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Sample records for stallion fertility electronic

  1. The effect of dual-hemisphere breeding on stallion fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walbornn, S R; Love, C C; Blanchard, T L; Brinsko, S P; Varner, D D

    2017-05-01

    Breeding records were analyzed from 24 Thoroughbred stallions that were subjected to dual-hemisphere breeding (DH), including novice (first-year; NOV; n = 11) and experienced (EXP; n = 13) stallions. Fertility variables included seasonal pregnancy rate, pregnancy rate per cycle, and first-cycle pregnancy rate. In addition, values for book size, total number of covers, distribution of mare type (maiden, foaling, and barren) within a stallion's book, cycles per mare, and mare age were examined. Some data were also categorized by mare type (maiden-M, foaling-F, and barren-B). Five separate analyses of the data were performed. For Analyses 1-3, the effects of hemisphere (northern hemisphere [NH] vs. southern hemisphere [SH]) and breeding order (refers to the first [O1] or second [O2] season within the first year of dual-hemisphere breeding) were examined for all stallions (combined group [CG]), NOV stallions only, and EXP stallions only, respectively. Fertility values were generally higher in the SH than the NH (P fertility of O1 was generally similar to O2 (P > 0.05). For Analysis 4, fertility of DH breeding seasons was compared to single hemisphere (SIN) breeding seasons within the same 16 stallions and was found to be similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). For Analysis 5, the effect of the number of consecutive DH breeding seasons on fertility was examined and was found to remain unchanged (P > 0.05). In summary, no adverse effects of DH breeding on fertility were detected. Fertility was higher when stallions were bred in the SH, as compared to the NH. Potential reasons for higher fertility achieved in the SH were smaller book sizes and better mare reproductive quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Screening of whole genome sequences identified high-impact variants for stallion fertility.

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    Schrimpf, Rahel; Gottschalk, Maren; Metzger, Julia; Martinsson, Gunilla; Sieme, Harald; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-04-14

    Stallion fertility is an economically important trait due to the increase of artificial insemination in horses. The availability of whole genome sequence data facilitates identification of rare high-impact variants contributing to stallion fertility. The aim of our study was to genotype rare high-impact variants retrieved from next-generation sequencing (NGS)-data of 11 horses in order to unravel harmful genetic variants in large samples of stallions. Gene ontology (GO) terms and search results from public databases were used to obtain a comprehensive list of human und mice genes predicted to participate in the regulation of male reproduction. The corresponding equine orthologous genes were searched in whole genome sequence data of seven stallions and four mares and filtered for high-impact genetic variants using SnpEFF, SIFT and Polyphen 2 software. All genetic variants with the missing homozygous mutant genotype were genotyped on 337 fertile stallions of 19 breeds using KASP genotyping assays or PCR-RFLP. Mixed linear model analysis was employed for an association analysis with de-regressed estimated breeding values of the paternal component of the pregnancy rate per estrus (EBV-PAT). We screened next generation sequenced data of whole genomes from 11 horses for equine genetic variants in 1194 human and mice genes involved in male fertility and linked through common gene ontology (GO) with male reproductive processes. Variants were filtered for high-impact on protein structure and validated through SIFT and Polyphen 2. Only those genetic variants were followed up when the homozygote mutant genotype was missing in the detection sample comprising 11 horses. After this filtering process, 17 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were left. These SNPs were genotyped in 337 fertile stallions of 19 breeds using KASP genotyping assays or PCR-RFLP. An association analysis in 216 Hanoverian stallions revealed a significant association of the splice-site disruption variant

  3. Effect of semen collection practices on sperm characteristics before and after storage and on fertility of stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieme, H; Katila, T; Klug, E

    2004-02-01

    This study analyzed effects of different methods and intervals of semen collection on the quantity and quality of fresh, cool-stored, and frozen-thawed sperm and fertility of AI stallions. In Experiment 1, ejaculates were obtained from six stallions (72 ejaculates per stallion) using fractionated versus non-fractionated semen collection techniques. Initial sperm quality of the first three jets of the ejaculate was not different from that of total ejaculates. Centrifugation of sperm-rich fractions before freezing improved post-thaw motility and sperm membrane integrity when compared to non-centrifuged sperm-rich fractions or non-fractionated centrifuged ejaculates (Psperm concentrations, percentages of progressively motile sperm (PMS) after storage for 24h at 5 degrees C and lower percentages of midpiece alterations than single daily ejaculates. Semen collected once daily showed significantly lower values of live sperm after freezing and thawing than the first ejaculate of two ejaculates collected 1h apart every 48 h. In Experiment 3, semen was collected from 36 stallions (> or =12 ejaculates per stallion) during the non-breeding season and the time to ejaculation and the number of mounts was recorded. When time to ejaculation and the number of mounts increased, volume and total sperm count (TSC) also increased (Psperm concentration, percentage of PMS after storage for 24 h at 5 degrees C, percentage of membrane-intact sperm in fresh semen (Psperm of frozen-thawed sperm (Psperm concentration and percentage of PMS after 24-h cool-storage decreased with increasing number of mounts on the phantom (P or =1 on an average per day) showed significantly higher FRs than mares inseminated with semen from stallions with a daily collection frequency of 0.5-1 or 2.5 days.

  4. Fertilidade em garanhões avaliada através do exame andrológico Fertility in stallions as accessed by the breeding soundness examination

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    Anelise Maria Hammes

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo discutir aspectos da fertilidade de garanhões e sua relação com o exame andrológico. Numa primeira análise, 10 garanhões usados em monta natural exclusivamente, tiveram seus índices reprodutivos relacionados a qualidade do seu sêmen. Num segundo grupo, foram considerados 14 garanhões cujos acasalamentos eram, alternadamente, inseminação artificial e/ou monta natural. No terceiro estudo, foram relacionados garanhões específicos, pertencentes aos dois grupos anteriores, sabidamente subférteis em que os índices de fertilidade foram relacionados a características do sêmen ou manejo. Quando os garanhões são submetidos a monta natural dentro de um programa de manejo racional existe uma significativa relação entre qualidade de sêmen e fertilidade (P This paper discuss certain aspects of the fertility in stallions and its relationship to the Breeding Soundness Examination. In afirst analysis, 10 stallions that were bred only naturally had their reproductive standards correlated to the sêmen quality. In a second step, we consider 14 stallions that were bred either by artificial insemination and for naturally. In a third study, certain subfertile stallions, belonging to the previous two groups, had their fertility standards correlated to sêmen quality and management procedures. A significam association (P<0.01 was observed between sêmen quality (sperm morphology and fertility, when stallions were bred naturally under appropriate management procedures. This relationship was not observed when artificial insemination was included in the management, because it can improve the fertility of subfertile stallions or be detrimental to normal stallions when misused used. The individual analysis of the subfertile stallions allowed to determine if the cause the infertility can befrom intrinsic or extrinsic (management factors.

  5. Advances in Stallion Semen Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio; Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Ramires Neto, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    The use of stallion frozen semen minimizes the spread of disease, eliminates geographic barriers, and preserves the genetic material of the animal for an unlimited time. Significant progress on the frozen thawed stallion semen process and consequently fertility has been achieved over the last decade. These improvements not only increased fertility rates but also allowed cryopreservation of semen from "poor freezers." This article reviews traditional steps and new strategies for stallion semen handling and processing that are performed to overcome the deleterious effects of semen preservation and consequently improve frozen semen quality and fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of the fertility of stallion frozen-thawed semen using a combination of computer-assisted motility analysis, microscopical observation and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battut, I Barrier; Kempfer, A; Lemasson, N; Chevrier, L; Camugli, S

    2017-07-15

    Spermatozoa from some stallions do not maintain an acceptable fertility after freezing and thawing. The selection of frozen ejaculates that would be suitable for insemination is mainly based on post-thaw motility, but the prediction of fertility remains limited. A recent study in our laboratory has enabled the determination of a new protocol for the evaluation of fresh stallion semen, combining microscopical observation, computer-assisted motility analysis and flow cytometry, and providing a high level of fertility prediction. The purpose of the present experiment was to perform similar investigations on frozen semen. A panel of tests evaluating a large number of compartments or functions of the spermatozoa was applied to a population of 42 stallions, 33 of which showing widely differing fertilities (17-67% pregnancy rate per cycle [PRC]). Variability was evaluated by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV=SD/mean) and the intra-class correlation or "repeatability" for each variable. For paired variables, mean within-stallion CV% was significantly lower than between-stallion CV%, which was significantly lower than total CV%. Within-ejaculate repeatability, determined by analysing 6 straws for each of 10 ejaculates, ranged from 0.60 to 0.97. Within-stallion repeatability, determined by analysing at least 5 ejaculates for each of 38 stallions, ranged from 0.12 to 0.95. Principal component regression using a combination of 25 variables, including motility, morphology, viability, oxidation level, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity and hypoosmotic resistance, accounted for 94.5% of the variability regarding fertility, and was used to calculate a prediction of the PRC with a mean standard deviation of 2.2. The difference between the observed PRC and the calculated value ranged from -3.4 to 4.2. The 90% confidence interval (90CI) for the prediction of the PRC for the stallions of unknown fertility ranged from 8 to 30 (mean = 17). The best-fit model using only

  7. Effect of season on fresh and cryopreserved stallion semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of season on sperm quality parameters, expression of the fertility-related protein SP22 and selected mRNA transcripts infresh and cryopreserved stallion sperm. Four stallions were collected in each of the four seasons: summ...

  8. Strategies for Processing Semen from Subfertile Stallions for Cooled Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Dickson D

    2016-12-01

    Subfertility can be a confusing term because some semen of good quality can have reduced fertility following cooled transport if the semen is processed in an improper manner. General procedures aimed at processing stallion semen for cooled transport are well described. An array of factors could exist in reduced fertility of cool-transported semen. This article focuses on centrifugation techniques that can be used to maximize sperm quality of stallions whose semen is intended for cooled transport. Clinical cases are also provided for practical application of techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Heritability of semen traits in German Warmblood stallions.

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    Gottschalk, M; Sieme, H; Martinsson, G; Distl, O

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate genetic parameters for semen quality traits of 241 fertile German Warmblood stallions regularly employed in artificial insemination (AI). Stallions were owned by the National Studs Celle and Warendorf in Germany. Semen traits analyzed were gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility and total number of progressively motile sperm. Semen protocols from a total of 63,972 ejaculates were collected between the years 2001 and 2014 for the present analysis. A multivariate linear animal model was employed for estimation of additive genetic and permanent environmental variances among stallions and breeding values (EBVs) for semen traits. Heritabilities estimated for all German Warmblood stallions were highest for gel-free volume (h(2)=0.28) and lowest for total number of progressively motile sperm (h(2)=0.13). The additive genetic correlation among gel-free volume and sperm concentration was highly negative (rg=-0.76). Average reliabilities of EBVs were at 0.37-0.68 for the 241 stallions with own records. The inter-stallion variance explained between 33 and 61% of the trait variance, underlining the major impact of the individual stallion on semen quality traits analyzed here. Recording of semen traits from stallions employed in AI may be recommended because EBVs achieve sufficient accuracies to improve semen quality in future generations. Due to favorable genetic correlations, sperm concentration, total number of sperm and total number of progressively motile sperm may be increased simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Role of Oviductal Cells in Activating Stallion Spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, Bart; Gadella, Bart M.; Stout, Tom A.E.; De Schauwer, Catharina; Nelis, Hilde; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Van Soom, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Conventional in vitro fertilization is poorly successful with equine gametes. Although stallion spermatozoa bind to the zona pellucida in vitro, they fail to acrosome react and cannot therefore penetrate into the perivitelline space. Failed sperm penetration most likely relates to the absence in in

  11. Current status of semen preservation in the ram, boar and stallion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, E F; Crabo, B G; Pace, M M

    1978-01-01

    From the studies cited it was concluded that short and long term preservation of stallion semen has encountered major obstacles. Fertilizing capacity of extended or extended and cooled spermatozoa has been impaired. With the hydrogen ion extenders, the fertility was depressed either with or without glycerol when the semen was inseminated immediately after extension. With the cream-gel extender, fertility was not impaired when inseminated immediately after extension, but was impaired after storage at 5 C for 24 hr or in the presence of glycerol. The fertilizing capacity of extended frozen spermatozoa particularly from some stallions has been more adversely affected than that of others. These studies show that the pregnancy rate range was from 50 to 80% for raw semen from the same stallion used in the frozen studies. Pregnancy rate with this magnitude of difference must be carefully weighed in applying the results from a few stallions to the population. Sufficient information has been generated to suggest that the preservation of stallion spermatozoa is possible but the fertilizing capacity is impaired. Causes of this impairment must be further investigated. When this is accomplished, the number of motile spermatozoa needed per insemination and the frequency of insemination required for optimal fertilization reported in this review must then be reevaluated.

  12. Indenopyride derivative RTI-4587-073(l): a candidate for male contraception in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozor, Malgorzata A; Macpherson, Margo L; McDonnell, Sue M; Nollin, Maggie; Roser, Janet F; Love, Charles; Runyon, Scott; Thomas, Brian F; Troedsson, Mats H

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether an indenopyridine derivative RTI-4587-073(l) was a good candidate for male contraception in horses. We hypothesized that a single administration of RTI-4587-073(l) causes significant suppression of testicular function in stallions without affecting sexual behavior. Three Miniature horse stallions received a single dose of 12.5 mg/kg RTI-4587-073(l) orally (group "treated"), whereas three other Miniature horse stallions received placebo only (group "control"). Semen was collected and evaluated from all stallions twice a week for three baseline weeks and 13 post-treatment weeks. Sexual behavior was video-recorded and analyzed. Testicular dimensions were measured using ultrasonography, and blood samples were drawn for endocrine evaluation once before treatment and once a week during the post-treatment period. Single administration of RTI-4587-073(l) caused severe oligoasthenozoospermia (low sperm number and low motility), shedding large numbers of immature germ cells in semen, and increased FSH concentrations in treated stallions. These effects were fully reversible within ∼71 days. However, libido and copulatory behavior remained unchanged throughout the entire experiment. We concluded that RTI-4587-073(l) was a promising candidate for male contraceptive in domestic stallions. Further research should be performed to test this compound for fertility control in wildlife and humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J.; Schougaard, H.

    2006-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  14. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, J; Schougaard, H

    2007-01-01

    may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  15. EFFECT OF TWO PROTOCOLS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON FERTILIZING CAPACITY OF STALLION (Equus caballus SEMEN EFECTO DE DOS PROTOCOLOS DE CRIOPRESERVACIÓN SOBRE LA CAPACIDAD FECUNDANTE DE SEMEN EQUINO (Equus caballus

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    Giovanni Restrepo Betancur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Semen cryopreservation is a fundamental process for the development of biotechnologies for assisted reproduction in horses. The use of cryopreservation techniques with changes in concentrations and the nature of the cryoprotectant, as well as, the different types of vials for storage of semen, have become an alternative to improve the protocols used. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of two protocols of cryopreservation (freezing and vitrification on the fertilizing capacity of stallion semen. The study was conducted with horses of the Criollo Colombiano breed. For freezing was used a extender supplemented with egg yolk (4% and dimethyl formamide (5%, and 0.5 mL straws as vials, whereas for vitrification, the extender was supplemented with egg yolk (8% and dimethyl formamide (8%, and cryovials were used as carriers. As post thaw parameters were evaluated: progressive motility, vitality, normal morphology and integrity of the plasma membrane through the hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS. For statistical evaluation was fitted a generalized linear model (GLM and means were compared by the Tukey test. Were found average percentages of progressive motility, vitality, normal morphology and HOS of 41.6 ± 11.8 and 37 ± 8.5, 54.3 ± 10.2 and 52.3 ± 7.8, 83.1 ± 5.4 and 83.6 ± 5.8, 41.7 ± 9.8 and 38.9 ± 3.6, for cryopreserved semen by freezing and vitrification, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 between treatments for any of the parameters evaluated. The fertilizing capacity of equine semen cryopreserved by vitrification is comparable to that obtained by conventional freezing.Resumen. La criopreservación de semen es un proceso fundamental en el desarrollo de biotecnologías para la reproducción asistida en equinos. El uso de diferentes técnicas de criopreservación con cambios en las concentraciones y la naturaleza de los crioprotectores, así como en los diferentes tipos de

  16. Effect of intramuscular injection of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of Fresh and Cooled Stallion Semen

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    Nicolás Cazales Penino

    2015-08-01

    treated and control groups respectively. No interactions were detected in the fresh and cooled semen. The use of butafosfan and cobalamin in the stallions did not affect the seminal quality of young and fertile stallions. It can be used routinely and safely in these stallions. However, contrary to observations in humans and in bulls, the use of cobalamin did not improve semen parameters in these stallions.

  17. An alkaline follicular fluid fraction induces capacitation and limited release of oviduct epithelium-bound stallion sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, Bart; Gadella, Bart M; Stout, Tom A E; Nelis, Hilde; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Van Soom, Ann

    Induction of hyperactivated motility is considered essential for triggering the release of oviduct-bound mammalian spermatozoa in preparation for fertilization. In this study, oviduct-bound stallion spermatozoa were exposed for 2 h to: i) pre-ovulatory and ii) post-ovulatory oviductal fluid; iii)

  18. Semen parameters and level of microsatellite heterozygosity in Noriker draught horse stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, Christine; Achmann, Roland; Aurich, Jörg E

    2003-07-01

    It was the aim of the present study to determine physiological values for different semen parameters in an endangered draught horse breed, the Austrian Noriker. Because small population size is often believed to cause a decrease in fertility and/or semen quality through inbreeding and a reduction in genetic variation, the general genomic heterogeneity of the breed was estimated on the basis of microsatellite variation and correlated to semen parameters. Semen could be collected from 104 of 139 stallions with semen collection being more often successful in younger stallions. Mean volume of ejaculates was 90.8+/-55.1 ml, density 243+/-114 x 10(6)ml(-1), total sperm count 21.0+/-23.7 x 10(9), percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa 38+/-18% and total motility 50+/-23%. Total sperm count and semen motility were significantly affected by age. Blood samples of 134 stallions were analysed for 12 microsatellite DNA markers. Genotypes of 110 stallions with at least 11 successfully typed markers were used for calculation of heterozygosity. A total of 82 alleles was identified with a mean of 6.8 alleles per marker. Heterozygosity varied between 35 and 76% for the different markers, mean heterozygosity was calculated to 63%. No correlation between heterozygosity and semen parameters was found.

  19. Improved cryopreservability of stallion sperm using a sorbitol-based freezing extender.

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    Pojprasath, T; Lohachit, C; Techakumphu, M; Stout, T; Tharasanit, T

    2011-06-01

    Cryopreservation of stallion semen is often associated with poor post-thaw sperm quality. Sugars are among the important components of a freezing extender and act as non-permeating cryoprotectants. This study aimed to compare the quality of stallion sperm frozen with glucose, fructose or sorbitol-containing freezing extenders. Semen was collected from six stallions of proven fertility and cryopreserved using a freezing extender containing different types of monosaccharide sugars (glucose, fructose or sorbitol). After thawing, the semen was examined for sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, plasma membrane functionality and sperm longevity. The fertility of semen frozen in the presence of sorbitol was also tested by artificial insemination. Sperm quality was significantly decreased following freezing and thawing (P sorbitol and glucose (P sorbitol-based extender when examined at 2 and 4 h post-thaw, all of these parameters plus plasma membrane functionality were improved for sperm frozen in the sorbitol extender than in the glucose extender when examined 10 min post-thaw. Two of four mares (50%) inseminated with semen frozen with a sorbitol-containing freezing extender became pregnant. It is concluded that different sugars have different abilities to protect against cryoinjury during freezing and thawing of stallion sperm. This study demonstrated that an extender containing sorbitol as primary sugar can be used to successfully cryopreserve equine sperm; moreover, the quality of frozen-thawed sperm appeared to be better than when glucose or fructose was the principle sugar in the freezing extender. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochemical components of seminal plasma and their correlation to the fresh seminal characteristics in Marwari stallions and Poitou jacks

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    Thirumala Rao Talluri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics. Materials and Methods: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June. From the collected semen ejaculates, we estimated the values of some biochemical components, viz., total protein content, total lipid content, and enzymes such as glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH as well as concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, total calcium (Ca, and phosphorus (P and correlations among different seminal parameters were statistically examined using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: In this study, we found positive correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and GOT, GPT, ALP and ACP for both the group stallions. Significant correlation between motility and glucose, GOT and GPT could be an indication for their role metabolism and protection against free radicals to the spermatozoa. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that there is a positive correlation between some biochemical values such as glucose, Ca, ALP, and LDH and seminal parameters which play a key role in capacitation and onward movement of the spermatozoa.

  1. Effects of mating on plasma concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha in stallions.

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    Villani, M; Cairoli, F; Kindahl, H; Galeati, G; Faustini, M; Carluccio, A; Veronesi, M C

    2006-12-01

    Very little information is available regarding the physiological mechanisms involved in the normal sexual activity in the stallion and, in particular, the endocrine control of reproduction is still not clearly understood. This experiment was designed to determine the short-term effect of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 10 lighthorse stallions of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. At the same time, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein with heparinized tubes, 20 and 10 min before oestrous mare exposure, at exposure and 10, 20, 30 min after dismounting. Testosterone concentrations showed a sharp rise 10 min after mating (p Cortisol concentrations increased 10 min after mating (p < 0.001) and remained at high levels in the subsequent samples taken. A peak of oestrone sulphate was observed 10 min after mating (p < 0.001). 15-Ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) concentrations decreased rapidly at the moment of the exposure of the stallions to an oestrous mare (p < 0.05), returned to pre-mating concentrations and then decreased again 30 min after mating (p < 0.05).

  2. Clinical case of exudative pleuritis in stallion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanukov, D.; Petkov, P.; Stoyanchev, K.

    2001-01-01

    A casual exudative pleuritis in 2 years old stallion, Holsteiner breed, has been outlined. The disease is extremely rare in this country. Comprehensive examinations have been made during the period of hospitalization: daily clinical examinations, double renthgenography; regular haematological and biochemical tests; microbiological culture tests with an antibioticogram; laboratory tests of punctate and periodical ultrasound tests. The examinations and tests have been carried out at the Internal Noncontagious Disease Clinic at the Veterinary Faculty of the Thracian University in Stara Zagora

  3. Egg yolk plasma can replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, E; Duchamp, G; Batellier, F; Beaumal, V; Anton, M; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Magistrini, M

    2011-01-01

    Hen egg yolk is normally used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders, but its use has sanitary and practical disadvantages. Moreover the protection afforded by egg yolk has not yet been completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to compare the egg yolk plasma fraction to whole egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. Plasma contains mainly Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), which are widely presumed to be the cryoprotective agent in egg yolk. Plasma can be produced on an industrial scale, sterilised by gamma-irradiation and incorporated in a ready-to-use extender (our ultimate objective). Plasma samples were subjected to different doses of gamma-irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) without dramatic chemical changes that may affect their cryoprotective properties. Stallion semen was frozen with whole egg yolk as a control and with sterilised egg yolk plasma. A fertility trial was conducted on a total of 70 mares' cycles. Fertility per cycle was 60% after insemination of semen frozen in our control extender containing egg yolk (EY), compared to 69% for the extender containing sterilised egg yolk plasma (EYP) (P > 0.05). Post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were also analysed. Motility parameters were not significantly different between extenders except for the variable VAP (for EY versus EYP, VAP: 63 μm.s(-1) versus 59 μm.s(-1), a, b: P 0.05). Membrane integrity was better preserved in EY than in EYP but the difference between extenders was small (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that sterilised egg yolk plasma has the potential to replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. This experiment led to the development of a ready-to-use extender called INRA-Freeze(®) (IMV-Technologies, France). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum testosterone in Arabian stallions during breeding and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... serum testosterone concentration during the non-breeding season is lower than that of the breeding season. .... confirm no impact of the stressful environmental conditions on the reproductive function of Arabian stallions.

  5. Pentoxifylline effects on capacitation and fertility of stallion epididymal sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guasti, P. N.; Monteiro, G. A.; Maziero, R. R.D.; Carmo, M. T.; Dell'Aqua, J. A.; Crespilho, A. M.; Rifai, E. A.; Papa, F. O.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determinate whether pentoxifylline (PTX) increases the motion parameters of fresh and frozen-thawed equine epididymal spermatozoa, to evaluate the tyrosine phosphorylation of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm in the presence of PTX and to determine whether the

  6. Genome-wide association study implicates testis-sperm specific FKBP6 as a susceptibility locus for impaired acrosome reaction in stallions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Raudsepp

    Full Text Available Impaired acrosomal reaction (IAR of sperm causes male subfertility in humans and animals. Despite compelling evidence about the genetic control over acrosome biogenesis and function, the genomics of IAR is as yet poorly understood, providing no molecular tools for diagnostics. Here we conducted Equine SNP50 Beadchip genotyping and GWAS using 7 IAR-affected and 37 control Thoroughbred stallions. A significant (PA and g.11040379C>A (p.166H>N in exon 4 that were significantly associated with the IAR phenotype both in the GWAS cohort (n = 44 and in a large multi-breed cohort of 265 horses. All IAR stallions were homozygous for the A-alleles, while this genotype was found only in 2% of controls. The equine FKBP6 was exclusively expressed in testis and sperm and had 5 different transcripts, of which 4 were novel. The expression of this gene in AC/AG heterozygous controls was monoallelic, and we observed a tendency for FKBP6 up-regulation in IAR stallions compared to controls. Because exon 4 SNPs had no effect on the protein structure, it is likely that FKBP6 relates to the IAR phenotype via regulatory or modifying functions. In conclusion, FKBP6 was considered a susceptibility gene of incomplete penetrance for IAR in stallions and a candidate gene for male subfertility in mammals. FKBP6 genotyping is recommended for the detection of IAR-susceptible individuals among potential breeding stallions. Successful use of sperm as a source of DNA and RNA propagates non-invasive sample procurement for fertility genomics in animals and humans.

  7. Purification of coal fired boiler flue gas and fertilizer production by using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maezawa, Akihiko

    1996-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation technology which is applied in electron accelerators is used in a variety of fields, including industry, medicine and etc.. In collaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ebara Corporation has developed a novel flue-gas treatment process by making use of the electron beam for the purification of flue gas emitted from industrial plant such as thermal power station. The E-beam flue gas treatment process (EBA Process) is applied to clean flue gas generated in the combustion of coal containing sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are chemical pollutants responsible for acid rain. As a by-product of this process, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate mixture is obtained. This mixture can be recovered from the process as a valuable fertilizer to promote the growth of agricultural produce. The EBA process thus serves two important purposes at the same time: It helps prevent environmental pollution and produces a fertilizer that is vitally important for increasing food production to meet the world's future population growth. (J.P.N.)

  8. [Phantoms for the collection of genital secretions in stallions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, E; Brinkhoff, D; Flüge, A; Scherbarth, R; Essich, G; Kienzler, M

    1977-10-05

    Practical experiences of the phantom method for collection of genital secretions from stallions are reported. Taking a phantom used in the Richard-Götze-Haus Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover as a prototype two further models slightly modified have been constructed, baring a flat hollow in the right side of the caudal phantom body for manual inserting of the Artificial Vagina. These three models fulfill four important conditions for routine use: (1) sufficient sexual attractivity for the stallions; 80-85% successful collections of presecretions out of a total of 1050 using the dummy and 70% successful semen collections from more than 240 in total; (2) solid and resistant construction; (3) easy cleaning and desinfection of the surface of the phantom to get representative samples; (4) firm installation on a hygienic floor.

  9. Do olfactory behaviour and marking responses of Konik polski stallions to faeces from conspecifics of either sex differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierski, Tadeusz; Jaworski, Zbigniew; Sobczyńska, Magdalena; Ensminger, John; Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra

    2017-09-27

    The aim of the study was to assess whether adult stallions differentiate their olfactory and marking behaviour towards the excreta of their potential male rivals and mares. Four Konik polski stallions were individually exposed simultaneously to their own and each others' faeces as well as faeces of mares in oestrus vs. dioestrus. Five series of 30min observation sessions were conducted in a round pen each on two consecutive days from March to July, totaling in 5h observation per stallion. Stallions sniffed and displayed flehmen reaction towards mares' faeces significantly longer (P<0.01) than towards stallions' faeces. No significant differences were found in marking by defecations upon stallions' vs. mares' faeces. The stallions urinated exclusively on mares' faeces. Sniffing, flehmen, defecations and urinations performed towards faeces of mares in oestrus vs. dioestrus did not differ significantly. The results showed that stallions differentiate their olfactory behaviour towards excreta of conspecifics of different sex but perhaps not towards faeces of females in different reproductive status. This for the first time establishes that stallions exhibit different marking behaviour upon stallions' vs. mares' faeces. It is hypothesized that marking of other stallions' faeces by defecation may advertise presence of the stallion, whereas marking of mares' faeces by urination may serve to mask the presence of a mare to prevent potential rivals from locating the mare in an area where mares' faeces are found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxytocin, vasopressin, prostaglandin F(2alpha), luteinizing hormone, testosterone, estrone sulfate, and cortisol plasma concentrations after sexual stimulation in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Tosi, U; Villani, M; Govoni, N; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; Madej, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-03-01

    This experiment was designed to determine the effects of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PG-metabolite), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estrone sulfate (ES), and cortisol (C) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 14 light horse stallions (Equus caballus) of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. Blood samples were collected at 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 min before estrous mare exposure, at erection, at ejaculation, and at 3, 6, and 9 min after ejaculation. Afterwards, blood sampling was performed every 10 min for the following 60 min. Sexual activity determined an increase in plasma concentrations of OT, VP, C, PG-metabolite, and ES and caused no changes in LH and T concentrations. The finding of a negative correlation between C and VP at erection, and between C and T before erection and at the time of erection, could be explained by a possible inhibitory role exerted by C in the mechanism of sexual arousal described for men. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electron beam sterilization and composting of sludge and its utilization as fertilizer for greenbelt and farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1988-01-01

    Sludge should be sterilized to exterminate bacteria prior to its application as a fertilizer in greenbelts or farmland. Furthermore, sludge should be converted into compost to prevent odors or breeding of harmful insects. A technique is developed for complete sterilization of sludge and rapid production of compost. Sludge is first sterilized by electron beams and composting is performed under optimum conditions including the fermentation temperature. Typically, about 10 8 - 10 9 bacteria are contained in 1 g of sludge, with coliforms accounting for about 10 percent of the total bacteria. Irradiation of 15 kGy can reduce the total number of bacteria by 6 - 7 orders of magnitude. Irradiation of 2 kGy can almost completely exterminate coliforms, which are highly sensitive to radiations. This indicates that 0.2-second irradiation is sufficient if a dose rate of 10 kGy/sec is used. After the sterilization process, sludge is composted under the following conditions: temperature of 40 - 50 deg C, initial pH of 7 - 8 and particle size of 5 mm or less. Compared with conventional processes, the maximum fermentation rate is greater by 10 times and can be reached 10 times more rapidly. Conventional processes require more than 10 days while the present technique takes only 2 - 3 days until carbon dioxide stops generating. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Blindness associated with nasal/paranasal lymphoma in a stallion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuto; Okamoto, Minoru; Ootsuka, Youhei; Matsuda, Kazuya; Yusa, Shigeki; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-23

    A 29-year-old stallion presented with bilateral blindness following the chronic purulent nasal drainage. The mass occupied the right caudal nasal cavity and right paranasal sinuses including maxillary, palatine and sphenoidal sinuses, and the right-side turbinal and paranasal septal bones, and cribriform plate of ethmoid bone were destructively replaced by the mass growth. The right optic nerve was invaded and involved by the mass, and the left optic nerve and optic chiasm were compressed by the mass which was extended and invaded the skull base. Histologically, the optic nerves and optic chiasm were degenerated, and the mass was diagnosed as lymphoma which was morphologically and immunohistochemically classified as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Based on these findings, the cause of the blindness in the stallion was concluded to be due to the degeneration of the optic nerves and chiasm associated with lymphoma occurring in the nasal and paranasal cavities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the equine blindness with optic nerve degeneration accompanied by lymphoma.

  13. Influences of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on stallion sperm production and on preservation of sperm quality during storage at 5 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, C; Tafuri, S; Ciani, F; Pasolini, M P; Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Carotenuto, D; Peretti, V; Cocchia, N

    2018-03-01

    Stallion semen is damaged by oxidative stress during cooling and transport. Semen processing and extenders have been tested to improve the fertilizing capacity of semen and to preserve semen during transport. Dietary supplementation with natural antioxidants has been proposed to prevent oxidative damages. In this study, for the first time, the effect of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the characteristics of fresh and chilled stallion semen was evaluated. Maca is a traditional Andean crop used as a nutraceutical for the fertility-enhancing properties that are linked with antioxidant activity. The diet of five stallions was supplemented with 20 g of Maca powder daily for a total of 60 days. A control group of five stallions received the same diet without Maca. Semen was collected once before the administration of Maca (D0), twice during the administration at 30 and 60 days (D30 and D60), and finally twice at 30 and 60 days after the end of the administration (D90 and D120). Ejaculates were processed for cooled shipping at 5 °C and evaluated in the laboratory for total and progressive motility, acrosome integrity, and lipid peroxidation after collection and after 24, 48, and 72 h of storage. Dietary supplementation with Maca improved sperm concentration (from 213 ± 80.4 to 447 ± 73.1 × 10 6 spz/mL) and total sperm count (from 10,880 ± 4377 to 24,783 ± 4419 × 10 6 spz). The beneficial effects of Maca supplementation on motility and acrosome integrity in the raw semen were detected from the end of treatment with Maca (D60) until the end of the study (D120). Furthermore, during cooling storage, total motility, progressive motility, and acrosome integrity declined more slowly in the Maca-treated group than in the control group. Lipid peroxidation did not change during cooling storage in either group and did not show a significant difference between the two groups. In this study, the dietary supplementation with Maca

  14. Use of an Absorbable Urethral Stent for the Management of a Urethral Stricture in a Stallion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, Jan M; Dechant, Julie E; Culp, William T; Whitcomb, Mary B; Palm, Carrie A; Nieto, Jorge E

    2016-11-01

    To describe the successful management of a urethral stricture with an absorbable stent in a stallion. Clinical report. Stallion with a urethral stricture. A 12-year-old Thoroughbred breeding stallion was evaluated for acute onset of colic. Uroperitoneum because of presumptive urinary bladder rupture, with urethral obstruction by a urethrolith, was diagnosed. The uroperitoneum was treated conservatively. The urethrolith was removed through a perineal urethrotomy. Approximately 15 weeks after urethrolith removal, the stallion presented with a urethral stricture. The stricture was unsuccessfully treated with an indwelling urinary catheter and 4 attempts at balloon dilation. Eight weeks after diagnosis of stricture, an absorbable polydioxanone (20 mm × 80 mm) urethral stent was implanted under percutaneous, ultrasound guidance. Urethroscopy was performed at 70, 155, and 230 days after stent placement and the endoscope passed through the affected site without complication. Urethroscopy at 155 days showed the stent had been reabsorbed. Follow-up 20 months after stent placement reports the stallion was able to void a normal urine stream. Absorbable urethral stent placement was a feasible treatment for urethral stricture in this stallion. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Comparative study of morphometric proportions among Campolina´s stallions and gelded ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Cavalcante Lucena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the equine species, the surface characteristics, present a close relationship with its functional classification. The scientific use of linear measurements can contribute decisively in the selective process of many breeds, by identifying the higher morphologically individuals and excluding from reproduction those that are not closed to desirable. The present study objected to evaluate and compare, the linear measures from stallions and gelded horses registered in ABCCCampolina’s CP6 and CP8 books, and to determinate the existing correlations. In order to reach so, 15 linear measures from 4.837 stallions and 1.371 gelded were evaluated from descriptive statistic, Pearson’s correlation and analysis of variance. Generally, higher values of correlations were observed for stallions than to gelded ones. To stallions, most of the measures were significantly influenced (P<0,01 by the year of birth, state of birth and coat color, while to gelded ones the coat color showed lower influence (P<0,01 upon the measures. It’s important to notice that castration did not committed the animal’s final growth, however the breeders non sense the lack of appropriated criteria during the selection process and personal preferences can contribute towards stablishing breed characters rather than functionals. This can be highlighted by the fact that Campolina’s gelded horses showed, in average, better proportioned than stallions.

  16. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Petlachová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  17. Conditioned suppression of sexual behavior in stallions and reversal with diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, S M; Kenney, R M; Meckley, P E; Garcia, M C

    1985-06-01

    Sexual behavior dysfunction unaccompanied by detectable physical or endocrine abnormality is an important cause of reproductive failure among domestic stallions. Several authors have suggested that such dysfunction may be psychogenic, related to negative experience associated with intense handling and training. An experimental model of experience-related dysfunction was developed by exposing pony stallions to erection-contingent aversive conditioning. This resulted in rapid, specific suppression of sexual arousal and response similar to spontaneously occurring dysfunction. Subsequently, treatment with a CNS-active benzodiazepine derivative (diazepam) reversed these effects.

  18. Effects of GnRH immunization in sexually mature pony stallions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, J.A.; Meer, F.J.U.M.; Knaap, J.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Teerds, K.J.; Colenbrander, B.; Meloen, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Immunization against gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) was studied as an alternative for the commonly used surgical castration in stallions. Two GnRH vaccines comprising non-mineral oil adjuvants were evaluated for their potential to induce high antibody titers directed against GnRH and

  19. Biological Functions and Clinical Applications of Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Stallions and Mares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claes, Anthony N J; Ball, Barry A

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays a major role in sexual differentiation, Leydig cell differentiation, and folliculogenesis. In addition, AMH has clinical value in equine practice. In stallions, AMH can serve as an endocrine marker for equine cryptorchidism and as an immunohistochemical marker for

  20. Microsatellite analysis of cryopreserved stallion semen stored on FTA(R paper : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Schulman

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish and validate a method to permit microsatellite analysis of DNA profiles obtained from frozen-thawed stallion sperm cells. This would provide reliable and accurate verification of the identification of a semen donor. Ejaculates from 5 pony stallions were collected, processed and frozen in 0.5 m plastic straws. Aliquots of 100 m of the frozen-thawed semen thus obtained were either placed directly, or diluted (1 : 10 ; 1 : 100 ; and 1 : 1000 and placed on slides of FTA(R paper. Similarly, blood samples obtained from each of the stallions were placed onto slides of FTA(R paper. A punch was removed from each sample after drying. Each sample was mixed with FTA(R purification reagent, Dithiothreitol and Proteinase K before incubation and processing. All samples were processed with a set of 13 microsatellite markers. Further analysis permitted a comparison of the DNA profiles of the frozen-thawed semen and the blood samples. A full profile of markers was obtained from the 1 : 10 and 1 : 100 dilutions of the frozen-thawed semen samples as well as from the blood samples. The DNA profiles from the frozen-thawed semen and blood samples obtained from the stallions matched in all cases.

  1. Interaction of milk proteins and Binder of Sperm (BSP) proteins from boar, stallion and ram semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Geneviève; Lusignan, Marie-France; Lafleur, Michel; Manjunath, Puttaswamy

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian semen contains a family of closely related proteins known as Binder of SPerm (BSP proteins) that are added to sperm at ejaculation. BSP proteins extract lipids from the sperm membrane thereby extensively modifying its composition. These changes can ultimately be detrimental to sperm storage. We have demonstrated that bovine BSP proteins interact with major milk proteins and proposed that this interaction could be the basis of sperm protection by milk extenders. In the present study, we investigated if homologous BSP proteins present in boar, stallion and ram seminal plasma display a similar affinity for the milk proteins in order to assess whether the mechanism of sperm protection by milk for these species could be general. Skim milk was incubated with seminal plasma proteins (boar, stallion and ram), chromatographed on a Sepharose CL-4B column and protein fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. Boar, stallion and ram BSP proteins displayed affinity for a milk protein fraction (F1) mainly composed of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and κ-casein. They also had affinity for another milk protein fraction (F2) composed mostly of casein micelles. However, stallion BSP showed higher affinity for the fraction (F1). These results further extend our view that the association of BSP proteins with milk proteins could be a general feature of the mechanism of mammalian sperm protection by milk to prevent detrimental effect of prolonged exposure of sperm to seminal plasma.

  2. CORRELATION BETWEEN SOME BODY MEASURES OF LIPPIZANER STALLION PER LINES AT ĐAKOVO STUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rastija

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Body measures of Lippizaner line stallions and their correlation were processed in Đakovo stud. The measures performed by Lydtin rod and stock band included withers height, chest girth and cannon bone circumference on the total of 75 heads. Neapolitano line was characterized by the fewest number of stallions (4 whereas Tulip by the largest one (20. Data attained by the measuring were processed by the statistical program SPSS/PC (Nie et. al. 1975. Neapolitano line stallions had the lowest withers height (164.00 cm measured by the band whereas Conversano line stallions had the highest one (166.33 cm. Withers height measured by the rod was the lowest in the Maestoso line stallion (156.50 cm and the highest one in the Favory line (159.20 cm. Chest girth ranged between 183.82 cm (Pluto line and 186.89 cm (Conversano line. Cannon bone circumference was uniform with all lines ranged from 20.05 cm (Tulipan line and 20.65 cm (Maestoso lines. Correlation between withers height measured by the band and rod and that one measured by the rod and chest girth was positive and highly significant. However, correlation between others ranged from slight positive to slight negative. Neapolitano line was known for the most pronounced correlation per lines whereas Tulip line for the weakest one. Correlation between withers height measured by the band and rod was in all lines highly significant (except Tulip line whereas other correlation varied from positive to negative.

  3. Relationships between young stallions' temperament and their behavioral reactions during standardized veterinary examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Marie; Verwilghen, Denis; Serteyn, Didier

    2012-01-01

    radiological examination. During the years 2008 and 2009, 93 stallions were evaluated. Stallions were observed from the moment they were unloaded from the trailer at the clinic until the end of veterinary examinations. In addition to the behavioral observations made by the experimenter, each staff member......," and " learning level" temperament traits were the most consistent, as shown by the significant Spearman correlations between judges' assessments. Undesirable behaviors during veterinary examinations leading to handling difficulties were associated with a low " easiness of manipulation" score assessed...... by the clinical staff. These low " easiness of manipulation" scores were positively correlated to temperament traits such as " anxiousness" and " aggressiveness" and negatively correlated to others such as " sociability" or " learning level." Temperament assessment and behavioral observations can therefore...

  4. Effect of Polish and foreign purebred Arabian stallions on conformation traits of their progeny participating in shows in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Czarnecki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations confirm correctness of the statement that the best recommendation for a stallion is his progeny. The aim of this study was indicating purebred Arabian stallions passing on to their progeny best conformation traits, assessed in Polish shows, in the past decade, taking into consideration their origin. The analysis included national and foreign stallions used in Polish breeding of purebred Arabian horses, which are fathers of at least 5 heads of progeny. The authors own research proved that progeny of foreign stallions statistically differed significantly from the progeny sired by Polish stallions within all conformation traits tested in shows. In the studied period, the highest final score (91.37 points and note for the trait type (19.11 points was characteristic of the progeny of QR Marc. The best head was passed on by stallions: QR Marc (19.06 points and WH Justice (18.78 points, born in the United States and owned by the European breeders. In the Top Ten of producers passing on a refined head to their progeny, there was only one Polish stallion bred in the Horse Stud Michalw, Ekstern (18.29 points. Progeny with the most correct body structure was sired by foreign stallions, Eden C (18.13 points and QR Marc (18.13 points, and by the Polish stallion, Zlocien (17.95 points. The highest score for the trait legs was obtained by the progeny of the Qatar stallion Gazal Al Shaqab (16.30 points. However, the title of the father of the best movers got an Israeli stallion, Laheeb (18.91 points.

  5. The method of preparation and use of vasectomized stallions to regulate the sexual function in mares during hippodrome testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursulu Julanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a method of preparation and use of vasectomized stallions, and to test them as a factor preventing genital functional disorders in mares during training and hippodrome testing. Thoroughbred mares of English, Arabic and Akhal-Teke breeds owned by horse ranches of the Republic of Kazakhstan were used in the research. Vasectomy techniques were mastered on a slaughtering material, and then field tested on stallions. A series of experiments were set for comparative evaluation of various methods of preparation and use of a vasectomized stallion, resulting in a technique based on removing the front section of sperm ducts in the ventro-caudal portion of the scrotum. The developed method is convenient, safe, and easy to perform in field conditions. The surgery is not time consuming, and there are no postoperative complications. We found a positive effect of the vasectomized stallion on the course of the mares’ oestrous cycles, on their performance during hippodrome testing, and their reproductive function. The method reduced the standing heat period, and the mares quickly recovered their performance. Thus, it decreased the time of the mares’ elimination from the training schedule and had a positive effect on the performance during hippodrome testing. The use of a vasectomized stallion during training significantly predetermined the course of the mares’ reproductive cycle after completion of the hippodrome testing. The results of this study are relevant to the practical needs of sport horse breeding.

  6. The interest of radiographical investigations of bone diseases in the selection of stallions [orthopedic lesions, abnormal radiographic findings, multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, J.P.; Touzot, G.; Denoix, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Breeding of sport horses requires products with qualities for performance traits. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relation between radiographical examination and descendant of sires. Foots, fetlocks of both thoracic and pelvic limbs, carpus, tarsus and stifles were examined radiographically in 225 3-year old horses descent from 25 stallions. Data were analysed by multivariate analysis. Results indicate that descendant of a stallion presents the same abnormal radiographic findings. It is concluded that bone diseases are of great importance in breeding sport horses and that these abnormalities could have a genetic component [fr

  7. Adenylate Nucleotides and 2,3-Biphosphoglycerate Concentration in Erythrocytes of Growing Wielkopolska Stallions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Suska; E. Skotnicka; W. Dudzińska; W. Orowicz; M. Brzezinska

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the concentrations of adenylate nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP), total nucleotide pool (TAN), adenylate energy charge (AEC) and 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) in the erythrocytes of young horses in the period of their rapid growth and development. The studies were conducted on 10 young Wielkopolska breed stallions for two years; Group A: 1-month-old, Group B: 3-month-old, Group C: 6-month-old, Group D: 1-year-old, and Group E: 2-yea...

  8. Histology of two rice bodies isolated from the stifle of an adult draught horse stallion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nicole; Heimann, Marianne; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Verwilghen, Denis R V G; Deby-Dupont, Ginette P; Serteyn, Didier A

    2006-03-01

    In the human and equine species, different kinds of free floating intra-articular particles are related to certain disorders. Osteochondral fragments formed during osteochondrosis dissecans are the most common finding in the equine species, whereas in humans rice bodies due to rheumatoid arthritis are more frequent. Herein we report a third type of floating body inside the stifle of an adult draught horse stallion, in macroscopic appearance similar to articular rice bodies known in humans. As revealed by histologic examination, the two particles consist of polypoid degenerated structures derived from synovial villi. Their formation was probably induced by ischemia.

  9. THE QUALITY OF THE YOUNG WARM-BLOODED STALLIONS DURING THE REARING PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav MARŠÁLEK

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of young stallions during the rearing period and to analyze the differences among several test rearing houses with various altitudes (up to 250, 250-300, 300-400, 400-500 and more than 500 meters above the sea level. In 227 stallions ending the rearing period in the years 2004 and 2005 the records from 5 foals´ assortment were processed (it means the growth comparison with the growth standard, results of exterior classification and results of movement mechanics classification. The statistically significant differences among the rearing houses with various altitudes were found out in growth classification (13,614++ to 27,679+++, in exterior classification (13,136++ to 20,281+++ and in movement mechanics classification (17,930++ to 26,526+++. The relation between in-rearing and end-rearing classification was higher for growth (up to 0,862+ than for exterior (up to 0,652+ and movement mechanics (up to 0,585+. It’s obvious, that the final foal’s movement mechanics and exterior classification can’t be faithfully estimated before the rearing finalization.

  10. Impact of supplementation of semen extender with antioxidants on the quality of chilled or cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghallab, AbdelRaouf M; Shahat, Abdallah M; Fadl, Aya M; Ayoub, Mohamed M; Moawad, Adel R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of semen extender with various non-enzymatic antioxidants on the quality of cooled or cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa. Semen collected from four pure Arabian stallions was centrifuged at 600g for 15 min. Spermatozoa were then diluted in INRA-82 extender supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA; 0, 10, 15 and 20 mg/mL) or trehalose (0, 75, 100 and 150 mM) or zinc sulphate (0, 100, 150 and 200 μM). The diluted semen was then either cooled at 5 °C or cryopreserved in 0.5-ml plastic straws. After cooling or thawing, sperm motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, viability index, and plasma membrane integrity were evaluated. The results showed that supplementation of semen extender with 150 mM trehalose or with 200 μM zinc sulphate significantly (P < 0.05) improved motility, viability, sperm membrane integrity and acrosome status in Arabian stallion spermatozoa after cooling or after freezing and thawing compared with controls (non-supplemented media) or with those supplemented with other concentrations of trehalose or zinc sulphate. Supplementation of semen extender with BSA did not improve sperm motility or cryosurvival of Arabian stallion spermatozoa after cooling or after freezing and thawing. In conclusion, supplementation of semen extender with non-enzymatic antioxidants (trehalose or zinc sulphate) improved the quality of chilled and frozen/thawed Arabian stallion spermatozoa. The most beneficial effects occur when semen diluent was supplemented with 150 mM trehalose or 200 μM zinc sulphate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nano Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice DAĞHAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land is decreasing day by day due to erosion, environmental pollution, unconscious irrigation and fertilization. On the other hand, it is necessary to increase agricultural production in order to meet the needs of the developing industry as well as the nutritional needs of the growing population. In the recent years, nano fertilizers have begun to be produced to obtain the highest amount and quality of production from the unit area. Previous research shows that nano fertilizers cause an increase in the use efficiency of plant nutrients, reduce soil toxicity, minimize the potential adverse effects of excessive chemical fertilizer use, and reduce fertilizer application frequency. Nano fertilizers are important in agriculture to increase crop yield and nutrient use efficiency, and to reduce excessive use ofchemical fertilizers. The most important properties of these fertilizers are that they contain one or more of macro and micronutrients, they can be applied frequently in small amounts and are environmentally friendly. However, when applied at high doses, they exhibit decreasing effects on plant growth and crop yields, similar to chemical fertilizers. In this review, the definition, importan ce, and classification of nano fertilizers, their application in plant production, advantages and disadvantages and the results obtained in this field were discussed.

  12. Viability and fertility of cooled equine semen diluted with skimmed milk or glycine egg yolk-based extenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Pugliesi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two semen extenders were compared for their ability to maintain viability of horse semen during 24 hours of cold preservation, and for the pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In the experiment 1, five ejaculates from three stallions were split-diluted in either a skimmed milk-based extender (Kenney extender or a glycine egg yolk-based extender (Foote extender and cooled at 6-8 ºC for 24 hours. Semen samples stored in Kenney extender for 24 hours had higher motility and spermatic vigor compared with those stored in Foote extender. However, samples stored in Foote extender had higher number of reactive sperm by hypoosmotic test and greater viability by epifluorescence test compared with those in Kenney extender. In the experiment 2, 17 and 23 ejaculates from two stallions were split-diluted with Kenney extender and Foote extender. The sperm concentration in each extender was adjusted to 500 million viable sperms per insemination dose. Semen was cooled to 6-8 ºC and stored for 24 hours. Seventy-four cycles of crossbred mares were inseminated with either semen diluted in Kenney extender or semen diluted in Foote extender. The pregnancy rate was higher from semen diluted in Kenney extender than that from semen in Foote extender (0.553 vs. 0.306. The Kenney extender is effective in preserving the motility, vigor and fertility of stallion semen after 24 hours of cold storage, whereas the Foote extender is not acceptable.

  13. Fertility desires and fertility outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracher, M; Santow, G

    1991-05-01

    An Australian 1-in-1000 national probability sample conducted in 1986 yielded 2547 women aged 20-59 who provided detailed life histories on marital unions, childbearing, and contraception. Age specific fertility rates, desired family size, differentials in desired family size, desired fertility and achieved fertility, and sequential family building are examined. The results indicate that the desired family size at 1st marriage has declined only slightly over the past 30 years. 3 children are generally desired, and ver few desire 2. The constance of fertility desires in contrasted with the fertilitydecline to below replacement levels. Several reasons are suggested for the desired family size: the desire is for a family size within the family tradition and modified by the desire to have 1 of each sex, the desire reflects less on intentions but more on normative pressure to become a parent. Marrying is self selecting on the desire for a traditional family of at least 2 children. There is a rising age at marriage as well as a decline in marriages. Desired family size exceeds completed fertility. Period factors and personal circumstances affect fertility intentions. Future inquires should explore the multiple factors relating to fertility, rather than in comparing fertility desires and actual fertility. The data collected on age specific fertility were comparable to official estimates. The fertility decline was evidenced in all groups except teenagers. The decline was nearly 50% for those 20-24 years between the 1050's-80's, 33% for ages 25-29. Marriage patterns explain this decline in part. Between 1971-76, women aged 20-25 were married 37 months out of 60 months in 1971-76 versus 25 out of 60 months in 1981-86. Within the 25 year age group, marital fertility has declined and unmarried fertility, which is low, has risen, Women in a marital union of any kind has remained stable. Fertility within de facto unions, which is lower than within marriage, is higher than

  14. Clinical, Bacteriological, and Histopathological Findings of a Testicular Fibrosis in a 6-Year-Old Lusitano Stallion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Lusitano stallion was referred to our centre due to an enlarged left testicle. Anamnesis indicated that the stallion had a chronic hypertrophy of the left testicle, with no apparent ill effect on work (dressage training or semen production. Prolonged use of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and antibiotics were probable. Upon examination of the animal, it was found that clinical signs were compatible with chronic testicular degeneration or fibrosis. Ultrasound scanning did not evidence the exuberant macroscopic lesions seen upon hemicastration of the left testicle, but it showed in the left spermatic cord a conspicuous absence of the typical hypoechogenic areas representing the pampiniform plexus. Swabbing of the penis, prepuce, and distal urethra resulted in the isolation of Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium spp. However, histopathological examination did not support infectious orchitis as cause of the lesions and no bacterial growth was obtained from swabbing of the parenchyma in the excised testicle. Histopathological findings were compatible with chronic orchitis with fibrosis and necrosis, probably secondary to ischemia of the testicular parenchyma. After hemi-castration, the stallion resumed semen production at acceptable levels.

  15. Influence of mare uterine tubal fluids on the metabolism of stallion sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, C E; Foley, C W; Witherspoon, D M; Scarth, R D; Goetsch, D D

    1975-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted on the metabolism of stallion sperm. In experiment 1, whole and washed sperm were incubated under aerobic and anaerobic enviroments and analyzed before and after controlled incubation for motility, pH, lactic acid, glucose, fructose, and O2 comsumption. In experiment 2, whole and washed sperm were incubated aerobically and anaerobically with and without uterine tubal fluids. Experiment 3 was the same as experiment 2, except added substrates of glucose and lactic acid were studied. The same examinations were made in experiments 2 and 3 as for experiment 1. Motility decreased significantly during incubation for all treatments, with the greatest decrease occurring for whole semen where only trace amounts of substrate (fructose) were present. Exogenous glucose plus uterine tubal fluid maintained sperm motility better than did added lactate. However, sperm respiration rates were highest when exogenous lactate was the only substrate in the incubation medium. The mean pH values for gel-free stallion semen at the start of controlled aerobic and anaerobic incubation were 7.08 and 7.34. Lactic acid accummulation for 1 hour increased from 0.05 mg to 0.09 mg/10(9) sperm when uterine tubal fluid was added to the incubation medium. Washed spermatozoa incubated in 0.03 M glucose plus uterine tubal fluid utilized less glucose than did sperm incubated in the glucose medium. These results, along with the increased oxygen utilization (ZO2) values produced by adding uterine tubal fluid to the incubation mediums, might indicate utilization of a uterine tubal substrate. Added uterine tubal fluid resulted in increased ZO2 values (expressed in mul of O2 utilized by 10(8) sperm in 1 hour at 37 C) for whole semen from 10.45 to 12.63. Washed spermatozoa also respired at a significantly greater rate than whole sperm. Respiration rates were greater for sperm incubated with 0.01 M lactic acid than for any other substrate or experiment.

  16. Seasonal changes of DNA fragmentation and quality of raw and cold-stored stallion spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wach-Gygax, L; Burger, D; Malama, E; Bollwein, H; Fleisch, A; Jeannerat, E; Thomas, S; Schuler, G; Janett, F

    2017-09-01

    In this study annual fluctuations of DNA fragmentation and quality of cold-stored equine sperm were evaluated. Ejaculates were collected weekly during one year from 15 stallions. Ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and total sperm count were determined and semen was then extended and cold-stored for 48 h. Sperm motility was evaluated by CASA before and after 24 as well as 48 h of cold storage. In addition, the percentages of sperm with intact plasma membrane and acrosome (PMAI %) and with low intracellular Ca 2+ level were determined in cold-stored semen (24 h, 48 h). SCSA™ was performed to assess mean DFI, SD of DFI and % DFI in raw frozen-thawed as well as in extended sperm after 24 and 48 h of storage. The month of semen collection affected (P sperm concentration lower in summer compared to winter and motility lower in July than in any other month of the year (P sperm with low intracellular Ca +2 level (%) after storage for 24 and 48 h, higher values were measured in winter and in October compared to April, June and July (P sperm. Semen quality was impaired in midsummer when low sperm motility and viability were combined with an elevated DNA fragmentation and Ca 2+ level of sperm. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CRYOPROTECTIVE AGENTS ON SKIM MILK AND DIMITROPOULUS EXTENDER FOR STALLION SEMEN CRYOPRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Arifiantini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available s to assess different CPAs on stallion semen cryopreservation. Skim milk (SM and Dimitropoulos(DV were the extenders used in this study; each was added by glycerol (Gly, combination of ethyleneglycol-glycerol (EG+Gly or dimethilformamide (DMF. Each semen sample was evaluated and dividedequally into six tubes; semen in the three tubes was diluted 1:1 with (SM, while in the remaining tubesthe semen was diluted 1:1 by DV. After being diluted, all tubes were centrifuged at 1006xg for 10minutes. The supernatan discarded, the pellet was rediluted by SM trehalosa or DV trehalose, and addedby G, EG+Gly, or DMF to reach the final sperm concentration of 200x106/ml. The extended semen wasindividually packed in 0.3 ml minitube, equilibrated at 4oC for 2 hours, frozen in liquid nitrogen vaporfor 10 minutes, and then was stored in liquid nitrogen container at -196 oC. After 24 hours, the semenwas thawed at 37 oC for 30 second. There were no significantly different (p>0.05 on the percentages ofmotile and viable sperm in SMT (21.7% and 43.4%, respectively compared with those extended withDV T extender (26.9% and 50.8%, respectively. DMF demonstrated better results as CPA compared tothe others; and DVTDMF combination had the best protection during cryopreservation in this study.

  18. Isolation and identification of Taylorella asinigenitalis from the genital tract of a stallion, first case of a natural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båverud, V; Nyström, C; Johansson, K-E

    2006-09-10

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, is a widely known highly contagious genital equine disease that is transmitted venereally. A new bacterium, Taylorella asinigenitalis resembling T. equigenitalis was recently isolated from three American donkey jacks, at routine testing for CEM. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a strain of Taylorella sp. from the genital tract of a stallion. Swab samples for culture of T. equigenitalis were taken from urethral fossa, urethra and penile sheath of a 3-year-old stallion of the Ardennes breed when it was routinely tested for CEM. A small Gram-negative rod was isolated, but the colony appearance, the slow growth rate and the results in the API ZYM test differed slightly from those of T. equigenitalis. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was therefore performed and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequence of the strain Bd 3751/05 represents T. asinigenitalis and that the strain is identical with the Californian asinine strain UCD-1T (ATCC 700933T). The T. asinigenitalis strain had a low MIC of gentamicin (MIC16 microg/ml). Taylorella asinigenitalis has thus for the first time been isolated from the genital tract of a stallion with a natural infection. To determine the pathogenicity of T. asinigenitalis it will be important to conduct further experimental studies. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was shown to be a reliable tool for differentiation of T. asinigenitalis from T. equigenitalis as well as for identification of these species.

  19. Manual semen collection from a Grevy's zebra stallion (Equus grevyi), onset of sperm production, semen characteristics, and cryopreservation of semen, with a comparison to the sperm production from a Grant's Zebra stallion (Equus burchelli boehmi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, J P; Crump, J W

    1994-01-01

    A manual technique was used to collect representative ejaculates from an unrestrained Grevy's zebra stallion beginning at 13 mo of age to determine the onset of sperm production, to calculate the number of spermatozoa produced per ejaculate, and to determine any seasonality associated with sperm production. Spermatozoa first appeared in the ejaculate at 31 mo of age. By 48 mo of age the zebra was producing up to 40 billion spermatozoa per ejaculate. Progressive sperm motility ranged from 75 to 95%. Gel-free semen volume averaged 75 to 120 ml/ejaculate. Gel volume ranged from 0 to 1100 ml/ejaculate. Semen was frozen in 2 different extenders in 0.5-ml PVC straws. The post-thaw motility of cryopreserved spermatozoa ranged from 30 to 70%. A domestic horse mare became pregnant on the first cycle after insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa from this zebra. Sperm production data obtained from semen collections made on a Grant's Zebra stallion from 3 to 8 yr of age is presented for comparison of the 2 species.

  20. Effects of a long-day light programme on the motility and membrane integrity of cooled-stored and cyropreserved semen in Shetland pony stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichsel, Katharina; Schrammel, Nadine; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Increasing day length in spring stimulates reproductive functions in horses. In this study, we have analysed the effect of artificial long days on the quality of cooled-stored and cryopreserved semen in Shetland stallions. Stallions of the treatment group (AL, n = 8) were exposed to 16 h light and 8h darkness from 15th December to 20th March while control stallions (CON, n = 7) were kept under natural photoperiod. Semen was collected once weekly and processed for cooled-storage and cryopreservation once per month. Total and progressive motility and percentage of membrane intact spermatozoa were analysed at 24, 48 and 72 h of cooled-storage and after freezing-thawing, respectively. Total and progressive motility and membrane integrity decreased during cooled-storage for 72 h in each month and both groups (p semen differed between groups and months. In conclusion, motility of cooled-stored semen was reduced in January and increased in stallions kept under a long day light programme for at least 30 days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis Strain ERC_G2224 Isolated from the Semen of a Lipizzaner Stallion in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Catherine E; Schulman, Martin L; Howell, Peter G; Lourens, Carina W; Gouws, Johan; Joone, Christopher; Monyai, Mpho S; le Grange, Misha; Bezuidt, Oliver K I; Harper, Cindy K; Guthrie, Alan J

    2015-10-15

    Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted infection of horses. We report here the genome sequence of T. equigenitalis strain ERC_G2224, isolated in 2015 from a semen sample collected in 1996 from a Lipizzaner stallion in South Africa. Copyright © 2015 May et al.

  2. Phylogenetic characterisation of the G(L) sequences of equine arteritis virus isolated from semen of asymptomatic stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Storgaard, Torben; Holm, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The study describes for the first time the phylogenetic relationship between equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolated from asymptomatic virus-shedding stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis (EVA) in an European country. EAV was isolated from three dead foals and an aborted foetus during...

  3. Effect of Seminal Plasma Removal on Cell Membrane, Acrosomal Integrity and Mitochondrial Activity of Cooled Stallion Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhafer M. Aziz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh semen samples were collected from 11 warm blood stallions, each ejaculate was distributed into three equal parts. The first part was diluted in a skim milk-glucose diluent (SMG, the second part was diluted in a skim milk-glucose supplemented with Tyrode's medium (SMG-T, the third part was centrifuged to remove the seminal plasma, then the sperm was resuspended in the second diluent (SMG-T-C. The diluted semen were evaluated immediately after dilution (0 hour and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of storage at 5°C. Flow cytometry was performed to determine sperm viability, mitochondrial activity and acrosomal integrity. Immediately after dilution the tested parameters of sperms that diluted in SMG-T was significantly (P<0.001 higher than those diluted with SMG and SMG-T-C, and with SMG-T-C were higher significantly (P<0.05 than those diluted with SMG. The decreasing rate in tested sperm parameter was greater significantly (P<0.001 in semen samples which were diluted with SMG than those diluted with SMG-T and SMG-T-C. In conclusion, the present study indicated that viability, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial activity of stallion sperms were better preserved in SMG-T in comparison with SMG, also centrifugation and removal of the seminal plasma have an adverse effect on these three sperm parameters.

  4. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  5. Fertility and Population Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Tosun, Mehmet S.; Yang, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    There have been significant changes in both the fertility rates and fertility perception since 1970s. In this paper, we examine the relationship between government policies towards fertility and the fertility trends. Total fertility rate, defined as the number of children per woman, is used as the main fertility trend variable. We use panel data from the United Nations World Population Policies database, and the World Bank World Development Indicators for the period 1976 through 2013. We find...

  6. Systemic infection by equid herpesvirus-1 in a Grevy's zebra stallion (Equus grevyi) with particular reference to genital pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, A S; Smith, K C; Whitwell, K E; Dunn, K A

    1998-11-01

    A severe multi-systemic form of equid herpesvirus-1 infection is described in an adult zebra stallion. There was multifocal necrotizing rhinitis, marked hydrothorax and pulmonary oedema, with viral antigen expression in degenerating epithelial cells, local endothelial cells and intravascular leucocytes of the nasal mucosa and lung. Specific localization of EHV-1 infection was seen in the testes and epididymides, including infection of Leydig cells and germinal epithelium, which would have facilitated venereal shedding of virus in life. The case provided a unique opportunity to study hitherto undescribed aspects of the pathogenesis of naturally occurring EHV-1 infection in the male equine genital tract. Restriction digests of the isolate demonstrated a pattern similar to that of EHV-1 isolates previously recovered from aborted zebra and onager fetuses.

  7. Oviduct Binding and Elevated Environmental pH Induce Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Stallion Spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, B.; Gadella, B.M.; Sostaric, E.; Nelis, H.; Stout, T.A.E.; Hoogewijs, M.; van Soom, A.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm-oviduct binding is an essential step in the capacitation process preparing the sperm for fertilization in several mammalian species. In many species, capacitation can be induced in vitro by exposing spermatozoa to bicarbonate, Ca2+, and albumin; however, these conditions are insufficient in

  8. Possible negative effects of inbreeding on semen quality in Shetland pony stallions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldik, van P.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Ducro, B.J.; Kooper, A.W.; Stout, T.A.E.; Colenbrander, B.

    2006-01-01

    Inbreeding is widely believed to negatively affect reproductive performance. Indeed, in some species, high levels of inbreeding are thought to be the major cause of poor semen quality. It is, however, not clear whether inbreeding affects fertility in horses. In this study, the relationship between

  9. Episodic nature of the delta 4-ene and delta 5-ene steroidogenic pathways and their relationship to the adreno-gonadal axis in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjam, V K

    1979-01-01

    Changes in the daily secretory patterns of testosterone and other 17 beta-hydroxyandrogen, total oestrogens and total corticoids were investigated in 7 stallions. Pulsatile fluctuations in plasma hormone levels were found in the serial blood samples collected hourly for 24 h in all animals. The plasma profiles indicated that corticoids, oestrogens and androgens were secreted episodically at all times in stallions. A significant correlation was observed between the precursor and products of delta 4-ene and delta 5-ene pathways and in inverse correlation (r = -0.68; P less than 0.01) was observed between total androgens and total corticoids. The significance of these episodic fluctuations of the major steroid hormones are discussed.

  10. Circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasso Loredana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples, then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples. Results An increase in circulating β-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P P P P P > 0.05 between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of β-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels.

  11. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  12. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  13. Allelic Variation in CXCL16 Determines CD3+ T Lymphocyte Susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection and Establishment of Long-Term Carrier State in the Stallion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. Frank; Eberth, John; Chelvarajan, R. Lakshman; Artiushin, Sergey; Timoney, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of horses and other equid species. Following natural infection, 10–70% of the infected stallions can become persistently infected and continue to shed EAV in their semen for periods ranging from several months to life. Recently, we reported that some stallions possess a subpopulation(s) of CD3+ T lymphocytes that are susceptible to in vitro EAV infection and that this phenotypic trait is associated with long-term carrier status following exposure to the virus. In contrast, stallions not possessing the CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptible phenotype are at less risk of becoming long-term virus carriers. A genome wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina Equine SNP50 chip revealed that the ability of EAV to infect CD3+ T lymphocytes and establish long-term carrier status in stallions correlated with a region within equine chromosome 11. Here we identified the gene and mutations responsible for these phenotypes. Specifically, the work implicated three allelic variants of the equine orthologue of CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) that differ by four non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (XM_00154756; c.715 A → T, c.801 G → C, c.804 T → A/G, c.810 G → A) within exon 1. This resulted in four amino acid changes with EqCXCL16S (XP_001504806.1) having Phe, His, Ile and Lys as compared to EqCXL16R having Tyr, Asp, Phe, and Glu at 40, 49, 50, and 52, respectively. Two alleles (EqCXCL16Sa, EqCXCL16Sb) encoded identical protein products that correlated strongly with long-term EAV persistence in stallions (P<0.000001) and are required for in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptibility to EAV infection. The third (EqCXCL16R) was associated with in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte resistance to EAV infection and a significantly lower probability for establishment of the long-term carrier state (viral persistence) in the male reproductive tract. EqCXCL16Sa and Eq

  14. Allelic Variation in CXCL16 Determines CD3+ T Lymphocyte Susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection and Establishment of Long-Term Carrier State in the Stallion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine arteritis virus (EAV is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA, a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of horses and other equid species. Following natural infection, 10-70% of the infected stallions can become persistently infected and continue to shed EAV in their semen for periods ranging from several months to life. Recently, we reported that some stallions possess a subpopulation(s of CD3+ T lymphocytes that are susceptible to in vitro EAV infection and that this phenotypic trait is associated with long-term carrier status following exposure to the virus. In contrast, stallions not possessing the CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptible phenotype are at less risk of becoming long-term virus carriers. A genome wide association study (GWAS using the Illumina Equine SNP50 chip revealed that the ability of EAV to infect CD3+ T lymphocytes and establish long-term carrier status in stallions correlated with a region within equine chromosome 11. Here we identified the gene and mutations responsible for these phenotypes. Specifically, the work implicated three allelic variants of the equine orthologue of CXCL16 (EqCXCL16 that differ by four non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (XM_00154756; c.715 A → T, c.801 G → C, c.804 T → A/G, c.810 G → A within exon 1. This resulted in four amino acid changes with EqCXCL16S (XP_001504806.1 having Phe, His, Ile and Lys as compared to EqCXL16R having Tyr, Asp, Phe, and Glu at 40, 49, 50, and 52, respectively. Two alleles (EqCXCL16Sa, EqCXCL16Sb encoded identical protein products that correlated strongly with long-term EAV persistence in stallions (P<0.000001 and are required for in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptibility to EAV infection. The third (EqCXCL16R was associated with in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte resistance to EAV infection and a significantly lower probability for establishment of the long-term carrier state (viral persistence in the male reproductive tract. EqCXCL16Sa and

  15. Male Fertility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  16. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lactate and Pyruvate Are Major Sources of Energy for Stallion Sperm with Dose Effects on Mitochondrial Function, Motility, and ROS Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Christa R; Varner, Dickson D; Teague, Sheila; Cortopassi, Gino A; Datta, Sandipan; Meyers, Stuart A

    2016-08-01

    Stallion sperm rely primarily on oxidative phosphorylation for production of ATP used in sperm motility and metabolism. The objective of the study was to identify which substrates included in Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham (BWW) media are key to optimal mitochondrial function through measurements of sperm motility parameters, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It was expected that mitochondrial substrates, pyruvate and lactate, would support sperm motility and mitochondrial function better than the glycolytic substrate, glucose, due to direct utilization within the mitochondria. Measurements were performed after incubation in modified BWW media with varying concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, and glucose. The effects of media and duration of incubation on sperm motility, ROS production, and oxygen consumption were determined using a linear mixed-effects model. Duplicate ejaculates from four stallions were used in three separate experiments to determine the effects of substrate availability and concentration on sperm motility and mitochondrial function and the relationship of oxygen consumption with cellular ROS production. The present results indicate that lactate and pyruvate are the most important sources of energy for stallion sperm motility and velocity, and elicit a dose-dependent response. Additionally, lactate and pyruvate are ideal for maximal mitochondrial function, as sperm in these media operate at a very high level of their bioenergetic capability due to the high rate of energy metabolism. Moreover, we found that addition of glucose to the media is not necessary for short-term storage of equine sperm, and may even result in reduction of mitochondrial function. Finally, we have confirmed that ROS production can be the result of mitochondrial dysfunction as well as intense mitochondrial activity. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. Implementing an open-access CASA software for the assessment of stallion sperm motility: Relationship with other sperm quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretta, Elisa; Munerato, Mauro; Yeste, Marc; Galeati, Giovanna; Spinaci, Marcella; Tamanini, Carlo; Mari, Gaetano; Bucci, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Setting an open-access computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) may benefit the evaluation of motility in mammalian sperm, especially when economic constraints do not allow the use of a commercial system. There have been successful attempts to develop such a device in Zebra fish sperm and the system has been used in very few studies on mammalian spermatozoa. Against this background, the present study aimed at developing an open-access CASA system for mammalian sperm using the horse as a model and based upon the Image J software previously established for Zebra fish sperm. Along with determining the sperm progressive motility and other kinetic parameters (such as amplitude of lateral head displacement), the "results" window was adjusted to simplify subsequent statistical analyses. The path window was enriched with colored sperm trajectories on the basis of the subpopulation they belong to and a number that allowed the sperm track to be associated to the sperm motility data shown in the "results" window. Data obtained from the novel plugin (named as CASA_bgm) were compared with those of the commercial CASA Hamilton-Thorn IVOS Vers.12, through Bland Altman's plots. While the percentage of total and progressive motile sperm, VCL, VAP, VSL, LIN and STR and ALH were in agreement with those obtained with the commercial system, BCF significantly differed between the two systems probably due to their settings. Interestingly, a positive and significant correlation between the percentages of total motile sperm evaluated through CASA_bgm and those showing high mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated by JC-1 staining was found. In conclusion, CASA_bgm ImageJ plugin could be useful and reliable for stallion sperm motility analysis and it is our aim to apply this system to other mammalian species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  20. [Fertility transition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E

    1992-12-01

    Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society

  1. Protect Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your teens and early twenties can affect your fertility for years to come. This prevention guide was written by ... loss of testic- ulor size, see your doctor. Fertility is something that you ... approximately 40 percent of infertile couples, the male partner is ...

  2. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...... gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  3. Determination of some enzymes and macro- and microelements in stallion seminal plasma and their correlations to semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Sandra; Bergmann, Martin; Bostedt, Hartwig

    2006-07-15

    Seminal plasma is very important for sperm metabolism as well as sperm function and survival and transport in the female genital tract. Analysis of enzyme activities and concentrations of elements can estimate integrity and function of sperm cell membranes. In man much data are available about biochemical analyses of seminal plasma. However, not many studies have been conducted in horses yet. We collected ejaculates from 72 stallions, measured the volume, obtained seminal plasma by centrifugation and examined spermatozoa with light microscopy for motility, concentration, for dead sperm and morphology. Of seminal plasma fluid, we measured activities of aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), acid phosphatase (AcP) and lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as concentrations of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), total and ionised calcium (Ca(TOTAL)/Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), phosphate (P), chloride (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). In addition, correlations among different parameters in light microscopy and seminal plasma were statistically examined by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Median enzyme activities for AST, GGT, AlP, AcP and LDH were 80.0, 7,500, 30,200, 20.0, 81.0 IU/L, respectively. Concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Ca(TOTAL), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), P, Cl were 110.5, 22.1, 2.9, 1.7, 3.1, 1.1 and 114.5 mmol/L, and of microelements Cu, Fe and Zn were 17.8, 1.9 and 13.2 micromol/L, respectively. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and AST, GGT, AlP, AcP and LDH as well as Fe and Zn. This made us propose a primary testicular and epididymal origin of these parameters. Significant correlation between GGT and motility may be a sign for its function for cell protection against free radicals. LDH activity significantly correlates with motility and progressive motility, live:dead-ratio and pathomorphology. In our study, LDH seems to

  4. Effect of electron irradiation in hatching eggs experimentally inoculated with salmonella enteriditis, on hatch ability and broiler performance; Efecto de la irradiacion con electrones en huevos fertiles inoculados experimentalmente con salmonella enteriditis sobre la incubabilidad y desarrollo productivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda S, M P

    1996-12-31

    The effect of four doses of electrons irradaition on bacteriologic population in hatching egg following experimental shell contamination with Salmonella enteriditis phage type 13 was investigated. Fresh, whole, intact raw eggs were inoculated with 10{sup 9} Colony-Forming Units of Salmonella enteriditis, eggs were irradiated with a beam electron source at either: 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 KGy. The bacteriologic evaluation was made with Gentry`s and Williams` technic. After the irradiation the groups were taken to commercial hatchery and were incubated in satndards conditions. The bacteriologic evaluation of the shell showed a significant 2.8 log reduction on the group of eggs that were irradiated with 1 KGy as compared with 0.5 KGy doses group and control group (P<0.05). A negative correlation (r=-0.93) between irradiation doses and CFU (P<0.05) was also observed. Bacteriologic evaluation of the internal shell membrane exhibited a highly significant inactivation (P<0.01) of S. enteriditis of 100% in the group of eggs irradiated at 2 and 3 kGy. A high negative correlation (r=-0.90) between irradiation doses and samples of internal structures (P<0.05) was observed. The results obtained suggested that the electrons irradiation may be use like a control system of salmonelosis on egg and like desinfection system on hatching eggs because it did not cause any effect on hatchability and broiler performance. (Author).

  5. Effects of inbreeding and other systematic effects on fertility of Black Forest Draught horses in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Unterberg, Maarit; Wallmann, Sandra; Distl, Ottmar

    2017-10-18

    The Black Forest Draught horse (BFDH) is an endangered German coldblood breed with its origin in the area of the Black Forest in South Germany. In this retrospective study, the influence of the inbreeding coefficient on foaling rates was investigated using records from ten breeding seasons. Due to the small population size of BFDH, the level of inbreeding is increasing and may have an effect on foaling rates.The data of the present study included all coverings reported for 1024 BFDH mares in the years 2001-2009. These mares were covered by 32 BFDH stallions from the State Stud Marbach. Data from 4534 estrus cycles was used to calculate per cycle foaling rate (CFR). Pedigree data contained all studbook data up to the foundation of the breed as early as 1836. The level of inbreeding of the mare, stallion and expected foal along with other systematic effects on CFR were analysed using a generalized linear mixed model approach. Stallion was employed as a random effect. Systematic fixed effects were month of mating, mating type, age of the mare and stallion, reproductive status of the mare and stallion line of the mare. Inbreeding coefficients of the stallion, mare and expected foal were modelled as linear covariates. The average CFR was 40.9%. The mean inbreeding coefficients of the mares, stallions and expected foals were 7.46, 7.70 and 9.66%. Mating type, age of the mare, reproductive status of the mare and stallion line of the mare had a significant effect. The results showed that the mating type, stallion line of the mare, sire, age and reproductive status of the mare exerted the largest influences on CFR in BFDH. Inbreeding coefficients of the stallion, mare and expected foal were not significantly related with CFR.

  6. Perchlorate in Fertilizers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eldridge, J. E; Tsui, D. T; Mattie, D. R; Crown, J; Scott, R; Blackman, T

    1999-01-01

    ...) methods for perchlorate analysis in lawn and garden fertilizers. Seven government, private, and commercial laboratories participated in the analysis of 34 aqueous suspensions of the test materials, using similar ion chromatography systems...

  7. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  8. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  9. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... of reproductive age their risk of infertility from the disease and/or treatment and their interest in having children after cancer, and help with informed fertility preservation decisions. As recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology, sperm...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...

  10. Queering the fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura

    2013-06-01

    A sociologist examines contemporary engagements of queer bodies and identities with fertility biomedicine. Drawing on social science, media culture, and the author's own empirical research, three questions frame the analysis: 1. In what ways have queers on the gendered margins moved into the center and become implicated or central users of biomedicine's fertility offerings? 2. In what ways is Fertility Inc. transformed by its own incorporation of various gendered and queered bodies and identities? And 3. What are the biosocial and bioethical implications of expanded queer engagements and possibilities with Fertility Inc.? The author argues that "patient" activism through web 2.0 coupled with a largely unregulated free-market of assisted reproduction has included various queer identities as "parents-in-waiting." Such inclusions raise a set of ethical tensions regarding how to be accountable to the many people implicated in this supply and demand industry.

  11. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  12. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  13. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colenbrander Ben

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Methods Stallion spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 1 pM - 0.1 mM. After 2 hours exposure, motility parameters were evaluated by computer-assisted analysis, and acrosome integrity was examined by flow cytometry after staining with fluoroscein-conjugated peanut agglutinin. Results Mycotoxins affected sperm parameters only at the highest concentration tested (0.1 mM after 2 hours exposure. In this respect, all of the compounds reduced the average path velocity, but only alpha-zearalenol reduced percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm. Induction of motility patterns consistent with hyperactivation was stimulated according to the following rank of potency: alpha-zearalenol >17beta-estradiol > zearalenone = beta-zearalenol. The hyperactivity-associated changes observed included reductions in straight-line velocity and linearity of movement, and an increase in the amplitude of lateral head displacement, while curvilinear velocity was unchanged. In addition, whereas alpha- and beta- zearalenol increased the percentages of live acrosome-reacted sperm, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol had no apparent effect on acrosome status. In short, alpha-zearalenol inhibited normal sperm motility, but stimulated hyperactive motility in the remaining motile cells and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction. Beta-zearalenol induced the acrosome reaction without altering motility

  14. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior ...

  15. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.

  16. Prediction of bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Conference considers low fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    At present, at least 51 countries--representing 44% of the world's population--are showing below-replacement fertility rates. In some of these countries, where the number of new births is not adequate to replace aging populations, this trend is problematic. In other countries, most notably China, declining fertility has conferred significant benefits. At an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Population Commission meeting held in New York in 1997, staff from China's State Statistical Bureau reported the country has a current total fertility rate of 1.8. The birth rate remains high, however, because of the large numbers of Chinese women in the 15-49 year reproductive age group (336 million in 1997). Also buffering the impact of a low fertility rate is a large labor surplus (130 million excess workers in rural China). To keep fertility below the replacement level, China plans to improve the quality of its family planning service, enhance poverty alleviation programs, and increase incentives for small families in rural areas. China's low fertility rate has provided an important impetus for economic development.

  18. Radioactivity in Chemical Fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    The fertilizers are essential in agriculture as they supply nutrients to the farming fields. One of the sources of radioactivity other than those of natural origin is mainly due to extensive use of fertilizers. The concentrations of natural radionuclides, 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U in different chemical fertilizers, which are part of the regular control of imported goods from the border crossing were analyzed using gamma spectrometry with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, relative efficiency 20 %, in order to assess the implications of the extended use of chemical fertilizers. Measurements were performed at Vinca Institute, Radiation and Environmental Protection Department. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of different samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for gamma activity of those fertilizer samples for 40K, 226Ra, 238U and 235U are 4857 (23 - 12 324) Bq/kg, 87 (4-393) Bq/kg, 220 (26-1145) Bq/kg and 15 (1.6-53) Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) as well as the external absorbed gamma dose rate (D) for all samples was also calculated.(author)

  19. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is increasing of an association between asthma and aspects of female reproduction. However, current knowledge is limited and furthermore relies on questionnaire studies or small populations. In a prospective observational cohort study to investigate whether time to pregnancy, the number...... of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...

  20. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R A; Halstead, E H

    1974-07-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  1. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.; Halstead, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  2. Laparoscopic application of PGE2 to re-establish oviducal patency and fertility in infertile mares: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W R; Wilsher, S; Morris, L; Crowhurst, J S; Hillyer, M H; Neal, H N

    2006-09-01

    Mares are occasionally encountered that consistently fail to conceive when inseminated, naturally or artificially, with fertile stallion semen in the absence of any identifiable pathology of either the structure or function of their reproductive tract. Temporary blockage of the oviducts by accumulations of naturally occurring oviducal masses may be preventing oviducal transport of the embryo to the uterus. Mares, with known reproductive histories, that had exhibited inexplicable failure of conception were treated by laparoscopically guided administration of PGE2-laced triacetin gel directly onto the surface of their oviducts. Fifteen mares age 10-21 years that had exhibited inexplicable failure of conception during 1-4 years were treated, of which 14 (93%) conceived within the same or subsequent breeding season. The high success rate of this treatment supports the tentative diagnosis of oviducal obstruction in these mares and indicates that blockage of the mare's oviducts may occur in the form of a moveable accumulation of debris rather than from permanent fibrous adhesions resulting from salpingitis. This laparoscopic application of PGE2 to the oviducts constitutes a sound and practical method of restoring fertility in mares suffering oviducal obstruction and further studies involving the procedure are warranted.

  3. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  4. Globalization and Contemporary Fertility Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-09-01

    The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas. I investigate the impact of various cross-country ties, including ties through bilateral trade, intergovernmental organizations, and regional trade blocs, on fertility convergence. I find that globalization acts as a form of social interaction to produce fertility convergence. There is significant heterogeneity in the effects of different cross-country ties. In particular, trade with rich model countries, joint participation in the UN and UNESCO, and joining a free trade agreement all contribute to fertility convergence between countries. Whereas the prevailing focus in fertility research has been on factors producing fertility declines, this analysis highlights specific mechanisms-trade and connectedness through organizations-leading to greater similarity in fertility across countries. Globalization is a process that propels the spread of culturally laden goods and schemas impinging on fertility, which in turn produces fertility convergence.

  5. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future. PMID:24478294

  6. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  7. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  8. Fertilizer micro-dosing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Localized application of small quantities of fertilizer (micro-dosing), combined with improved planting pits for rainwater harvesting, has generated greater profits and food security for women farmers in the Sahel. • Women are 25% more likely to use combined applications, and have expanded areas of food crops (cowpea,.

  9. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on: The underlying cause of the problem The woman's age Her history of previous pregnancies How long she has had infertility issues The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose infertility is due to problems with ovulation. ...

  10. Nutrition and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  11. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  12. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  13. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  14. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  15. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ...

  16. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord ... a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, ...

  17. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. While couples can't control all of the causes of infertility, ...

  18. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  19. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  1. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  2. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ... with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for ...

  3. Fertility in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoldemir, T

    2016-06-01

    Reduced maternal fertility is the consequence of depletion of follicles with maternal aging. In a 35-year-old woman, approximately 9.1% of the residual follicle pool disappears annually without entering into the growing stage, whereas, in a 45-year-old woman, this number triples. After the age of 35 years, the frequency of aneuploidies in oocytes increases sharply. Roughly 50-70% of mature oocytes from a 40-year-old woman have chromosomal abnormalities. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rates are lower in midlife women. Various controlled ovarian stimulation interventions have been suggested for the management of women in advanced age, most of whom are likely to be poor-responder patients. Currently, systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that there is insufficient evidence to recommend most of the treatments proposed to improve pregnancy rates in these poor responders. Minimal stimulation or natural cycle in vitro fertilization may be offered, without compromising the already existing pregnancy results.

  4. [Stress and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ősapay, György; Ősapay, Klára

    2015-08-30

    In Western countries, sperm quality and fertility of men significantly worsened. Female infertility does not show a better trend either. Subtle defects in the reproductive functions can not be explained by the current methods, and "unexplained infertility" is becoming a more common diagnosis. Every year 1 million couples seek expensive and time consuming fertility treatment in the world. Deeper understanding of an unhealthy lifestyle and the environmental damages may lead to personalized treatments to increase the chance of conception.The effects of various stressors on the male and female reproductive performance were scientifically substantiated by Selye and coworkers in 1976. Cognitive therapy methods can be applied against emotional stressors, supplementation by antioxidants against reactive oxygen compounds, and administration of vitamins and trace elements, especially when deficiency is found, may help before medical intervention on a rational and economical way in the fight against infertility.

  5. Fertility preservation 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Smitz, Johan; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced long-term survival rates of young women with cancer and advances in reproductive medicine and cryobiology have culminated in an increased interest in fertility preservation methods in girls and young women with cancer. Present data suggest that young patients with cancer should be referred for fertility preservation counselling quickly to help with their coping process. Although the clinical application of novel developments, including oocyte vitrification and oocyte maturation in vitro, has resulted in reasonable success rates in assisted reproduction programmes, experience with these techniques in the setting of fertility preservation is in its infancy. It is hoped that these and other approaches, some of which are still regarded as experimental (eg, ovarian tissue cryopreservation, pharmacological protection against gonadotoxic agents, in-vitro follicle growth, and follicle transplantation) will be optimised and become established within the next decade. Unravelling the complex mechanisms of activation and suppression of follicle growth will not only expand the care of thousands of women diagnosed with cancer, but also inform the care of millions of women confronted with reduced reproductive fitness because of ageing. PMID:25283571

  6. Soil and fertilizer nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the intensified practices and effectively diminishing land resources per capita, increasing weights of both native soil- and added fertilizer-nitrogen will be lost to agriculture and its products, and will find their way into the environment. Soil-nitrogen levels and contingent productivity can nevertheless be maintained in the face of these losses on the basis of improved soil-N management. In some local situations nitrate levels in water for drinking purposes are likely to continue rising. In some cases agriculture and clearance practices are only one of several sources. In others they are clearly mainly responsible. In developing countries these losses represent those of a relatively increasingly costly input. This is due to the fact that industrial fertilizer nitrogen production is a particularly high energy-consuming process. In the more advanced industrialized countries they represent an addition to the problems and costs of environmental quality and health protection. The programmes, information and data reviewed here suggest that these problems can be contained by improved and extended soil and water management in agriculture on the basis of existing technology. In particular there appears to be enormous scope for the better exploitation of existing legumes both as non-legume crop alternatives or as biofertilizers which also possess more desirable C:N ratios than chemical fertilizer

  7. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biedka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient’s sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  8. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  9. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  10. Immunosuppressive drugs and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Clara; Rigot, Jean-Marc; Leroy, Maryse; Decanter, Christine; Le Mapihan, Kristell; Parent, Anne-Sophie; Le Guillou, Anne-Claire; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Dharancy, Sébastien; Noel, Christian; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine

    2015-10-21

    Immunosuppressive drugs are used in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, as well as in transplantation. Frequently prescribed in young people, these treatments may have deleterious effects on fertility, pregnancy outcomes and the unborn child. This review aims to summarize the main gonadal side effects of immunosuppressants, to detail the effects on fertility and pregnancy of each class of drug, and to provide recommendations on the management of patients who are seen prior to starting or who are already receiving immunosuppressive treatment, allowing them in due course to bear children. The recommendations for use are established with a rather low level of proof, which needs to be taken into account in the patient management. Methotrexate, mycophenolate, and le- and teri-flunomide, cyclophosphamide, mitoxanthrone are contraindicated if pregnancy is desired due to their teratogenic effects, as well as gonadotoxic effects in the case of cyclophosphamide. Anti-TNF-alpha and mTOR-inhibitors are to be used cautiously if pregnancy is desired, since experience using these drugs is still relatively scarce. Azathioprine, glucocorticoids, mesalazine, anticalcineurins such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, ß-interferon, glatiramer-acetate and chloroquine can be used during pregnancy, bearing in mind however that side effects may still occur. Experience is limited concerning natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl-fumarate and induction treatments. Conclusion: At the time of prescription, patients must be informed of the possible consequences of immunosuppressants on fertility and of the need for contraception. Pregnancy must be planned and the treatment modified if necessary in a pre-conception time period adapted to the half-life of the drug, imperatively in relation with the prescriber of the immunosuppressive drugs.

  11. Ethnicity and fertility in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollehlon, Konia T

    2003-01-01

    Using a sample of Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, and all other women from the 1990 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines ethnic fertility differentials in Nigeria within the context of the social characteristics and cultural hypotheses. Among all women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani women to be lower than that of Other women; with no statistically significant difference in the net fertility of Ibo, Yourba, and Other women. But, among currently married women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani and Yoruba women to be lower than that of Other women, while the net fertility of Ibo women is higher than that of Other women. Overall, the findings of this study are more consistent with the cultural hypothesis, because statistically significant fertility differentials by ethnicity remain, even after controlling for selected socioeconomic and demographic variables.

  12. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  13. Fertility and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korula George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing social scenario together with economic growth and an increase in job opportunities has to a great extent reduced gender inequality and has resulted in more and more older women seeking help from infertility clinics. Fertility and aging have always been closely linked and the age of the female partner remains the single most important factor in predicting success with treatment. Although tests for the ovarian reserve are an important informative tool and are helpful in selecting treatment options, they are poor predictors of the outcome.

  14. Fertility trends in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K; Viegas, O; Ratnam, S S

    1988-10-01

    In 1966, the Singapore National Family Planning and Population Program established the goal of reaching replacement fertility by 1990 and zero population growth by the year 2030. To achieve this goal, the government relied on a series of incentives and disincentives to discourage births above the 3rd birth order, including tax relief for the 1st 3 children only, paid medical leave for women undergoing sterilization after the 3rd or subsequent birth, monetary stipends in some cases where the mother is sterilized after the 1st or 2nd birth, and increasing accouchement charges for increasing birth orders. Also important to demographic planning were liberalization of Singapore's abortion legislation and more aggressive promotion of contraception. As a result of these efforts, Singapore's crude birth rate has declined from 29.5/1000 population in 1965 to 16.6/1000 in 1985. Also observed have been dramatic declines in infant mortality in this same period, from 26.2/1000 live births to 9.3/1000, and in maternal mortality, from 52/100,000 live births to 10/100,000. In 1985, 42% of total births were to women in the 25-29-year age group. The numbers of 4th and later births fell by 90% between 1966 and 1985. The total fertility rate has declined from 4.6/woman in 1965 to 3.1 in 1970 to 1.6 in 1986. Below replacement level fertility was achieved in 1975, in part because of government policy but also as a result of cultural and socioeconomic factors such as increasing female labor force participation rates, a break-up of the extended family system, a rise in the age at 1st marriage, and rises in educational attainment. The drop in fertility was contributed mainly by the higher socioeconomic class, more affluent, and educated Singaporeans. Thus, in 1981, the government introduced certain pronatalist policies and incentives to encourage better educated women to produce more children, e.g., tax relief and the elimination of monetary incentives to sterilization acceptors above a

  15. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  16. Fertility differentials in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H T; Islam, S M; Khan, H M; Bari, R

    1993-01-01

    "Data from two sources in rural Bangladesh have been used in this study to examine the differentials in fertility by selected socio-economic and demographic factors. Results [indicate] that age at first marriage, education of spouses and availability of electricity in the household...have [an] inverse relationship with fertility. Higher fertility is observed for Muslim women than for non-Muslims. It has been found that fertility is the lowest to those women whose husbands are service holders and the highest for agriculture." excerpt

  17. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  18. Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household Fertilizers Use and Soil Fertility Management Practices in Vegetable Crops Production: The Case of Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. ... rate, which could leads to pollution of the environment from over dose application and from runoff in to the water bodies and leaching in to the ground water with economic loss.

  19. Fertile ground? : soil fertility management and the African smallholder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misiko, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: smallholder farmers, soil fertility, experimentation, "inconvenience", realist.The focus in this thesis is to form a view of how well soil fertility research performs within the ever shifting smallholder contexts. This study examined application of agro-ecological

  20. Genotyping of friesian horses to detect a hydrocephalus-associated c.1423C>T mutation in B3GALNT2 using PCR-RFLP and PCR-PIRA methods: Frequency in stallion horses in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Valdovinos, Miguel Angel; Galindo-García, Jorge; Sánchez-Chiprés, David; Duifhuis-Rivera, Theodor

    2017-04-01

    Hydrocephalus in Friesian horses is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease that can result in an abortion, a stillbirth, or euthanization of a newborn foal. Here, the hydrocephalus-associated c.1423C > T mutation in B3GALNT2 gene was detected with PCR-RFLP and PCR-PIRA methods for horse genotyping. A preliminary genotyping survey was performed on 83 randomly selected Friesian stallion horses to determine the current allele frequency in Mexico. The frequency of the mutant T allele was 9.6%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of porcine male fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuijse, M.L.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871728

    2012-01-01

    Life starts with fertilisation. Variation in fertility is caused by both farm and sow related parameters and boar and semen related parameters. Therefore, achieving high fertility is not obvious. Predominantly, artificial insemination (AI) is used for breeding pigs. The advantage of AI is that you

  2. Fertility treatment in obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide. This has major adverse consequences for health in general and fertility in women in particular. With the increasing number of women in reproductive age being obese, there is also an increasing need for fertility treatment. And with more pregnant women

  3. Fertility drugs and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2017-06-20

    The aetiology of ovarian cancer is multifactorial with both endogenous and exogenous risk factors playing an important role. The exact pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is still not well understood, despite the number of hypotheses published. Due to an increase in the number of women using fertility drugs, much attention has been focused on the long-term health effects of such drugs. Although fertility drugs facilitate the ovulation process, it is however associated with a significant increase in hormone concentrations, placing exposed women at increased risk of gynaecological cancer. Many clinical and epidemiological studies have examined the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer risk. Results from these studies have been contradictory, as some studies have reported an increased risk of ovarian cancer while others reported no increased risk. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that women who used fertility drugs and did not conceive had a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer, compared to women who used fertility drugs and conceived and delivered successfully. This review discusses the effect of fertility drugs on the risk of developing ovarian cancer, providing details on four possible scenarios associated with fertility treatment. In addition, the limitations of previous studies and their impact on our understanding of the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer also have been highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Fertilizing Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Roger D. Right

    1979-01-01

    This report supplements a slide-tape presentation of the same title. Part I of the report describes the current practice of nitrogen fertilization of Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and Oregon and the effects of this fertilization on tree growth and water quality. Part II discusses factors that affect costs and revenues from investments in forest...

  5. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  6. [Fertility and health in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina-Fuentes, M; Echánove-Fernández, E

    1989-01-01

    Fertility, health, and family planning are not independent factors, but rather involve a series of biological and social mechanisms in close interaction with one another. The impact that a high fertility rate has on health is reflected mainly in a rise in the rates of maternal and child mortality. Similarly, fertility has a greater negative effect upon the health of groups characterized by high reproductive risk, high parity, short intergenesic intervals, and unwanted pregnancies. On the other hand, family planning -and specifically the use of contraceptive methods-helps to achieve a lowering of the fertility rate and also has a positive effect on maternal-child health. This situation can be observed in the case of Mexico, where fertility rates and tendencies, as well as maternal and child mortality, have been reduced during the past decade.

  7. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... options further? Fertility Preservation - Where Does It Fit? Options for Fertility Preservation The following diagram gives a brief description of fertility preservation options available to children diagnosed with cancer before and ...

  9. Fertilizers in cereals crops. Effect of fertilization in grain quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaj, Mariana

    1997-01-01

    In the last years the yields of the maize cultivation in the Pampeana production region have constantly increased, foreseeing higher increases of yield in the next years. Such increase is due, between other motives, to the use of hybrids of higher potential yield. There is a direct relation between the yield potential of a genotype and the nutrients demand, fact that constitutes one of the geneticists concerns. Maize hybrids reach its maximum expression when the plant is cultivated in good supplied soils with balanced quantities of nutrients that in several cases are reached with the practice of fertilization. The quantitative and qualitative vegetal response to the use of phosphate fertilizers depend of soils, of the environmental conditions, of fertilizer and the way of its application as well as of the maize hybrid that was used. To direct the practice of fertilization towards the reposition of the soil nutrients extracted by genotypes of high yield without producing excesses that increase costs and put in danger the environment, it is necessary to know the real coefficient used by the plants of the phosphorus available in the soils. The isotopic methodology allows to distinguish the phosphorus coming from two nutrient sources: soil and fertilizer, even in the juvenile phase of vegetal development and to evaluate the efficiency of fertilizers in plant nutrition. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the use of phosphorus coming from one of the phosphorus source available (soil, fertilizer), that should allow to increase and make more specific the knowledge's level of the different maize hybrids. This is obtained by determination of the grade of use of nutrient (of the soil) and of the nutrient of fertilizers, evaluating the qualitative and quantitative responses to fertilization

  10. Nutraceuticals in reproduction of bulls and stallions Nutracêuticos na reprodução de touros e garanhões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Paes de Arruda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The industry has made available in the market a series of substances (nutraceuticals which intent would be to optimize the use of nutrients in some metabolic paths, influencing positively reproductive performance in animals. However, the response to the use of nutraceuticals varies according to the animal. As the organism is highly complex and in order to achieve a perfect activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, an ideal interaction in molecular basis is needed, where the nutraceuticals can have their direct action. The aim of this study was to review the function and research results using the main nutraceuticals (β carotene, vitamin A, L-carnitine, omegas 3, 6 and 9 and Gamma-oryzanol on reproductive characteristics of bulls and stallions.A indústria tem disponibilizado no mercado uma série de substâncias (nutracêuticos com a intenção de otimizar a utilização de nutrientes em algumas vias metabólicas, influenciando positivamente o desempenho reprodutivo dos animais. No entanto, a resposta ao uso de nutracêuticos varia de acordo com o animal. Como o organismo é altamente complexo e, a fim de alcançar perfeita atividade do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-gonadal, uma interação ideal na base molecular é necessária, onde os nutracêuticos podem ter sua ação direta. O objetivo neste estudo foi revisar a função e resultados de pesquisas usando os principais nutracêuticos (β-caroteno, vitamina A, L-carnitina, ômegas 3, 6 e 9 e gama-orizanol sobre as características reprodutivas de touros e garanhões.

  11. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for ...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult ...

  13. Comparison of unenriched versus 15N-enriched fertilizer as a tracer for N fertilizer uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meints, V.W.; Shearer, G.; Kohl, D.H.; Kurtz, L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted on three soils with differing cropping and fertilization histories to determine whether unenriched fertilizer N can be used in the same manner as 15 N-enriched fertilizer to estimate the amount of plant N derived from fertilizer. Estimates using unenriched fertilizer N were compared with estimates using two 15 N enrichment levels. Use of unenriched fertilizer N led to underestimation of the amount of fertilizer N in the plant material in four of six cases when compared to 15 N-enriched fertilizer. Standard deviations of the estimates of fertilizer-derived N in plant material were considerably greater when unenriched fertilizer was used. (U.S.)

  14. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  15. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  16. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  17. [Nutrition and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that nutritional habits may have a significant effect on both male and female fertility. Maintenance of normal body mass may be effective in the prevention of infertility resulting from ovulatory disorders. Underweight and, to a larger degree, overweight and/or obesity, are related to the enhanced risk of infertility. Insulin resistance is an important pathogenic mechanism that may impair ovulation. Adequate intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, derived mainly from vegetable fats, as well as avoidance of trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids which are present in industrially produced cakes and sweets, crisps, fast-foods, powdered soups and hard margarines, may be effective in the prevention of infertility in females. Choice of plant rather than animal sources of proteins, decrease in glycemic load of the diet, use of dietary supplements containing iron and folic acid, could also be beneficial. Avoidance of vitamin B12 deficiency and its supplementation seem to be important in the prevention of early miscarriages. Sufficient intake of antioxidants also promotes female reproductive functions. Free radical processes play an important role in the development of male factor infertility. It was shown that proper intake or supplementation with antioxidants may be effective in its prevention and treatment. Such nutrients as zinc, selenium and folic acid act beneficially on sperm quality. A well-balanced diet seems to play an important role in the prevention of infertility in both sexes.

  18. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  19. Determinants of fertility in Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This examines the fertility trends in Namibia over the past 2 decades .... contraceptive use was small because of the late age at first ..... limited flexibility in terms of maternity leave conditions ... Longer periods in education have increased the.

  20. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  1. Preserving Fertility while Battling Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some oncologists neglect to discuss the possibility of treatment-related infertility with patients of reproductive age. Researchers are developing decision aids to help patients make an informed, carefully considered decision about fertility.

  2. Determinants of fertility in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be access to education, media, and providing employment opportunities in the modern economic sector. Besides .... and religion shows that muslim women have 1.7% high- er fertility ... traditional social and economic systems continue, the.

  3. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ...

  4. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  5. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury ... 2525 info@facingdisability.com SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER Your email address * This iframe contains the logic ...

  6. Is fertility falling in Zimbabwe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udjo, E O

    1996-01-01

    With an unequalled contraceptive prevalence rate in sub-Saharan Africa, of 43% among currently married women in Zimbabwe, the Central Statistical Office (1989) observed that fertility has declined sharply in recent years. Using data from several surveys on Zimbabwe, especially the birth histories of the Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines fertility trends in Zimbabwe. The results show that the fertility decline in Zimbabwe is modest and that the decline is concentrated among high order births. Multivariate analysis did not show a statistically significant effect of contraception on fertility, partly because a high proportion of Zimbabwean women in the reproductive age group never use contraception due to prevailing pronatalist attitudes in the country.

  7. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  8. (ajst) pedological characteristics, general fertility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Pedological characteristics, fertility, soil classification, benchmark soils, Morogoro. District, Tanzania ... rigorous soil mapping to show their spatial distribution. Although at the ... experience bimodal rainfall pattern characterized by two .... evaluated based on the standards set by EUROCONSULT ... crop growth.

  9. FERLENT - a controlled release fertilizer produced from a polymer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Mayra; Arces, Milagros; Cuesta, Ernesto; Corredera, Pilar; Sardina, Carmen; Rieumont, Jacques; Quintana, Patricia; Bartolo, Pascual; Guenther, Bluma

    2011-01-01

    The possibility to use release controlled fertilizers in the agriculture of the tropical countries is more important than in the agriculture of the countries of the template regions. In this context, this work purpose the development of a new Fertilizer of Controlled Release named FERLENT, which was obtained starting from a polymeric material, under controlled conditions which allowed to corroborate the adjustment of the synthesis parameters under the modulate of nutrients liberation. It was characterized by, Scanning Microscopy Electron (SEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open ... Diagnosed with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation ...

  11. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ... with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for ...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_Main_Menu ... Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Patient Pocket Guides Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility ...

  13. Fertility among female hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmon, Anna; Rylander, Lars; Lillienberg, Linnea; Albin, Maria; Hagmar, Lars

    2006-02-01

    The study investigated whether working as a hairdresser has a negative impact on fertility, measured as time to pregnancy and miscarriage risk. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 5289 Swedish hairdressers (response rate 50%) and to 5299 age-matched women from the general Swedish population (response rate 54%). Information was collected on time to pregnancy or trying time for women who had tried, but failed, to conceive at the time of the study. The outcome of the pregnancy was determined and categorized as either miscarriage or stillbirth or live birth. The hairdressers were compared with the referents with respect to these two outcomes. Within the hairdresser cohort, the effects of hair treatments, as well as physical workload and stress were investigated. The hairdressers were less successful than the reference cohort in conceiving (fecundability ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.83-0.99). The effect was reduced after first-month conceptions were excluded, the indication being that the effect may be the result of birth control bias. Within the hairdresser cohort, a self-perceived stressful work situation seemed to prolong the time to pregnancy. No effects were found for the different chemical hair treatments. There was no cohort difference with respect to miscarriage risk (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.42), but miscarriage risks were increased for most of the hair treatments and for self-perceived stressful work situations. However, none of these effects were statistically significant. The present study indicates a negative impact on time to pregnancy and miscarriage risk for working as a hairdresser".

  14. Development of a 'wet' variant of electron beam gas treatment technology adapted to economic and technological conditions of developing countries to remove NOx, SO2 and particulates from flue gas and produce fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainchtein, O.L.; Piotrovskiy, V.V.; Savenkov, A.S.; Smirnov, I.K.; Salimov, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Institute Energostal with its co-authors has carried out real gas tests of the EB flue gas treatment technology at a 1000 m 3 /h experimental installation at Lipetsk Metallurgical Plant (Lipetsk, Russia), including agricultural tests to utilize the by-product. On the basis of the results obtained, a ''wet'' variant of the EB technology has been developed. A conceptual, basic and working design was engineered for a 100,000 m 3 /h EB demonstration unit at Slavyanskaya Power Plant (Donbass, Ukraine). In a ''wet'' variant of the technology, the following problems are believed to be harmoniously solved: reduction of power consumption for irradiation due to heterogenous reactions based on the so-called droplet mechanism, efficiency and reliability of collecting ammonia salts by wet dust catchers, wet granulation of the by-product using traditional equipment. A ''wet'' variant of the EB technology has a low capital cost and requires less floor area. Therefore, despite all its disadvantages typical for any wet method of gas purification, the ''wet'' EB technology can find its application in developing countries with low levels of economy. In many countries of this type, in particular, in the countries of the former Soviet Union, wet methods of gas treatment and fertilizer granulation are still widely used. As a matter of fact, it is a conventionally ''wet'' method (hence the inverted commas), since no waste water is discharged into the environment

  15. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; King Saud University, Riyadh

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to soil fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)

  16. Patriarchy and fertility in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lerch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related to the importance of patriarchy in kinship organisation and in the public sphere. To account for this spatial relationship we test the evidence for different pathways in patriarchal influence on reproductive decision-making including social effects, socialisation in patriarchal ideals, and the promotion of male fertility. METHODS We reconstruct reproductive histories from the 2001 Census and use data on attitudes and fertility intentions from the Reproductive and Health Survey 2002. Multilevel logistic regressions on marriage and (the intention of higher order births are used. RESULTS A majority of women endorsed patriarchal ideals and fertility transition was less advanced in more patriarchal municipalities. Patriarchal kinship organisation promoted early marriages and high fertility, which is shown to be achieved by social learning among peers and intergenerational social influences respectively, as well as by women's socialisation and a stopping behaviour in childbearing dominated by son-preference. Although gender inequality in the public sphere has also sustained the level of fertility and decreased the risk of marriage, it was not accounted for by these pathways of patriarchal influence. CONCLUSIONS Despite Albania's gradual opening to the world in a period of economic and political crisis, traditional social institutions remain important for family behaviours.

  17. The economics of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The statement that economics and fertility are closely interrelated is a truism. The classical economists--Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes appreciated this fact, and their reviews are recounted and their prescience is assessed. Adam Smith (1723-1790) was primarily concerned with the desire of humankind to better his/her material conditions. Although he did not put forward a specific population policy, the tenet of his writing is pronatalist. Economic advantages would accrue to parents by the production of many children. Yet, underneath Smith's optimism, there was an apocalyptic vision of the distant future, i.e., the "steady state" when resources would be depleted or near exhaustion, when capital accumulation would have ceased, and living standards would be dropping vertiginously. In his 1st "Essay on Population" Malthus maintained that "the power of population is infinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence of men." Malthus can be complimented on his prescience. There is little question that the planet of today is grossly overpopulated and that a great gulf exists between numbers of people and their aspirations and the resources which the earth can provide for them. Malthus was particularly concerned about the population food dilemma, and that is still much in evidence in 1982. 2 concomitants of overpopulation--excessive urbanization and joblessness--could not be foreseen by Malthus. Marx did not deny the basic tenet promulgated by Malthus but to him this was simply an artifact of capitalist society which required "enormous reserves of proletarians" in order to maintain its odius system. Officially Communist governments remain in a Marxist straitjacket regarding the population issue. Mills approach was strongly antinatalist; he saw little need for an increase in human numbers. Mills was concerned that because of unlimited population growth and wealth the earth would lose much of its

  18. Low Fertility Preservation Utilization Among Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Leena; Tishelman, Amy C; Caltabellotta, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2017-07-01

    Research demonstrates a negative psychosocial impact of infertility among otherwise healthy adults, and distress among adolescents facing the prospect of future infertility due to various medical conditions and treatments that impair reproductive health. Guidelines state that providers should counsel transgender youth about potential infertility and fertility preservation (FP) options prior to initiation of hormone therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the rates of fertility counseling and utilization of FP among a cohort of adolescents with gender dysphoria seen at a large gender clinic. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of electronic medical records was conducted of all patients with ICD-9/10 codes for gender dysphoria referred to Pediatric Endocrinology for hormone therapy (puberty suppression and/or cross-sex hormones) from January 2014 to August 2016. Seventy-eight patients met inclusion criteria. Five children were prepubertal, no hormone therapy was considered, and they were therefore excluded. Of the remaining 73 patients, 72 had documented fertility counseling prior to initiation of hormone therapy and 2 subjects attempted FP; 45% of subjects mentioned a desire or plan to adopt, and 21% said they had never wanted to have children. Utilization rates of FP are low among transgender adolescents. More research is needed to understand parenthood goals among transgender youth at different ages and developmental stages and to explore the impact of gender dysphoria on decision-making about FP and parenthood. Discussions about infertility risk, FP, and other family building options should be prioritized in this vulnerable adolescent population. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  20. Obesity: modern man's fertility nemesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2010-07-01

    The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related to obesity. Mechanisms for explaining the effect of obesity on male infertility include abnormal reproductive hormone levels, an increased release of adipose-derived hormones and adipokines associated with obesity, and other physical problems including sleep apnea and increased scrotal temperatures. Recently, genetic factors and markers for an obesity-related infertility have been discovered and may explain the difference between fertile obese and infertile obese men. Treatments are available for not only infertility related to obesity, but also as a treatment for the other comorbidities arising from obesity. Natural weight loss, as well as bariatric surgery are options for obese patients and have shown promising results in restoring fertility and normal hormonal profiles. Therapeutic interventions including aromatase inhibitors, exogenous testosterone replacement therapy and maintenance and regulation of adipose-derived hormones, particularly leptin, may also be able to restore fertility in obese males. Because of the relative unawareness and lack of research in this area, controlled studies should be undertaken and more focus should be given to obesity as an etiolgy of male infertility.

  1. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inorganic phosphorus fertilizer ameliorates maize growth by reducing metal uptake, improving soil enzyme activity and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wencheng; Wu, Jiahui; Liu, Xiaowen; Chen, Xianbin; Wu, Yingxin; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-09-01

    Recently, several studies have showed that both organic and inorganic fertilizers are effective in immobilizing heavy metals at low cost, in comparison to other remediation strategies for heavy metal-contaminated farmlands. A pot trial was conducted in this study to examine the effects of inorganic P fertilizer and organic fertilizer, in single application or in combination, on growth of maize, heavy metal availabilities, enzyme activities, and microbial community structure in metal-contaminated soils from an electronic waste recycling region. Results showed that biomass of maize shoot and root from the inorganic P fertilizer treatments were respectively 17.8 and 10.0 folds higher than the un-amended treatments (CK), while the biomass in the organic fertilizer treatments was only comparable to the CK. In addition, there were decreases of 85.0% in Cd, 74.3% in Pb, 66.3% in Cu, and 91.9% in Zn concentrations in the roots of maize grown in inorganic P fertilizer amended soil. Consistently, urease and catalase activities in the inorganic P fertilizer amended soil were 3.3 and 2.0 times higher than the CK, whereas no enhancement was observed in the organic fertilizer amended soil. Moreover, microbial community structure was improved by the application of inorganic P fertilizer, but not by organic fertilizer; the beneficial microbial groups such as Kaistobacter and Koribacter were most frequently detected in the inorganic P fertilizer amended soil. The negligible effect from the organic fertilizer might be ascribed to the decreased pH value in soils. The results suggest that the application of inorganic P fertilizer (or in combination with organic fertilizer) might be a promising strategy for the remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils in electronic waste recycling region. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Fertility effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Donald E; Hacker, Neville

    2003-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are a subfertile group, and most treatments have the potential to adversely affect gonadal function. As cancer treatment becomes more effective and survival rates improve there are more cancer survivors in the reproductive age group for whom parenting is an important consideration. This article outlines the effects on fertility of cancer treatments and techniques to minimise the risk of infertility. The overall prospects for younger cancer sufferers to either retain their fertility or have genetic offspring is now better than ever before, due to advances in assisted reproductive technology, the appropriate use of fertility sparing surgery and other techniques to reduce the toxicity of therapy on the reproductive organs. These advances raise new moral and ethical concerns that must be considered before advising cancer sufferers of the options for preserving reproductive capacity.

  4. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  5. Fertility prognosis for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a fertility prognosis model for infertile couples. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: In the period November 30, 1977 to June 1, 1985, 321 consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital. Investigation of the female...... MEASURE: The Cox regression model was used to predict the time required to conceive based on informations provided by fertility investigations. RESULTS: Three of 16 prognostic variables (the period of infertility, the female infertility factor, and the P-test) possess significant prognostic information...

  6. Soil Fertility Status on Organic Paddy Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine fertility status of the soil after organic paddy experiments using kinds and doses of organic fertilizers. Experiment was conducted at greenhouse laboratory in Faculty of Agriculture Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. Experimental design used completely randomized design with 9 kinds of treatment was replicated 3 times. Experiments were the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations that are based on fulfilling nutrient requirements of 120 kg N ha-1. Result shows that the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizers and Azolla inoculum had no effect on changes of soil fertility status. Soil fertility status was not significantly correlated with cow manure (0,16ns, Azolla fertilizer (0,26ns and Azolla inoculum (0,16ns. Average of final soil fertility status included fertile category, which was similar as the initial soil fertility status. Average of final soil properties of treatment but nevertheless was relatively higher than in no treatment, indicating the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations had greater impact to soil properties. Cow manure despite increased available K2O and dry grain, but it did not significantly increase the soil fertility status from fertile to very fertile. This was presumably due to the relatively short experiment period, only one planting season had not given significant effect to soil properties. Implication of this study is the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations although did not increase the soil fertility status but could maintain soil fertility status as the initial conditions before planting.

  7. Soil fertility and plant nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, R.G.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The applications of isotopic and related techniques, including autoradiography, radiation absorption, radiation scattering and activation analysis, in investigations on soil fertility and plant nutrition are discussed. The unique information that can be obtained with isotopes and radiation techniques is indicated. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are discussed in relation to other methods of obtaining similar information. (U.K.)

  8. Plant fertilization: maximizing reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2012-06-19

    Sperm competition does not occur in flowering plants as typically only a single pair of sperm cells is delivered for double fertilization. Two recent reports show that plants are capable of avoiding reproductive failure when defective sperm cells are released. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  11. Global fertility and population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow How does caregiving for your partner often affect romantic relationships? play_arrow What are the common treatments for ... play_arrow How does a spinal cord injury affect male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and ... Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map ...

  13. Fertility decline: transition or transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, J

    1981-01-01

    This essay argues on the basis of evidence from Northern Rwanda that economic theories of fertility which fail to take into account the value of children for reproducing a community's social relations are of limited value in traditional noncapitalist or peasant societies. Regarding the transition to low fertility as an adjustment of the population to available resources ignores the fact that many families in the developing world regard their children as absolute values, not values relative to other resources, and therefore the transition to lower fertility is a dramatic change rather than an adjustment. The Kiga of Rwanda have in the last 20 years or so become differentiated into a group of richer households with excess land and a labor shortage and poorer households with excess labor and a land shortage. In the face of severe material shortages, the poorer families continue to desire and have almost as many children as the richer. Among women aged 25-35, the poorer group had on average 5.5 children while the wealthier had 3.9 on average. Kiga families are embedded in larger social units which provide social insurance against misfortune, and having many children thus reconstitutes a social value which minimizes the impact of misfortune. High fertility appears to occur in social economies where there is no reasonable motivation for reducing family size; where high value is placed on the survival of the collectivity and on the reproduction of concrete social relations, the only rational behavior is to have many children.

  14. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping

  15. Fertilization of SRC willow. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  16. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation is important. These key points can help start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment may ... several resources listed on the reverse that can help you locate a fertility preservation specialist to discuss ...

  17. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation center closest to you Visit the Pediatric Oncofertility Research Foundation Visit the Patient Navigator Website ... Ginsberg JP. New advances in fertility preservation for pediatric cancer patients. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010;23:9- ...

  18. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation and the ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility ... specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be ...

  19. Determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    demographic and economic determinants whereas Bongaarts model was used to determine proximate determinants fertility. ... Organization defines the age group of 10-19 and 15-24 ..... In urban areas, 24% of marital fertility was prevented.

  20. Fertilizer and briquetting and carbonisation plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangachary, P T

    1984-11-14

    The fertilizer plant and the briquetting and carbonisation plant of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation's complex in Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India, and the processes used in each to produce fertilizers, smokeless fuels and tar products are described.

  1. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_ ... Northwestern University © 2015 Northwestern University Contact Northwestern ... Information University Policies Oncofertility Consortium ...

  2. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and ... Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents. Cancer ...

  3. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertil Steril. 2013; 100:1224-31. Chow EJ, et al. Pregnancy after chemotherapy in male and female ... Cancer . Urology. 2016;91:190-6. Loren AW, et al. Fertility preservation for patients with cancer: American ...

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future ... Can you refer us to a fertility preservation specialist to discuss my child’s options further? Fertility Preservation - ...

  5. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health. You may feel uncomfortable discussing issues of reproduction with your child. Ask Your Doctor Discussing fertility ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in patients facing gonadotoxic therapies: a committee opinion. ...

  6. URBANIZATION AND FERTILITY RATES IN ETHIOPIA1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Survey (2010) data suggest that Ethiopia not only has one of the largest fertility rates .... Asian countries where the rural-urban fertility differentials were smaller and more ...... Sibanda, A., Z. Woubalem, D. P. Hogan, and D. P. Lindstrom. 2003.

  7. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ...

  8. Fertility preservation after chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaaij, Marleen A. E.; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma can negatively affect fertility. This review summarizes data on fertility after chemotherapy in adult patients. Alkylating chemotherapy, especially if containing procarbazine and/or cyclophosphamide, is most harmful to gonadal functioning. Alkylating regimens cause

  9. ORGANIC FERTILIZER: THE UNDERESTIMATED COMPONENT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. Emphasis on increase agricultural productivity of small holder rural peasants from the perspective of soil ... a reward system for farmers and researchers who utilize inorganic fertilizers. .... Some are deregulation of seed and fertilizer.

  10. Psychological aspects of male fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Alice Toft; Madsen, Svend Aage Lykke; Humaidan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment.......To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment....

  11. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... JP, Kolon TF. Fertility Preservation in Children and Adolescents With Cancer . Urology. 2016;91:190-6. Loren ... 10. Nieman CL, et al. Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood ...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be fertility preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner ... there are options for preserving fertility in your child diagnosed with cancer. You may be focused on ...

  13. Graphene oxide. A fertile nanosheet for various applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro; Taniguchi, Takaaki; Ihara, Toshihiro; Kitamura, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Yasumichi

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is chemically exfoliated graphene with various oxygen functional groups bound to its sp 2 basal plane. GO is not only a precursor for graphene in large-scale production but provides a fertile platform for applications from electronics to biology owing to its outstanding characteristics. In this review, we introduce the preparation and reduction methods and discuss recent application examples on electrochemistry and biological sensors. (author)

  14. Cattle manure fertilization increases fig yield

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel,Sarita; Tecchio,Marco Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Fertilization using organic compounds is complementary to chemical fertilization, being essential to integrated fruit production. Reports on fig tree (Ficus carica L.) organic fertilization and mineral nutrition are worldwide scarce, especially in Brazil. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of cattle manure fertilization on the yield and productivity of the fig tree 'Roxo de Valinhos' in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, during the 2002/03, 2003/04, 2004/05 and 2005/06 crop cycles....

  15. Three Cell Fusions during Double Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunck, Stefanie; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-05-07

    Fertilization of both egg and central cell is a major distinguishing feature of flowering plants. Now, Maruyama et al. report a third cell fusion event between the persistent synergid and the fertilized central cell shortly after double fertilization in Arabidopsis. This causes rapid dilution of pollen tube attractant(s), preventing polytubey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  17. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_Main_Menu About SaveMyFertility Provider ... of a clinical study approved by an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility ...

  18. Europe the continent with the lowest fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, D. T.; Collins, J.; Evers, J. L. H.; Leridon, H.; Lutz, W.; Velde, E. Te; Thevenon, O.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Fraser, L.; Geraedts, J. P. M.; Gianaroli, L.; Glasier, A.; Sunde, A.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.; Veiga, A.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although fertility rates are falling in many countries, Europe is the continent with the lowest total fertility rate (TFR). This review assesses trends in fertility rates, explores possible health and social factors and reviews the impact of health and social interventions designed to

  19. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  20. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  1. Bio fertilizer Application in a Fertigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Latiffah Noordin; Hoe, P.C.K.

    2011-01-01

    Bio fertilizers contain live beneficial microorganisms that provide nutrients and other benefits to crops. At present, bio fertilizers can be found in solid and liquid forms. Liquid bio fertilizer can be one of the alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Liquid bio fertilizer is produced through culturing of microorganisms that are known to have specific capabilities in helping plant growth. However, application of bio fertilizers in the form of solution is more tedious than that of solid bio fertilizers, which can be applied directly to plants, whereas the liquid form requires several stages of preparation before it can be applied to crops. In Malaysian Nuclear Agency, a study on the distribution of liquid bio fertilizers to crops through the fertigation system has been conducted. In Malaysia, this study has not been conducted in depth, since the present fertigation system is associated to delivery of solubilised mineral fertilizers. This paper discusses the application of liquid bio fertilizers through a fertigation system. Discussions cover technical aspects of bio fertilizer preparation and its application via the said system. Tomato plant was used as test crop to determine the capability and efficiency of bio fertilizer application through the fertigation system. (author)

  2. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers ... Visit the Oncofertility Consortium Web site Use the online Clinic/Center Finder to find the fertility preservation ...

  3. Utilização de manequim para coleta de sêmen eqüino e sua influência sobre características reprodutivas do garanhão Use of a phantom for equine semen collection and its influence upon stallion reproductive characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Silva Filho

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se as características físicas do ejaculado e de comportamento do garanhão durante a coleta de sêmen, diante de uma égua em cio ou de um manequim. O manequim utilizado mostrou-se mais eficiente e seguro do que uma égua em cio, tanto para o garanhão quanto para o veterinário. Com o uso do manequim, apenas o tempo de reação do garanhão foi maior. Entretanto, o volume de sêmen, motilidade espermática, número de espermatozóides por ejaculado e espermatozóides móveis por ejaculado foram menores com o uso do manequim, embora a concentração espermática por ml fosse maior. A menor estimulação sexual do garanhão diante do manequim parece ser a causa das diferenças encontradas no comportamento e características seminais do garanhão.The objective of this trial was to compare stallion behavior during semen collection, and semen characteristics, using an estrous mare or a phantom to collect semen. The use of a phantom was more efficient and safer than the use of an estrous mare for the stallion as much as for the veterinarian. Using the phantom, only the sexual stimulation period of the stallion was longer. The semen volume, sperm motility, number of spermatozoa per ejaculate and spermatozoa motility per ejaculate were smaller using the phantom, but the sperm concentration was greater. The lower sexual stimulation of the stallion with the panthom seems to be the reason for the differences in its behavior and semen characteristics.

  4. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  5. Fertility transition: forecast for demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M; Nicotra, M; Gloria-Bottini, E

    2008-08-01

    By the end of the 20th century most industrialized nations had undergone the so-called fertility transition, characterized by a reduction in fertility to below replacement level and a delay in age at initiation of child-bearing. An emerging concern is the severe economic and social consequences of this demographic decline. We present an overview of fertility changes in Italy in the second half of the 20th century and a mathematical model that may provide projections for the future of the demographic situation. Starting in 1950 the increment of the number of children born in Italy is initially positive; however, beginning in 1965 the trend suddenly becomes negative, and this negative trend further increased in 1975. A slight improvement is observed in 1980, followed by a stable situation beginning in 1987. Relevant socioeconomic and cultural events in Italy coincide with these variations in the fertility trend. Malnutrition, which had been endemic for centuries in some areas of central and southern Italy, disappeared rather abruptly in early 1960. The improvement in the economic situation was also associated with a decrease in illiteracy and with many sociocultural changes, with the emergence of new demands that decreased propensity for childbearing. The additional deceleration observed in 1975 corresponds to the diffusion of contraceptive procedures. The progression of sociocultural changes has led to a progressive liberation of women from the biological burden of childbearing. Two phenomena seem relevant in this context: women's emerging interest in entering the workforce and the possibility to disconnect sex from childbearing. The social function of feminism has overwhelmed the primary function of survival and diffusion of the species, giving rise to relevant and worrying demographic effects. However, the modern woman has an unconscious memory of her primary biological role, depending on both her genetic structure and cultural heritage, that should bring about a

  6. Uptake of fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen by rice using 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.R.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Data from five field experiments using labelled nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine the relative effects of soil nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen on rice yield. Yield of grain was closely correlated with total aboveground nitrogen uptake (soil + fertilizer), less closely correlated with soil nitrogen uptake and not significantly correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake. When yield increase rather than yield was correlated with fertilizer nitrogen uptake, the correlation coefficient was statistically significant. (orig.)

  7. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin; Chekli, Laura; Shim, Wang-Geun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further

  8. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples where collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration, in ppm, were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)(tk)

  9. The Determinants of Low Fertility in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, A.; Rajan, Sowmya; Morgan, S. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework focusing on factors that enhance or reduce fertility relative to desired family size (see Bongaarts 2001), we study fertility variation across time (1992–2006) and space (states) in India. Our empirical analyses use data from three waves of the Indian National Family Health Surveys. We find that this framework can account for a substantial portion of the variation in the TFR across the states and over time. Our estimates focus attention on the critical components of contemporary Indian fertility, especially desired family size, unwanted fertility, son preference, and fertility postponement. PMID:24993746

  10. The Cost of Raising Fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurjanska, Malgorzata; Lyngsie, Jacob

    the extent to which maternity benefits may have positive externalities for employers, such as increased employee loyalty. Relying on population wide registry data, we carry out multiple group comparisons (e.g. by comparing women who gave birth with those who adopted children, women with children that require......In recent years, Europe has entered a crisis of fertility. One policy solution that countries can, and some have moved to adopt to deal with low fertility rates, is to increase labor benefits granted to new parents, with a particular focus on extending maternity, not paternity, leave. We explore...... more or less in-home care, etc.). We test the extent to which reduced occupational mobility for women with children is a result of an increased sense of loyalty that may accompany generous maternity leave benefits. We also analyze whether employee loyalty brought on by maternity benefits are influenced...

  11. [Chemotherapy and women fertility preservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Tristan; Piver, Pascal; Durand, Lise-Marie; Donadel, Lorène; Pech, Jean-Christophe; Roux, Christophe; Aubard, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Agressive chemotherapy can lead to premature ovarian failure and loss of fertility in women and children. Embryo cryopreservation is an established clinical procedure of fertility preservation but with several limitations. Others options are available. Cryopreservation ovarian cortex tissu have to be suggested in case of high gonadotoxic treatment. It doesn't require puberty and delay in initiation of chemotherapy. The first birth in France after orthotopic graft of ovarian tissu thawed have been recently described with a promising process. Oocyte cryopreservation is available for women without partner but the experience is limited. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy as ovarian protectants seem interesting. Follicular growth and maturation in vitro are still experimental. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotional Variation and Fertility Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Emotional influences on fertility behaviors are an understudied topic that may offer a clear explanation of why many couples choose to have children even when childbearing is not economically rational. With setting-specific measures of the husband-wife emotional bond appropriate for large-scale population research matched with data from a long-term panel study, we have the empirical tools to provide a test of the influence of emotional factors on contraceptive use to limit fertility. This article presents those tests. We use long-term, multilevel community and family panel data to demonstrate that the variance in levels of husband-wife emotional bond is significantly associated with their subsequent use of contraception to avert births. We discuss the wide-ranging implications of this intriguing new result.

  13. Habits, aspirations and endogenous fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences as well as on endogenous fertility, this paper investigates the implications of the interaction of the endogenous determination of the number of children with habit and aspiration formation in an OLG model. In contrast with the previous literature, we show that greater aspirations may lead to higher savings, and more interestingly, always increase the neoclassical economic growth.

  14. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  15. Radiation doses from phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer coverage of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words, a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  16. Natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, J.; Aurand, K.; Ruehle, H.; Schmier, H.; Wolter, R.

    1974-12-01

    The activity concentrations determined of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in nCi/kg P 2 O 5 for the five most important kinds of fertilizer as well as their percent share in the economy year 1973/74 in the FRG are compiled in a table. From these values, the consumption of 0.917 million tons P 2 O 5 and from an average annual fertilizer covering of 68.3 kg/ha, one can calculate a distribution of 32 Ci 226 Ra, 1 Ci 232 Th and 543 Ci 40 K over the total agriculturally used area, in other words a deposit of 2.4 μCi 226 Ra, 0.07 μCi 232 Th and 40.5 μCi 40 K per ha. Taking a pessimistic view, an external radiation exposure of 0.11 mrad/a was calculated for gonads and bone marrow. If the total accumulation of 226 Ra (38% of the radiation exposure) from phosphate fertilizers from the ground during the last 80 years is assumed, then there is an exposure of 1.7 mrad/a for individual members of the population and 2.0 mrad/a for those occupied in agriculture. (HP/LH) [de

  17. Diagnostic imaging in fertility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, A.C.; Fleischer, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some 10%-15% of married couples are affected by a fertility disorder. The number of infertile couples seeking medical assistance has increased dramatically in the past decade. The roles of diagnostic imaging with radiography and US (conventional and transvaginal) is emphasized in the assessment of couples with fertility disorders and an unexpectedly higher incidence of fetal wastage secondary to unsuspected uterine anomalies. The most frequently utilized radiographic examination in infertile patients is hysterosalpingography (HSG). Techniques and complications of HSG are illustrated. The normal anatomy, variants, and congenital anomalies of the uterus and fallopian tubes are demonstrated, as are the numerous abnormalities such as filling defects of the uterine cavity, synechiae, effects of maternal diethylstilbestrol exposure, inflammatory tubal disease, and the more common HSG findings following uterine and tubal surgery. The role of diagnostic imaging in male infertility, including vasography and varicocele detection, are addressed. Conventional and transvaginal US in the management of gynecologic fertility disorders are examined, with an emphasis on follicular monitoring, guided follicular aspirations, endometrial evaluations, and evaluation of other disorders (such as endometriosis) associated with infertility

  18. Educational differentials in cohort fertility during the fertility transition in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hyun Yoo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between women's education and fertility rates, few of these studies have examined the pattern of fertility differentials over the course of the fertility transition. As a country that has experienced a rapid decline in fertility and marked improvements in women's educational attainment over the last several decades, South Korea represents an ideal case for studying this dynamic association. Objective: The aim of the article is to explain the pattern of fertility differentials by level of education and the contribution of the changes in women's educational attainment to the fertility decline during the fertility transition in South Korea. Methods: Drawing upon data from the Korean censuses conducted between 1970 and 2010, I analyze completed cohort fertility for women born between 1926 and 1970 using demographic-decomposition techniques and cohort parity progression ratios by level of education. Results: The differences in fertility by educational attainment have gradually declined over the transition, with fertility almost converging at a low level among recent birth cohorts. Fertility in South Korea had been declining in all of the social groups until the sub-replacement fertility was reached. The change in women's educational attainment then became an important factor in the further decline in fertility. The trend toward fewer children quickly spread from the most educated to the least educated women throughout the fertility transition. Conclusions: The transformation of fertility behaviors across social strata has been a key element in the Korean fertility transition. Although educational expansion, particularly the introduction of mass education, has contributed to falling fertility in South Korea, the role of education in fertility decline is more pronounced in the diffusion of innovative ideas and behaviors, which reduced fertility differentials across

  19. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees.

  20. Are Nitrogen Fertilizers Deleterious to Soil Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay- Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil is one of the most important natural resources and medium for plant growth. Anthropogenic interventions such as tillage, irrigation, and fertilizer application can affect the health of the soil. Use of fertilizer nitrogen (N for crop production influences soil health primarily through changes in organic matter content, microbial life, and acidity in the soil. Soil organic matter (SOM constitutes the storehouse of soil N. Studies with 15N-labelled fertilizers show that in a cropping season, plants take more N from the soil than from the fertilizer. A large number of long-term field experiments prove that optimum fertilizer N application to crops neither resulted in loss of organic matter nor adversely affected microbial activity in the soil. Fertilizer N, when applied at or below the level at which maximum yields are achieved, resulted in the build-up of SOM and microbial biomass by promoting plant growth and increasing the amount of litter and root biomass added to soil. Only when fertilizer N was applied at rates more than the optimum, increased residual inorganic N accelerated the loss of SOM through its mineralization. Soil microbial life was also adversely affected at very high fertilizers rates. Optimum fertilizer use on agricultural crops reduces soil erosion but repeated application of high fertilizer N doses may lead to soil acidity, a negative soil health trait. Site-specific management strategies based on principles of synchronization of N demand by crops with N supply from all sources including soil and fertilizer could ensure high yields, along with maintenance of soil health. Balanced application of different nutrients and integrated nutrient management based on organic manures and mineral fertilizers also contributed to soil health maintenance and improvement. Thus, fertilizer N, when applied as per the need of the field crops in a balanced proportion with other nutrients and along with organic manures, if available with the

  1. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together on N and P absorption and soil fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kuibo; Yu Meiyan; Shen Xiuzhen; Wang Tongyan; Chen Xueliu; Wang Zhifen

    1994-01-01

    15 N trace experiments show that organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together promotes organic N mineralization and absorption. Base fertilizer is mainly for nutrition organs and spring fertilizer for reproduction organs. Organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together obtained the highest production efficiency of total N. Total P amount in wheat plant is slightly higher than that of inorganic N applied only, but P distribution in nutrition organs was slightly lower than that of inorganic N applied only. Organic and inorganic fertilizer applied together, not only promoted the production but also increased fertility of soil, so it is an important measure for wheat to obtain high production continuously

  2. Couples' fertility decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The decision about whether to start a family within a partnership can be viewed as a result of an interaction process. The influence of each of the partners in a couple differs depending on their individual preferences and intentions towards having children. Both of the partners additionally influence each other's fertility intentions and preferences. Objective: We specify, estimate, and test a model that examines the decision about whether to have a child as a choice that is made jointly by the two partners. The transition to the birth of a (further child is investigated with the explicit consideration of both the female partner and the male partner in the partnership context. Methods: An approach for modelling the interactive influences of the two actors in the decision-making process was proposed. A trivariate distribution consisting of both the female and the male partners' fertility intentions, as well as the joint generative decision, was modelled. A multivariate non-linear probit model was chosen and the problem of identification in estimating the relative effects of the actors was resolved. These parameters were used to assess the relative importance of each of the partners' intentions in the decision. We carried out the analysis with MPLUS. Data from the panel of intimate relationships and family dynamics (pairfam was used to estimate the model. Results: The biographical context of each of the partners in relation to their own as well as to their partner's fertility intentions was found to be of considerable importance. Of the significant individual and partner effects, the male partner was shown to have the greater influence. But the female partner was found to have stronger parameters overall and she ultimately has a veto power in the couple's final decision.

  3. Kerala reaps low fertility dividends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Unlike much of India, the state of Kerala has promoted the development of human resources, resulting in lower fertility rates. If current UN projections are correct, India will overtake China as the most populous nation in the world by 2025. Within India, however, great differences exist in fertility rates, reflecting the level of commitment from state governments. In India, state governments control much of the policy and spending on health, education, etc. While the state of Kerala has been among the most committed to human resource development in the developing world, India's 5 northern states (Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Orissa) have been among the least committed. As a result, Kerala's fertility rate has fallen to 2.3 children/women--a rate lower than that of Thailand, China, the formers USSR, or Ireland. Kerala has a contraceptive prevalence rate 3 times the national average and the lowest infant mortality rate in all of India--only 26/1000 live births (infant mortality is 4-5 times higher in the 5 northern states). Only 27% of Kerala's population lives in poverty, compared to 34-49.5% in the northern states. Real incomes and industrialization have been growing faster in Kerala. And industrialization does not appear to have come at the expense of the environment. 2 factors are responsible for Kerala' accomplishments: 1) State government support of human development--the state has invested in health, education, and has conducted a land reform benefiting 3 million landless peasants. 2) The status of women--in Kerala, women are viewed as an asset, not a liability (as in the north). Kerala's female literacy is 66%, compared to 11-21% in the northern states. Kerala also enjoys the highest level of female labor force participation (35%) anywhere in India.

  4. Nanocomposites for controlled release of nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Viviane J.M. da; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V.

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at the development of nano structured materials capable of reducing the rate of release of nitrogen in the soil from an agricultural nitrogen fertilizer. Four different systems of polymer composites were prepared: (1) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, (2) montmorillonite clay/thermoplastic starch and fertilizer, (3) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and also (4) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone. It was confirmed the formation of nano structured materials by elemental analysis (CHN) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetics of nitrogen release was detected by enzymatic colorimetric analysis and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet/visible. The results showed that all materials evaluated were able to reduce the rate of release of nitrogen in the fertilizers. (author)

  5. Pensions with Heterogenous Individuals and Endogenous Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Gahvari, Firouz; Pestieau, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the design of pension schemes in a society where fertility is endogenous and parents differ in their ability to raise children. In a world with perfect information, a pay-as-you-go social security system is characterized by equal pensions for all but different contributions which may or may not increase with the number of children. Additionally, fertility must be subsidized at the margin to correct for the externality that accompanies fertility. In a world of asymmetric inf...

  6. The need to improve fertility awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Harper

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Women and men globally are delaying the birth of their first child. In the UK, the average age of first conception in women is 29 years. Women experience age-related fertility decline so it is important that men and women are well-informed about this, and other aspects of fertility. A group of UK stakeholders have established the Fertility Education Initiative to develop tools and information for children, adults, teachers, parents and healthcare professionals dedicated to improving knowledge of fertility and reproductive health.

  7. The intimate genetics of Drosophila fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppin, Benjamin; Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Horard, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    The union of haploid gametes at fertilization initiates the formation of the diploid zygote in sexually reproducing animals. This founding event of embryogenesis includes several fascinating cellular and nuclear processes, such as sperm–egg cellular interactions, sperm chromatin remodelling, centrosome formation or pronuclear migration. In comparison with other aspects of development, the exploration of animal fertilization at the functional level has remained so far relatively limited, even in classical model organisms. Here, we have reviewed our current knowledge of fertilization in Drosophila melanogaster, with a special emphasis on the genes involved in the complex transformation of the fertilizing sperm nucleus into a replicated set of paternal chromosomes. PMID:26246493

  8. Regulation of fertilization and early seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doughty, James

    2014-04-01

    Plant reproduction meetings often deal either with pre-fertilization processes such as flowering and pollen biology or post-fertilization processes such as embryogenesis and seed development. The Biochemical Society Focused Meeting entitled 'Regulation of Fertilization and Early Seed Development' was organized to close this gap and to discuss mechanistic similarities and future research directions in the reproductive processes shortly before, during and after fertilization. As an outcome of the workshop, invited speakers and a few selected oral communication presenters contributed focused reviews and technical articles for this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions. We provide here a short overview of the contents and highlights of the various articles.

  9. Fertility behaviour of recent immigrants to Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The fertility practices of immigrants are a particularly interesting field of study for demographers, providing an insight into the fertility behaviour of individuals when both the society and the individual undergo a period of rapid change. This paper describes and compares the fertility behaviour of two large groups of immigrants, from the former Soviet Union (FSU and from Ethiopia to Israel in the last 20 years. The changes in fertility behaviour undergone in the same society and at the same time by two very different groups are examined. The findings reveal that the fertility behaviour of immigrants is indeed changing. The fertility of FSU immigrants is increasing and that of the Ethiopian immigrants decreasing, with accompanying changes in the proximate determinants of fertility. Although the fertility of immigrants is becoming more similar to that of the receiving society, the methods employed to achieve the fertility change are not necessarily similar, and, in some cases, diverge from the norms of the receiving society.

  10. Tunisia: high fertility stalls development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, M

    1985-01-01

    Despite government policy enacted in 1964 to reduce fertility in order to hasten socioeconomic progress, population pressures continue to impair development in Tunisia. The birth rate fell 20% over the last 2 decades, but this accomplishment has been outweighed by a 50% decline in mortality rates. As a result, the rate of natural population increase has remained relatively constant at 2.5%/year. The initial decline in fertility that followed introduction of the national family planning program appears to have reached a plateau, explained in part by the resurgence of conservatism and religious fundamentalism and the consequent emphasis on women's childbearing roles. Unemployment in rural areas has led to widespread migration and unemployment is as high as 20% in the nonagricultural sector. Many young Tunisians lack adequate educational preparation to enter the labor force; in 1982, 27% of new job entrants could not read or write. The government's plan to decentralize development to stabilize population and achieve equilibrium between regions has been thwarted by the pace of population growth and limited resources. The rural regions where population is increasing the fastest are also the most difficult to reach with family planning programs. On the other hand, there have been some successes in this area when services have been adapted to the lifestyle and traditions of those in these isolated rural villages.

  11. Advanced reproductive age and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kimberly; Case, Allison

    2011-11-01

    To improve awareness of the natural age-related decline in female and male fertility with respect to natural fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and provide recommendations for their management, and to review investigations in the assessment of ovarian aging. This guideline reviews options for the assessment of ovarian reserve and fertility treatments using ART with women of advanced reproductive age presenting with infertility. The outcomes measured are the predictive value of ovarian reserve testing and pregnancy rates with natural and assisted fertility. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in June 2010, using appropriate key words (ovarian aging, ovarian reserve, advanced maternal age, advanced paternal age, ART). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated into the guideline to December 2010. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table). Primary and specialist health care providers and women will be better informed about ovarian aging and the age-related decline in natural fertility and about options for assisted reproductive technology. 1. Women in their 20s and 30s should be counselled about the age-related risk of infertility when other reproductive health issues, such as sexual health or contraception, are addressed as part of their primary well-woman care. Reproductive-age women should be aware that natural fertility and assisted reproductive technology success (except with egg donation) is significantly lower for women in their late 30s and 40s. (II-2A) 2. Because of the decline in fertility and the

  12. Study on the placement of phosphorus fertilizer to improve fertilizer utilization by lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, W.H.; Riswantoro; Mardjo, M.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment for studying the placement of phosphorus fertilizer was carried out in the glass house by using 32 P-labelled superphosphate. The specific activity of the labelled fertilizer used was 0,25 mCi/g P 2 O 5 . Three placement methods were studied: (1) Hill placement: Fertilizer was burried at a distance of 5cm from the plants at the depth of 5 cm, (2) Surface placement: Fertilizer was spread on the surface, and (3) Soil mixed application: Fertilizer was mixed with the soil at the depth of 5 cm. Superphosphate was applied at the rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg P 25 /ha. Results obtained from the experiment showed that the dry matter production was significantly affected by the methods of placement of phosphorus fertilizer. Soil mixed placement gave the lowest yield of dry plant material. It differed significantly from the two other methods of placement. However, there was no significant difference between hill and surface placement. The placement of phosphorus fertilizer significantly affected the total uptake of phosphorus nutrient, uptake fertilizer phosphorus, and the percentage of fertilizer utilization. Surface placement gave the highest utilization of fertilizer when supplied at rates higher than 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha. At low rate applications, hill placement was the best, but, at rates higher than 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha the percentage of fertilizer utilization decreased. Soil mixed application was the least efficient fertilizer utilization. (author)

  13. Proteome profiling of exosomes derived from plasma of heifers with divergent genetic merit for fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yong Qin; Peiris, Hassendrini N; Vaswani, Kanchan; Almughlliq, Fatema B; Meier, Susanne; Burke, Chris R; Roche, John R; Reed, Charlotte B; Arachchige, Buddhika J; Reed, Sarah; Mitchell, Murray D

    2018-04-25

    The current study evaluated exosomes isolated from plasma of heifers bred to have high or low fertility through developing extreme diversity in fertility breeding values, however, key animal traits (e.g., body weight, milk production, and percentage of North American genetics) remained similar between the 2 groups. The exosomes were isolated by a combined ultracentrifugation and size exclusion chromatography approach and characterized by their size distribution (nanoparticle tracking analysis), morphology (transmission electron microscopy), and presence of exosomal markers (immunoblotting). In addition, a targeted mass spectrometry approach was used to confirm the presence of 2 exosomal markers, tumor susceptibility gene 101 and flotillin 1. The number of exosomes from plasma of high fertility heifers was greater compared with low fertility heifers. Interestingly, the exosomal proteomic profile, evaluated using mass spectrometry, identified 89 and 116 proteins in the high and low fertility heifers respectively, of which 4 and 31 were unique, respectively. These include proteins associated with specific biological processes and molecular functions of fertility. Most notably, the tetratricopeptide repeat protein 41-related, glycodelin, and kelch-like protein 8 were identified in plasma exosomes unique to the low fertility heifers. These proteins are suggested to play a role in reproduction; however, the role of these proteins in dairy cow reproduction remains to be elucidated. Their identification underscores the potential for proteins within exosomes to provide information on the fertility status and physiological condition of the cow. This may potentially lead to the development of prognostic tools and interventions to improving dairy cow fertility. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration genes for WAtype cytoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen staining test with 1% I2KI solution showed segregation ratio of 15:1 (fertile: sterile), representing two nuclear independent dominant genes controlling the trait carried by fertile parent DN-33-18. Segregation for spikelet fertility in F2 confirmed the results of pollen fertility test. Molecular tagging of fertility restorer genes ...

  15. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Transaksi Elektronik Ritel Pupuk Dengan Metode Electronic Data Interchange (EDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Oktavia Adiwijaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer distribution from distributor to agents, are required to be responsive in addressing the demand for fertilizers. Distributors are also required to be able to manage inventory in the warehouse, to avoid overstocking of fertilizer. Design and implementation of a fertilizer retail electronic commerce applications using electronic data interchange (EDI method is applied in this study. The system is built to help distributors to control the existence of the stock of fertilizer so no excess stock. In addition, the use of EDI can provide information quickly (real-time without having to go directly to the warehouse locations.

  16. Slow-release NPK fertilizer encapsulated by carboxymethyl cellulose-based nanocomposite with the function of water retention in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olad, Ali; Zebhi, Hamid; Salari, Dariush; Mirmohseni, Abdolreza; Reyhani Tabar, Adel

    2018-09-01

    In this study, new slow release fertilizer encapsulated by superabsorbent nanocomposite was prepared by in-situ graft polymerization of sulfonated-carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) with acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), silica nanoparticles and nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) (NPK) fertilizer compound. The prepared materials were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The incorporation of NPK fertilizer into hydrogel nanocomposite network was verified by results of these analyses. Also, the swelling behavior in various pH and saline solutions as well as water retention capability of the prepared hydrogel nanocomposite was evaluated. The fertilizer release behavior of the NPK loaded hydrogel nanocomposite was in good agreement with the standard of Committee of European Normalization (CEN), indicating its excellent slow release property. These good characteristics revealed that the hydrogel nanocomposite fertilizer formulation can be practically used in agricultural and horticultural applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fertility preservation in young cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Revel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of advances in treatment, almost 80% of children and adolescents who receive a diagnosis of cancer become long-term survivors. The increased survival rate of children and adolescents with cancer has resulted in a major interest in the long-term effects of cancer treatment on the possibility for future fertility. Currently established methods for the preservation of fertility are available only for pubertal males and females. Pubertal male cancer patients should be encouraged to freeze numerous sperm samples even when sperm count and motility are poor. In these cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a powerful technique compared with intrauterine insemination since thawed sperm samples with poor parameters can produce relatively high fertilization rates resulting in normal pregnancies and deliveries. Married pubertal women should be proposed ovulation induction, follicular aspiration, and fertilization with husband sperm. Single women could benefit from vitrification of oocytes. This requires a delay of about 3 weeks in the commencement of chemotherapy to enable follicular growth. Fertility preservation for prepubertal patients is more of a problem. Young girls could be offered cryopreservation of gametes in the gonadal tissue. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue was suggested for fertility preservation for young boys, but this method is totally experimental and not currently offered. Discussing future fertility is part of the consultation of young female and male patients facing potentially gonadotoxic cancer therapy. It is the role of reproductive specialists to create various options in their laboratory to preserve fertility potential of cancer patients.

  18. Soil fertility decline: definitions and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    In permanent agricultural systems, soil fertility is maintained through applications of manure, other organic materials, inorganic fertilizers, lime, the inclusion of legumes in the cropping systems, or a combination of these. In many parts of the world the availability, use, and profitability of

  19. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women's educational attainment. The results show remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries and very small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64 cohort than in the 1950-54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education. An interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Country differences in fertility outcome are generally rather low. Childlessness is highest in Finland and lowest in Norway, and the educational differentials are largest in Norway. Despite such differences, the cohort analyses in many ways support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime.

  20. Fertilizer and Lime: Why They Are Used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Judith Strand

    This unit teaching guide is designed to help teachers explain the principles of fertilizer and lime use. The first of four major sections is a teaching outline keyed to transparency masters and student handouts. Thirteen major areas are covered in the teaching outline: (1) plant needs; (2) uses of fertilizer; (3) nutrients for plant growth; (4)…

  1. Education Differences in Intended and Unintended Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; England, Paula; Edgington, Sarah; Kangas, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Using a hazards framework and panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2004), we analyze the fertility patterns of a recent cohort of white and black women in the United States. We examine how completed fertility varies by women's education, differentiating between intended and unintended births. We find that the education…

  2. [Assisted fertilization: meditations on the new legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, E; Manzur, A

    1997-02-01

    We review philosophical and controversial aspects of assisted fertilization. This exercise is necessary considering the discussion of a bill in the Parliament that intends to regulate these technologies in our Country. We review the definition of life beginning and the cost-benefit problem of adoption as an alternative to assisted fertilization.

  3. Fertility and money in an OLG model

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    We extend the two-period-lived-agent overlapping generations model with endogenous fertility and demand for money to understand whether and how the introduction of a money sector modifies what we have so far learned about fertility behaviours. It is shown that the existence of money may tend to exacerbate existing problems of either under-population or over-population.

  4. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Suhag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.

  5. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in patients facing gonadotoxic therapies: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2013; 100:1224-31. Chow EJ, et al. Pregnancy after chemotherapy in male and female survivors of ...

  6. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for ... for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer ...

  7. A physical theory on placement of fertilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1953-01-01

    A theory was developed enabling calculation of the effect of any placement method of fertilizer on yield if the effect of one method is known.

    This theory was based on the following established facts. The reactions between soil and fertilizer rate are the same for broadcasting and placement

  8. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Healthy couples recruited throughout Denmark....... PATIENT(S): Two hundred ninety-five couples who were planning their first pregnancy were followed up from the discontinuation of birth control until a pregnancy was recognized within six menstrual cycles. Early embryonal losses were detected by changes in urinary hCG levels. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The probability of pregnancy occurring within one menstrual cycle (fecundity). RESULT(S): In women who had a cycle length that differed by >10 days from the usual cycle length, fecundity was approximately 25% that of women who had no variation (odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval...

  9. Wealth, intelligence, politics and global fertility differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2009-07-01

    Demographic trends in today's world are dominated by large fertility differentials between nations, with 'less developed' nations having higher fertility than the more advanced nations. The present study investigates whether these fertility differences are related primarily to indicators of economic development, the intellectual level of the population, or political modernity in the form of liberal democracy. Results obtained with multiple regression, path models and latent variable models are compared. Both log-transformed GDP and measures of intelligence independently reduce fertility across all methods, whereas the effects of liberal democracy are weak and inconsistent. At present rates of fertility and mortality and in the absence of changes within countries, the average IQ of the young world population would decline by 1.34 points per decade and the average per capita income would decline by 0.79% per year.

  10. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  11. Fertility drugs and cancer: a guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Methodological limitations in studying the association between the use of fertility drugs and cancer include the inherent increased risk of cancer in women who never conceive, the low incidence of most of these cancers, and that the age of diagnosis of cancer typically is many years after fertility drug use. Based on available data, there does not appear to be a meaningful increased risk of invasive ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or endometrial cancer following the use of fertility drugs. Several studies have shown a small increased risk of borderline ovarian tumors; however, there is insufficient consistent evidence that a particular fertility drug increases the risk of borderline ovarian tumors, and any absolute risk is small. Given the available literature, patients should be counseled that infertile women may be at an increased risk of invasive ovarian, endometrial, and breast cancer; however, use of fertility drugs does not appear to increase this risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H

    2009-01-01

    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors.......Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both...

  13. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  14. On the fertility transition in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis

    A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent with the predicti......A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent...... with the predictions of the unified growth theory and sheds important insights in explaining the sustained income growth Africa has experienced since 1995. The paper also shows that the effects of income per capita and child mortality on fertility rates are non-robust and inconsistent with the predictions...

  15. Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth and Leaf Yield of Kale ... Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... fertilizer gave leaf yields comparable to those applied with exclusively inorganic sources of fertilizer.

  16. Young female cancer patients' experiences with fertility counselling and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeg, Didde; Schmidt, Lone; Tryde Macklon, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    were aware that chemotherapy could destroy their eggs. The participants described how specialized fertility counselling and fertility preservation contributed to a belief in life after cancer, which gave them hope that they would survive their cancer disease. Further, the women described how......Introduction: Fertility counselling for young women newly diagnosed with cancer is an important field of preconceptional counselling. This qualitative, small-scale study explored how young women newly diagnosed with cancer experienced specialized fertility preservation counselling and treatment...... in the public Danish health care system. Methods: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with five women below 40 years recently diagnosed with cancer. All women received fertility counselling by a fertility specialist at the Fertility Clinic, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark before...

  17. Societal foundations for explaining fertility: Gender equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McDonald

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gender equity theory in relation to fertility argues that very low fertility is the result of incoherence in the levels of gender equity in individually-oriented social institutions and family-oriented social institutions. The salience of gender to the fertility transition is strong in theory but not as strong in specification of testable hypotheses as has been pointed out in the literature. OBJECTIVE The paper aims to clarify the specification of gender equity theory through a discussion of the difference between equity and equality and to suggest methods that might be applied to test the theory. METHODS The theory is restated and further developed using literature from different disciplines. The method is described using a decomposition of fertility for women by human capital levels. RESULTS The clarification of the theory includes a reminder that the theory relates to differences in fertility between countries and not to differences in fertility between women in the same country. In comparisons between countries, higher gender equity leads to higher fertility. In comparisons of fertility across women in the same country, higher gender equity does not necessarily imply higher fertility. In relation to measurement, a specification is suggested that effectively compares women across countries controlling for their level of human capital. Simple graphics are used to indicate ways in which fertility between countries may vary. CONCLUSIONS The paper concludes that it is likely the gender equity theory can be tested more readily by examining the behaviour across countries of women with higher levels of human capital.

  18. Estimation of natural radioactivity in different fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.; Sonkawade, R.G.; Kant, K.

    2011-01-01

    Fertilizers have become essential to the agricultural field all over the world. The natural radionuclides of fertilizers consist mainly of 226 Ra, 232 Th, isotopes with their decay products. The level of activity concentration of radionuclides in phosphate fertilizers provides useful information in the monitoring of environmental contamination. The concepts of natural radiation are essential for radiation protection purpose. Radionuclides present in fertilizers affect the common people and farmers immensely. They are produced and used worldwide in increasing quantities to replenish natural nutrients depleted from soils because of forming and erosion. However, the mining, processing and use of fertilizer materials in massive quantities redistribute radioactive trace elements throughout the environment, principally uranium, radium, radium decay products. The agricultural phosphate fertilizer industries use raw materials that consist of phosphate rocks, phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphate. The level of activity concentration of radionuclides in different fertilizers provides useful information in the monitoring of environmental contamination. Radiological impacts of phosphate rocks mining and manufacture could be significant due to the elevated radioactivity contents of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K, in some phosphate deposits. The concepts of natural radiation are essential for radiation protection purpose. This paper emphasis on the public risk assessment in an integrated manner assessing doses to members of the public via the atmospheric aquatic and secondary pathways. In the present study radioactivity in different fertilizer samples, which are widely used in Indian fields, was determined. The experimental work includes the measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using gamma spectrometry and radon concentration and exhalation rates measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors to asses a

  19. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the process through which the family planning (FP) programs and socioeconomic developments in China affect fertility, women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands are examined as an intermediate factor in a study based on results of a random survey of 6654 ever-married women of reproductive age from 7 cities and 30 counties of Guangdong. First, it must be noted that Chinese couples do have individual choices (albeit quite limited ones) about their fertility; they can choose to follow or ignore government policy or they can choose to remain childless. The present study has 3 major hypotheses: 1) the more a woman is involved in fertility discussions with her husband, the fewer children she will have; 2) urban women with a higher educational status will be more likely to have such discussions; and 3) women who are contacted individually by FP personnel are more likely to be involved in fertility discussions. After a discussion of data collection and variables (number of living children, education of wife and husband, age at marriage, residence, living with parents, contacted by FP personnel, and discussion with husband), the results are presented in terms of zero-order correlation coefficients indicating their relationships. The bivariate analysis supported the hypotheses. Multiple regression analysis showed that age at marriage, education of wives and husbands, FP contacts, and participation in discussions remain significant fertility determinants (but the correlation between fertility and residence becomes trivial). A further regression model indicated that a woman's educational attainment is the most significant positive indication of their participation in fertility discussions. These results imply that as women's status continues to improve in China and the deeply-rooted patriarchal tradition loses hold, increased gender equity and education will influence a fertility decline. FP personnel could also

  20. The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyborova, Oxana

    2010-05-01

    The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves

  1. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J C; Koert, E

    2015-02-01

    How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these findings. Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term efficacy of online educational approaches to increase fertility knowledge and support informed family planning decisions. Web

  2. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  3. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  4. Intergenerational fertility correlations in contemporary developing counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the magnitude of intergenerational continuities in total and effective fertility among women in a group of 46 contemporary developing countries. Information collected from 93,000 women aged 45-49 for estimation of maternal mortality in the demographic and health surveys (DHS) program is analyzed using Pearson product moment intergenerational fertility correlations. A positive but usually small intergenerational correlation is found for both completed fertility (CFS, total number of children born) and effective fertility (EFS, number of children surviving to age of reproduction). Although the developing countries are mainly located in sub-Saharan Africa, a similar pattern appears to hold for the Asian and Latin American countries included. Women in the second generation with no education have a stronger relationship with their parents' fertility than women with some education. The relationship is also stronger in rural than in urban areas and in countries with lower levels of development. Intergenerational correlations of completed fertility in both generations are marginally stronger than for effective fertility largely because the number of a woman's total sibs is more strongly related to her subsequent childbearing than her number of adult sibs. Values of intergenerational correlations for these countries are similar to published values for a number of Western pretransitional populations, but well below values in contemporary developed societies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of long-term fertilization on humic redox mediators in multiple microbial redox reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Zhang, Chunfang; Wang, Yi; Yu, Xinwei; Zhang, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongdong

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of different long-term fertilizations on humic substances (HSs), humic acids (HAs) and humins, functioning as redox mediators for various microbial redox biotransformations, including 2,2',4,4',5,5'- hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153 ) dechlorination, dissimilatory iron reduction, and nitrate reduction, and their electron-mediating natures. The redox activity of HSs for various microbial redox metabolisms was substantially enhanced by long-term application of organic fertilizer (pig manure). As a redox mediator, only humin extracted from soils with organic fertilizer amendment (OF-HM) maintained microbial PCB 153 dechlorination activity (1.03 μM PCB 153 removal), and corresponding HA (OF-HA) most effectively enhanced iron reduction and nitrate reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens. Electrochemical analysis confirmed the enhancement of their electron transfer capacity and redox properties. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that C=C and C=O bonds, and carboxylic or phenolic groups in HSs might be the redox functional groups affected by fertilization. This research enhances our understanding of the influence of anthropogenic fertility on the biogeochemical cycling of elements and in situ remediation ability in agroecosystems through microorganisms' metabolisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diverging patterns of fertility decline in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathías Nathan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The total fertility rate (TFR in Uruguay fell from 2.5 to 1.9 children per woman between 1996 and 2011. However, no study to date has examined the decline of the TFR by observing changes in fertility patterns by birth order. Objective: The main aim of this study is to analyze recent changes in fertility level and timing of childbearing by birth order in Uruguay. Methods: We estimate unconditional and conditional age- and birth-order-specific fertility rates for 1996-2011 using data from vital statistics, population census, and national population estimates. Additionally, three period summary measures of birth-order-specific fertility quantum are calculated: TFR, PATFR and TFRp*. Timing changes by birth order are examined with MAB and TMAB, focusing on MAB1 and its standard deviation and comparing their evolutions in Uruguay with those of selected countries. Results: Fertility decline fits a parity-specific stopping model with a moderate increase in the mean ages of first, second, and third births. The distribution of conditional fertility rates for first and second births depicts an asymmetric bimodal shape linked to the increasing heterogeneity of the timing of childbearing. Compared to countries with similar fertility trends, heterogeneity in the age at first birth in Uruguay is remarkably high. Conclusions: Previous studies suggest that heterogeneity in first and second birth timing is related to structural social inequalities, as women from lower social strata have not significantly changed the age at which they bear a first child, whereas women of middle to high social strata have started to postpone it. The new evidence reinforces the idea that postponement transition in Uruguay cannot be studied without considering this consolidation of social status polarization in fertility timing.

  7. Cohort fertility decline in low fertility countries: Decomposition using parity progression ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystof Zeman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The long-term decline in cohort fertility in highly developed countries has been widely documented. However, no systematic analysis has investigated which parity contributed most to the fertility decline to low and very low levels. Objective: We examine how the contribution of changing parity progression ratios varied across cohorts, countries, and broader regions in Europe, North America, Australia, and East Asia. We pay special attention to countries that reached very low completed cohort fertility, below 1.75 children per woman. Methods: Using population censuses and large-scale surveys for 32 low fertility countries, we decompose the change in completed cohort fertility among women born between 1940 and 1970. The decomposition method takes into account the sequential nature of childbearing as a chain of transitions from lower to higher parities. Results: Among women born between 1940 and 1955, the fertility decline was mostly driven by reductions in the progression ratios to third and higher-order births. By contrast, among women born between 1955 and 1970, changes in fertility showed distinct regional patterns: in Central and Eastern Europe they were fuelled by falling second-birth rates, whereas in the German-speaking countries, Southern Europe, and East Asia decreases in first-birth rates played the major role. Conclusions: Pathways to low and very low fertility show distinct geographical patterns, which reflect the diversity of the cultural, socioeconomic, and institutional settings of low fertility countries. Contribution: Our study highlights the importance of analysing parity-specific components of fertility in order to understand fertility change and variation. We demonstrate that similar low levels of completed cohort fertility can result from different combinations of parity-specific fertility rates.

  8. Fertility after uterine artery embolization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLucas, Bruce; Voorhees, William D; Elliott, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) research has largely been focused on women over 40 years, yet women of reproductive age undergo UAE without any increased morbidity. Some physicians refrain from recommending UAE to women in this age group because of some research findings showing a negative effect on fertility. This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the fertility potential of women undergoing UAE, in terms of pregnancy rates and complications as well as ovarian function and reserve. Findings indicate many benefits for women desiring fertility who undergo UAE over traditional myomectomy.

  9. Fate of nitrogenous fertilizers in forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, P.C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The fate of the nitrogenous fertilizers through the processes of denitrification, ammonia volatilization, immobilization and uptake by a conifer is determined, with the aid of 15 N-labelled fertizers. The foliage of Douglas-fir was able to absorb gaseous ammonia under optimal conditions. Denitrification and immobilization of fertilizer-N by forest soil were highest with forest floor samples and decreased with depth. Laboratory studies with four-year-old Douglas-fir demostrated that a higher quantity of fertilizer-N was utilized by trees when the nitrogen was supplied as NO 3 - rather than NH 4 + . (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Global radiological impact of the phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rudnei Karam; Alves, Rex Nazare

    1996-01-01

    About ninety percent of the products obtained in the phosphate industry are directly used in agriculture as fertilizers. The uranium, thorium and radium content in phosphate fertilizers pollute the soil, water and air, creating risks due to associated natural radiation. This work shows the concentration of radionuclides present in various products of the national and American phosphate fertilizers industry, and compared them with worldwide mean values. The radiological impact of the products on the environment is evaluated and suggestions are presented in order to minimize the risks due to radioactivity. (author)

  11. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian; Psěnička, Martin

    2015-01-01

    , while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5. min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10. min. At 0. min pre......-incubation the proportion of fertilized eggs increased at the 430,000:1 ratio, while at 1. min fertilization increased at the 4300:1 ratio. At the 10. min pre-incubation time, fertilization increased at the 43,000:1 ratio. Moreover, at the 0.5. min pre-incubation time, the 43,000:1 ratio increased the fertilization rate...... than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for

  12. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  13. Fertility Preservation for Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diane; Simons, Lisa; Johnson, Emilie K; Lockart, Barbara A; Finlayson, Courtney

    2017-07-01

    To describe fertility preservation (FP) utilization by transgender adolescents within a pediatric gender clinic between July 2013 and July 2016. A retrospective chart review was conducted to abstract demographic and clinical information among adolescents initiating gender-affirming hormones, including patient age at initial FP consultation, birth-assigned sex, race/ethnicity, and outcome of FP consultation. In our sample of 105 transgender adolescents, a total of 13 (seven transgender men and six transgender women) between the age of 14.2 and 20.6 years were seen in formal consultation for FP before initiating hormones. Of these adolescents, four completed sperm cryopreservation and one completed oocyte cryopreservation. Rates of FP utilization among transgender youth were low, which is consistent with a recently published report of FP utilization among transgender youth at another pediatric institution. Identified barriers to FP in our sample included cost, invasiveness of procedures, and desire not to delay medical transition. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Job strain and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik I; Bonde, Jens Peter E; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Giwercman, Aleksander; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Job strain, defined as high job demands and low job control, has not previously been explored as a possible determinant of male fertility. We collected prospective data on job strain among men, and describe the associations with semen quality and probability of conceiving a clinical pregnancy during a menstrual cycle. Danish couples (N = 399) who were trying to become pregnant for the first time were followed for up to 6 menstrual periods. All men collected semen samples, and a blood sample was drawn from both partners. Job demand and job control were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at entry, and in each cycle the participants recorded changes in job control or job demand during the previous 30 days. In adjusted analyses, no associations were found between any semen characteristic or sexual hormones and any job strain variable. The odds for pregnancy were not associated with job strain. Psychologic job strain encountered in normal jobs in Denmark does not seem to affect male reproductive function.

  15. [Hormone regulation of male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, J G

    1975-01-01

    An innocuous, sure, reversible means of male fertility control which does not disturb the libido is being sought. 20 healthy volunteers from ages 20 to 36 participated, using a 2nd form of protection when necessary. 10 received implants of 60 mg testosterone equally divided into 3 tubes, and began oral ingestion of 100 mg weekly, divided into daily doses, of R2323 (13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-gonen 4,9,11, trien-3-one) until the sperm became ineffective. Then oral doses were given according to personal requirements from 50 to 25 mg. The 2nd series of 10 received no testosterone implants, but followed the same scheme for oral ingestion. All patients but 1 reduced their sperm count and 80% were low enough to consider the sperm inactive. For those who used the hormone treatment as the only protection against pregnancy, no pregnancy occurred. Of the 1st group, 2 had excessive weight gain, 3 felt their libido reduced, and 1 had pain in the nipples and 1 had pain in the hepatic region. Recuperation of normal sperm characteristics was slow, especially motility and vitality. The spermogram is so altered during treatment that any accidental pregnancy could result in a defective egg and serious complications. It should definitely be avoided.

  16. Zinc fertilization in cowpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Brito Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants, due to its role as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor in a large number of enzymes. The element is necessary for the synthesis of tryptophan, which is a precursor of indoleacetic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two cowpea cultivars fertilized with four doses of Zn (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg of Zn ha-1 regarding dry grain yield (PGS, in addition to quantifying leaf and grain Zn content and grain crude protein. The experiment was conducted in the town of Brejo, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. A 4 x 2 factorial scheme was used with four replications. Response functions were adjusted by calculating the Zn doses which provided a maximum technical efficiency for each genotype. The tested cultivars of cowpea showed no great difference regarding Zn demand applied to the soil, ranging from 3.2 to 3.4 kg of Zn ha-1 for BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba, respectively. Concerning Zn use efficiency, BRS Guariba was more responsive than was BRS Tumucumaque, i.e. the same dose of Zn produced 70 kg grain and 2.1 kg crude protein per hectare.

  17. Men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Collins, Veronica; Holden, Carol; Young, Kate; McLachlan, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel. However, evidence suggests that the lack of a partner or a partner willing to commit to parenthood is the main reason for later childbearing. To better understand men's contributions to childbearing decisions and outcomes, the literature pertaining to men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was reviewed. The electronic databases of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to identify investigations of men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility, infertility, reproductive health or childbearing using relevant fertility keyword search terms. Studies were included if they had investigated factors associated with men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, had been conducted in a high-income country and were published in an English language peer-reviewed journal between January 2005 and August 2016. The search yielded 1349 citations. Of these, 47 papers representing 43 unique studies were included in the review. Where response rate was reported, it ranged between 13 and 94%. Studies varied in terms of research design; inclusion and exclusion criteria; recruitment strategies; adequacy of sample size; recruitment and retention rates and data collection tools. However, findings were consistent and indicate that men almost universally value parenthood, want and expect to become fathers, and aspire to have at least two children. Yet

  18. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Not an option if there is a high risk of ovarian metastases. Discuss with your doctor. b ... an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility preservation options for children diagnosed with ...

  19. Fertilization failure after IVF in 304 couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Maria; Prior, Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify predictors of total fertilization failure (TFF) and thereby optimize the primary allocation of patients with no well-defined male factor to either IVF or intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI). Further, to evaluate the long-term fertility prognosis of couples experiencing...... TFF. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study including 304 couples with TFF and 304 controls with fertilization after IVF during a 10-year period from year 2000-2010. The controls were the patients with minimum one fertilized oocyte just prior to the cases. Multiple logistic regression...... analysis was used to evaluate the predictors of TFF. RESULTS: The multiple regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of TFF: female smoking, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.3), non-tubal factor AOR 2.2 (95% CI 1.5-3.4), progressive motile spermatozoa after preparation...

  20. Parental Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Childhood Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura O; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Kesmodel, Ulrik S

    2016-01-01

    . RESULTS: A total of 60 440 pregnancies were included, and 0.8% of the children developed epilepsy.The primary analyses showed no association between parental infertility or fertility treatment, and the overall risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard rate ratios (HRs); 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.08 (0......BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment......, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013). Information on time to pregnancy and fertility treatment...

  1. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and the ability to ... after chemotherapy in male and female survivors of childhood cancer treated between 1970 and 1999: a report ...

  2. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. © 2013.

  3. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You ... Discussing fertility preservation is important. These key points can help start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment ...

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer ... study approved by an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility preservation options for ...

  5. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and the ability to have a ... treatment and your child’s immediate health. You may feel uncomfortable discussing issues of reproduction with your child. ...

  6. Organic Fertilizer: The Underestimated Component in Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... been on chemical fertilizer while the impact of the bio-organic input has been neglected. ... Key words: Organic input, environmental remediation, food security, small-holder rural farmers, sustainable agriculture, agricultural transformation ...

  7. Pedological characteristics, general fertility and classification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedological characteristics, general fertility and classification of some benchmark ... on existing soils information coupled with reconnaissance field soil survey. ... systems i.e. the United States Department of Agriculture Soil Taxonomy and the ...

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update . J Clin Oncol. 2013; ... Incorporating fertility preservation into the care of young oncology patients. Cancer. 2010;117:4-10. Download Patient ...

  9. Plant nutrition and soil fertility manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, J. Benton

    2012-01-01

    .... With over 70 percent new material, the second edition of the Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Manual discusses the principles determining how plants grow and the elements essential for successful...

  10. Ovulation monitoring and fertility knowledge: Their relationship to fertility experience in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righarts, Antoinette; Dickson, Nigel P; Parkin, Lianne; Gillett, Wayne R

    2017-08-01

    Various aspects of fertility knowledge, including the timing of the fertile window, have consistently been found to be poor. Limited evidence also suggests ovulation monitoring to time intercourse could be common. However, there have been no studies that compare these two aspects of fertility and women's fertility/infertility experiences. To examine the frequency of ovulation monitoring and its relationship with fertility knowledge and experience. A cross-sectional study of women aged 25-50 years resident in southern New Zealand was undertaken in 2011. Randomly selected women were asked to complete a fertility questionnaire. Outcome prevalence measures were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and associations investigated using χ 2 tests and Poisson regression. Ovulation monitoring was common, having ever been undertaken by 31.4% (95% CI: 28.5-34.3%) of the 1034 participants. However, knowledge was poor, particularly regarding the fertile window. More women who had ever monitored ovulation correctly identified the fertile window, although the proportion was still very low (18.4 vs 13.1% in those who had not, P = 0.027). Regression modelling showed ovulation monitoring was independently associated with seeking medical help to conceive, education and fertility experience, but not with knowledge. This study confirms ovulation monitoring was commonly undertaken. However, many women, including those who had monitored their ovulation, had poor fertility knowledge and failed to identify the fertile window. Poor fertility knowledge needs to be addressed, especially among women intending to conceive. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Unrealized fertility: Fertility desires at the end of the reproductive career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Casterline

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: 'Unrealized fertility' is a failure to achieve desired fertility. Unrealized fertility has been examined in low-fertility societies but, with the exception of research on infertility, has been neglected in research on non-Western societies. Objective: We conduct a multicountry investigation of one form of unrealized fertility, namely a reproductive career which ends with the woman desiring further children. Methods: We analyze 295,854 women aged 44‒48 in 252 surveys (DHS, RHS, PAP conducted in the period 1986-2015 in 78 countries. Two indicators of unrealized fertility are constructed: (i a comparison of ideal versus actual number of children; (ii the desire for another child. We estimate multilevel regressions with covariates at individual and aggregate levels. Results: Unrealized fertility is far more prevalent according to the first indicator than the second. It is more common among women with fewer living children and women whose first birth occurs after age 20, and it is distinctly higher in sub-Saharan Africa and lower in South Asia. The evidence on trend over the course of fertility transition is mixed: for the second indicator but not the first, the net effect is a reduction in the prevalence of unrealized fertility as fertility declines. Conclusions: Unrealized fertility occurs frequently in most societies and therefore deserves more rigorous research, especially on its consequences for emotional, social, economic, and demographic outcomes. Contribution: We provide the first comprehensive documentation of the prevalence of unrealized fertility across a broad set of contemporary non-Western societies.

  12. Should fertility clinics divest themselves of pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Some commentators object to the way in which fertility clinics make pornography available to men as an aid to masturbation when those men produce sperm for evaluation, storage or IVF. These objections typically rely on claims that pornography is generally harmful to women, unnecessary and dissociates sexual acts from conception. In light of these objections, certain commentators want fertility clinics to divest themselves of pornography, but these objections to pornography are not morally con...

  13. Research on the Fertility Of Bulgarian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. KALOYANOV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research on the dynamics of fertility for women in Bulgaria has been carried out through analyzing the distributions of the age-specific fertility rates. For this purpose we have used all four parameters of the statistical distribution - the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, the coefficient of asymmetry and the coefficient of excess. The experimental research has been carried out as an aggregate for all children and separately for the first, the second and the third birth-order.

  14. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Wyns, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by an extens...

  15. Radiological impact of use of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Chinnaesakki, S.; Sartandel, S.J.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Puranik, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the results of gamma spectrometric measurements of 238 U, 233 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in rock phosphates and various types of phosphate fertilizers and by-products. The increase in soil natural radioactivity has been assessed for major Indian crops. No significant increase in soil natural radioactivity is expected due to the application of phosphate fertilizers for agricultural productions. (author)

  16. Female relative wages, household specialization and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Falling fertility rates have often been linked to rising female wages. However, over the last 40 years the US total fertility rate has been rather stable while female wages have continued to grow. Over the same period, women's hours spent on housework have declined, but men's have increased. I propose a model in which households are not perfectly specialized, but both men and women contribute to home production. As the gender wage gap narrows, the time allocations of men and women converge, a...

  17. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-02-15

    As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health.

  18. Effects of partial fertilizer substitution by organic fertilizer on growth of peanut at seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Wang, Yue; Dai, Jian; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    In response to the Ministry of agriculture’s action plan for chemical fertilizer reductions and organic fertilizers instead of fertilizersand discuss the optimum consumption and proportion of peanut biochar-based fertilization.Six different fertilization treatments were set up:C40, C50(standard consumption), C60, C40+M, C30+M and C20+M. Seelding height, chlorophyll content and total biomass were also measured on 6th, 2017. The results showed that C20+M treatment had the highest plant height and the highest biomass in Peanut Seedlings, while the content of chlorophyll increased with the amount of biochar applied.

  19. Effect of Various Organic Fertilizers Substitute Chemical Fertilizer on Cucumber Productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piadang, Nattayana; Ratanapanit, Sittisuk; Chaowanklang, Pratuang; Ratanapanit; Nadtinee; Jaipakdee, Putinee; Ongsakitboriboon

    2006-09-01

    The effect of using the various organic fertilizer to substitute on the chemical fertilizer on cucumber, was carried out at Tambol Pattananikom, Amphur Pattananikom, Lopburi, Thailand, from December 1, 2005 to February 1, 2006 By using Randomized Comp let Block Design (RCBD), Contain with 4 treatments, chemical fertilizer: 16-16-16: 40 Kg/rai (Control), Pillet organic fertilizer: 50 Kg/rai, Bio extract from cow milk: 300 cc./ water 20 Ltr,.+ compost mixed in soil and bio fertilizer from the office of Atomic Energy Peace : 300 cc./water 20 Ltr. + campost mixed in soil (15 m. 2 /plot) were compared. Experiment result indicate that there were no significant differences on the yield. The highest yield of 25.91 kg/plot (27663.73 kg/rai) was obtained from chemical fertilizer, Fertilizer, followed by pillet organic fertilizer 22.88 kg/plot (2440.53 kg/rai), bio fertilizer 22.34 kg/pot (2382.93 kg/rai) and bio extract 19.03 kg/plot) (2029.87 kg/rai.

  20. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  1. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.

  2. Fertility in patients treated for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Erika; Skrbinc, Breda; Zakotnik, Branko

    2010-09-01

    Testicular cancer affects men mostly in their reproductive age with a cure rate over 90% and fertility is one of the main concerns of survivors. To further elucidate the question of fertility after treatment for testicular cancer, we performed a survey in patients treated in our institution. We sent a questionnaire to patients treated for testicular cancer at our institute from 1976 to 2002 (n = 490) of whom 297 (60.6%) responded. We considered the patients to have conserved fertility if they had children after treatment without assisted reproductive technologies. Before treatment 119/297 (40.1%) of patients and after treatment 150/297 (50.5%) of patients tried to have children (p = 0.019). Of 119 patients who tried to have children before treatment for testicular cancer 98 (82.4%) succeeded and 74/150 (49.3%) were successful after treatment (p years. The post-treatment fatherhood in patients treated with surgery only (orchidectomy +/- retroperitoneal lymphnode dissection-RPLND) was 59%, in those with additional radiotherapy 68%, and chemotherapy 50% (p = 0.233). Fertility rate in patients where a non nerve sparing RPLND was performed was only 37%, 62% in patients with nerve sapring RPLND, and 77% in patients where RPLND was not performed (p Fertility rate after treatment for testicular cancer is reduced. From our data, the most important treatment modality that influences fertility is non nerve sparing RPLND that should be avoided whenever possible in order improve the quality of life our patients.

  3. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE, regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients.

  4. Effects of mineral and organic fertilizers on crop productivity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other two fields grown with the same crops without fertilizer application served as control treatment. In addition, a greenhouse experiment was run to ... It was concluded that biophysical factors (field location and initial soil fertility status) greatly influenced crop yield and fertilizer. Keywords: Bean, maize, fertilizer response, ...

  5. Interracial-Interethnic Unions and Fertility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Vincent Kang

    2008-01-01

    How does the fertility of interracial and interethnic couples compare to the fertility of endogamous couples? If exogamous couples have transcended the boundary between them, then exogamy should not affect fertility. Alternatively, opposition to the relationship from the couple's family and friends may reduce fertility. This study uses 2000-2005…

  6. Adição de alanina, glicina e glutamina ao meio crioprotetor seminal de garanhões Mangalarga Marchador Addition of alanine, glycine and glutamine to frozen seminal extender from Mangalarga Marchador stallions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fagundes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho verificar o efeito da adição de alanina, glicina e glutamina ao meio crioprotetor seminal de garanhões Mangalarga Marchador. Foram utilizados cinco garanhões provenientes do haras Lugavi. Três ejaculados de cada garanhão, após coleta e avaliação, foram divididos em seis tratamentos: sem adição de aminoácidos, adição de 40 mM de alanina, adição de 40 mM de glicina, adição de 60 mM de glutamina, adição de 7 mM de alanina + 7 mM de glicina + 20 mM de glutamina e adição de 40 mM de alanina + 40 mM de glicina + 60 mM de glutamina ao diluente de congelamento convencional. Foram avaliados os parâmetros motilidade total, motilidade progressiva, retidão, linearidade, velocidade média do percurso, velocidade linear, velocidade curvilínea, amplitude lateral de cabeça e frequência de batimentos dos espermatozoides por meio de análise espermática assistida por computador (CASA, funcionalidade da membrana plasmática por choque hiposmótico e integridade de membrana acrossomal pelo teste FITC-PSA. Não houve melhora nos parâmetros de motilidade e cinética espermática nem na funcionalidade de membrana, entretanto, a adição de aminoácidos ao meio crioprotetor seminal aumentou o número de espermatozoides com membrana acrossomal íntegra. Os melhores resultados neste teste são obtidos com 40 mM de alanina (78,6 ± 13,6, 40 mM de glicina (74,7 ± 19,6 ou 7 mM de alanina + 7 mM de glicina + 20 mM de glutamina (76,8 ± 17,5, porém outros estudos devem ser realizados para determinação da concentração ideal desses componentes.The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of the addition of alanine, glycine and glutamine on frozen seminal extender of Mangalarga marchador breed stallions. Five stallions were used from the Lugavi stables. Three ejaculates from each stallion were divided into six treatments: without the addition of amino acids, addition of 40 mM alanine, addition of 40 m

  7. Coevolution of interacting fertilization proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel L Clark

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive proteins are among the fastest evolving in the proteome, often due to the consequences of positive selection, and their rapid evolution is frequently attributed to a coevolutionary process between interacting female and male proteins. Such a process could leave characteristic signatures at coevolving genes. One signature of coevolution, predicted by sexual selection theory, is an association of alleles between the two genes. Another predicted signature is a correlation of evolutionary rates during divergence due to compensatory evolution. We studied female-male coevolution in the abalone by resequencing sperm lysin and its interacting egg coat protein, VERL, in populations of two species. As predicted, we found intergenic linkage disequilibrium between lysin and VERL, despite our demonstration that they are not physically linked. This finding supports a central prediction of sexual selection using actual genotypes, that of an association between a male trait and its female preference locus. We also created a novel likelihood method to show that lysin and VERL have experienced correlated rates of evolution. These two signatures of coevolution can provide statistical rigor to hypotheses of coevolution and could be exploited for identifying coevolving proteins a priori. We also present polymorphism-based evidence for positive selection and implicate recent selective events at the specific structural regions of lysin and VERL responsible for their species-specific interaction. Finally, we observed deep subdivision between VERL alleles in one species, which matches a theoretical prediction of sexual conflict. Thus, abalone fertilization proteins illustrate how coevolution can lead to reproductive barriers and potentially drive speciation.

  8. Preservation of Fertility Potential for Gender and Sex Diverse Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emilie K; Finlayson, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Gender and sex diverse individuals-transgender individuals and those with disorders of sex development (DSD)-both face medical treatments that may impair biological fertility potential. Young DSD patients also often have abnormal gonadal development. Fertility preservation for these populations has historically been poorly understood and rarely addressed. Future fertility should be discussed with gender and sex diverse individuals, particularly given recent advances in fertility preservation technologies and evolving views of fertility potential. Key ethical issues include parental proxy decision-making and uncertainty regarding prepubertal fertility preservation technologies. Many opportunities exist for advancing fertility-related care and research for transgender and DSD patients.

  9. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers.

  10. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  11. Pretreatment fertility counseling and fertility preservation improve quality of life in reproductive age women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Joseph M; Ebbel, Erin E; Katz, Patricia P; Katz, Audra; Ai, Wei Z; Chien, A Jo; Melisko, Michelle E; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

    2012-03-15

    The post-treatment quality of life (QOL) impacts of receiving precancer-treatment infertility counseling and of pursuing fertility preservation have not been described in large-scale studies of reproductive age women with cancer. In total, 1041 women who were diagnosed between ages 18 and 40 years responded to a retrospective survey and reported whether they received infertility counseling before cancer treatment and whether they took action to preserve fertility. Five cancer types were included: leukemia, Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Validated QOL scales were used: the Decision Regret Score, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and the brief World Health Organization QOL questionnaire. Overall, 560 women (61%) who received treatment that potentially could affect fertility were counseled by the oncology team, 45 (5%) were counseled by fertility specialists, and 36 (4%) took action to preserve fertility. Pretreatment infertility counseling by a fertility specialist and an oncologist resulted in lower regret than counseling by an oncologist alone (8.4 vs 11.0; P fertility preservation (6.6 vs 11.0; P fertility specialist counseling (23.0 vs 19.8; P = .09) or preserving fertility (24.0 vs 19.0; P = .05). Receiving specialized counseling about reproductive loss and pursuing fertility preservation is associated with less regret and greater QOL for survivors, yet few patients are exposed to this potential benefit. Women of reproductive age should have expert counseling and should be given the opportunity to make active decisions about preserving fertility. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  12. The International Glossary on Infertility and Fertility Care, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Adamson, G David; Dyer, Silke; Racowsky, Catherine; de Mouzon, Jacques; Sokol, Rebecca; Rienzi, Laura; Sunde, Arne; Schmidt, Lone; Cooke, Ian D; Simpson, Joe Leigh; van der Poel, Sheryl

    2017-09-01

    Can a consensus and evidence-driven set of terms and definitions be generated to be used globally in order to ensure consistency when reporting on infertility issues and fertility care interventions, as well as to harmonize communication among the medical and scientific communities, policy-makers, and lay public including individuals and couples experiencing fertility problems? A set of 283 consensus-based and evidence-driven terminologies used in infertility and fertility care has been generated through an inclusive consensus-based process with multiple stakeholders. In 2006 the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART) published a first glossary of 53 terms and definitions. In 2009 ICMART together with WHO published a revised version expanded to 87 terms, which defined infertility as a disease of the reproductive system, and increased standardization of fertility treatment terminology. Since 2009, limitations were identified in several areas and enhancements were suggested for the glossary, especially concerning male factor, demography, epidemiology and public health issues. Twenty-five professionals, from all parts of the world and representing their expertise in a variety of sub-specialties, were organized into five working groups: clinical definitions; outcome measurements; embryology laboratory; clinical and laboratory andrology; and epidemiology and public health. Assessment for revisions, as well as expansion on topics not covered by the previous glossary, were undertaken. A larger group of independent experts and representatives from collaborating organizations further discussed and assisted in refining all terms and definitions. Members of the working groups and glossary co-ordinators interacted through electronic mail and face-to-face in international/regional conferences. Two formal meetings were held in Geneva, Switzerland, with a final consensus meeting including independent experts as well as observers and

  13. The International Glossary on Infertility and Fertility Care, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Adamson, G David; Dyer, Silke; Racowsky, Catherine; de Mouzon, Jacques; Sokol, Rebecca; Rienzi, Laura; Sunde, Arne; Schmidt, Lone; Cooke, Ian D; Simpson, Joe Leigh; van der Poel, Sheryl

    2017-09-01

    Can a consensus and evidence-driven set of terms and definitions be generated to be used globally in order to ensure consistency when reporting on infertility issues and fertility care interventions, as well as to harmonize communication among the medical and scientific communities, policy-makers, and lay public including individuals and couples experiencing fertility problems? A set of 283 consensus-based and evidence-driven terminologies used in infertility and fertility care has been generated through an inclusive consensus-based process with multiple stakeholders. In 2006 the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART) published a first glossary of 53 terms and definitions. In 2009 ICMART together with WHO published a revised version expanded to 87 terms, which defined infertility as a disease of the reproductive system, and increased standardization of fertility treatment terminology. Since 2009, limitations were identified in several areas and enhancements were suggested for the glossary, especially concerning male factor, demography, epidemiology and public health issues. Twenty-five professionals, from all parts of the world and representing their expertise in a variety of sub-specialties, were organized into five working groups: clinical definitions; outcome measurements; embryology laboratory; clinical and laboratory andrology; and epidemiology and public health. Assessment for revisions, as well as expansion on topics not covered by the previous glossary, were undertaken. A larger group of independent experts and representatives from collaborating organizations further discussed and assisted in refining all terms and definitions. Members of the working groups and glossary co-ordinators interacted through electronic mail and face-to-face in international/regional conferences. Two formal meetings were held in Geneva, Switzerland, with a final consensus meeting including independent experts as well as observers and

  14. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frommen Joachim G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. Results In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. Conclusion This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  15. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  16. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  17. Declining world fertility: trends, causes, implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, A O; Bogue, D J

    1978-10-01

    This Bulletin examines the evidence that the world's fertility has declined in recent years, the factors that appear to have accounted for the decline, and the implications for fertility and population growth rates to the end of the century. On the basis of a compilation of estimates available for all nations of the world, the authors derive estimates which indicate that the world's total fertility rate dropped from 4.6 to 4.1 births per woman between 1968 and 1975, thanks largely to an earlier and more rapid and universal decline in the fertility of less developed countries (LDCs) than had been anticipated. Statistical analysis of available data suggests that the socioeconomic progress made by LDCs in this period was not great enough to account for more than a proportion of the fertility decline and that organized family planning programs were a major contributing factor. The authors' projections, which are compared to similar projections from the World Bank, the United Nations, and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, indicate that, by the year 2000, less than 1/5 of the world's population will be in the "red danger" circle of explosive population growth (2.1% or more annually); most LDCs will be in a phase of fertility decline; and many of them -- along with most now developed countries -- will be at or near replacement level of fertility. The authors warn that "our optimistic prediction is premised upon a big IF -- if (organized) family planning (in LDCs) continues. It remains imperative that all of the developed nations of the world continue their contribution to this program undiminished."

  18. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    often acidosis. This paper presents and integral description of cattle diet management according to phases, and a new approach to cattle diet with respect to fertility observed in reproduction over a longer time period at large diary cow farms.

  19. Agroforestry: A second soil fertility paradigm? A case of soil fertility management in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mango, Nelson; Hebinck, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the claim whether agro-forestry is a second soil fertility
    paradigm. The answer to this question, however, is not unequivocal. Farmers in
    Western Kenya generally do not apply fertiliser and rather rely on many soil fertility replenishment (SFR) strategies. Scientists

  20. Assessment of testicular volume: A comparison of fertile and sub-fertile West African men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Tijani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Testicular volume on scrotal ultrasound correlates well with severity of oligospermia in men with sub-fertility. While the critical mean testicular volume necessary for adequate spermatogenesis has not been determined, it appears there is an optimal testicular volume of 18–20 ml at which spermatogenesis is at its peak in sub-fertile Nigerian men.

  1. Impact of child mortality and fertility preferences on fertility status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the effects of child mortality and fertility preference on fertility status in rural Ethiopia. Design: Case-referent where the cases were women with number of children ever born alive was less than five and controls were women with number of children ever born alive greater or equal to five.

  2. Effect of N fertilizer and foliar-applied Fe fertilizer at various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrSohrabi

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... yield component and chemical composition of soybean. (Glycine ... fertilizer are the main source of meeting the nitrogen (N) ... influence grain yield and protein concentration (Haq and .... The data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System ... application and interaction of Fe and N fertilizers had no.

  3. Fertilizer nitrogen leaching in relation to water regime and the fertilizer placement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, A.T.A.; Khadr, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Sids Experimental Station, Ministry of Agriculture, Middle Egypt, to evaluate the effect of the water regime and fertilizer placement method on the leaching of urea fertilizer under field conditions. Ordinary and heavy irrigations were the water regimes, while side-banding and surface broadcasting were the fertilizer placement methods. Wheat (Giza 158, local variety) was planted, and urea labelled with 15 N at the rate of 100 kg N/ha was added at planting. The data obtained showed that in general the leaching process of urea fertilizer, as evaluated from the amounts of fertilizer nitrogen residues, is not uniform even within replicates. This is despite the fact that the average total amount of fertilizer nitrogen residues in the soil profile to a depth of 125 cm is almost the same in the different treatments. Data also show that the bulk of fertilizer nitrogen residues is accumulated in the surface soil layers, especially at 0-25 cm. Only 10% of the fertilizer nitrogen is detected below 75 cm and up to 125 cm depth of the soil profile. It could be concluded that urea leaching (amount and depth) under these conditions is affected mainly by the soil characteristics, namely soil pores. This is in addition to some other factors that cause variable concentrations in the soil solution leaving the root zone. (author)

  4. Preparation and characterization of controlled-release fertilizers coated with marine polysaccharide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Song; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xing, Rong'e.; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Encapsulation of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizers by membranes can be used to control the release of nutrients to maximize the fertilization effect and reduce environmental pollution. In this research, we formulated a new double-coated controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) by using food-grade microcrystalline wax (MW) and marine polysaccharide derivatives (calcium alginate and chitosan-glutaraldehyde copolymer). The pellets of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizer were coated with the marine polysaccharide derivatives and MW. A convenient and eco-friendly method was used to prepare the CRF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the products. The nitrogen-release properties were determined in water using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The controlled-release properties of the fertilizer were improved dramatically after coating with MW and the marine polysaccharide derivatives. The results show that the double-coated CRFs can release nitrogen in a controlled manner, have excellent controlled-release features, and meet the European Standard for CRFs.

  5. Environmental protection foliar fertilization in areas subject to limitation of fertilizers use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavriluta, I.; Alexandrescu, A; Budoi, G.; Bireescu, L.; Bireescu, G.

    1999-01-01

    Significant increases of plant productivity have been recorded in field experiments conducted between 1991 - 1994 using general purpose complex foliar fertilizers as well as aminoacid containing complex foliar fertilizers. These increases at the same time had positive environmental effects against chemical pollution, especially with nitrates. As a rule, the greater the degree of nutrient efficiency, especially of nitrate, the lower are the losses, which are subject to transfer to the environment. So in the light of environmental protection against chemical pollution using foliar fertilization is certainly beneficial for crops and for all other components of the agricultural environment giving rise to its significant improvement. Both, foliar and soil fertilization in areas with limitation of fertilizer use should be carried out under a continuous and strict analytical check of plant, soil and water. Refs. 14 (author)

  6. Farmers behavior on using fertilizer in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, Tomy; Renaldy, Eddy; Utami, Hesty Nurul; Sadeli, Agriani Hermita; Mahra Arari, H.; Ginanjar, Tetep; Ajeng Sesy N., P.; Fernianda Rahayu, H.; Sanjaya, Sonny

    2018-02-01

    Fertilizer is one of the important materials in farming system to improve quality and quantity of harvest. Most of farmers in Indonesia using fertilizer, one of substantial fertilizer is NPK that contain of complex nutrient, there are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. There are tendency for farmers using NPK based on quality products and speed of decomposition. Nowadays, market size for NPK fertilizer has been dramatically increase and it will impact on intensify of fertilizer use. The potential requirement in marketing does not balanced with consumer behavior analysis. Meanwhile, agricultural sector (include horticulture, floriculture, bio-pharmacy and plantation) have been wieldly increase of the farming system annualy. This research is study case which is analyzed local NPK fertilizer competitive advantage compared to imported NPK fertilizer through consumer point of view towards product quality in four districts in West Java province, i.e., West Bandung, Garut, Bogor and Cianjur District with target respondents are farmers who use NPK fertilizer. NPK fertilizer qualities are based on product attributes, which are; availability, nutrient content, price, basic ingredients, form of fertilizer, speed of decomposition, label, color, type, design and size of packaging. It was analyzed using sematic differential attitude models and multi attribute attitude snake diagram model. The evaluation ranking of consumers interests towards fertilizer attribute characteristics showed that consumer intention before deciding to buy or use a NPK fertilizer will consider nutrient content, speed of decomposition, form of fertilizer and availability of products. Consumer's attitude towards all NPK fertilizer attribute quality illustrated that imported fertilizer is considered to be more positive than local fertilizer. Fertilizer companies or industries should be able to maintain their fertilizer production especially concerning nutrient content and availability of products through a

  7. Effects of Different Fertilizing Formulae on Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trials conducted on potato fertilization at different rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium have shown that the elements able to influence the marketable tuber yield are nitrogen and phosphorus. The potato dry matter, which reflects other quality aspects such as the specific gravity and the starch content, increases with nitrogen fertilization till 150-200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen; beyond those rates values remain nearly unchanged. Dry matter increases also with the application of phosphorus and at low potassium rates. The objective of the research was to test the effect of different rates of N P K fertilizer on yield and some quality traits of potato. The test was conducted at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty, Bari University, Italy. It involved the comparison of 6 fertilizing formulae N1 P1 K1, N1 P2 K1, N2 P1 K1, N2 P2 K1, N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, obtained from the factorial combination of three nitrogen levels (N = 100-200-300 kg ha-1 and two phosphorus rates (P2O5 = 50-100 kg ha-1 against an unfertilized control N0P0K0. The dose of potassium was constant for all fertilizing formulae (K2O = 300 kg ha-1. The highest total and marketable yields of tubers per plant have been observed at the two highest fertilizing levels (N3 P1 K1, N3 P2 K1, which are not statistically different so that the best treatments is shown to be N3 P1 K1; the trend was similar for the mean weight of tubers. With the various treatments, no difference was observed in terms of yield of tubers belonging to the two first size classes (< 35mm and 35-55mm; what has increased with the fertilizing levels is the yield of tubers greater than 55 mm. Tuber specific gravity show, as expected, a positive correlation with the dry matter percentage. Both parameters increased shifting from the control to the N2 P2 K1 and decreased at the highest N level, without any difference being observed with the change in the P rate. The highest starch percentage (20.5% was also observed in the

  8. Implementation strategy for achieving replacement level fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The recommendation of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development at the ESCAP regional conference was to adopt strategies for attaining replacement-level fertility of 2.1 or 2.2 children by 2010. East Asian countries, except Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the Southeast Asian countries Singapore and Thailand have already reached replacement-level fertility. Most larger Oceanic countries have also done so. Only South Asian Sri Lanka and southern India have attained replacement level. The following conditions slow or hinder the goal, but they do not provide an "absolute" barrier to fertility decline: social welfare schemes and old age security, son preference, lack of government family planning, poverty, relatively high mortality, low status of women, and education status. Theories of demographic transition have postulated that economic and social development initially brings a decline in mortality, and later brings a decline in fertility; and high fertility was an adaptation to high mortality. Policy gets caught in the lag between mortality and fertility decline. Eventually the cultural motives for high fertility are undercut by social and economic development. Although the generalization that economic growth slows fertility is true for South Asia, the correlation is uneven. Forceful government-sponsored family planning programs in Bangladesh and China may lead the way to strategies for decline in ESCAP region. A Thailand study suggested important factors were fundamental social change, the increased cost of children, cultural acceptance of birth control, a latent demand for fertility control, and government efforts in family planning. ESCAP countries have in common relatively high morality and inadequate public health programs, patriarchal structures, and limited female autonomy, poverty and landlessness, lack of community cohesiveness, and inadequate family planning programs. Weaknesses in programs are attributed to

  9. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF LOW FERTILITY IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Helena Cruz; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2017-11-01

    An increasing number of developing countries are experiencing below replacement fertility rates. Although the factors associated with low fertility in developed countries have been widely explored in the literature, studies of low fertility in middle- and low-income countries continue to be rare. To help fill this gap, Brazil was used as a case study to assess whether human development, gender equality and the ability of mothers with young children to work are associated with the likelihood of married or cohabiting women to have a child. For this purpose, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated using the 1991, 2000 and 2010 Brazilian Demographic Censuses. It was found that human development was negatively associated with fertility in the three periods analysed. Gender equality and the ability of mothers with young children to work were positively associated with the odds of having higher order births in Brazil in 2000 and 2010. In 1991, these variables were not associated with higher order births, and gender equality was negatively associated with first births. The positive association found in 2000 and 2010 may constitute a reversal of the relationship that in all likelihood prevailed earlier in the demographic transition when gender equality was most likely negatively correlated with fertility levels.

  10. Bulgaria: Ethnic differentials in rapidly declining fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter Philipov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter provides a detailed description of the fertility changes in Bulgaria during recent decades and discusses possible reasons and consequences. It also gives an overview of the steps that the government has undertaken to offset the considerable decline in fertility. Before the fall of communism, fertility trends in Bulgaria were stable and characterized by a nearly universal entry into parenthood, dominance of a two-child family model, an early start and early end of childbearing, stable mean ages at entry into childbearing and marriage, and low percentages of non-marital births. During the 1990s and in the first years of the new century, we observe a marked, rapid change in fertility behaviour. Together with the severe decline in overall fertility rates, demographic data reveal a significant postponement of entry into motherhood and marriage, a decline of the two-child family model, and an emergence of new family forms. Most research attributes these changes to the particular political and social situation in Bulgaria since 1989.

  11. Balancing guava nutrition with liming and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava response to liming and fertilization can be monitored by tissue testing. Tissue nutrient signature is often diagnosed against nutrient concentration standards. However, this approach has been criticized for not considering nutrient interactions and to generate numerical biases as a result of data redundancy, scale dependency and non-normal distribution. Techniques of compositional data analysis can control those biases by balancing groups of nutrients, such as those involved in liming and fertilization. The sequentially arranged and orthonormal isometric log ratios (ilr or balances avoid numerical bias inherent to compositional data. The objectives were to relate tissue nutrient balances with the production of "Paluma" guava orchards differentially limed and fertilized, and to adjust the current patterns of nutrient balance with the range of more productive guava trees. It was conducted one experiment of 7-yr of liming and three experiments of 3-yr with N, P and K trials in 'Paluma' orchards on an Oxisol. Plant N, P, K, Ca and Mg were monitored yearly. It was selected the [N, P, K | Ca, Mg], [N, P | K], [N | P] and [Ca | Mg] balances to set apart the effects of liming (Ca-Mg and fertilizers (N-K on macronutrient balances. Liming largely influenced nutrient balances of guava in the Oxisol while fertilization was less influential. The large range of guava yields and nutrient balances allowed defining balance ranges and comparing them with the critical ranges of nutrient concentration values currently used in Brazil and combined into ilr coordinates.

  12. Fertility Adaptation of Child Migrants to Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the fertility behavior of immigrant women arriving to Canada before age 19 using the 20 per cent sample of the Canadian Census from 1991 through 2006. Findings show that fertility increases with age at immigration, and is particularly high for those immigrating in their late teens. This pattern prevails regardless of the country of origin or whether the mother tongue of the migrant is an official language in Canada or not. We do not find a ‘critical age’ at which the behavior of migrants with and without official mother tongue start to diverge by more, even though the fertility of migrants without official mother tongue is always higher on average. Formal education matters as the fertility of immigrants who arrived to Canada before adulthood and graduated from college is similar to that of their native peers regardless of their age of arrival. However, the fertility of those with less than tertiary education increasingly diverges with age at migration from similarly educated Canadians. PMID:23800074

  13. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  14. Fertilizer application and root development analyzed by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the development of the soybean root system under different application of fertilizer applying neutron imaging technique. When neutron beam was irradiated, the root image as well as fertilizer imbedded in a thin aluminum container was clearly projected, since water amount in roots are higher than that in soil. Through image analysis, the development of root system was studied under different application of the fertilizer. The development of a main root with lateral roots was observed without applying fertilizer. When the fertilizer was homogeneously supplied to the soil, the morphological development of the root showed the similar pattern to that grown without fertilizer, in different to the amount of the fertilizer. In the case of local application of the fertilizer, lateral position or downward to the main root, the inhibition of the root growth was observed, suggesting that the localization of the fertilizer is responsible for reduction of the soybean yield. (author)

  15. Structural and impedance characterization of ceramics prepared from NPK fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diouma Kobor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of this work was to study the possibilities of valorising the phosphates through the development of a conductive ceramics using NPK fertilizer as a precursor. Phosphorus based powders were synthesized using solid state technique from NPK fertilizer, lithium chloride and iron chloride at different temperatures up to 900 °C and ceramic samples were prepared by the powder pressing and sintering at 1100 °C. XRD spectra of the calcined powders show various sharp peaks indicating a relatively high degree of crystallinity and presence of different crystalline phases, such as: phosphorus based crystalline compounds (AlPO4 and LiFePO4, ferrite (Fe3O4 and DyFeO3, CaSO4 and K3DyCl6. The prepared phosphorus based ceramics showed very interesting electrical and dielectric properties. Thus, in the future the obtained ceramics could find application in electronic or energy storage devices. However, further investigations are necessary to understand the exact chemical composition and structural characteristics of this material, to better understand the origin of the obtained electrical and dielectric behaviour.

  16. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the

  17. Measurements of natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannides, K.G.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Papachristodoulou, C.A.; Tzialla, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The natural radioactivity, mainly due to radium ( 226 Ra), in phosphate fertilizers used in north-western Greece has been measured by γ-spectroscopy. Also radioactivity measurements were performed in soil samples and were compared to samples from undisturbed soils. 226 Ra belongs to the 238 U chain and is the precursor of radon gas ( 222 Rn). The radon concentrations in warehouses, where large quantities of fertilizers are kept, were measured with CR-39 SSNTDs. The radium concentrations in the fertilizers ranged from 0 to 4584 Bq kg -1 and the radon concentrations in warehouses were measured 540-3320 Bq m -3 . The results are discussed from the radiation protection point of view

  18. Mature Oocyte Cryopreservation for Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tina; Motan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, advances in cancer treatment have led to a dramatic improvement in long term survival. This has led to an increasing focus on quality of life after surviving cancer treatment, with fertility being an important aspect. Given the known reproductive risks of cancer therapies, there has been a growing interest in the field of fertility preservation (also referred to as oncofertility). Mature oocyte cryopreservation is no longer considered experimental and has become a realistic option for reproductive aged women prior to undergoing cancer treatment. Additionally, as cryopreservation techniques improve, mature oocyte cryopreservation is increasing being marketed to healthy women without cancer wishing to delay child bearing, also termed "social egg freezing". This chapter provides a review of the current technology, use, and outcomes of mature oocyte cryopreservation. It also outlines the ethical debate surrounding social egg freezing and directions for future research in female fertility preservation.

  19. Transformation of fertilizer nitrogen in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soechting, H.

    1980-01-01

    Pot experiments are described in which the transformations between nitrogen added as fertilizer urea, plant-assimilated nitrogen, and different chemical fractions of soil or added straw nitrogen were studied with 15 N as a tracer. The data indicated that: (a) The transformation of added fertilizer nitrogen to immobilized amide nitrogen is decreased with added decomposable organic carbon. The transformation to immobilized α-amino N is increased, on the other hand, by the addition of decomposable organic carbon. (b) The freshly immobilized amide nitrogen is more readily remineralized than the α-amino form. The immobilization of added nitrogen continues in the presence of growing plants. (c) Mineralization of nitrogen added as 15 N-labelled straw is also increased with increasing fertilizer-nitrogen additions. (author)

  20. Male Fertility After Inguinal Hernia Mesh Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Andreas Pagh; Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To determine whether patients who receive an inguinal hernia repair father the same number of children as the background population. BACKGROUND:: Although the effect of inguinal hernia repair on male fertility has previously been investigated through indirect measures, no previous...... studies have evaluated the final measure of male fertility, which is the number of children fathered by patients. METHODS:: Prospectively collected data on 32,621 male patients between the ages of 18 and 55 years who received 1 or more inguinal hernia repairs during the years 1998 to 2012 were found in 5...... hernia repair using Lichtenstein technique or laparoscopic approach did not father fewer children than expected. Thus, inguinal hernia repair using Lichtenstein or laparoscopic approach did not impair male fertility....

  1. Kinship and the decline of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y

    1996-01-01

    China's family planning and population control policies, together with the move toward a more market-oriented economy since the 1980s, have led to significant change in people's reproductive values and behavior and a substantial decline in fertility. Traditional kinship in China, its terminology, and the impact of fertility decline on kinship in China and Chinese society are discussed. The decline in fertility is affecting or will affect China's kinship system, the corresponding pattern of terminology, and the social structure. In the more market-oriented economy which has been developing in China, the simplification of the kinship system will help change the structure of Chinese society and weaken the traditional patriarchal culture. A more individualized, contractualized social structure and relationships will result.

  2. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring γ-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Total fertilization failure and idiopathic subfertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goverde Angelique J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain more insight in whether failure of intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment in patients with idiopathic subfertility could be related to diminished fertilization, the aim of this study is to compare the fertilization of an initial IVF procedure after six cycles of IUI and the fertilization of an initial IVF procedure without preceding IUI cycles in couples with idiopathic subfertility. Methods We performed a complimentary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, in which the number of total fertilization failure (TFF in the first IVF procedure after unsuccessful IUI was compared to those of IVF without preceding IUI in patients with idiopathic subfertility. These patients participated in a previous study that assessed the cost effectiveness of IUI versus IVF in idiopathic subfertility and were randomized to either IUI or IVF treatment. Results 45 patients underwent IVF after 6 cycles of unsuccessful IUI and 58 patients underwent IVF immediately without preceding IUI. In 7 patients the IVF treatment was cancelled before ovum pick. In the IVF after unsuccessful IUI group TFF was seen in 2 of the 39 patients (5% versus 7 of the 56 patients (13% in the immediate IVF group. After correction for confounding factors the TFF rate was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.08, OR 7.4; 95% CI: 0.5–14.9. Conclusion Our data showed that TFF and the fertilization rate in the first IVF treatment were not significantly different between couples with idiopathic subfertility undergoing IVF after failure of IUI versus those couples undergoing IVF immediately without prior IUI treatment. Apparently, impaired fertilization does not play a significant role in the success rate of IUI in patients with idiopathic subfertility.

  4. Third world programs confront adolescent fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    Recently, there have been efforts to identify workable youth programs and effective research projects that could deal with the problem of adolescent fertility. Typical objectives identified at various conferences concerned with this problem included the following: 1) focus attention on the adverse medical and socioeconomic efforts of early pregnancy; 2) draw attention to the current dimensions of adolescent fertility and its changing patterns; 3) encourage development of programs; and 4) impress decision makers with the importance of programs for adolescents. These conferences express a sense of urgency in developing programs before teen-age pregnancy reaches epidemic proportions. Most of the projects already underway are still pilot efforts and have an impact on a very small sector of the population. Yet, they are positive steps toward a solution of the rising problems of adolescent fertility and help to identify workable solutions. A few of these projects -- underway in Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Cost Rica, Guatemala and Mexico -- are reviewed. The consensus of all conferences held to date has been that cross-cultural interchanges is crucial to the spread of programs and ideas that can be adapted to local conditions. 2 key recommendations have emerged from a meeting of donor and support agencies held in Washington, D.C. in May: 1) a major conference should take place during the International Year of the Child (1979) that would focus on early sexual activity and fertility and 2) an Adolescent Fertility Council should be appointed. An Adolescent Fertility Council would provide a structure to correlate and stimulate interaction, while recognizing that country and culture specific programs are essential.

  5. Decomposing trends in nonmarital fertility among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeone, Felicia Yang; Lichter, Daniel T; Strawderman, Robert L

    2009-09-01

    For Latinos, high rates of nonmarital fertility reinforce economic inequality and slow the pace of social and economic incorporation into American society. Changes in the nonmarital fertility ratio--nonmarital births as a percentage of all births (NMFR)--among women aged 15-44 over the period 1994-2005 were partitioned into three components: changes in marital and in nonmarital fertility, and in the proportion of women who were married. Annual birth data were drawn from the national Natality Detail File, and population estimates were drawn from the Current Population Surveys. Analyses were conducted for blacks, whites and Latinas, as well as for selected subgroups of Latinas; differences in NMFRs between racial and ethnic groups were also calculated. NMFRs were largely unchanged between 1994 and 2002, and then began to rise; they averaged 43% for Latinas, 69% for blacks and 23% for whites over the study period. In 2005, 48% of births to Latinas were nonmarital. Most of the rise in Latinas' NMFR was linked to a decline in marriage. Among foreign-born Latinas, a six-percentage-point increase in the NMFR was due mostly to a rise in nonmarital fertility and a decline in marital fertility, which offset the beneficial effects of a rising marriage rate. The difference between Latinas' and whites' NMFRs was largely attributed to Latinas' higher nonmarital fertility, whereas the difference between blacks' and whites' NMFRs was driven mostly by lower marriage rates among blacks. Efforts to reduce out-of-wedlock childbearing among Latinas are needed, and programs should promote healthy marriages, especially among foreign-born Latinas.

  6. Fertility Effects on Female Labor Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundborg, Petter; Plug, Erik; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF induced fertility variation in childless families to estimate the causal effect of having children on female labor supply using IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF...... treatment success provides a plausible instrument for childbearing. Our IV estimates indicate that fertility effects are: (a) negative, large and long lasting; (b) much stronger at the extensive margin than at the intensive margin, and (c) similar for mothers, not treated with IVF, which suggests that IVF...

  7. Is glycosylated haemoglobin a marker of fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, T K; Bonde, J P

    1999-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study of time to pregnancy in a population of first-time pregnancy planners without previous reproductive experience. The objective of this paper is to report and discuss a finding of a strong relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and fertility. A total...... concentration of inhibin A. No association was found between HbA1C and psychosocial distress. The reduced fertility among women with high HbA1C may be due to an association with subclinical polycystic ovaries as indicated by the hormonal profile....

  8. [Environment and lifestyle: Impacts on male fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendayan, M; Alter, L; Swierkowski-Blanchard, N; Caceres-Sanchez, L; Selva, J; Robin, G; Boitrelle, F

    2018-01-01

    In this last century, an increase of men infertility has been registered. It has been suggested that environmental factors could a negative impact over sperm quality. Among these factors, impact of environmental toxicant has been spread by media. In this review of scientific literature, we identify several environmental factors that could impact men fertility in a negative way. These factors are tobacco, marijuana, weight, body mass index, heat, nutritional state, electromagnetic waves and altitude. For each of these factors, the impact over men fertility, their mechanism, as well their influence over the use of Assisted Reproductive Technics are reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  10. Fertility behavior in rural and urban Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, D; Newlon, B; Sigit, H

    1982-06-01

    The cross-sectional picture of urban and rural fertility which emerges from recently published Indonesian national level data from the 1976 Intercensal Survey are described. The data reveal only small differences in the average numbers of children ever born or children surviving of ever married women (or mothers) in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. In urban areas, ever married mothers had a standardized average of 3.4 children ever born, and in rural areas 3.3 These averages cannot reveal any differences in past and present childbearing levels. The fertility of urban women, as opposed to rural women, appeared more highly associated with indicators which tend to directly or indirectly depress the average number of children ever born: a higher age at 1st marriage; a higher level of "sterility;" a higher survival ratio of children born; and a higher level of educational attainment. At least some of these factors might be regarded as associated with modernizing trends in the urban areas: increased accessibility to educational facilities; the opening of female opportunities outside the home so that marriage occurs later in life; and a better health environment so that there is less pregnancy wastage and time spent in bearing children. These factors help to provide an incentive to women to limit their fertility; knowledge of contraception methods provides a means. The depressing factors most highly associated with average rural fertility do not appear associated with modernization but with traditional folk customs regarding acceptable behavior. The inflating effects of early marriage are offset by a greater prevalence of marital disruption. This may reflect a cultural acceptability. The reasons may include adolescent or true sterility leading to disunion, the outmigration of a partner, or some other form of disharmony. Female labor force participation is more prevalent in rural than urban areas. There are both traditional and modern aspects to be seen in its

  11. Fertility preservation for medical reasons in girls and women: British fertility society policy and practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Ephia; Balachandren, Neerujah; Davies, Melanie C; Jones, Georgina L; Lane, Sheila; Mathur, Raj; Webber, Lisa; Anderson, Richard A

    2018-04-01

    Fertility preservation in the female poses several challenges due to the invasive nature of the techniques available to achieve it. The guideline aims to bring together the evidence available for the measures for fertility preservation and their outcome. The guideline addresses fertility preservation for medical reasons and includes both oncological and non-oncological causes. The techniques that the guideline considers are: (i) embryo and oocyte cryopreservation; (ii) ovarian tissue cryopreservation; (iii) GnRH agonist suppression and (iv) ovarian transposition. Although ovarian tissue cryopreservation is still considered experimental, the availability of this technique is gaining momentum as more live births from auto-transplanted tissue are reported. The guideline also highlights use of current treatment modalities for benign and malignant conditions that have a better fertility sparing profile. The guideline recommends a multidisciplinary approach in counselling women and girls about the risk to their fertility and available techniques. The role of psychological support in assisting women and girls with decision-making is highlighted. The guideline also highlights the risks associated with these techniques. Women need to be medically fit to undergo invasive procedures. Fertility preservation techniques are appropriate when treatment has curative intent. Fertility preservation is a subject of on-going research on outcomes of different techniques and at the time of publication, studies are still likely to emerge adding to the available literature.

  12. Fertility assessment in thalassemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ansari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility in β-thalassemia patients is typically considered to be the consequence of iron deposition in the endocrine glands. Adult male patients with β-thalassemia, on regular blood transfusions, are prone to developing acquired hypogonadism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility indicators in male patients with β-thalassemia major and intermedia. In this study we evaluated testicular volume, semen parameters and serum FSH, LH, and Testosterone concentrations in 62 male patients in reproductive age, with major and intermedia thalassemia, at a tertiary care hospital in Tehran, Iran. The range of serum ferritin level in our patients was from 182 to 11053 ng/mL (mean 2067 ng/mL. The mean concentration of sperm was 61.04 million per milliliter. The mean volume of right and left testes was 11.4 cc and 11.7 cc, respectively. Those patients who had lower testicular volumes significantly had lower sperm concentration, lower percents of motile and also lower percents of normal morphologic sperms (P=0.04. The frequency of hypogonadism was significantly higher in patients whose testicular volume was lower (P=0.02. Hypogonadism and hypothyroidism were seen in 22.6% and 17.7% of patients, respectively. Patients with hypogonadism had significantly lower ejaculate volume, lower sperm concentration, lower percents of motile and progressively motile sperms and also lower percents of normal morphologic sperms (P=0.001. This study suggests that in thalassemic men, concentrations of serum testosterone, LH, FSH has significant correlation with sperm parameters and testicular volume.   β地中海贫血患者中的男性不育症通常被认为是内分泌腺中铁沉积的结果。成年男性β地中海贫血患者在常规输血时易发生获得性性腺功能减退。本研究旨在评估男性重型和中间型β地中海贫血患者的生育指标。在本研究中,我们在伊朗德黑兰的一家三级保健医院对62名处于

  13. World Fertility Survey: Major Findings and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Fertility Survey, London (England).

    A survey was conducted in 42 developing countries and in 20 developed countries to determine fertility practices and trends. Both individual and household questionnaires were used by interviewers to gather data. Findings concerning marriage patterns, contraception, reproductive motivation, childspacing, breastfeeding, maternal and child health,…

  14. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  15. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents. Cancer Treat Res. 2007;138:201-217. Redig AJ, Brannigan R, Stryker SJ, et al. Incorporating fertility preservation into the care of young oncology patients. Cancer. 2010;117:4- ...

  16. Sea urchin egg fertilization and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of subgravity (much less than unit gravity) on fertilization, cell division, differentiation, and growth of a relatively simple biological system (eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata) were considered. The experiment was flown on Gemini 3 and recovered as scheduled. However, the experiment objectives were not achieved, primarily for mechanical reasons.

  17. Fertilization: a sticky sperm protein in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Snell, William J

    2014-02-17

    During fertilization in eukaryotes, gametes of the opposite sex undergo a complex series of interactions that culminate in cell fusion. A new study on gamete interaction in plants has identified the first protein in multicellular organisms shown by gene disruption to be essential for gamete membrane adhesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with cancer. You may be focused on cancer treatment and your child’s immediate health. You may feel ... can help start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment may affect my child’s fertility. Will my child’s ...

  19. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diagnosed with cancer. You may be focused on cancer treatment and your child’s immediate health. You may feel ... points can help start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment may affect my child’s fertility. Will my child’s ...

  20. Organic fertilization in cherry tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janini Tatiane Lima Souza Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is highly demanding with regard to mineral nutrients. The use of animal manure shows to be an efficient and sustainable fertilization way for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different doses of cattle manure in the vegetative and reproductive growth of cherry tomato. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Plant Science Department of Universidade Federal de Vicosa, using a completely randomized experimental design with 5 treatments and 4 replications, besides 1 control treatment using chemical fertilizer as a source of NPK. After 45 days from the beginning of the experiment, the number of leaves, flowers, and fruits, the dry mass of leaves, stem, flowers, fruits, and roots, the stem length, and the root volume were evaluated. The nutrient content in leaves, stem, and roots was also evaluated. Plants grown with chemical fertilizer obtained a lower average for all phytotechnical variables analyzed. The number of leaves and fruits, and the production of dry matter of leaves, fruits, and stems showed an upward linear response with an increase in manure doses. The Ca, Mg, and S leaf contents were higher in the treatment with chemical fertilization.

  1. Management strategy 3: fixed rate fertilizer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous chapters outlined management strategies for pond fertilization that take into account specific individual pond nutrient needs. Those methods would most likely be more ecologically efficient than a pre-determined fixed-rate nutrient addition strategy. However, the vast majority of available ...

  2. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyns, C

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Relevant studies were identified by an extensive Medline search of English and French language articles. Sperm cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment is a well established method after puberty. In case of ejaculation failure by masturbation, assisted ejaculation methods or testicular tissue sampling should be considered. Although no effective gonadoprotective drug is yet available for in vivo spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) protection in humans, current evidence supports the feasibility of immature testicular tissue (ITT) cryopreservation. The different cryopreservation protocols and available fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation, are presented. RESULTS obtained in humans are discussed in the light of lessons learned from animal studies. Advances in reproductive technology have made fertility preservation a real possibility in young patients whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. The putative indications for such techniques, as well as their limitations according to disease, are outlined.

  3. The cultural evolution of fertility decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Cultural evolutionists have long been interested in the problem of why fertility declines as populations develop. By outlining plausible mechanistic links between individual decision-making, information flow in populations and competition between groups, models of cultural evolution offer a novel and powerful approach for integrating multiple levels of explanation of fertility transitions. However, only a modest number of models have been published. Their assumptions often differ from those in other evolutionary approaches to social behaviour, but their empirical predictions are often similar. Here I offer the first overview of cultural evolutionary research on demographic transition, critically compare it with approaches taken by other evolutionary researchers, identify gaps and overlaps, and highlight parallel debates in demography. I suggest that researchers divide their labour between three distinct phases of fertility decline—the origin, spread and maintenance of low fertility—each of which may be driven by different causal processes, at different scales, requiring different theoretical and empirical tools. A comparative, multi-level and mechanistic framework is essential for elucidating both the evolved aspects of our psychology that govern reproductive decision-making, and the social, ecological and cultural contingencies that precipitate and sustain fertility decline. PMID:27022079

  4. Determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia | Alemayehu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worldwide, adolescents suffer from a disproportionate share of reproductive health problem. Throughout the world, over 14 million adolescents aged 15-19 years give birth annually. The purpose of this study was to assess the level and identify proximate and other determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia.

  5. interaction between phosphorus fertilizer and arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    examine the interaction between Phosphorus (P) fertilizer and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal ... recorded 28% and 4% total plant dry yield increment respectively over control. This study shows that ... ratio 1:3 inoculant: water, application per ... Table 1: Effect of P and AMF on the dry yield components of cassava (t ha-1).

  6. INFLUENCE OF LEGUME RESIDUE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    to search for more arable land with reduction in fallow period and decline in fertility ... The stalks are used as feed, fuel, thatch making and in roofing houses. ... soil nitrogen content can be a practicable alternative to reduce the use of chemical .... significance of legume in nitrogen fixation and its inclusion to cropping system.

  7. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  8. Multipartnered Fertility and Depression among Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Carlson, Marcia J.

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the association between multipartnered fertility (MPF)--when parents have children with more than one partner--and depression. Random-effects models suggested that MPF is associated with a greater likelihood of depression, net of family structure and other covariates.…

  9. INFLUENCE BY ARTIFICIAL DEFOLIATION AND NPK FERTILIZER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.E. Law-Ogbomo

    main plot, defoliation (sub-plot) and time of defoliation (sub- sub plot). ... using analysis of variance procedure for split – split plot design and means were ... The interaction between NPK fertilizer application and defoliation was only .... yield components (number of dry pod per plant, number of seeds per pod and plant).

  10. 7 CFR 2902.22 - Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Such fertilizers need to meet applicable land disposal restriction standards for any hazardous constituents they contain, as required under 40 CFR 266.20(d). (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a biobased content of at least 71 percent, which shall be based on the amount of...

  11. Integrated Public Education, Fertility and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnert, Leonid V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of integration in public education. I show that the flight from the integrated multicultural public schools to private education increases private educational expenditures and, as a result, decreases fertility among more affluent parents whose children flee. In contrast, among less prosperous parents…

  12. Is glycosylated haemoglobin a marker of fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    1999-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study of time to pregnancy in a population of first-time pregnancy planners without previous reproductive experience. The objective of this paper is to report and discuss a finding of a strong relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and fertility. A total...

  13. Erratum to: Fertilization of SRC Willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  14. Genotype X Fertility Interactions in Seedling Sweetgum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott X. Chang; Daniel J. Robison

    2002-01-01

    Genotype x fertility interactions may affect the suitability of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) for specific sites or the efficiency of nutrient use. To gain a better understanding of these interactions, 2-year-old sweetgum seedlings from two half-sib families were tested for growth response to N (0 and 100 kg/ha equivalent) and P (0 and 50 kg...

  15. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Gunnar; Rønsen, Marit; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2009-01-01

    of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education, resulting in small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Another interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women...

  16. Maternal role rewards, opportunity costs and fertility.

    OpenAIRE

    Oppong C

    1982-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper comprising a literature survey of interrelations between women's social role, maternity and fertility - discusses the social theory background, opportunity cost of children, economic, political, psychic and social status, role rewards, conflicts, etc. Bibliography pp. 35 to 47 and references.

  17. Playing the Fertility Game at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciliberto, Federico; Miller, Amalia Rebecca; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2016-01-01

    . Allowing for heterogeneous effects by worker type, we find that positive effects dominate across worker types defined by age or education. Negative effects dominate within age groups and among low-education types. Policy simulations show that these estimated effects make the distribution of where women...... work an important consideration, beyond simply if they work, in predicting population fertility....

  18. title: fertility intentions, contraceptive awareness and contraceptive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. SOLOMON AVIDIME

    2010 (Special Issue); 14(3): 65. ORIGINAL ... Abstract. This study measured contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive use and fertility intentions among 1408 women of .... the topic of contraception must be approached in a .... Frequencies were run based on respon- ..... clinical characteristics of modern contraceptive users.

  19. Endometriosis and fertility: women's accounts of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K; Fisher, J; Kirkman, M

    2016-03-01

    What do women with endometriosis recall being told about their fertility by their healthcare providers? Women recalled being given varied information and advice, and gave examples of empathic and individualized care from doctors but also reported opportunities for enhancing clinical practice. There is evidence of an association between endometriosis and infertility. However, the strength of this association and the mechanisms that underlie it are not yet known nor are the implications for optimum healthcare. This study used in-depth cross-sectional qualitative research methods. Women aged at least 18 years who lived in Victoria, Australia, and who had been surgically diagnosed with endometriosis were invited to participate in in-depth interviews about their experience of endometriosis. Twenty-six women of diverse backgrounds and experiences of endometriosis were interviewed from January to September 2014. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a data-driven approach. All women encountered medical professionals who were aware of the association between endometriosis and infertility, and who were proactive in ensuring fertility was addressed within endometriosis care. Women recalled being given varied, often conflicting, information about the consequences for their fertility of an endometriosis diagnosis. While some recounted positive experiences with the way their doctor communicated with them about endometriosis and fertility, all women reported adverse experiences such as receiving insufficient or inappropriate information or having their doctor prioritize their fertility over other aspects of their care, including quality of life and symptom relief, without first consulting them. The perspectives of the women's doctors were not sought. The findings may not translate to settings that differ from a predominantly Anglo-Saxon country with both universal public and private healthcare systems. Women's fertility needs and priorities differ for many

  20. The great debate: varicocele treatment and impact on fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Will, Matthew A; Swain, Jason; Fode, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the current literature on the impact and potential mechanisms of varicocele repair on male fertility.......To evaluate the current literature on the impact and potential mechanisms of varicocele repair on male fertility....

  1. Urbanization and Fertility Rates in Ethiopia | Tadesse | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertility rates are important determinants of both overall population growth and ... in turn have important consequences for economic growth, poverty reduction, and ... Ethiopia currently has one of the highest fertility rates in the world, although ...

  2. Evaluation of crop residue retention, compost and inorganic fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil fertility depletion is a serious problem in the highlands of Ethiopia. ... The design was randomized complete block with three replications. ... were obtained from the applications of the recommended nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) fertilizer ...

  3. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration under CGMS system in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    restore complete fertility of a certain CMS line by various restorer lines (Tan et ... Keywords. rice; heterosis; three-way test cross; fertility restoration genetics. Journal of ..... plants indicating a strong genetic load of maintenance in. DE2. Table 8.

  4. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda; Mencarini, Letizia; Tanturri, Maria Letizia; Begall, Katia

    2008-01-01

    Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women's increased labour

  5. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.; Mencarini, L.; Tanturri, M.L.; Begall, K.

    2008-01-01

    Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty in explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women’s increased

  6. Women's Fertility Status Alters Other Women's Jealousy and Mate Guarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Ashalee C; Alquist, Jessica L; Puts, David A

    2017-02-01

    Across three studies, we tested the hypothesis that women exhibit greater jealousy and mate guarding toward women who are in the high (vs. low) fertility phase of their cycle. Women who imagined their partner with a woman pictured at high fertility reported more jealousy than women who imagined their partner with a woman pictured at low fertility (Studies 1 and 2). A meta-analysis across studies manipulating fertility status of the pictured woman found a significant effect of fertility status on both jealousy and mate guarding. Women with attractive partners viewed fertile-phase women as less trustworthy, which led to increased mate guarding (Study 2). In Study 3, the closer women were to peak fertility, the more instances they reported of other women acting jealously and mate guarding toward them. These studies provide evidence that women selectively exhibit jealousy and mate guarding toward women who are near peak fertility.

  7. 8293 EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION AND HARVESTING TIME ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    without the use of fertilizer, as well as the assessment of the effect of fertilizer on their nutritional value. ... positive correlations were observed between the total phenolic compounds content ..... Habanero Chili Pepper (Capsicum chinense).

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor ... learn what sexual changes or changes to your fertility you may have. The changes you may have ...

  9. Ovarian Cysts and Fertility: Is There a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a link between ovarian cysts and fertility? Answers from Charles Coddington, M.D. Some ovarian cysts can be associated with decreased fertility. However, it depends on the type of ovarian ...

  10. Factors Affecting Adoption of Chemical Fertilizer by Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Fertilizer by Smallholder Farmers in Guto Gida District, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. N Eba ... the adoption of fertilizer whereas distance to market and livestocks are negatively influenced ...

  11. Evaluation of fertility traits of Friesian X Bunaji dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of fertility traits of Friesian X Bunaji dairy cows. ... days open (DO) , number of insemination per conception (NIC), and non- return rate 56 days ... Keywords: Fertility, Friesian x Bunaji cows, Parity, Body condition score, Season, Year ...

  12. CAN CHILD-CARE SUPPORT POLICIES HALT DECREASING FERTILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Yasuoka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier papers examine whether child allowances can raise fertility or not in an endogenous fertility model with a defined contribution pension system. They derive that a child allowance can raise fertility. This paper is aimed at deriving the level of child allowances or education subsidies to make the pension system sustainable. A child allowance can raise fertility instantaneously. However, in the long run, fertility might continue decreasing and the pension system might not be sustainable if less child allowance is provided. In a defined benefit system, tax burdens for pension benefits are heavy in an aging society with fewer children. A heavy tax burden reduces the household income and then decreases fertility. Therefore, child allowances must be provided to halt decreasing fertility in the long run. Nevertheless, given parametric conditions, education subsidy of more than a certain level can not halt the decrease of fertility in the long run.

  13. Fertility considerations in young women with hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadoul, Pascale; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    The need for practice guidelines for fertility preservation in young women with hematological malignancies has been increased. To develop recommendations, publications relevant to fertility preservation and hematological cancers were identified through a PubMed database search and reviewed...

  14. Situation on the market of mineral fertilizers in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Zalewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes international and domestic supply-demand situation on the market of mineral fertilizers. The article also analyses factors which had an influence on the increase of mineral fertilizers prices.

  15. Fertility preservation: a challenge for IVF-clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahhan, Taghride; Mol, Femke; Kenter, Gemma G.; Balkenende, Eva M. E.; de Melker, Annemieke A.; van der Veen, Fulco; Dancet, Eline A. F.; Goddijn, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Acute fertility preservation for women is an interdisciplinary treatment that requires adequate information provision and early referral. This quality management project aimed to improve fertility preservation care by using a practical tool: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT)

  16. Indirect Estimation of Selected Measures of Fertility and Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DLHS6

    2018-01-09

    Jan 9, 2018 ... marital status distribution data of India especially of the 2011 census in deriving indirectly the fertility measures .... 2011 Census, Economic and Political weekly, EPW Vol. ... Indirect Estimates of Total Fertility Rate Using Child.

  17. Isotope studies on soil and fertilizer nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Reductions in isotope cost in the 1960s and equipment innovations, have extended compared to 1940, the research of soil and plant scientists so that 15 N is now an indispensable tool when working with N. Leadership of FAO/IAEA coordinated research programmes and the Nitrogen Laboratory of the Tennessee Valley Authority helped greatly in bringing about this expanded usage. Recognized isotope effects are of insufficient magnitude to invalidate tracer measurements of field crop uptake in the treatment year if enrichment of 0.3 at.% excess 15 N or greater is employed. Thus, use of 15 N depleted tracer with potential of 0.366% 15 N differential from the standard isotope ratio of N in air is feasible. Its manufacture has allowed further economy in the isotope tag and ultimate treatment of field-scale plots. Interest in Δ 15 N measurements for predicting the NO - 3 contaminant source in surface and ground waters has depreciated. Variations in natural isotope ratio of soil N commonly exceed the differences in Δ 15 N values of the presumed source materials. 15 N provides the only correct measure of fertilizer N utilization efficiency. The field study examples of irrigated maize demonstrate that little or no fertilizer N is likely to escape the root zone where the rate applied does not exceed that required for maximum yield; also, that light and frequent irrigations afford higher yields than heavier, less frequent irrigations. Delaying fertilizer N applications until the crop is well established affords not only higher yields, but greater residual fertilizer N for future crops. Measured effective root activity for absorbing NO - 3 has been invaluable in estimating fertilizer requirements of a crop in relation to residual mineral N in soil at planting and projecting the depth at which the NO - 3 becomes an environmental hazard. The tag likewise is indispensable in determining symbiotic N fixation

  18. Marriage and fertility in the developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westoff, C F

    1978-12-01

    Most developed countries have reached zero population growth or less and, while population projections have often proved badly off-target, it seems that currently low fertility levels are the result of a long-term trend, which was interrupted in the last 100 years only by the still-unexplained postwar baby boom, and which will probably continue. The declining trend has accompanied economic development and modernization, which have transformed the economic value of children, making them a drain on resources rather than a source of income. The concomitant social changes seem largely irreversible: urban economy, the decline in traditional authority, universal, prolonged education, equality of women, low infant mortality, high consumer demands and sophisticated birth control technology are all here to stay. The theory that fertility exhibits a cyclical pattern based on people's perception of their degree of economic and social opportunity ignores the other elements affecting fertility behavior, especially the radical change in the status and expectations of women. Several trends in marriage and reproductive behavior in the U.S., Denmark and Sweden reinforce the presumption that fertility will remain low: declining number of marriages; postponement of marriage; increased tendency for unmarried couples to live together; instability of marriage shown by high divorce rates and declining remarriage rates; and increasing economic activity by women. The traditional institution of marriage is losing its economic, sexual, sociological and parenting rationales. Thus, declining fertility is both cause and consequence of changes in marriage. In Europe, where the decline is more advanced than in the U.S., governments are concerned that population growth will be too low and have instituted social welfare measures to induce and facilitate childbearing and childrearing. As women become more career-oriented, greater incentives will have to be provided. Manipulating immigration quotas

  19. Soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues: Evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Falco, Salvatore; Zoupanidou, Elisavet

    2017-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between soil fertility, crop biodiversity, and farmers' revenues. We use a large, original, farm-level panel dataset. Findings indicate that both crop biodiversity and soil fertility have positive effects on farmers' revenues. It is also shown that crop biodiversity and soil fertility may act as substitutes. These results provide evidence for the important role of diversity in the resilience of agroecosystems. Crop diversification can be a potential strategy to support productivity when soils are less fertile.

  20. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  1. Determination of arsenic content in the waste sludge from a fertilizer factory of Bangladesh by XRF and EPMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, N.N.; Debnath, T.K.; Roy, T.K.; Saha, K.D.; Alam, B.; Sarkar, M.; Lui, A.

    1994-01-01

    The waste sludge from a fertilizer factory of Bangladesh has been analysed by x-ray fluorescence analysis and electron probe micro-analysis in Bangladesh, Germany and Italy. All these tests confirm that the waste contains approx. 50% by wt of arsenic which is a highly toxic element. The authority has taken proper steps in disposing the waste. (author)

  2. FERTILIZATION OF VINE BY A 5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AND ITS PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMR IMANSK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the effect of different doses of NPKS fertilizer added into the soil for nutrient contents in the soil, as well as the quantity and quality of grapes. During the vegetation of the vine, we tested the 5-aminolevulinic acid-based fertilizer (ALA. We summarize that higher doses of fertilizer added into soil caused higher amounts of available nutrients. During the vegetation of the vine an increase of ALA had a positive effect on the optimal balance of nutrients. Fertilization also increased the grape-vine yield, with the strongest effect (by 68% observed due to the application of ALA during the vegetation period of the vine. Added fertilizers had a statistically significant influence on decreased sugar concentration in the grape-vine however the addition of fertilizer into the soil, mainly the application of ALA during vegetation of the vine (by 57% had a positive effect on increase of the total content of sugar in the grape-vine, produced on 1 hectare. The year had a significant influence on the economical evaluation.

  3. Measuring P availability in soils fertilized with water-soluble P fertilizers using 32P methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Isotope exchange kinetics was used in conjunction with standard procedures for assessing soil P status in soils fertilized with soluble phosphatic fertilizers. Soil samples were collected before fertilizer application in year 1 (one) from 23 of the 30 sites of the National Reactive Phosphate Rock project. Soil phosphorus test values were plotted against indices of pasture response to applied fertilizer, to assess the effectiveness of the various soil tests to predict site responsiveness to applied fertilizer. Isotopically exchangeable P was only weakly related to other measures of available P, with resin P having the best relationship with E values. In some samples, very large values for isotopically exchangeable P (E values) were determined in relation to P extractable by all reagents. Examination of the data however, revealed that all the samples with large E values in relation to extractable P had very low equilibrium concentrations of solution P and high buffering capacities. The best soil test, Bray 1, could account for only 50% of the variation in plant responsiveness to applied fertilizer, with Olsen and Resin tests slightly worse at 41% and the isotopic procedure at 39%. (author)

  4. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  5. Determinants of fertility in Namibia | Indongo | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-depth studies on fertility in Namibia have been lacking so far. This examines the fertility trends in Namibia over the past 2 decades and examines fertility differentials across the various sub-groups of Namibia population, and factors affecting such differentials using NDHS data. Estimates of the amount of variance in the ...

  6. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of different fertilizer product types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasler, K.; Broering, S.; Omta, S.W.F.; Olfs, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate use of fertilizer in crop production to limit the environmental impact is essential for sustainable agriculture. While much is known about the environmental impact of fertilizer production only a limited amount of data is available covering the whole fertilizer supply chain. Up to now no

  7. Baby booms and busts: waves in fertility patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, G.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Fertility curves sometimes resemble sea waves. During periods that the fertility age patterns change, according to whatever reason, 'this sea' may become very turbulent. Also other sea-like phenomena, for example tsunamis, are discernible in fertility behaviour. This article gives a short overview

  8. Production efficiency and economic potential of different soil fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides the economic evaluation of different soil fertility replenishing technologies (use of inorganic fertilizers, organic manure, and rhizobium inoculant) that were tested during field studies and recommended to groundnut farmers. Data on soil fertility technologies used by households, groundnut yields, and ...

  9. Determinants of adolescent fertility in Malawi | Palamuleni | Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High adolescent fertility is recognized as a global challenge given its adverse consequences. As such understanding the factors that influence adolescent fertility is critical to addressing this challenge. This study aims at examining the causes of adolescent fertility in Malawi using the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health ...

  10. Assessment of Fertility Status of Soils Supporting Coconut ( Cocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coconut cultivation is mostly practiced in the Western and Central regions of Ghana. Information on the fertility status of the soils on which coconuts are grown and possible fertilizer recommendation is not common. Since coconut yield is generally related to the fertility status of the soil, a study was conducted to evaluate the ...

  11. Computational identification of fertility functions of bovine Reprimo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement in fertility is possible through gene assisted selection. Cattle fertility and genes underlying it should be thoroughly studied and exploited to find solution to declining cattle fertility. Reprimo (RPRM) gene is a pleiotropic gene involved in suppression of cancer, regulation of mitotic cell cycle, cell cycle arrest and ...

  12. How does variance in fertility change over the demographic transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruschka, Daniel J; Burger, Oskar

    2016-04-19

    Most work on the human fertility transition has focused on declines in mean fertility. However, understanding changes in the variance of reproductive outcomes can be equally important for evolutionary questions about the heritability of fertility, individual determinants of fertility and changing patterns of reproductive skew. Here, we document how variance in completed fertility among women (45-49 years) differs across 200 surveys in 72 low- to middle-income countries where fertility transitions are currently in progress at various stages. Nearly all (91%) of samples exhibit variance consistent with a Poisson process of fertility, which places systematic, and often severe, theoretical upper bounds on the proportion of variance that can be attributed to individual differences. In contrast to the pattern of total variance, these upper bounds increase from high- to mid-fertility samples, then decline again as samples move from mid to low fertility. Notably, the lowest fertility samples often deviate from a Poisson process. This suggests that as populations move to low fertility their reproduction shifts from a rate-based process to a focus on an ideal number of children. We discuss the implications of these findings for predicting completed fertility from individual-level variables. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Determinants of fertility in Ethiopia | Ayele | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The most important elements to determine the rate of population growth is fertility. Fertility is the main element to affect the welfare of mother. The survival of a child can be affected by high fertility and shorter birth intervals. Methods: For this study, the linear mixed model was used to determine factors affecting ...

  14. Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer and cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of anhydrous magnesium sulphate fertilizer on Panicum maximum yield and chemical composition of the resultant herbage harvested at 3, 4 and 5 weeks of age was investigated. The treatments were labeled T1 to T6. T1 was fertilized and harvested at 3 weeks cutting interval, T2 was fertilized and harvested at 4 ...

  15. Trace determination of uranium in fertilizer samples by total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uranium is reported to be present in phosphate fertilizers. The recovery of uranium from the fertilizers is important because it can be used as fuel in nuclear reactors and also because of environmental concerns. For both these activities suitable method of uranium determinations at trace levels in these fertilizers are required.

  16. In-Vitro Fertilization Practice: Awareness and Perceptions Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,6. 7-9. 10,11. 12-15. 16. 17. MATERIALS AND METHODS. In-Vitro Fertilization Practice: Awareness and Perceptions. Among Women Attending Fertility ..... technology. In: Kruger TF, Van der Spuy ZM,. Kempers RD, (Eds). Advance in fertility studies and reproductive medicine. Cape Town. Juta and. Co. Ltd, 2007: 234-240.

  17. Dynamic weighing for accurate fertilizer application and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergeijk, van J.; Goense, D.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Speelman, L.

    2001-01-01

    The mass flow of fertilizer spreaders must be calibrated for the different types of fertilizers used. To obtain accurate fertilizer application manual calibration of actual mass flow must be repeated frequently. Automatic calibration is possible by measurement of the actual mass flow, based on

  18. Operational optimization of organic fertilizer application in greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert, van F.K.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Heinen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Organic fertilizers are the only fertilizers used in organic greenhouse horticulture. The nitrogen (N) in these fertilizers must be mineralized before it can be taken up by the crop. This makes it a challenge to minimize N losses while ensuring that adequate N is available to the crop at all times.

  19. Parental knowledge of fertility in male childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Langeveld, Nelia E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In childhood, cancer survivors fertility is a major point of concern. In boys, only semen analysis and impregnation confirm fertility. Since parents constitute a major source of information for children, we investigated recall and assumptions on their child's fertility. PROCEDURE: One

  20. A socio-economic survey among cocoa farmers on fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A socio-economic survey was conducted in some districts of the six cocoa growing regions of Ghana to provide information for adjustment of government's fertilizer use policy on cocoa farms. The study's objectives were to determine the proportion of farmers applying fertilizer to their farms, investigate the fertilizer application ...

  1. Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... common game bird in Africa and there have been efforts to domesticate it for use as a source of human food. An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg fertility, hatch rate ...

  2. Fertilizer use efficiency by maize (Zea mays) and egusi- melon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DBOY

    fertilizers by maize and egusi-melon in various ratios of mixtures in an ultisol in ... fertilizers replicated three timesfor two years as experiments 2009 and 2010, .... design. In 2011, the fertilizer rates were increased to six to further determine the ...

  3. Trace determination of uranium in fertilizer samples by total ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the fertilizers is important because it can be used as fuel in nuclear reactors and also because of en- vironmental concerns. ... The amounts of uranium in four fertilizer samples of Hungarian origin were determined by ... TXRF determination of uranium from phosphate fertilizers of Hungarian origin and the preliminary results ...

  4. Radiological Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers used in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemli, Khaoula

    2010-01-01

    The need of control of natural radioactivity in the environment and the radiological impact of the use of chemical fertilizers has led us in this work to measure the natural radioactivity of the phosphate fertilizers in Tunisia. The distribution of various radionuclides during their manufacturing process of fertilizers is also part of this work.

  5. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Promoting interspecies electron transfer with biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla

    2014-01-01

    Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar...... biochar may enhance methane production from organic wastes under anaerobic conditions....

  7. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2003-01-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  8. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  9. Evaluating the influence of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria as a bio-fertilizer under different fertility sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical fertilizers are being extensively used to satisfy the increasing demand for food. However, utilization of chemical fertilizers can be costly and over application for ensuring crop productivity may lead to environmental problems. As a result, interest in using bio-fertilizers to improve soil...

  10. Iron fertilization enhanced net community production but not downward particle flux during the Southern Ocean iron fertilization experiment LOHAFEX

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Martin, P.; Loeff, M.M.R. van der.; Cassar, N.; Vandromme, P.; d'Ovidio, F.; Stemmann, L.; Rengarajan, R.; Soares, M.A.; Gonzalez, H.E.; Ebersbach, F.; Lampitt, R.S.; Sanders, R.; Barnett, B.A.; Smetacek, V.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    A closed eddy core in the Subantarctic Atlantic Ocean was fertilized twice with two tons of iron (as FeSO4), and the 300 km2 fertilized patch was studied for 39 days to test whether fertilization enhances downward particle flux...

  11. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  12. The Rule of Organic Fertilizer on Fertilizer Efficiency and Requirement Rate for Vegetable Crop on Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladiyani Retno Widowati

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of organic fertilizer is an alternative to increase soil health and supply a small amount of plant nutrient. Meanwhile agricultural soil in Indonesia commonly have low organic carbon content (<2% therefore application of organic fertilizer is recommended. Based on that, the aim of the research is to measure the effectiveness of organic fertilizer on caisim (Brassica chinensis L. growth, to measure the release of N-NO3- and N-NH4+, to determine the recommendation of organic fertilizer for caisim on Incentisols Ciherang, Bogor. The research had been conducted at Research and Soil Testing Laboratory and green house of Soil Research Institute, Laladon – Bogor on April to July 2008 using soil sample of Inceptisols Ciherang, Bogor. The treatments were: Control (no fertilizer, NPK, NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¾ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ½ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, ¼ NPK + 500 kg organic fertilizer, organic fertilizer 500kg, organic fertilizer 1000 kg, NPK + 750 kg organic fertilizer, and NPK + 250 kg organic fertilizer. The five replications research had been conducted with Completely Randomized Design. The result indicated thats: (1 NPK fertilizer increased with addition of organic fertilizer approved by the evidence of increasing of plant high 2-10%, leaves number 1-2%, and crop production 16-36%. The relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE of treatment NPK+various rate of organic fertilizer were higher than NPK alone with value of 136-181%. (2 The release of NH4+-N and NO3--N from anorganic fertilizer (NPK treatment in four weeks incubation period showed balance proportion with N rate. Nitrogen released from organic fertilizer in the same incubation period are 5.39 mg NH4+-N kg-1 and 12.39 mg NO3- -N kg-1. (3 The best organic fertilizer rate based on fertilizer curve for Inceptisols Cicadas-Bogor having low C and N-organic is 560 kg organic fertilizer + NPK (300 kg Urea ha-1; 50 kg SP-36 ha-1; 50 kg KCl ha-1 produce

  13. THE FERTILITY DECLINE IN THE UNITED STATES: SCHOOLING AND INCOME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter Sandholt; Lønstrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of the fertility transition in the United States from 1850 to the end of the 20th century. We find a robust negative relation between years of schooling and fertility. The magnitude of our baseline estimate suggests that the rise in schooling accounts...... for about 60% of the US fertility decline. In contrast, we find no evidence of a robust relation between income per capita and fertility. This pattern corroborates theories stressing the importance of human capital investments in generating a transition from high to low fertility....

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Li, Yunju; Su, Yufang; Tennigkeit, Timm; Wilkes, Andreas; Xu, Jianchu

    2010-01-01

    The use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers is an important driver of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China. This paper develops a GHG emission factor for synthetic N fertilizer application in China. Using this emission factor, we estimate the scale of GHG emissions from synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use in Chinese agriculture and explore the potential for GHG emission reductions from efficiency improvements in N fertilizer production and use. The paper concludes with a discussion on costs and financing for a large-scale fertilizer efficiency improvement program in China, and how a GHG mitigation framework might contribute to program design.

  15. Fertility and its relationship with sociocultural factors in Kuwaiti society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandari, Y Y

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of some sociocultural variables on the fertility of Kuwaiti women. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 7749 married women (aged 15-78 years) selected randomly from 10 primary health care clinics in Kuwait. The fertility rate was 3.58 live births per woman. Fertility was higher among Sunni Muslim women, those of Bedouin ethnicity, and those in a consanguineous marriage (P relationship between fertility and respondents' educational level, occupation, age at marriage, socioeconomic status and type of marriage (consanguineous or not). There was a positive relationship between fertility and the respondents' age and the family income.

  16. Fessibility Study on Nitrogen in Explosives using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Chemical Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dararutana, P.

    2014-01-01

    It was known that an explosive is defined as a material which contains a large amount of energy stored in chemical bonds. The energetic stability of gaseous products, and hence, their generation come from the strong bond formation of carbon (mono/di)oxide and (di)nitrogen. Consequently, most commercial explosives are contained -NO 2 , -ONO 2 and/or -NHNO 2 groups which when detonated release gases like the aforementioned ones, e.g., nitroglycerin, TNT, HMX, PETN, nitrocellulose, etc. It was revealed that the elemental compositions, especially N was found in most of the explosive and fertilizer. Chemical fertilizers that used as explosive stimulants were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). XPS spectra showed relatively high amount of nitrogen (N) in the various samples, especially sample #6 and #7. In addition, the elemental analysis revealed the presence of trace elements. Explosives and fertilizers have differences in specific compositions. It can be concluded that these methods seem to be used as a fingerprint examination to identify various kinds of explosives and fertilizers.

  17. General aspects of fertility and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damario, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fertility rates have been declining in most Western nations over the past several decades, although it is not entirely clear if an increased rate of infertility substantially contributes to this. As compared to other species, the reproductive efficiency of humans is relatively low. Factors related to fertility include age, exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, frequency of intercourse, coital timing, as well as diet and lifestyle habits. Infertility is considered a disease due to its major disruption of major organ systems and life functions. An infertility evaluation is recommended after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected intercourse and may be considered after 6 months for those female patients over the age of 35 or with other known abnormalities. A proper infertility evaluation is a comprehensive examination of possibly identifiable infertility factors of both female and male partners, lending itself to the most appropriate and potentially effective treatment.

  18. Fertility preservation in women with CNS tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoni, Alicia; Balestrini, Damiano; Brandes, Alba A

    2017-05-01

    Fertility impairment due to treatments is a major concern for adolescents and young adult patients who survived cancer. Areas covered: Chemotherapy may determine a detrimental effect on ovary function, leading to infertility, and premature ovarian failure. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation is a standard strategy for fertility preservation; other strategies, such as gonadal tissue cryopreservation and the use of gonadotropin - releasing hormone agonist, are still considered experimental. There are few data available regarding the effect of pregnancy on glioma, which indicates tumor progression during pregnancy in 33-45% of patients. Expert commentary: Glioma patients need to be advised about the risk of tumor progression during pregnancy, and about the possible, even if not proven, interaction between hormone stimulation and tumor growth.

  19. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....... chorionic gonadotropin. Oocytes were collected by ultrasonically guided transvaginal aspiration, and spermatozoa were prepared by swim-up technique. The gametes were placed in agar capsules 4 hr after oocyte collection, and the capsules were introduced to the uterine fundus using an insertion tube...

  20. Micronutrients as Impurities of Inorganic Fertilizers Marketed in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Modaihsh

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic fertilizers with major nutrients are likely to be contaminated with some micronutrients. Fertilizers, utilized in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed for their total and water-soluble content of Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. They represented three categories namely: phosphatic, solid multiple nutrient fertilizers (SMNF and water-soluble multiple nutrient fertilizers (WSMF. Total iron content in examined fertilizers was higher in phosphatic fertilizers and lower in WSMF. Nevertheless, only a very small portion of the total iron content is likely to be available to plants. It was estimated, on the basis of total content, that almost 2 g of iron would be applied to soil for each added kg of phosphatic fertilizer. The highest total content of Zn was recorded for phosphatic fertilizers. The data suggested that less than half kg of Zn would be accumulated in soil if 500 kg of phosphatic fertilizers were applied in one year. This value however, fell dramatically, to one fourth of the value, when only the available forms of Zn were considered. Fertilizer content of manganese and copper were lower than both Fe and Zn. Micronutrient impurities present in inorganic fertilizers might not have an immediate influence on plant nutrition due to their lower solubility.

  1. Marketing Green Fertilizers: Insights into Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Dahlin; Verena Halbherr; Peter Kurz; Michael Nelles; Carsten Herbes

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to support the long-term viability of the bioenergy industry through an end market for digestate, we investigated purchasing preferences for fertilizer product features in the home gardening market. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE), presenting 504 respondents with a total of 6048 product attribute choices in a simulated context that replicated the tradeoff decisions made in the real marketplace. We analyzed the choice data using a hierarchical Bayes estimate to gen...

  2. Fertility and Childbearing Among American Female Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentz, Natalie Clark; Griffith, Kent A; Perkins, Elena; Jones, Rochelle DeCastro; Jagsi, Reshma

    2016-10-01

    Female physicians may experience unique challenges regarding fertility and family planning. We sought to determine childbearing patterns and decision-making among American female physicians. In 2012-2013, we surveyed a random sample of 600 female physicians who graduated medical school between 1995 and 2000. Primary outcome measures included fertility and childbearing history, reflections regarding decision-making, perceptions of workplace support, and estimations of childbearing potential. Response rate was 54.5% (327/600). A majority (82.0%) of the sample were parents, 77.4% had biological children with an average of 2.3 children. Average age at medical school graduation was 27.5 years, at completion of training (completion of medical school, residency, and/or fellowship) was 31.6 years, and at first pregnancy was 30.4 years. Nearly one quarter (24.1%) of respondents who had attempted conception were diagnosed with infertility, with an average age at diagnosis of 33.7 years. Among those with infertility, 29.3% reported diminished ovarian reserve. When asked what they would do differently in retrospect, most respondents (56.8%) would do nothing differently regarding fertility/conception/childbearing, 28.6% would have attempted conception earlier, 17.1% would have gone into a different specialty, and 7.0% would have used cryopreservation to extend fertility. Fewer of those whose first pregnancy was in medical school perceived substantial workplace support (68.2%) than those whose first pregnancies followed training (88.6%). A substantial proportion of female physicians have faced infertility or have regrets about family planning decisions and career decision-making. Combining a medical career with motherhood continues to pose challenges, meriting further investigation and targeted support.

  3. The 'Own Children' fertility estimation procedure: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Christopher; St Clair, Travis; Levin, Michael; Hill, Kenneth

    2013-07-01

    The Full Birth History has become the dominant source of estimates of fertility levels and trends for countries lacking complete birth registration. An alternative, the 'Own Children' method, derives fertility estimates from household age distributions, but is now rarely used, partly because of concerns about its accuracy. We compared the estimates from these two procedures by applying them to 56 recent Demographic and Health Surveys. On average, 'Own Children' estimates of recent total fertility rates are 3 per cent lower than birth-history estimates. Much of this difference stems from selection bias in the collection of birth histories: women with more children are more likely to be interviewed. We conclude that full birth histories overestimate total fertility, and that the 'Own Children' method gives estimates of total fertility that may better reflect overall national fertility. We recommend the routine application of the 'Own Children' method to census and household survey data to estimate fertility levels and trends.

  4. Reduced male fertility in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in cancer treatment, more pediatric cancer patients have increased their life expectancy. Because cancer-related therapy causes various physical and psychological problems, many male survivors experience later problems with thyroid and sexual functions, and with growth. As outcomes have improved, more survivors need to maintain their reproductive function to maximize their long-term quality of life. Cancer and cancer-related treatment can impair fertility by damage to the testes, to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, or to the genitourinary organs. Prior radiation therapy to the testes, the use of alkylating agents, and central hypogonadism further impair fertility in male survivors of childhood cancer. Following any course of chemotherapy, peripubertal maturation, any testicular volume changes, and symptoms of androgen deficiency should be monitored systematically. If patients request fertility testing, spermatogenesis status can be evaluated either directly by semen analysis or indirectly by determination of the levels of testosterone/gonadotropins and by monitoring any changes in testicular volume. According to the patient's condition, semen cryopreservation, hormonal therapy, or assisted reproduction technologies should be provided.

  5. Fertility targets and policy options in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatao, R A

    1984-11-01

    The 3rd Asian and Pacific Population Conference in Colombo in 1982 recommended that countries review and modify existing demographic targets and goals for reducing birth and death rates in order to attain low levels as early as possible and to attain replacement level by the year 2000. The demographic goals of selected Asian countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines are assessed and compared to World Bank population projections. It also discusses the underlying rationale for setting fertility targets, and considers what government actions could make them more achievable. 6 stages for controlling population are distinguished: 1) collection and publication of reliable demographic data; 2) enunciation of an official policy to reduce population growth; 3) development of appropriate institutions to integrate demographic projections into economic plans; 4) promotion of family planning; 5) provision of incentives and disincentives, including elimination of all implicit and explicit subsidies for child bearing; and 6) restitution of birth quotas requiring permission for each child born. Principles to maintain and accelerate fertility declines to meet demographic targets include creating appropriate and equitable development policies, increasing the standard of family planning programs, confronting organizational problems, providing easier and more equal access to contraceptive methods, exploring innovative approaches to encourage smaller families and making a firm political commitment to population control. Rapid fertility decline will also require financial commitment. Willingness to spend the necessary amounts, and the capacity to spend them as well, will determine whether the countries of Asia enter the next century in control of their population.

  6. Fertility in female survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Biasoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Hodgkin's lymphoma is one of the most curable types of cancer. Patients are often young and so the long-term morbidities of treatment have become of increasing concern. Among these, infertility is one of the most challenging consequences for patients in reproductive age. Premature ovarian failure in premenopausal women is a serious long-term sequel of the toxicity of chemotherapy. The main consequence of this syndrome is infertility, but women also present other symptoms related to estrogen deprivation. Different rates of impaired gonadal function are reported, depending on the patient's age, stage of disease, dose and intensity of chemotherapy and the use of radiation therapy. The most established strategy in female infertility is cryopreservation of embryos after in vitro fertilization. Additionally, the use of oral contraceptives or gonadotropinreleasing hormone analogs (GnRH-a during treatment is under study. This review will provide a general overview of the main studies conducted to evaluate the infertility rate among female Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors and risk factors associated to treatment, different end-point definitions for evaluating fertility and also a brief description of the available strategies for fertility preservation.

  7. Should fertility clinics divest themselves of pornography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2016-12-01

    Some commentators object to the way in which fertility clinics make pornography available to men as an aid to masturbation when those men produce sperm for evaluation, storage or IVF. These objections typically rely on claims that pornography is generally harmful to women, unnecessary and dissociates sexual acts from conception. In light of these objections, certain commentators want fertility clinics to divest themselves of pornography, but these objections to pornography are not morally convincing. In general, pornography can have psychological value to men masturbating 'on demand' in clinical contexts. Not all erotica must, either, work to the disadvantage of women in its means of production or social effects. Moreover, the sexuality expressed in masturbation has a value of its own, and conception apart from sexual intercourse is morally defensible on its own. Divestment from pornography would do little to constrain the putative harms of pornography because clinics consume only a fractional amount of the total amount of pornography available. The provision of pornography is a defensible clinical practice, even if it is not absolutely necessary to all men in producing a sperm sample important to their fertility or their interests in donating gametes.

  8. Marketing Green Fertilizers: Insights into Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Dahlin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to support the long-term viability of the bioenergy industry through an end market for digestate, we investigated purchasing preferences for fertilizer product features in the home gardening market. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE, presenting 504 respondents with a total of 6048 product attribute choices in a simulated context that replicated the tradeoff decisions made in the real marketplace. We analyzed the choice data using a hierarchical Bayes estimate to generate part-worth utilities for fertilizer product attributes. We then conducted a latent class analysis to identify market segments that could be expected to respond to differentiated product design strategies. We were able to quantify both purchasing preferences for fertilizer product attributes as well as the importance of each attribute to the perceived utility of a product. We were further able to identify five distinct market segments that make clear the potential for differentiated strategies in the home gardening market. We found both negative and positive price sensitivities, with sociodemographically distinct subgroups that favored low-, mid-, and high-priced products. We also found purchasing preferences for brand status, product labeling and nutrient values. Our results provide insights that should help product managers in the biogas industry develop marketing strategies to integrate digestate into a sustainable energy production system.

  9. The impact of freedom on fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Martha M; Prata, Ndola; Potts, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Although fertility decline often correlates with improvements in socioeconomic conditions, many demographers have found flaws in demographic transition theories that depend on changes in distal factors such as increased wealth or education. Human beings worldwide engage in sexual intercourse much more frequently than is needed to conceive the number of children they want, and for women who do not have access to the information and means they need to separate sex from childbearing, the default position is a large family. In many societies, male patriarchal drives to control female reproduction give rise to unnecessary medical rules constraining family planning (including safe abortion) or justifying child marriage. Widespread misinformation about contraception makes women afraid to adopt modern family planning. The barriers to family planning can be so deeply infused that for many women the idea of managing their fertility is not considered an option. Conversely, there is evidence that once family planning is introduced into a society, then it is normal consumer behaviour for individuals to welcome a new technology they had not wanted until it became realistically available. We contend that in societies free from child marriage, wherever women have access to a range of contraceptive methods, along with correct information and backed up by safe abortion, family size will always fall. Education and wealth can make the adoption of family planning easier, but they are not prerequisites for fertility decline. By contrast, access to family planning itself can accelerate economic development and the spread of education.

  10. Microwave enhanced oxidation treatment of organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Abhilasha; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping Huang; Lo, Kwang Victor

    2017-08-01

    Liquid organic fertilizers (LOFs) are relatively easier to degrade than those of solid organic fertilizers, and the nutrients are readily available for plant uptake. Microwave enhanced advanced oxidation treatment (MW/H 2 O 2 -AOP) was used to convert solid organic fertilizers (insoluble blood meal, bone meal, feather meal, sunflower ash and a mixture) into LOF. After the MW/H 2 O 2 -AOP treatment, high soluble nitrogen (11-29%), soluble phosphorus (64%) and potassium (92%), as well as low total suspended solids content could be obtained. The resulting LOF would make the nutrients more bioavailable, and would provide some of them for the plant uptake immediately. Temperature and hydrogen peroxide dosage were found to be significant factors affecting nitrogen release from blood meal and feather meal, while temperature and pH were found to be significant factors for solubilizing phosphorus and potassium from bone meal and ash, respectively. The MW/H 2 O 2 -AOP reduced suspended solids, and released nutrients into solution; therefore, it was an effective treatment method to make LOFs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Stability of post-fertilization traveling waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gilberto; Plaza, Ramón G.

    This paper studies the stability of a family of traveling wave solutions to the system proposed by Lane et al. [D.C. Lane, J.D. Murray, V.S. Manoranjan, Analysis of wave phenomena in a morphogenetic mechanochemical model and an application to post-fertilization waves on eggs, IMA J. Math. Appl. Med. Biol. 4 (4) (1987) 309-331], to model a pair of mechanochemical phenomena known as post-fertilization waves on eggs. The waves consist of an elastic deformation pulse on the egg's surface, and a free calcium concentration front. The family is indexed by a coupling parameter measuring contraction stress effects on the calcium concentration. This work establishes the spectral, linear and nonlinear orbital stability of these post-fertilization waves for small values of the coupling parameter. The usual methods for the spectral and evolution equations cannot be applied because of the presence of mixed partial derivatives in the elastic equation. Nonetheless, exponential decay of the directly constructed semigroup on the complement of the zero eigenspace is established. We show that small perturbations of the waves yield solutions to the nonlinear equations decaying exponentially to a phase-modulated traveling wave.

  12. Should fertility clinics divest themselves of pornography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Murphy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Some commentators object to the way in which fertility clinics make pornography available to men as an aid to masturbation when those men produce sperm for evaluation, storage or IVF. These objections typically rely on claims that pornography is generally harmful to women, unnecessary and dissociates sexual acts from conception. In light of these objections, certain commentators want fertility clinics to divest themselves of pornography, but these objections to pornography are not morally convincing. In general, pornography can have psychological value to men masturbating ‘on demand’ in clinical contexts. Not all erotica must, either, work to the disadvantage of women in its means of production or social effects. Moreover, the sexuality expressed in masturbation has a value of its own, and conception apart from sexual intercourse is morally defensible on its own. Divestment from pornography would do little to constrain the putative harms of pornography because clinics consume only a fractional amount of the total amount of pornography available. The provision of pornography is a defensible clinical practice, even if it is not absolutely necessary to all men in producing a sperm sample important to their fertility or their interests in donating gametes.

  13. Fertilizers mobilization in alluvial aquifer: laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrocicco, M.; Colombani, N.; Palpacelli, S.

    2009-02-01

    In alluvial plains, intensive farming with conspicuous use of agrochemicals, can cause land pollution and groundwater contamination. In central Po River plain, paleo-channels are important links between arable lands and the underlaying aquifer, since the latter is often confined by clay sediments that act as a barrier against contaminants migration. Therefore, paleo-channels are recharge zones of particular interest that have to be protected from pollution as they are commonly used for water supply. This paper focuses on fertilizer mobilization next to a sand pit excavated in a paleo-channel near Ferrara (Italy). The problem is approached via batch test leaking and columns elution of alluvial sediments. Results from batch experiments showed fast increase in all major cations and anions, suggesting equilibrium control of dissolution reactions, limited availability of solid phases and geochemical homogeneity of samples. In column experiments, early elution and tailing of all ions breakthrough was recorded due to preferential flow paths. For sediments investigated in this study, dispersion, dilution and chemical reactions can reduce fertilizers at concentration below drinking standards in a reasonable time frame, provided fertilizer loading is halted or, at least, reduced. Thus, the definition of a corridor along paleo-channels is recommended to preserve groundwater quality.

  14. WATER CHEMISTRY IN DIFFERENTLY FERTILIZED CARP POUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Fašaić

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Water chemistry in carp ponds - fry carp ponds, each of them 2.5 acres big and 1.5 meter deep, as well as in inflow water in the ponds was researched. Fourty days old carp fingerlings were bread in the ponds; stock density of the three day old larvae was 1,000.000 ind˙ha-1. The fingerlings were fed with trouvit and flour. In the ponds and the inflow water the following chemical parameters were examined: : 02, C02, CaC03-, RC03-, outgoing of KMn04, N02-, N03-, NR4+, urea, PO43-, P205 and pH. During the breeding season substantial deviations of all the chemical parameters were stated, but within values that satisfy the needs of the carp ponds. The applied quantity of the mineral fertilizer did not cause a very explicit eutrophication of water in the treated ponds. Certain differences in the quantity of the respective chemical indicators in the fertilized pond variants compared to the nonfertilized variant were insignificant (P**0.05, except the pH value, which increased significantly in the fertilized variants (P<0.05. Compared with the inflow water, in all experimental ponds the quantity of the mineral nitrogen and phosphorus fractions (P<0.05, (P<0.05 has increased. (Tables 5 and 6

  15. Fertility and Life Satisfaction in Rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzo, Pierluigi; Fuochi, Giulia; Mencarini, Letizia

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent strong interest in the link between fertility and subjective well-being, the focus has centered on developed countries. For poorer countries, in contrast, the relationship remains rather elusive. Using a well-established panel survey-the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey (ERHS)-we investigate the empirical relationship between fertility and life satisfaction in rural Ethiopia, the largest landlocked country in Africa. Consistent with the fertility theories for developing countries and with the sociodemographic characteristics of rural Ethiopia, we hypothesize that this relationship varies by gender and across life stages, being more positive for men and for parents in old age. Indeed, our results suggest that older men benefit the most in terms of life satisfaction from having a large number of children, while the recent birth of a child is detrimental for the subjective well-being of women at reproductive ages. We address endogeneity issues by using lagged life satisfaction in ordinary least squares regressions, through fixed-effects estimation and the use of instrumental variables.

  16. Reverse survival method of fertility estimation: An evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Spoorenberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the most part, demographers have relied on the ever-growing body of sample surveys collecting full birth history to derive total fertility estimates in less statistically developed countries. Yet alternative methods of fertility estimation can return very consistent total fertility estimates by using only basic demographic information. Objective: This paper evaluates the consistency and sensitivity of the reverse survival method -- a fertility estimation method based on population data by age and sex collected in one census or a single-round survey. Methods: A simulated population was first projected over 15 years using a set of fertility and mortality age and sex patterns. The projected population was then reverse survived using the Excel template FE_reverse_4.xlsx, provided with Timæus and Moultrie (2012. Reverse survival fertility estimates were then compared for consistency to the total fertility rates used to project the population. The sensitivity was assessed by introducing a series of distortions in the projection of the population and comparing the difference implied in the resulting fertility estimates. Results: The reverse survival method produces total fertility estimates that are very consistent and hardly affected by erroneous assumptions on the age distribution of fertility or by the use of incorrect mortality levels, trends, and age patterns. The quality of the age and sex population data that is 'reverse survived' determines the consistency of the estimates. The contribution of the method for the estimation of past and present trends in total fertility is illustrated through its application to the population data of five countries characterized by distinct fertility levels and data quality issues. Conclusions: Notwithstanding its simplicity, the reverse survival method of fertility estimation has seldom been applied. The method can be applied to a large body of existing and easily available population data

  17. Use of isotopically labeled fertilizer to trace nitrogen fertilizer contributions to surface, soil, and ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, D.H.; Blevins, D.W.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    The fate and transport of a single N fertilizer application through plants, soil, runoff, and the unsaturated and saturated zones was determined for four years at a field site under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) management. Claypan soils, which underlie the site, were hypothesized to restrict the movement of agrichemicals from the soil surface to ground water. However, N fertilizer moved rapidly through preferential flow paths in the soil and into the underlying glacial till aquifer. Most N transport occurred during the fall and winter when crops were not available to use excess N. Forty months after application, 33 percent of the fertilizer had been removed by grain harvests, 30 percent had been transpired to the atmosphere, and 33 percent had migrated to ground water. Although runoff volumes were 50 percent greater than infiltration, less than 2 percent of the fertilizer was lost to runoff. Small measured denitrification rates and large measured dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water favor the long-term stability of NO3-1 in ground water. Successive fertilizer applications, in areas that lack the ability to moderate N concentrations through consumptive N reactions, risk the potential of N-saturated ecosystems.

  18. [Fertility transition in Brazil. Causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J A; Wong, L R

    1992-12-01

    This work examines the determinants and most important consequences of the Brazilian fertility decline. Brazil's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1940 to around 3.5 in 1985. the decline began in the 1960s and amounted to 45% in about 20 years. The most rapid drop began in the late 1970s, with much of it concentrated in 2 specific periods: 1970-75 and 1980-85. The early period coincided with Brazil's so-called "Economic Miracle", a period of rapid growth accompanied however by deteriorating living conditions for the poorest population sectors. The second period coincided with the international economic crisis of the early 1980s, which was felt more strongly in Brazil than elsewhere in Latin America because of Brazil's greater degree of industrialization and closer integration into the world economy. Most of the fertility decline has been accomplished by use of just two contraceptive methods, oral contraceptives and sterilization, which together account for around 85% of contraceptive usage throughout Brazil. The third most common method, rhythm, accounts for just 6%. No reliable data on abortion are available, but it appears to be a common practice equally accessible to all socioeconomic strata despite greater associated health risks for poorer women. Brazil's fertility transition appears to have been a response to the process of proletarianization and urbanization underway in the country as well as to particular circumstances in the country. The most evident and immediate consequence of the continuous fertility decline over more than 20 years is the change in the age structure of the population. The proportions of children under 5 will decline from 14.4% in 1980 to 9.2% in 2010. The proportion aged 5-14 will decline from 24.5% to 17.4%, while the proportion aged 65 and over will increase from 4.0% to 5.6%. Brazil's recent demographic changes are scarcely reflected in development plans and political and social projects. There is almost no mention of the new

  19. Soil Fertility Gradient in the Restinga Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    América Castelar da Cunha, Joana; Casagrande, José Carlos; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Martins Bonilha, Rodolfo

    2013-04-01

    The restinga ecosystem (coastal plain vegetation) can be termed as a set of plant communities that suffer strong influenced by fluvial and marine factors and is characterized as an ecosystem of great biological diversity, therefore, represents areas of great importance in the context of ecological preservation. The degradation processes from many forms of anthropogenic disturbances that has taken place since the colonization of the country, made studies on the characterization and dynamics of soil fertility of these areas even more important in relation to the maintenance of its biodiversity and conservation. The sites studied were the Cardoso Island and Comprida Island, and in these, we analyzed four physiognomies, restinga, low restinga, dune and antedune (from continent to ocean). Chemical analyses were performed and soil salinity in these areas in depths 0-5; 0-10; 0-20; 20-40; 40-60 cm. In all soils the cationic exchange capacity was intimately associated with the concentration of soil organic matter, which makes this parameter essential to the maintenance of soil fertility of these areas; in more superficial layers (0-20 cm) there was an increase of pH and base saturation and decline of organic matter, aluminum saturation and cationic exchange capacity in the nearby sea, physiognomies what determines the existence of fertility gradient towards the continent-coast; restinga forests showed a chemical standard that is heavily marked by sandy texture, high degree of leaching, nutrient poverty, low base saturation, high saturation by aluminum and acidity, opposite conditions to soils of the dunes and antedunes, with the exception of sandy texture; despite the existence of a chemical gradient of fertility among the physiognomies studied it is possible to determine the soil acts more strongly as a physical support than as provider of fertility; as for salinity, soil collected in Cardoso Island did not present salinity in any depth, a fact which can be explained due

  20. Fertilizer Effect of Phosphorus Recycling Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Römer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Between 2004 and 2011 the German Government funded 17 different projects to develop techniques of phosphorus recycling from wastewater, sewage sludges, and sewage sludge ashes. Several procedures had been tested, such as precipitation, adsorption, crystallization, nano-filtration, electro-dialysis, wet oxidation, pyrolysis, ion exchange, or bioleaching. From these techniques, 32 recycling products were tested by five different institutes for their agronomic efficiency, that is, their plant availability, mainly in pot experiments. This manuscript summarizes and compares these results to evaluate the suitability of different technical approaches to recycle P from wastes into applicable fertilizers. In total, 17 products of recycled sewage sludge ashes (SSA, one meat and bone meal ash, one sinter product of meat and bone meal, one cupola furnace slag, nine Ca phosphates from crystallization or from precipitation, Seaborne-Ca-phosphates, Seaborne-Mg-phosphate, and 3 different struvites were tested in comparison to controls with water soluble P, that is, either single super phosphate (SSP or triple super phosphate (TSP. Sandy and loamy soils (pH: 4.7–6.8; CAL-P: 33–49 ppm were used. The dominant test plant was maize. Phosphorus uptake from fertilizer was calculated by the P content of fertilized plants minus P content of unfertilized plants. Calculated uptake from all products was set in relation to uptake from water soluble P fertilizers (SSP or TSP as a reference value (=100%. The following results were found: (1 plants took up less than 25% P in 65% of all SSA (15 products; (2 6 products (26% resulted in P uptake of 25 and 50% relatively to water soluble P. Only one Mg-P product resulted in an uptake of 67%. With cupola furnace slag, 24% P uptake was reached on sandy soil and nearly the same value as TSP on loamy soil. The uptake results of Ca phosphates were between 0 and 50%. Mg-P products from precipitation processes consistently showed a

  1. Effect of addition of nitrate fertilizers on the efficient use of ammonium fertilizers uptake in salty soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Zidan, A

    1993-01-01

    The effect of addition of nitrate fertilizers on the efficient use of ammonium fertilizers was studies using N 15 method, in pot experiment using salt affected alluvial soil, the objective of this study was to determine the ideal ratio of No 3 /NH 4 which enhance the efficiency of ammonium fertilizers. The results showed that the fresh and dry weights of maize (variety LG11) responded significantly to each type of fertilizer alone. Furthermore, the N-NO 3 fertilizer showed superiority over N-NH 4 Fertilizer. Wherever, the highest yield was obtained with a mixture of both (N-NO 3 and N-NH 4 ) with NO 3 /NH 4 ratio 1/8, in spite of the fact that the equivalent amounts of N were employed in all treatments. Under the given circumstances it has been recommended in salt affected soil in dry area, to use the above mentioned ratio for nitrogen fertilizer to obtain optimum yield. (author)

  2. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin

    2016-02-09

    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulphate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulphate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR.

  3. [Fertility in rural and urban areas of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Y Garma, I O

    1989-01-01

    Data from 6 fertility surveys conducted in Mexico between 1969-87 were used to compare rural and urban fertility and to determine whether a significant level of contraceptive usage could be achieved in rural areas despite their lack of socioeconomic development. Age-specific marital fertility rates were calculated for the 4 national-level and 2 rural fertility surveys. The index of fertility control developed by Coale and Trussel was calculated for rural, urban, and all areas. The marital total fertility rate in rural areas declined from 10.6 in 1970 to 7.4 in 1982, a decline of 2.5% annually. From 1982-87 the annual rate of decline in rural fertility slowed to 1.6%, reaching 6.8 children in 1987. The urban marital total fertility rate declined from 7.72 in 1976 to 5.03 in 1987, while the marital total fertility rate for Mexico as a whole declined from 9.04 in 1976 to 5.85 in 1987. The indices of fertility control showed slowly increasing use of contraception in rural areas starting from the very low level of 1969. The urban index of fertility control showed some contraceptive use for all age groups in all surveys. The increases in contraceptive usage were considerable in rural areas from 1976-82 and much less marked in urban areas. From 1982-87 the inverse was observed and the fertility decline in urban areas was more marked. The condition of natural fertility found in rural areas in 1969 subsequently disappeared. Over time, fertility decline and use of contraception have intensified. Contraception is widely practiced in urban areas and is continuing to become more prevalent. The rural fertility decline in 1976-82 suggests that at least sometimes increases in fertility control are more important in rural areas than in urban areas. The theory of modernization, which holds that fertility decline in developed countries is attributable to factors associated with the process of modernization, thus comes into question. However, it is probable that a sustained fertility

  4. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  5. [Effects of Chemical Fertilizers and Organic Fertilizer on Yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong Rhizome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin; Chen, Xing-fu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Jie; Peng, Shi-ming

    2015-10-01

    To study the effects of different N, P, K and organic fertilizer (OF) on yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome, in order to provide the theoretical foundation for the establishment of standardization cultivation techniques. The field plot experiments used Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome which planted in Pengshan as material, and were studied by the four factors and five levels with quadratic regression rotation-orthogonal combination design. According to the data obtained, a function model which could predict the fertilization and yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome accurately was established. The model analysis showed that the yields of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome were significantly influenced by the N, P, K and OF applications. Among these factors, the order of increase rates by the fertilizers was K > OF > N > P; The effect of interaction between N and K, N and OF, K and OF on the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome were significantly different. High levels of N and P, N and organic fertilizer, K and organic fertilizer were conducive to improve the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. The results showed that the optimal fertilizer application rates of N was 148.20 - 172.28 kg/hm2, P was 511.92 - 599.40 kg/hm2, K was 249.70 - 282.37 kg/hm2, and OF was 940.00 - 1 104.00 kg/hm2. N, P, K and OF obviously affect the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. K and OF can significantly increase the yield of Ligusticum chuanxiong rhizome. Thus it is suggested that properly high mount of K and OF and appropriate increasing N are two favorable factors for cultivating Ligusticum chuanxiong.

  6. SEWAGE SLUDGE AS AN INGREDIENT IN FERTILIZERS AND SOIL SUBSTITUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grobelak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, sludge management especially in medium and small sewage treatment plants is still a significant problem. According to data from the Central Statistical Office and the report on the implementation of the National Urban Wastewater Treatment Program (in polish KPOŚK land application of sewage sludge remains one of the main methods, although there has been considerable interest known: 'application for other purposes ", where the preparation of composts and fertilizers is included. The use of fertilizer produced from sewage sludge (compost, granules, organic and mineral fertilizers, is regulated by the Act on fertilizers and fertilization, and the relevant implementing rules. For example, they define the test procedure (concerning the quality of fertilizers to enable appropriate permissions to market this type of fertilizers. There is still only several technologies existing on the Polish market dedicated to production of fertilizers in advanced technologies of sewage sludge treatment. Usually the treatment plants are trying to obtain the necessary certificates for generated fertilizers (including composts, or soils substitutes. The advantages of these technologies should be no doubt: the loss of waste status, ability to store the fertilizer and unlimited transportation between areas, sanitization of the product (as a result of the use of calcium or sulfur compounds or temperature should be an alternative for drying technology. While the disadvantages are primarily the investment costs and time consuming certification procedures. However, these solutions enable to maintain the organic matter and phosphorus as well as greater control over possible pollution introduced into the soil.

  7. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHADIONO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3. Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch experiment 5x5 m2. Dosage of fertilizer: P0 = 3.6 kg/year plot experiment was 100% dosage usage of chemical fertilizers used by farmers. Further dosages were P1 (75% = 2.7 kg/plot, P2 (50% = 1.8 kg/plot and P3 (0.25% = 0.9 kg/plot, each supplemented with fertilizer 5 mL of liquid organic/patch a year. Sugarcane crops with a variety of treatment showed no significant difference. The highest productivity was achieved at dosages of P2 (50% chemical fertilizers plus organic fertilizer is 21.67 kg per square meter. Chemical fertilizers can be saved 7 quintals per hectare a year or Rp 997,500 per year. Additional costs of liquid organic fertilizer Rp. 100,000 per hectare year and labor Rp 100,000 per hectare, so the additional advantage of saving farmers fertilizer Rp. 797,500 per year.

  8. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce-Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Yun-Hui; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-15

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 microg kg(-1) dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 microg kg(-1) d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers.

  9. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Cehui; Cai Quanying; Li Yunhui; Zeng Qiaoyun

    2008-01-01

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 μg kg -1 dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 μg kg -1 d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; -1 d.w.) and halogenated hydrocarbons ( -1 d.w.). Chlorobenzenes and haloethers occurred generally at low concentrations. There are large variations in concentrations of various compounds in different fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers

  10. Fertility Preservation for Pediatric Patients: Current State and Future Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emilie K; Finlayson, Courtney; Rowell, Erin E; Gosiengfiao, Yasmin; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Lockart, Barbara; Orwig, Kyle E; Brannigan, Robert E; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2017-07-01

    This review provides an overview of pediatric fertility preservation. Topics covered include the patient populations who could benefit, the current state of fertility preservation options and research, and considerations related to ethics and program development. A broad Embase® and PubMed® search was performed to identify publications discussing investigational, clinical, ethical and health care delivery issues related to pediatric fertility preservation. Relevant publications were reviewed and summarized. Populations who could benefit from fertility preservation in childhood/adolescence include oncology patients, patients with nononcologic conditions requiring gonadotoxic chemotherapy, patients with differences/disorders of sex development and transgender individuals. Peripubertal and postpubertal fertility preservation options are well established and include cryopreservation of oocytes, embryos or sperm. Prepubertal fertility preservation is experimental. Multiple lines of active research aim to develop technologies that will enable immature eggs and sperm to be matured and used to produce a biological child in the future. Ethical challenges include the need for parental proxy decision making and the fact that fertility preservation procedures can be considered not medically necessary. Successful multidisciplinary fertility preservation care teams emphasize partnerships with adult colleagues, prioritize timely consultations and use standardized referral processes. Some aspects of fertility preservation are not covered by insurance and out-of-pocket costs can be prohibitive. Pediatric fertility preservation is an emerging, evolving field. Fertility preservation options for prepubertal patients with fertility altering conditions such as cancer and differences/disorders of sex development are currently limited. However, multiple lines of active research hold promise for the future. Key considerations include establishing a multidisciplinary team to provide

  11. Randomized comparison of two Internet-supported fertility-awareness-based methods of family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehring, Richard J; Schneider, Mary; Raviele, Kathleen; Rodriguez, Dana; Pruszynski, Jessica

    2013-07-01

    The aim was to compare the efficacy and acceptability of two Internet-supported fertility-awareness-based methods of family planning. Six hundred and sixty-seven women and their male partners were randomized into either an electronic hormonal fertility monitor (EHFM) group or a cervical mucus monitoring (CMM) group. Both groups utilized a Web site with instructions, charts and support. Acceptability was assessed online at 1, 3 and 6 months. Pregnancy rates were determined by survival analysis. The EHFM participants (N=197) had a total pregnancy rate of 7 per 100 users over 12 months of use compared with 18.5 for the CMM group (N=164). The log rank survival test showed a significant difference (pincreased significantly over time (pusers had an increase in acceptability over time. Results are tempered by the high dropout rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Status of fertility control in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    The concern for fertility control is not alien to the cultural and religious heritage of Egypt. Historically, Egyptian interest in fertility dates to the Pharoahs. Contraceptive recipes written at least 15-18 centuries B.C. have been found. Romans may have borrowed some of the more effective methods from Egypt when it became part of the Roman Empire as evidenced by the decline in size of aristocratic Roman families at the beginning of the Christian era. Muslim conquerors of Egypt encouraged fertility control. In the 9th century differences of opinion about the legality of contraception appeared among the interpreters of Islamic law. Some methods found in the writings of Muslim doctors as al-Razi and Avicenna still survive in the folk medicine of Egypt. In modern times use of barrier methods of contraception were encouraged by family planning organizations in Egypt. The medical profession was not deeply involved since these methods did not require much medical assistance. In 1936 a religiouss verdict declared contraception to be a lawful act of Islam. National programs in family planning in the 1960's encouraged the use of the Lippes Loop IUD. The medical problem of blood loss associated with the IUD caused anxiety because of the high incidence of anemia in the female Egyptian population. There was also a cultural limitation on the wide use of the IUD. "Spotting" due to the IUD resulted in females being ritually unclean and therefore unfit to pray or observe the Islamic fast. The Pill, initially favored caused complications due to its effect on breast milk which is the universal source of nutrition for infants in Egypt. Replacement of the Pill by depo-provera injections during the post partum period of lactation is a practical solution. Permanent sterilization is limited to females and only performed when medically indicated. Abortion is illegal and permitted only as a therapeutic measure.

  13. [Would fertility be hereditary? (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, J C

    1979-11-01

    The statistical relation between the size of the families from which a husband and wife come and their own fertility is a proven fact. The study of the offspring of "complete" families, that is of 1st marriages which have not ended in divorce by the wife's 45th birthday, shows that the number of children is statistically greater among parents who themselves come from large families. This holds true whether the family of the mother or, more unexpectedly, of the father, is considered. Thus, an only daughter has, on the average, 2.15 children while a woman having 8 or more brothers and sisters has 3.19 children. Only sons have 2.11 children, while men from families of 9 or more have 3.22. However, these statistics are valid only as an average. For example, women having 5 brothers or sisters show no particular tendency to have a family of 6 children. In all cases, irrespective of family origins, the most frequent number of offspring remains 2. A 2nd element which also becomes quite clear is that the eldest children have the largest families. As a general rule, the order of birth of a child within his family has a consistent influence on the number of offspring he will have. These statistics suggest that, in all likelihood, the tendency to reproduce a given family model has psycho-sociological origins. However, other factors affecting fertility can be envisaged, whether it be biological fertility, social status, level of education, or even a persistent influence of geographical origins. In reality, it is difficult to isolate the precise influence of individual factors, as they interlink to produce a combined effect. (Author's)

  14. Effects of slag-based silicon fertilizer on rice growth and brown-spot resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization.

  15. Risk for borderline ovarian tumours after exposure to fertility drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Sarah Marie; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2015-01-01

    numbers. To obtain information on use of fertility drugs, hospital files and medical records of infertility-associated visits to all Danish fertility clinics were collected and supplemented with information from the Danish IVF register. We used case-cohort techniques to calculate rate ratios (RRs......STUDY QUESTION: Do fertility drugs increase the risk for borderline ovarian tumours, overall and according to histological subtype? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of any fertility drug did not increase the overall risk for borderline ovarian tumours, but an increased risk for serous borderline ovarian...... tumours was observed after the use of progesterone. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Many epidemiological studies have addressed the connection between fertility drugs use and risk for ovarian cancer; most have found no strong association. Fewer studies have assessed the association between use of fertility drugs...

  16. Perceived partner fertility desires and influence on contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah E; Moreau, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    Perceived discordance of fertility desires may be more common among couples with certain sociodemographic characteristics and may lead to lower contraceptive use. Using nationally representative data from adults ages 15-49 in France in 2010, we analysed associations between sociodemographic characteristics, perceived discordance of fertility desires and contraceptive use with design-based logistic regression. Only 8% of participants perceived discordant fertility desires while 92% perceived concordance with partner fertility desire. Discordance varied by age and relationship duration and by the presence of children from previous relationships. Perceived discordance was not associated with use of a hormonal or highly effective method. Beyond own intentions, perception of a partner's fertility desires was associated with using a highly effective method among participants using any method. Engaging men and couples in family planning programmes may be important for achieving both partners' desired fertility goals.

  17. Influence on the long-term fertilizing on radioactivity soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubisic, M.; Stevanovic, D.; Stojanovic, M.; Vuletic, V.; Pantelic, G.

    2007-01-01

    Researching in this work need to give the answer in which degree application the mineral fertilizers, especially phosphate, contribute to the contamination of a soil because of long-term continually fertilizing (35 years) and differences of adopting from the corn culture and wheat nursing in monocultures. Like control, it is made measuring activity of radionuclides of a soil on experimental variety where wasn't fertilizing during the making the experiment, separately for both cultures. Based on that it is given accent only on chronic contamination of a soil by radionuclides by application mineral fertilizers at once and transport in the system of soil of different biocenoses. Based on measuring activity 40K, 137Cs, 238U, 235U, 226Ra, 232Th, 212Pb it is fortified differences in concentration of the activity of radionuclides of uranium row between the samples of smonica, fertilized and non-fertilized in the longer period. (author) [sr

  18. Family, society, economy and fertility in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, M A

    1989-09-01

    "This paper examines the socio-economic and cultural conditions under which the large family represents a rational economic goal for parents [in Bangladesh]." The author notes that rural children provide valuable labor services to parents during childhood, grown sons continue to support their parents financially and in other ways, and sons are the most reliable source of security in old age. Daughters, however, remain at home and cost a significant amount for dowries at marriage. It is concluded that prevailing socioeconomic conditions in Bangladesh still provide substantial support for high fertility and son preference. excerpt

  19. Serine proteinases and their inhibitors in fertilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonáková, Věra; Jelínková-Slavíčková, Petra

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, 3,4 (2004), s. 108-110 ISSN 1211-8869. [Central European Conference on Human Tumor Markers /5./. Praha, 01.10.2004-03.10.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/02/0433; GA ČR GP303/02/P069; GA ČR GP303/04/P070; GA MZd NJ7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : serine proteinase * proteinase inhibitors * fertilization Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  20. Fertilizer phosphorus in some Finnish soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper it is tried to trace the fate of fertilizer phosphorus in soil by comparing the analyses of soils from treated and untreated plots of field trials. This indirect approach cannot be expected to provide exact values, but it is likely to give an approximate answer. The results reported above do not in any marked degree change our present conception of the forms in which fertilizer phosphorus accumulates in soils. In the acid soils studied (pH 4—6.4 in 0.02 N CaCl2 superphosphate tended to increase the fractions which were extracted by NH4F or NaOH. Hyperphosphate phosphorus was mostly found in the acid-soluble fraction. During a longer period of dressing with phosphate an increase in the organic phosphorus content of a peat soil could be detected. In the incubation experiments the mineralization of organic phosphorus occurred at a higher rate in the samples from the plots treated with superphosphate than in those from the untreated one. It might be supposed that the organic phosphorus mineralized mainly originated from the plant residues. It seems that the fractionation method developed by CHANG and JACKSON (4 for the estimation of discrete forms of soil phosphorus is not quite satisfactory for tracing the fertilizer phosphorus in soils recently dressed with phosphates. In particular, it may be fallacious to conclude that the fraction extracted by NH4F would only represent phosphorus bound to aluminium and its compounds. At least in the absence of soil, a large part of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate dihydrate falls into this fraction, and also a small amount of hyperphosphate phosphorus may be found in it. The test values for »available» phosphorus showed the effect of fertilizers in accordance with previous observations (9, 13. Acetic acid soluble P revealed the treatment with hyperphosphate, but only slightly the application of superphosphate. The test value for the sorbed P of BRAY and KURTZ (2, or phosphorus