteração de fluxo sangüíneo observada nos pacientes com doença arterial obstrutiva periférica (DAOP contribui para a redução da capacidade deambulatórida. Entretanto, ainda existe uma grande variabilidade nas correlações entre medidas inferenciais de comprometimento de fluxo e testes de deslocamento. OBJETIVO: Estabelecer o nível de correlação entre as medidas do índice tornozelo-braço (ITB, pré e pós-esforço, com um novo teste de deambulação chamado teste de deslocamento bidirecional progressivo (TDBP. MÉTODOS: Vinte e um pacientes claudicantes, com diagnóstico de DAOP, tiveram registrados o ITB antes e após a realização de um teste de caminhada no solo, com controle externo e progressivo de velocidade (TDBP. RESULTADOS: Foram registrados a distância (261,07±160,63 metros, o tempo (292,30±122,61 segundos e a velocidade (1,23±0,34 m/s obtidos no início do surgimento de sintoma claudicante, bem como durante o surgimento de sintoma limitante (369,52±157,97 metros, 377,71±104,60 segundos, 1,46±0,29 m/s, respectivamente. A média do ITB de repouso foi de 0,66±0,14, e de pós-esforço foi de 0,42±0,19. Não se observou nenhuma correlação importante entre as variáveis do teste (distância, tempo e velocidade com o ITB de repouso e nem após esforço. CONCLUSÃO: O tempo, velocidade e distância de surgimento de sintoma claudicante e de sintoma claudicante limitante durante o teste de caminhada progressiva são independentes da medida inferencial de fluxo sangüíneo através do ITB de repouso e pós-exercício.BACKGROUND: Patients with peripheral occlusive artery disease (POAD show changes in blood flow that may impair their walking ability. However, variability between inferential measurements of blood flow and walking performance is still high. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the ankle-brachial index (ABI before and after performing the shuttle walk test (SWT. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with claudication

  18. Análise comparativa do teste de caminhada de seis minutos em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis Comparative analysis of the six-minute walk test in healthy children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanirso S. Aquino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma análise comparativa do teste de caminhada de seis minutos em crianças e adolescentes saudáveis em pistas de diferentes metragens (30,5 e 20 metros. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 67 voluntários de escolas públicas de uma cidade de uma região metropolitana, com idades de 7 a 14 anos, sendo 36 meninos e 31 meninas. Todos foram submetidos a quatro testes de caminhada, sendo dois em cada uma das pistas. As variáveis analisadas foram: distância caminhada, trabalho de caminhada, pressão arterial média (PAM, frequência cardíaca (FC e saturação de oxigênio (SaO2. Para análise estatística, foi utilizado ANOVA One-Way para medidas repetidas para um pOBJECTIVE: To perform a comparative analysis of the six-minute walk test in healthy children and adolescents in corridors of 30.5m (100 feet 20m (65.6 feet in length. METHODS: We evaluated 67 participants (36 boys and 31 girls, aged 7 to 14 years old, from public schools of a city in a metropolitan area. All were submitted to four walking tests, two in each of the corridors. The variables analyzed were: walked distance, work rate, mean blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA for repeated measures and significance level at p<0.05. RESULTS: The comparison between the tests in each corridor and between the best tests in the different corridors did not show significant differences in the blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation. The walked distance was not statistically different in the two tests on each corridor. However, the participants covered greater distances on the 30.5m corridor (p<0.05 compared to the best test between corridors. However, this increase was less than 10%. Regarding the cardiac overload and the work rate, there were no significant differences between the corridors. CONCLUSIONS: There were differences in walked distance between the corridors, however they were less than 10% with no

  19. Human treadmill walking needs attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olivier

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the attentional requirements of steady state treadmill walking in human subjects using a dual task paradigm. The extent of decrement of a secondary (cognitive RT task provides a measure of the attentional resources required to maintain performance of the primary (locomotor task. Varying the level of difficulty of the reaction time (RT task is used to verify the priority of allocation of attentional resources. Methods 11 healthy adult subjects were required to walk while simultaneously performing a RT task. Participants were instructed to bite a pressure transducer placed in the mouth as quickly as possible in response to an unpredictable electrical stimulation applied on the back of the neck. Each subject was tested under five different experimental conditions: simple RT task alone and while walking, recognition RT task alone and while walking, walking alone. A foot switch system composed of a pressure sensitive sensor was placed under the heel and forefoot of each foot to determine the gait cycle duration. Results Gait cycle duration was unchanged (p > 0.05 by the addition of the RT task. Regardless of the level of difficulty of the RT task, the RTs were longer during treadmill walking than in sitting conditions (p 0.05 was found between the attentional demand of the walking task and the decrement of performance found in the RT task under varying levels of difficulty. This finding suggests that the healthy subjects prioritized the control of walking at the expense of cognitive performance. Conclusion We conclude that treadmill walking in young adults is not a purely automatic task. The methodology and outcome measures used in this study provide an assessment of the attentional resources required by walking on the treadmill at a steady state.

  20. Is the six-minute walk test a useful tool to prescribe high-intensity exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Antenor; Di Martino, Marianna; Nellessen, Aline G; Hernandes, Nidia A; Neder, J Alberto; Pitta, Fabio

    It is not yet completely known whether the 6MWT can be used to prescribe high-intensity exercise for patients with COPD. To evaluate the ability of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) to prescribe high-intensity exercise for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lung function, maximal inspiratory strength, symptoms and exercise capacity were evaluated in patients with COPD (n = 27) before and after a 12-week high-intensity exercise program. Criteria for high-intensity training were: 1) ≥75% of the 6MWT average speed; 2) American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria (≥60% of the maximal incremental shuttle walk test speed). The 6MWT showed good positive and negative predictive values (0.69 and 0.71, respectively), and accuracy (0.70), good reliability (ICC 0.70 [95%CI 0.45-0.85]) and moderate agreement (k 0.41 [95%CI 0.13-0.67]) with the ATS/ERS criteria. The 6MWT has good predictive ability and accuracy in relation to high-intensity exercise for patients with COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel outcome measures for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: validation and reliability of the 6-min walk test and StepWatch(™) Activity Monitor and identification of the walking features related to higher quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, L; Pazzaglia, C; Pareyson, D; Schenone, A; Aiello, A; Fabrizi, G M; Cavallaro, T; Santoro, L; Manganelli, F; Gemignani, F; Vitetta, F; Quattrone, A; Mazzeo, A; Russo, M; Vita, G

    2016-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuropathy, but therapeutic options have been limited to symptom management. Past pharmacological trials have failed, possibly due to insensitive outcome measures (OMs). The aim of the current study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and StepWatch(™) Activity Monitoring (SAM) with other previously validated OMs in CMT disease. A prospective multicenter study was performed, consecutively enrolling 168 CMT patients (104 with CMT1A, 27 with CMT1B, 37 with X-linked CMT) from Italian centers specializing in CMT care. Statistical analysis showed that the 6MWT was highly related with all previously used OMs. Some, but not all, SAM parameters were related to commonly used OMs but may provide more information about quality of life. The current study demonstrated the validity and reliability of the 6MWT and SAM as OMs for CMT. Moreover, SAM provides data that correlate better with quality of life measures, making it useful in future rehabilitation trials. © 2016 EAN.

  2. Allegheny County Walk Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...

  3. Interventions to Increase Walking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Matthews, Charles; Rutt, Candace; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Walking is the most prevalent and preferred method of physical activity for both work and leisure purposes, thus making it a prime target for physical activity promotion interventions. We identified 14 randomized controlled trials, which tested interventions specifically targeting and assessing walking behavior. Results show that among self-selected samples intensive interventions can increase walking behavior relative to controls. Brief telephone prompts appear to be as effective as more substantial telephone counseling. Although more research is needed, individual studies support prescriptions to walk 5–7 d/wk versus 3–5 d/wk and at a moderate (versus vigorous) intensity pace, with no differences in total walking minutes when single or multiple daily walking bouts are prescribed. Mediated interventions delivering physical activity promotion materials through non-face-to-face channels may be ideal for delivering walking promotion interventions and have shown efficacy in promoting overall physical activity, especially when theory-based and individually tailored. Mass media campaigns targeting broader audiences, including those who may not intend to increase their physical activity, have been successful at increasing knowledge and awareness about physical activity, but are often too diffuse to successfully impact individual behavior change. Incorporating individually tailored programs into broader mass media campaigns may be an important next step, and the Internet could be a useful vehicle. PMID:18562974

  4. Prevalence of overestimation or underestimation of the functional capacity using MRC score as compared to 6-minute walk test in patients with cardio-respiratory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Etienne; Graba, Sémia; Essalhi, Mohamed; Gillet-Juvin, Karine; Chevalier-Bidaud, Brigitte; Chenu, Romain; Mahut, Bruno; Delclaux, Christophe

    2014-09-01

    The first objective of our study was to assess whether patients diagnosed with cardio-respiratory disorders report overestimation or underestimation on recall (Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale) of their true functional capacity (walked distance during a 6-minute walk test (6MWT)). The second objective was to assess whether the measurement of breathlessness at the end of a 6MWT (Borg score) may help to identify dyspneic patients on recall. The 6MWTs of 746 patients aged from 40 to 80 years who were diagnosed with either chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, n = 355), diffuse parenchymal lung disease (n = 140), pulmonary vascular diseases (n = 188) or congestive heart failure (n = 63) were selected from a prospective Clinical Database Warehouse. The percentage of patients who overestimated (MRC ≤ 2 with distance MRC > 2 with distance ≥LLN, 121/746, 16%; 95%CI: 14 to 19%) on recall their capacity was elevated. The overestimation seemed related to self-limitation, while the underestimation seemed related to patients who "work through" their breathing discomfort. These two latter groups of patients were mainly diagnosed with COPD. A Borg dyspnea score >3 (upper limit of normal) at the end of the 6MWT had 84% specificity for the prediction of a MRC score >1. Almost one fourth of patients suffering from cardio-pulmonary disorders overestimate or underestimate on recall their true functional capacity. An elevated Borg dyspnea score at the end of the 6MWT has a good specificity to predict dyspnea on recall.

  5. Teste de caminhada de seis minutos: estudo do efeito do aprendizado em portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica Six minutes walk test: study of the effect of learning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Leite Rodrigues

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Testes de caminhada de seis minutos vêm sendo utilizados de forma crescente para avaliar a efetividade de diferentes opções terapêuticas clínicas e cirúrgicas em pneumopatias. Entretanto, a falta de padronização para a sua realização pode influenciar as aferições, prejudicando a qualidade da avaliação. Nesse sentido, formulamos a hipótese de que os pacientes têm melhor performance com a realização do teste de caminhada de seis minutos após aprendizado. OBJETIVO: Determinar o possível efeito do aprendizado na distância percorrida durante o teste de caminhada de seis minutos em portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica. MÉTODO: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 35 prontuários de pacientes portadores de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, encaminhados ao Programa de Reabilitação Pulmonar do Hospital Universitário de Brasília, e que tivessem realizado, em dias alternados, dois testes de caminhada de seis minutos, espirometria e gasometria arterial. O diagnóstico clínico e funcional de doença foi baseado na história de exposição a fator de risco, produção de secreção, dispnéia e prova espirométrica alterada, após o uso de broncodilatador. RESULTADOS: Observamos que as distâncias percorridas no segundo teste de caminhada de seis minutos (515 ± 82 metros foram maiores que as distâncias percorridas no primeiro (480 ± 85 metros, com valores estatisticamente significativos (p BACKGROUND: The six minutes walk test has been increasingly utilized to assess the effectiveness of different clinical and surgical treatment options in pulmonary diseases. However lack of standardization for their performance may influence measurements and jeopardize assessment of the functional capacity of patients with cardiopulmonary disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the possible effects of learning on the distance covered during the six minute walk test for bearers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  6. Celestial Walk: A Terminating Oblivious Walk for Convex Subdivisions

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijper, Wouter; Ermolaev, Victor; Devillers, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We present a new oblivious walking strategy for convex subdivisions. Our walk is faster than the straight walk and more generally applicable than the visibility walk. To prove termination of our walk we use a novel monotonically decreasing distance measure.

  7. The Effects of Walking or Walking-with-Poles Training on Tissue Oxygenation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen G. Collins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This randomized trial proposed to determine if there were differences in calf muscle StO2 parameters in patients before and after 12 weeks of a traditional walking or walking-with-poles exercise program. Data were collected on 85 patients who were randomized to a traditional walking program ( or walking-with-poles program ( of exercise training. Patients walked for 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Seventy-one patients completed both the baseline and the 12-week follow-up progressive treadmill tests ( traditional walking and walking-with-poles. Using the near-infrared spectroscopy measures, StO2 was measured prior to, during, and after exercise. At baseline, calf muscle oxygenation decreased from % prior to the treadmill test to % at peak exercise. The time elapsed prior to reaching nadir StO2 values increased more in the traditional walking group when compared to the walking-with-poles group. Likewise, absolute walking time increased more in the traditional walking group than in the walking-with-poles group. Tissue oxygenation decline during treadmill testing was less for patients assigned to a 12-week traditional walking program when compared to those assigned to a 12-week walking-with-poles program. In conclusion, the 12-week traditional walking program was superior to walking-with-poles in improving tissue deoxygenation in patients with PAD.

  8. Body composition, muscle strength and quality of active elderly women according to the distance covered in the 6-minute walk test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla H. C. Vilaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes arising from the aging process, particularly changes in body composition, contribute to the functional decline of the elderly. OBJECTIVE: To compare the body composition and muscle strength, mobility and quality in active elderly women according to the distance walked during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. METHOD: The study included 77 active elderly women aged 65 to 80 years, who were divided into tertiles (A, B and C according to the distance covered in the 6MWT. We performed anthropometric and clinical evaluations. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Handgrip strength (HGS was measured with a portable dynamometer (Saehan, and knee extension strength (KES was measured with the one repetition maximum test (1-RM. Functional mobility was assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG test, and body balance was assessed by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Muscle quality was defined by the ratio between muscle strength (kgf and muscle mass (kg. RESULTS: The group that walked the shortest distance in the 6MWT had a higher BMI (A=30.8±7.0, B=27.2±4.2 and C=25.9±3.5 kg/m2, greater amount of fat mass (A=31.3±10.7, B=25.9±6.7 and C=23.81±6.46 kg lower HGS (A=21.8±5.1, B=22.1±3.5 and C=25.5±5.1 kgf, lower knee extension strength (A=30.6±10.9, B=40.4±12.5 and C=47.2±10.1 kgf, lower arm muscle quality (A=10.1±3.7, B=11.6±2 and C=12.7±2.2 kg and lower leg muscle quality (A=1.78±1, B=2.84±0.98 and C=3.31±0.77 kg. There was no significant difference between muscle mass (p=0.25 and lean mass (p=0.26. CONCLUSION: Body fat has a negative influence on functional performance, even among active elderly women.

  9. İstanbul Menkul Kıymetler Borsası’nda Tesadüfi Yürüyüş Testi(Testing for Random Walks in the Istanbul Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Kahraman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Random walk model is one of the models that are used to test weak-form efficiency. If changes in stock prices follow a random walk model, the price changes will not have serial correlation. In this study, the Istanbul Stock Exchange 100 Index closing price changes for one, five, nine, and sixteen day differencing intervals for 1.1.1996-27.10.2004 period and three non-overlapping sub periods are tested for serial correlation. Since the results verify that the Istanbul Stock Exchange 100 Index does not follow a random walk model during any of the periods tested, investors may be able to profit from some carefully designed trading rules.

  10. Tests and indicators for improving the pedagogical control of the legs force of long and middle distance, as well as sport walk 12-15 school categories athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Santana-García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of the yield inside the process of sport training is one of the instruments that guarantee that it is made on the base of solid arguments as for the correspondence among the loads or preparation stimuli that must receive the sportsman and its condition to assimilate it. Due to the deficiencies, detected during a preliminary diagnosis based on the content analysis, measurement and mathematical statistical methods that corroborate the necessity to perfect elements of the sportsmen preparation management, a study begins with the in o rde r to give solution to the scientific problem: How to improve the pedagogic control of the legs force on Long and Middle distance, as well as Sport Walk athletes at 12 - 15 yeas school categories from “Ormani Arenado” Initial Sport School of Pinar del Río? It has the objective to select tests and indicators that improve this pedagogic control. There were used different methods and investigation instruments such as, analysis and synthesis, the measurement, as well as the descriptive and inferential statistic, which allowed the selection of the test of the ten jumps to include it in the protocol of evaluation of the physical performance set for the school categories, with procedures that brings forth four indicators on the sportsman's state. Its feasibility is being evaluating at present in an extended study certified by the provincial commission of Athletics. The contributions of this research, favor to the results of the investigative project “The evaluation and planning of the training in Long and Middle distance, as well as Sport Walk athletes in Pinar del Río”, answering, at the same time, to the fourth technological demand of the Athletics in this western county of Cuba.

  11. Gender disparity of changes in heart rate during the six-minute walk test among patients with chronic obstructive airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Alibakhshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. Clarify; COPD is the fifth leading cause of death and disease burden globally. Aims The purpose of this study is to compare the gender disparity of changes in heart rate during 6-minute walk test (6MWT among patients with chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD. We also aimed to assess the relationship between change in heart rate and body mass index (BMI. Methods We randomly selected 59 elderly subjects with COPD (made up of 45 men and 14 women. The selected patients all had Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea index of ≥3. All patients in this study had informed written consent and carried out the 6 minute walk tests (6MWT according to standards. Data analysis was carried out with SPSS version 21.0 software and Excel 2016 with level of significance taken as p<0.05. We used of ANOVA to identify difference in the means among three or more groups. Results As the BMI range is 15–50 while the mean BMI was 26±00 include the standard deviation has been observed overweight in all patients with COPD. There was significant difference in the distance covered during the 6MWT between men and women (Men=397.00, Women=375.00 at p<0.001. Also, we can be seeing lowest significant different in heart rate basic (Mean Square=0.0 and oxygen saturation at rest (Mean Square=2.0 in value p<0.00 between men and women. Conclusion In this study, distance, SPO2, resting heart rate and 1-minute heart rate variables were evaluated for assessing exercise capacity and then the amount of breathlessness and exercise in patients with COPD.

  12. Effects of Muscle Strength and Balance Control on Sit-to-Walk and Turn Durations in the Timed Up and Go Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzurei; Chou, Li-Shan

    2017-12-01

    To examine the association of muscle strength and balance control with the amount of time taken to perform sit-to-walk (STW) or turning components of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in older adults. Correlations; multiple regression models. General community. Older adults (N=60) age >70 years recruited from the community. Not applicable. Muscle strength, balance control, and TUG test performance time. Muscle strength was quantified by peak joint moments during the isometric maximal voluntary contraction test for bilateral hip abductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors. Balance control was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale, and center of mass and ankle inclination angle derived during the TUG test performance. We found that balance control measures were significantly associated with both STW and turning durations even after controlling for muscle strength and other confounders (STW duration: Pbalance control is an important factor that contributes to longer STW and turning durations on the TUG test. Furthermore, strength has a higher association with STW than turning duration. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  14. Random Walk Quantum Clustering Algorithm Based on Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shufen; Dong, Yumin; Ma, Hongyang

    2018-01-01

    In the random quantum walk, which is a quantum simulation of the classical walk, data points interacted when selecting the appropriate walk strategy by taking advantage of quantum-entanglement features; thus, the results obtained when the quantum walk is used are different from those when the classical walk is adopted. A new quantum walk clustering algorithm based on space is proposed by applying the quantum walk to clustering analysis. In this algorithm, data points are viewed as walking participants, and similar data points are clustered using the walk function in the pay-off matrix according to a certain rule. The walk process is simplified by implementing a space-combining rule. The proposed algorithm is validated by a simulation test and is proved superior to existing clustering algorithms, namely, Kmeans, PCA + Kmeans, and LDA-Km. The effects of some of the parameters in the proposed algorithm on its performance are also analyzed and discussed. Specific suggestions are provided.

  15. Efficacy of walking aids on self-paced outdoor walking in individuals with COPD: A randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, Anouk W; Meijer, Kenneth; Delbressine, Jeannet M; Wiechert, Jozé; Willems, Paul; Wouters, Emiel F M; Franssen, Frits M E; Spruit, Martijn A

    2015-08-01

    Walking aids, such as rollator or draisine, improve mobility and functional exercise performance in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during an indoor 6-min walk test. However, this test does not reflect everyday walking, which is the most frequently reported problematic activity of daily life in individuals with COPD. To date, efficacy of walking aids during self-paced outdoor walking remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine the efficacy of a rollator and draisine on self-paced outdoor walking in individuals with COPD. Fifteen individuals with COPD (68% men; age: 63 ± 8 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 s: 40 ± 14% predicted) performed three self-paced outdoor walking tests on two consecutive days: test 1 unaided, and tests 2 and 3 with rollator or draisine in random order. Participants had to walk as long as possible at their own pace. The test ended when participants needed to stop, with a maximum duration of 30 min. The use of rollator resulted in the highest walk distance and time (P walked significantly further and longer during an unaided test compared with a draisine aided test (P walking speed, fewer strides, greater stride length, and higher step and stride variability (P walk distance and time in individuals with moderate and advanced COPD and a poor functional exercise capacity, whereas the use of a draisine had a detrimental effect compared with unaided walking. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  16. Six minute walk test as a clinical parameter to assess the sub maximal exercise capacity in Non Obese and Obese healthy young Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monal Shah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Six minute walk test (6MWT is the easiest tool utilized for assessing the functional capacity in the routine clinical practice. The present study aims at assessing the cardio-respiratory capacity in non obese and obese subjects using 6MWT. 22 healthy subjects in age group 17-25 years participated in the study (11 non obese, 11- obese. The written consent was taken from those healthy subjects willing to participate in the study. An anthropometric measurement was taken prior the test. Pre test vital parameters like pulse rate (PR, respiratory rate (RR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and rate of perceived exertion (RPE was noted on modified Borg’s Scale 0-10. General instruction before the 6MWT and the 6MWT was performed according to ATS guidelines. Significant difference was noted between non obese and obese individuals in their cardio respiratory effort and the capacity and also in the actual 6MWD and the Predicted 6MWD calculated.6MWD showed strongest negative correlation with weight, BMI, post test PR, RR, RPE. No significant difference was found between males and females. The 6MWT is a simple reliable tool that can be used routinely for assessing cardio respiratory capacity and prevent from the risk factors associated with obesity.

  17. Oral Chinese herbal medicine combined with pharmacotherapy for stable COPD: a systematic review of effect on BODE index and six minute walk test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiankun Chen

    Full Text Available This systematic review evaluated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy (RP on the objective outcome measures BODE index, 6-minute walk test (6MWT, and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD in individuals with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Searches were conducted of six English and Chinese databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, CNKI and CQVIP from their inceptions until 18th November 2013 for randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM plus RP compared to the same RP, with BODE Index and/or 6MWT/D as outcomes. Twenty-five studies were identified. BODE Index was used in nine studies and 6MWT/D was used in 22 studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Weaknesses were identified in most studies. Six studies were judged as 'low' risk of bias for randomisation sequence generation. Twenty-two studies involving 1,834 participants were included in the meta-analyses. The main meta-analysis results showed relative benefits for BODE Index in nine studies (mean difference [MD] -0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.94, -0.47 and 6MWT/D in 17 studies (MD 54.61 meters, 95%CI 33.30, 75.92 in favour of the CHM plus RP groups. The principal plants used were Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng and Cordyceps sinensis. A. membranaceus was used in combination with other herbs in 18 formulae in 16 studies. Detailed sub-group and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Clinically meaningful benefits for BODE Index and 6MWT were found in multiple studies. These therapeutic effects were promising but need to be interpreted with caution due to variations in the CHMs and RPs used and methodological weakness in the studies. These issues should be addressed in future trials.

  18. The Walking Corsi Test (WalCT): a normative study of topographical working memory in a sample of 4- to 11-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L; Palermo, L; Leonzi, M; Risetti, M; Zompanti, L; D'Amico, S; Guariglia, C

    2014-01-01

    We report normative data on topographical working memory collected through the Walking Corsi Test (WalCT; Piccardi et al., 2008 ) for developing a standard administration procedure to be used in clinical and educational practice. A total of 268 typically developing Italian children aged 4-11 years performed both WalCT and Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CBT; Corsi, 1972 ) a well-known visuo-spatial memory test. WalCT has already been validated in adults, demonstrating sensitivity in detecting topographical memory deficits even in individuals who have no other memory impairments. Our results showed that age, but not sex, affected performances. Both girls and boys had a larger span on the CBT than the WalCT. The youngest group did not differ in performing WalCT and CBT, but from 5.6 years of age children performed better on CBT than WalCT, suggesting that memory in reaching space develops before topographical memory. Only after 5 years of age do children learn to process specifically topographical stimuli, suggesting that this happens when their environmental knowledge becomes operational and they increase environmental independence. We also discuss the importance to introduce WalCT in the clinical assessment.

  19. Inter-Rater Reliability and Agreement of the 6-Minute Walk Test in Women With Hip Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Overgaard, Jan; Tange Kristensen, Morten

    MWT in individuals with hip fractures. Methods: Two senior physiotherapy students independently examined (randomized order) a convenient sample of 20 participants; their assessments were separated by two days, and testing followed instructions from the American Thoracic Society(1). Hip pain...

  20. The Not-so-Random Drunkard's Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, George

    2013-01-01

    This dataset contains the results of a quasi-experiment, testing Karl Pearson's "drunkard's walk" analogy for an abstract random walk. Inspired by the alternate hypothesis that drunkards stumble to the side of their dominant hand, it includes data on intoxicated test subjects walking a 10' line. Variables include: the…

  1. Effects of a "test in-train out" walking program versus supervised standard rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients: a feasibility and pilot randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagoni, Anna M; Cavazza, Stefano; Ferraresi, Giovanni; Grassi, Guido; Felisatti, Michele; Lamberti, Nicola; Basaglia, Nino; Manfredini, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    The loss of normal ambulatory function after stroke, besides causing disability, leads to progressive deconditioning and exposes patients to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and recurrent stroke. Conventional rehabilitation is mainly limited to the subacute period after stroke. Effective, safe and sustainable interventions for patients and healthcare system, including the long-term, should be identified. To verify the feasibility, safety and preliminary efficacy of an original home-based rehabilitation model compared to a standard supervised program in chronic hemiplegic stroke survivors. Pilot, two-arm, parallel group, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Community-dwelling poststroke patient/Hospital. Twelve chronic hemiplegic stroke patients (age=66.5±11.9 years, males, N.=9). Participants were randomly assigned for a 10-week period to a structured home-based exercise program (N.=6) and a standard supervised group-setting program (N.=6). The feasibility outcomes included adherence to interventions, retention rate and safety. Satisfaction was also evaluated by the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. Efficacy was assessed by the 6-minute walk test, Timed Up and Go and Stair Climb tests. The impact on Quality-of-life was estimated using the physical activity domain of the Short Form-36 questionnaire. Operators' time consuming was also calculated. Adherence was 91% in the home-based exercise group and 92% in the standard supervised group. The retention rate was 100%, with no adverse events reported and high satisfaction scores for both interventions. 6-minute walk test and physical activity domain significantly increased in both groups (P=0.03). Timed Up and Go improved in both groups, significantly for the home-based exercise group (P=0.03) while Stair Climb remained stable. Time required to operators to implement the home-based exercise program was 15 hours vs. 30 hours for the standard supervised one. In a sample of hemiplegic chronic stroke patients

  2. Evaluation of walking speed tests as a measurement of functional limitations in elderly people: A structured review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Muñoz-Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio teórico fue valorar el modelo conceptual, la carga, la interpretabilidad, los efectos suelo y techo, la fiabilidad, la validez y la sensibilidad al cambio de los tests de velocidad de andar como medida de limitaciones funcionales en personas mayores. Se realizaron búsquedas electrónicas en Medline, AgeLine, Embase, CINAHL e IME, búsquedas manuales y por referencias. La calidad de las propiedades de medición fue evaluada mediante criterios estandarizados. Se analizaron 102 estudios que identificaron 18 tests. Los tests más utilizados fueron: 2.44 metros, 4 metros y 6 metros, realizados a velocidad del paso habitual. Las evidencias se centraron en la validez predictiva y en la fiabilidad test-retest; en este caso, los valores de los coeficientes fueron superiores a los estándares de calidad recomendados. La interpretabilidad, los efectos suelo y techo y la sensibilidad al cambio son los atributos con menos evidencias. En estudios epidemiológicos, la evidencia disponible apoya el uso de los tests de andar como predictores de resultados adversos relacionados con la salud en personas mayores. Se precisa de estudios que apoyen su viabilidad y aplicabilidad en la práctica clínica, ya sea con la finalidad de screening como para la monitorización y evaluación del cambio.

  3. Inter-rater reliability and agreement of the 6-minute walk test in females with hip fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jan; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Tange Kristensen, Morten

    physiotherapy students independently examined (randomized order) a convenient sample of 20 participants; their assessments were separated by two days, and testing followed instructions from the American Thoracic Society. Hip pain was assessed with the Verbal Ranking Scale. Participants (all women) with a mean...

  4. Heart rate recovery after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test in older adults with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is an independent predictor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. To investigate the usefulness of HRR in cardiorespiratory exercise testing in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the aims of this study were (a) to assess HRR in older

  5. Predicting Home and Community Walking Activity Poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, George D; He, Ying; Boyne, Pierce; Dunning, Kari

    2017-02-01

    Walking ability poststroke is commonly assessed using gait speed categories developed by Perry et al. The purpose of this study was to reexamine factors that predict home and community ambulators determined from real-world walking activity data using activity monitors. Secondary analyses of real-world walking activity from 2 stroke trials. Home (100-2499 steps/d), most limited community (2500-4499 steps/d), least limited community (5000-74 999), and full community (≥7500 steps/d) walking categories were developed based on normative data. Independent variables to predict walking categories were comfortable and fast gait speed, 6-minute walk test, Berg Balance Scale, Fugl Meyer, and Stroke Impact Scale. Data were analyzed using multivariate analyses to identify significant variables associated with walking categories, bootstrap method to select the most stable model and receiver-operating characteristic to identify cutoff values. Data from 441 individuals poststroke were analyzed. The 6-minute walk test, Fugl Meyer, and Berg Balance Scale combined were the strongest predictors of home versus community and limited versus unlimited community ambulators. The 6-minute walk test was the strongest individual variable in predicting home versus community (receiver-operating characteristic area under curve=0.82) and limited versus full community ambulators (receiver-operating characteristic area under curve=0.76). A comfortable gait speed of 0.49 m/s discriminated between home and community and a comfortable gait speed of 0.93 m/s discriminated between limited community and full community ambulators. The 6-minute walk test was better able to discriminate among home, limited community, and full community ambulators than comfortable gait speed. Gait speed values commonly used to distinguish between home and community walkers may overestimate walking activity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Gait or Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gait or Walking Problems the basic facts multiple sclerosis Many people with MS will experience difficulty with walking, which is also called ambulation. The term “gait” refers more specifically to the manner or pattern ...

  7. What Is Walking Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pneumonia: What does it mean? What is walking pneumonia? How is it different from regular pneumonia? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Walking pneumonia is an informal term for pneumonia that isn' ...

  8. Quantum walk computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendon, Viv

    2014-01-01

    Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. Recent results showing quantum walks are “universal for quantum computation” relate to algorithms, to be run on quantum computers. We consider whether an experimental implementation of a quantum walk could provide useful computation before we have a universal quantum computer

  9. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.

  10. Does long-distance walking improve or deteriorate walking stability of transtibial amputees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Lam, Wing Kai; Yeung, L F; Lee, Winson C C

    2015-10-01

    Falls are common in transtibial amputees which are linked to their poor stability. While amputees are encouraged to walk more, they are more vulnerable to fatigue which leads to even poorer walking stability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamic stability of amputees after long-distance walking. Six male unilateral transtibial amputees (age: 53 (SD: 8.8); height: 170cm (SD: 3.4); weight: 75kg (SD: 4.7)) performed two sessions (30minutes each) of treadmill walking, separated by a short period of gait tests. Gait tests were performed before the walking (baseline) and after each session of treadmill walking. Gait parameters and their variability across repeated steps at each of the three conditions were computed. There were no significant differences in walking speed, step length, stance time, time of occurrence, and magnitude of peak angular velocities of the knee and hip joint (P>0.05). However, variability of knee and hip angular velocity after 30-minute walking was significantly higher than the baseline (Pamputees to restore their walking stability after further continuous walking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, K.; Persson, A. L.; Sjolund, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: With quantitative sensory testing (QST) we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet). Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep...... mechano-nociceptive stimuli and hypoesthesia to non-noxious cutaneous stimuli. The purpose of the present paper was to extend the group analysis into individual sensory profiles of victims' feet to explore possible relations between external violence (torture), reported pain, sensory symptoms and QST data...... to help clarify the underlying mechanisms. Methods: We employed interviews and assessments of the pain and sensory symptoms and QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15), or had not (n=17) been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area...

  12. Minimal detectable changes of the Berg Balance Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale, Timed "Up & Go" Test, gait speeds, and 2-minute walk test in individuals with chronic stroke with different degrees of ankle plantarflexor tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiengkaew, Vimonwan; Jitaree, Khanitha; Chaiyawat, Pakaratee

    2012-07-01

    To determine test-retest reliability and absolute and relative minimal detectable changes at the 95% confidence level (MDC(95)) of measures to detect postural balance and lower limb movements in individuals with chronic stroke who were able to walk and had differences in ankle plantarflexor tone. Test-retest study. Data were collected on 2 occasions, about 6 days apart. Outpatient physical therapy clinics. Volunteers (N=61) with chronic stroke who were able to walk and had differences in ankle plantarflexor tone: no increase in ankle plantarflexor tone (n=12), a slight increase in ankle plantarflexor tone (n=32), and a marked increase in ankle plantarflexor tone (n=17). Not applicable. Reliability and absolute and relative MDC(95) of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the lower limb subscale of Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), the Timed "Up & Go" test (TUG), the comfortable gait speed (CGS), the fast gait speed (FGS), and the 2-minute walk test (2MWT). Excellent reliability of the BBS, FMA-LE, TUG, CGS, FGS, and 2MWT for all the participants combined and for the subgroups was shown. All the participants combined showed the absolute and relative MDC(95) in the BBS of 5 points and 10%, FMA-LE of 4 points and 16%, TUG of 8 seconds and 28%, CGS of 0.2m/s and 34%, FGS of 0.1m/s and 21%, and 2MWT of 13m and 23%. The absolute and relative MDC(95) of the subgroups were varied based on ankle plantarflexor tone. The BBS, FMA-LE, TUG, CGS, FGS, and 2MWT are reliable measures to detect postural balance and lower limb movements in individuals with chronic stroke who have differences in ankle plantarflexor tone. The absolute and relative MDC(95) of each measure are dissimilar in those with differences in ankle plantarflexor tone. The relative MDC(95) seems more useful than the absolute MDC(95) because the relative value can be used for a single individual. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Feasibility of the Six-Minute Walk Test for Patients Who Have Cystic Fibrosis, Are Ambulatory, and Require Mechanical Ventilation Before Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Amanda L; Ricard, Paul E H

    2016-09-01

    The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) is a requirement for lung transplantation evaluation by the United Network for Organ Sharing. A subset of patients being evaluated for a lung transplantation require mechanical ventilation (MV) because of respiratory failure. The 6MWT has not been validated as an outcome measure for patients dependent on MV. Literature supports alternative forms of the 6MWT, including those with an oval track or treadmill, as valid for accommodating other populations. This case report describes the use of the 6MWT for 2 patients who had cystic fibrosis and required MV before a lung transplant. A 34-year-old woman and a 37-year-old woman were admitted to a medical intensive care unit for exacerbation of cystic fibrosis requiring prolonged intubation and a subsequent tracheostomy. Their hospital courses were characterized by participation in early rehabilitation and variable dependence on MV. Both patients performed the 6MWT for a lung transplantation workup while dependent on MV. Both patients performed the 6MWT while using portable MV and achieved a distance greater than that required for transplantation consideration and approximately 50% of the reference-based expected distance for adults who are healthy. Confounding factors included external pacing and the use of an oval track. The use of the 6MWT for 2 patients receiving MV appeared to be feasible. Research regarding the validity of this outcome is warranted. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  14. Increasing Walking in the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport: The Walk to Fly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E; Frederick, Ginny M; Paul, Prabasaj; Omura, John D; Carlson, Susan A; Dorn, Joan M

    2017-07-01

    To test the effectiveness of a point-of-decision intervention to prompt walking, versus motorized transport, in a large metropolitan airport. We installed point-of-decision prompt signage at 4 locations in the airport transportation mall at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (Atlanta, GA) at the connecting corridor between airport concourses. Six ceiling-mounted infrared sensors counted travelers entering and exiting the study location. We collected traveler counts from June 2013 to May 2016 when construction was present and absent (preintervention period: June 2013-September 2014; postintervention period: September 2014-May 2016). We used a model that incorporated weekly walking variation to estimate the intervention effect on walking. There was an 11.0% to 16.7% relative increase in walking in the absence of airport construction where 580 to 810 more travelers per day chose to walk. Through May 2016, travelers completed 390 000 additional walking trips. The Walk to Fly study demonstrated a significant and sustained increase in the number of airport travelers choosing to walk. Providing signage about options to walk in busy locations where reasonable walking options are available may improve population levels of physical activity and therefore improve public health.

  15. Valores de referência para o teste de caminhada com carga progressiva em indivíduos saudáveis: da distância percorrida às respostas fisiológicas Reference values for the incremental shuttle walk test in healthy subjects: from the walk distance to physiological responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zuniga Dourado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar valores de referência para a distância caminhada (DC e para respostas fisiológicas durante o teste de caminhada com carga progressiva (TCCP e desenvolver equações preditivas para essas variáveis em adultos saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 103 participantes saudáveis com idade > 40 anos (54 mulheres e 49 homens. Os participantes usaram um sistema de análise de gases durante o TCCP. Consumo de oxigênio (VO2, liberação de gás carbônico, ventilação minuto, FC, DC e velocidade máxima da caminhada (VMC foram obtidos como desfechos primários. Avaliamos também a força de preensão manual (FPM e a massa magra corporal (MMC. RESULTADOS: Os modelos de regressão utilizando variáveis fisiológicas, DC e VMC ajustados por idade, massa corporal, estatura e sexo apresentaram valores de R² entre 0,40 e 0,65 (para FC e pico de VO2, respectivamente. Os modelos incluindo MMC e FPM não aumentaram consideravelmente os valores de R² na previsão do pico de VO2, embora esses modelos tenham aumentado discretamente os valores do R² para DC e VMC (8% e 12%, respectivamente. As variáveis DC, VMC e DC × massa corporal, respectivamente, explicaram 76,7%, 73,3% e 81,2% da variabilidade do pico de VO2. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados originaram valores de referência para a DC e respostas fisiológicas ao TCCP, que podem ser estimados adequadamente por características demográficas e antropométricas simples em adultos saudáveis com idade > 40 anos. O TCCP poderia ser utilizado na avaliação da capacidade física na população geral de adultos e no desenvolvimento de programas de caminhada individualizados.OBJECTIVE: To determine reference values for incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD and peak physiological responses during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT, as well as to develop a series of predictive equations for those variables in healthy adults. METHODS: We evaluated 103 healthy participants > 40 years of

  16. Between-rater reliability of the 6-minute walk test, berg balance scale, and handheld dynamometry in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Elaine; Coote, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the between-rater reliability of the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), 6-Minute Walk test (6MW), and handheld dynamometry (HHD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous studies that examined BBS and 6MW reliability in people with MS have not used more than two raters, or analyzed different mobility levels separately. The reliability of HHD has not been previously reported for people with MS. In this study, five physical therapists assessed eight people with MS using the BBS, 6MW, and HHD, resulting in 12 pairs of data. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Spearman correlation coefficients (SCCs), and Bland and Altman methods. The results suggest excellent agreement for the BBS (SCC = 0.95, mean difference between raters [d̄] = 2.08, standard error of measurement [SEM] = 1.77) and 6MW (ICC = 0.98, d̄ = 5.22 m, SEM = 24.76 m) when all mobility levels are analyzed together. Reliability is lower in less mobile people with MS (BBS SCC = 0.6, d̄ = -1.83; 6MW ICC = 0.95, d̄ = 20.04 m). Although the ICC and SCC results for HHD suggest good-to-excellent reliability (0.65-0.85), d̄ ranges up to 17.83 N, with SEM values as high as 40.95 N. While the small sample size is a limitation of this study, the preliminary evidence suggests strong agreement between raters for the BBS and 6MW and decreased agreement between raters for people with greater mobility problems. The mean differences between raters for HHD are probably too high for it to be applied in clinical practice.

  17. Teachers’ Narratives indicate Professional Stamina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer Schrøder

    The neoliberal restructuring of the welfare state has changed the conditions for teacher practice. Teachers’ narratives have been collected in the western part of Denmark. They give insight in teacher practice and how teachers’ conditions for working have changed. 3 themes are discussed to illust...

  18. 013. Complementary role of 6-minutes walking test (6MWT) in the assessment of functional status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathioudakis, Alexander G.; Evangelopoulou, Efstathia I.; Karapiperis, Georgios C.; Perros, Elias I.; Simou, Georgia; Kiritsi, Evridiki; Chatzimavridou-Grigoriadou, Victoria; Mathioudakis, Georgios A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its limited repeatability, spirometry is the most widely used method of assessment of the pulmonary ventilation. However, it is not a safe measure of the functional reserve of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with multiple comorbidities. Consequently, a stress test that would include cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables would be a useful complimentary test. Objective The aim of this observational study was to investigate the correlation between FEV1 and 6MWT, in patients with stable COPD (mean FEV1% pred =43.9%, SD =15.3). Methods 174 male ex-smokers with stable COPD, with a mean age of 63±6.7 years, mean height of 171.4 and weight of 73.9 were included and grouped according to their GOLD severity staging. A control group consisting of 87 healthy volunteers (mean age: 64±6.2, height: 175.2 and weight: 70.5) was also included. All the patient and controls had spirometry before and after bronchodilatation, on a daily scaled turbine spirometer, and 6MWT, on a 10-meter straight corridor. Elapsed distance (eD), haemoglobin saturation (Sats) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored during the 6MWT. All the data of our study were imported in an excel sheet for statistical analysis. Results Among the main results of our study, FEV1 decrease by year of age was less pronounced among healthy volunteers (21 mL/year, r2=0.4) compared to COPD patients (53 mL/year, r2=0.06). Similarly, volunteers had a significantly lower decrease by year of age in eD (2.3 m/year, r2=0.4) compared to COPD patients (7.7 m/year, r2=0.7). A more pronounced decrease of eD by year of age was recognized in patients with later COPD stages, while weight was more significantly correlated to eD compared to age. Post-bronchodilatation FEV1 was correlated to eD in COPD patients (r2=0.7); for each 1% decrease in the FEV1, COPD patients also lose approximately 7 m of walking distance in 6MWT. Conclusions 6MWT is a reliable measure of COPD progression and

  19. How might we increase physical activity through dog walking?: A comprehensive review of dog walking correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Christley, Robert M; Christian, Hayley E

    2014-08-20

    Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour are major threats to population health. A considerable proportion of people own dogs, and there is good evidence that dog ownership is associated with higher levels of physical activity. However not all owners walk their dogs regularly. This paper comprehensively reviews the evidence for correlates of dog walking so that effective interventions may be designed to increase the physical activity of dog owners. Published findings from 1990-2012 in both the human and veterinary literature were collated and reviewed for evidence of factors associated with objective and self-reported measures of dog walking behaviour, or reported perceptions about dog walking. Study designs included cross-sectional observational, trials and qualitative interviews. There is good evidence that the strength of the dog-owner relationship, through a sense of obligation to walk the dog, and the perceived support and motivation a dog provides for walking, is strongly associated with increased walking. The perceived exercise requirements of the dog may also be a modifiable point for intervention. In addition, access to suitable walking areas with dog supportive features that fulfil dog needs such as off-leash exercise, and that also encourage human social interaction, may be incentivising. Current evidence suggests that dog walking may be most effectively encouraged through targeting the dog-owner relationship and by providing dog-supportive physical environments. More research is required to investigate the influence of individual owner and dog factors on 'intention' to walk the dog as well as the influence of human social interaction whilst walking a dog. The effects of policy and cultural practices relating to dog ownership and walking should also be investigated. Future studies must be of a higher quality methodological design, including accounting for the effects of confounding between variables, and longitudinal designs and testing of

  20. More Adults Are Walking

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-31

    This podcast is based on the August 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. While more adults are walking, only half get the recommended amount of physical activity. Listen to learn how communities, employers, and individuals may help increase walking.  Created: 7/31/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/7/2012.

  1. Learning-Walk Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Peter Dallas

    2010-01-01

    The continuum of learning walks can be viewed in stages with various dimensions including frequency, participants, purpose and the presence of an instructional framework within which the instructional practice is viewed. Steps in the continuum progress as the learning walks are conducted more frequently. One way to ensure this is accomplished is…

  2. walk in CAIRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Research-baseret audio walk om revolutionen i Cairo med start på Teater Grob (første version, 2011) og Helsingør Teater (anden version, 2012).......Research-baseret audio walk om revolutionen i Cairo med start på Teater Grob (første version, 2011) og Helsingør Teater (anden version, 2012)....

  3. Lévy walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaburdaev, V.; Denisov, S.; Klafter, J.

    2015-04-01

    Random walk is a fundamental concept with applications ranging from quantum physics to econometrics. Remarkably, one specific model of random walks appears to be ubiquitous across many fields as a tool to analyze transport phenomena in which the dispersal process is faster than dictated by Brownian diffusion. The Lévy-walk model combines two key features, the ability to generate anomalously fast diffusion and a finite velocity of a random walker. Recent results in optics, Hamiltonian chaos, cold atom dynamics, biophysics, and behavioral science demonstrate that this particular type of random walk provides significant insight into complex transport phenomena. This review gives a self-consistent introduction to Lévy walks, surveys their existing applications, including latest advances, and outlines further perspectives.

  4. Qualidade de vida de pacientes com lúpus eritematoso influencia a capacidade cardiovascular em teste de caminhada de 6 minutos The quality of life of patients with lupus erythematosus influences cardiovascular capacity in 6-minute walk test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Balsamo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar a associação entre a qualidade de vida e a distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (6TC em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES na pré-menopausa, bem como comparar os resultados com controle saudáveis. MÉTODO: Foram pareadas por idade, características físicas e nível de atividade física (Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física: s-IPAQ 25 pacientes com LES na pré-menopausa (18-45 anos com baixa atividade da doença (SLEDAI médio: 1,52 ± 1,61 e 25 controles. Ambos os grupos não deviam estar envolvidos em atividade física regular por pelo menos 6 meses antes do estudo. Além da distância percorrida no 6TC (protocolo American Thoracic Society, foi avaliada a frequência cardíaca (FCpós e a saturação de oxigênio (SpO2pós pós-teste, e a percepção subjetiva de esforço de Borg (PSE/CR10. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada pelo Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36. RESULTADOS: Pacientes com LES apresentaram pior qualidade de vida, percorreram menor distância no 6TC (598 ± 45 m versus 642 ± 14 m; P OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between quality of life and distance walked in the 6-minute walk test (6MWT in Brazilian premenopausal patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and compare their results with those of healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-five premenopausal (18-45 years patients diagnosed with low-activity SLE (mean SLEDAI: 1.52 ± 1.61 and 25 controls were matched for age, physical characteristics, and physical activity level (International Physical Activity Questionnaire/s-IPAQ. Both groups should not be involved in regular physical activity for at least six months before the study. The 6MWT distance (American Thoracic Society protocol, posttest heart rate (HRpost, posttest oxygen saturation (SpO2post and the Borg scale of subjective perception of effort (SPE/CR10 were evaluated. The quality of life was assessed by use of the Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF

  5. Biomechanical analysis of rollator walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, T; Larsen, Peter K; Pedersen, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects.......The rollator is a very popular walking aid. However, knowledge about how a rollator affects the walking patterns is limited. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanical effects of walking with and without a rollator on the walking pattern in healthy subjects....

  6. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Topological Transition in a Non-Hermitian Quantum Walk: a new test for quantumness in driven artificial atoms and Josephson arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mark; Levitov, Leonid

    2009-03-01

    We analyze a quantum walk on a bipartite one-dimensional lattice, in which the particle can decay whenever it visits one of the two sublattices. The corresponding non-Hermitian tight-binding problem with complex potential for the decaying sites exhibits two distinct phases, distinguished by a winding number defined in terms of the Bloch eigenstates in the Brillouin zone [1]. We find that the mean displacement of a particle initially localized on one of the non-decaying sites is quantized as an integer, changing from zero to one at the critical point. By mapping this problem onto a Jaynes-Cummings-type model with decay, we find that the topological transition is relevant for a variety of experimental settings, in particular for superconducting qubits coupled to high quality resonators [2]. The quantized behavior stands in contrast with the smooth dependence expected for a classical random walk, and can serve as a hallmark of coherent quantum dynamics in ladder-like multilevel systems. A real-space implementation of the quantum walk may help to verify quantum coherence in vortex transport in Josephson arrays [3]. [1] M. S. Rudner, L. S. Levitov, arXiv:0807.2048. [2] A. Wallraff et al., Nature 431, 162-167 (2004). [3] A. van Oudenaarden, S. J. K. Vardy, and J. E. Mooij, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4257 (1996).

  8. Alzheimer random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Takashi; Kasuya, Keisuke

    2017-09-01

    Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate a memory-impaired self-avoiding walk on a square lattice in which a random walker marks each of sites visited with a given probability p and makes a random walk avoiding the marked sites. Namely, p = 0 and p = 1 correspond to the simple random walk and the self-avoiding walk, respectively. When p> 0, there is a finite probability that the walker is trapped. We show that the trap time distribution can well be fitted by Stacy's Weibull distribution b(a/b){a+1}/{b}[Γ({a+1}/{b})]-1x^a\\exp(-a/bx^b)} where a and b are fitting parameters depending on p. We also find that the mean trap time diverges at p = 0 as p- α with α = 1.89. In order to produce sufficient number of long walks, we exploit the pivot algorithm and obtain the mean square displacement and its Flory exponent ν(p) as functions of p. We find that the exponent determined for 1000 step walks interpolates both limits ν(0) for the simple random walk and ν(1) for the self-avoiding walk as [ ν(p) - ν(0) ] / [ ν(1) - ν(0) ] = pβ with β = 0.388 when p ≪ 0.1 and β = 0.0822 when p ≫ 0.1. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  9. When Human Walking is a Random Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, J. M.

    1998-03-01

    The complex, hierarchical locomotor system normally does a remarkable job of controlling an inherently unstable, multi-joint system. Nevertheless, the stride interval --- the duration of a gait cycle --- fluctuates from one stride to the next, even under stationary conditions. We used random walk analysis to study the dynamical properties of these fluctuations under normal conditions and how they change with disease and aging. Random walk analysis of the stride-to-stride fluctuations of healthy, young adult men surprisingly reveals a self-similar pattern: fluctuations at one time scale are statistically similar to those at multiple other time scales (Hausdorff et al, J Appl Phsyiol, 1995). To study the stability of this fractal property, we analyzed data obtained from healthy subjects who walked for 1 hour at their usual pace, as well as at slower and faster speeds. The stride interval fluctuations exhibited long-range correlations with power-law decay for up to a thousand strides at all three walking rates. In contrast, during metronomically-paced walking, these long-range correlations disappeared; variations in the stride interval were uncorrelated and non-fractal (Hausdorff et al, J Appl Phsyiol, 1996). To gain insight into the mechanism(s) responsible for this fractal property, we examined the effects of aging and neurological impairment. Using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we computed α, a measure of the degree to which one stride interval is correlated with previous and subsequent intervals over different time scales. α was significantly lower in healthy elderly subjects compared to young adults (p < .003) and in subjects with Huntington's disease, a neuro-degenerative disorder of the central nervous system, compared to disease-free controls (p < 0.005) (Hausdorff et al, J Appl Phsyiol, 1997). α was also significantly related to degree of functional impairment in subjects with Huntington's disease (r=0.78). Recently, we have observed that just as

  10. Walking ability in patients with glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljehult, Monique Mesot; Buus, Lise; Mesot Liljehult, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    ability and 1 year mortality. Data were gathered from prospective recordings in a brain cancer database supplemented by retrospective review of electronic patient records. We included 109 patients with glioblastoma, 47 women and 62 men with mean age 65 years. At admission 84 patients were tested with Berg......Primary brain tumors frequently cause considerable functional impairments and the survival time when diagnosed with glioblastoma is 14.6 months. The aim of this study was to examine if baseline postural control and walking ability in patients with glioblastoma could predict long term walking...... higher in patients who lost their ability to walk within 4-8 months of the first admission. This study showed that Berg Balance Scale has some ability to predict the loss of walking ability 4-8 months after admission. This could be an important indicator pin pointing patients most in need of more...

  11. Walking - Sensing - Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam; Browning, David

    2014-01-01

    Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider ...... set of experiential or ‘felt’ qualities of living with mobile technologies. Moving from reflections on the value of walking with people, the paper outlines some affordances of a smartphone application built to capture place experiences through walking.......Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider...

  12. Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; A. Ryttov, T.

    2007-01-01

    Different theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the Minimal and Nonminimal Walking Technicolor theories have recently been studied. The goal here is to make the models ready for collider phenomenology. We do this by constructing the low energy effective theory containing scalars, pseudoscal......Different theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the Minimal and Nonminimal Walking Technicolor theories have recently been studied. The goal here is to make the models ready for collider phenomenology. We do this by constructing the low energy effective theory containing scalars......, pseudoscalars, vector mesons and other fields predicted by the minimal walking theory. We construct their self-interactions and interactions with standard model fields. Using the Weinberg sum rules, opportunely modified to take into account the walking behavior of the underlying gauge theory, we find...

  13. Walking the Everyday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bissen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, @matthewalking (Bissen, 2013 has published real-time public texts of walks in the city. This text-based Twitter feed has developed a narrative of a particular everyday life and developed a space of interface with others that represents a centering of perspective within an urban landscape. Walking the city provides a spatial, tactile, social, and embodied knowledge of the environment as each of us emerges into a space, orients ourselves, and determines a path that is highly localized, but is in connection with distant spaces and cultures. According to Ben Jacks in “Walking the City: Manhattan Projects,” “for urban dwellers and designers, walking is a fundamental tool for laying claim to, understanding, and shaping a livable city. Walking yields bodily knowing, recovers place memory, creates narrative, prioritizes human scale, and reconnects people to places” (75. @matthewalking’s walks, at times for as long as 5 hours, attempt to center an experience of an urban existence in a spatial narrative of the city that at once prioritizes a connection to place, but also is projected outward into a mediated relationship with others. The project is a series of unbounded walks, or dérives (drift, through the city that are logged on Twitter and traced to create an archive map of a set of particular urban experiences. The dérive concept as outlined in “The Theory of the Dérive,” by Guy Debord is when “one or more persons during a certain period drop their relations, their work and leisure activities, and all their other usual motives for movement and action, and let themselves be drawn by the attractions of the terrain and the encounters they find there” (62.

  14. Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-04-01

    Voluntary limb modifications must be integrated with basic walking patterns during visually guided walking. In this study we tested whether voluntary gait modifications can become more automatic with practice. We challenged walking control by presenting visual stepping targets that instructed subjects to modify step length from one trial to the next. Our sequence learning paradigm is derived from the serial reaction-time (SRT) task that has been used in upper limb studies. Both random and ordered sequences of step lengths were used to measure sequence-specific and sequence-nonspecific learning during walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 yr,n= 20) could learn a specific sequence of step lengths over 300 training steps. Younger children (age 6-10 yr,n= 8) had lower baseline performance, but their magnitude and rate of sequence learning were the same compared with those of older children (11-16 yr,n= 10) and healthy adults. In addition, learning capacity may be more limited at faster walking speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that spatial sequence learning can be integrated with a highly automatic task such as walking. These findings suggest that adults and children use implicit knowledge about the sequence to plan and execute leg movement during visually guided walking. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Metabolic and clinical comparative analysis of treadmill six-minute walking test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in obese and eutrophic women Análise clínica e metabólica comparativa entre o teste de caminhada de seis minutos e o teste de exercício cardiopulmonar em mulheres obesas e eutróficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired exercise tolerance is directly linked to decreased functional capacity as a consequence of obesity. OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare the cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and perceptual responses during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX and a treadmill six-minute walking test (tread6MWT in obese and eutrophic women. METHOD: Twenty-nine female participants, aged 20-45 years were included. Fourteen were allocated to the obese group and 15 to the eutrophic group. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessment were performed. RESULTS: In both tests, obese women presented with significantly higher absolute oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure; they also presented with lower speed, distance walked, and oxygen uptake corrected by the weight compared to eutrophics. During the maximal exercise test, perceived dyspnea was greater and the respiratory exchange ratio was lower in obese subjects compared to eutrophics. During the submaximal test, carbon dioxide production, tidal volume, and heart rate were higher in obese subjects compared to eutrophic women. When analyzing possible correlations between the CPX and the tread6MWT at peak, there was a strong correlation for the variable heart rate and a moderate correlation for the variable oxygen uptake. The heart rate obtained in the submaximal test was able to predict the one obtained in the maximal test. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated the agreement between both tests to identify metabolic and physiological parameters at peak exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The six-minute walking test induced ventilatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses in agreement with the maximal testing. Thus, the six-minute walking test proves to be important for functional evaluation in the physical therapy routine.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A reduzida tolerância ao exercício está relacionada à diminuída capacidade funcional consequente da obesidade. Objetivos

  16. Unitary equivalence of quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Sandeep K.; Konrad, Thomas; Diósi, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator

  17. Race walking gait and its influence on race walking economy in world-class race walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Torres-Unda, Jon; Tam, Nicholas; Irazusta, Jon; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between biomechanical parameters of the gait cycle and race walking economy in world-class Olympic race walkers. Twenty-One world-class race walkers possessing the Olympic qualifying standard participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental race walking test starting at 10 km·h -1 , where race walking economy (ml·kg -1 ·km -1 ) and spatiotemporal gait variables were analysed at different speeds. 20-km race walking performance was related to race walking economy, being the fastest race walkers those displaying reduced oxygen cost at a given speed (R = 0.760, p economy (moderate effect, p economi cal than the lesser performers. Similarly, shorter flight times are associated with a more efficient race walking economy. Coaches and race walkers should avoid modifying their race walking style by increasing flight times, as it may not only impair economy, but also lead to disqualification.

  18. Give your ideas some legs: the positive effect of walking on creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppezzo, Marily; Schwartz, Daniel L

    2014-07-01

    Four experiments demonstrate that walking boosts creative ideation in real time and shortly after. In Experiment 1, while seated and then when walking on a treadmill, adults completed Guilford's alternate uses (GAU) test of creative divergent thinking and the compound remote associates (CRA) test of convergent thinking. Walking increased 81% of participants' creativity on the GAU, but only increased 23% of participants' scores for the CRA. In Experiment 2, participants completed the GAU when seated and then walking, when walking and then seated, or when seated twice. Again, walking led to higher GAU scores. Moreover, when seated after walking, participants exhibited a residual creative boost. Experiment 3 generalized the prior effects to outdoor walking. Experiment 4 tested the effect of walking on creative analogy generation. Participants sat inside, walked on a treadmill inside, walked outside, or were rolled outside in a wheelchair. Walking outside produced the most novel and highest quality analogies. The effects of outdoor stimulation and walking were separable. Walking opens up the free flow of ideas, and it is a simple and robust solution to the goals of increasing creativity and increasing physical activity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. The Act of Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Maria Quvang Harck; Olesen, Mette; Helmer, Pernille Falborg

    2014-01-01

    perception of ‘walkability’ is based upon a subjective judgement of different physical factors, such as sidewalk width, traffic volumes and building height (Ewing and Handy 2009:67). And iIn order to understand the act of walking it is therefore necessary to create a vocabulary to understand how and why...... the individuals evaluate, interpret and act (Bourdieu 1984), and how this affects their choice to walk. Therefore it could be questioned if whether an assessment of the physical environment is sufficient to identify all the factors that influence the individual perception of ‘walkability’, or if other influencing...... factors like lifestyle and life situation should be addressed in order to understand ‘walkability’ fully. The challenge is to approach issues linked to the ‘more-than representational’ (Thrift 2007; Vannini 2012) act of walking and thereby understand pedestrian behaviour in general, but also...

  20. Walks on SPR neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Alan Joseph J; Castillo, Juan; Lee, Jinnie; St John, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A nearest-neighbor-interchange (NNI)-walk is a sequence of unrooted phylogenetic trees, T1, T2, . . . , T(k) where each consecutive pair of trees differs by a single NNI move. We give tight bounds on the length of the shortest NNI-walks that visit all trees in a subtree-prune-and-regraft (SPR) neighborhood of a given tree. For any unrooted, binary tree, T, on n leaves, the shortest walk takes Θ(n²) additional steps more than the number of trees in the SPR neighborhood. This answers Bryant’s Second Combinatorial Challenge from the Phylogenetics Challenges List, the Isaac Newton Institute, 2011, and the Penny Ante Problem List, 2009.

  1. Ways of Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Bødker, Mads; Chamberlain, Alan

    2016-01-01

    technologies. Drawing on insights from non-representational theory, we develop a partial vocabulary with which to engage with qualities of pedestrian mobility, and we outline how taking more mindful approaches to walking may enrich and inform the design space of handheld technologies.......It seems logical to argue that mobile computing technologies are intended for use "on-the-go." However, on closer inspection, the use of mobile technologies pose a number of challenges for users who are mobile, particularly moving around on foot. In engaging with such mobile technologies...... and their envisaged development, we argue that interaction designers must increasingly consider a multitude of perspectives that relate to walking in order to frame design problems appropriately. In this paper, we consider a number of perspectives on walking, and we discuss how these may inspire the design of mobile...

  2. Curve walking is not better than straight walking in estimating ambulation-related domains after incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruyère, Rob; van Hedel, Hubertus J

    2012-05-01

    To investigate whether a figure-of-8-shaped walking test can estimate various domains of walking in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) better than the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), and to explore similarities and differences between the 2 tests and between subjects with iSCI and age-matched, healthy controls. Case-control study. Spinal cord injury center of a university hospital. A convenience sample of subjects with iSCI (n=15; mean age, 50y; 40% women; neurologic level from C3 to L5; median time since injury, 5mo) was compared with an age-matched control group (47% women). Not applicable. The figure-of-8 test (FET) included 6 conditions to test the subjects' ability to adapt their gait to several circumstances. These conditions covered normal and maximal walking speed, constrained vision, obstacles, foamed soles, and a dual task. Additionally, subjects were tested for lower extremity muscle strength, gait capacity (10MWT) and balance, independence, and fear of falling. (1) Preferred straight-walking speed correlated with the different FET conditions in both groups; (2) if normalized to preferred straight-walking speed, FET conditions showed significant differences between both groups; (3) if normalized to preferred curve-walking speed, these differences seemed to disappear; and (4) the 10MWT appeared superior to the different conditions of the FET in estimating various walking-related functions. Subjects with iSCI seem to have difficulties with curve walking compared with straight walking. We therefore recommend the implementation of curve walking into rehabilitation training programs. However, the FET did not provide a better estimate of functional ambulation performance after an iSCI compared with the 10MWT. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Give Your Ideas Some Legs: The Positive Effect of Walking on Creative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppezzo, Marily; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrate that walking boosts creative ideation in real time and shortly after. In Experiment 1, while seated and then when walking on a treadmill, adults completed Guilford's alternate uses (GAU) test of creative divergent thinking and the compound remote associates (CRA) test of convergent thinking. Walking increased 81% of…

  4. A walking program for nursing home residents: effects on walk endurance, physical activity, mobility, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, P G; Asplund, L A; Schnelle, J F; Ouslander, J G; Abrahamse, A; Morris, C

    1996-02-01

    To determine the effects of a 12-week walking program on walk endurance capacity, physical activity level, mobility, and quality of life in ambulatory nursing home residents who had been identified as having low physical activity levels and low walk endurance capacities. To determine the effects of 12 versus 22 weeks of walk training on walk endurance capacity, physical activity level, mobility, and quality of life in ambulatory nursing home residents. Experiment 1: Residents of one nursing home campus were assigned to the walking program, and residents of a second campus were assigned to the social visit control group. Outcome measures were taken before and after 12 weeks. Experiment 2: Pretest/posttest with outcome measures taken before and, again, after 12 and 22 weeks of walking. Two campuses of the Jewish Homes for the Aging in the Los Angeles area. Experiment 1: Nineteen of 22 residents in the walking group completed the walking program, and 12 of 15 residents in the control group completed the study. Experiment 2: Thirty of 41 residents (from the two nursing homes) completed the 22-week walking program. Experiment 1: The walking program involved each resident walking with research staff at his/her self-selected walking pace, 5 days per week for 12 weeks, for a maximum of 30 minutes per day; while the control group had weekly individual social visits, which lasted 30 minutes, from a research assistant. Experiment 2: All residents, those in both the walking and the control group, were offered the opportunity to complete 22 weeks of walking. Maximal walk endurance capacity, the resident's maximum walk time performed in a single day of walking (distance and speed also were measured); physical activity level based on time-sampled observations and physical activity monitors; mobility as measured with the Timed-Up-and-Go test, left handgrip strength, and Tinetti's Mobility Assessment; and quality of life as assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (a bodily

  5. Walking for data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Browning, David; Meinhardt, Nina Dam

    We suggest that ‘walking’ in ethnographic work sensitizes researchers to a particular means of making sense of place. Following a brief conceptual exposition, we present our research tool iMaCam) that supports capturing and representing activities such as walking.......We suggest that ‘walking’ in ethnographic work sensitizes researchers to a particular means of making sense of place. Following a brief conceptual exposition, we present our research tool iMaCam) that supports capturing and representing activities such as walking....

  6. Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal

    2007-01-01

    I report on our construction and analysis of the effective low energy Lagrangian for the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model. The parameters of the effective Lagrangian are constrained by imposing modified Weinberg sum rules and by imposing a value for the S parameter estimated from the under......I report on our construction and analysis of the effective low energy Lagrangian for the Minimal Walking Technicolor (MWT) model. The parameters of the effective Lagrangian are constrained by imposing modified Weinberg sum rules and by imposing a value for the S parameter estimated from...

  7. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  8. Daily intermittent hypoxia enhances walking after chronic spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Heather B.; Jayaraman, Arun; Herrmann, Megan; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Rymer, William Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To test the hypothesis that daily acute intermittent hypoxia (dAIH) and dAIH combined with overground walking improve walking speed and endurance in persons with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Methods: Nineteen subjects completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants received 15, 90-second hypoxic exposures (dAIH, fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio2] = 0.09) or daily normoxia (dSHAM, Fio2 = 0.21) at 60-second normoxic intervals on 5 consecutive days; dAIH was given alone or combined with 30 minutes of overground walking 1 hour later. Walking speed and endurance were quantified using 10-Meter and 6-Minute Walk Tests. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01272349). Results: dAIH improved walking speed and endurance. Ten-Meter Walk time improved with dAIH vs dSHAM after 1 day (mean difference [MD] 3.8 seconds, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–6.5 seconds, p = 0.006) and 2 weeks (MD 3.8 seconds, 95% CI 0.9–6.7 seconds, p = 0.010). Six-Minute Walk distance increased with combined dAIH + walking vs dSHAM + walking after 5 days (MD 94.4 m, 95% CI 17.5–171.3 m, p = 0.017) and 1-week follow-up (MD 97.0 m, 95% CI 20.1–173.9 m, p = 0.014). dAIH + walking increased walking distance more than dAIH after 1 day (MD 67.7 m, 95% CI 1.3–134.1 m, p = 0.046), 5 days (MD 107.0 m, 95% CI 40.6–173.4 m, p = 0.002), and 1-week follow-up (MD 136.0 m, 95% CI 65.3–206.6 m, p walking improved walking speed and distance in persons with chronic iSCI. The impact of dAIH is enhanced by combination with walking, demonstrating that combinatorial therapies may promote greater functional benefits in persons with iSCI. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that transient hypoxia (through measured breathing treatments), along with overground walking training, improves walking speed and endurance after iSCI. PMID:24285617

  9. Physiological aspect walking and Nordic walking as adequate kinetic activities.

    OpenAIRE

    BENEŠ, Václav

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis on the topic of The Physiological Aspect of Walking and Nordic Walking as an adequate physical activity focuses on chosen physiological changes of an organism during a five-month training cycle. In the theoretical part I describe the physiological changes of organism during a regularly repeated strain, and also the technique of walking, Nordic walking and health benefits of these activities are defined here. The research part of the thesis describes the measurement method...

  10. 10 CFR 431.302 - Definitions concerning walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning walk-in coolers and walk-in... FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Walk-in Coolers and Walk-in Freezers § 431.302 Definitions concerning walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers. Walk-in cooler and walk-in freezer mean an...

  11. What determines walking of older people in their neighborhood?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Vries, S.I. de; Bakker, I.; Ooijendijk, W.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on literature review and five focus groups, a model was analyzed describing individual, social environmental and physical environmental (perceived) determinants of walking by older people. Aim was to test whether these determinants were significantly associated with the duration of walking by

  12. Walking along water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Steep slopes, white peaks and deep valleys make up the Andes. As phenomenologists of landscape have told us, different people have different landscapes. By moving across the terrain, walking along, we might get a sense of how this has been carved out by the movement of wind and water, tectonics...

  13. Walking - Sensing - Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam; Browning, David

    Building on ethnographic research and social theory in the field of ‘mobilities’, this workshop paper suggests that field work based on simply walking with people entails a form of embodied participation that informs technological interventions by creating a space within which to address a wider...

  14. Teste da caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes com DPOC durante programa de reabilitação Six minute walk test in COPD patients under a rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA AUXILIADORA CARMO MOREIRA

    2001-11-01

    realização do TC6, inclusive quando o objetivo for obter valores de referência. As equações de Enright e Sherril para indivíduos normais parecem tender a valores subestimados, não diferindo estatisticamente dos valores obtidos pré-treinamento nesses pacientes com DPOC. Isso se deve, provavelmente, a diferenças na técnica de encorajamento utilizada pelos autores. Confirma-se o ganho de performance física, após reabilitação, independente do estado funcional inicial, justificando sua indicação mesmo para pacientes com limitação respiratória acentuada. A resposta heterogênea ao incremento de carga sugere a necessidade de analisar fatores preditivos da melhor resposta ao treinamento, para personalizá-lo e obter a melhor performance possível dos pacientes.Objectives: To report the results obtained in six-minute walk tests (6 MWT performed in a group of patients under a pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP as a contribution to a better interpretation and the proper use of this test. Some factors that interfere with physical training during pulmonary rehabilitation were also studied. Methods: Retrospective data on 18 males and 5 females under a PRP were evaluated. During 3 months, the patients had 3 weekly training sessions to exercise the muscles of the lower extremities. The following parameters were analyzed before and after training: the distance walked during the 6 MWT and its relationship with the reference values calculated by the equations of Enright and Sherril; forced expiratory volume in one second, training load, heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, oxygen saturation by pulse oxymeter (SpO2 and body mass index (BMI. Results: The values obtained during pre-training 6 MWT did not differ from the reference values calculated by Enright and Sherril equations (P = 0.777. After training, these values differed significantly (P = 0.001. The mean 6 MWT distance increase was 76 m. However, 3 patients did not reach the minimally significant increase of 54

  15. Walking and Sensing Mobile Lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Meinhardt, Nina Dam

    In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk.......In this position paper, we discuss how mindful walking with people allow us to explore sensory aspects of mobile lives that are typically absent from research. We present an app that aids researchers collect impressions from a walk....

  16. Kineziologická charakteristika Nordic Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Title: Functional a physiological characteristics of Nordic Walking Purposes: The aim of the thesis is to describe and summarize current knowledge about Nordic Walking Methods: Literature analysis Key words: Nordic Walking, free bipedal walk, health benefits, functional indicator changes

  17. Quantum walks induced by Dirichlet random walks on infinite trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yusuke; Segawa, Etsuo

    2018-02-01

    We consider the Grover walk on infinite trees from the viewpoint of spectral analysis. From the previous work, infinite regular trees provide localization. In this paper, we give the complete characterization of the eigenspace of this Grover walk, which involves localization of its behavior and recovers the previous work. Our result suggests that the Grover walk on infinite trees may be regarded as a limit of the quantum walk induced by the isotropic random walk with the Dirichlet boundary condition at the n-th depth rather than one with the Neumann boundary condition.

  18. The variability problem of normal human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine

    2012-01-01

    a group of normal subjects and to test whether or not the expected differences would prove to be statistically significant. Fifteen healthy male subjects were recorded on video while they walked across two force platforms. Ten kinematic and kinetic parameters were selected and input to a statistical...... cluster analysis to determine whether or not the 15 subjects could be divided into different 'families' (clusters) of walking strategy. The net joint moments showed a variability corroborating earlier reports. The cluster analysis showed that the 15 subjects could be grouped into two clusters of 5 and 10...

  19. WALK OR JOG FOR HEALTH: 11*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    test of maximum oxygen intake which requires neither special equipment nor trained technical staff. Cooper's 12- minute walk or run procedure for predicting the maximum oxygen intake appears to fulfil these requirements.' All that is needed is a stop-watch and a level 440-yard track so that the distance which the individual ...

  20. Gait Pattern Alterations during Walking, Texting and Walking and Texting during Cognitively Distractive Tasks while Negotiating Common Pedestrian Obstacles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Licence

    Full Text Available Mobile phone texting is a common daily occurrence with a paucity of research examining corresponding gait characteristics. To date, most studies have participants walk in a straight line vs. overcoming barriers and obstacles that occur during regular walking. The aim of our study is to examine the effect of mobile phone texting during periods of cognitive distraction while walking and negotiating barriers synonymous with pedestrian traffic.Thirty participants (18-50 y completed three randomized, counter-balanced walking tasks over a course during: (1 normal walking (control, (2 texting and walking, and (3 texting and walking whilst being cognitively distraction via a standard mathematical test performed while negotiating the obstacle course. We analyzed gait characteristics during course negotiation using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system and a general linear model and Dunnet-Hsu post-hoc procedure the normal walking condition to assess gait characteristic differences. Primary outcomes included the overall time to complete the course time and barrier contact. Secondary outcomes included obstacle clearance height, step frequency, step time, double support phase and lateral deviation.Participants took significantly longer (mean ± SD to complete the course while texting (24.96 ± 4.20 sec and during cognitive distraction COG (24.09 ± 3.36 sec vs. normal walking (19.32 ± 2.28 sec; all, P<0.001. No significant differences were noted for barrier contacts (P = 0.28. Step frequency, step time, double support phase and lateral deviation all increased in duration during the texting and cognitive distraction trial. Texting and being cognitively distracted also increased obstacle clearance versus the walking condition (all, P<0.02.Texting while walking and/or being cognitively distracted significantly affect gait characteristics concordant to mobile phone usage resulting in a more cautious gate pattern. Future research should also examine a similar

  1. Walking speed of normal subjects and amputees: aspects of validity of gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, A M; Fidler, V; Eisma, W H

    1993-08-01

    This study investigated some aspects of the validity of walking speed recording in 15 normal subjects, 16 trans-femoral amputees and 8 knee disarticulation amputees. The variability and test-retest reliability of walking speed and the influence of simultaneous recording of EMG and goniometry on comfortable and fast walking speeds were studied. The variability between sessions was mainly determined by the variance within each session. The variance of speed within sessions while walking with fast speed, was higher when walking without equipment than when walking with equipment. The variances of speed within sessions of the normal subjects were higher than those for both amputee groups. The test-retest reliability, expressed by the intra-class correlation coefficient, was good: between 0.83 and 0.98. The speed when walking without equipment was significantly higher both in normal subjects and amputees than the speed when walking with equipment.

  2. Correlação entre os testes da caminhada, marcha estacionária e TUG em hipertensas idosas Correlation between the walk, 2-minute step and TUG tests among hypertensive older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Pedrosa

    2009-06-01

    cardiovascular function. The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT, Two-Minute Step Test (2MST and Timed Up and Go Test (TUG are indicated for such evaluations. Studies among healthy older adults have shown associations between these tests, thus aiding the evaluation of functional capacity. However, there are no studies on the relationships between the 6MWT, 2MST and TUG among hypertensive individuals, thus justifying the present research. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether there is any association between aerobic endurance and functional mobility among hypertensive older women. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional observational and analytical study on 32 hypertensive older women who were evaluated using the 6MWT, 2MST and TUG. RESULTS:There was a moderate positive correlation between the 6MWT and 2MST (r=0.36; p=0.04, and there were moderate negative correlations between the 6MWT and TUG (r=-0.59; p=0.000 and between the 2MST and TUG (r=-0.66; p=0.000. CONCLUSIONS: For hypertensive older women, the 6MWT can be replaced by the 2MST; the same applied to healthy older adults. Regarding the correlation between the 6MWT, 2MST and TUG, it can be concluded that there is a close relationship between cardiovascular endurance and functional mobility. When there is lower cardiovascular endurance, there is precarious functional mobility and vice versa.

  3. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  4. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  5. 76 FR 31795 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-In Coolers and Freezers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB85 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-In Coolers... regulations pertaining to the test procedure for walk-in coolers and freezers. The correction addresses an erroneous temperature condition for walk-in freezers. DATES: Effective Date: June 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  6. Modification of the Ladder Rung Walking Task?New Options for Analysis of Skilled Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Antonow-Schlorke, Iwa; Ehrhardt, Julia; Knieling, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Method sensitivity is critical for evaluation of poststroke motor function. Skilled walking was assessed in horizontal, upward, and downward rung ladder walking to compare the demands of the tasks and test sensitivity. The complete step sequence of a walk was subjected to analysis aimed at demonstrating the walking pattern, step sequence, step cycle, limb coordination, and limb interaction to complement the foot fault scoring system. Rats (males, n = 10) underwent unilateral photothrombotic l...

  7. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdgate, Matthew R; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Lance J; Soltis, Joseph; Andrews, Jeff; Shepherdson, David J

    2016-01-01

    Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33) and Asian (n = 23) elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  8. Walking Behavior of Zoo Elephants: Associations between GPS-Measured Daily Walking Distances and Environmental Factors, Social Factors, and Welfare Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Holdgate

    Full Text Available Research with humans and other animals suggests that walking benefits physical health. Perhaps because these links have been demonstrated in other species, it has been suggested that walking is important to elephant welfare, and that zoo elephant exhibits should be designed to allow for more walking. Our study is the first to address this suggestion empirically by measuring the mean daily walking distance of elephants in North American zoos, determining the factors that are associated with variations in walking distance, and testing for associations between walking and welfare indicators. We used anklets equipped with GPS data loggers to measure outdoor daily walking distance in 56 adult female African (n = 33 and Asian (n = 23 elephants housed in 30 North American zoos. We collected 259 days of data and determined associations between distance walked and social, housing, management, and demographic factors. Elephants walked an average of 5.3 km/day with no significant difference between species. In our multivariable model, more diverse feeding regimens were correlated with increased walking, and elephants who were fed on a temporally unpredictable feeding schedule walked 1.29 km/day more than elephants fed on a predictable schedule. Distance walked was also positively correlated with an increase in the number of social groupings and negatively correlated with age. We found a small but significant negative correlation between distance walked and nighttime Space Experience, but no other associations between walking distances and exhibit size were found. Finally, distance walked was not related to health or behavioral outcomes including foot health, joint health, body condition, and the performance of stereotypic behavior, suggesting that more research is necessary to determine explicitly how differences in walking may impact elephant welfare.

  9. Random Walks in Stock Exchange Prices and the Vienna Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Peter

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses the multiple variance ratio test procedure developed by Chow and Denning (1993) to test for a random walk of stock returns on the Austrian Stock Exchange. I find that with daily data the test rejects the random walk hypothesis at all conventional significance levels for each and every title and for both indeces tested. Individual shares, however, do seem to follow a random walk when weekly returns are considered, while the hypothesis is rejected for both indices. Dieser Art...

  10. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze time-discrete and time-continuous ‘fractional’ random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in n  =  1, 2, 3,.. dimensions. The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving fractional powers of Laplacian matrices {{L}\\fracα{2}}} where α =2 recovers the normal walk. First we demonstrate that the interval 0expressions for the transition matrix of the fractional random walk and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} , and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk. The representation for the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} relates fractional random walks with normal random walks. We show that the matrix elements of the transition matrix of the fractional random walk exihibit for large cubic n-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an n-dimensional infinite space Riesz fractional derivative type indicating emergence of Lévy flights. As a further footprint of Lévy flights in the n-dimensional space, the transition matrix and return probabilities of the fractional random walk are dominated for large times t by slowly relaxing long-wave modes leading to a characteristic {{t}-\\frac{n{α}} -decay. It can be concluded that, due to long range moves of fractional random walk, a small world property is emerging increasing the efficiency to explore the lattice when instead of a normal random walk a fractional random walk is chosen.

  11. Agile Walking Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Stanley J.; Lisec, Thomas R.; Spiessbach, Andrew J.; Waldron, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed agile walking robot operates over rocky, sandy, and sloping terrain. Offers stability and climbing ability superior to other conceptual mobile robots. Equipped with six articulated legs like those of insect, continually feels ground under leg before applying weight to it. If leg sensed unexpected object or failed to make contact with ground at expected point, seeks alternative position within radius of 20 cm. Failing that, robot halts, examines area around foot in detail with laser ranging imager, and replans entire cycle of steps for all legs before proceeding.

  12. Physical implementation of quantum walks

    CERN Document Server

    Manouchehri, Kia

    2013-01-01

    Given the extensive application of random walks in virtually every science related discipline, we may be at the threshold of yet another problem solving paradigm with the advent of quantum walks. Over the past decade, quantum walks have been explored for their non-intuitive dynamics, which may hold the key to radically new quantum algorithms. This growing interest has been paralleled by a flurry of research into how one can implement quantum walks in laboratories. This book presents numerous proposals as well as actual experiments for such a physical realization, underpinned by a wide range of

  13. Quantum walks with entangled coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas-Andraca, S E; Ball, J L; Burnett, K; Bose, S

    2005-01-01

    We present a mathematical formalism for the description of un- restricted quantum walks with entangled coins and one walker. The numerical behaviour of such walks is examined when using a Bell state as the initial coin state, with two different coin operators, two different shift operators, and one walker. We compare and contrast the performance of these quantum walks with that of a classical random walk consisting of one walker and two maximally correlated coins as well as quantum walks with coins sharing different degrees of entanglement. We illustrate that the behaviour of our walk with entangled coins can be very different in comparison to the usual quantum walk with a single coin. We also demonstrate that simply by changing the shift operator, we can generate widely different distributions. We also compare the behaviour of quantum walks with maximally entangled coins with that of quantum walks with non-entangled coins. Finally, we show that the use of different shift operators on two and three qubit coins leads to different position probability distributions in one- and two-dimensional graphs

  14. Walk Well: a randomised controlled trial of a walking intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Fiona; Melville, Craig; Stalker, Kirsten; Matthews, Lynsay; McConnachie, Alex; Murray, Heather; Walker, Andrew; Mutrie, Nanette

    2013-07-01

    Walking interventions have been shown to have a positive impact on physical activity (PA) levels, health and wellbeing for adult and older adult populations. There has been very little work carried out to explore the effectiveness of walking interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities. This paper will provide details of the Walk Well intervention, designed for adults with intellectual disabilities, and a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. This study will adopt a RCT design, with participants allocated to the walking intervention group or a waiting list control group. The intervention consists of three PA consultations (baseline, six weeks and 12 weeks) and an individualised 12 week walking programme.A range of measures will be completed by participants at baseline, post intervention (three months from baseline) and at follow up (three months post intervention and six months from baseline). All outcome measures will be collected by a researcher who will be blinded to the study groups. The primary outcome will be steps walked per day, measured using accelerometers. Secondary outcome measures will include time spent in PA per day (across various intensity levels), time spent in sedentary behaviour per day, quality of life, self-efficacy and anthropometric measures to monitor weight change. Since there are currently no published RCTs of walking interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities, this RCT will examine if a walking intervention can successfully increase PA, health and wellbeing of adults with intellectual disabilities. ISRCTN50494254.

  15. Using built environment characteristics to predict walking for exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siscovick David S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environments conducive to walking may help people avoid sedentary lifestyles and associated diseases. Recent studies developed walkability models combining several built environment characteristics to optimally predict walking. Developing and testing such models with the same data could lead to overestimating one's ability to predict walking in an independent sample of the population. More accurate estimates of model fit can be obtained by splitting a single study population into training and validation sets (holdout approach or through developing and evaluating models in different populations. We used these two approaches to test whether built environment characteristics near the home predict walking for exercise. Study participants lived in western Washington State and were adult members of a health maintenance organization. The physical activity data used in this study were collected by telephone interview and were selected for their relevance to cardiovascular disease. In order to limit confounding by prior health conditions, the sample was restricted to participants in good self-reported health and without a documented history of cardiovascular disease. Results For 1,608 participants meeting the inclusion criteria, the mean age was 64 years, 90 percent were white, 37 percent had a college degree, and 62 percent of participants reported that they walked for exercise. Single built environment characteristics, such as residential density or connectivity, did not significantly predict walking for exercise. Regression models using multiple built environment characteristics to predict walking were not successful at predicting walking for exercise in an independent population sample. In the validation set, none of the logistic models had a C-statistic confidence interval excluding the null value of 0.5, and none of the linear models explained more than one percent of the variance in time spent walking for exercise. We did not

  16. Kinesthetic taping improves walking function in patients with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeskov, Birgitte; Carver, Line Tornehøj; von Essen-Leise, Anders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is an important cause of severe disability and impaired motor function. Treatment modalities that improve motor function in patients with stroke are needed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of kinesthetic taping of the anterior thigh and knee on maximal...... walking speed and clinical indices of spasticity in patients with stroke. METHODS: Thirty-two patients (9 women) receiving rehabilitation after stroke (average, 50 days since stroke) who had impaired walking ability were recruited. Primary outcome was maximal walking speed measured by the 10-meter walk...... test. Secondary outcomes were number of steps taken during the test and clinical signs of spasticity measured by the Tardieu Scale. Tests were conducted before and immediately after application of kinesthetic tape to the anterior thigh and knee of the paretic lower limb. RESULTS: After application...

  17. Random-walk enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C → U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics. PMID:26465508

  18. Random-walk enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  19. Sunspot random walk and 22-year variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua

    2012-01-01

    We examine two stochastic models for consistency with observed long-term secular trends in sunspot number and a faint, but semi-persistent, 22-yr signal: (1) a null hypothesis, a simple one-parameter random-walk model of sunspot-number cycle-to-cycle change, and, (2) an alternative hypothesis, a two-parameter random-walk model with an imposed 22-yr alternating amplitude. The observed secular trend in sunspots, seen from solar cycle 5 to 23, would not be an unlikely result of the accumulation of multiple random-walk steps. Statistical tests show that a 22-yr signal can be resolved in historical sunspot data; that is, the probability is low that it would be realized from random data. On the other hand, the 22-yr signal has a small amplitude compared to random variation, and so it has a relatively small effect on sunspot predictions. Many published predictions for cycle 24 sunspots fall within the dispersion of previous cycle-to-cycle sunspot differences. The probability is low that the Sun will, with the accumulation of random steps over the next few cycles, walk down to a Dalton-like minimum. Our models support published interpretations of sunspot secular variation and 22-yr variation resulting from cycle-to-cycle accumulation of dynamo-generated magnetic energy.

  20. Reducing gait speed affects axial coordination of walking turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Caroline; Conradsson, David; Paquette, Caroline; Franzén, Erika

    2017-05-01

    Turning is a common feature of daily life and dynamic coordination of the axial body segments is a cornerstone for safe and efficient turning. Although slow walking speed is a common trait of old age and neurological disorders, little is known about the effect of walking speed on axial coordination during walking turns. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of walking speed on axial coordination during walking turns in healthy elderly adults. Seventeen healthy elderly adults randomly performed 180° left and right turns while walking in their self-selected comfortable pace and in a slow pace speed. Turning velocity, spatiotemporal gait parameters (step length and step time), angular rotations and angular velocity of the head and pelvis, head-pelvis separation (i.e. the angular difference in degrees between the rotation of the head and pelvis) and head-pelvis velocity were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. During slow walking, turning velocity was 15% lower accompanied by shorter step length and longer step time compared to comfortable walking. Reducing walking speed also led to a decrease in the amplitude and velocity of the axial rotation of the head and pelvis as well as a reduced head-pelvis separation and angular velocity. This study demonstrates that axial coordination during turning is speed dependent as evidenced by a more 'en bloc' movement pattern (i.e. less separation between axial segments) at reduced speeds in healthy older adults. This emphasizes the need for matching speed when comparing groups with diverse walking speeds to differentiate changes due to speed from changes due to disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Walking index for spinal cord injury version 2 (WISCI-II) with repeatability of the 10-m walk time: Inter- and intrarater reliabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Ralph J; Scivoletto, Giorgio; Patrick, Mary; Tamburella, Federica; Read, Mary Schmidt; Burns, Anthony S; Hauck, Walter; Ditunno, John

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the inter-/intrarater reliability of the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury version 2 scale and the repeatability of the time to walk 10 m in chronic subjects. In this reliability study, 26 subjects from the United States and Italy with spinal cord injury/disorder were tested by two blinded raters on two separate days to determine self-selected and maximum Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury levels and the time to complete a 10-m walk. Subjects were progressed from self-selected to maximum Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury incrementally until they failed the higher level. Intraclass correlations were calculated for Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury levels and repeatability coefficients for the 10-m time. Twenty-two of 26 subjects showed increases of one to eight levels from self-selected to maximum Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury, whereas 10-m walking time remained relatively unchanged (n = 15) or increased markedly (n = 7). Inter- and intrarater reliabilities were 1.00 for the self-selected Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury level. Intrarater reliability for the maximum level was 1.0; interrater reliability was 0.98. Repeatability coefficients for time to walk 10 m were smaller (better) at self-selected than at maximum Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury and on the same day than on different days. On same-day assessments, repeatability coefficients were 18%-20% of 10-m walk time, excluding subjects with discrepant Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury levels (n = 2). For different-day assessments, repeatability coefficients were 27%-35% of 10-m walk time. The determination of both self-selected and maximum Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury levels is highly reliable, whereas 10-m walking time is more variable. Walking "profiles" of speed at self-selected and maximum Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury may better characterize walking ability than a single Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury level.

  2. Walking trajectory in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, RB; Brouwer, WH; Hof, AL; Dekker, R; Mulder, T; Postema, K

    A lateral deviation of the walking trajectory is often observed in stroke patients with unilateral spatial neglect. However, existing research appears to be contradictory regarding the direction of this deviation. The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the walking trajectory of

  3. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Justus D; Beck, Owen N; Roby, Jaclyn M; Turney, Aria L; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. 15 older adults (69 ± 3 years) who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years) who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461) and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (peconomy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  4. Quantum walks and search algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Portugal, Renato

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses an interesting area of quantum computation called quantum walks, which play an important role in building quantum algorithms, in particular search algorithms. Quantum walks are the quantum analogue of classical random walks. It is known that quantum computers have great power for searching unsorted databases. This power extends to many kinds of searches, particularly to the problem of finding a specific location in a spatial layout, which can be modeled by a graph. The goal is to find a specific node knowing that the particle uses the edges to jump from one node to the next. This book is self-contained with main topics that include: Grover's algorithm, describing its geometrical interpretation and evolution by means of the spectral decomposition of the evolution operater Analytical solutions of quantum walks on important graphs like line, cycles, two-dimensional lattices, and hypercubes using Fourier transforms Quantum walks on generic graphs, describing methods to calculate the limiting d...

  5. Identifying Walking Trips Using GPS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gi-Hyoug; Rodríguez, Daniel A; Evenson, Kelly R

    2011-02-01

    this study developed and tested algorithms to identify outdoor walking trips from portable global positioning system (GPS) units in free-living conditions. the study included a calibration and a validation phase. For the calibration phase, we determined the best algorithm from 35 person-days of data. Measures of agreement regarding the daily number and duration of diary-reported and GPS-identified trips were used. In the validation phase, the best algorithm was applied to an additional and separate 136 person-days of diary and GPS data. the preferred algorithm in the calibration phase resulted in 90% of trips identified from the GPS data being found in the diary, whereas 81% of trips reported in the diary being found in the GPS data. The preferred algorithm used 1) a maximum 3-min gap between points to define a trip, 2) at least 5 min or more of continuous GPS points, 3) a speed range between 2 and 8.0 km·h, 4) at least 30 m of displacement between the start and end points of a trip, and 5) merged walking trips when the time gap between trips was less than 3 min. With the validation data, substantial agreement between the GPS and the diary was achieved, with 86% of trips identified from the GPS data found in the diary and 77% of trips reported in the diary found in the GPS data. the algorithm identified free-living walking trips of more than 5 min in duration. The ability to identify outdoor walking trips from GPS data can be improved by reducing recording intervals used in the GPS units and monitoring participant compliance. Further research is desirable to determine whether concurrent wearing of an accelerometer may improve the ability to detect walking more accurately.

  6. Walking for art's sake

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

      The man who compared himself to a proton ! On 20 May, Gianni Motti went down into the LHC tunnel and walked around the 27 kilometres of the underground ring at an average, unaccelerated pace of 5 kph. This was an artistic rather than an athletic performance, aimed at drawing a parallel between the fantastic speed of the beams produced by the future accelerator and the leisurely stroll of a human. The artist, who hails from Lombardy, was accompanied by cameraman Ivo Zanetti, who filmed the event from start to finish, and physicist Jean-Pierre Merlo. The first part of the film can be seen at the Villa Bernasconi, 8 route du Grand-Lancy, Grand Lancy, until 26 June.

  7. Walking for art's sake

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The man who compared himself to a proton ! On 20 May, Gianni Motti went down into the LHC tunnel and walked around the 27 kilometres of the underground ring at an average, unaccelerated pace of 5 kph. This was an artistic rather than an athletic performance, aimed at drawing a parallel between the fantastic speed of the beams produced by the future accelerator and the leisurely stroll of a human. The artist, who hails from Lombardy, was accompanied by cameraman Ivo Zanetti, who filmed the event from start to finish, and physicist Jean-Pierre Merlo. The first part of the film can be seen at the Villa Bernasconi, 8 route du Grand-Lancy, Grand Lancy, until 26 June.

  8. walk around Irkutsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is noteworthy that this country develops through two types of events: either through a jubilee or through a catastrophe.It seems that Irkutsk Airport will be built only after the next crash. At least the interest to this problem returns regularly after sad events, and this occurs almost half a century (a jubilee, too! – the Council of Ministers decided to relocate the Airport away from the city as long ago as 1962. The Airport does not relate to the topic of this issue, but an attentive reader understands that it is our Carthage, and that the Airport should be relocated. The Romans coped with it faster and more effectively.Back to Irkutsk’s jubilee, we should say that we will do without blare of trumpets. We will just make an unpretentious walk around the city in its summer 350. Each our route covers new (some of them have been completed by the jubilee and old buildings, some of them real monuments. All these buildings are integrated into public spaces of different quality and age.We will also touch on the problems, for old houses, especially the wooden ones often provoke a greedy developer to demolish or to burn them down. Thus a primitive thrift estimates an output of additional square meters. Not to mention how attractive it is to seize public spaces without demolition or without reallocation of the dwellers. Or, rather, the one who is to preserve, to cherish and to improve such houses for the good of the citizens never speaks about this sensitive issue. So we have to do it.Walking is a no-hurry genre, unlike the preparation for the celebration. Walking around the city you like is a pleasant and cognitive process. It will acquaint the architects with the works of their predecessors and colleagues. We hope that such a walk may be interesting for Irkutsk citizens and visitors, too. Isn’t it interesting to learn “at first hand” the intimate details of the restoration of the Trubetskoys’ estate

  9. Identification of walking human model using agent-based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabpoor, Erfan; Pavic, Aleksandar; Racic, Vitomir

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of walking people with large vibrating structures, such as footbridges and floors, in the vertical direction is an important yet challenging phenomenon to describe mathematically. Several different models have been proposed in the literature to simulate interaction of stationary people with vibrating structures. However, the research on moving (walking) human models, explicitly identified for vibration serviceability assessment of civil structures, is still sparse. In this study, the results of a comprehensive set of FRF-based modal tests were used, in which, over a hundred test subjects walked in different group sizes and walking patterns on a test structure. An agent-based model was used to simulate discrete traffic-structure interactions. The occupied structure modal parameters found in tests were used to identify the parameters of the walking individual's single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) mass-spring-damper model using 'reverse engineering' methodology. The analysis of the results suggested that the normal distribution with the average of μ = 2.85Hz and standard deviation of σ = 0.34Hz can describe human SDOF model natural frequency. Similarly, the normal distribution with μ = 0.295 and σ = 0.047 can describe the human model damping ratio. Compared to the previous studies, the agent-based modelling methodology proposed in this paper offers significant flexibility in simulating multi-pedestrian walking traffics, external forces and simulating different mechanisms of human-structure and human-environment interaction at the same time.

  10. Why Do Knuckle-Walking African Apes Knuckle-Walk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott W; Latimer, Bruce; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2018-03-01

    Among living mammals, only the African apes and some anteaters adopt knuckle-walking as their primary locomotor behavior. That Pan and Gorilla both knuckle-walk has been cited as evidence of their common ancestry and a primitive condition for a combined Homo, Pan, and Gorilla clade. Recent research on forelimb ontogeny and anatomy, in addition to recently described hominin fossils, indicate that knuckle-walking was independently acquired after divergence of the Pan and Gorilla lineages. Although the large-bodied, largely suspensory orangutan shares some aspects of the African ape bauplan, it does not regularly knuckle-walk when terrestrial. While many anatomical correlates of knuckle-walking have been identified, a functional explanation of this unusual locomotor pattern has yet to be proposed. Here, we argue that it was adopted by African apes as a means of ameliorating the consequences of repetitive impact loadings on the soft and hard tissues of the forelimb by employing isometric and/or eccentric contraction of antebrachial musculature during terrestrial locomotion. Evidence of this adaptation can be found in the differential size and fiber geometry of the forearm musculature, and differences in torso shape between the knuckle-walking and non-knuckle-walking apes (including humans). We also argue that some osteological features of the carpus and metacarpus that have been identified as adaptations to knuckle-walking are consequences of cartilage remodeling during ontogeny rather than traits limiting motion in the hand and wrist. An understanding of the functional basis of knuckle-walking provides an explanation of the locomotor parallelisms in modern Pan and Gorilla. Anat Rec, 301:496-514, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Modeling spatial segregation and travel cost influences on utilitarian walking: Towards policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Auchincloss, Amy H; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Brown, Daniel G; Riolo, Rick; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2015-05-01

    We develop an agent-based model of utilitarian walking and use the model to explore spatial and socioeconomic factors affecting adult utilitarian walking and how travel costs as well as various educational interventions aimed at changing attitudes can alter the prevalence of walking and income differentials in walking. The model is validated against US national data. We contrast realistic and extreme parameter values in our model and test effects of changing these parameters across various segregation and pricing scenarios while allowing for interactions between travel choice and place and for behavioral feedbacks. Results suggest that in addition to income differences in the perceived cost of time, the concentration of mixed land use (differential density of residences and businesses) are important determinants of income differences in walking (high income walk less), whereas safety from crime and income segregation on their own do not have large influences on income differences in walking. We also show the difficulty in altering walking behaviors for higher income groups who are insensitive to price and how adding to the cost of driving could increase the income differential in walking particularly in the context of segregation by income and land use. We show that strategies to decrease positive attitudes towards driving can interact synergistically with shifting cost structures to favor walking in increasing the percent of walking trips. Agent-based models, with their ability to capture dynamic processes and incorporate empirical data, are powerful tools to explore the influence on health behavior from multiple factors and test policy interventions.

  12. Implementation of interval walking training in patients with type 2 diabetes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Thomsen, RW; Berencsi, Klara

    2016-01-01

    and administrative registries, allowing extensive epidemiological studies of exercise in patients with T2D, such as the level of adherence to InterWalk training and long-term effectiveness surveys of important health outcomes, including cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Currently, the InterWalk app has been...... of exercise training in patients with T2D. The InterWalk initiative and its innovative application (app) for smartphones described in this study were developed by the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in T2D aiming at implementing, testing, and validating interval walking in patients with T2D in Denmark....... The interval walking training approach consists of repetitive 3-minute cycles of slow and fast walking with simultaneous intensity guiding, based on the exercise capacity of the user. The individual intensity during slow and fast walking is determined by a short initial self-conducted and audio-guided fitness...

  13. Walking index for spinal cord injury (WISCI): criterion validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, B; Scivoletto, G; Ditunno, P; Ditunno, J F; Molinari, M

    2005-01-01

    Retrospective examination. To compare the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI) and current scales for their sensitivity to walking changes in subjects with a spinal cord lesion (SCL) and further validate the WISCI for use in clinical trails. A large rehabilitation hospital in the center of Italy. Retrospective review was performed on 284 patient records with an SCL. Measurements included neurological evaluation with Lower Extremity Motor Scores (LEMS) according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and walking status assessed by Barthel Index (BI (0-15)), Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI (three levels)), Functional Independence Measure (FIM (1-7)), Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM (0-8)), and WISCI (0-20). The WISCI is a 21-level hierarchical scale which incorporates gradations of physical assistance and devices required for walking. Improvement in walking is based on the change of scores from admission to discharge. Statistical analysis included Spearman rank correlation and chi2 test; PSCIM r=0.97, Pindependent walking versus 4/17 ASIA B (P=0.02), 56/109 ASIA C (PSCIM levels. The most frequent WISCI levels at discharge were 13 (walker, no braces or assistance), 16 (two crutches, no braces or assistance) and 20 (no devices or assistance). Similar correlation between the WISCI and the other scales indicates that all these measures address the same concept, mobility, which is a measure of concurrent validity. The correlation is not 100% because of conceptual differences (the WISCI incorporates gradations of physical assistance and devices required for walking while most of the other scales focus on burden of care or mobility in the environment). The WISCI is more detailed and appears more sensitive to walking recovery than the other scales, as demonstrated by our patients' score distribution at discharge. Within each of the most frequent WISCI levels (13, 16, 20) LEMS and other walking features varied; therefore the scale would benefit from

  14. Physical Strain: A New Perspective on Walking in Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balemans, Astrid C; Bolster, Eline A; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2017-12-01

    To describe (1) physical strain of walking, (2) the proportion of participants walking above the anaerobic threshold, and (3) 4 phenotypes of physical strain of walking on the basis of deviations in aerobic capacity and walking energy cost (EC) in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Cohort study. Academic medical center. A sample (N=57) of participants (n=37; mean age, 13.5±4.0y) with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I [n=13], II [n=17], and III [n=7]) and typically developing (TD) participants (n=20; mean age, 11.8±3.5y). Not applicable. Oxygen consumption (Vo 2 walk), speed, and EC were determined during walking at a comfortable speed. Peak oxygen consumption (Vo 2 peak) and anaerobic threshold were measured during a maximal cycling exercise test. Aerobic capacity was reduced if lower than the 10th percentile, and EC was increased if higher than 3SD. Physical strain was defined as follows: (Vo 2 walk/Vo 2 peak)×100. Participants with CP had a higher physical strain (GMFCS level I, 55%±12% GMFCS level II, 62%±17%; GMFCS level III, 78%±14%) than did TD participants (40%±11%) (Pexercise and a considerable proportion walks close to or above their anaerobic threshold, probably explaining fatigue and reduced walking distance. Both an increased EC and a reduced Vo 2 peak contribute to high physical strain in children or adolescents with CP. The different causes of high physical strain in individuals with CP require different intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Constraining walking and custodial technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sannino, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We show how to constrain the physical spectrum of walking technicolor models via precision measurements and modified Weinberg sum rules. We also study models possessing a custodial symmetry for the S parameter at the effective Lagrangian level-custodial technicolor-and argue that these models...... cannot emerge from walking-type dynamics. We suggest that it is possible to have a very light spin-one axial (vector) boson. However, in the walking dynamics the associated vector boson is heavy while it is degenerate with the axial in custodial technicolor Udgivelsesdato: 19 May...

  16. Building the repertoire of measures of walking in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlhut, Michelle; Downs, Jenny; Leonard, Helen; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Nordmark, Eva

    2017-09-01

    The repertoire of measures of walking in Rett syndrome is limited. This study aimed to determine measurement properties of a modified two-minute walk test (2MWT) and a modified Rett syndrome-specific functional mobility scale (FMS-RS) in Rett syndrome. Forty-two girls and women with Rett syndrome (median 18.4 years, range 2.4-60.9 years) were assessed for clinical severity, gross motor skills, and mobility. To measure walking capacity, 27 of this group completed a 2MWT twice on two different assessment days. To assess walking performance, the FMS-RS was administered to the total sample of parents (n = 42) on two occasions approximately one week apart. There were negative correlations between clinical severity and 2MWT (r = -0.48) and FMS-RS (r = -0.60-0.66). There were positive correlations between gross motor skills and mobility and 2MWT (r = 0.51, 0.43) and FMS-RS (r = 0.71-0.93, 0.74-0.94), respectively. Test-retest reliability for the 2MWT was good with high intraday and interday correlations (ICC = 0.86-0.98). For the 2MWT, the standard error of measurement was 13.8 m and we would be 95% confident that changes greater than 38 m would be greater than within subject error. There was good test-retest reliability for all three distances on the FMS-RS (ICC = 0.94-0.99). Walking capacity as measured by the 2MWT showed expected but limited relationships with measures of different constructs, providing some support for concurrent validity. Walking performance as measured with the FMS-RS was more strongly consistent with other clinical measures supporting its concurrent validity. Test-retest reliability was good for both the FMS-RS and the 2MWT. Therefore, these measures have the potential to be used in clinical practice and research. Implications for Rehabilitation Walking is one of the commonest daily physical activities in ambulant girls and women with RTT. Comprehensive knowledge about the walking abilities in this population is

  17. The Dead Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself

  18. Walking while memorizing: age-related differences in compensatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K Z; Lindenberger, U; Freund, A M; Baltes, P B

    2001-05-01

    This study investigated predictions of the life-span theory of selection, optimization, and compensation, focusing on different patterns of task priority during dual-task performance in younger and older adults. Cognitive (memorizing) and sensorimotor (walking a narrow track) performance were measured singly, concurrently, and when task difficulty was manipulated. Use of external aids was measured to provide another index of task priority. Before dual-task testing, participants received extensive training with each component task and external aid. Age differences in dual-task costs were greater in memory performance than walking, suggesting that older adults prioritized walking over memory. Further, when given a choice of compensatory external aids to use, older adults optimized walking, whereas younger adults optimized memory performance. The results have broad implications for systemic theories of cognitive and sensorimotor aging, and the costs and benefits of assistive devices and environmental support for older populations.

  19. On your feet: protocol for a randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of pole walking and regular walking on physical and psychosocial health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Juliette O; Brown, Wendy J; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z

    2014-04-17

    Physical activity is associated with better physical and mental health in older adults. Pole walking is a form of walking which may have additional health benefits in older adults, because of the addition of hand held poles, and consequent upper limb involvement. However, few studies have examined the potential additional effects of pole walking on physical and psychosocial health in older adults compared with walking. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of a pole walking program with the effects of a walking program, on physical and psychosocial wellbeing, in older adults in assisted living facilities. Sixty men and women from assisted living communities over 65 years will be recruited from senior retirement facilities and randomized into a group based, pole walking program, or walking program. The pole walking group will use the Exerstrider method of pole walking. Total duration of the programs is 12 weeks, with three sessions per week, building from 20 minute to 30 minute sessions.The primary outcome is physical function, as measured by items from the Seniors Fitness Test and hand grip strength. Secondary outcomes include, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, joint pain, and quality of life. All outcomes will be assessed before and after the programs, using valid and reliable measures. The study will add to the evidence base for the effects of pole walking, compared with walking, on physical and psychosocial health and physical function, in healthy older adults. This will improve understanding about the feasibility of pole walking programs and its specific benefits in this population. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001127897.

  20. Walking around to grasp interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    -alongs the research-ers acted as facilitators and partners in the engagement with the sound installa-tions. The study provided good insight into advantages and challenges with the walk-along method, for instance the importance of shared, embodied sensing of space for the understanding of the experience. The common......The paper presents experiences from a study using walk-alongs to provide insight into museum visitors’ experience with interactive features of sound art installations. The overall goal of the study was to learn about the participants’ opinions and feelings about the possibility of interaction...... with the sound installations. The aim was to gain an understanding of the role of the in-teraction, if interaction makes a difference for the understanding of the sound art. 30 walking interviews were carried out at ZKM, Karlsruhe with a total of 57 museum guests, individuals or groups. During the walk...

  1. Stair-Walking Performance in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Yun Shieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID demonstrate problems in learning and movement coordination. Consequently, they usually have difficulties in activities such as standing, walking, and stair climbing. To monitor the physical impairments of these children, regular gross motor evaluation is crucial. Straight-line level walking is the most frequently used test of their mobility. However, numerous studies have found that unless the children have multiple disabilities, no significant differences can be found between the children with ID and typically-developed children in this test. Stair climbing presents more challenges than level walking because it is associated with numerous physical factors, including lower extremity strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, vision, balance, and fear of falling. Limited ability in those factors is one of the most vital markers for children with ID. In this paper, we propose a sensor-based approach for measuring stair-walking performance, both upstairs and downstairs, for adolescents with ID. Particularly, we address the problem of sensor calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. In total, 62 participants aged 15 to 21 years, namely 32 typically-developed (TD adolescents, 20 adolescents with ID, and 10 adolescents with multiple disabilities (MD, participated. The experimental results showed that stair-walking is more sensitive than straight-line level walking in capturing gait characteristics for adolescents with ID.

  2. Walking behavior in technicolored GUTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doff, A.

    2009-01-01

    There exist two ways to obtain walk behavior: assuming a large number of technifermions in the fundamental representation of the technicolor (TC) gauge group, or a small number of technifermions, assuming that these fermions are in higher-dimensional representations of the TC group. We propose a scheme to obtain the walking behavior based on technicolored GUTs (TGUTs), where elementary scalars with the TC degree of freedom may remain in the theory after the GUT symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  3. Walking behavior in technicolored GUTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doff, A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana-UTFPR-COMAT, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    There exist two ways to obtain walk behavior: assuming a large number of technifermions in the fundamental representation of the technicolor (TC) gauge group, or a small number of technifermions, assuming that these fermions are in higher-dimensional representations of the TC group. We propose a scheme to obtain the walking behavior based on technicolored GUTs (TGUTs), where elementary scalars with the TC degree of freedom may remain in the theory after the GUT symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  4. Walking and Sustainable Urban Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Khashayar Kashani Jou

    2012-01-01

    Walking as a type of non-motorized transportation has various social, economical and environmental privileges. Also, today different aspects of sustainable development have been emphasized and promotion of sustainable transportation modes has been considered according to this approach. Therefore, the objective of this research is exploring the circumstance of relationship between walking and sustainable urban transportation.For writing this article, the most important res...

  5. Walking technicolor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    Recent work on technicolor theories with small β-functions has shown that the flavour changing neutral current problem which besets any realistic extended technicolor model might be solved by Holdom's original suggestion of raising the extended technicolor scales. In this paper we apply these field theoretic ideas to the problem of constructing a realistic model of the quark and lepton mass spectrum. We discuss two closely related models: (1) An extended technicolor model based on the gauge group SO(10) ETC x SO(10) GUT ; (2) A composite/elementary extended technicolor model based on the gauge group SO(10) MC x SO(10) ETC x SU(5) GUT . Model (1) is relatively simple, and contains three families of quarks and leptons plus an SO(7) TC family of technifermions. The technicolor sector corresponds to one of the examples of walking technicolor discussed by Appelquist et al. The model is fully discussed with particular emphasis on the resulting quark and lepton mass spectrum. Charged lepton masses are adequately described, but the quark masses are degenerate in pairs with zero mixig angles. Model (2) shares the desirable low energy spectrum of Model (1) but in addition provides a mechanism for enhancing the mass of u-type quarks relative to d-type quarks, based on non-perturbative compositeness corrections. We discuss these compositeness corrections, as far as a perturbative treatment allows, and develop techniques for calculating quark masses and mixing angles. We apply these techniques to the first two families of quarks, and are encouraged to find that we can reproduce the observed features of u-d mass inversion for the first family, and Cabibbo mixing. Model (2) leads to the prediction of D 0 -anti D 0 mixing, K L → e ± μ -+ , K + → π + e - μ + , all at rates close to current experimental limits. The model also predicts three families and a top quark mass m t ≅ 50 GeV. (orig.)

  6. Visual evoked responses during standing and walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Gramann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cognition has been shaped both by our body structure and by its complex interactionswith its environment. Our cognition is thus inextricably linked to our own and others’ motorbehavior. To model brain activity associated with natural cognition, we propose recording theconcurrent brain dynamics and body movements of human subjects performing normal actions.Here we tested the feasibility of such a mobile brain/body (MoBI imaging approach byrecording high-density electroencephalographic (EEG activity and body movements of subjectsstanding or walking on a treadmill while performing a visual oddball response task. Independentcomponent analysis (ICA of the EEG data revealed visual event-related potentials (ERPs thatduring standing, slow walking, and fast walking did not differ across movement conditions,demonstrating the viability of recording brain activity accompanying cognitive processes duringwhole body movement. Non-invasive and relatively low-cost MoBI studies of normal, motivatedactions might improve understanding of interactions between brain and body dynamics leadingto more complete biological models of cognition.

  7. Intelligence Stamina : A reservoir of intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 昭夫

    2010-01-01

    Stamina is indispensable in human behavior when we achieve our daily tasks in our lives like reading as well as in running or playing sports. Stamina is the infrastructure of human actlons. However, stamina in the cognitive activities has been far from the limelight of academic research. This paper aims to introdロce Intelligence Sta血na as a reservoir of intelligence or a storage of intelligence like a computer’sbyte fbr memory, Intelligence Stamina will also be a help fbr understanding  Readi...

  8. Relação da função muscular respiratória e de membros inferiores de idosos comunitários com a capacidade funcional avaliada por teste de caminhada Relationship between functional capacity assessed by walking test and respiratory and lower limb muscle function in community-dwelling elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Simões

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A sarcopenia é considerada o fator mais significativo na redução da força muscular periférica e respiratória e pode ocasionar incapacidades progressivas, perda de independência e interferir na capacidade funcional dos idosos. OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar a força dos músculos respiratórios (pressão inspiratória máxima - PImax e pressão expiratória máxima - PEmax e de membros inferiores (MMII, bem como as possíveis correlações existentes com a capacidade funcional dos idosos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e cinco idosos, com 71,7±4,9 anos; foram avaliados por dinamometria isocinética para flexores e extensores dos joelhos, manovacuometria analógica para os músculos respiratórios pelo teste de caminhada de 6 minutos para capacidade funcional. Foram utilizados os testes Mann-Whitney e t de Student para comparação entre os gêneros. As correlações foram calculadas pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Para todos os testes foi considerado pBACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is the most significant factor in the decline of peripheral and respiratory muscle strength. It can lead to progressive disability, loss of independence and impaired functional capacity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the strength of respiratory muscles (maximal inspiratory pressure - MIP and maximal expiratory pressure - MEP and lower limb muscles, and to explore the possible relationships between these variables and the functional capacity of the elderly. METHODS: Sixty-five elderly patients (71.7±4.9 years old took part in the study. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to assess the knee flexors and extensors, an analog vacuum manometer was used to assess the respiratory muscles, and the six-minute walking test was used as an outcome of functional capacity. The Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test were used for gender comparison. The relationships were investigated using Pearson's correlation. The significance level was p<0.05. RESULTS: The lower limb and

  9. Understanding the relationship between walking aids and falls in older adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman de Mettelinge, Tine; Cambier, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of older adults living in residential aged care facilities are use wheelchairs or walk with aids. The relationship between using walking aids and falling is somewhat inconsistent and poorly understood. To investigate the use of walking aids as a risk factor for future falls among older adults living in residential aged care facilities and to identify spatiotemporal gait parameters that mediate the potential relationship between walking aids and falling. Forty-three older adults (22 using walking aids and 21 not using walking aids) living in residential aged care facilities were enrolled in this study. Fall history, fear of falling, and the use of psychotropic agents were registered. Spatiotemporal gait (GAITRite®), grip strength (Jamar®), and cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and Clock Drawing Test) were assessed. Falls were prospectively recorded during a 12-month follow-up period using monthly calendars. Individuals using walking aids were older (P = .012), had a greater fear of falling (P = .017), and demonstrated a more conservative gait pattern compared with those not using walking aids. They walked slower (P fall ("fallers"). Univariate logistic regression identified using walking aids as a risk factor for future falls (odds ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-14.37; P = .035). A lower cadence, increased stance percentage, decreased swing percentage, increased age, and greater psychotropic drug intake were mediators that reduced the odds ratio of the relationship between using walking aids and faller status the most. Using walking aids is a risk factor for future falls among the older population living in residential settings. A substantial proportion of the relationship between walking aids and future falls could be explained by an altered spatiotemporal gait pattern, increased age, and psychotropic drug intake. This finding supports the aim of extensive training periods and appropriate instructions on the

  10. Distances walked in the six-minute walk test: suggestion of defining characteristic for the nursing diagnosis Ineffective Peripheral Tissue Perfusion Distancias recorridas en la prueba de caminata de los seis minutos: propuesta de característica definitoria para el diagnóstico de enfermería Perfusión Tisular Periférica Inefectiva Distâncias percorridas no teste de caminhada de seis minutos: proposta de característica definidora para o diagnóstico de enfermagem Perfusão Tissular Periférica Ineficaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Gengo e Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Distances walked in walking tests are important functional markers, although they are not accepted as defining characteristics of Ineffective Peripheral Tissue Perfusion. The aims of this study were to verify the distances participants with and without this nursing diagnosis walked in the six-minute walk test and if these measures may be considered defining characteristics of this phenomenon. Participants with (group A; n=65 and without (group B; n=17 this nursing diagnosis were evaluated regarding physical examination, vascular function and functional capacity. Participants of group A seemed to have worse vascular function and functional capacity compared with those of group B. Pain-free travelled distance was predictive of the nursing diagnosis. These results are important for the refinement of this diagnosis. In conclusion, this study provides evidences that the distances walked in the six-minute walk test may be considered defining characteristics of Ineffective Peripheral Tissue Perfusion.Las distancias en pruebas de marcha son importantes marcadores funcionales, pero no son aceptados como características de definición de la Perfusión Tisular Periférica Inefectiva. Los objetivos fueron determinar las distancias recorridas en la prueba de caminata de los seis minutos por los participantes con e sin el diagnóstico de enfermería y si esas medidas se pueden considerar características de definición de este fenómeno. Los participantes con (grupo A, n=65 y sin (grupo B, n=17 el diagnóstico fueron evaluados mediante examen físico, función vascular periférica y capacidad funcional. Los participantes del grupo A ha presentado peor función vascular y desempeño en la prueba de marcha do que aquellos del grupo B. La distancia recorrida libre de dolor fue predictiva del diagnóstico de enfermería. Los resultados de este estudio pueden contribuir para el refinamiento de este diagnóstico. Las distancias recorridas en la prueba de marcha se

  11. Reliability and Validity of Ten Consumer Activity Trackers Depend on Walking Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, Tryntsje; Kooiman, Thea J M; Krijnen, Wim P; VAN DER Schans, Cees P; DE Groot, Martijn

    2017-04-01

    To examine the test-retest reliability and validity of ten activity trackers for step counting at three different walking speeds. Thirty-one healthy participants walked twice on a treadmill for 30 min while wearing 10 activity trackers (Polar Loop, Garmin Vivosmart, Fitbit Charge HR, Apple Watch Sport, Pebble Smartwatch, Samsung Gear S, Misfit Flash, Jawbone Up Move, Flyfit, and Moves). Participants walked three walking speeds for 10 min each; slow (3.2 km·h), average (4.8 km·h), and vigorous (6.4 km·h). To measure test-retest reliability, intraclass correlations (ICC) were determined between the first and second treadmill test. Validity was determined by comparing the trackers with the gold standard (hand counting), using mean differences, mean absolute percentage errors, and ICC. Statistical differences were calculated by paired-sample t tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and by constructing Bland-Altman plots. Test-retest reliability varied with ICC ranging from -0.02 to 0.97. Validity varied between trackers and different walking speeds with mean differences between the gold standard and activity trackers ranging from 0.0 to 26.4%. Most trackers showed relatively low ICC and broad limits of agreement of the Bland-Altman plots at the different speeds. For the slow walking speed, the Garmin Vivosmart and Fitbit Charge HR showed the most accurate results. The Garmin Vivosmart and Apple Watch Sport demonstrated the best accuracy at an average walking speed. For vigorous walking, the Apple Watch Sport, Pebble Smartwatch, and Samsung Gear S exhibited the most accurate results. Test-retest reliability and validity of activity trackers depends on walking speed. In general, consumer activity trackers perform better at an average and vigorous walking speed than at a slower walking speed.

  12. Effects of a 6-month exercise program pilot study on walking economy, peak physiological characteristics, and walking performance in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther RG

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Robert G Crowther1, Anthony S Leicht1, Warwick L Spinks1, Kunwarjit Sangla2, Frank Quigley2, Jonathan Golledge2,31Institute of Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia; 2Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland, Australia; 3The Vascular Biology Unit, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract : The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-month exercise program on submaximal walking economy in individuals with peripheral arterial disease and intermittent claudication (PAD-IC. Participants (n = 16 were randomly allocated to either a control PAD-IC group (CPAD-IC, n = 6 which received standard medical therapy, or a treatment PAD-IC group (TPAD-IC; n = 10 which took part in a supervised exercise program. During a graded treadmill test, physiological responses, including oxygen consumption, were assessed to calculate walking economy during submaximal and maximal walking performance. Differences between groups at baseline and post-intervention were analyzed via Kruskal–Wallis tests. At baseline, CPAD-IC and TPAD-IC groups demonstrated similar walking performance and physiological responses. Postintervention, TPAD-IC patients demonstrated significantly lower oxygen consumption during the graded exercise test, and greater maximal walking performance compared to CPAD-IC. These preliminary results indicate that 6 months of regular exercise improves both submaximal walking economy and maximal walking performance, without significant changes in maximal walking economy. Enhanced walking economy may contribute to physiological efficiency, which in turn may improve walking performance as demonstrated by PAD-IC patients following regular exercise programs.Keywords: vascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, walking economy

  13. Safe RESIDential Environments? A longitudinal analysis of the influence of crime-related safety on walking

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Christian, Hayley; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have investigated the premise that the perception of crime will cause residents to constrain their walking; however the findings to date are inconclusive. In contrast, few longitudinal or prospective studies have examined the impact of crime-related safety on residents walking behaviours. This study used longitudinal data to test whether there is a causal relationship between crime-related safety and walking in the local neighbourhood. Methods Parti...

  14. Combining Fast-Walking Training and a Step Activity Monitoring Program to Improve Daily Walking Activity After Stroke: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, Kelly A; Pohlig, Ryan; Reisman, Darcy S

    2016-09-01

    To determine preliminary efficacy and to identify baseline characteristics predicting who would benefit most from fast walking training plus a step activity monitoring program (FAST+SAM) compared with fast walking training (FAST) alone in persons with chronic stroke. Randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors. Outpatient clinical research laboratory. Individuals (N=37) >6 months poststroke. Subjects were assigned to either FAST, which was walking training at their fastest possible speed on the treadmill (30min) and overground 3 times per week for 12 weeks, or FAST+SAM. The step activity monitoring program consisted of daily step monitoring with an activity monitor, goal setting, and identification of barriers to activity and strategies to overcome barriers. Daily step activity metrics (steps/day [SPD], time walking per day), walking speed, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance. There was a significant effect of time for both groups, with all outcomes improving from pre- to posttraining (all P values program to a fast walking training intervention may be most effective in persons with chronic stroke who have initial low levels of walking endurance and activity. Regardless of baseline performance, the FAST+SAM intervention was more effective for improving walking endurance. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do muscle strengthening exercises improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in postmenopausal women? O exercício de força muscular é eficiente para melhorar o desempenho no teste de caminhada de 6 minutos em mulheres pós-menopausais?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia G. Reis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Walking speed seems to be related to aerobic capacity, lower limb strength, and functional mobility, however it is not clear whether there is a direct relationship between improvement in muscle strength and gait performance in early postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of muscle strengthening exercises on the performance of the 6-minute walk test in women within 5 years of menopause. METHODS: The women were randomized into control group (n=31, which performed no exercise, and exercise group (n=27, which performed muscle strengthening exercises. The exercises were performed twice a week for 3 months. The exercise protocol consisted of warm-up, stretching, and strengthening of the quadriceps, hamstring, calf, tibialis anterior, gluteus maximus, and abdominal muscles, followed by relaxation. Muscular strength training started with 60% of 1MR (2 series of 10-15 repetitions, reaching 85% until the end of the 3-month period (4 series of 6 repetitions each. RESULTS: The between-group comparisons pre- and post-intervention did not show any difference in distance walked, heart rate or blood pressure (p>0.05, but showed differences in muscle strength post-intervention, with the exercise group showing greater strength (p CONCLUSION: The results suggest that muscle strengthening of the lower limbs did not improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in this population of postmenopausal women.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A velocidade de marcha parece estar relacionada com a capacidade aeróbica, força dos músculos dos membros inferiores e mobilidade funcional. Entretanto, não está claro se existe uma relação direta entre a melhora da força muscular e o desempenho da marcha em mulheres pós-menopausais recentes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de exercícios de fortalecimento muscular sobre o desempenho no teste de caminhada de 6 minutos em mulheres nos primeiros cinco anos após a menopausa. MÉTODOS: As mulheres foram randomizadas

  16. Walking Distance Estimation Using Walking Canes with Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Cong Dang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A walking distance estimation algorithm for cane users is proposed using an inertial sensor unit attached to various positions on the cane. A standard inertial navigation algorithm using an indirect Kalman filter was applied to update the velocity and position of the cane during movement. For quadripod canes, a standard zero-velocity measurement-updating method is proposed. For standard canes, a velocity-updating method based on an inverted pendulum model is proposed. The proposed algorithms were verified by three walking experiments with two different types of canes and different positions of the sensor module.

  17. Walking Distance Estimation Using Walking Canes with Inertial Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Duc Cong; Suh, Young Soo

    2018-01-15

    A walking distance estimation algorithm for cane users is proposed using an inertial sensor unit attached to various positions on the cane. A standard inertial navigation algorithm using an indirect Kalman filter was applied to update the velocity and position of the cane during movement. For quadripod canes, a standard zero-velocity measurement-updating method is proposed. For standard canes, a velocity-updating method based on an inverted pendulum model is proposed. The proposed algorithms were verified by three walking experiments with two different types of canes and different positions of the sensor module.

  18. Performed and perceived walking ability in relation to the Expanded Disability Status Scale in persons with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeskov-Christensen, D; Feys, P; Baert, I

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The severity of walking impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) at different levels on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) is unclear. Furthermore, it is unclear if the EDSS is differently related to performed- and perceived walking capacity tests. AIMS: To quantify...... walking impairment and perceived impact of MS on walking according to EDSS scores and to examine the relations between these parameters in pwMS. METHODS: EDSS was collected by neurologists and walking was assessed by the timed 25ft walk test (T25FWT), two minute walk test (2MWT), six minute walk test (6......MWT) and the 12-item MS walking scale (MSWS-12) in 474 PwMS with mild (EDSS 1-4: n=200) to moderate (EDSS 4.5-6.5: n=274) MS. Magnitude of walking impairment was calculated and related to EDSS. RESULTS: Compared to predicted values in healthy controls, walking speed was reduced by 41.5±25.8% in the 6...

  19. Influência do dreno pleural sobre a dor, capacidade vital e teste de caminhada de seis minutos em pacientes submetidos à ressecção pulmonar Influence of pleural drainage on postoperative pain, vital capacity and six-minute walk test after pulmonary resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pereira de Lima

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do dreno pleural sobre a distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos, da intensidade da dor e da capacidade vital de pacientes submetidos à ressecção pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados treze pacientes consecutivos, internados na Enfermaria da Cirurgia de Tórax do Hospital São Paulo, submetidos à drenagem pleural fechada (dreno tubular multiperfurado de 0,5 polegada, no período pós-operatório de ressecção pulmonar (lobectomia, segmentectomia e nodulectomia. A opção pela retirada do dreno seguiu critérios clínicos definidos por médicos da equipe cirúrgica alheios ao estudo. A determinação da capacidade vital, da intensidade da dor através da escala visual analógica de dor e da distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos foram realizadas 30 min antes da retirada do dreno e 30 min após. A análise estatística dos dados foi realizada através do teste t pareado, com nível de significância estabelecido em 0,05. RESULTADOS: Após a retirada do dreno, os valores obtidos na avaliação da escala visual analógica de dor foram significativamente menores (3,46 cm vs. 1,77 cm; p = 0,001, e a distância percorrida no teste de caminhada de seis minutos foi significativamente maior (374,34 m vs. 444,62 m; p = 0,03. A capacidade vital antes e após a retirada do dreno não foi alterada de forma significativa (2,15 L vs. 2,25 L, respectivamente; p = 0,540. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que a presença do dreno pleural é um importante fator associado à dor pós-operatória e à limitação funcional em pacientes submetidos à ressecção pulmonar.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of pleural drainage on the distance covered on the six-minute walk test, pain intensity and vital capacity in patients submitted to pulmonary resection. METHODS: Thirteen consecutive patients from the Thoracic Surgery Infirmary of Hospital São Paulo, Brazil, submitted to

  20. Pedagogies of the Walking Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Peters

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the trope of the zombie and the recent upsurge in popular culture surrounding the figure of the zombie described as the “walking dead”. We investigate this trope and figure as a means of analyzing the “pedagogy of the walking dead” with particular attention to the crisis of education in the era of neoliberal capitalism. In particular we examine the professionalization and responsibilization of teachers in the new regulative environment and ask whether there is any room left for the project of critical education.

  1. Slow walking model for children with multiple disabilities via an application of humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ZeFeng; Peyrodie, Laurent; Cao, Hua; Agnani, Olivier; Watelain, Eric; Wang, HaoPing

    2016-02-01

    Walk training research with children having multiple disabilities is presented. Orthosis aid in walking for children with multiple disabilities such as Cerebral Palsy continues to be a clinical and technological challenge. In order to reduce pain and improve treatment strategies, an intermediate structure - humanoid robot NAO - is proposed as an assay platform to study walking training models, to be transferred to future special exoskeletons for children. A suitable and stable walking model is proposed for walk training. It would be simulated and tested on NAO. This comparative study of zero moment point (ZMP) supports polygons and energy consumption validates the model as more stable than the conventional NAO. Accordingly direction variation of the center of mass and the slopes of linear regression knee/ankle angles, the Slow Walk model faithfully emulates the gait pattern of children.

  2. Utilização do teste de caminhada de 6 minutos no manejo da hipertensão pulmonar Utilización del test de caminata de 6 minutos en el manejo de la hipertensión pulmonar Use of 6-minute walk test in pulmonary hypertension management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elize Fumagalli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (T6 é utilizado na avaliação de doenças cardiopulmonares por sua capacidade prognóstica, facilidade de realização e reprodutibilidade. A hipertensão pulmonar (HP é definida e classificada como uma consequência hemodinâmica que leva ao aumento da pressão arterial pulmonar, podendo resultar em uma falência ventricular direita e com consequente morte. Este relato de caso retrata a indicação do T6 pela equipe de cardiologia de um hospital universitário como forma de controle funcional de um paciente com HP, pós-introdução e início da terapêutica.El test de caminata de 6 minutos (T6 es utilizado en la evaluación de enfermedades cardiopulmonares por su capacidad de pronóstico, facilidad de realización y reproductibilidad. La hipertensión pulmonar (HP es definida y clasificada como una consecuencia hemodinámica que lleva al aumento de la presión arterial pulmonar, pudiendo resultar en una falencia ventricular derecha y con consiguiente muerte. Este relato de caso retrata la indicación del T6 por el equipo de cardiología de un hospital universitario como forma de control funcional de un paciente con HP, post introducción e inicio de la terapéutica.The 6-minute walk test (T6 is used to assess cardiopulmonary diseases due to its prognosis capacity, easy performance and reproducibility. Pulmonary hypertension (PH is defined and classified as a hemodynamic consequence leading to increased pulmonary arterial pressure and may result in right ventricular failure and consequent death. This case reports the prescription of T6 by the cardiology team at a university hospital as a means of physical control of a patient with HP, after the introduction and initiation of therapy.

  3. Walk Score(TM), Perceived Neighborhood Walkability, and walking in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckel, Peter; Milczarski, William

    2015-03-01

    To investigate both the Walk Score(TM) and a self-reported measure of neighborhood walkability ("Perceived Neighborhood Walkability") as estimators of transport and recreational walking among Americans. The study is based upon a survey of a nationally-representative sample of 1224 American adults. The survey gauged walking for both transport and recreation and included a self-reported measure of neighborhood walkability and each respondent's Walk Score(TM). Binary logistic and linear regression analyses were performed on the data. The Walk Score(TM) is associated with walking for transport, but not recreational walking nor total walking. Perceived Neighborhood Walkability is associated with transport, recreational and total walking. Perceived Neighborhood Walkability captures the experiential nature of walking more than the Walk Score(TM).

  4. Diferentes padronizações do teste da caminhada de seis minutos como método para mensuração da capacidade de exercício de idosos com e sem cardiopatia clinicamente evidente Different patterns for the 6-minute walk test as a test to measure exercise ability in elderly with and without clinically evident cardiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clênia Oliveira Araújo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a correlação do consumo de oxigênio pico (VO2pico, no teste cardiopulmonar, com a distância percorrida no teste da caminhada de seis minutos (TC6 em idosos saudáveis e com infarto do miocárdio (IM. MÉTODOS: Avaliados 30 indivíduos, idade entre 65 e 87 anos (76,03 ± 4,75, divididos em 2 grupos: Grupo I - 14 com doença cardíaca clinicamente evidente (DCCE Grupo II - 16 sem DCCE. Foram submetidos ao teste cardiopulmonar (TCP e a 2 tipos de TC6. As variáveis mensuradas foram: a freqüência cardíaca (FC e respiratória (FR, pressão arterial (PA, distância percorrida (DP, e a percepção subjetiva de esforço de BORG. RESULTADOS: O estudo mostrou uma forte correlação das distâncias percorridas, em ambas as formas do (TC6, com o VO2pico obtido no TCP, em todos idosos incluídos neste estudo. Na comparação entre os TC6, quando aplicado com acompanhamento (TC6ac e sem acompanhamento (TC6s, foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante, com maiores valores médios da DP, da FC e FR, e da percepção subjetiva de esforço no TC6ac, em ambos os grupos. Além disso, a FC atingida ao final do esforço, no TC6ac, foi semelhante à obtida no TCP máximo (p OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the correlation between peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak, from cardiopulmonary test with the distance covered in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in healthy elderly and with myocardial infarction (MI. METHODS: Thirty individuals were studied, with age range 65 - 87 years (76, 03± 4,75, divided into 2 groups: Group I - 14 with clinically evident coronary heart disease (CHD and Group II - 16 without clinically evident CHD. They were submitted to cardiopulmonary test (CPT and 2 types of 6MWT, standard test 6MWTs. Variables measure at rest and exertion were heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RR, blood pressure (BP, distance covered (DC, and Borg’s rate subjective perceived exertion (RPE. RESULTS: The study showed significant, strong

  5. Equações de referência para o teste de caminhada de seis minutos em indivíduos saudáveis Ecuaciones de referencia para el test de caminata de seis minutos en individuos sanos Reference equations for the 6-minute walk test in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zuniga Dourado

    2011-06-01

    en inglés (LILACS, SCIELO, MEDLINE y PUBMED, que evaluaron los valores normales y elaboraron ecuaciones de referencia para la previsión de la DTC6 en individuos sanos, comparándolos a los resultados recientemente obtenidos en individuos brasileños. Edad, género, peso, estatura e índice de masa corporal fueron los atributos demográficos y antropométricos más frecuentemente correlacionados con la DTC6. Las ecuaciones resultantes de esos atributos fueron capaces de explicar entre 25 y 66% de la variabilidad total de la DTC6. Lamentablemente, las ecuaciones extranjeras no son adecuadas para la población brasileña. Aun cuando el test es realizado bajo estandarización rigurosa, la diferencia de performance en el TC6 entre extranjeros y brasileños permanece, indicando la necesidad de los valores de referencias específicos para cada población y/o etnia. En ese sentido, las ecuaciones desarrolladas recientemente en el Brasil son, probablemente, las más apropiadas para interpretar la performance de caminata de nuestros compatriotas con enfermedades crónicas que afectan su capacidad para realizar ejercicios. Estudios futuros con muestras substancialmente mayores (p.e. multicéntricos y con técnica de muestreo randomizada son necesarios para que los valores de referencia de la DTC6 sean más representativos.The six-minute walk test (6MWT has been broadly used in clinical settings. Several reference equations for prediction of the total distance walked during the test (6MWD are available in literature. The present review aimed to critically discuss studies, published in Portuguese and English (LILACS, SCIELO, MEDLINE, PUBMED, which evaluated normal values and created reference equations for predicting 6MWD in healthy subjects, comparing them with the results that were recently obtained in Brazilian individuals. Age, sex, weight, height and body mass index were the main demographic and anthropometric features more often correlated with 6MWD. The equations derived

  6. Different instructions during the ten-meter walking test determined significant increases in maximum gait speed in individuals with chronic hemiparesis Diferentes instruções durante teste de velocidade de marcha determinam aumento significativo na velocidade máxima de indivíduos com hemiparesia crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Nascimento

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different instructions for the assessment of maximum walking speed during the ten-meter walking test with chronic stroke subjects. METHODS: Participants were instructed to walk under four experimental conditions: (1 comfortable speed, (2 maximum speed (simple verbal command, (3 maximum speed (modified verbal command-"catch a bus" and (4 maximum speed (verbal command + demonstration. Participants walked three times in each condition and the mean time to cover the intermediate 10 meters of a 14-meter corridor was registered to calculate the gait speed (m/s. Repeated-measures ANOVAs, followed by planned contrasts, were employed to investigate differences between the conditions (α=5%. Means, standard deviations and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. RESULTS: The mean values for the four conditions were: (1 0.74m/s; (2 0.85 m/s; (3 0.93 m/s; (4 0.92 m/s, respectively, with significant differences between the conditions (F=40.9; pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos de diferentes instruções para avaliação da velocidade de marcha máxima de indivíduos hemiparéticos durante o teste de caminhada de 10 metros. MÉTODOS: Os indivíduos deambularam em quatro condições experimentais: (1 velocidade habitual, (2 velocidade máxima (comando verbal simples, (3 velocidade máxima (comando verbal modificado: pegar ônibus, (4 velocidade máxima (comando verbal + demonstração. Solicitou-se a cada participante que deambulasse três vezes em cada condição, e a média do tempo necessário para percorrer os 10 metros intermediários de um corredor de 14 metros foi utilizada para cálculo da velocidade (m/s. A ANOVA de medidas repetidas, com contrastes pré-planejados, foi utilizada para comparação dos dados (α=5%, sendo apresentados valores de média, desvio-padrão e intervalos de confiança (IC de 95%. RESULTADOS: As médias de velocidade para as quatro condições foram: (1 0,74m/s; (2 0,85m/s; (3 0,93m/s; (4

  7. Adults' Daily Walking for Travel and Leisure: Interaction Between Attitude Toward Walking and the Neighborhood Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2017-09-01

    Studies on how the interaction of psychological and environmental characteristics influences walking are limited, and the results are inconsistent. Our aim is to examine how the attitude toward walking and neighborhood environments interacts to influence walking. Cross-sectional phone and mail survey. Participants randomly sampled from 6 study sites including Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore, Minneapolis, Manhattan, and Bronx Counties in New York City, and Forsyth and Davidson Counties in North Carolina. The final sample consisted of 2621 persons from 2011 to 2012. Total minutes of walking for travel or leisure, attitude toward walking, and perceptions of the neighborhood environments were self-reported. Street Smart (SS) Walk Score (a measure of walkability derived from a variety of geographic data) was obtained for each residential location. Linear regression models adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Attitude toward walking was positively associated with walking for both purposes. Walking for travel was significantly associated with SS Walk Score, whereas walking for leisure was not. The SS Walk Score and selected perceived environment characteristics were associated with walking in people with a very positive attitude toward walking but were not associated with walking in people with a less positive attitude. Attitudes toward walking and neighborhood environments interact to affect walking behavior.

  8. On Convergent Probability of a Random Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.-F.; Ching, W.-K.

    2006-01-01

    This note introduces an interesting random walk on a straight path with cards of random numbers. The method of recurrent relations is used to obtain the convergent probability of the random walk with different initial positions.

  9. Minnesota Walk-In Access Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Minnesota Walk-In Access site (WIA) GIS data represents areas of private land that have been made open to the public for the purpose of walk-in (foot travel)...

  10. Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Andrew P.; Stamp, P. C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included

  11. Reliability and Validity of Ten Consumer Activity Trackers Depend on Walking Speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Tryntsje; Kooiman, Thea J. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Van der Schans, Cees P.; De Groot, Martijn

    Purpose: To examine the test-retest reliability and validity of ten activity trackers for step counting at three different walking speeds. Methods: Thirty-one healthy participants walked twice on a treadmill for 30 min while wearing 10 activity trackers (Polar Loop, Garmin Vivosmart, Fitbit Charge

  12. WALKING SPEED OF NORMAL SUBJECTS AND AMPUTEES - ASPECTS OF VALIDITY OF GAIT ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONSTRA, AM; FIDLER, [No Value; EISMA, WH

    This study investigated some aspects of the validity of walking speed recording in 15 normal subjects. 16 trans-femoral empathics and 8 knee disarticulation amputees. The variability and test-retest reliability of walking speed and the influence of simultaneous recording of EMG and goniometry on

  13. Health Worry, Physical Activity Participation, and Walking Difficulty among Older Adults: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of health worry (i.e., cognitive aspect of anxiety resulting from concern for health) on walking difficulty in a nationally representative sample (N = 7,527) of older adults (M age = 76.83 years). The study further tested whether physical activity mediates the effect of health worry on walking difficulty in a 6-year…

  14. Taking Light For a Walk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 11. Taking Light For a Walk. Anita R Warrier C Vijayan. General Article Volume 18 Issue 11 November 2013 pp 1015-1031. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/11/1015-1031 ...

  15. Random walk over a hypersphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. C. Joshi

    1985-01-01

    A generalization of Hammersley's result has also been developed. The main purpose of the paper is to show that although the use of characteristic functions, using the method of Bochner, is available in problems of random walk yet distributional S. M. Joshi transform can be used as a natural tool has been proved for the first time in the paper.

  16. "A Walk with Robert Frost."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, John A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a field exercise using nature poetry to enlarge and give emotional content to ecological ideas. The trip involves walking in silence (except during poetry readings) through a natural area where objects or situations illustrated in the poetry are found. Recommended readings on specific details and ideas are provided. (BC)

  17. Walking behaviour of healthy elderly: attention should be paid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt André

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported an association between executive function (EF and measures of gait, particularly among older adults. This study examined the relationship between specific components of executive functions and the relative dual task costs of gait (DTC in community-dwelling non-demented older adults, aged 65 years and older. Methods Temporal (stride time, stride velocity and spatial (stride length gait characteristics were measured using a GAITRite®-System among 62 healthy community dwelling older adults while walking with and without backward counting (BC at preferred and fast walking speeds. Specific executive functions divided attention, memory and inhibition were assessed using the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP. Other measures included Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, amount of daily medications taken, educational level and sociodemographic characteristics. Adjusted and unadjusted multivariable linear regression models were developed to assess the relations between variables. Results High relative DTC for stride time, stride velocity and stride length were associated with divided attention at fast walking speed. High relative DTC for stride time was associated with divided attention at preferred walking speed. The association between high DTC of stride length and memory was less robust and only observable at preferred walking speed. None of the gait measures was associated with inhibition. Conclusions Spatial and temporal dual task cost characteristics of gait are especially associated with divided attention in older adults. The results showed that the associated DTC differ by executive function and the nature of the task (preferred versus fast walking. Further research is warranted to determine whether improvement in divided attention translates to better performance on selected complex walking tasks.

  18. Nine walks (photo series / web page)

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    'Nine Walks' is a body of work resulting from my engagement with the Media Arts Research Walking Group at Sheffield Hallam University who are exploring the role of walking in as a social, developmental and production space for the creative arts. / My participation in the walking group is an extension of my investigation of the journey as a creative, conceptual and contemplative space for photography which in turn reflects an interest in the role of the accident, instinct and intuition and the...

  19. Treadmill walking with body weight support

    OpenAIRE

    Aaslund, Mona Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitating walking in patients post-stroke with safe, task-specific, intensive training of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) has been proposed as an effective method to meet these challenges and may therefore have benefits over training overground walking. However, walking characteristics should not be aggravated during BWSTT or require a long familiarisation time compared to overground walking. Objectives: To investi...

  20. The 1991-1992 walking robot design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarm, Shapour; Dayawansa, Wijesurija; Tsai, Lung-Wen; Peritt, Jon

    1992-01-01

    The University of Maryland Walking Machine team designed and constructed a robot. This robot was completed in two phases with supervision and suggestions from three professors and one graduate teaching assistant. Bob was designed during the Fall Semester 1991, then machined, assembled, and debugged in the Spring Semester 1992. The project required a total of 4,300 student hours and cost under $8,000. Mechanically, Bob was an exercise in optimization. The robot was designed to test several diverse aspects of robotic potential, including speed, agility, and stability, with simplicity and reliability holding equal importance. For speed and smooth walking motion, the footpath contained a long horizontal component; a vertical aspect was included to allow clearance of obstacles. These challenges were met with a leg design that utilized a unique multi-link mechanism which traveled a modified tear-drop footpath. The electrical requirements included motor, encoder, and voice control circuitry selection, manual controller manufacture, and creation of sensors for guidance. Further, there was also a need for selection of the computer, completion of a preliminary program, and testing of the robot.

  1. The 1991-1992 walking robot design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarm, Shapour; Dayawansa, Wijesurija; Tsai, Lung-Wen; Peritt, Jon

    The University of Maryland Walking Machine team designed and constructed a robot. This robot was completed in two phases with supervision and suggestions from three professors and one graduate teaching assistant. Bob was designed during the Fall Semester 1991, then machined, assembled, and debugged in the Spring Semester 1992. The project required a total of 4,300 student hours and cost under $8,000. Mechanically, Bob was an exercise in optimization. The robot was designed to test several diverse aspects of robotic potential, including speed, agility, and stability, with simplicity and reliability holding equal importance. For speed and smooth walking motion, the footpath contained a long horizontal component; a vertical aspect was included to allow clearance of obstacles. These challenges were met with a leg design that utilized a unique multi-link mechanism which traveled a modified tear-drop footpath. The electrical requirements included motor, encoder, and voice control circuitry selection, manual controller manufacture, and creation of sensors for guidance. Further, there was also a need for selection of the computer, completion of a preliminary program, and testing of the robot.

  2. Walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithms using gait phase information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Shing; Lin, Che-Wei; Yang, Ya-Ting C; Ho, Yu-Jen

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a walking pattern classification and a walking distance estimation algorithm using gait phase information. A gait phase information retrieval algorithm was developed to analyze the duration of the phases in a gait cycle (i.e., stance, push-off, swing, and heel-strike phases). Based on the gait phase information, a decision tree based on the relations between gait phases was constructed for classifying three different walking patterns (level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs). Gait phase information was also used for developing a walking distance estimation algorithm. The walking distance estimation algorithm consists of the processes of step count and step length estimation. The proposed walking pattern classification and walking distance estimation algorithm have been validated by a series of experiments. The accuracy of the proposed walking pattern classification was 98.87%, 95.45%, and 95.00% for level walking, walking upstairs, and walking downstairs, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed walking distance estimation algorithm was 96.42% over a walking distance.

  3. Development of independent walking in toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Dominici, Nadia; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    Surprisingly, despite millions of years of bipedal walking evolution, the gravity-related pendulum mechanism of walking does not seem to be implemented at the onset of independent walking, requiring each toddler to develop it. We discuss the precursor of the mature locomotor pattern in infants as an

  4. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  5. Avaliação da segurança do teste de caminhada dos 6 minutos em pacientes no pré-transplante cardíaco Evaluación de la seguridad de la test de marcha de 6 minutos en pacientes en el pre-transplante cardiaco Analysis of 6-minute walk test safety in pre-heart transplantation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Cipriano Jr

    2009-04-01

    ínico y el pronóstico cardiovascular. La seguridad y el impacto metabólico son poco descritos en la literatura, principalmente en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca severa e indicación clínica para transplante cardiovascular Objetivo: Evaluar la ocurrencia de arritmias y alteraciones cardiovasculares durante el TM6m. Correlacionar el desempeño en el TM6m con el estadiamiento clínico y el pronóstico cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Un total de 12 pacientes, 10 varones, con edad de 52 ± 8 años, fueron sometidos a evaluación inicial. Realizaron el TM6m con monitoreo electrocardiográfico por telemetría, señales vitales y lactato. Se siguieron a los individuos por 12 meses. RESULTADOS: Los pacientes recorrieron 399,4 ± 122,5 (D, m, alcanzando un esfuerzo percibido (EP de 14,3 ± 1,5 y variación del 34% en la frecuencia cardiaca basal. Dos pacientes presentaron arritmia de mayor severidad pre-TM6m y no mostraron empeoramiento ante el esfuerzo; cuatro tuvieron elevación significativa en los niveles de lactato sanguíneo (>5 mmol/dl, y tres interrumpieron el examen. La distancia recorrida evidenció correlación con la fracción de eyección (% y la clasificación funcional (NYHA. Tras 12 meses de seguimiento, tres pacientes murieron, y siete se reinternaron por descompensación cardiaca. La relación (D/EP y frecuencia cardiaca de recuperación en el segundo minuto (FCR2, lpm fueron inferiores en el grupo óbito. CONCLUSIÓN: El comportamiento clínico y electrocardiográfico sugiere que el método es seguro, pero se puede considerarlo de alta intensidad para algunos pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca severa. Variables relacionadas al desempeño en el TM6m pueden estar asociadas con la mortalidad en el seguimiento de un año.BACKGROUND: The 6-minute walk test (6WT has been used as a means of assessment of the functional capacity, clinical staging and cardiovascular prognosis. Its safety and metabolic impact have not been frequently described in the literature

  6. Exercise as a therapy for improvement of walking ability in adults with multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Melissa; Dieberg, Gudrun; Smart, Neil

    2015-07-01

    To quantify improvements in walking performance commonly observed in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), a systematic literature search and meta-analysis were conducted quantifying the expected benefits of exercise on walking ability in pwMS. Potential studies were identified by systematic search using PubMed (1966 to March 31, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to March 31, 2014), CINAHL (1998 to March 31, 2014), SPORTDiscus (1991 to March 31, 2014), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1966 to March 31, 2014). The search used key concepts of "multiple sclerosis" AND "exercise." Randomized controlled trials of exercise training in adult pwMS. Data on patient and study characteristics, walking ability, 10-m walk test (10mWT), timed 25-foot walk test (T25FW), 2-minute walk test (2MWT), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and timed Up and Go (TUG) were extracted and archived. Data from 13 studies were included. In pwMS who exercised, significant improvements were found in walking speed, measured by the 10mWT (mean difference [MD] reduction in walking time of -1.76s; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.47 to -1.06; Pwalking endurance as measured by the 6MWT and 2MWT, with an increased walking distance of MD=36.46m (95% CI, 15.14-57.79; Pwalking speed and endurance in pwMS. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Walking Beliefs in Women With Fibromyalgia: Clinical Profile and Impact on Walking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; Pastor, María-Ángeles; López-Roig, Sofía; Velasco, Lilian; Lledo, Ana

    2017-10-01

    Although exercise is essential for the treatment of fibromyalgia, adherence is low. Walking, as a form of physical exercise, has significant advantages. The aim of this article is to describe, in 920 women with fibromyalgia, the prevalence of certain walking beliefs and analyze their effects both on the walking behavior itself and on the associated symptoms when patients walk according to a clinically recommended way. The results highlight the high prevalence of beliefs related to pain and fatigue as walking-inhibitors. In the whole sample, beliefs are associated with an increased perception that comorbidity prevents walking, and with higher levels of pain and fatigue. In patients who walk regularly, beliefs are only associated with the perception that comorbidity prevents them from walking. It is necessary to promote walking according to the established way (including breaks to prevent fatigue) and to implement interventions on the most prevalent beliefs that inhibit walking.

  8. The Effect of Walking Distance on EDSS Score in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Balcı Tombak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed first to identify the range of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score by comparing the actual walking distance and the estimated walking distance of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, and second, to investigate the effect of fatigue on walking distance. METHODS: Thirty MS patients and 20 age -and gender- matched healthy volunteers were included in the study. MS patients were divided into two groups according to the EDSS score. Fatigue was measured using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS and motor fatigue was measured using the 200 meter walking test. The increase in muscle tone was evaluated by Modified Ashworth Scale. The first group of MS patients and healthy control group patients were asked to estimate the distance they can walk without rest within six minutes. Then, their actual walking distance was measured for six minutes. The second group of MS patients was asked to estimate their most probable walking distance without rest; then, the actual walking distance of the patients was measured. RESULTS: In terms of FSS values, fatigue severity was different in the two MS groups (p 0.05, the second MS group’s estimated and actual walking distances were significantly different (p< 0.05. A negative correlation was found between FSS scores and estimated walking distance in the second MS group (p< 0.05. A negative correlation was present between motor fatigue and actual walking distance only in the second MS group (p< 0.05. CONCLUSION: EDSS evaluation is more reliable in patients with low level disability. The accuracy issues arise in patients with EDSS scores of 4-5. Additionally, there is an important correlation between motor fatigue and walking distance in these patients. For motor fatigue, spasticity is an important determinant

  9. The Effect of Walking Distance on EDSS Score in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Balcı Tombak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed first to identify the range of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score by comparing the actual walking distance and the estimated walking distance of multiple sclerosis (MS patients, and second, to investigate the effect of fatigue on walking distance. METHODS: Thirty MS patients and 20 age -and gender- matched healthy volunteers were included in the study. MS patients were divided into two groups according to the EDSS score. Fatigue was measured using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS and motor fatigue was measured using the 200 meter walking test. The increase in muscle tone was evaluated by Modified Ashworth Scale. The first group of MS patients and healthy control group patients were asked to estimate the distance they can walk without rest within six minutes. Then, their actual walking distance was measured for six minutes. The second group of MS patients was asked to estimate their most probable walking distance without rest; then, the actual walking distance of the patients was measured. RESULTS: In terms of FSS values, fatigue severity was different in the two MS groups (p 0.05, the second MS group’s estimated and actual walking distances were significantly different (p< 0.05. A negative correlation was found between FSS scores and estimated walking distance in the second MS group (p< 0.05. A negative correlation was present between motor fatigue and actual walking distance only in the second MS group (p< 0.05. CONCLUSION: EDSS evaluation is more reliable in patients with low level disability. The accuracy issues arise in patients with EDSS scores of 4-5. Additionally, there is an important correlation between motor fatigue and walking distance in these patients. For motor fatigue, spasticity is an important determinant.

  10. The influence of gait speed on the stability of walking among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Han, Shuyan; Lv, Changsheng; Zhang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Walking speed is a basic factor to consider when walking exercises are prescribed as part of a training programme. Although associations between walking speed, step length and falling risk have been identified, the relationship between spontaneous walking pattern and falling risk remains unclear. The present study, therefore, examined the stability of spontaneous walking at normal, fast and slow speed among elderly (67.5±3.23) and young (21.4±1.31) individuals. In all, 55 participants undertook a test that involved walking on a plantar pressure platform. Foot-ground contact data were used to calculate walking speed, step length, pressure impulse along the plantar-impulse principal axis and pressure record of time series along the plantar-impulse principal axis. A forward dynamics method was used to calculate acceleration, velocity and displacement of the centre of mass in the vertical direction. The results showed that when the elderly walked at different speeds, their average step length was smaller than that observed among the young (p=0.000), whereas their anterior/posterior variability and lateral variability had no significant difference. When walking was performed at normal or slow speed, no significant between-group difference in cadence was found. When walking at a fast speed, the elderly increased their stride length moderately and their cadence greatly (p=0.012). In summary, the present study found no correlation between fast walking speed and instability among the elderly, which indicates that healthy elderly individuals might safely perform fast-speed walking exercises. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Variability of leg kinematics during overground walking in persons with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Won Joon; Tan, Andrew Q; Hayes, Heather B; Pochiraju, Saahith; Deffeyes, Joan; Trumbower, Randy D

    2018-03-20

    Incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) often leads to partial disruption of spinal pathways that are important for motor control of walking. Persons with iSCI present with deficits in walking ability due, in part, to inconsistent leg kinematics during stepping. While kinematic variability is important for normal walking, growing evidence indicates that excessive variability may limit walking ability and increase reliance on assistive devices (AD) after iSCI. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of iSCI-induced impairments on kinematic variability during overground walking. We hypothesized that iSCI results in greater variability of foot and joint displacement during overground walking compared to controls. We further hypothesized that variability is larger in persons with limited walking speed and greater reliance on ADs. To test these hypotheses, iSCI and control subjects walked overground. Kinematic variability was quantified as step-to-step foot placement variability (endpoint), and variability in hip-knee, hip-ankle, and knee-ankle joint space (angular coefficient of correspondence; ACC). We characterized sensitivity of kinematic variability to cadence, auditory cue, and AD. Supporting our hypothesis, persons with iSCI exhibited greater kinematic variability than controls, which scaled with deficits in overground walking speed (pvariability, and with walking speed, indicates both are markers of walking performance. Moreover, hip-knee and hip-ankle ACC discriminated between AD use, indicating that ACC may capture AD-specific control strategies. We conclude that increased variability of foot and joint displacement are indicative of motor impairment severity and may serve as therapeutic targets to restore walking after iSCI.

  12. Biomechanically Excited SMD Model of a Walking Pedestrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Mengshi; Georgakis, Christos T.; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    of biomechanical forces, was used to model a pedestrian for application in vertical human-structure interaction (HSI). Tests were undertaken in a gait laboratory, where a three-dimensional motion-capture system was used to record a pedestrian's walking motions at various frequencies. The motion-capture system...... produced the pedestrian's center of mass (COM) trajectories from the captured motion markers. The vertical COM trajectory was approximated to be the pedestrian SMD dynamic responses under the excitation of biomechanical forces. SMD model parameters of a pedestrian for a specific walking frequency were...

  13. Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Luke M; Rouse, Elliott J; Herr, Hugh M

    2014-11-03

    Passive exoskeletons that assist with human locomotion are often lightweight and compact, but are unable to provide net mechanical power to the exoskeletal wearer. In contrast, powered exoskeletons often provide biologically appropriate levels of mechanical power, but the size and mass of their actuator/power source designs often lead to heavy and unwieldy devices. In this study, we extend the design and evaluation of a lightweight and powerful autonomous exoskeleton evaluated for loaded walking in (J Neuroeng Rehab 11:80, 2014) to the case of unloaded walking conditions. The metabolic energy consumption of seven study participants (85 ± 12 kg body mass) was measured while walking on a level treadmill at 1.4 m/s. Testing conditions included not wearing the exoskeleton and wearing the exoskeleton, in both powered and unpowered modes. When averaged across the gait cycle, the autonomous exoskeleton applied a mean positive mechanical power of 26 ± 1 W (13 W per ankle) with 2.12 kg of added exoskeletal foot-shank mass (1.06 kg per leg). Use of the leg exoskeleton significantly reduced the metabolic cost of walking by 35 ± 13 W, which was an improvement of 10 ± 3% (p = 0.023) relative to the control condition of not wearing the exoskeleton. The results of this study highlight the advantages of developing lightweight and powerful exoskeletons that can comfortably assist the body during walking.

  14. Record statistics of a strongly correlated time series: random walks and Lévy flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrèche, Claude; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory

    2017-08-01

    We review recent advances on the record statistics of strongly correlated time series, whose entries denote the positions of a random walk or a Lévy flight on a line. After a brief survey of the theory of records for independent and identically distributed random variables, we focus on random walks. During the last few years, it was indeed realized that random walks are a very useful ‘laboratory’ to test the effects of correlations on the record statistics. We start with the simple one-dimensional random walk with symmetric jumps (both continuous and discrete) and discuss in detail the statistics of the number of records, as well as of the ages of the records, i.e. the lapses of time between two successive record breaking events. Then we review the results that were obtained for a wide variety of random walk models, including random walks with a linear drift, continuous time random walks, constrained random walks (like the random walk bridge) and the case of multiple independent random walkers. Finally, we discuss further observables related to records, like the record increments, as well as some questions raised by physical applications of record statistics, like the effects of measurement error and noise.

  15. Modification of the ladder rung walking task-new options for analysis of skilled movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonow-Schlorke, Iwa; Ehrhardt, Julia; Knieling, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Method sensitivity is critical for evaluation of poststroke motor function. Skilled walking was assessed in horizontal, upward, and downward rung ladder walking to compare the demands of the tasks and test sensitivity. The complete step sequence of a walk was subjected to analysis aimed at demonstrating the walking pattern, step sequence, step cycle, limb coordination, and limb interaction to complement the foot fault scoring system. Rats (males, n = 10) underwent unilateral photothrombotic lesion of the motor cortex of the forelimb and hind limb areas. Locomotion was video recorded before the insult and at postischemic days 7 and 28. Analysis of walking was performed frame-by-frame. Walking along the rung ladder revealed different results that were dependent on ladder inclination. Horizontal walking was found to discriminate lesion-related motor deficits in forelimb, whereas downward walking demonstrates hind limb use most sensitively. A more frequent use of the impaired forelimb that possibly supported poststroke motor learning in rats was shown. The present study provides a novel system for a detailed analysis of the complete walking sequence and will help to provide a better understanding of how rats deal with motor impairments.

  16. Modification of the Ladder Rung Walking Task—New Options for Analysis of Skilled Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwa Antonow-Schlorke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Method sensitivity is critical for evaluation of poststroke motor function. Skilled walking was assessed in horizontal, upward, and downward rung ladder walking to compare the demands of the tasks and test sensitivity. The complete step sequence of a walk was subjected to analysis aimed at demonstrating the walking pattern, step sequence, step cycle, limb coordination, and limb interaction to complement the foot fault scoring system. Rats (males, n=10 underwent unilateral photothrombotic lesion of the motor cortex of the forelimb and hind limb areas. Locomotion was video recorded before the insult and at postischemic days 7 and 28. Analysis of walking was performed frame-by-frame. Walking along the rung ladder revealed different results that were dependent on ladder inclination. Horizontal walking was found to discriminate lesion-related motor deficits in forelimb, whereas downward walking demonstrates hind limb use most sensitively. A more frequent use of the impaired forelimb that possibly supported poststroke motor learning in rats was shown. The present study provides a novel system for a detailed analysis of the complete walking sequence and will help to provide a better understanding of how rats deal with motor impairments.

  17. Modification of the Ladder Rung Walking Task—New Options for Analysis of Skilled Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonow-Schlorke, Iwa; Ehrhardt, Julia; Knieling, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Method sensitivity is critical for evaluation of poststroke motor function. Skilled walking was assessed in horizontal, upward, and downward rung ladder walking to compare the demands of the tasks and test sensitivity. The complete step sequence of a walk was subjected to analysis aimed at demonstrating the walking pattern, step sequence, step cycle, limb coordination, and limb interaction to complement the foot fault scoring system. Rats (males, n = 10) underwent unilateral photothrombotic lesion of the motor cortex of the forelimb and hind limb areas. Locomotion was video recorded before the insult and at postischemic days 7 and 28. Analysis of walking was performed frame-by-frame. Walking along the rung ladder revealed different results that were dependent on ladder inclination. Horizontal walking was found to discriminate lesion-related motor deficits in forelimb, whereas downward walking demonstrates hind limb use most sensitively. A more frequent use of the impaired forelimb that possibly supported poststroke motor learning in rats was shown. The present study provides a novel system for a detailed analysis of the complete walking sequence and will help to provide a better understanding of how rats deal with motor impairments. PMID:23577278

  18. Factors predicting walking intolerance in patients with peripheral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine which physiological variables conduce to walking intolerance in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Design. The physiological response to a graded treadmill exercise test (GTT) in patients with PAD was characterised. Setting. Patients were recruited from the Department of. Vascular ...

  19. Comparison of the metabolic energy cost of overground and treadmill walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Nicolas; Gayda, Mathieu; Nigam, Anil; Juneau, Martin; Bherer, Louis; Bosquet, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    We assessed whether the metabolic energy cost of walking was higher when measured overground or on a treadmill in a population of healthy older adults. We also assessed the association between the two testing modes. Participants (n = 20, 14 men and 6 women aged between 65 and 83 years of age) were randomly divided into two groups. Half of them went through the overground-treadmill sequence while the other half did the opposite order. A familiarization visit was held for each participant prior to the actual testing. For both modes of testing, five walking speeds were experimented (0.67, 0.89, 1.11, 1.33 and 1.67 m s(-1)). Oxygen uptake was monitored for all walking speeds. We found a significant difference between treadmill and track metabolic energy cost of walking, whatever the walking speed. The results show that walking on the treadmill requires more metabolic energy than walking overground for all experimental speeds (P < 0.05). The association between both measures was low to moderate (0.17 < ICC < 0.65), and the standard error of measurement represented 6.9-15.7% of the average value. These data indicate that metabolic energy cost of walking results from a treadmill test does not necessarily apply in daily overground activities. Interventions aiming at reducing the metabolic energy cost of walking should be assessed with the same mode as it was proposed during the intervention. If the treadmill mode is necessary for any purposes, functional overground walking tests should be implemented to obtain a more complete and specific evaluation.

  20. Walking robot: A design project for undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the University of Maryland walking robot project was to design, analyze, assemble, and test an intelligent, mobile, and terrain-adaptive system. The robot incorporates existing technologies in novel ways. The legs emulate the walking path of a human by an innovative modification of a crank-and-rocker mechanism. The body consists of two tripod frames connected by a turning mechanism. The two sets of three legs are mounted so as to allow the robot to walk with stability in its own footsteps. The computer uses a modular hardware design and distributed processing. Dual-port RAM is used to allow communication between a supervisory personal computer and seven microcontrollers. The microcontrollers provide low-level control for the motors and relieve the processing burden on the PC.

  1. Random walk of passive tracers among randomly moving obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Matteo; Donato, Irene; Floriani, Elena; Nardecchia, Ilaria; Pettini, Marco

    2016-04-14

    This study is mainly motivated by the need of understanding how the diffusion behavior of a biomolecule (or even of a larger object) is affected by other moving macromolecules, organelles, and so on, inside a living cell, whence the possibility of understanding whether or not a randomly walking biomolecule is also subject to a long-range force field driving it to its target. By means of the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) technique the topic of random walk in random environment is here considered in the case of a passively diffusing particle among randomly moving and interacting obstacles. The relevant physical quantity which is worked out is the diffusion coefficient of the passive tracer which is computed as a function of the average inter-obstacles distance. The results reported here suggest that if a biomolecule, let us call it a test molecule, moves towards its target in the presence of other independently interacting molecules, its motion can be considerably slowed down.

  2. The Effects of Vibration on the Gait Pattern and Vibration Perception Threshold of Children With Idiopathic Toe Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchiang, Hsinchen Daniel; Geil, Mark; Wu, Jianhua; Chen, Yu-Ping; Wang, Yong Tai

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of idiopathic toe walking treatments is not conclusive. The study investigated the use of vibration as a therapeutic/treatment method for children with idiopathic toe walking. Fifteen children with idiopathic toe walking and 15 typically developing children, aged 4 to 10 years, completed the study. The study included a barefoot gait examination and a vibration perception threshold test before and after standing on a whole body vibration machine for 60 seconds. Temporal-spatial parameters were recorded along with HR32, a calculation designed to distinguish on aspects of the toe-walking pattern. No significant gait pattern differences were found between children with idiopathic toe walking and typically developing children after one bout of vibration intervention. HR32 was found to be a means to identify the toe-walking pattern (P vibration of children with idiopathic toe walking was not found in the current study (P = .921). © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Acute Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses During Exoskeleton-Assisted Walking Overground Among Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas; Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Pharo, Elizabeth; Clesson, Ismari

    2015-01-01

    Lower extremity robotic exoskeleton technology is being developed with the promise of affording people with spinal cord injury (SCI) the opportunity to stand and walk. The mobility benefits of exoskeleton-assisted walking can be realized immediately, however the cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits of this technology have not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses associated with exoskeleton-assisted walking overground and to determine the degree to which these responses change at differing walking speeds. Five subjects (4 male, 1 female) with chronic SCI (AIS A) volunteered for the study. Expired gases were collected during maximal graded exercise testing and two, 6-minute bouts of exoskeleton-assisted walking overground. Outcome measures included peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak), average oxygen consumption (V̇O2avg), peak heart rate (HRpeak), walking economy, metabolic equivalent of tasks for SCI (METssci), walk speed, and walk distance. Significant differences were observed between walk-1 and walk-2 for walk speed, total walk distance, V̇O2avg, and METssci. Exoskeleton-assisted walking resulted in %V̇O2peak range of 51.5% to 63.2%. The metabolic cost of exoskeleton-assisted walking ranged from 3.5 to 4.3 METssci. Persons with motor-complete SCI may be limited in their capacity to perform physical exercise to the extent needed to improve health and fitness. Based on preliminary data, cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands of exoskeleton-assisted walking are consistent with activities performed at a moderate intensity.

  4. Walking stability during cell phone use in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S

    2015-05-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of ankle and subtalar joint complex range of motion during barefoot walking and walking in Masai Barefoot Technology sandals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birch Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Masai Barefoot Technology (MBT, Switzerland produce footwear which they claim simulate walking barefoot on soft undulating ground. This paper reports an investigation into the effect of MBT sandals on the motion of the ankle and subtalar joint complex during walking. Methods Range of motion data was collected in the sagittal, frontal and transverse plane from the ankle and subtalar joint complex from 32 asymptomatic subjects using the CODA MPX30 motion analysis system during both barefoot walking and walking in the MBT sandal. Shod and un-shod data were compared using the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results A significantly greater range of motion in the frontal and sagittal planes was recorded when walking in the MBT sandal (p = 0.031, and p = 0.015 respectively. In the transverse plane, no significant difference was found (p = 0.470. Conclusions MBT sandals increase the range of motion of the ankle and subtalar joint complex in the frontal and sagittal planes. MBT footwear could therefore have a role to play in the management of musculoskeletal disorders where an increase in frontal and sagittal plane range of motion is desirable.

  6. Not Just "A Walking the Dog": Dog Walking and Pet Play and Their Association With Recommended Physical Activity Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen E; Wood, Lisa; Christian, Hayley; Trapp, Georgina S A

    2015-01-01

    To examine the role of pet play and dog walking in children's and adolescents' leisure time, and the relationship between these activities and physical activity. The study design was observational. The study setting was metropolitan Perth and nonmetropolitan regions in Western Australia. The study included 1097 primary school (mean age, 10.1 years; SD, 1.6 years) and 657 secondary school (mean age, 14.0 years; SD, 1.3 years) students. Validated measures of total physical activity, dog walking, and pet play activity (prevalence and time) were calculated. Generalized linear models tested for differences between proportions, while adjusting for socioeconomic status, age, and school-level clustering. Approximately one third of primary school and one quarter of secondary school students reported that they walked the dog at least once in the last week. Pet play was the most common play activity for primary and secondary school girls, and the second and third most popular play activity for secondary and primary school boys, respectively. Secondary school students who walked the dog or played with pets spent an average of 1 hour per week on each activity, and they were significantly more likely (p dog walking and pet play, and the high level of pet ownership in many Western countries, promotion of these activities to support young people's health is warranted.

  7. Walking speed, processing speed, and dementia: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Rizzuto, Debora; Qiu, Chengxuan; Caracciolo, Barbara; Laukka, Erika J

    2014-12-01

    Slow walking speed has been shown to predict dementia. We investigated the relation of walking speed, processing speed, and their changes over time to dementia among older adults. This study included 2,938 participants (age 60+ years) in the population-based Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, Sweden, who were free from dementia and severe walking impairment at baseline. Walking speed was assessed with participants walking at their usual pace and processing speed was defined by a composite measure of standard tests (digit cancellation, trail making test-A, pattern comparison). Dementia at 3- and 6-year follow-ups was diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Of the 2,232 participants who were reassessed at least once, 226 developed dementia. Logistic regression models showed that each standard deviation slower baseline walking speed or decline in walking speed over time increased the likelihood of incident dementia (odds ratios 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-1.98; and 2.58, 95% CI 2.12-3.14, respectively). Adjustment for processing speed attenuated these associations (odds ratios 1.26, 95% CI 1.01-1.58 and 1.76, 95% CI 1.33-2.34). Mixed-effects models revealed statistical interactions of time with dementia on change in walking and processing speed, such that those who developed dementia showed accelerated decline. At baseline, poorer performance in processing speed, but not in walking speed, was observed for persons who developed dementia during the study period. Processing speed may play an important role for the association between walking speed and dementia. The slowing of walking speed appears to occur secondary to slowing of processing speed in the path leading to dementia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Horse-like walking, trotting, and galloping derived from kinematic Motion Primitives (kMPs) and their application to walk/trot transitions in a compliant quadruped robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Federico L; Spröwitz, Alexander; Tuleu, Alexandre; Vespignani, Massimo; Tsagarakis, Nikos G; Ijspeert, Auke J; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2013-06-01

    This manuscript proposes a method to directly transfer the features of horse walking, trotting, and galloping to a quadruped robot, with the aim of creating a much more natural (horse-like) locomotion profile. A principal component analysis on horse joint trajectories shows that walk, trot, and gallop can be described by a set of four kinematic Motion Primitives (kMPs). These kMPs are used to generate valid, stable gaits that are tested on a compliant quadruped robot. Tests on the effects of gait frequency scaling as follows: results indicate a speed optimal walking frequency around 3.4 Hz, and an optimal trotting frequency around 4 Hz. Following, a criterion to synthesize gait transitions is proposed, and the walk/trot transitions are successfully tested on the robot. The performance of the robot when the transitions are scaled in frequency is evaluated by means of roll and pitch angle phase plots.

  9. Equivalence of Szegedy's and coined quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas G.

    2017-09-01

    Szegedy's quantum walk is a quantization of a classical random walk or Markov chain, where the walk occurs on the edges of the bipartite double cover of the original graph. To search, one can simply quantize a Markov chain with absorbing vertices. Recently, Santos proposed two alternative search algorithms that instead utilize the sign-flip oracle in Grover's algorithm rather than absorbing vertices. In this paper, we show that these two algorithms are exactly equivalent to two algorithms involving coined quantum walks, which are walks on the vertices of the original graph with an internal degree of freedom. The first scheme is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with one walk step per query of Grover's oracle, and the second is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with two walk steps per query of Grover's oracle. These equivalences lie outside the previously known equivalence of Szegedy's quantum walk with absorbing vertices and the coined quantum walk with the negative identity operator as the coin for marked vertices, whose precise relationships we also investigate.

  10. High on Walking: Conquering Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Bente; Haahr, Anita; Dreyer, Pia; Norlyk, Annelise

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the meaning of walking impairment among people who have previously been able to walk on their own. The study is based on findings from three different life situations: older people recovering after admission in intermediate care, people who have lost a leg, and people who live with Parkinson's disease. The analysis of the data is inspired by Paul Ricoeur's philosophy of interpretation. Four themes were identified: (a) I feel high in two ways; (b) Walking has to be automatic; (c) Every Monday, I walk with the girls in the park; and (d) I dream of walking along the street without sticks and things like that. The findings demonstrate that inability to walk profoundly affected the participants' lives. Other problems seemed small by comparison because walking impairment was at the same time experienced as a concrete physical limit and an existential deficit.

  11. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis

    2006-01-01

    activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...... when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether...

  12. Comparison between actual and predicted postoperative stair-climbing test, walk test and spirometric values in patients undergoing lung resection Comparação dos testes de escada, caminhada e espirometria preditos com os obtidos no pós-operatório de ressecções pulmonares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Cataneo Pancieri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess whether the tests - Forced Expiratory Volume at one second (FEV1, 6-minute walk test (6MWT and stair-climbing test (SCT showed proportional changes after the resection of functioning lung. METHODS: Candidates for pulmonary resection were included. Spirometry, 6MWT and SCT were performed preoperatively (pre and at least 3 months after surgery (pos. SCT was performed on a staircase with a total ascent height of 12.16m. The time taken to climb the total height the fastest possible was defined as stair-climbing time (SCt. Number of functioning segments lost, was used to calculated predicted postoperative (ppo tests values. Pre, ppo and pos values for each test were compared. Data were analyzed by repeated-measure ANOVA with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. Pulmonary resection results ranged from gain of 2 functioning segments to loss of 9. Pre, ppo and pos values were the following: preFEV1 = 2.6±0.8L, ppo FEV1 =2.3±0.8L, and pos FEV1=2.3±0.8L, (pre FEV1 > ppo FEV1 = pos FEV1; pre6MWT = 604±63m, ppo6MWT= 529±103m, pos6MWT= 599±74m (pre6MWT = pos6MWT > ppo6MWT; preSCt = 32.9±7.6s, ppoSCt = 37.8±12.1s, posSCt = 33.7±8.5s (preSCt = posSCt OBJETIVO: Verificar se os testes: Volume Expiratório Forçado no 1º segundo (VEF1, Teste de Caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6 e Teste de Escada (TE se alteram proporcionalmente ao pulmão funcionante ressecado. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos pacientes candidatos a toracotomia para ressecção pulmonar. No pré-operatório (pré e no mínimo três meses após a cirurgia (pós, realizaram espirometria, TC6 e TE. O TE foi realizado em escada com 12,16m de altura. O tempo para subir todos os degraus o mais rápido possível foi chamado tempo de escada (tTE. Os cálculos dos valores dos testes preditos para o pós-operatório (ppo foram realizados conforme o número de segmentos funcionantes perdidos. Os valores pré, ppo e pós foram comparados entre si para

  13. Groups, graphs and random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Salvatori, Maura; Sava-Huss, Ecaterina

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and panoramic account of the theory of random walks on groups and graphs, stressing the strong connections of the theory with other branches of mathematics, including geometric and combinatorial group theory, potential analysis, and theoretical computer science. This volume brings together original surveys and research-expository papers from renowned and leading experts, many of whom spoke at the workshop 'Groups, Graphs and Random Walks' celebrating the sixtieth birthday of Wolfgang Woess in Cortona, Italy. Topics include: growth and amenability of groups; Schrödinger operators and symbolic dynamics; ergodic theorems; Thompson's group F; Poisson boundaries; probability theory on buildings and groups of Lie type; structure trees for edge cuts in networks; and mathematical crystallography. In what is currently a fast-growing area of mathematics, this book provides an up-to-date and valuable reference for both researchers and graduate students, from which future research activities will undoubted...

  14. Chemical Continuous Time Random Walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Tomás; Dentz, Marco

    2017-12-01

    Kinetic Monte Carlo methods such as the Gillespie algorithm model chemical reactions as random walks in particle number space. The interreaction times are exponentially distributed under the assumption that the system is well mixed. We introduce an arbitrary interreaction time distribution, which may account for the impact of incomplete mixing on chemical reactions, and in general stochastic reaction delay, which may represent the impact of extrinsic noise. This process defines an inhomogeneous continuous time random walk in particle number space, from which we derive a generalized chemical master equation. This leads naturally to a generalization of the Gillespie algorithm. Based on this formalism, we determine the modified chemical rate laws for different interreaction time distributions. This framework traces Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics back to finite-mean delay times, and predicts time-nonlocal macroscopic reaction kinetics as a consequence of broadly distributed delays. Non-Markovian kinetics exhibit weak ergodicity breaking and show key features of reactions under local nonequilibrium.

  15. City Walks and Tactile Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to develop categories of the pedestrian’s tactile and kinaesthetic experience of the city. The beginning emphasizes the haptic qualities of surfaces and textures, which can be “palpated” visually or experienced by walking. Also the lived city is three-dimensional; its corporeal depth is discussed here in relation to the invisible sewers, protuberant profiles, and the formal diversity of roofscapes. A central role is ascribed in the present analysis to the formal similarities between the representation of the city by walking through it and the representation of the tactile form of objects. Additional aspects of the “tactile” experience of the city in a broad sense concern the feeling of their rhythms and the exposure to weather conditions. Finally, several aspects of contingency converge in the visible age of architectural works, which record traces of individual and collective histories.

  16. Stable walking with asymmetric legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  17. Object Study Walk. BLOK P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Huse

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available I would like to take you for a walk, around the housing complex Blok P in the centre of Nuuk, Greenland. I encourage you to move and listen, to smell and touch. In the presence of your evoked senses, linger for a moment; turn your face towards the past. Let us explore urban nostalgia, not as an either/or reactionary, speculative, radical, or future-oriented but as the organizing narrative of our shared journey.

  18. Spin lattices of walking droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Pedro; Pucci, Giuseppe; Goujon, Alexis; Dunkel, Jorn; Bush, John

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the spontaneous emergence of collective behavior in spin lattice of droplets walking on a vibrating fluid bath. The bottom topography consists of relatively deep circular wells that encourage the walking droplets to follow circular trajectories centered at the lattice sites, in one direction or the other. Wave-mediated interactions between neighboring drops are enabled through a thin fluid layer between the wells. The sense of rotation of the walking droplets may thus become globally coupled. When the coupling is sufficiently strong, interactions with neighboring droplets may result in switches in spin that lead to preferred global arrangements, including correlated (all drops rotating in the same direction) or anti-correlated (neighboring drops rotating in opposite directions) states. Analogies with ferromagnetism and anti-ferromagnetism are drawn. Different spatial arrangements are presented in 1D and 2D lattices to illustrate the effects of topological frustration. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.

  19. A Walk-and-Eat Intervention Improves Outcomes for Patients With Esophageal Cancer Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu-Juan; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Lee, Jang-Ming; Huang, Pei-Ming; Huang, Guan-Hua; Chen, Cheryl Chia-Hui

    2015-10-01

    Preserving functional walking capacity and nutritional status is important for patients with esophageal cancer, but no effective intervention is available, particularly during active treatment. This pilot randomized controlled trial tested the effects of a walk-and-eat intervention for patients with esophageal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Participants with locally advanced esophageal cancer stage IIB or higher (n = 59) were randomly assigned to receive the walk-and-eat intervention (n = 30; nurse-supervised walking three times per week and weekly nutritional advice) or usual care (n = 29; control group) during 4-5 weeks of chemoradiotherapy. Primary endpoints were changes in distance on the 6-minute walk test, hand-grip strength, lean muscle mass, and body weight between initiation and completion of intervention. Participants (mean age: 59.6 years) were mostly male (92.9%) with squamous cell carcinoma (96.4%). During chemoradiotherapy, participants who received the walk-and-eat intervention had 100-m less decline than controls in walk distance (adjusted p = .012), 3-kg less decrease in hand-grip strength (adjusted p = .002), and 2.7-kg less reduction in body weight (adjusted p eat intervention is feasible and effective to preserve functional walking capacity and nutritional status for patients with esophageal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. ©AlphaMed Press.

  20. Effect of walking speed on typing performance using an active workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Rachel E; Taylor, Megan L; Creekmur, Ceith C; Ohlinger, Christine M; Cox, Ronald H; Berg, William P

    2012-08-01

    This study tested the effect of treadmill walking speed on typing performance when these tasks were performed simultaneously. 24 research participants (M age = 23.2 yr.) performed a typing test under each of four conditions including the control (seated), treadmill walking at 1.3 km/hr., 2.25 km/hr., and 3.2 km/hr. Results indicated that treadmill walking had a detrimental effect on typing performance, but that the walking speed of 2.25 km/hr. would result in better typing performance than the slower and faster speeds. Seated typing was better than typing while walking at 1.3 km/hr. and typing while walking at 3.2 km/hr. Typing performance while walking at 2.25 km/hr. was not different than seated typing performance. The results support the potential of treadmill walking at 2.25 km/hr. to provide low-intensity physical activity without compromising typing performance.

  1. On the effect of walking surface stiffness on inter-limb coordination in human walking: toward bilaterally informed robotic gait rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jeffrey; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2016-03-22

    Robotic devices have been utilized in gait rehabilitation but have only produced moderate results when compared to conventional physiotherapy. Because bipedal walking requires neural coupling and dynamic interactions between the legs, a fundamental understanding of the sensorimotor mechanisms of inter-leg coordination during walking, which are not well understood but are systematically explored in this study, is needed to inform robotic interventions in gait therapy. In this study we investigate mechanisms of inter-leg coordination by utilizing novel sensory perturbations created by real-time control of floor stiffness on a split-belt treadmill. We systematically alter the unilateral magnitude of the walking surface stiffness and the timing of these perturbations within the stance phase of the gait cycle, along with the level of body-weight support, while recording the kinematic and muscular response of the uperturbed leg. This provides new insight into the role of walking surface stiffness in inter-leg coordination during human walking. Both paired and unpaired unadjusted t-tests at the 95 % confidence level are used in the approriate scernario to determine statistical significance of the results. We present results of increased hip, knee, and ankle flexion, as well as increased tibialis anterior and soleus activation, in the unperturbed leg of healthy subjects that is repeatable and scalable with walking surface stiffness. The observed response was not impacted by the level of body-weight support provided, which suggests that walking surface stiffness is a unique stimulus in gait. In addition, we show that the activation of the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles is altered by the timing of the perturbations within the gait cycle. This paper characterizes the contralateral leg's response to ipsilateral manipulations of the walking surface and establishes the importance of walking surface stiffness in inter-leg coordination during human walking.

  2. Walking economy before and after the onset of claudication pain in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew W; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Stoner, Julie A; Montgomery, Polly S; Scott, Kristy J; Blevins, Steve M

    2010-03-01

    To determine the walking economy before and after the onset of claudication pain in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and to identify predictors of the change in walking economy following the onset of claudication pain. A total of 39 patients with PAD were studied, in which 29 experienced claudication (Pain group) during a constant load, walking economy treadmill test (speed = 2.0 mph, grade = 0%) and 10 were pain-free during this test (Pain-Free group). Patients were characterized on walking economy (ie, oxygen uptake during ambulation), as well as on demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, baseline exercise performance measures, and the ischemic window calculated from the decrease in ankle systolic blood pressure following exercise. During the constant load treadmill test, the Pain group experienced onset of claudication pain at 323 +/- 195 seconds (mean +/- standard deviation) and continued to walk until maximal pain was attained at 759 +/- 332 seconds. Walking economy during pain-free ambulation (9.54 +/- 1.42 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) changed (P change in walking economy after the onset of pain was associated with ischemic window (P change in walking economy (P = .36) from the second minute of exercise (9.20 +/- 1.62 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) to the nineteenth minute of exercise (9.07 +/- 1.54 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Painful ambulation at a constant speed is associated with impaired walking economy, as measured by an increase in oxygen uptake in patients limited by intermittent claudication, and the change in walking economy is explained, in part, by severity of PAD, diabetes, and hypertension.

  3. Redução da capacidade funcional e exacerbação da dor durante o esforço do teste de caminhada de 6 minutos em mulheres com fibromialgia Impaired functional capacity and exacerbation of pain and exertion during the 6-minute walk test in women with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Homann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A fibromialgia (FM parece limitar o desempenho físico, e a realização de atividades da vida diária (AVDs pode exacerbar a dor e o esforço percebido nesses pacientes. OBJETIVOS: Comparar o desempenho do teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6 entre pacientes com FM e controles e verificar relações entre esse desempenho com o impacto na qualidade de vida, na realização de tarefas da vida diária e no nível de atividade física. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 19 mulheres com FM e 20 mulheres saudáveis. Realizou-se o TC6 e, durante o teste, foram mensuradas a intensidade de dor e a percepção subjetiva de esforço (PSE. Foram aplicados o Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ e o International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. RESULTADOS: O grupo de mulheres com FM percorreu menor distância no TC6 (pacientes: 473,52±77,84 m versus controles: 541,75±85,62 m; p=0,02. Para o grupo de pacientes houve correlações entre a distância caminhada e o questionário FIQ (r=-0,46; p=0,05, o HAQ (r=-0,49; p=0,03 e o consumo de oxigênio (r=0,78; pBACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia has been association with physical performance limitations. Additionally, activities of daily living have been reported to be directly associated with the exacerbation of pain and perceived exertion in this patient population. OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of a 6-minute walk (6MWT test in patients with fibromyalgia and controls and to evaluate the relationship between test performance and quality of life, limitations of activities of daily living and physical activity level. METHODS: The study included 19 women with fibromyalgia (FM and 20 healthy controls (CG. A 6MWT was conducted and pain intensity and perceived effort (PE were assessed during the test. In addition, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ were

  4. Random walks and diffusion on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Porter, Mason A.; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2017-11-01

    Random walks are ubiquitous in the sciences, and they are interesting from both theoretical and practical perspectives. They are one of the most fundamental types of stochastic processes; can be used to model numerous phenomena, including diffusion, interactions, and opinions among humans and animals; and can be used to extract information about important entities or dense groups of entities in a network. Random walks have been studied for many decades on both regular lattices and (especially in the last couple of decades) on networks with a variety of structures. In the present article, we survey the theory and applications of random walks on networks, restricting ourselves to simple cases of single and non-adaptive random walkers. We distinguish three main types of random walks: discrete-time random walks, node-centric continuous-time random walks, and edge-centric continuous-time random walks. We first briefly survey random walks on a line, and then we consider random walks on various types of networks. We extensively discuss applications of random walks, including ranking of nodes (e.g., PageRank), community detection, respondent-driven sampling, and opinion models such as voter models.

  5. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Is hip muscle strength the key to walking as a bilateral amputee, whatever the level of the amputations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Jma; McCarthy, I; Marks, L; Davis, R C

    2011-12-01

    Little data have been reported on the factors that are important in bilateral amputee walking ability especially the role of hip strength. Observational, case-control study where participants were evaluated at a single point in time. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors involved in bilateral amputee walking ability by assessment of walking speed, perceived exertion, exercise intensity, physiological cost index (PCI) and hip muscle strength. For a group of 10 bilateral amputees, with different levels of amputation, and a non-pathological reference group, walking ability was assessed using the two-minute walk test. Hip muscle strength was assessed using isokinetic strength tests. Bilateral amputees were found to have slower walking speeds and increased PCI of walking which were correlated to higher levels of amputation. Peak hip torques were reduced in the amputees, which was only significant for concentric extension torque (p = 0.029), and approaching significance for concentric flexion (p = 0.061) and abduction (p = 0.057). Bilateral amputee peak hip strength suggested a positive trend with increasing walking ability. Bilateral amputee walking ability was reduced and mainly related to level of amputation. The role of hip strength in bilateral amputee walking ability requires further investigation.

  7. Utilização da relação potência-tempo até exaustão em testes de caminhada para avaliação da aptidão aeróbia Use of the power-time until exhaustion relantionship in walk tests to evaluate aerobic fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Morais Puga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a aptidão aeróbia em testes de caminhada com carga externa aplicada por meio da inclinação da esteira, a partir da relação não linear entre inclinação da esteira e tempo até a exaustão em velocidade fixa. Doze indivíduos do gênero masculino com 23,2 ± 2,7 anos de idade, 74,0 ± 7,9kg de massa corporal e 23,7 ± 2,5kg·(m²-1 de IMC, realizaram duas etapas de testes de caminhada em esteira ergométrica com velocidade fixa de 5,5km·h-1 em todos os testes e sobrecarga de intensidade aplicada por meio de inclinação da esteira (%. A etapa 1 consistiu de três testes retangulares até a exaustão voluntária, nas intensidades de 18%, 20% e 22% de inclinação, para determinação dos parâmetros do modelo de potência crítica por dois modelos lineares e um hiperbólico. A etapa 2 consistiu na determinação da intensidade correspondente ao máximo estado estável de lactato sanguíneo (MEEL. ANOVA demonstrou que o modelo hiperbólico (15,4 ± 1,1% resultou em estimativa significativamente menor que os outros dois modelos lineares inclinação-tempo-1 (16,0 ± 1,0% e hiperbólico linearizado tempo-1-inclinação (15,9 ± 1,0%, porém, houve alta correlação entre os modelos. Os dois modelos lineares superestimaram a intensidade do MEEL (14,1 ± 1,4%, e o modelo hiperbólico, mesmo sem diferença estatística, apresentou fraca correlação, com baixa concordância em relação ao MEEL. Conclui-se que a relação inclinação-tempo até a exaustão, em testes de caminhada, não permitem a estimativa de intensidade de exercício suportável por longo período de tempo.The aim of the present study was to evaluate aerobic fitness during walk tests with workload increased by treadmill inclination, based on non-linear relationship between treadmill inclination and time until exhaustion in steady velocity. Twelve male subjects, 23.2 ± 2.7 years old, 74.0 ± 7.9 kg of body mass and 23.7 ± 2.5 kg

  8. Does walking in nature restore directed attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Mental fatigue is commonly understood and experienced as mental exhaustion, irritability and foggy thinking. Research indicates mental fatigue is indicative of depleted directed attention resources. Thus, restoration of directed attention is thought to alleviate mental fatigue. This research sought to determine if walking in nature compared to walking on a treadmill provided enhanced performance on tasks of directed attention. Method: Twenty-two participants completed a 30-min walk on a treadmill and a walk in the local Botanic Garden on separate days. Two directed attention tasks (Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP and Necker Cube reversal task were conducted both before and after each walk as well as a Perceived Arousal Scale and a Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Results: Total hits and sensitivity to a target on a RVIP task improved significantly in both locations F(1, 20 = 11.892, p = .003, F(1, 20 = 12.364, p = .002 respectively. However, there was no significant difference between the nature walk and the treadmill walk. Significant order effects were found for sensitivity to targets pre/post walks, F(1, 19 = 10.309, p = .005 and F(1, 19 = 8.578, p = .009 respectively. Necker cube baseline scores indicated a significant reduction in reversals after 30 minutes of walking in both locations. Arousal was higher overall in the nature walk compared to the treadmill walk, F(1, 20 = 11.626, p = .003. Conclusions: No evidence was obtained to suggest that walking in nature leads to improved directed attention compared to walking on a treadmill. Results indicate that improvements were due to significant learning affects. The significantly higher overall score on the arousal scale in the natural environment suggests that participants were more alert in this environment.

  9. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Chowhan, James

    2011-04-04

    There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity), socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education) and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas). In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage) and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.

  10. Walk-Startup of a Two-Legged Walking Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babković, Kalman; Nagy, László; Krklješ, Damir; Borovac, Branislav

    There is a growing interest towards humanoid robots. One of their most important characteristic is the two-legged motion - walk. Starting and stopping of humanoid robots introduce substantial delays. In this paper, the goal is to explore the possibility of using a short unbalanced state of the biped robot to quickly gain speed and achieve the steady state velocity during a period shorter than half of the single support phase. The proposed method is verified by simulation. Maintainig a steady state, balanced gait is not considered in this paper.

  11. Mentally walking through doorways causes forgetting: The location updating effect and imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Zachary; Peterson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have documented an intriguing phenomenon whereby simply walking through a doorway causes forgetting (the location updating effect). The Event Horizon Model is the most commonly cited theory to explain these data. Importantly, this model explains the effect without invoking the importance or reliance upon perceptual information (i.e., seeing oneself pass through the doorway). This generates the intriguing hypothesis that the effect may be demonstrated in participants who simply imagine walking through a doorway. Across two experiments, we explicitly test this hypothesis. Participants familiarised themselves with both real (Experiment 1) and virtual (Experiment 2) environments which served as the setting for their mental walk. They were then provided with an image to remember and were instructed to imagine themselves walking through the previously presented space. In both experiments, when the mental walk required participants to pass through a doorway, more forgetting occurred, consistent with the predictions laid out in the Event Horizon Model.

  12. Safe RESIDential Environments? A longitudinal analysis of the influence of crime-related safety on walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Christian, Hayley; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-02-16

    Numerous cross-sectional studies have investigated the premise that the perception of crime will cause residents to constrain their walking; however the findings to date are inconclusive. In contrast, few longitudinal or prospective studies have examined the impact of crime-related safety on residents walking behaviours. This study used longitudinal data to test whether there is a causal relationship between crime-related safety and walking in the local neighbourhood. Participants in the RESIDential Environments Project (RESIDE) in Perth, Australia, completed a questionnaire before moving to their new neighbourhood (n = 1813) and again approximately one (n = 1467), three (n = 1230) and seven years (n = 531) after relocating. Self-report measures included neighbourhood perceptions (modified NEWS items) and walking inside the neighbourhood (min/week). Objective built environmental measures were generated for each participant's 1600 m neighbourhood at each time-point, and the count of crimes reported to police were generated at the suburb-level for the first three time-points only. The impact of crime-related safety on walking was examined in SAS using the Proc Mixed procedure (marginal repeated measures model with unrestricted variance pattern). Initial models controlled for demographics, time and self-selection, and subsequent models progressively adjusted for other built and social environment factors based on a social ecological model. For every increase of one level on a five-point Likert scale in perceived safety from crime, total walking within the local neighbourhood increased by 18.0 min/week (p = 0.000). This relationship attenuated to an increase of 10.5 min/week after accounting for other built and social environment factors, but remained significant (p = 0.008). Further analyses examined transport and recreational walking separately. In the fully adjusted models, each increase in safety from crime was associated with a 7.0

  13. Correlation between the Oswestry Disability Index and objective measurements of walking capacity and performance in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Annette Bennedsgaard; Gustafsson, Malin Eleonora Av Kák

    2018-03-05

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) plays a significant role in lumbar spinal stenosis research and is used to assess patient's walking limitations. The World Health Organisation describes the constructs of walking capacity and performance and recommend measuring both to fully describe patient's walking ability. Objective methods to assess walking capacity and performance is being investigated and used alongside the traditional use of PROs. This review of the literature was made to provide an overview of relations between the ODI and outcome measures of walking capacity and performance in spinal stenosis research, and to provide a strategy for improving such measures in future research. The review was conducted according to the Prisma Statement. In February 2017, a search was performed in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane database. Authors independently screened articles by title, abstract, and full text, and studies were included if both authors agreed. Articles with correlation analysis between the ODI, walking capacity and performance measures by accelerometer or GPS were included. The results support a correlation between the ODI and walking capacity measures. The available studies using ODI and accelerometers were too few to reach a conclusion regarding correlation between ODI and walking performance. No articles with GPS measure were identified. The ODI should not stand alone when evaluating walking limitations in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. To enable a comprehensive assessment of walking ability, a walking test should be used to assess walking capacity and accelerometers should be investigated and standardized in measuring walking performance. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  14. A random walk model to evaluate autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, T. R. S.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.

    2018-02-01

    A common test administered during neurological examination in children is the analysis of their social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, including repetitive patterns of behavior. Poor performance may be associated with neurological conditions characterized by impairments in executive function, such as the so-called pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), a particular condition of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Inspired in these diagnosis tools, mainly those related to repetitive movements and behaviors, we studied here how the diffusion regimes of two discrete-time random walkers, mimicking the lack of social interaction and restricted interests developed for children with PDDs, are affected. Our model, which is based on the so-called elephant random walk (ERW) approach, consider that one of the random walker can learn and imitate the microscopic behavior of the other with probability f (1 - f otherwise). The diffusion regimes, measured by the Hurst exponent (H), is then obtained, whose changes may indicate a different degree of autism.

  15. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients' Affected Side Lower Extremity's Walking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity's walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in all of the assessed items than the other two groups. [Conclusion] In the present study progressive body weight supported treadmill training was performed in an environment in which the subjects were actually walked, and PBWSTFBWT was more effective at efficiently training stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability.

  16. Increased Walking's Additive and No Substitution Effect on Total Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bumjoon; Moudon, Anne V; Hurvitz, Philip M; Saelens, Brian E

    2018-03-01

    We assessed the associations between a change in time spent walking and a change in total physical activity (PA) time within an urban living adult sample to test for additive or substitution effects. Participants living in the greater Seattle area were assessed in 2008-2009 and again 1-2 yr later (2010-2011). At each time point, they wore accelerometers and GPS units and recorded trips and locations in a travel diary for seven consecutive days. These data streams were combined to derive a more objective estimate of walking and total PA. Participants also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to provide self-reported estimates of walking and total PA. Regression analyses assessed the associations between within-participant changes in objective and self-reported walking and total PA. Data came from 437 participants. On average, a 1-min increase in total walking was associated with an increase in total PA of 1 min, measured by objective data, and 1.2-min, measured by self-reported data. A similar additive effect was consistently found with utilitarian, transportation, or job-related walking, measured by both objective and self-reported data. For recreational walking, the effect of change was mixed between objective and self-reported results. Both objective and self-reported data confirmed an additive effect of utilitarian and total walking on PA.

  17. Quantum walks driven by many coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Todd A.; Ambainis, Andris; Carteret, Hilary A.

    2003-01-01

    Quantum random walks have been much studied recently, largely due to their highly nonclassical behavior. In this paper, we study one possible route to classical behavior for the discrete quantum random walk on the line: the use of multiple quantum 'coins' (or more generally, coins of higher dimension) in order to diminish the effects of interference between paths. We find solutions to this system in terms of the single-coin random walk, and compare the asymptotic limit of these solutions to numerical simulations. We find exact analytical expressions for the time dependence of the first two moments, and show that in the long-time limit the ''quantum-mechanical'' behavior of the one-coin walk persists, even if each coin is flipped only twice. We further show that this is generic for a very broad class of possible walks, and that this behavior disappears only in the limit of a new coin for every step of the walk

  18. Coined quantum walks on weighted graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas G.

    2017-11-01

    We define a discrete-time, coined quantum walk on weighted graphs that is inspired by Szegedy’s quantum walk. Using this, we prove that many lackadaisical quantum walks, where each vertex has l integer self-loops, can be generalized to a quantum walk where each vertex has a single self-loop of real-valued weight l. We apply this real-valued lackadaisical quantum walk to two problems. First, we analyze it on the line or one-dimensional lattice, showing that it is exactly equivalent to a continuous deformation of the three-state Grover walk with faster ballistic dispersion. Second, we generalize Grover’s algorithm, or search on the complete graph, to have a weighted self-loop at each vertex, yielding an improved success probability when l < 3 + 2\\sqrt{2} ≈ 5.828 .

  19. Plantarflexor weakness negatively impacts walking in persons with multiple sclerosis more than plantarflexor spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Joanne M.; Kremer, Theodore R.; Van Dillen, Linda R.; Naismith, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if plantarflexor (PF) spasticity or ankle strength best predicts variance in walking capacity or self-perceived limitations in walking in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), and if pwMS with PF spasticity are weaker and have greater walking dysfunction than pwMS without PF spasticity. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University research laboratory. Participants Forty-two pwMS (age: 42.9 ± 10.1 years; Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): median = 3.0, range = 0–6) and 14 adults without disability (WD) (age: 41.9 ± 10.1 years). Intervention Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures PF spasticity and dorsiflexion (DF) and PF maximum voluntary isometric torque (MVIT) were assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and a computerized dynamometer, respectively. The Timed 25-Foot Walk Test (T25FWT) was the primary outcome measure of walking capacity. Secondary measures included the Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12). Results PF strength was the most consistent predictor of the variance in walking capacity (T25FWT: R2 change = 0.23 to 0.29, p ≤ 0.001; 6MWT: R2 change = 0.12 to 0.29, p ≤ 0.012), and self-perceived limitations of walking (MSWS-12: R2 change = 0.04 to 0.14, p 0.05) between the pwMS with PF spasticity and pwMS without PF spasticity for any of the outcome measures. Conclusions Our study suggests a unique contribution of PF weakness to walking dysfunction in pwMS, and highlights the importance of evaluating PF strength in this clinical population. PMID:24582617

  20. Effects of walking on bilateral differences in spatial attention control: a cross-over design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo; Hirakawa, Yuichi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2015-01-01

    Walking requires a high attentional cost for balance control and interferes with the control of attention. However, it is unclear whether the performance of visual spatial attention control, which is one of the functions of attention control, is also decreased during walking. In addition, although previous studies have shown right-hemispheric dominance and lower ability of left side visual spatial attention control during sitting, it remains unknown whether walking accentuates bilateral differences in visual spatial attention control. We tested the hypothesis that walking interferes with visual spatial attention control on both sides and accentuates its bilateral differences. Twenty healthy right-handed subjects (24.3 ± 2.0 years) participated in this study. Subjects performed a random stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task during both sitting and walking situations. To evaluate the effects of walking, reaction time was measured on both sides for the two situations. In comparison to the both situations (sitting and walking), the amount of change of the SRC effect on both sides was used. In the comparing the bilateral difference (left and right), the difference of the SRC effect was evaluated in each situation. The paired t-test was applied to both comparisons for statistical analysis. The SRC effect on both sides during walking was significantly larger than during sitting ( P  < 0.05). In addition, walking significantly accentuated the bilateral differences in visual spatial attention control ( P  < 0.05). These results suggest that walking affects the performance of visual spatial attention control on both sides and accentuates its bilateral differences. These results have implications for development of practice methods of gait disorder with higher brain dysfunction.

  1. Can psychology walk the walk of open science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bradford W

    2018-01-01

    An "open science movement" is gaining traction across many disciplines within the research enterprise but is also precipitating consternation among those who worry that too much disruption may be hampering professional productivity. Despite this disruption, proponents of open data collaboration have argued that some of the biggest problems of the 21st century need to be solved with the help of many people and that data sharing will be the necessary engine to make that happen. In the United States, a national strategic plan for data sharing encouraged the federally funded scientific agencies to (a) publish open data for community use in discoverable, machine-readable, and useful ways; (b) work with public and civil society organizations to set priorities for data to be shared; (c) support innovation and feedback on open data solutions; and (d) continue efforts to release and enhance high-priority data sets funded by taxpayer dollars. One of the more visible open data projects in the psychological sciences is the presidentially announced "Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies" (BRAIN) initiative. Lessons learned from initiatives such as these are instructive both from the perspective of open science within psychology and from the perspective of understanding the psychology of open science. Recommendations for creating better pathways to "walk the walk" in open science include (a) nurturing innovation and agile learning, (b) thinking outside the paradigm, (c) creating simplicity from complexity, and (d) participating in continuous learning evidence platforms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A discrete random walk on the hypercube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyuan; Xiang, Yonghong; Sun, Weigang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the scaling for mean first-passage time (MFPT) of random walks on the hypercube and obtain a closed-form formula for the MFPT over all node pairs. We also determine the exponent of scaling efficiency characterizing the random walks and compare it with those of the existing networks. Finally we study the random walks on the hypercube with a located trap and provide a solution of the Kirchhoff index of the hypercube.

  3. Quantum Walks for Computer Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    Quantum computation, one of the latest joint ventures between physics and the theory of computation, is a scientific field whose main goals include the development of hardware and algorithms based on the quantum mechanical properties of those physical systems used to implement such algorithms. Solving difficult tasks (for example, the Satisfiability Problem and other NP-complete problems) requires the development of sophisticated algorithms, many of which employ stochastic processes as their mathematical basis. Discrete random walks are a popular choice among those stochastic processes. Inspir

  4. Energy expenditure of nordic walking and conventional walking assessed by accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mynarski Władysław

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: the objective was to assess and compare the energy expenditure (EE and exercise heart rate (EHR during Nordic Walking (NW, and conventional walking (W in physical education and tourism/recreation university students.

  5. The Relationship Between Arm Movement and Walking Stability in Bipedal Walking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shibukawa, Miki

    2001-01-01

    ... analysis of walking for use in rehabilitation programs. The analysis of walking movement has generally focused on the legs rather than the arms, probably due to a perception that the arms do not play an essential role in this movement...

  6. Thermodynamics and entanglements of walks under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E J; Orlandini, E; Tesi, M C; Whittington, S G

    2009-01-01

    We use rigorous arguments and Monte Carlo simulations to study the thermodynamics and the topological properties of self-avoiding walks on the cubic lattice subjected to an external force f. The walks are anchored at one or both endpoints to an impenetrable plane at Z = 0 and the force is applied in the Z-direction. If a force is applied to the free endpoint of an anchored walk, then a model of pulled walks is obtained. If the walk is confined to a slab and a force is applied to the top bounding plane, then a model of stretched walks is obtained. For both models we prove the existence of the limiting free energy for any value of the force and we show that, for compressive forces, the thermodynamic properties of the two models differ substantially. For pulled walks we prove the existence of a phase transition that, by numerical simulation, we estimate to be second order and located at f = 0. By using a pattern theorem for large positive forces we show that almost all sufficiently long stretched walks are knotted. We examine the entanglement complexity of stretched and pulled walks; our numerical results show a sharp reduction with increasing pulling and stretching forces. Finally, we also examine models of pulled and stretched loops. We prove the existence of limiting free energies in these models and consider the knot probability numerically as a function of the applied pulling or stretching force

  7. Increased H(max):M(max) ratio in community walkers poststroke without increase in ankle plantarflexion during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, M; Caulfield, B

    2001-08-01

    To investigate whether changes in H-reflex response at midswing and midstance are related to excessive plantarflexion during walking in community walkers poststroke compared with control subjects without stroke. Survey of functional walking handicap in a random sample of an annual stroke cohort followed by H-reflex and M(max) testing of a smaller sample. Community and laboratory testing. Forty individuals with stroke (IWS group) completed the functional walking handicap survey, 10 of whom agreed (with 10 age-matched controls) to enroll in a study of of the H(max):M(max) ratio in soleus during walking. Electromyography during treadmill walking. Functional Walking Handicap Scale, soleus H(max):M(max) ratio, and the ankle joint's angle of displacement. Nine of the 10 stroke patients were community walkers. All had significantly (p .05) increase in H(max) response. Individuals with community-level walking ability after stroke have significantly (p <.05) less repeatability of ankle joint movement than controls at both midswing and midstance. Simultaneous soleus H(max) and M(max) testing showed a significant (p <.01) reduction in the H(max) and H(max):M(max) ratio at midswing in controls only. This inhibition at midswing was lost by the IWS group without significant increase in H(max), suggesting that central synaptic excitability was within the normal range, and possibly accounting for the absence of excessive ankle plantarflexion during walking in the IWS group with community level walking ability.

  8. Knee Stretch Walking Method for Biped Robot: Using Toe and Heel Joints to Increase Walking Strides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiko; Shimmyo, Shuhei; Nakazato, Miki; Mikami, Kei; Sato, Tomoya; Sakaino, Sho; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    This paper proposes a knee stretch walking method for biped robots; the method involves the use of the toes and heel joints to increase walking strides. A knee can be stretched by switching control variables. By a knee stretch walking with heel contacts to the ground and toe takeoffs from the ground, biped robots can increase their walking stride and speed. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by simulation and experimental results.

  9. Independent evolution of knuckle-walking in African apes shows that humans did not evolve from a knuckle-walking ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L; Schmitt, Daniel

    2009-08-25

    Despite decades of debate, it remains unclear whether human bipedalism evolved from a terrestrial knuckle-walking ancestor or from a more generalized, arboreal ape ancestor. Proponents of the knuckle-walking hypothesis focused on the wrist and hand to find morphological evidence of this behavior in the human fossil record. These studies, however, have not examined variation or development of purported knuckle-walking features in apes or other primates, data that are critical to resolution of this long-standing debate. Here we present novel data on the frequency and development of putative knuckle-walking features of the wrist in apes and monkeys. We use these data to test the hypothesis that all knuckle-walking apes share similar anatomical features and that these features can be used to reliably infer locomotor behavior in our extinct ancestors. Contrary to previous expectations, features long-assumed to indicate knuckle-walking behavior are not found in all African apes, show different developmental patterns across species, and are found in nonknuckle-walking primates as well. However, variation among African ape wrist morphology can be clearly explained if we accept the likely independent evolution of 2 fundamentally different biomechanical modes of knuckle-walking: an extended wrist posture in an arboreal environment (Pan) versus a neutral, columnar hand posture in a terrestrial environment (Gorilla). The presence of purported knuckle-walking features in the hominin wrist can thus be viewed as evidence of arboreality, not terrestriality, and provide evidence that human bipedalism evolved from a more arboreal ancestor occupying the ecological niche common to all living apes.

  10. Knee flexor strength and balance control impairment may explain declines during prolonged walking in women with mild multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramari, Cintia; Moraes, Andréa G; Tauil, Carlos B; von Glehn, Felipe; Motl, Robert; de David, Ana C

    2018-02-01

    Physiological factors such as muscle weakness and balance could explain declines in walking distance by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The purpose of this study was to characterize levels and examine associations among decline in walking distance, balance and muscular strength in women with mild MS. Participants included 28 women with mild relapsing-remitting MS and 21 women without MS. We executed the 6-min walk test (6MWT) to verify declines in walking distance. Isokinetic knee flexion (KF) and extension (KE) muscle strength was measured using a dynamometer. Balance was quantified using a force platform, with eyes open and closed, on a rigid and foam surface. The MS patients presented declines in walking, lower KF muscle strength, and worse balance than controls. KF strength and balance correlated with walking in the MS group. The KF strength explained differences between groups in walking. The KF strength and balance presented as predictors of walking slowing down in the 6MWT, in mild MS. Women with mild MS have strength impairment of knee flexor muscles and balance control impairment that may explain walking related motor fatigability during prolonged walking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the implementation of a whole-workplace walking programme using the RE-AIM framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Chalkley, Anna E; Esliger, Dale W; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-05-18

    Promoting walking for the journey to/from work and during the working day is one potential approach to increase physical activity in adults. Walking Works was a practice-led, whole-workplace walking programme delivered by employees (walking champions). This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of Walking Works using the RE-AIM framework and provide recommendations for future delivery of whole-workplace walking programmes. Two cross sectional surveys were conducted; 1544 (28%) employees completed the baseline survey and 918 employees (21%) completed the follow-up survey. Effectiveness was assessed using baseline and follow-up data; reach, implementation and maintenance were assessed using follow-up data only. For categorical data, Chi square tests were conducted to assess differences between surveys or groups. Continuous data were analysed to test for significant differences using a Mann-Whitney U test. Telephone interviews were conducted with the lead organisation co-ordinator, eight walking champions and three business representatives at follow-up. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed to identify key themes related to adoption, implementation and maintenance. Adoption: Five workplaces participated in Walking Works. Reach: 480 (52.3%) employees were aware of activities and 221 (24.1%) participated. A variety of walking activities were delivered. Some programme components were not delivered as planned which was partly due to barriers in using walking champions to deliver activities. These included the walking champions' capacity, skills, support needs, ability to engage senior management, and the number and type of activities they could deliver. Other barriers included lack of management support, difficulties communicating information about activities and challenges embedding the programme into normal business activities. Effectiveness: No significant changes in walking to/from work or walking during the working day were observed. Maintenance

  12. Evaluation of the implementation of a whole-workplace walking programme using the RE-AIM framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Adams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoting walking for the journey to/from work and during the working day is one potential approach to increase physical activity in adults. Walking Works was a practice-led, whole-workplace walking programme delivered by employees (walking champions. This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of Walking Works using the RE-AIM framework and provide recommendations for future delivery of whole-workplace walking programmes. Methods Two cross sectional surveys were conducted; 1544 (28% employees completed the baseline survey and 918 employees (21% completed the follow-up survey. Effectiveness was assessed using baseline and follow-up data; reach, implementation and maintenance were assessed using follow-up data only. For categorical data, Chi square tests were conducted to assess differences between surveys or groups. Continuous data were analysed to test for significant differences using a Mann-Whitney U test. Telephone interviews were conducted with the lead organisation co-ordinator, eight walking champions and three business representatives at follow-up. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed to identify key themes related to adoption, implementation and maintenance. Results Adoption: Five workplaces participated in Walking Works. Reach: 480 (52.3% employees were aware of activities and 221 (24.1% participated. Implementation: A variety of walking activities were delivered. Some programme components were not delivered as planned which was partly due to barriers in using walking champions to deliver activities. These included the walking champions’ capacity, skills, support needs, ability to engage senior management, and the number and type of activities they could deliver. Other barriers included lack of management support, difficulties communicating information about activities and challenges embedding the programme into normal business activities. Effectiveness: No significant changes in walking to

  13. Estimating mood variation from MPF of EMG during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinase, Yuta; Venture, Gentiane

    2013-01-01

    The information on the mood included in behavior is classified into nonverbal information, and is included in behavior without necessarily being based on the intention of an agent. Consequently, it is considered that we can estimate the mood from the measurement of the behavior. In this work, we estimate the mood from the surface electromyogram (EMG) information of the muscles of the upper limb during walking. Identification of emotion and mood using EMG information has been done with a variety of methods until now. In addition, it is known that human walking includes information that is specific to the individual and be affected by mood. Therefore, it is thought that the EMG analysis of walking is effective in the identification of human mood. In this work, we made a subject walk in the various mood states and answer psychological tests that measure the mood. We use two types of tasks (music listening and numerical calculation) for evoking different moods. Statistical features of EMG signals are calculated using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). These statistical features are related with psychological test scores, using regression analysis. In this paper, we have shown the statistical significance of the linear model to predict the variation of mood based on the information on the variation in MPF of EMG data of the muscles of the upper limb during walking with different moods. This shows the validity of such a mapping. However, since the interpretability of the model is still low, it cannot be said that the model is able to accurately represent the mood variation. Creating a model with high accuracy is a key issue in the future.

  14. Spatial search by quantum walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Andrew M.; Goldstone, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Grover's quantum search algorithm provides a way to speed up combinatorial search, but is not directly applicable to searching a physical database. Nevertheless, Aaronson and Ambainis showed that a database of N items laid out in d spatial dimensions can be searched in time of order √(N) for d>2, and in time of order √(N) poly(log N) for d=2. We consider an alternative search algorithm based on a continuous-time quantum walk on a graph. The case of the complete graph gives the continuous-time search algorithm of Farhi and Gutmann, and other previously known results can be used to show that √(N) speedup can also be achieved on the hypercube. We show that full √(N) speedup can be achieved on a d-dimensional periodic lattice for d>4. In d=4, the quantum walk search algorithm takes time of order √(N) poly(log N), and in d<4, the algorithm does not provide substantial speedup

  15. Dynamic optimization of human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F C; Pandy, M G

    2001-10-01

    A three-dimensional, neuromusculoskeletal model of the body was combined with dynamic optimization theory to simulate normal walking on level ground. The body was modeled as a 23 degree-of-freedom mechanical linkage, actuated by 54 muscles. The dynamic optimization problem was to calculate the muscle excitation histories, muscle forces, and limb motions subject to minimum metabolic energy expenditure per unit distance traveled. Muscle metabolic energy was calculated by slimming five terms: the basal or resting heat, activation heat, maintenance heat, shortening heat, and the mechanical work done by all the muscles in the model. The gait cycle was assumed to be symmetric; that is, the muscle excitations for the right and left legs and the initial and terminal states in the model were assumed to be equal. Importantly, a tracking problem was not solved. Rather only a set of terminal constraints was placed on the states of the model to enforce repeatability of the gait cycle. Quantitative comparisons of the model predictions with patterns of body-segmental displacements, ground-reaction forces, and muscle activations obtained from experiment show that the simulation reproduces the salient features of normal gait. The simulation results suggest that minimum metabolic energy per unit distance traveled is a valid measure of walking performance.

  16. Study of human walking patterns based on the parameter optimization of a passive dynamic walking robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xizhe; Liu, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanhe; Zhao, Jie

    2016-04-29

    The study of human walking patterns mainly focuses on how control affects walking because control schemes are considered to be dominant in human walking. This study proposes that not only fine control schemes but also optimized body segment parameters are responsible for humans' low-energy walking. A passive dynamic walker provides the possibility of analyzing the effect of parameters on walking efficiency because of its ability to walk without any control. Thus, a passive dynamic walking model with a relatively human-like structure was built, and a parameter optimization process based on the gait sensitivity norm was implemented to determine the optimal mechanical parameters by numerical simulation. The results were close to human body parameters, thus indicating that humans can walk under a passive pattern based on their body segment parameters. A quasi-passive walking prototype was built on the basis of the optimization results. Experiments showed that a passive robot with optimized parameters could walk on level ground with only a simple hip actuation. This result implies that humans can walk under a passive pattern based on their body segment parameters with only simple control strategy implying that humans can opt to walk instinctively under a passive pattern.

  17. IMU-based ambulatory walking speed estimation in constrained treadmill and overground walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuozhi; Li, Qingguo

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of a walking speed estimation system based on using an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a combination of accelerometers and gyroscopes. The walking speed estimation algorithm segments the walking sequence into individual stride cycles (two steps) based on the inverted pendulum-like behaviour of the stance leg during walking and it integrates the angular velocity and linear accelerations of the shank to determine the displacement of each stride. The evaluation was performed in both treadmill and overground walking experiments with various constraints on walking speed, step length and step frequency to provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of the system. Promising results were obtained in providing accurate and consistent walking speed/step length estimation in different walking conditions. An overall percentage root mean squared error (%RMSE) of 4.2 and 4.0% was achieved in treadmill and overground walking experiments, respectively. With an increasing interest in understanding human walking biomechanics, the IMU-based ambulatory system could provide a useful walking speed/step length measurement/control tool for constrained walking studies.

  18. Walking, sustainability and health: findings from a study of a Walking for Health group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gordon; Machaczek, Kasia; Pollard, Nick; Allmark, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Not only is it tacitly understood that walking is good for health and well-being but there is also now robust evidence to support this link. There is also growing evidence that regular short walks can be a protective factor for a range of long-term health conditions. Walking in the countryside can bring additional benefits, but access to the countryside brings complexities, especially for people with poorer material resources and from different ethnic communities. Reasons for people taking up walking as a physical activity are reasonably well understood, but factors linked to sustained walking, and therefore sustained benefit, are not. Based on an ethnographic study of a Walking for Health group in Lincolnshire, UK, this paper considers the motivations and rewards of group walks for older people. Nineteen members of the walking group, almost all with long-term conditions, took part in tape-recorded interviews about the personal benefits of walking. The paper provides insights into the links between walking as a sustainable activity and health, and why a combination of personal adaptive capacities, design elements of the walks and relational achievements of the walking group are important to this understanding. The paper concludes with some observations about the need to reframe conventional thinking about adherence to physical activity programmes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Lightweight, Soft Variable Stiffness Gel Spats for Walking Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the aging society, many of the elderly people are in need of nursing care for their daily activities. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed to support the daily activities of elderly people and to lighten the heavy burden of nursing. We think the technology of soft actuators should be one of the key issues for developing such technologies. In this study, we focused on walking assistance for daily life and presented a preliminary work of developing novel poly vinyl chloride (PVC gel actuator-based lightweight and soft wearable assistive spats for supporting the walking motion of human. The PVC gel devices are incorporated in the generally used spats. The stiffness of the gel spats can be actively varied with the applied DC field turned on and off. The gel spats have the characteristics of a simple structure, a lightweight, easy to put on and take off, and with a high flexibility. A prototype was tested in the motions of lifting a foot and walking. It was found that the integrated electromyogram (IEMG and maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC values of the rectus femoris muscle reduced with the assistance of the gel spats, which demonstrated the potential of the gel spats as a device for walking assistance.

  20. Walking Out of the Curve: Thoracolumbar Kyphosis in Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Adam; McKean, Greg; Lawing, Cheryl; Galey, Scott; Ain, Michael C

    2016-09-15

    Thoracolumbar kyphosis (TLK) is common in infants with achondroplasia. Our goals were to examine the natural history of TLK and identify factors associated with persistent TLK. We reviewed records of patients with achondroplasia seen by a board-certified orthopaedic surgeon at a tertiary care medical center between 1997 and 2013. Inclusion criteria were minimum 2-year follow-up and radiographs taken at time of presentation, within 6 months of walking age, and within 6 months of the first anniversary of walking age. We defined TLK as kyphosis of ≥20 degrees centered at T12 and L1. We assessed patient demographic characteristics, radiographic parameters (Cobb angle, apical vertebral translation, and apical vertebral wedging for vertebral height and width), and clinical parameters (developmental motor delay, hydrocephalus, presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and foramen magnum decompression). Developmental motor delay was defined as the inability to sit or ambulate independently by age 14 or 30 months, respectively. Associations between these factors and persistent TLK (ie, unresolved at final follow-up) were evaluated using logistic regression and χ, Fisher exact, and independent t tests. Significance was set at Pachondroplasia, TLK resolved at walking age in 15% of patients and after a year of walking in 58% of patients. Earlier bracing may slow TLK progression in patients with achondroplasia and developmental motor delay. Patients with kyphotic curves between 20 and 40 degrees should be examined intermittently for progressive deformity or worsening symptoms of spinal cord compression. Level II.

  1. Fast visual prediction and slow optimization of preferred walking speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Shawn M; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2012-05-01

    People prefer walking speeds that minimize energetic cost. This may be accomplished by directly sensing metabolic rate and adapting gait to minimize it, but only slowly due to the compounded effects of sensing delays and iterative convergence. Visual and other sensory information is available more rapidly and could help predict which gait changes reduce energetic cost, but only approximately because it relies on prior experience and an indirect means to achieve economy. We used virtual reality to manipulate visually presented speed while 10 healthy subjects freely walked on a self-paced treadmill to test whether the nervous system beneficially combines these two mechanisms. Rather than manipulating the speed of visual flow directly, we coupled it to the walking speed selected by the subject and then manipulated the ratio between these two speeds. We then quantified the dynamics of walking speed adjustments in response to perturbations of the visual speed. For step changes in visual speed, subjects responded with rapid speed adjustments (lasting 300 s). The timing and direction of these responses strongly indicate that a rapid predictive process informed by visual feedback helps select preferred speed, perhaps to complement a slower optimization process that seeks to minimize energetic cost.

  2. Walking performance: correlation between energy cost of walking and walking participation. new statistical approach concerning outcome measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Franceschini

    Full Text Available Walking ability, though important for quality of life and participation in social and economic activities, can be adversely affected by neurological disorders, such as Spinal Cord Injury, Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis or Traumatic Brain Injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the energy cost of walking (CW, in a mixed group of chronic patients with neurological diseases almost 6 months after discharge from rehabilitation wards, can predict the walking performance and any walking restriction on community activities, as indicated by Walking Handicap Scale categories (WHS. One hundred and seven subjects were included in the study, 31 suffering from Stroke, 26 from Spinal Cord Injury and 50 from Multiple Sclerosis. The multivariable binary logistical regression analysis has produced a statistical model with good characteristics of fit and good predictability. This model generated a cut-off value of.40, which enabled us to classify correctly the cases with a percentage of 85.0%. Our research reveal that, in our subjects, CW is the only predictor of the walking performance of in the community, to be compared with the score of WHS. We have been also identifying a cut-off value of CW cost, which makes a distinction between those who can walk in the community and those who cannot do it. In particular, these values could be used to predict the ability to walk in the community when discharged from the rehabilitation units, and to adjust the rehabilitative treatment to improve the performance.

  3. Exploiting Interlimb Arm and Leg Connections for Walking Rehabilitation: A Training Intervention in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryn Klarner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic arm and leg (A&L movements share common elements of neural control. The extent to which A&L cycling training can lead to training adaptations which transfer to improved walking function remains untested. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of A&L cycling training as a modality to improve locomotor function after stroke. Nineteen chronic stroke (>six months participants were recruited and performed 30 minutes of A&L cycling training three times a week for five weeks. Changes in walking function were assessed with (1 clinical tests; (2 strength during isometric contractions; and (3 treadmill walking performance and cutaneous reflex modulation. A multiple baseline (3 pretests within-subject control design was used. Data show that A&L cycling training improved clinical walking status increased strength by ~25%, improved modulation of muscle activity by ~25%, increased range of motion by ~20%, decreased stride duration, increased frequency, and improved modulation of cutaneous reflexes during treadmill walking. On most variables, the majority of participants showed a significant improvement in walking ability. These results suggest that exploiting arm and leg connections with A&L cycling training, an accessible and cost-effective training modality, could be used to improve walking ability after stroke.

  4. Using GPS, accelerometry and heart rate to predict outdoor graded walking energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Müllenheim, P-Y; Chaudru, S; Emily, M; Gernigon, M; Mahé, G; Bickert, S; Prioux, J; Noury-Desvaux, B; Le Faucheur, A

    2018-02-01

    To determine the best method and combination of methods among global positioning system (GPS), accelerometry, and heart rate (HR) for estimating energy expenditure (EE) during level and graded outdoor walking. Thirty adults completed 6-min outdoor walks at speeds of 2.0, 3.5, and 5.0kmh -1 during three randomized outdoor walking sessions: one level walking session and two graded (uphill and downhill) walking sessions on a 3.4% and a 10.4% grade. EE was measured using a portable metabolic system (K4b 2 ). Participants wore a GlobalSat ® DG100 GPS receiver, an ActiGraph™ wGT3X+ accelerometer, and a Polar ® HR monitor. Linear mixed models (LMMs) were tested for EE predictions based on GPS speed and grade, accelerometer counts or HR-related parameters (alone and combined). Root-mean-square error (RMSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the models. Published speed/grade-, count-, and HR-based equations were also cross-validated. According to the LMMs, GPS was as accurate as accelerometry (RMSE=0.89-0.90kcalmin -1 ) and more accurate than HR (RMSE=1.20kcalmin -1 ) for estimating EE during level walking; GPS was the most accurate method for estimating EE during both level and uphill (RMSE=1.34kcalmin -1 )/downhill (RMSE=0.84kcalmin -1 ) walking; combining methods did not increase the accuracy reached using GPS (or accelerometry for level walking). The cross-validation results were in accordance with the LMMs, except for downhill walking. Our study provides useful information regarding the best method(s) for estimating EE with appropriate equations during level and graded outdoor walking. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for a Selectively Regulated Prioritization Shift Depending on Walking Situations in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkovic, Dina; Hobert, Markus A; Bellut, Carolin; Funer, Florian; Renno, Sarah; Haertner, Linda; Hasmann, Sandra E; Staebler, Jana; Geritz, Johanna; Suenkel, Ulrike; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Berg, Daniela; Maetzler, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Older adults have increased risks of balance issues and falls when walking and performing turns in daily situations. Changes of prioritization during different walking situations associated with dual tasking may contribute to these deficits. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate whether older adults demonstrate changes of prioritization during different walking paths. Methods: In total, 1,054 subjects with an age range from 50 to 83 years were selected from the first follow-up visit of the TREND (Tuebinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders) study. They were classified according to their performance on the Trail Making Test (TMT) into good and poor TMT performers (based on recent results showing that cognitive flexibility affects prioritization strategies during straight walking). Absolute dual-task performance and relative dual-task costs (DTC, relative performance under dual-task conditions compared with single-task conditions) were assessed in two paradigms: walking while subtracting serial 7 s and walking while checking boxes on a clipboard. Both tasks were performed on straight and curved paths. Results: Overall, the poor TMT performers group performed worse in all single and dual tasks. Interestingly, the relative change in performance measured by dual-task costs differed in the groups between the two walking paths. On straight paths, poor TMT performers had a similar DTC of walking to that of good performers ( p = 0.10) but had a significantly lower DTC of subtracting ( p = 0.02). On curved paths, poor performers had a similar DTC of subtracting ( p = 0.10), but their DTC of walking was significantly higher ( p older adults provides evidence for the existence of a (walking) situation-dependent change of prioritization. If confirmed in other studies, situation-dependent change of prioritization should be included as a potential factor contributing to gait and balance impairments, and

  6. Single Session of Functional Electrical Stimulation-Assisted Walking Produces Corticomotor Symmetry Changes Related to Changes in Poststroke Walking Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jacqueline A; Hsiao, HaoYuan; Wright, Tamara; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A

    2017-05-01

    Recent research demonstrated that the symmetry of corticomotor drive with the paretic and nonparetic plantarflexor muscles was related to the biomechanical ankle moment strategy that people with chronic stroke used to achieve their greatest walking speeds. Rehabilitation strategies that promote corticomotor balance might improve poststroke walking mechanics and enhance functional ambulation. The study objectives were to test the effectiveness of a single session of gait training using functional electrical stimulation (FES) to improve plantarflexor corticomotor symmetry and plantarflexion ankle moment symmetry and to determine whether changes in corticomotor symmetry were related to changes in ankle moment symmetry within the session. This was a repeated-measures crossover study. On separate days, 20 people with chronic stroke completed a session of treadmill walking either with or without the use of FES of their ankle dorsi- and plantarflexor muscles. We calculated plantarflexor corticomotor symmetry using transcranial magnetic stimulation and plantarflexion ankle moment symmetry during walking between the paretic and the nonparetic limbs before and after each session. We compared changes and tested relationships between corticomotor symmetry and ankle moment symmetry following each session. Following the session with FES, there was an increase in plantarflexor corticomotor symmetry that was related to the observed increase in ankle moment symmetry. In contrast, following the session without FES, there were no changes in corticomotor symmetry or ankle moment symmetry. No stratification was made on the basis of lesion size, location, or clinical severity. These findings demonstrate, for the first time (to our knowledge), the ability of a single session of gait training with FES to induce positive corticomotor plasticity in people in the chronic stage of stroke recovery. They also provide insight into the neurophysiologic mechanisms underlying improvements in

  7. Walking on high heels changes muscle activity and the dynamics of human walking significantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Nørreslet, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of net joint moments in the lower extremities during walking on high-heeled shoes compared with barefooted walking at identical speed. Fourteen female subjects walked at 4 km/h across three force platforms while they were filmed by five...... digital video cameras operating at 50 frames/second. Both barefooted walking and walking on high-heeled shoes (heel height: 9 cm) were recorded. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. EMG was recorded from eight leg muscles. The knee extensor moment peak in the first half of the stance...

  8. Walking economy in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Cory L; Schenkman, Margaret L; McFann, Kim; Wolfe, Pamela; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2009-07-30

    Gait dysfunction is an early problem identified by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Alterations in gait may result in an increase in the energy cost of walking (i.e., walking economy). The purpose of this study was to determine whether walking economy is atypical in patients with PD when compared with healthy controls. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the associations of age, sex, and level of disease severity with walking economy in patients with PD. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and other responses to treadmill walking were compared in 90 patients (64.4 +/- 10.3 years) and 44 controls (64.6 +/- 7.3 years) at several walking speeds. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to determine relationships of age, sex, and disease state with walking economy in PD patients. Walking economy was significantly worse in PD patients than in controls at all speeds above 1.0 mph. Across all speeds, VO(2) was 6 to 10% higher in PD patients. Heart rate, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, and rating of perceived exertion were correspondingly elevated. No significant relationship of age, sex, or UPDRS score with VO(2) was found for patients with PD. The findings suggest that the physiologic stress of daily physical activities is increased in patients with early to mid-stage PD, and this may contribute to the elevated level of fatigue that is characteristic of PD. Copyright 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Nordic walking improves mobility in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkeren, F.J. van; Reijmers, R.S.; Kleinveld, M.J.; Minten, A.; Bruggen, J.P.; Bloem, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    Nordic walking may improve mobility in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects persist after the training period. We included 19 PD patients [14 men; mean age 67.0 years (range 58-76); Hoehn and Yahr stage range 1-3] who received a 6-week Nordic walking exercise

  10. Rhythmic walking interactions with auditory feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jylhä, Antti; Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur

    2012-01-01

    Walking is a natural rhythmic activity that has become of interest as a means of interacting with software systems such as computer games. Therefore, designing multimodal walking interactions calls for further examination. This exploratory study presents a system capable of different kinds of int...

  11. Walking in Place Through Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Immersive virtual reality (IVR) is seemingly on the verge of entering the homes of consumers. Enabling users to walk through virtual worlds in a limited physical space presents a challenge. With an outset in a taxonomy of virtual travel techniques, we argue that Walking-in-Place (WIP) techniques ...

  12. Cognitive Resource Demands of Redirected Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerd; Lubas, Paul; Steinicke, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Redirected walking allows users to walk through a large-scale immersive virtual environment (IVE) while physically remaining in a reasonably small workspace. Therefore, manipulations are applied to virtual camera motions so that the user's self-motion in the virtual world differs from movements in the real world. Previous work found that the human perceptual system tolerates a certain amount of inconsistency between proprioceptive, vestibular and visual sensation in IVEs, and even compensates for slight discrepancies with recalibrated motor commands. Experiments showed that users are not able to detect an inconsistency if their physical path is bent with a radius of at least 22 meters during virtual straightforward movements. If redirected walking is applied in a smaller workspace, manipulations become noticeable, but users are still able to move through a potentially infinitely large virtual world by walking. For this semi-natural form of locomotion, the question arises if such manipulations impose cognitive demands on the user, which may compete with other tasks in IVEs for finite cognitive resources. In this article we present an experiment in which we analyze the mutual influence between redirected walking and verbal as well as spatial working memory tasks using a dual-tasking method. The results show an influence of redirected walking on verbal as well as spatial working memory tasks, and we also found an effect of cognitive tasks on walking behavior. We discuss the implications and provide guidelines for using redirected walking in virtual reality laboratories.

  13. Identifying particular places through experimental walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Schultz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental walking can be used to identify particular places, design strategies and spatial visions for urban landscapes. Walking designers can explore sites and, in particular, their temporal dynamics and atmospheric particularities – both essential elements in making particular places. This article illustrates the benefits of this method, using the changing German city of Freiburg as an example.

  14. The environmental benefits of bicycling and walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Bicycling and walking are the two major non-fuel-consuming, non-polluting : forms of transportation in the United States. Millions of Americans ride : bicycles and/or walk for a wide variety of purposes --- commuting to work, as : part of their job, ...

  15. A weighted random walk approximation to fractional Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrøm, Tom

    2007-01-01

    We present a random walk approximation to fractional Brownian motion where the increments of the fractional random walk are defined as a weighted sum of the past increments of a Bernoulli random walk.

  16. A random walk approximation to fractional Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrøm, Tom

    2007-01-01

    We present a random walk approximation to fractional Brownian motion where the increments of the fractional random walk are defined as a weighted sum of the past increments of a Bernoulli random walk.

  17. Go naked: diapers affect infant walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Whitney G; Lingeman, Jesse M; Adolph, Karen E

    2012-11-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers - habitually worn by most infants in the sample - incur a cost relative to walking naked. Infants displayed less mature gait patterns and more missteps and falls while wearing diapers. Thus, infants' own diapers constitute an ongoing biomechanical perturbation while learning to walk. Furthermore, shifts in diapering practices may have contributed to historical and cross-cultural differences in infant walking. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Efficient quantum walk on a quantum processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaogang; Loke, Thomas; Montanaro, Ashley; Aungskunsiri, Kanin; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Wang, Jingbo B; Matthews, Jonathan C F

    2016-05-05

    The random walk formalism is used across a wide range of applications, from modelling share prices to predicting population genetics. Likewise, quantum walks have shown much potential as a framework for developing new quantum algorithms. Here we present explicit efficient quantum circuits for implementing continuous-time quantum walks on the circulant class of graphs. These circuits allow us to sample from the output probability distributions of quantum walks on circulant graphs efficiently. We also show that solving the same sampling problem for arbitrary circulant quantum circuits is intractable for a classical computer, assuming conjectures from computational complexity theory. This is a new link between continuous-time quantum walks and computational complexity theory and it indicates a family of tasks that could ultimately demonstrate quantum supremacy over classical computers. As a proof of principle, we experimentally implement the proposed quantum circuit on an example circulant graph using a two-qubit photonics quantum processor.