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Sample records for stallion fertility electronic

  1. Stallion fertility: a focus on the spermatozoon.

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    Varner, D D; Gibb, Z; Aitken, R J

    2015-01-01

    Stallion fertility is a vast subject, with a wide array of permutations that can impact reproductive performance in either positive or negative ways. This review is intended to address a mere segment of the male fertility issue, but the very essence of the male contribution to fertilisation, that of the spermatozoon. Spermatozoal ultrastructure and form-to-function are detailed and spermatozoal metabolism is discussed, with specific reference to distinctive characteristics of stallion spermatozoa. Lastly, methods for assessment of spermatozoal function are considered, with emphasis on spermatozoal motility, the acrosome reaction and spermatozoon-oocyte interactions. Closing comments address the need for development and standardisation of molecular-based assays for use with spermatozoa of stallions whose subfertility cannot be explained with conventional tests. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  2. The effect of dual-hemisphere breeding on stallion fertility.

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    Walbornn, S R; Love, C C; Blanchard, T L; Brinsko, S P; Varner, D D

    2017-05-01

    Breeding records were analyzed from 24 Thoroughbred stallions that were subjected to dual-hemisphere breeding (DH), including novice (first-year; NOV; n = 11) and experienced (EXP; n = 13) stallions. Fertility variables included seasonal pregnancy rate, pregnancy rate per cycle, and first-cycle pregnancy rate. In addition, values for book size, total number of covers, distribution of mare type (maiden, foaling, and barren) within a stallion's book, cycles per mare, and mare age were examined. Some data were also categorized by mare type (maiden-M, foaling-F, and barren-B). Five separate analyses of the data were performed. For Analyses 1-3, the effects of hemisphere (northern hemisphere [NH] vs. southern hemisphere [SH]) and breeding order (refers to the first [O1] or second [O2] season within the first year of dual-hemisphere breeding) were examined for all stallions (combined group [CG]), NOV stallions only, and EXP stallions only, respectively. Fertility values were generally higher in the SH than the NH (P fertility of O1 was generally similar to O2 (P > 0.05). For Analysis 4, fertility of DH breeding seasons was compared to single hemisphere (SIN) breeding seasons within the same 16 stallions and was found to be similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). For Analysis 5, the effect of the number of consecutive DH breeding seasons on fertility was examined and was found to remain unchanged (P > 0.05). In summary, no adverse effects of DH breeding on fertility were detected. Fertility was higher when stallions were bred in the SH, as compared to the NH. Potential reasons for higher fertility achieved in the SH were smaller book sizes and better mare reproductive quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Pentoxifylline effects on capacitation and fertility of stallion epididymal sperm.

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    Guasti, P N; Monteiro, G A; Maziero, R R D; Carmo, M T; Dell'Aqua, J A; Crespilho, A M; Rifai, E A; Papa, F O

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determinate whether pentoxifylline (PTX) increases the motion parameters of fresh and frozen-thawed equine epididymal spermatozoa, to evaluate the tyrosine phosphorylation of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm in the presence of PTX and to determine whether the PTX-treatment of stallion epididymal sperm prior to freezing improves the fertility response of mares to a reduced number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Fifty epididymis were flushed with a skim milk based extender with or without PTX. The pre-treatment with PTX enhanced the sperm motility after being harvested (Psperm kinematics between control and treated samples (P>0.05). Plasma membrane integrity did not differ between control and PTX group after recovery and after thawing (P>0.05), as observed in tyrosine phosphorylation, which the PTX treatment did not alter the percentage of tail-associated immunofluorescence of cryopreserved epididymal sperm (P>0.05). For the fertility trial, different insemination groups were tested: 800×10 6 epididymal sperm (C800); 100×10 6 epididymal sperm (C100); 100×10 6 epididymal sperm recovered in an extender containing PTX (PTX100). The conception rates for C800; C100 and PTX100 were 68.7% (11/16); 31.5% (5/16) and 50% (8/16), respectively. The conception rate did not differ among groups (P>0.05), however, a low number of animals was used in this study. A trend toward significance (P=0.07) was observed between C800 and C100 groups. In conclusion, PTX has no deleterious effect on sperm motility, viability and capacitation of cryopreserved stallion epididymal sperm. The conventional artificial insemination with 100×10 6 sperm recovered with PTX ensures acceptable conception rates and maximize the limited number of doses of cryopreserved stallion epididymal sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fixed-time insemination with frozen semen in mares: is it suitable for poorly fertile stallions?

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    Avanzi, Bruno Ribeiro; Ramos, Renata Dos Santos; Araujo, Gustavo Henrique Marques; Fioratti, Eduardo Gorzoni; Trinca, Luzia Aparecida; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio; Melo E Oña, Cely Marini; Zahn, Fabíola Soares; Martin, Ian; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio; Papa, Frederico Ozanam

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare two protocols for equine frozen semen programs using either postovulation insemination or fixed-time insemination (FT), evaluating both pregnancy rates and intrauterine fluid (IUF) accumulation after artificial insemination with semen obtained from either highly or poorly fertile stallions. Six ejaculates from two stallions (n = 12) were processed. After thawing, semen samples were evaluated by computerized semen analysis. Fifteen mares (30 cycles) were inseminated with frozen semen from highly fertile stallion A, and 14 mares (28 cycles) were inseminated with frozen semen from poorly fertile stallion B. Ovulations were induced with 1 mg (intramuscular) of deslorelin acetate after the observation of a greater than 35 mm follicle and uterine edema. In postovulation insemination group, mares were inseminated once with 800 × 10(6) total sperm in a maximum 6-hour interval after ovulation. In FT group, mares were inseminated twice with 400 × 10(6) total sperm, 24 and 40 hours after induction. Mares were ultrasonographically examined for IUF accumulation 24 hours and for pregnancy diagnosis 14 days after the last insemination. Although IUF accumulation was more evident in mares inseminated once postovulation, pregnancy rates were similar for both protocols, regardless of the stallion, although a significant effect of the stallion was observed. These results indicated that FTs may be used for both highly and poorly fertile stallions as a practical tool to help spreading the use of frozen semen in equine reproduction programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening of whole genome sequences identified high-impact variants for stallion fertility.

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    Schrimpf, Rahel; Gottschalk, Maren; Metzger, Julia; Martinsson, Gunilla; Sieme, Harald; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-04-14

    Stallion fertility is an economically important trait due to the increase of artificial insemination in horses. The availability of whole genome sequence data facilitates identification of rare high-impact variants contributing to stallion fertility. The aim of our study was to genotype rare high-impact variants retrieved from next-generation sequencing (NGS)-data of 11 horses in order to unravel harmful genetic variants in large samples of stallions. Gene ontology (GO) terms and search results from public databases were used to obtain a comprehensive list of human und mice genes predicted to participate in the regulation of male reproduction. The corresponding equine orthologous genes were searched in whole genome sequence data of seven stallions and four mares and filtered for high-impact genetic variants using SnpEFF, SIFT and Polyphen 2 software. All genetic variants with the missing homozygous mutant genotype were genotyped on 337 fertile stallions of 19 breeds using KASP genotyping assays or PCR-RFLP. Mixed linear model analysis was employed for an association analysis with de-regressed estimated breeding values of the paternal component of the pregnancy rate per estrus (EBV-PAT). We screened next generation sequenced data of whole genomes from 11 horses for equine genetic variants in 1194 human and mice genes involved in male fertility and linked through common gene ontology (GO) with male reproductive processes. Variants were filtered for high-impact on protein structure and validated through SIFT and Polyphen 2. Only those genetic variants were followed up when the homozygote mutant genotype was missing in the detection sample comprising 11 horses. After this filtering process, 17 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were left. These SNPs were genotyped in 337 fertile stallions of 19 breeds using KASP genotyping assays or PCR-RFLP. An association analysis in 216 Hanoverian stallions revealed a significant association of the splice-site disruption variant

  6. Fertilidade em garanhões avaliada através do exame andrológico Fertility in stallions as accessed by the breeding soundness examination

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    Anelise Maria Hammes

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo discutir aspectos da fertilidade de garanhões e sua relação com o exame andrológico. Numa primeira análise, 10 garanhões usados em monta natural exclusivamente, tiveram seus índices reprodutivos relacionados a qualidade do seu sêmen. Num segundo grupo, foram considerados 14 garanhões cujos acasalamentos eram, alternadamente, inseminação artificial e/ou monta natural. No terceiro estudo, foram relacionados garanhões específicos, pertencentes aos dois grupos anteriores, sabidamente subférteis em que os índices de fertilidade foram relacionados a características do sêmen ou manejo. Quando os garanhões são submetidos a monta natural dentro de um programa de manejo racional existe uma significativa relação entre qualidade de sêmen e fertilidade (P This paper discuss certain aspects of the fertility in stallions and its relationship to the Breeding Soundness Examination. In afirst analysis, 10 stallions that were bred only naturally had their reproductive standards correlated to the sêmen quality. In a second step, we consider 14 stallions that were bred either by artificial insemination and for naturally. In a third study, certain subfertile stallions, belonging to the previous two groups, had their fertility standards correlated to sêmen quality and management procedures. A significam association (P<0.01 was observed between sêmen quality (sperm morphology and fertility, when stallions were bred naturally under appropriate management procedures. This relationship was not observed when artificial insemination was included in the management, because it can improve the fertility of subfertile stallions or be detrimental to normal stallions when misused used. The individual analysis of the subfertile stallions allowed to determine if the cause the infertility can befrom intrinsic or extrinsic (management factors.

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLCz1 as a stallion fertility locus in Hanoverian warmblood horses.

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    Rahel Schrimpf

    Full Text Available A consistently high level of stallion fertility plays an economically important role in modern horse breeding. We performed a genome-wide association study for estimated breeding values of the paternal component of the pregnancy rate per estrus cycle (EBV-PAT in Hanoverian stallions. A total of 228 Hanoverian stallions were genotyped using the Equine SNP50 Beadchip. The most significant association was found on horse chromosome 6 for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP within phospholipase C zeta 1 (PLCz1. In the close neighbourhood to PLCz1 is located CAPZA3 (capping protein (actin filament muscle Z-line, alpha 3. The gene PLCz1 encodes a protein essential for spermatogenesis and oocyte activation through sperm induced Ca2+-oscillation during fertilization. We derived equine gene models for PLCz1 and CAPZA3 based on cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. The equine PLCz1 had four different transcripts of which two contained a premature termination codon. Sequencing all exons and their flanking sequences using genomic DNA samples from 19 Hanoverian stallions revealed 47 polymorphisms within PLCz1 and one SNP within CAPZA3. Validation of these 48 polymorphisms in 237 Hanoverian stallions identified three intronic SNPs within PLCz1 as significantly associated with EBV-PAT. Bioinformatic analysis suggested regulatory effects for these SNPs via transcription factor binding sites or microRNAs. In conclusion, non-coding polymorphisms within PLCz1 were identified as conferring stallion fertility and PLCz1 as candidate locus for male fertility in Hanoverian warmblood. CAPZA3 could be eliminated as candidate gene for fertility in Hanoverian stallions.

  8. Prediction of the fertility of stallion frozen-thawed semen using a combination of computer-assisted motility analysis, microscopical observation and flow cytometry.

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    Battut, I Barrier; Kempfer, A; Lemasson, N; Chevrier, L; Camugli, S

    2017-07-15

    Spermatozoa from some stallions do not maintain an acceptable fertility after freezing and thawing. The selection of frozen ejaculates that would be suitable for insemination is mainly based on post-thaw motility, but the prediction of fertility remains limited. A recent study in our laboratory has enabled the determination of a new protocol for the evaluation of fresh stallion semen, combining microscopical observation, computer-assisted motility analysis and flow cytometry, and providing a high level of fertility prediction. The purpose of the present experiment was to perform similar investigations on frozen semen. A panel of tests evaluating a large number of compartments or functions of the spermatozoa was applied to a population of 42 stallions, 33 of which showing widely differing fertilities (17-67% pregnancy rate per cycle [PRC]). Variability was evaluated by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV=SD/mean) and the intra-class correlation or "repeatability" for each variable. For paired variables, mean within-stallion CV% was significantly lower than between-stallion CV%, which was significantly lower than total CV%. Within-ejaculate repeatability, determined by analysing 6 straws for each of 10 ejaculates, ranged from 0.60 to 0.97. Within-stallion repeatability, determined by analysing at least 5 ejaculates for each of 38 stallions, ranged from 0.12 to 0.95. Principal component regression using a combination of 25 variables, including motility, morphology, viability, oxidation level, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity and hypoosmotic resistance, accounted for 94.5% of the variability regarding fertility, and was used to calculate a prediction of the PRC with a mean standard deviation of 2.2. The difference between the observed PRC and the calculated value ranged from -3.4 to 4.2. The 90% confidence interval (90CI) for the prediction of the PRC for the stallions of unknown fertility ranged from 8 to 30 (mean = 17). The best-fit model using only

  9. Seminal traits, suitability for semen preservation and fertility in the native Portuguese horse breeds Puro Sangue Lusitano and Sorraia: Implications for stallion classification and assisted reproduction.

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    Gamboa, Sandra; Machado-Faria, Manuel; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2009-07-01

    The Puro Sangue Lusitano (PSL) is the major national breed of horse in Portugal, but no studies exist on its seminal characteristics, or on the possibility of conserving semen for future use. The aim of this study was to evaluate semen parameters, fertility and the aptness to semen preservation in Lusitano Stallions. In order to compare characteristics defined by a single or by multiple semen collections per stallion 152 ejaculates obtained from 152 Lusitano stallions presented at an annual breeding soundness examination as well as data related to 371 ejaculates obtained from 9 PSL were analyzed. These latter samples were also evaluated in terms of their possible use in assisted reproduction and were compared with 113 ejaculates obtained from 4 Sorraia horses, a rare and endangered Portuguese breed. The percentage of motile spermatozoa (PMS) was assessed after collection (AC), after semen dilution (AD) and at 24h of cool-storage. Mean values obtained for sperm motility and morphology and semen pH observed after semen collection differ significantly (Partificial insemination (AI) averaged at 85% for PSL. With the exception of PMS AC, sperm vitality and semen pH no other seminal trait seemed to influence fertility rates in the Lusitano breed.

  10. Cryopreservation of epididymal stallion sperm.

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    Olaciregui, M; Gil, L; Montón, A; Luño, V; Jerez, R A; Martí, J I

    2014-02-01

    Any event that makes semen collection or mating impossible, such as death, castration, or injury, may terminate a stallion's breeding career. Fortunately, stallion sperm which are capable of fertilization can be harvested from the epididymis, and frozen for future use. However, the fertility of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm has been found to be lower than that of ejaculated sperm. Therefore, this study aimed to optimize the fertility of frozen epididymal stallion sperm by investigating the effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing protocols on sperm quality. Dimethylformamide was tested alone or combination with pasteurized egg yolk as substitute of fresh egg yolk. In addition, the effect of the pre-freeze stabilization on sperm quality was analyzed. Heterospermic samples obtained from stallion epididymis were collected and cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying content of cryoprotectant and content of egg yolk, stabilized and no-stabilized. Sperm motility, viability, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity were evaluated post-thawing. No improvement was observed on the replacement of fresh yolk by pasteurized egg yolk, whereas the results suggest that dimethylformamide is a cryoprotectant suitable for cryopreservation of equine epididymal semen, even better than glycerol. In addition, we found that the stabilization before freezing on epididymal stallion sperm, can improve sperm quality parameters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stallion spermatozoa selected by single layer centrifugation are capable of fertilization after storage for up to 96 h at 6°C prior to artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the challenges faced by equine breeders is ensuring delivery of good quality semen doses for artificial insemination when the mare is due to ovulate. Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) has been shown to select morphologically normal spermatozoa with intact chromatin and good progressive motility from the rest of the ejaculate, and to prolong the life of these selected spermatozoa in vitro. The objective of the present study was a proof of concept, to determine whether fertilizing ability was retained in SLC-selected spermatozoa during prolonged storage. Findings Sixteen mares were inseminated with SLC-selected sperm doses that had been cooled and stored at 6°C for 48 h, 72 h or 96 h. Embryos were identified in 11 mares by ultrasound examination 16–18 days after presumed ovulation. Conclusion SLC-selected stallion spermatozoa stored for up to 96 h are capable of fertilization. PMID:22788670

  12. GBFEL-TIE (Ground-Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) sample survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives. Final report

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    Seaman, T.J.; Doleman, W.H.

    1988-09-30

    Three locations on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, are under consideration as alternatives for the proposed Ground-Based Free-Electron Laser Technology Integration Experiment (GBFEL-TIE). The study conducted jointly by Prewitt and Associates, Inc., and the Office of Contract Archeology, was designed to provide input into the GBFEL-TIE Draft Environmental Impact Statement concerning the potential impact of the proposed project on cultural resources in each of the alternatives. The input consists of a series of predictions based on data gathered from two sources: (1) a cultural resource sample survey (15%) of two alternatives conducted as part of this study, and (2) from a previous survey of the third alternative. A predictive model was devleoped and applied using these data that estimated the potential impact of the GBFEL-TIE facility on the cultural resources within each alternative. The predictions indicate that the NASA alternatives, by far, the least favorable location for the facility followed by the Orogrande and Stallion Alternatives.

  13. The Role of Oviductal Cells in Activating Stallion Spermatozoa

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    Leemans, Bart; Gadella, Bart M.; Stout, Tom A.E.; De Schauwer, Catharina; Nelis, Hilde; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Van Soom, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Conventional in vitro fertilization is poorly successful with equine gametes. Although stallion spermatozoa bind to the zona pellucida in vitro, they fail to acrosome react and cannot therefore penetrate into the perivitelline space. Failed sperm penetration most likely relates to the absence in in

  14. The cholesterol transporter ABCA1 is expressed in stallion spermatozoa and reproductive tract tissues.

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    Merkl, M; Ertl, R; Handschuh, S; Aurich, C; Schäfer-Somi, S

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, we assessed the presence of the ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter molecules ABCA1 in spermatozoa of adult stallions and in testicular and epididymal tissue of prepubertal and adult stallions. For this purpose, semen samples from six fertile Shetland pony stallions aged 4 to 19 years were collected. Semen was collected from each stallion on three consecutive days. Ejaculates were analyzed immediately after collection, and only ejaculates meeting minimal requirements for fertile stallions were further evaluated. ABCA1 immunosignal was localized after staining of semen smears with different antibodies and counterstaining with Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-peanut agglutinin (PNA) and 4',6-Diamidin-2-phenylindol (DAPI). In a total of three samples, capacitation and acrosome reaction were induced by means of capacitation medium and progesterone substitution, respectively. Testicular and epididymal tissues were obtained from five prepubertal stallions aged 8 to 12 months and five adult stallions aged 4 to 9 years. For quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR), testicular and epididymal tissue of another seven adult (aged 1.5-14.5 years) and five prepupertal stallions (6-8 months) was used. For immunohistochemistry, sections from the caput, corpus, and cauda of the testes and epididymes were stained with the same specific antibodies as for immunocytochemistry. In stallion spermatozoa, strong immunosignal for ABCA1 was detected in the acrosomal area, the equatorial zone, and the principle piece of the flagellum but not in the caudal part of the head and the midpiece. In damaged or acrosome-reacted spermatozoa the FITC-PNA signal vanished together with the ABCA1 signal in most spermatozoa. In testicular tissue, strong immunostaining for ABCA1 was mainly visible in the heads and flagella of round spermatids and weaker signals in late spermatids and released spermatozoa. No staining was assessed in the Sertoli cells and spermatogonia of adult stallions, whereas

  15. Indenopyride derivative RTI-4587-073(l): a candidate for male contraception in stallions.

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    Pozor, Malgorzata A; Macpherson, Margo L; McDonnell, Sue M; Nollin, Maggie; Roser, Janet F; Love, Charles; Runyon, Scott; Thomas, Brian F; Troedsson, Mats H

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether an indenopyridine derivative RTI-4587-073(l) was a good candidate for male contraception in horses. We hypothesized that a single administration of RTI-4587-073(l) causes significant suppression of testicular function in stallions without affecting sexual behavior. Three Miniature horse stallions received a single dose of 12.5 mg/kg RTI-4587-073(l) orally (group "treated"), whereas three other Miniature horse stallions received placebo only (group "control"). Semen was collected and evaluated from all stallions twice a week for three baseline weeks and 13 post-treatment weeks. Sexual behavior was video-recorded and analyzed. Testicular dimensions were measured using ultrasonography, and blood samples were drawn for endocrine evaluation once before treatment and once a week during the post-treatment period. Single administration of RTI-4587-073(l) caused severe oligoasthenozoospermia (low sperm number and low motility), shedding large numbers of immature germ cells in semen, and increased FSH concentrations in treated stallions. These effects were fully reversible within ∼71 days. However, libido and copulatory behavior remained unchanged throughout the entire experiment. We concluded that RTI-4587-073(l) was a promising candidate for male contraceptive in domestic stallions. Further research should be performed to test this compound for fertility control in wildlife and humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Techniques for the insemination of low doses of stallion sperm.

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    Samper, J C; Plough, T

    2010-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the quality and commercial use of frozen equine semen. The emergence of new reproductive technologies, coupled with the high prices for an insemination dose from some stallions, the increasing costs of import and export and the marketing policies of stallion agents or owners in the sport horse industry has stimulated the fractionation of doses for insemination. Consequently, the sperm number and the volume of an insemination dose are significantly reduced. To deliver lower doses of sperm in lower volumes compared to the standard dose, two techniques are used in clinical practice. Semen can be delivered hysteroscopically (HI) or by rectally guiding a flexible pipette to the tip of the desired uterine horn (RI). Both techniques have been described with good success and have triggered an incentive to further reduce the number of spermatozoa without having a negative effect on fertility. This article will review the expected success of both techniques in clinical settings and will highlight their advantages and disadvantages both for the mare and stallion. In addition, some of the implications of reducing sperm numbers on the industry will be discussed. From the available information, it is evident that lower sperm numbers deposited by RI or HI to deliver the inseminate can result in acceptable pregnancy rates with fresh or frozen semen in commercial settings. These methods of insemination could have major implications in the implementation and commercialization of new and emerging technologies in the equine industry.

  17. EFFECT OF TWO PROTOCOLS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON FERTILIZING CAPACITY OF STALLION (Equus caballus SEMEN EFECTO DE DOS PROTOCOLOS DE CRIOPRESERVACIÓN SOBRE LA CAPACIDAD FECUNDANTE DE SEMEN EQUINO (Equus caballus

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    Giovanni Restrepo Betancur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Semen cryopreservation is a fundamental process for the development of biotechnologies for assisted reproduction in horses. The use of cryopreservation techniques with changes in concentrations and the nature of the cryoprotectant, as well as, the different types of vials for storage of semen, have become an alternative to improve the protocols used. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of two protocols of cryopreservation (freezing and vitrification on the fertilizing capacity of stallion semen. The study was conducted with horses of the Criollo Colombiano breed. For freezing was used a extender supplemented with egg yolk (4% and dimethyl formamide (5%, and 0.5 mL straws as vials, whereas for vitrification, the extender was supplemented with egg yolk (8% and dimethyl formamide (8%, and cryovials were used as carriers. As post thaw parameters were evaluated: progressive motility, vitality, normal morphology and integrity of the plasma membrane through the hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS. For statistical evaluation was fitted a generalized linear model (GLM and means were compared by the Tukey test. Were found average percentages of progressive motility, vitality, normal morphology and HOS of 41.6 ± 11.8 and 37 ± 8.5, 54.3 ± 10.2 and 52.3 ± 7.8, 83.1 ± 5.4 and 83.6 ± 5.8, 41.7 ± 9.8 and 38.9 ± 3.6, for cryopreserved semen by freezing and vitrification, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 between treatments for any of the parameters evaluated. The fertilizing capacity of equine semen cryopreserved by vitrification is comparable to that obtained by conventional freezing.Resumen. La criopreservación de semen es un proceso fundamental en el desarrollo de biotecnologías para la reproducción asistida en equinos. El uso de diferentes técnicas de criopreservación con cambios en las concentraciones y la naturaleza de los crioprotectores, así como en los diferentes tipos de

  18. The relationship between mitochondrial DNA copy number and stallion sperm function.

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    Darr, Christa R; Moraes, Luis E; Connon, Richard E; Love, Charles C; Teague, Sheila; Varner, Dickson D; Meyers, Stuart A

    2017-05-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number has been utilized as a measure of sperm quality in several species including mice, dogs, and humans, and has been suggested as a potential biomarker of fertility in stallion sperm. The results of the present study extend this recent discovery using sperm samples from American Quarter Horse stallions of varying age. By determining copy number of three mitochondrial genes, cytochrome b (CYTB), NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) and NADH dehydrogenase 4 (ND4), instead of a single gene, we demonstrate an improved understanding of mtDNA fate in stallion sperm mitochondria following spermatogenesis. Sperm samples from 37 stallions ranging from 3 to 24 years old were collected at four breeding ranches in north and central Texas during the 2015 breeding season. Samples were analyzed for sperm motion characteristics, nuclear DNA denaturability and mtDNA copy number. Mitochondrial DNA content in individual sperm was determined by real-time qPCR and normalized with a single copy nuclear gene, Beta actin. Exploratory correlation analysis revealed that total motility was negatively correlated with CYTB copy number and sperm chromatin structure. Stallion age did not have a significant effect on copy number for any of the genes. Copy number differences existed between the three genes with CYTB having the greatest number of copies (20.6 ± 1.2 copies, range: 6.0 to 41.1) followed by ND4 (15.5 ± 0.8 copies, range: 6.7 to 27.8) and finally ND1 (12.0 ± 1.0 copies, range: 0.4 to 26.6) (P sperm mtDNA occurs during spermatogenesis and may be important for normal sperm function. Beta regression analysis suggested that for every unit increase in mtDNA copy number of CYTB, there was a 4% decrease in the odds of sperm movement (P = 0.001). Influential analysis suggested that results are robust and not highly influenced by data from individual stallions despite the low number of stallions sampled with low sperm motility. Further genome sequencing is

  19. Pregnancy rates after artificial insemination with cooled stallion spermatozoa either with or without single layer centrifugation.

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    Morrell, J M; Richter, J; Martinsson, G; Stuhtmann, G; Hoogewijs, M; Roels, K; Dalin, A-M

    2014-11-01

    A successful outcome after artificial insemination with cooled semen is dependent on many factors, the sperm quality of the ejaculate being one. Previous studies have shown that spermatozoa with good motility, normal morphology, and good chromatin integrity can be selected by means of colloid centrifugation, particularly single layer centrifugation (SLC) using species-specific colloids. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an insemination trial with spermatozoa from "normal" ejaculates, i.e., from stallions with no known fertility problem, to determine whether the improvements in sperm quality seen in SLC-selected sperm samples compared with uncentrifuged controls in laboratory tests are reflected in an increased pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In a multicentre study, SLC-selected sperm samples and uncentrifuged controls from eight stallions were inseminated into approximately 10 mares per treatment per stallion. Ultrasound examination was carried out approximately 16 days after insemination to detect an embryonic vesicle. The pregnancy rates per cycle were 45% for controls and 69% for SLC-selected sperm samples, which is statistically significant (P < 0.0018). Thus, the improvement in sperm quality reported previously for SLC-selected sperm samples is associated with an increase in pregnancy rate, even for ejaculates from stallions with no known fertility problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of intramuscular injection of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of Fresh and Cooled Stallion Semen

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    Nicolás Cazales Penino

    2015-08-01

    treated and control groups respectively. No interactions were detected in the fresh and cooled semen. The use of butafosfan and cobalamin in the stallions did not affect the seminal quality of young and fertile stallions. It can be used routinely and safely in these stallions. However, contrary to observations in humans and in bulls, the use of cobalamin did not improve semen parameters in these stallions.

  1. Removal experiments indicate that subordinate stallions are not helpers.

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    Linklater, Wayne L; Cameron, Elissa Z; Stafford, Kevin J; Minot, Edward O

    2013-03-01

    Relationships between males defending the same harem are described as cooperative or competitive and explained by mutualism, reciprocal altruism, and reproductive concessions or limited control between unequal contestants. These alternate hypotheses can be tested by removing males from harems. Some feral horse (Equus caballus) harems are defended by more than one and up to five stallions. We temporarily removed the subordinate stallion from two of six multi-stallion bands (a harem and its stallions) for three weeks during the breeding season. We monitored harems for changes in composition, and measured and compared rates of (i) intra- and inter-band stallion aggression, (ii) stallion aggression towards mares, and (iii) stallion-mare proximity before subordinate stallion removal and after his return with rates during his absence. Harems were successfully defended during the subordinate's absence and stallion-mare aggression was substantially reduced. Dominant stallions did not require assistance in harem defence, and heightened harassment of mares is directly attributable to subordinate stallion's residence, not characteristics of the dominant stallion or mares. Cooperative hypotheses do not appear to explain multi-stallion bands but the experiments in this study should be replicated further. The limited control hypothesis (e.g., mate-parasitism) appears better supported but we outline its limitations too. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An alkaline follicular fluid fraction induces capacitation and limited release of oviduct epithelium-bound stallion sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, Bart; Gadella, Bart M; Stout, Tom A E; Nelis, Hilde; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Van Soom, Ann

    Induction of hyperactivated motility is considered essential for triggering the release of oviduct-bound mammalian spermatozoa in preparation for fertilization. In this study, oviduct-bound stallion spermatozoa were exposed for 2 h to: i) pre-ovulatory and ii) post-ovulatory oviductal fluid; iii)

  3. Characteristics of frozen epididymal spermatozoa from stallions that died 12 to 36 hours after colic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, A; Carluccio, A; Petrizzi, L; Noto, F; Contri, A

    2016-01-15

    Equine spermatozoa from the cauda epididymis were previously collected and frozen, and the fertility was assessed. Most studies were performed on healthy stallions that had undergone routine castration or on the epididymis collected at the abattoir, but there are no studies on the quality of epididymal semen in subjects which have died from colic or which underwent intensive care. The present study was designed to verify whether a severe illness could affect epididymal semen quality and freezability in the stallion. Therefore, epididymal semen characteristics during the freezing process in stallions which had died from colic and in healthy stallions submitted to elective castration were compared. Five stallions that had died from colic (ill stallions [ISs]) and seven stallions that had undergone elective castration (healthy stallions) were castrated, and cauda epididymis spermatozoa were collected and processed. Sperm quality was tested after collection, after washing procedures, at the end of the equilibration (5 °C for 75 minutes), and after freezing/thawing. Sperm quality was measured by objective motility characteristics, membrane and acrosome integrity, and mitochondrial activity. After collection, sperm in ISs showed low kinetic parameters (total motility: 17.3 ± 3%, progressive motility: 6 ± 1%, average path velocity: 57.4 ± 35.4 μm/s, straightness: 74.2%) compared with healthy stallions (total motility: 90.8 ± 3.7%, progressive motility: 70 ± 4%, average path velocity: 118.1 ± 12.6 μm/s, straightness: 82.4%) but demonstrated similar membrane and acrosome integrity (85 ± 2.8% vs. 87.6 ± 3.1%). Sperm kinetic parameters increased after washing procedures and cooling in ISs, reaching comparable values after equilibration (5 °C for 75 minutes) and freezing/thawing. The data reported in this study suggest that the quality of the equine epididymal spermatozoa cryopreserved in stallions that had died from colic was similar to that

  4. Adição de piruvato de sódio e trolox ao diluidor utilizado para congelação de sêmen de garanhões férteis e subférteis Effect of pyruvate and trolox added to the extender used for freezing fertile and subfertile stallion semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Mascaro Gonçalves da Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do piruvato e trolox (forma solúvel da vitamina E sobre a qualidade espermática pós-descongelamento. Assim, com o intuito de proteger as células espermáticas dos efeitos deletérios da criopreservação,foram considerados os seguintes tratamentos: T1 (Controle= INRA82-HEPES sem antioxidantes; T2= INRA82-HEPES + 2mM de piruvato e T3= INRA82-HEPES + 120mM de trolox. As amostras de sêmen descongeladas foram avaliadas quanto à motilidade total (MT e progressiva (MP,a integridades de membrana plasmática e acrossômica, integridade do DNA, à estabilidade de membrana e ao potencial de membrana mitocondrial (Δψm. A adiηγo de piruvato proporcionou resultados superiores (PThe objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of pyruvate and trolox on the thawed sperm quality. For freezing, antioxidants were added to INRA 82-HEPES extender to protect sperm from the deleterious effects of oxidative stress, according to the treatments: T1= INRA82-HEPES without antioxidants; T2= INRA82-HEPES + 2mM of pyruvate and T3= INRA82-HEPES + 120 mM de trolox. The thawed semen samples were evaluated according to the total (MT and progressive (MP motility, integrity of plasma and acrossomal membrane, DNA integrity, membrane stability and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm. It was observed that the addition of pyruvate resulted in a significantly higher total sperm motility (P<0.05 to those obtained with trolox (9.17 and 14.5%, respectively. It can be concluded that the addition of pyruvate improves sperm motility (18.92 and 19.0%, respectively in samples from fertile and sub-fertile stallions submitted to freezing.

  5. Prevalence of mycoplasmas in the semen and vaginal swabs of Danish stallions and mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Fedder, Jens; Schougaard, Hans

    2007-01-01

    The reproduction rate of horses is one of the lowest within domestic livestock despite advances the veterinary medicine. Infertility in horses may be due mainly to the lack of suitable selection criteria in the breeding of horses. However, acquired infertility due to genital, bacterial infections...... may occur. Mycoplasmas have been implicated in genital disorders and infertility of many species including humans and horses. However, their role as commensals or pathogens of the genital tract of horses is still not determined. Bacteriological examinations made on the fossa glandis, urethra, penis...... and semen of stallions, showed the presence of different Mycoplasma species. Therefore our study aimed to find the prevalence of Mycoplasma species and a possible association with fertility problems in Danish riding horses. Eighty semen samples from stallions and 19 vaginal swab samples from mares were...

  6. Sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in Swedish warmblood stallions and their relationship to pregnancy rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandebert Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination is not as widely used in horses as in other domestic species, such as dairy cattle and pigs, partly because of the wide variation in sperm quality between stallion ejaculates and partly due to decreased fertility following the use of cooled transported spermatozoa. Furthermore, predictive tests for sperm fertilising ability are lacking. The objective of the present study was to assess sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in ejaculates obtained from 11 warmblood breeding stallions in Sweden, and to evaluate the relationship of these parameters to pregnancy rates to investigate the possibility of using these tests predictively. Methods Aliquots from fortyone ejaculates, obtained as part of the normal semen collection schedule at the Swedish National Stud, were used for morphological analysis by light microscopy, whereas thirtyseven were used for chromatin analysis (SCSA by flow cytometry. The outcome of inseminations using these ejaculates was made available later in the same year. Results Ranges for the different parameters were as follows; normal morphology, 27–79.5%; DNA-fragmentation index (DFI, 4.8–19.0%; standard deviation of DNA fragmentation index (SD_DFI 41.5–98.9, and mean of DNA fragmentation index (mean_DFI, 267.7–319.5. There was considerable variation among stallions, which was statistically significant for all these parameters except for mean_DFI (P P P P P P P P P Conclusion Either or both of the parameters, sperm morphology and sperm chromatin integrity, seem to be useful in predicting the fertilising ability of stallion ejaculates, particularly in determining cases of sub-fertility.

  7. Sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in Swedish warmblood stallions and their relationship to pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Jane M; Johannisson, Anders; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Hammar, Linda; Sandebert, Thomas; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2008-01-07

    Artificial insemination is not as widely used in horses as in other domestic species, such as dairy cattle and pigs, partly because of the wide variation in sperm quality between stallion ejaculates and partly due to decreased fertility following the use of cooled transported spermatozoa. Furthermore, predictive tests for sperm fertilising ability are lacking. The objective of the present study was to assess sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in ejaculates obtained from 11 warmblood breeding stallions in Sweden, and to evaluate the relationship of these parameters to pregnancy rates to investigate the possibility of using these tests predictively. Aliquots from fortyone ejaculates, obtained as part of the normal semen collection schedule at the Swedish National Stud, were used for morphological analysis by light microscopy, whereas thirtyseven were used for chromatin analysis (SCSA) by flow cytometry. The outcome of inseminations using these ejaculates was made available later in the same year. Ranges for the different parameters were as follows; normal morphology, 27-79.5%; DNA-fragmentation index (DFI), 4.8-19.0%; standard deviation of DNA fragmentation index (SD_DFI) 41.5-98.9, and mean of DNA fragmentation index (mean_DFI), 267.7-319.5. There was considerable variation among stallions, which was statistically significant for all these parameters except for mean_DFI (P morphology and DFI (P morphology and SD_DFI (P morphology and mean_DFI (P morphological analysis or chromatin analysis was able to identify abnormalities in spermiogenesis that could compromise DNA-integrity. A positive relationship was found between normal morphology and pregnancy rate following insemination (r = 0.789; P morphology and sperm chromatin integrity, seem to be useful in predicting the fertilising ability of stallion ejaculates, particularly in determining cases of sub-fertility.

  8. Malignant seminoma in two unilaterally cryptorchid stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lange, V; Chiers, K; Lefère, L; Cools, M; Ververs, C; Govaere, J

    2015-06-01

    Two unilateral cryptorchid stallions were referred to the clinic because of chronic debilitating condition with emaciation. Rectal examination, and ultrasound and gross examination revealed in both animals an abdominal mass, caudally of the kidney, and multiple nodules spread over the abdomen. Histologic analysis revealed an intra-abdominal malignant seminoma with intraperitoneal and renal metastasis. Interestingly, a seminoma was also present in the descended testis of the draught horse. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Effects of mating on plasma concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, M; Cairoli, F; Kindahl, H; Galeati, G; Faustini, M; Carluccio, A; Veronesi, M C

    2006-12-01

    Very little information is available regarding the physiological mechanisms involved in the normal sexual activity in the stallion and, in particular, the endocrine control of reproduction is still not clearly understood. This experiment was designed to determine the short-term effect of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 10 lighthorse stallions of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. At the same time, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein with heparinized tubes, 20 and 10 min before oestrous mare exposure, at exposure and 10, 20, 30 min after dismounting. Testosterone concentrations showed a sharp rise 10 min after mating (p Cortisol concentrations increased 10 min after mating (p < 0.001) and remained at high levels in the subsequent samples taken. A peak of oestrone sulphate was observed 10 min after mating (p < 0.001). 15-Ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) concentrations decreased rapidly at the moment of the exposure of the stallions to an oestrous mare (p < 0.05), returned to pre-mating concentrations and then decreased again 30 min after mating (p < 0.05).

  10. Standing laparoscopic inguinal hernioplasty using cyanoacrylate for preventing recurrence of acquired strangulated inguinal herniation in 10 stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Fabrice; Mespoulhes-Rivière, Céline; Vitte, Amélie; Lechartier, Antoine; Boening, Karl Joseph

    2014-01-01

    To describe a technique for standing inguinal hernioplasty in horses using cyanoacrylate glue, and to evaluate its effect on prevention of recurrent inguinal herniation in stallions that had previous acquired strangulated inguinal hernia (SIH). Case series. Stallions (n = 10) with a history of SIH. Hernioplasty was performed in standing horses using 4 laparoscopic portals. The mesorchium was retracted caudomedially using Babcock forceps. A flexible polyethylene extension tube was introduced through the sheath of a laparoscopic needle and n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (2 mL) was injected into the inguinal canal including its margins while a 2nd Babcock forceps prevented deep ventral diffusion of the cyanoacrylate. The craniolateral parts of the vaginal ring were compressed until full adhesion between the visceral and parietal walls was achieved. In 2 horses, the lateral part of the vaginal ring was sutured before gluing. A contralateral approach was used to check the caudomedial part of the vaginal ring. No recurrence (1-4 years) of inguinal hernia was reported. No major complications occurred and cosmetic outcome was excellent. All horses were used for their intended purpose and 7 horses being used as breeding stallions remained fertile. Standing inguinal hernioplasty using cyanoacrylate seems to provide efficient and secure closure of the vaginal ring in stallions. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. Biochemical components of seminal plasma and their correlation to the fresh seminal characteristics in Marwari stallions and Poitou jacks

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    Thirumala Rao Talluri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics. Materials and Methods: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June. From the collected semen ejaculates, we estimated the values of some biochemical components, viz., total protein content, total lipid content, and enzymes such as glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH as well as concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, total calcium (Ca, and phosphorus (P and correlations among different seminal parameters were statistically examined using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: In this study, we found positive correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and GOT, GPT, ALP and ACP for both the group stallions. Significant correlation between motility and glucose, GOT and GPT could be an indication for their role metabolism and protection against free radicals to the spermatozoa. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that there is a positive correlation between some biochemical values such as glucose, Ca, ALP, and LDH and seminal parameters which play a key role in capacitation and onward movement of the spermatozoa.

  12. Effects of environmental temperature and season on hair coat characteristics, physiologic and reproductive parameters in Shetland pony stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kathrin; Deichsel, Katharina; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Arruda; Aurich, Jörg; Ille, Natascha; Aurich, Christine

    2017-07-15

    We hypothesized that housing of stallions in a thermoneutral temperature zone during autumn and winter does not only influence metabolism and hair shedding but also improves the characteristics of raw and processed semen. Fertile Shetland pony stallions were followed from October to June. This time coincided with the seasons autumn, winter and spring. Ponies were kept in outside paddocks (group CON, n = 8) or in indoor stables (group ST, n = 8) from October to March when ST stallions returned to outdoor paddocks, but ponies remained in the same groups. The rectal temperature was measured once weekly. Heart rate, heart rate variability, testosterone and cortisol concentration in blood as well as quality and length of the coat were determined. Semen was collected once weekly and raw semen characteristics were analyzed. The characteristics of cooled-stored and cryopreserved semen were determined once monthly. During the stabling period, environmental temperature for group ST averaged 13.6 ± 2.3 and for group CON 5.6 ± 4.2 °C. The mean rectal temperature was higher (p temperature during autumn and winter had clear results on body temperature as well as hair coat characteristics in Shetland stallions. Simultaneously determined effects on semen characteristics were minimal indicating that reproductive function in the horse is more dependent on day length i.e. the geophysical year than on other environmental factors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Egg yolk plasma can replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, E; Duchamp, G; Batellier, F; Beaumal, V; Anton, M; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Magistrini, M

    2011-01-01

    Hen egg yolk is normally used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders, but its use has sanitary and practical disadvantages. Moreover the protection afforded by egg yolk has not yet been completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to compare the egg yolk plasma fraction to whole egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. Plasma contains mainly Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), which are widely presumed to be the cryoprotective agent in egg yolk. Plasma can be produced on an industrial scale, sterilised by gamma-irradiation and incorporated in a ready-to-use extender (our ultimate objective). Plasma samples were subjected to different doses of gamma-irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) without dramatic chemical changes that may affect their cryoprotective properties. Stallion semen was frozen with whole egg yolk as a control and with sterilised egg yolk plasma. A fertility trial was conducted on a total of 70 mares' cycles. Fertility per cycle was 60% after insemination of semen frozen in our control extender containing egg yolk (EY), compared to 69% for the extender containing sterilised egg yolk plasma (EYP) (P > 0.05). Post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were also analysed. Motility parameters were not significantly different between extenders except for the variable VAP (for EY versus EYP, VAP: 63 μm.s(-1) versus 59 μm.s(-1), a, b: P 0.05). Membrane integrity was better preserved in EY than in EYP but the difference between extenders was small (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that sterilised egg yolk plasma has the potential to replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. This experiment led to the development of a ready-to-use extender called INRA-Freeze(®) (IMV-Technologies, France). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Stallions Based on Linear Description of Their Daughters

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    Barbora Králová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our work was an objective evaluation of mares of the Czech warmblood horse based on the linear description, as well as the evaluation of the benefits of stallion breeding based on the linear description of their daughters and – for specific stallions – the evaluation of certain individual exterior traits which are passed on by stallions to their offspring. Stallion horses with at least 7 descendants were used for the evaluation and determination of the values, mares which underwent a linear description of traits at the age of 3 years. For this evaluation we used available data from the year 1996 to 2012, a total including 251 stallions and 4709 mares and more than 500 000 records related to the linear description. The data were gathered from the database of the Central Register of Horse Breeding at Slatińany in the Czech Republic. These data were manually compiled using Excel 2007 and then processed and evaluated according to the objectives of the present study using the linear model GLM as well as the statistical programme Scheffe. The results of the study showed a convincing statistical influence of the stallions on all the monitored exterior traits analyzed on the mares for the father‑factor, and after evaluating all the general exterior traits the statistical difference among the stallions was seen as convincing. We found out that in most cases the breed had no convincing statistical influence on the analyzed traits of the linear description. On the contrary, in terms of the other effects (father and year of measurement we found a convincing statistical influence on all traits of the linear description. For some stallions we evaluated particular traits of linear description, which they pass on to their female offspring using charts and graphics. Afterwards we compared reciprocally certain stallions according to the traits of the linear description.

  15. Semen cryopreservation protocols of Mangalarga Marchador stallions

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    Marcela Leite Candeias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the utilization of three semen protocols (Inra 82®, Merck Gema and Botu-crio® and two filling techniques (0.25 and 0.50 mL straws in Mangalarga Marchador stallions were studied in this experiment. Sperm parameters were assessed during processing and post-freezing. No interactions between the protocols and type of filling were observed, so they were assessed separately. Sperm parameters were not altered when the extender was added to the centrifugation; however, there was reduction of motility and strength when freezing extenders were added. The Botu-crio® protocol preserved the parameters of total and progressive sperm motility, smoothed path velocity (µm/s, straight line velocity (µm/s, track velocity (µm/s and the average and fast spermatozoa percentage better than the others. No difference between the extenders for the percentage of sperm integrity was observed. There was no difference in the responses studied on the filling techniques. The stallions presented better freezing with the use of the Botu-crio® protocol. The best post-freezing viability results were found for semen frozen using the Botu-crio® protocol and there were no differences concerning the sperm quality comparing 0.25 and 0.50 mL straws.

  16. Analysis of possible reasons for dissolution of stallion after castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevančević Milenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the practical training of students of the fifth year of studies of veterinary medicine, a demonstration was performed of stallion castration. The owner of the horse decided to take this step because of the unpredictable temperament of the stallion. The castration was carried out under general anaesthesia. The stallion was laid down and immobilized for castration in keeping with the so-called in-the-field conditions. The castration pro­ceeded without any complications, and the postoperative course was in order. Three days after castration, the horse died with symptoms of colic. The autopsy showed obturation of the ileum and ileocecal valve by Parascaris equorum parasites.

  17. Pentoxifylline effects on capacitation and fertility of stallion epididymal sperm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guasti, P. N.; Monteiro, G. A.; Maziero, R. R.D.; Carmo, M. T.; Dell'Aqua, J. A.; Crespilho, A. M.; Rifai, E. A.; Papa, F. O.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determinate whether pentoxifylline (PTX) increases the motion parameters of fresh and frozen-thawed equine epididymal spermatozoa, to evaluate the tyrosine phosphorylation of frozen-thawed epididymal sperm in the presence of PTX and to determine whether the

  18. Dose-dependent effects of homologous seminal plasma on motility and kinematic characteristics of post-thaw stallion epididymal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, S; Dörfel, S; Handler, J

    2015-05-01

    Preservation of epididymal spermatozoa is important to save genetic material of endangered species and breeds, or in case of unexpected injury, which will end the breeding career of valuable sires. Seminal plasma (SP) influences sperm quality in a dose-dependent manner and its addition to preserved semen immediately before insemination may be beneficial for sperm fertility. Increased plasma membrane stability of epididymal spermatozoa reduces freezing injury of cells, and the addition of SP after freezing and thawing might have activating and protecting effects on spermatozoa within the female genital tract. In this study, epididymal spermatozoa were harvested by retrograde flush of the epididymal cauda immediately after routine castration and frozen. Seminal plasma was collected from other six stallions. Homologous SP (SP from the same species, but from a different animal) was added to frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa at concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 50 and 80% SP. Addition of SP increased sperm motility and influenced kinematic values in a dose-dependent manner (p sperm motility among SP from six different donor stallions regardless of the concentrations of SP (p > 0.05). Total and progressive motility of ten frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa samples collected from different stallions after dilution with extender and 5, 20, 50 or 80% SP differed significantly (p epididymal spermatozoa immediately improved motility in a dose-dependent manner regardless of semen quality of SP donor stallions. This might positively influence fertility when SP is added before insemination. Moreover, there seems to be a threshold level of SP concentration for optimal improvement of sperm motility. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. Professor's e-stallion service auction benefits equine reproductive research

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    Move over EBAY... an equine veterinarian in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech has created an internet-based stallion service auction to benefit equine reproductive research in the college.

  20. Effect of cushioned or single layer semen centrifugation before sex sorting on frozen stallion semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, G; Bucci, D; Love, C C; Mislei, B; Rizzato, G; Giaretta, E; Merlo, B; Spinaci, M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of presorting centrifugation (cushioned [CC] or single-layer colloid [SLC]), with simple dilution (SD), on the quality of sex-sorted stallion semen before and after sorting and after freezing and thawing. Four ejaculates from each of two fertile stallions were collected 1 week apart and evaluated for percent total sperm motility (TM), percent viable acrosome-intact sperm (VAI), and DNA quality (percentage of DNA fragmentation index). Freezing caused, independently from CC and SLC treatments, a significant decrease of TM (P < 0.05) and VAI (P < 0.05) in both unsorted and sorted semen. On the other hand, sorting did not impair TM and VAI and, interestingly, improved DNA quality in all treatments only before freezing (28 vs 13, 28 vs 10, 22 vs 7 in SD, CC, and SLC for unsorted vs sorted groups, respectively; P < 0.05); this positive effect was lost in the same samples after freezing and thawing, suggesting that the freezing process reduces the DNA quality of sex-sorted sperm. Our results suggest that CC and SLC are not able to select those spermatozoa that possess a better ability to withstand sperm processing associated with sperm sorting and freezing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibin activity in the mare and stallion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, J F; McCue, P M; Hoye, E

    1994-01-01

    An overnight double antibody RIA, employing a rabbit antiserum raised to bovine 31 kDa inhibin (rAs-#1989, NICHD) and purified bovine 31 kDa inhibin (bINH-I-90/1, NICHD) as trace and standard, was validated to measure immunoreactive inhibin (iINH) concentrations in equine peripheral plasma, follicular fluid (FF), ovarian vein (OV) plasma, testicular tissue extracts (TTE) and testicular vein (TV) plasma. The dynamic relationship of iINH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was investigated during the estrous cycle of the mare and the annual reproductive cycle of the stallion. In the RIA, parallel dose-response curves were observed between the bovine inhibin standard and serial dilutions of equine FF, OV, TTE, TV and plasma. The average recovery of a known amount of purified bovine inhibin added to gelding plasma was approximately 100%. In the inhibin bioassay, serial dilution of equine FF and TTE were observed to be parallel to the bovine inhibin standard. A five-fold difference (p mare and an eight-fold difference (p mares or geldings were undetectable in the RIA. Concentrations of FSH, estradiol and iINH changed significantly in the mare during the estrous cycle (p ovulation, declined rapidly following ovulation and reached a nadir (0.21 +/- 0.03 ng/ml) on day 7 post-ovulation. Plasma iINH and estradiol concentrations followed a similar profile and were found to be positively correlated (r = 0.7064; p < 0.01), whereas iINH and FSH levels demonstrated an inverse relationship (r = -0.7359, p < 0.01) throughout the estrous cycle. Concentrations of FSH were also inversely related (-0.8498, p < 0.01) with estradiol during the cycle. In the stallion, plasma iINH and FSH levels changed significantly during the year (p < 0.05). The iINH profile reflected seasonal changes in testicular activity, with highest concentrations in late spring (3.37 +/- 0.44 ng/ml) and lowest concentrations in the fall (2.21 +/- 0.33 ng/ml). Plasma concentrations of iINH were positively

  2. Genome-wide association study implicates testis-sperm specific FKBP6 as a susceptibility locus for impaired acrosome reaction in stallions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Raudsepp

    Full Text Available Impaired acrosomal reaction (IAR of sperm causes male subfertility in humans and animals. Despite compelling evidence about the genetic control over acrosome biogenesis and function, the genomics of IAR is as yet poorly understood, providing no molecular tools for diagnostics. Here we conducted Equine SNP50 Beadchip genotyping and GWAS using 7 IAR-affected and 37 control Thoroughbred stallions. A significant (PA and g.11040379C>A (p.166H>N in exon 4 that were significantly associated with the IAR phenotype both in the GWAS cohort (n = 44 and in a large multi-breed cohort of 265 horses. All IAR stallions were homozygous for the A-alleles, while this genotype was found only in 2% of controls. The equine FKBP6 was exclusively expressed in testis and sperm and had 5 different transcripts, of which 4 were novel. The expression of this gene in AC/AG heterozygous controls was monoallelic, and we observed a tendency for FKBP6 up-regulation in IAR stallions compared to controls. Because exon 4 SNPs had no effect on the protein structure, it is likely that FKBP6 relates to the IAR phenotype via regulatory or modifying functions. In conclusion, FKBP6 was considered a susceptibility gene of incomplete penetrance for IAR in stallions and a candidate gene for male subfertility in mammals. FKBP6 genotyping is recommended for the detection of IAR-susceptible individuals among potential breeding stallions. Successful use of sperm as a source of DNA and RNA propagates non-invasive sample procurement for fertility genomics in animals and humans.

  3. Effects of two freezing methods and two cryopreservation media on post-thaw quality of stallion spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, S; Bliebernicht, M; Carvalheira, J; Costa, A; Ribeiro, F; Rocha, A

    2018-01-30

    Glycerol-based extenders are widely utilized for freezing equine semen, but media combining methylformamide may better preserve sperm motility and mitochondrial function. Semen is cryopreserved utilizing either a Styrofoam box filled with liquid nitrogen or an automatic freezer. The objective of this experiment was to compare the post-thaw characteristics of the same ejaculates cryopreserved in a Styrofoam box or in an automatic freezer, utilizing a glycerol-based extender (Gent) and an extender that combines methylformamide and glycerol (BotuCrio ® ). For that, one ejaculate from 30 stallions collected in two different centres was used. For data analysis, a mixed linear model with laboratory, medium and freezing method and respective interactions as fixed effects was used. Stallion was taken into account as a random effect. There was no influence (p > .05) of laboratory, while stallion effect was marked. Semen frozen in BotuCrio ® in the automatic freezer had higher (p Styrofoam box. VCL was also higher (p = .068) for semen frozen in BotuCrio ® in the Styrofoam box than for semen cryopreserved in Gent using the same method. The difference between percentage of sperm with intact plasma membrane frozen in Gent using the Styrofoam box (44.43% ± 2.44%) compared to spermatozoa cryopreserved in BotuCrio ® using the same method (40.78% ± 2.42%) approached significance (p = .0507). The percentage of sperm with intact acrosome membrane was higher (p Styrofoam box had high mitochondrial membrane potential than semen frozen in BotuCrio ® using the same method (26.02% ± 2.15%). Fertility studies are warranted to assess whether differences found have any effect on the fertility of inseminated mares. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Spinal cord compression secondary to hemangiosarcoma in a saddlebred stallion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, S

    1999-01-01

    Hemangiosarcoma in the spinal canal was diagnosed in a 25-year-old stallion showing progressive and symmetrical 4-limb ataxia, proprioceptive deficits, and weakness. On necropsy, an extradural mass consisting of spindle-shaped cells and numerous free erythrocytes was found at the level of C7-T1. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed a neoplasm of endothelial origin. PMID:10646067

  5. [Phantoms for the collection of genital secretions in stallions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, E; Brinkhoff, D; Flüge, A; Scherbarth, R; Essich, G; Kienzler, M

    1977-10-05

    Practical experiences of the phantom method for collection of genital secretions from stallions are reported. Taking a phantom used in the Richard-Götze-Haus Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover as a prototype two further models slightly modified have been constructed, baring a flat hollow in the right side of the caudal phantom body for manual inserting of the Artificial Vagina. These three models fulfill four important conditions for routine use: (1) sufficient sexual attractivity for the stallions; 80-85% successful collections of presecretions out of a total of 1050 using the dummy and 70% successful semen collections from more than 240 in total; (2) solid and resistant construction; (3) easy cleaning and desinfection of the surface of the phantom to get representative samples; (4) firm installation on a hygienic floor.

  6. Oxytocin, vasopressin, prostaglandin F(2alpha), luteinizing hormone, testosterone, estrone sulfate, and cortisol plasma concentrations after sexual stimulation in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Tosi, U; Villani, M; Govoni, N; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; Madej, A; Carluccio, A

    2010-03-01

    This experiment was designed to determine the effects of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PG-metabolite), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), estrone sulfate (ES), and cortisol (C) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 14 light horse stallions (Equus caballus) of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. Blood samples were collected at 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 min before estrous mare exposure, at erection, at ejaculation, and at 3, 6, and 9 min after ejaculation. Afterwards, blood sampling was performed every 10 min for the following 60 min. Sexual activity determined an increase in plasma concentrations of OT, VP, C, PG-metabolite, and ES and caused no changes in LH and T concentrations. The finding of a negative correlation between C and VP at erection, and between C and T before erection and at the time of erection, could be explained by a possible inhibitory role exerted by C in the mechanism of sexual arousal described for men. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rosiglitazone Improves Stallion Sperm Motility, ATP Content, and Mitochondrial Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swegen, Aleona; Lambourne, Sarah Renay; Aitken, R John; Gibb, Zamira

    2016-11-01

    Media used for equine sperm storage often contain relatively high concentrations of glucose, even though stallion spermatozoa preferentially utilize oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) over glycolysis to generate ATP and support motility. Rosiglitazone is an antidiabetic compound that enhances metabolic flexibility and glucose utilization in various cell types, but its effects on sperm metabolism are unknown. This study investigated the effects of rosiglitazone on stallion sperm function in vitro, along with the possible role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mediating these effects. Spermatozoa were incubated with or without rosiglitazone, GW9662 (an antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-gamma), and compound C (CC; an AMPK inhibitor). Sperm motility, viability, reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial membrane potential (mMP), ATP content, and glucose uptake capacity were measured. Samples incubated with rosiglitazone displayed significantly higher motility, percentage of cells with normal mMP, ATP content, and glucose uptake capacity, while sperm viability was unaffected. The percentage of spermatozoa positive for mitochondrial ROS was also significantly lower in rosiglitazone-treated samples. AMPK localized to the sperm midpiece, and its phosphorylation, was increased in rosiglitazone-treated spermatozoa. CC decreased sperm AMPK phosphorylation and reduced sperm motility, and successfully inhibited the effects of rosiglitazone. Inclusion of rosiglitazone in a room temperature sperm storage medium maintained sperm motility above 60% for 6 days, attaining significantly higher motility than sperm stored in control media. The ability of rosiglitazone to substantially alleviate the time-dependent deterioration of stallion spermatozoa by diverting metabolism away from OXPHOS and toward glycolysis has novel implications for the long-term, functional preservation of these cells. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction

  8. Removal of bacteria from stallion semen by colloid centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Klein, C; Lundeheim, N; Erol, E; Troedsson, M H T

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria (environmental contaminants and occasionally potential pathogens) are found in most stallion ejaculates and may negatively affect sperm quality during storage. Since the use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance, an alternative means of microbial control is desirable. The removal of bacteria from stallion semen using Single Layer Centrifugation through Androcoll-E was investigated. Known doses of cultured bacteria were added to freshly collected ejaculates (15mL aliquots) before processing by Single Layer Centrifugation. The resulting sperm pellets and controls (not processed by Single Layer Centrifugation) were cultured and the bacteria identified. In experiment 1, doses of E. coli from 2×10(2) to 2×10(7) colony forming units were added to aliquots of semen. In experiment 2, Taylorella equigenitalis or a mix of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (approximately 7×10(6), 5×10(6), and 6×10(6)cfu, respectively) were added to 15mL aliquots of semen. In experiment 1, more than 90% of the bacteria were removed where loading doses were >×10(4)cfu/mL. In experiment 2, varying proportions of different bacteria were removed, ranging from 68% for naturally occurring Corynebacterium spp. to >97% for added cultured E. coli. Thus, Single Layer Centrifugation can separate spermatozoa from many, but not all bacteria in stallion ejaculates and could be a useful alternative to adding antibiotics to semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. However, further research is needed to determine the effect of small numbers of bacteria on sperm quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of four stallions, carriers of the contagious metritis organism--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristula, Michaela A; Smith, Billy I

    2004-01-15

    Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM), a venereal disease of horses caused by the bacterium Taylorella equigenitalis, was first diagnosed in 1977 and subsequently spread to many nations [Proc 24th AM Assoc Equine Pract (1979) 287]. The disease was confirmed in the United States in 1978 [Proc Am Assoc Equine Pract (1983) 295]. Specific regulatory procedures for this disease have been established in the United States and 37 other countries. From 1999 through 2001, four of 120 imported European stallions tested positive for CEM at a quarantine facility in Darlington, MD, USA. Two stallions were identified by positive bacterial cultures for T. equigenitalis on arrival. The other two positive stallions were negative on initial bacterial cultures, but were identified as CEM carriers when test mares (that they had mated) were culture-positive for T. equigenitalis. Since T. equigenitalis, is a fastidious slow-growing coccobacillus, additional sets of samples taken over a interval might be required to ensure positive stallions are detected before mating test mares. Likewise, additional sets of samples taken over a long interval after treatment of a stallion for CEM might be required to ensure that positive stallions treated for CEM are detected before mating test mares. Aggressive systemic antibiotic therapy accompanied by routine topical therapy might be required to treat some CEM-positive stallions.

  10. Electron beam sterilization and composting of sludge and its utilization as fertilizer for greenbelt and farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1988-01-01

    Sludge should be sterilized to exterminate bacteria prior to its application as a fertilizer in greenbelts or farmland. Furthermore, sludge should be converted into compost to prevent odors or breeding of harmful insects. A technique is developed for complete sterilization of sludge and rapid production of compost. Sludge is first sterilized by electron beams and composting is performed under optimum conditions including the fermentation temperature. Typically, about 10 8 - 10 9 bacteria are contained in 1 g of sludge, with coliforms accounting for about 10 percent of the total bacteria. Irradiation of 15 kGy can reduce the total number of bacteria by 6 - 7 orders of magnitude. Irradiation of 2 kGy can almost completely exterminate coliforms, which are highly sensitive to radiations. This indicates that 0.2-second irradiation is sufficient if a dose rate of 10 kGy/sec is used. After the sterilization process, sludge is composted under the following conditions: temperature of 40 - 50 deg C, initial pH of 7 - 8 and particle size of 5 mm or less. Compared with conventional processes, the maximum fermentation rate is greater by 10 times and can be reached 10 times more rapidly. Conventional processes require more than 10 days while the present technique takes only 2 - 3 days until carbon dioxide stops generating. (Nogami, K.)

  11. STUDIES ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE PUBLIC MATING STALLIONS FROM ARAD STATION ON LOCAL HORSE IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TĂPĂLAGĂ

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Public Mating Stations are state’s units which are breeding stallions produced bythe National Stud farms. They are maintained there only for one reason: to be usedfor reproduction and improvement of the local horse populations. Each StallionStation has its own territory on a geographical determined area, in this case Arad,Bihor and Hunedoara counties. In the mating season, almost all of the stallions areallocated (by breeds and demands for a group of communes where mare ownersasked for them.

  12. An infanticide attempt by a free-roaming feral stallion (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Meeghan E

    2009-02-23

    Infanticide by adult males occurs in a variety of species. While infanticidal attacks have been documented in several equid species in captivity, it has never been witnessed in free-roaming feral horses. I report an infanticide attempt by a free-living feral stallion on a recently born female foal. The stallion picked up the foal by the shoulders, tossed it around twice and bit in on the neck several times. The dam of the foal charged the stallion and successfully protected her foal from additional attacks. The foal survived the attack and later weaned successfully. The stallion recently took over the band and was excluded as the sire through genetic analysis. While this type of attack is rare, this case lends support to the sexual selection hypothesis and further demonstrates that equids have evolved with the risk of infanticide. Furthermore, it shows that maternal protectiveness can be successful against attacks by infanticidal males.

  13. Influences of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on stallion sperm production and on preservation of sperm quality during storage at 5 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, C; Tafuri, S; Ciani, F; Pasolini, M P; Ciotola, F; Albarella, S; Carotenuto, D; Peretti, V; Cocchia, N

    2018-03-01

    Stallion semen is damaged by oxidative stress during cooling and transport. Semen processing and extenders have been tested to improve the fertilizing capacity of semen and to preserve semen during transport. Dietary supplementation with natural antioxidants has been proposed to prevent oxidative damages. In this study, for the first time, the effect of dietary supplementation with Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the characteristics of fresh and chilled stallion semen was evaluated. Maca is a traditional Andean crop used as a nutraceutical for the fertility-enhancing properties that are linked with antioxidant activity. The diet of five stallions was supplemented with 20 g of Maca powder daily for a total of 60 days. A control group of five stallions received the same diet without Maca. Semen was collected once before the administration of Maca (D0), twice during the administration at 30 and 60 days (D30 and D60), and finally twice at 30 and 60 days after the end of the administration (D90 and D120). Ejaculates were processed for cooled shipping at 5 °C and evaluated in the laboratory for total and progressive motility, acrosome integrity, and lipid peroxidation after collection and after 24, 48, and 72 h of storage. Dietary supplementation with Maca improved sperm concentration (from 213 ± 80.4 to 447 ± 73.1 × 10 6 spz/mL) and total sperm count (from 10,880 ± 4377 to 24,783 ± 4419 × 10 6 spz). The beneficial effects of Maca supplementation on motility and acrosome integrity in the raw semen were detected from the end of treatment with Maca (D60) until the end of the study (D120). Furthermore, during cooling storage, total motility, progressive motility, and acrosome integrity declined more slowly in the Maca-treated group than in the control group. Lipid peroxidation did not change during cooling storage in either group and did not show a significant difference between the two groups. In this study, the dietary supplementation with Maca

  14. Electrophilic aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation selectively adduct to heat shock protein 90 and arylsulfatase A in stallion spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sally E; Aitken, R John; Nixon, Brett; Smith, Nathan D; Gibb, Zamira

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major determinant of mammalian sperm function stimulating lipid peroxidation cascades that culminate in the generation of potentially cytotoxic aldehydes. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of such aldehydes on the functionality of stallion spermatozoa. The impact of exposure to exogenous acrolein (ACR) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) was manifested in a highly significant dose- and time-dependent increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), total cellular ROS, a decrease in sperm motility, and a time-dependent increase in lipid peroxidation. Notably, low doses of ACR and 4HNE also caused a significant decrease in zona binding. In contrast, exogenous malondialdehyde, a commonly used marker of oxidative stress, had little impact on the various sperm parameters assessed. In accounting for the negative physiological impact of ACR and 4HNE, it was noted that both aldehydes readily adducted to sperm proteins located predominantly within the head, proximal centriole, and tail. The detoxifying activity of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 appeared responsible for a lack of adduction in the midpiece; however, this activity was overwhelmed by 24 h of electrophilic aldehyde exposure. Sequencing of the dominant proteins targeted for ACR and 4HNE covalent modification identified heat shock protein 90 alpha (cytosolic) class A member 1 and arylsulfatase A, respectively. These collective findings may prove useful in the identification of diagnostic biomarkers of stallion fertility and resolving the mechanistic basis of sperm dysfunction in this species. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Sperm yield after single layer centrifugation with Androcoll-E is related to the potential fertility of the original ejaculate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Stuhtmann, G; Meurling, S; Lundgren, A; Winblad, C; Macias Garcia, B; Johannisson, A

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to identify laboratory tests that are predictive of sperm fertility, both to improve the quality of stallion semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) and to identify potential breeding sires if no fertility data are available. Sperm quality at the stud is mostly evaluated by assessing subjective motility, although this parameter can be poorly indicative of fertility. Sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in Swedish stallions are correlated to pregnancy rate after AI. Because single layer centrifugation (SLC) selects for spermatozoa with normal morphology and good chromatin, retrospective analysis was carried out to investigate whether sperm yield after SLC is linked to potential fertility. Commercial semen doses for AI from 24 stallions (five stallions with four ejaculates each, 19 stallions with three ejaculates each; n = 77) obtained during the breeding season were cooled, and sent overnight to the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in an insulated box for evaluation, with other doses being sent to studs for commercial AI. On arrival at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the semen was used for SLC and also for evaluation of sperm motility, membrane integrity, chromatin integrity, and morphology. The seasonal pregnancy rates for each stallion were available. The yield of progressively motile spermatozoa after SLC (calculated as a proportion of the initial load) was found to be highly correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.75; P centrifugation is fast (30 minutes) and does not require expensive equipment, whereas other assays require a flow cytometer and/or specialist skills. An additional option could be to transport semen doses to a laboratory for SLC if the stud personnel do not want to perform the procedure themselves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pattern of social interactions after group integration: a possibility to keep stallions in group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Briefer Freymond

    Full Text Available Horses are often kept in individual stables, rather than in outdoor groups, despite such housing system fulfilling many of their welfare needs, such as the access to social partners. Keeping domestic stallions in outdoor groups would mimic bachelor bands that are found in the wild. Unfortunately, the high level of aggression that unfamiliar stallions display when they first encounter each other discourages owners from keeping them in groups. However, this level of aggression is likely to be particularly important only during group integration, when the dominance hierarchy is being established, whereas relatively low aggression rates have been observed among stable feral bachelor bands. We investigated the possibility of housing breeding stallions owned by the Swiss National Stud in groups on a large pasture (5 stallions in 2009 and 8 stallions in 2010. We studied the pattern of agonistic, ritual and affiliative interactions after group integration (17-23 days, and the factors influencing these interactions (time after group integration, dominance rank, age or experience of group housing. We found that stallions displayed generally more ritual than agonistic and than affiliative interactions. The frequency of agonistic and ritual interactions decreased quickly within the first three to four days. The frequency of affiliative interactions increased slowly with time before decreasing after 9-14 days. A stable hierarchy could be measured after 2-3 months. The highest-ranking males had less ritual interactions than the lowest-ranking. Males had also less agonistic, ritual and affiliative interactions if they had already been housed in a group the previous year. Therefore, we found that breeding stallions could be housed together on a large pasture, because the frequency of agonistic interactions decreased quickly and remained at a minimal level from the fourth day following group integration. This housing system could potentially increase horse

  17. Pattern of social interactions after group integration: a possibility to keep stallions in group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefer Freymond, Sabrina; Briefer, Elodie F; Von Niederhäusern, Rudolf; Bachmann, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Horses are often kept in individual stables, rather than in outdoor groups, despite such housing system fulfilling many of their welfare needs, such as the access to social partners. Keeping domestic stallions in outdoor groups would mimic bachelor bands that are found in the wild. Unfortunately, the high level of aggression that unfamiliar stallions display when they first encounter each other discourages owners from keeping them in groups. However, this level of aggression is likely to be particularly important only during group integration, when the dominance hierarchy is being established, whereas relatively low aggression rates have been observed among stable feral bachelor bands. We investigated the possibility of housing breeding stallions owned by the Swiss National Stud in groups on a large pasture (5 stallions in 2009 and 8 stallions in 2010). We studied the pattern of agonistic, ritual and affiliative interactions after group integration (17-23 days), and the factors influencing these interactions (time after group integration, dominance rank, age or experience of group housing). We found that stallions displayed generally more ritual than agonistic and than affiliative interactions. The frequency of agonistic and ritual interactions decreased quickly within the first three to four days. The frequency of affiliative interactions increased slowly with time before decreasing after 9-14 days. A stable hierarchy could be measured after 2-3 months. The highest-ranking males had less ritual interactions than the lowest-ranking. Males had also less agonistic, ritual and affiliative interactions if they had already been housed in a group the previous year. Therefore, we found that breeding stallions could be housed together on a large pasture, because the frequency of agonistic interactions decreased quickly and remained at a minimal level from the fourth day following group integration. This housing system could potentially increase horse welfare and reduce

  18. Prevalence of Taylorella equigenitalis infection in stallions in Slovenia: bacteriology compared with PCR examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdovc, I; Ocepek, M; Gruntar, I; Pate, M; Klobucar, I; Krt, B

    2005-05-01

    The prevalence of Taylorella equigenitalis infection in Slovenia is unknown and methods used to refine identification in these stallions are required. In diagnosis of T. equigenitalis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) would have advantages over culture methods, especially in cases where small numbers of causal agent or intensive contamination of genital swabs are involved. Culture method and PCR were used to examine a total of 980 genital swabs from the urethra and fossa urethralis of 245 stallions for the presence of the contagious equine metritis organism. Among 245 examined stallions, 225 (91.8%) were negative to T. equigenitalis by both methods. From the swabs of 17 stallions (6.9%) T. equigenitalis was isolated at first and/or second sampling. Swabs of 3 (13%) stallions were PCR positive but the isolation of T. equigenitalis failed. The rate of T. equigenitalis detection was higher with PCR than with the classic bacteriological examination. PCR protocol used in this study provided a specific, sensitive, and simple tool for rapid detection of T. equigenitalis. PCR is especially valuable in cases of intensive bacterial and fungal contamination of swabs where the isolation of T. equigenitalis usually fails.

  19. Effect of a dietary antioxidant supplementation on semen quality in pony stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichsel, K; Palm, F; Koblischke, P; Budik, S; Aurich, C

    2008-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation contributes to the damage of the sperm plasma membrane. In different species, dietary supplementation with antioxidants has been shown to improve semen quality. Therefore, we tested effects of dietary supplementation with antioxidants and l-carnitin on semen quality in Shetland pony stallions (n=6). Semen was collected twice a week over a time period of 16 weeks. From weeks 5 to 12, a special diet for stallions containing a variety of antioxidants (STALLION, Pavo Pferdenahrung GmbH, Goch, Germany; tocopherol 300 mg/day; ascorbic acid 300 mg/day; l-carnitin 4000 mg/day; folic acid 12 mg/day) was added to the basal diet (hay, mineral supplements, water). Ejaculates were evaluated for total sperm count, semen motility (percentage of totally and progressively motile spermatozoa, longevity for 24 h at 5 degrees C) and membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI staining): All values given are means+/-S.E.M. No changes in motility, progressive motility and membrane integrity or semen longevity for 24 h were detected. A slight but significant reduction of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa was found (weeks 1-4: 43.7+/-7.1%; weeks 13-16: 39.4+/-7.2%, p<0.05). Results show that a supplementary diet with antioxidants in the given concentration and duration does not result in pronounced effects on semen quality of stallions. It is therefore questionable to support stallions with dietary antioxidants as long as they receive an adequately balanced basal diet.

  20. Comparative study of morphometric proportions among Campolina´s stallions and gelded ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Cavalcante Lucena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the equine species, the surface characteristics, present a close relationship with its functional classification. The scientific use of linear measurements can contribute decisively in the selective process of many breeds, by identifying the higher morphologically individuals and excluding from reproduction those that are not closed to desirable. The present study objected to evaluate and compare, the linear measures from stallions and gelded horses registered in ABCCCampolina’s CP6 and CP8 books, and to determinate the existing correlations. In order to reach so, 15 linear measures from 4.837 stallions and 1.371 gelded were evaluated from descriptive statistic, Pearson’s correlation and analysis of variance. Generally, higher values of correlations were observed for stallions than to gelded ones. To stallions, most of the measures were significantly influenced (P<0,01 by the year of birth, state of birth and coat color, while to gelded ones the coat color showed lower influence (P<0,01 upon the measures. It’s important to notice that castration did not committed the animal’s final growth, however the breeders non sense the lack of appropriated criteria during the selection process and personal preferences can contribute towards stablishing breed characters rather than functionals. This can be highlighted by the fact that Campolina’s gelded horses showed, in average, better proportioned than stallions.

  1. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Petlachová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  2. Relationships between young stallions' temperament and their behavioral reactions during standardized veterinary examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Marie; Verwilghen, Denis; Serteyn, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Horse handling and veterinary examination can induce hazardous stress reactions. Such reactions occur especially in young and less-trained horses, particularly stallions, and make their handling a risk for breeders, grooms, and medical staff. Moreover, these stressful situations will affect...... radiological examination. During the years 2008 and 2009, 93 stallions were evaluated. Stallions were observed from the moment they were unloaded from the trailer at the clinic until the end of veterinary examinations. In addition to the behavioral observations made by the experimenter, each staff member...... by the clinical staff. These low " easiness of manipulation" scores were positively correlated to temperament traits such as " anxiousness" and " aggressiveness" and negatively correlated to others such as " sociability" or " learning level." Temperament assessment and behavioral observations can therefore...

  3. Effects of ground semen collection on weight bearing on hindquarters, libido, and semen parameters in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D; Meroni, G; Thomas, S; Sieme, H

    2015-09-15

    Collection of semen on the ground from the standing stallion represents an alternative method to dummy mount semen collection and is of increasing popularity for sport stallions, males suffering from health problems, or in studs without a dummy or suitable mare at disposal. Our aim was to collect and compare spermatological and physiological data associated with traditional and ground semen collection. Twelve of 23 Franches-Montagnes stallions were selected to carry out semen collection on a dummy and while standing in a crossed experimental protocol. Semen quantity and quality parameters, weight bearing on hindquarters, and behavioral and libido data were recorded. Ground versus dummy mount semen collection was accompanied by lower seminal volume (15.9 ± 14.6 vs. 22.0 ± 13.3 mL; P < 0.01) and lower total sperm count (4.913 ± 2.721 × 10(9) vs. 6.544 ± 2.856 × 10(9) sperm; P < 0.001). No significant differences were found concerning sperm motility and viability. Time to ejaculation was longer, and the number of attempts to ejaculation was higher (P = 0.053) in the standing position compared with the mount on the dummy. A higher (P < 0.01) amount of tail flagging was manifested by the stallions during ejaculation on the dummy compared to when standing. There was no difference in weight bearing on hindquarters when comparing dummy collection (51.2 ± 2.5%) and standing collection (48.9 ± 5.5%). Ground semen collection can be considered as a viable option for stallions that cannot mount a dummy or a mare. However, it requires training and may be not easily accepted by all stallions. Owners should be advised that ground semen collection is associated with significantly lower sperm numbers than with dummy mount semen collection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of artificial insemination protocol and dose of frozen/thawed stallion semen on pregnancy results in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaere, J L J; Hoogewijs, M K; De Schauwer, C; De Vliegher, S; Van Soom, A; Duchateau, L; de Kruif, A

    2014-06-01

    Deep intra-uterine insemination is commonly accepted as a routine procedure for artificial insemination in horses. The motives and principles of deep insemination are well described, but the equipment used may differ. In this trial, the efficiency of two different insemination pipettes for deep intra-uterine insemination in the mare was compared with insemination into the uterine body using commercially available frozen-thawed semen of two stallions of proven fertility. These inseminations were performed using two different doses. The semi-flexible Minitube pipette was compared with a newly designed insemination device with a more flexible telescopic insemination catheter (Ghent device). The semi-flexible Minitube pipette performed better than the newly designed insemination device with respect to pregnancy outcome (p = 0.008). The superiority of deep horn insemination over uterine body insemination was reflected by the better pregnancy rates obtained after deep insemination using the same low doses (30.6% better pregnancy rates) (p = 0.0123). © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Microsatellite analysis of cryopreserved stallion semen stored on FTA(R paper : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Schulman

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish and validate a method to permit microsatellite analysis of DNA profiles obtained from frozen-thawed stallion sperm cells. This would provide reliable and accurate verification of the identification of a semen donor. Ejaculates from 5 pony stallions were collected, processed and frozen in 0.5 m plastic straws. Aliquots of 100 m of the frozen-thawed semen thus obtained were either placed directly, or diluted (1 : 10 ; 1 : 100 ; and 1 : 1000 and placed on slides of FTA(R paper. Similarly, blood samples obtained from each of the stallions were placed onto slides of FTA(R paper. A punch was removed from each sample after drying. Each sample was mixed with FTA(R purification reagent, Dithiothreitol and Proteinase K before incubation and processing. All samples were processed with a set of 13 microsatellite markers. Further analysis permitted a comparison of the DNA profiles of the frozen-thawed semen and the blood samples. A full profile of markers was obtained from the 1 : 10 and 1 : 100 dilutions of the frozen-thawed semen samples as well as from the blood samples. The DNA profiles from the frozen-thawed semen and blood samples obtained from the stallions matched in all cases.

  6. Biological Functions and Clinical Applications of Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Stallions and Mares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claes, Anthony N J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411888382; Ball, Barry A

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays a major role in sexual differentiation, Leydig cell differentiation, and folliculogenesis. In addition, AMH has clinical value in equine practice. In stallions, AMH can serve as an endocrine marker for equine cryptorchidism and as an immunohistochemical marker for

  7. Comparative analysis of long-range calls in equid stallions (Equidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acoustic features allowed assigning calls of stallions with 92% average classification success to the correct species. The duration of the call clearly separated horses (type I) from type II species: kiang, Somalian ass and Grevy's zebra. Accordingly to its harem social system (type I), the pattern of long-range call in Grant's ...

  8. Effects of GnRH immunization in sexually mature pony stallions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, J.A.; Meer, F.J.U.M.; Knaap, J.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Teerds, K.J.; Colenbrander, B.; Meloen, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Immunization against gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) was studied as an alternative for the commonly used surgical castration in stallions. Two GnRH vaccines comprising non-mineral oil adjuvants were evaluated for their potential to induce high antibody titers directed against GnRH and

  9. CORRELATION BETWEEN SOME BODY MEASURES OF LIPPIZANER STALLION PER LINES AT ĐAKOVO STUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rastija

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Body measures of Lippizaner line stallions and their correlation were processed in Đakovo stud. The measures performed by Lydtin rod and stock band included withers height, chest girth and cannon bone circumference on the total of 75 heads. Neapolitano line was characterized by the fewest number of stallions (4 whereas Tulip by the largest one (20. Data attained by the measuring were processed by the statistical program SPSS/PC (Nie et. al. 1975. Neapolitano line stallions had the lowest withers height (164.00 cm measured by the band whereas Conversano line stallions had the highest one (166.33 cm. Withers height measured by the rod was the lowest in the Maestoso line stallion (156.50 cm and the highest one in the Favory line (159.20 cm. Chest girth ranged between 183.82 cm (Pluto line and 186.89 cm (Conversano line. Cannon bone circumference was uniform with all lines ranged from 20.05 cm (Tulipan line and 20.65 cm (Maestoso lines. Correlation between withers height measured by the band and rod and that one measured by the rod and chest girth was positive and highly significant. However, correlation between others ranged from slight positive to slight negative. Neapolitano line was known for the most pronounced correlation per lines whereas Tulip line for the weakest one. Correlation between withers height measured by the band and rod was in all lines highly significant (except Tulip line whereas other correlation varied from positive to negative.

  10. A comparison between freezing methods for the cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clulow, J R; Mansfield, L J; Morris, L H A; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2008-11-01

    The effects of sperm freezing concentration (40 x 10(6)mL(-1) vs. 400 x 10(6)mL(-1)), straw size (0.25 mL vs. 0.5 mL) and freezing method (liquid nitrogen vapour in a Styrofoam box vs. programmable freezing machine) were evaluated in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design using 3 split ejaculates from each of 4 stallions. Immediately after thawing, the total motility and forward progressive motility of spermatozoa frozen at a concentration of 40 x 10(6)mL(-1) was higher than for spermatozoa frozen at 400 x 10(6)mL(-1). No significant differences were observed in the semen parameters assessed after cryopreservation in either 0.25 or 0.5 mL straws. However, the programmable freezer provided a more consistent and reliable freezing rate than liquid nitrogen vapour. We conclude that an effective protocol for the cryopreservation of stallion spermatozoa at low concentrations would include concentrations of 40 x 10(6)mL(-1) in 0.25 mL straws using a programmable freezer. This freezing protocol would be suitable for emerging sperm technologies such as sex-preselection of stallion spermatozoa as the sorting process yields only low numbers of spermatozoa in a small volume available for either immediate insemination or cryopreservation.

  11. Assessment of stallion semen morphology using two different staining methods, microscopic techniques, and sample sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łącka Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to propose the optimal methodology for stallion semen morphology analysis while taking into consideration the staining method, the microscopic techniques, and the workload generated by a number of samples. Material and Methods: Ejaculates from eight pure-bred Arabian horses were tested microscopically for the incidence of morphological defects in the spermatozoa. Two different staining methods (eosin-nigrosin and eosin-gentian dye, two different techniques of microscopic analysis (1000× and 400× magnifications, and two sample sizes (200 and 500 spermatozoa were used. Results: Well-formed spermatozoa and those with major and minor defects according to Blom’s classification were identified. The applied staining methods gave similar results and could be used in stallion sperm morphology analysis. However, the eosin-nigrosin method was more recommendable, because it allowed to limit the number of visible artefacts without hindering the identification of protoplasm drops and enables the differentiation of living and dead spermatozoa. Conclusion: The applied microscopic techniques proved to be equally efficacious. Therefore, it is practically possible to opt for the simpler and faster 400x technique of analysing sperm morphology to examine stallion semen. We also found that the number of spermatozoa clearly affects the results of sperm morphology evaluation. Reducing the number of spermatozoa from 500 to 200 causes a decrease in the percentage of spermatozoa identified as normal and an increase in the percentage of spermatozoa determined as morphologically defective.

  12. Localization of alkali-labile sites in donkey (Equus asinus) and stallion (Equus caballus) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; López-Fernández, Carmen; Fernández, José Luis; Crespo, Francisco; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2014-01-15

    The presence of constitutive alkali-labile sites (ALS) has been investigated using a protocol of DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization and comet assay in spermatozoa of donkey (Equus asinus) and stallion (Equus caballus). These results were compared with those obtained using a similar experimental approach using somatic cells. The relative abundance of ALS was of the order of four times more in spermatozoa than in somatic cells. Alkali-labile sites showed a tendency to cluster localized at the equatorial-distal regions of the sperm. The amount of hybridized signal in the ALS in the sperm of donkey (Equus asinus) was 1.3 times greater than in stallion (Equus caballus), and the length of the comet tail obtained in donkey sperm was 1.6 times longer than that observed in stallion (P < 0.05); however, these differences were not appreciated in somatic cells. In conclusion, ALS localization in sperm is not a randomized event and a different pattern of ALS distribution occurs for each species. These results suggest that ALS represents a species-specific issue related to chromatin organization in sperm and somatic cells in mammalian species, and they might diverge even with very short phylogenetic distances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Polish and foreign purebred Arabian stallions on conformation traits of their progeny participating in shows in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Czarnecki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations confirm correctness of the statement that the best recommendation for a stallion is his progeny. The aim of this study was indicating purebred Arabian stallions passing on to their progeny best conformation traits, assessed in Polish shows, in the past decade, taking into consideration their origin. The analysis included national and foreign stallions used in Polish breeding of purebred Arabian horses, which are fathers of at least 5 heads of progeny. The authors own research proved that progeny of foreign stallions statistically differed significantly from the progeny sired by Polish stallions within all conformation traits tested in shows. In the studied period, the highest final score (91.37 points and note for the trait type (19.11 points was characteristic of the progeny of QR Marc. The best head was passed on by stallions: QR Marc (19.06 points and WH Justice (18.78 points, born in the United States and owned by the European breeders. In the Top Ten of producers passing on a refined head to their progeny, there was only one Polish stallion bred in the Horse Stud Michalw, Ekstern (18.29 points. Progeny with the most correct body structure was sired by foreign stallions, Eden C (18.13 points and QR Marc (18.13 points, and by the Polish stallion, Zlocien (17.95 points. The highest score for the trait legs was obtained by the progeny of the Qatar stallion Gazal Al Shaqab (16.30 points. However, the title of the father of the best movers got an Israeli stallion, Laheeb (18.91 points.

  14. Fertilization 2: Polyspermic Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Shusei

    2017-01-01

    During fertilization in animals, a haploid egg nucleus fuses with a haploid sperm nucleus to restore the diploid genome. In most animals including mammals, echinoderms, and teleostei, the penetration of only one sperm into an egg is ensured at fertilization because the entry of two or more sperm is prevented by polyspermy block systems in these eggs. On the other hand, several animals such as birds, reptiles, and most urodele amphibians exhibit physiological polyspermy, in which the entry of several sperm into one egg is permitted. However, in these polyspermic eggs, only one sperm nucleus is involved in zygotic formation with a female nucleus, thereby avoiding syngamy with multiple sperm nuclei. In the chicken, 20-60 sperm are generally found within the egg cytoplasm at fertilization and this number is markedly higher than that of other polyspermic species; however, avian-specific events such as the degeneration and mitosis of supernumerary sperm nuclei during early embryo development allow a polyspermic egg to develop normally. This chapter describes current knowledge on polyspermy-related events in avian eggs during fertilization, and is characterized by a comparison to the fertilization modes of other vertebrates. The close relationship between sperm numbers and egg sizes, and the movement of supernumerary sperm nuclei towards the periphery of the egg cytoplasm and their degeneration are summarized. The molecular mechanisms by which polyspermy initiates egg activation to start embryo development are also discussed.

  15. The method of preparation and use of vasectomized stallions to regulate the sexual function in mares during hippodrome testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursulu Julanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a method of preparation and use of vasectomized stallions, and to test them as a factor preventing genital functional disorders in mares during training and hippodrome testing. Thoroughbred mares of English, Arabic and Akhal-Teke breeds owned by horse ranches of the Republic of Kazakhstan were used in the research. Vasectomy techniques were mastered on a slaughtering material, and then field tested on stallions. A series of experiments were set for comparative evaluation of various methods of preparation and use of a vasectomized stallion, resulting in a technique based on removing the front section of sperm ducts in the ventro-caudal portion of the scrotum. The developed method is convenient, safe, and easy to perform in field conditions. The surgery is not time consuming, and there are no postoperative complications. We found a positive effect of the vasectomized stallion on the course of the mares’ oestrous cycles, on their performance during hippodrome testing, and their reproductive function. The method reduced the standing heat period, and the mares quickly recovered their performance. Thus, it decreased the time of the mares’ elimination from the training schedule and had a positive effect on the performance during hippodrome testing. The use of a vasectomized stallion during training significantly predetermined the course of the mares’ reproductive cycle after completion of the hippodrome testing. The results of this study are relevant to the practical needs of sport horse breeding.

  16. Assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation in stallion (Equus caballus) and donkey (Equus asinus) using the sperm chromatin dispersion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Crespo, F; Serres-Dalmau, C; Gutiérrez de las Rozas, A L; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; López-Fernández, C; Gósalvez, J

    2009-10-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) is an important parameter to assessing sperm quality. Information about sperm quality is not available for donkeys, especially in some breeds at risk of extinction. The objectives of this research were to test the four commercial variants of sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD; sperm Halomax test), originally developed to assess sDF in boars, bulls, rams and stallions, in order to scrutinize their applicability in the study of sDF in a donkey breed at risk of extinction (Zamorano-Leonesa), for which there is no specific test available to analyze sperm at present. Only the SCD test, originally developed for stallions, produced stable and consistent results, and was deemed suitable to assess DNA fragmentation in sperm samples from donkeys. Image analysis was used to compare differences between the SCD methodology applied to stallion and donkey semen samples processed under the same experimental conditions. The extent of SCD in the SCD test was approximately 20% lower in donkey sperm than in stallion sperm. Yet, the ratio of chromatin sperm dispersion achieved in fragmented and unfragmented nuclei did not differ significantly between species. These data suggest that a similar protein depletion treatment can cause differences in protein removal in equivalent cells from different species and that sperm chromatin may be organized differently in stallions and donkeys.

  17. Fertilizer trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  18. Colloidal centrifugation of stallion semen results in a reduced rate of sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, F; Gosalvez, J; Gutiérrez-Cepeda, L; Serres, C; Johnston, S D

    2013-04-01

    Stallion spermatozoa recovered and examined immediately after colloidal centrifugation resulted in a higher straight-line velocity (VSL) than sperm processed using direct conventional centrifugation (p = 0.000), but there was no differences in the progressive motility or sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) as determined by the sperm chromatin dispersion assay. However, when centrifuged spermatozoa were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h to determine the rate of SDF (r-SDF), a lower r-SDF (p = 0.0011) was observed in those sperm recovered after colloidal separation (0.5 ± 0.1%/h) compared to direct (1.2 ± 0.4%/h) or no centrifugation (r-SDF = 1.2 ± 0.3%/h). These results confirm that colloidal separation of stallion spermatozoa results in prolonged sperm DNA longevity, but these differences were only apparent following a period of incubation and dynamic assessment. Consequently, we strongly recommend the use of the dynamic form of the SDF assay for evaluating centrifugation and/or other ex vivo procedures, as a single basal assessment of SDF may inadvertently result in a false-positive evaluation of DNA quality. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Initial occurrence of Taylorella asinigenitalis and its detection in nurse mares, a stallion and donkeys in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, B J; Timoney, P J; Donahue, J M; Branscum, A J; Ford, R; Rowe, R

    2010-07-01

    In 1998, a newly identified bacterium Taylorella asinigenitalis was isolated from the external genitalia and reproductive tracts of nurse mares, a stallion and donkey jacks in Kentucky. An extensive regulatory effort was implemented to contain the outbreak including the tracing and testing of 232 horses and donkeys on 58 premises. T. asinigenitalis was isolated from the reproductive tract of 10 adult equids, including two donkey jacks, one Paint Quarter-horse stallion and seven draft-type breeding mares. None of the infected horses had clinical signs of reproductive tract disease. The odds of being culture positive were 20 times greater for a mare bred to a donkey than for a mare bred to a stallion. Approximately 18% of mares bred to either a carrier stallion or donkey jack were confirmed culture positive. Seventy-one percent of infected mares required more than one course of treatment to clear the organism from their reproductive tracts and one mare harbored the organism for more than 300 days.

  20. Impact of supplementation of semen extender with antioxidants on the quality of chilled or cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghallab, AbdelRaouf M; Shahat, Abdallah M; Fadl, Aya M; Ayoub, Mohamed M; Moawad, Adel R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of semen extender with various non-enzymatic antioxidants on the quality of cooled or cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa. Semen collected from four pure Arabian stallions was centrifuged at 600g for 15 min. Spermatozoa were then diluted in INRA-82 extender supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA; 0, 10, 15 and 20 mg/mL) or trehalose (0, 75, 100 and 150 mM) or zinc sulphate (0, 100, 150 and 200 μM). The diluted semen was then either cooled at 5 °C or cryopreserved in 0.5-ml plastic straws. After cooling or thawing, sperm motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, viability index, and plasma membrane integrity were evaluated. The results showed that supplementation of semen extender with 150 mM trehalose or with 200 μM zinc sulphate significantly (P < 0.05) improved motility, viability, sperm membrane integrity and acrosome status in Arabian stallion spermatozoa after cooling or after freezing and thawing compared with controls (non-supplemented media) or with those supplemented with other concentrations of trehalose or zinc sulphate. Supplementation of semen extender with BSA did not improve sperm motility or cryosurvival of Arabian stallion spermatozoa after cooling or after freezing and thawing. In conclusion, supplementation of semen extender with non-enzymatic antioxidants (trehalose or zinc sulphate) improved the quality of chilled and frozen/thawed Arabian stallion spermatozoa. The most beneficial effects occur when semen diluent was supplemented with 150 mM trehalose or 200 μM zinc sulphate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative immunolocalization of heat shock proteins (Hsp)-60, -70, -90 in boar, stallion, dog and cat spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, S; Galeati, G; Bernardini, C; Tamanini, C; Mari, G; Zambelli, D; Seren, E; Spinaci, M

    2008-08-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsp)-60, -70 and -90 are important testis chaperones that fulfil several functions during sperm cell maturation. In post-meiotic cells, their expression may change or may be undetectable and in some species it may be evident in mature spermatozoa. The aims of this study were to verify whether Hsp60, -70 and -90 are present in the sperm, and to compare their localization in boar, stallion, cat and dog spermatozoa by immunofluorescence. Hsp-60 immunoreactivity was detected in sperm midpiece in all the species examined. In stallion sperm, Hsp70 signal was localized in the sub-equatorial band, whereas immunoreactivity was evident on the neck of dog spermatozoa and on both neck and sub-equatorial region of cat spermatozoa. In agreement with our previous observations, a triangular fluorescent signal in the equatorial segment of fresh boar sperm was detected. Hsp90 immunoreactivity was present in different portions of sperm tail: in the midpiece of both boar and cat spermatozoa and in the neck and throughout the tail in dog and stallion spermatozoa, respectively. When capacitation and acrosome reaction were induced in boar, stallion and dog spermatozoa, no changes in both Hsp60 and -90 were recorded by either Western blot or immunofluorescence. After induction of acrosome reaction, a Hsp70 redistribution in boar spermatozoa and an increased percentage of stallion spermatozoa showing the post-acrosomal signal were observed although no changes were recorded by Western blot; in dog spermatozoa, no changes in Hsp70 were found by Western blot and immunofluorescence after capacitation and acrosome reaction.

  2. Effects of an anabolic steroid (Durateston) on testicular angiogenesis in peripubertal stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, A; Müller, K; Bartmann, C P; Sieme, H; Klug, E; Zingrebe, B; Schoon, H-A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the anabolic steroid testosterone on the testicular vascularization, angiogenesis and expression of angiogenic factors, and their receptors in testes of peripubertal stallions. Seven peripubertal stallions were treated with Durateston and castrated either 4 (treatment group 1 [TG1]) or 12 weeks (TG2) after the last injection. The castration of seven untreated control stallions (control group [CG]) took place within the same time. In the testicular specimens, volume density (VD), numerical density (ND), and area of vessels were determined morphometrically. Immunohistochemically, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGF-R2; angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and its receptor Tie2 as well as of transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) was investigated. Morphometrically, the VD of TG1 (P = 0.000) and TG2 (P = 0.001) vessels and the ND of arterioles and venules and capillaries were higher (TG1, TG2: P < 0.05), and the area of capillary cross sections was smaller (TG1, TG2: P < 0.05) than that in the CG. Compared to TG2 horses, TG1 animals showed a higher (P < 0.05) VD and ND of vascular structures and a smaller (P < 0.05) area of capillary cross sections. In numerous vascular structures, especially of TG1, the TGF-α and, to a less extent, the Ang2 and VEGF-R2 expression was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in the CG. Sertoli cells in TG2 were characterized by a significantly higher expression (P < 0.05) of VEGF-R2 than in the CG. In summary, the most and smallest vessels could be detected in the testes of TG1. Most likely this is explainable by the highest expression of some angiogenic factors (TGF-α, Ang2) and receptors (VEGF-R2) investigated. This expression behavior may be stimulated by testosterone. As a significant decrease of morphometric parameters could be detected in TG2 compared to TG1, the stimulatory effect of testosterone seems to be temporary. Copyright © 2015

  3. Development of the body size in stallions of selected Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse, Silesian Noriker and Noriker breeds in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan NAVRÁTIL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the basic body measurements (stick height at withers - KVH, tape height at withers - KVP, chest perimeter - OHR, shin perimeter - OHOL from data available from the 40th years of the 20th century in the Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse, Silesian Noriker and Noriker breeds. The evaluation included a total of 1,080 stallions aged 2-3 years, used in mating and breeding. Processing and evaluation of a data set was done using Microsoft Office Excel and the statistical program SAS 9.3. Numerous statistically significant differences were found among the evaluated breeds (P < 0.05 to 0.01. The highest values of KVH, KVP and OHR were achieved by stallions of Bohemian-Moravian Belgian horse. The increase of the basic dimensions from 40´s years to 70´s – 90´s years was found during a detailed evaluation focusing on decade of stallions’ birth year. After year 2000, there was a dramatic +drop in the values of the fundamental physical dimensions. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 to 0.01 were evaluated primarily between stallions born in the 70´s years, and most other decades. A declining tendency in all assessed dimensions was observed during evaluation of the race and decade interaction effect mainly for the Czech-Moravian Belgian horse stallions born from 70´s, respectively 80´s. Apparent downward trend between the 90´s and stallions born after year 2000 was detected especially for stallions of Silesian Noriker breed. Decline of body size parameters was not observed for stallions of Noriker breed. The more likely slightly increased tendencies for KVH, KVP, OHR and OHOL were determined in Noriker stallions.

  4. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol) on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Filannino, Angela; Stout, Tom AE; Gadella, Bart M; Sostaric, Edita; Pizzi, Flavia; Colenbrander, Ben; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Minervini, Fiorenza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Methods Stallion spermat...

  5. Equine Arteritis Virus Elicits a Mucosal Antibody Response in the Reproductive Tract of Persistently Infected Stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carossino, Mariano; Wagner, Bettina; Loynachan, Alan T; Cook, R Frank; Canisso, Igor F; Chelvarajan, Lakshman; Edwards, Casey L; Nam, Bora; Timoney, John F; Timoney, Peter J; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2017-10-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the ability to establish persistent infection in the reproductive tract of the stallion (carrier) and is continuously shed in its semen. We have recently demonstrated that EAV persists within stromal cells and a subset of lymphocytes in the stallion accessory sex glands in the presence of a significant local inflammatory response. In the present study, we demonstrated that EAV elicits a mucosal antibody response in the reproductive tract during persistent infection with homing of plasma cells into accessory sex glands. The EAV-specific immunoglobulin isotypes in seminal plasma included IgA, IgG1, IgG3/5, and IgG4/7. Interestingly, seminal plasma IgG1 and IgG4/7 possessed virus-neutralizing activity, while seminal plasma IgA and IgG3/5 did not. However, virus-neutralizing IgG1 and IgG4/7 in seminal plasma were not effective in preventing viral infectivity. In addition, the serological response was primarily mediated by virus-specific IgM and IgG1, while virus-specific serum IgA, IgG3/5, IgG4/7, and IgG6 isotype responses were not detected. This is the first report characterizing the immunoglobulin isotypes in equine serum and seminal plasma in response to EAV infection. The findings presented herein suggest that while a broader immunoglobulin isotype diversity is elicited in seminal plasma, EAV has the ability to persist in the reproductive tract, in spite of local mucosal antibody and inflammatory responses. This study provides further evidence that EAV employs complex immune evasion mechanisms during persistence in the reproductive tract that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Fertility potential in a man with ankylosing spondylitis as revealed by semen analysis by light, electron and fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimeletiou, Katerina; Galanis, Nikiforos; Karagiannidis, Alexandros; Sioga, Antonia; Pados, George; Goulis, Dimitrios; Kalpatsanidis, Antonis; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2018-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis affects 0.1%-0.5% of the adult population. The aim was to investigate the possible effects of both the disease and its treatment on semen quality by performing a highly detailed analysis in a man with ankylosing spondylitis, presenting for infertility. Sperm characteristics were evaluated by light microscopy, morphology by electron microscopy (transmission electron microscopy), DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling using fluorescence microscopy and chromosomal abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridisation using probes for chromosomes 13,15,16,18,21,22,X and Y. There was no evidence for an effect of either ankylosing spondylitis or its treatment with celecoxib and sulphasalazine on sperm quality as all parameters including concentration, motility, DNA fragmentation and aneuploidy incidence were within normal limits. Transmission electron microscopy, however, revealed a high incidence of head, neck and tail abnormalities, as well as the presence of immature sperm and phagocytes. Hysteroscopic removal of an endometrial polyp enabled the achievement of a spontaneous pregnancy and the delivery of a healthy boy.

  7. Clinical, Bacteriological, and Histopathological Findings of a Testicular Fibrosis in a 6-Year-Old Lusitano Stallion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Lusitano stallion was referred to our centre due to an enlarged left testicle. Anamnesis indicated that the stallion had a chronic hypertrophy of the left testicle, with no apparent ill effect on work (dressage training or semen production. Prolonged use of anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and antibiotics were probable. Upon examination of the animal, it was found that clinical signs were compatible with chronic testicular degeneration or fibrosis. Ultrasound scanning did not evidence the exuberant macroscopic lesions seen upon hemicastration of the left testicle, but it showed in the left spermatic cord a conspicuous absence of the typical hypoechogenic areas representing the pampiniform plexus. Swabbing of the penis, prepuce, and distal urethra resulted in the isolation of Rhodococcus equi and Corynebacterium spp. However, histopathological examination did not support infectious orchitis as cause of the lesions and no bacterial growth was obtained from swabbing of the parenchyma in the excised testicle. Histopathological findings were compatible with chronic orchitis with fibrosis and necrosis, probably secondary to ischemia of the testicular parenchyma. After hemi-castration, the stallion resumed semen production at acceptable levels.

  8. Viability and fertility of cooled equine semen diluted with skimmed milk or glycine egg yolk-based extenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Pugliesi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two semen extenders were compared for their ability to maintain viability of horse semen during 24 hours of cold preservation, and for the pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In the experiment 1, five ejaculates from three stallions were split-diluted in either a skimmed milk-based extender (Kenney extender or a glycine egg yolk-based extender (Foote extender and cooled at 6-8 ºC for 24 hours. Semen samples stored in Kenney extender for 24 hours had higher motility and spermatic vigor compared with those stored in Foote extender. However, samples stored in Foote extender had higher number of reactive sperm by hypoosmotic test and greater viability by epifluorescence test compared with those in Kenney extender. In the experiment 2, 17 and 23 ejaculates from two stallions were split-diluted with Kenney extender and Foote extender. The sperm concentration in each extender was adjusted to 500 million viable sperms per insemination dose. Semen was cooled to 6-8 ºC and stored for 24 hours. Seventy-four cycles of crossbred mares were inseminated with either semen diluted in Kenney extender or semen diluted in Foote extender. The pregnancy rate was higher from semen diluted in Kenney extender than that from semen in Foote extender (0.553 vs. 0.306. The Kenney extender is effective in preserving the motility, vigor and fertility of stallion semen after 24 hours of cold storage, whereas the Foote extender is not acceptable.

  9. The impact of cushioned centrifugation protocols on semen quality of stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, S B; Voge, J L; Hayden, S S; Teague, S R; Brinsko, S P; Love, C C; Blanchard, T L; Varner, D D

    2012-04-01

    The objective was to determine if decreased cushion-fluid volume and increased sperm number during centrifugation, or if sperm concentration of extended semen following centrifugation, affected stallion sperm quality. Three ejaculates from each of three stallions were subjected to cushioned centrifugation (1,000g for 20 min). Cushion-fluid volume was set at 1 or 3.5 ml, and sperm number per centrifuge tube was set 1 billion or 3 billion. Following centrifugation, sperm pellets were resuspended in semen extender containing 20% seminal plasma (v/v) with sperm concentrations of 25 or 250 million/mL. Sperm recovery rate among centrifugation treatment groups was compared. Motion characteristics, plasma membrane intactness (SMI), and DNA quality (COMPαt) of sperm were compared among treatment groups and uncentrifuged controls immediately following centrifugation (Time 0 h) and following 24 h of cooled storage (Time 24 h). Centrifugation treatment did not affect sperm recovery rate (P > 0.05). At Time 0 h, no differences in experimental end points were detected between cushion-fluid volumes tested (P > 0.05). Values for percent total sperm motility, percent progressive sperm motility, and track straightness were similar between sperm-number treatments subjected to centrifugation (P > 0.05). At Time 24 h, values for all experimental endpoints were similar between centrifugation treatments for cushion volume per tube, and between centrifugation treatments for sperm number per tube (P > 0.05). Centrifugation treatments and control treatments were similar for five of six variables tested (P > 0.05). Sperm storage concentrations of 25 × 10(6) and 250 × 10(6)/mL yielded similar values for percent total sperm motility, percent progressive sperm motility, percent SMI, and percent COMPαt (P > 0.05). A storage concentration of 250 × 10(6) sperm/ml yielded higher values for curvilinear velocity, and lower values for straightness, than all other groups (P centrifugation with as

  10. Pemphigus vulgaris in a Welsh pony stallion: case report and demonstration of antidesmoglein autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Laramie D; White, Stephen D; Affolter, Verena K; Renier, Anna C; Dawson, Dominic; Olivry, Thierry; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Wang, Yu Hsuan; Iyori, Keita; Nishifuji, Koji

    2013-04-01

    To describe the clinical, histological and immunological findings of an equine case of pemphigus vulgaris, including the demonstration of antidesmoglein (anti-Dsg) autoantibodies. The diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed in a 9-year-old Welsh pony stallion with both direct and indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation studies, the latter identifying circulating anti-Dsg3 IgG. Treatment with immunosuppressive medications was initiated. Lesions were seen in the perineal area, sheath, mane, tail, eyelids, coronary bands and mucosa of the mouth and oesophagus. Initial corticosteroid treatment improved the clinical signs, but the onset of laminitis necessitated a reduction in dosage, which was associated with a recurrence of lesions and development of oral ulcers. A corneal ulcer developed after 60 days of treatment. Despite treatment with azathioprine, gold salts and dapsone, the disease progressed and the pony was euthanized. Postmortem examination showed additional lesions of the cardia of the stomach. Pemphigus vulgaris is rarely diagnosed in equids. We describe a case that was substantiated by the demonstration of anti-Dsg3 IgG. Response to treatment was poor, with the best response to high doses of prednisolone. Equine pemphigus vulgaris is likely to carry a poor prognosis and if there is no response to treatment, humane euthanasia is warranted. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CRYOPROTECTIVE AGENTS ON SKIM MILK AND DIMITROPOULUS EXTENDER FOR STALLION SEMEN CRYOPRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Arifiantini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available s to assess different CPAs on stallion semen cryopreservation. Skim milk (SM and Dimitropoulos(DV were the extenders used in this study; each was added by glycerol (Gly, combination of ethyleneglycol-glycerol (EG+Gly or dimethilformamide (DMF. Each semen sample was evaluated and dividedequally into six tubes; semen in the three tubes was diluted 1:1 with (SM, while in the remaining tubesthe semen was diluted 1:1 by DV. After being diluted, all tubes were centrifuged at 1006xg for 10minutes. The supernatan discarded, the pellet was rediluted by SM trehalosa or DV trehalose, and addedby G, EG+Gly, or DMF to reach the final sperm concentration of 200x106/ml. The extended semen wasindividually packed in 0.3 ml minitube, equilibrated at 4oC for 2 hours, frozen in liquid nitrogen vaporfor 10 minutes, and then was stored in liquid nitrogen container at -196 oC. After 24 hours, the semenwas thawed at 37 oC for 30 second. There were no significantly different (p>0.05 on the percentages ofmotile and viable sperm in SMT (21.7% and 43.4%, respectively compared with those extended withDV T extender (26.9% and 50.8%, respectively. DMF demonstrated better results as CPA compared tothe others; and DVTDMF combination had the best protection during cryopreservation in this study.

  12. Isolation and identification of Taylorella asinigenitalis from the genital tract of a stallion, first case of a natural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båverud, V; Nyström, C; Johansson, K-E

    2006-09-10

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, is a widely known highly contagious genital equine disease that is transmitted venereally. A new bacterium, Taylorella asinigenitalis resembling T. equigenitalis was recently isolated from three American donkey jacks, at routine testing for CEM. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a strain of Taylorella sp. from the genital tract of a stallion. Swab samples for culture of T. equigenitalis were taken from urethral fossa, urethra and penile sheath of a 3-year-old stallion of the Ardennes breed when it was routinely tested for CEM. A small Gram-negative rod was isolated, but the colony appearance, the slow growth rate and the results in the API ZYM test differed slightly from those of T. equigenitalis. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was therefore performed and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequence of the strain Bd 3751/05 represents T. asinigenitalis and that the strain is identical with the Californian asinine strain UCD-1T (ATCC 700933T). The T. asinigenitalis strain had a low MIC of gentamicin (MIC16 microg/ml). Taylorella asinigenitalis has thus for the first time been isolated from the genital tract of a stallion with a natural infection. To determine the pathogenicity of T. asinigenitalis it will be important to conduct further experimental studies. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was shown to be a reliable tool for differentiation of T. asinigenitalis from T. equigenitalis as well as for identification of these species.

  13. Pregnancy outcomes using stallion epididymal sperm stored at 5 °C for 24 or 48 hours before harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawicki, R J; McDonnell, S M; Giguère, S; Turner, R M

    2016-03-01

    The cryopreservation of epididymal sperm can be useful in a variety of circumstances for ensuring genetic preservation of a valued stallion. Although early studies have reported pregnancy rates significantly lower than those achieved with cryopreserved ejaculated sperm, two recent studies report over 60% one-cycle pregnancy rates with epididymal sperm stored for 24 hours at 5 °C before harvest and cryopreservation. The aims of this study were to: (1) attempt to replicate the one-cycle pregnancy rate of over 60% using epididymal sperm cooled and stored within the epididymis for 24 hours before harvest and cryopreservation and (2) evaluate pregnancy outcome with sperm cooled and stored within the epididymis for 48 hours before sperm harvest and cryopreservation. Testicles were obtained from 13 stallions undergoing routine castration. The epididymides were stored at 5 °C for either 24 or 48 hours before sperm harvest and cryopreservation in an egg yolk and dimethylformamide-based freezing extender. Thirteen mares were bred on one cycle with cryopreserved epididymal sperm stored for 24 hours before harvest, and 10 of those 13 mares were also bred on a previous or subsequent cycle with samples from the same stallion that had been stored for 48 hours before harvest. Pregnancy occurred in 7 of the 13 inseminations of sperm stored for 24 hours before harvest, and in 4 of the 10 inseminations of sperm stored for 48 hours before harvest. The pregnancy rate using epididymal sperm stored for 24 hours before harvest is consistent with that of previous reports. In addition, these results provide evidence that pregnancies can be achieved when the epididymides are cooled and stored for 48 hours before sperm harvest and cryopreservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Manual semen collection from a Grevy's zebra stallion (Equus grevyi), onset of sperm production, semen characteristics, and cryopreservation of semen, with a comparison to the sperm production from a Grant's Zebra stallion (Equus burchelli boehmi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, J P; Crump, J W

    1994-01-01

    A manual technique was used to collect representative ejaculates from an unrestrained Grevy's zebra stallion beginning at 13 mo of age to determine the onset of sperm production, to calculate the number of spermatozoa produced per ejaculate, and to determine any seasonality associated with sperm production. Spermatozoa first appeared in the ejaculate at 31 mo of age. By 48 mo of age the zebra was producing up to 40 billion spermatozoa per ejaculate. Progressive sperm motility ranged from 75 to 95%. Gel-free semen volume averaged 75 to 120 ml/ejaculate. Gel volume ranged from 0 to 1100 ml/ejaculate. Semen was frozen in 2 different extenders in 0.5-ml PVC straws. The post-thaw motility of cryopreserved spermatozoa ranged from 30 to 70%. A domestic horse mare became pregnant on the first cycle after insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa from this zebra. Sperm production data obtained from semen collections made on a Grant's Zebra stallion from 3 to 8 yr of age is presented for comparison of the 2 species.

  15. Effect of Seminal Plasma Removal on Cell Membrane, Acrosomal Integrity and Mitochondrial Activity of Cooled Stallion Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhafer M. Aziz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh semen samples were collected from 11 warm blood stallions, each ejaculate was distributed into three equal parts. The first part was diluted in a skim milk-glucose diluent (SMG, the second part was diluted in a skim milk-glucose supplemented with Tyrode's medium (SMG-T, the third part was centrifuged to remove the seminal plasma, then the sperm was resuspended in the second diluent (SMG-T-C. The diluted semen were evaluated immediately after dilution (0 hour and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of storage at 5°C. Flow cytometry was performed to determine sperm viability, mitochondrial activity and acrosomal integrity. Immediately after dilution the tested parameters of sperms that diluted in SMG-T was significantly (P<0.001 higher than those diluted with SMG and SMG-T-C, and with SMG-T-C were higher significantly (P<0.05 than those diluted with SMG. The decreasing rate in tested sperm parameter was greater significantly (P<0.001 in semen samples which were diluted with SMG than those diluted with SMG-T and SMG-T-C. In conclusion, the present study indicated that viability, acrosomal integrity, and mitochondrial activity of stallion sperms were better preserved in SMG-T in comparison with SMG, also centrifugation and removal of the seminal plasma have an adverse effect on these three sperm parameters.

  16. Effects of altrenogest on total scrotal width, seminal characteristics, concentrations of LH and testosterone and sexual behavior of stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, E L; Badzinski, S L; Amann, R P; McCue, P M; Nett, T M

    1997-07-15

    Twenty stallions (3 to 18 yr old) were used in a study between June 1993 and March 1994. The stallions were divided into 5 groups of 4 each, and, within groups, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) untreated controls; 2) once-a-day oral altrenogest (0.088 mg/kg BW) treatment for 150 d; 3) daily altrenogest treatment at the same dose for 240 d; and 4) daily oral altrenogest treatment for 240 d plus subcutaneous GnRH (80 microg) every 4 h from Days 151 to 240. Total scrotal width (TSW) was recorded and semen was collected and evaluated for gel free volume, concentration, sperm motility and sperm morphology. Sexual behavior (libido) was measured as times to first erection and ejaculation. Serum LH and testosterone (T) were measured at various periods throughout the study. Altrenogest decreased serum concentrations of LH and T, TSW, daily spermatozoa output (DSO), the percentage of normal spermatozoa and libido. There was a significant decrease in sperm motility in the Alt-240 and Alt-240+GnRH group, but not the ALT-150 group. The suppression appeared to be partially reversible because DSO, TSW and serum concentrations of LH increased after cessation of progestin treatment. Administration of GnRH during altrenogest treatment resulted in increased (P feedback inhibition of LH secretion.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Taylorella equigenitalis Strain ERC_G2224 Isolated from the Semen of a Lipizzaner Stallion in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Catherine E; Schulman, Martin L; Howell, Peter G; Lourens, Carina W; Gouws, Johan; Joone, Christopher; Monyai, Mpho S; le Grange, Misha; Bezuidt, Oliver K I; Harper, Cindy K; Guthrie, Alan J

    2015-10-15

    Taylorella equigenitalis is the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), a sexually transmitted infection of horses. We report here the genome sequence of T. equigenitalis strain ERC_G2224, isolated in 2015 from a semen sample collected in 1996 from a Lipizzaner stallion in South Africa. Copyright © 2015 May et al.

  18. Phylogenetic characterisation of the G(L) sequences of equine arteritis virus isolated from semen of asymptomatic stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Storgaard, Torben; Holm, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The study describes for the first time the phylogenetic relationship between equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolated from asymptomatic virus-shedding stallions and fatal cases of equine viral arteritis (EVA) in an European country. EAV was isolated from three dead foals and an aborted foetus during...

  19. Insights into complexation of dissolved organic matter and Al(III) and nanominerals formation in soils under contrasting fertilizations using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chang; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; He, Xinhua; Zhou, Quansuo; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the organomineral associations in soils is of great importance. Using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques, this study compared the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under short-term (3-years) and long-term (22-years) fertilizations. Three fertilization treatments were examined: (i) no fertilization (Control), (ii) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and (iii) NPK plus swine manure (NPKM). Soil spectra detected by the 2DCOS Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that fertilization modified the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM at both short- and long- term location sites. The CH deformations in aliphatic groups played an important role in binding to Al(III) but with minor differences among the Control, NPK and NPKM at the short-term site. While at the long-term site both C-O stretching of polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances and aliphatic O-H were bound to Al(III) under the Control, whereas only aliphatic O-H, and only polysaccharides and silicates, were bound to Al(III) under NPK and NPKM, respectively. Images from HRTEM demonstrated that crystalline nanominerals, composed of Fe and O, were predominant in soil DOM under NPK, while amorphous nanominerals, predominant in Al, Si, and O, were dominant in soil DOM under Control and NPKM. In conclusion, fertilization strategies, especially under long-term, could affect the binding of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM, which resulted in alterations in the turnover, reactivity, and bioavailability of soil organic matter. Our results demonstrated that the FTIR-2DCOS combined with HRTEM techniques could enhance our understanding in the binding characteristics of DOM to Al(III) and the resulted nanominerals in soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What is fertility preservation? Fertility preservation is the process of saving or protecting ... children in the future. Who can benefit from fertility preservation? People with certain diseases, disorders, and life ...

  1. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  2. Fertility Herbs: Do They Enhance Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get pregnant. I've seen many ads for fertility herbs and supplements. Do they work? Answers from ... for infertility. Unfortunately, the research on so-called fertility herbs and supplements is inconclusive and based on ...

  3. Fertility and Population Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Tosun, Mehmet S.; Yang, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    There have been significant changes in both the fertility rates and fertility perception since 1970s. In this paper, we examine the relationship between government policies towards fertility and the fertility trends. Total fertility rate, defined as the number of children per woman, is used as the main fertility trend variable. We use panel data from the United Nations World Population Policies database, and the World Bank World Development Indicators for the period 1976 through 2013. We find...

  4. Systemic infection by equid herpesvirus-1 in a Grevy's zebra stallion (Equus grevyi) with particular reference to genital pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, A S; Smith, K C; Whitwell, K E; Dunn, K A

    1998-11-01

    A severe multi-systemic form of equid herpesvirus-1 infection is described in an adult zebra stallion. There was multifocal necrotizing rhinitis, marked hydrothorax and pulmonary oedema, with viral antigen expression in degenerating epithelial cells, local endothelial cells and intravascular leucocytes of the nasal mucosa and lung. Specific localization of EHV-1 infection was seen in the testes and epididymides, including infection of Leydig cells and germinal epithelium, which would have facilitated venereal shedding of virus in life. The case provided a unique opportunity to study hitherto undescribed aspects of the pathogenesis of naturally occurring EHV-1 infection in the male equine genital tract. Restriction digests of the isolate demonstrated a pattern similar to that of EHV-1 isolates previously recovered from aborted zebra and onager fetuses.

  5. Stallion Site, San Marcial, New Mexico. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A, C through F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-21

    DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) I 9j06 STALLI0N SITE si 61-73 6Y IINIII rATIMA "al VIM t ALL o ATHER ALL CLAI 4L.S.T.) SPE mmvm (K IS...64in69 z1i,73 VAR____ (ALL WEATHER hO20 (KNYS) 1.3 4.6 7-10 11.16 17.21 22.2 28V.2-3 34. 40 41.04 48-5 a:56 % WIND( DIN. slim 241 2 .1 6___ Il I VIM ~m...ARANCM EAIEHMDT3 ITACIUSAP AIR WIAT41R SIRVICEIIAC 11061_. STALLION StTE NM bla 3 w7l ____ STATION STATION MAMA mIoo MONTH C CUMULATIVE PERCENTAGE

  6. Autophagy and Apoptosis Have a Role in the Survival or Death of Stallion Spermatozoa during Conservation in Refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo Bolaños, Juan M.; Miró Morán, Álvaro; Balao da Silva, Carolina M.; Morillo Rodríguez, Antolín; Plaza Dávila, María; Aparicio, Inés M.; Tapia, José A.; Ferrusola, Cristina Ortega; Peña, Fernando J.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis has been recognized as a cause of sperm death during cryopreservation and a cause of infertility in humans, however there is no data on its role in sperm death during conservation in refrigeration; autophagy has not been described to date in mature sperm. We investigated the role of apoptosis and autophagy during cooled storage of stallion spermatozoa. Samples from seven stallions were split; half of the ejaculate was processed by single layer centrifugation, while the other half was extended unprocessed, and stored at 5°C for five days. During the time of storage, sperm motility (CASA, daily) and membrane integrity (flow cytometry, daily) were evaluated. Apoptosis was evaluated on days 1, 3 and 5 (active caspase 3, increase in membrane permeability, phosphatidylserine translocation and mitochondrial membrane potential) using flow cytometry. Furthermore, LC3B processing was investigated by western blotting at the beginning and at the end of the period of storage. The decrease in sperm quality over the period of storage was to a large extent due to apoptosis; single layer centrifugation selected non-apoptotic spermatozoa, but there were no differences in sperm motility between selected and unselected sperm. A high percentage of spermatozoa showed active caspase 3 upon ejaculation, and during the period of storage there was an increase of apoptotic spermatozoa but no changes in the percentage of live sperm, revealed by the SYBR-14/PI assay, were observed. LC3B was differentially processed in sperm after single layer centrifugation compared with native sperm. In processed sperm more LC3B-II was present than in non-processed samples; furthermore, in non-processed sperm there was an increase in LC3B-II after five days of cooled storage. These results indicate that apoptosis plays a major role in the sperm death during storage in refrigeration and that autophagy plays a role in the survival of spermatozoa representing a new pro-survival mechanism in

  7. Effect of kisspeptin-10, LH and hCG on serum testosterone concentrations in stallions, donkeys and mules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Rana Waseem; Shah, Syed Aftab Hussain; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2017-10-15

    This study was conducted to determine the response of serum testosterone (T) in male equines (stallions, donkeys and mules) after administering intravenous doses of kisspeptin-10 (KP-10), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and saline as a control. The animals were divided into four groups of three each: Group I, 3 ml of 0.95% saline; Group II, 50 μg KP-10; Group III, 2500 IU hCG and group IV, 400 μg LH. The administration of KP-10 and hCG to stallions resulted in a significant increase in serum T concentration at 240 min; whereas it was significantly higher at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min with LH treatment as compared to pre-dose concentrations. Both KP-10 and hCG significantly elevated the T concentrations in donkeys at 120 and 240 min, respectively; whereas it was significantly higher at 60, 120, and 240 min with LH treatment as compared to pre-dose concentration. Both KP-10 and LH elevated T in donkeys at 240 min as compared to the control and hCG concentrations. After 120 and 240 min, T concentrations in mules were higher (p hCG and LH as compared to the control. In conclusion, the administration of KP-10, hCG and LH elevate the serum T concentration in normal male equines. It is suggested that KP-10 may be useful in situations where an increase in T is desired. Further work is required to determine the effect of KP-10 on T in male equids with reproductive abnormalities before it can be used in clinical situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Autophagy and apoptosis have a role in the survival or death of stallion spermatozoa during conservation in refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo Bolaños, Juan M; Miró Morán, Álvaro; Balao da Silva, Carolina M; Morillo Rodríguez, Antolín; Plaza Dávila, María; Aparicio, Inés M; Tapia, José A; Ortega Ferrusola, Cristina; Peña, Fernando J

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis has been recognized as a cause of sperm death during cryopreservation and a cause of infertility in humans, however there is no data on its role in sperm death during conservation in refrigeration; autophagy has not been described to date in mature sperm. We investigated the role of apoptosis and autophagy during cooled storage of stallion spermatozoa. Samples from seven stallions were split; half of the ejaculate was processed by single layer centrifugation, while the other half was extended unprocessed, and stored at 5°C for five days. During the time of storage, sperm motility (CASA, daily) and membrane integrity (flow cytometry, daily) were evaluated. Apoptosis was evaluated on days 1, 3 and 5 (active caspase 3, increase in membrane permeability, phosphatidylserine translocation and mitochondrial membrane potential) using flow cytometry. Furthermore, LC3B processing was investigated by western blotting at the beginning and at the end of the period of storage. The decrease in sperm quality over the period of storage was to a large extent due to apoptosis; single layer centrifugation selected non-apoptotic spermatozoa, but there were no differences in sperm motility between selected and unselected sperm. A high percentage of spermatozoa showed active caspase 3 upon ejaculation, and during the period of storage there was an increase of apoptotic spermatozoa but no changes in the percentage of live sperm, revealed by the SYBR-14/PI assay, were observed. LC3B was differentially processed in sperm after single layer centrifugation compared with native sperm. In processed sperm more LC3B-II was present than in non-processed samples; furthermore, in non-processed sperm there was an increase in LC3B-II after five days of cooled storage. These results indicate that apoptosis plays a major role in the sperm death during storage in refrigeration and that autophagy plays a role in the survival of spermatozoa representing a new pro-survival mechanism in

  9. Oviduct Binding and Elevated Environmental pH Induce Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Stallion Spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, B.; Gadella, B.M.; Sostaric, E.; Nelis, H.; Stout, T.A.E.; Hoogewijs, M.; van Soom, A.

    2014-01-01

    Sperm-oviduct binding is an essential step in the capacitation process preparing the sperm for fertilization in several mammalian species. In many species, capacitation can be induced in vitro by exposing spermatozoa to bicarbonate, Ca2+, and albumin; however, these conditions are insufficient in

  10. Circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasso Loredana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples, then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples. Results An increase in circulating β-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P P P P P > 0.05 between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of β-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels.

  11. Allelic Variation in CXCL16 Determines CD3+ T Lymphocyte Susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection and Establishment of Long-Term Carrier State in the Stallion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sarkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Equine arteritis virus (EAV is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA, a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of horses and other equid species. Following natural infection, 10-70% of the infected stallions can become persistently infected and continue to shed EAV in their semen for periods ranging from several months to life. Recently, we reported that some stallions possess a subpopulation(s of CD3+ T lymphocytes that are susceptible to in vitro EAV infection and that this phenotypic trait is associated with long-term carrier status following exposure to the virus. In contrast, stallions not possessing the CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptible phenotype are at less risk of becoming long-term virus carriers. A genome wide association study (GWAS using the Illumina Equine SNP50 chip revealed that the ability of EAV to infect CD3+ T lymphocytes and establish long-term carrier status in stallions correlated with a region within equine chromosome 11. Here we identified the gene and mutations responsible for these phenotypes. Specifically, the work implicated three allelic variants of the equine orthologue of CXCL16 (EqCXCL16 that differ by four non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (XM_00154756; c.715 A → T, c.801 G → C, c.804 T → A/G, c.810 G → A within exon 1. This resulted in four amino acid changes with EqCXCL16S (XP_001504806.1 having Phe, His, Ile and Lys as compared to EqCXL16R having Tyr, Asp, Phe, and Glu at 40, 49, 50, and 52, respectively. Two alleles (EqCXCL16Sa, EqCXCL16Sb encoded identical protein products that correlated strongly with long-term EAV persistence in stallions (P<0.000001 and are required for in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptibility to EAV infection. The third (EqCXCL16R was associated with in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte resistance to EAV infection and a significantly lower probability for establishment of the long-term carrier state (viral persistence in the male reproductive tract. EqCXCL16Sa and

  12. Allelic Variation in CXCL16 Determines CD3+ T Lymphocyte Susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection and Establishment of Long-Term Carrier State in the Stallion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R. Frank; Eberth, John; Chelvarajan, R. Lakshman; Artiushin, Sergey; Timoney, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of horses and other equid species. Following natural infection, 10–70% of the infected stallions can become persistently infected and continue to shed EAV in their semen for periods ranging from several months to life. Recently, we reported that some stallions possess a subpopulation(s) of CD3+ T lymphocytes that are susceptible to in vitro EAV infection and that this phenotypic trait is associated with long-term carrier status following exposure to the virus. In contrast, stallions not possessing the CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptible phenotype are at less risk of becoming long-term virus carriers. A genome wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina Equine SNP50 chip revealed that the ability of EAV to infect CD3+ T lymphocytes and establish long-term carrier status in stallions correlated with a region within equine chromosome 11. Here we identified the gene and mutations responsible for these phenotypes. Specifically, the work implicated three allelic variants of the equine orthologue of CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) that differ by four non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (XM_00154756; c.715 A → T, c.801 G → C, c.804 T → A/G, c.810 G → A) within exon 1. This resulted in four amino acid changes with EqCXCL16S (XP_001504806.1) having Phe, His, Ile and Lys as compared to EqCXL16R having Tyr, Asp, Phe, and Glu at 40, 49, 50, and 52, respectively. Two alleles (EqCXCL16Sa, EqCXCL16Sb) encoded identical protein products that correlated strongly with long-term EAV persistence in stallions (P<0.000001) and are required for in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte susceptibility to EAV infection. The third (EqCXCL16R) was associated with in vitro CD3+ T lymphocyte resistance to EAV infection and a significantly lower probability for establishment of the long-term carrier state (viral persistence) in the male reproductive tract. EqCXCL16Sa and Eq

  13. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Nitrogen Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients...

  14. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1: Phosphorus Fertilizer Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phosphorus Fertilizer Application dataset of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of phosphorus fertilizer nutrients...

  15. L-carnitine and pyruvate are prosurvival factors during the storage of stallion spermatozoa at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Zamira; Lambourne, Sarah R; Quadrelli, Julianne; Smith, Nathan D; Aitken, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    The spermatozoa of many stallions do not tolerate being cooled, restricting the commercial viability of these animals and necessitating the development of a chemically defined room temperature (RT) storage medium. This study examined the impact of two major modulators of oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate (Pyr) and L-carnitine (L-C), on the storage of stallion spermatozoa at RT. Optimal concentrations of Pyr (10 mM) and L-C (50 mM) were first identified and these concentrations were then used to investigate the effects of these compounds on sperm functionality and oxidative stress at RT. Mitochondrial and cytosolic reactive oxygen species, along with lipid peroxidation, were all significantly suppressed by the addition of L-C (48 h MitoSOX Red negative: 46.2% vs. 26.1%; 48 and 72 h dihydroethidium negative: 61.6% vs. 43.1% and 64.4% vs. 46.9%, respectively; 48 and 72 h 4-hydroxynonenal negative: 37.1% vs. 23.8% and 41.6% vs. 25.7%, respectively), while the Pyr + L-C combination resulted in significantly higher motility compared to the control at 72 h (total motility: 64.2% vs. 39.4%; progressive motility: 34.2% vs. 15.2%). In addition, supplementation with L-C significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage at 72 h (9.0% vs. 15.6%). To investigate the effects of L-C as an osmolyte, comparisons were made between media that were osmotically balanced with NaCl, choline chloride, or L-C. This analysis demonstrated that spermatozoa stored in the L-C balanced medium had significantly higher total motility (55.0% vs. 39.0%), rapid motility (44.0% vs. 25.7%), and ATP levels (70.9 vs. 12.8 ng/ml) following storage compared with the NaCl treatment, while choline chloride did not significantly improve these parameters compared to the control. Finally, mass spectrometry was used to demonstrate that a combination of Pyr and L-C produced significantly higher acetyl-L-carnitine production than any other treatment (6.7 pg/10(6) spermatozoa vs. control at 4.0 pg/10(6) spermatozoa

  16. Cancer and fertility : strategies to preserve fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Devroey, P.

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented

  17. Male Fertility Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertility issues are common in boys and men getting cancer treatment. Fertility preservation options include sperm banking, testicular shielding, testicular sperm extraction (TESE), and testicular tissue freezing. Support and clinical trials are listed.

  18. Protect Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brochure briefly explains how such behaviors put your fertility at risk. Decisions and choices that you make ... your teens and early twenties can affect your fertility for years to come. This prevention guide was ...

  19. TCRC Fertility Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center The TCRC Fertility Page Testicular Cancer and fertility are interrelated in numerous ways. TC usually affects young men still in the process of having a family. ...

  20. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...

  1. Infertility and Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Infertility and Fertility "Infertility" is a term that describes when a ... infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss: A committee opinion. Fertility and Sterility, 99 (1), 63. American Society for ...

  2. The effects of urine concentration, and cushion centrifugation to remove urine, on the quality of cool-stored stallion sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voge, Jared; Varner, Dickson D; Blanchard, Terry L; Meschini, Marika; Turner, Carly; Teague, Sheila R; Brinsko, Steven P; Love, Charles C

    2016-09-15

    Urine-contaminated stallion semen is a clinical problem due to a variety of causes. The effect of the level of urine contamination on the longevity of sperm quality has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of urine concentration level (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%) and cushioned centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, on measures of sperm quality, immediately after semen collection (T0), after 1 hour of storage at room temperature (T1), and after 24 hours of cooled storage (T24). In general, most sperm quality measures declined with increasing urine concentration starting at T0. Cushioned centrifugation (CC), but not simple dilution, generally maintained sperm quality at T24 as compared with T1. At T24, total sperm motility was higher in all urine-contaminated CC samples compared with uncentrifuged samples (P centrifugation and resuspension of the sperm pellet in fresh extender, provided the best option for preserving sperm quality of urospermic semen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Intergenerational fertility changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Z

    1983-07-01

    Intergenerational changes in fertility in Poland are analyzed using data from a 1977 sample survey of 38,600 women. The author notes that total fertility declined from 4.4 to 2.5 within the space of two generations. An analysis of fertility is presented by various characteristics of females, including age group, education, duration of marriage, and economic status.

  4. Foods That Can Affect Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, RDN Published January 30, ... impact on the ability to conceive. Women and Fertility To prepare for pregnancy and enhance fertility, maintain ...

  5. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lactate and Pyruvate Are Major Sources of Energy for Stallion Sperm with Dose Effects on Mitochondrial Function, Motility, and ROS Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Christa R; Varner, Dickson D; Teague, Sheila; Cortopassi, Gino A; Datta, Sandipan; Meyers, Stuart A

    2016-08-01

    Stallion sperm rely primarily on oxidative phosphorylation for production of ATP used in sperm motility and metabolism. The objective of the study was to identify which substrates included in Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham (BWW) media are key to optimal mitochondrial function through measurements of sperm motility parameters, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It was expected that mitochondrial substrates, pyruvate and lactate, would support sperm motility and mitochondrial function better than the glycolytic substrate, glucose, due to direct utilization within the mitochondria. Measurements were performed after incubation in modified BWW media with varying concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, and glucose. The effects of media and duration of incubation on sperm motility, ROS production, and oxygen consumption were determined using a linear mixed-effects model. Duplicate ejaculates from four stallions were used in three separate experiments to determine the effects of substrate availability and concentration on sperm motility and mitochondrial function and the relationship of oxygen consumption with cellular ROS production. The present results indicate that lactate and pyruvate are the most important sources of energy for stallion sperm motility and velocity, and elicit a dose-dependent response. Additionally, lactate and pyruvate are ideal for maximal mitochondrial function, as sperm in these media operate at a very high level of their bioenergetic capability due to the high rate of energy metabolism. Moreover, we found that addition of glucose to the media is not necessary for short-term storage of equine sperm, and may even result in reduction of mitochondrial function. Finally, we have confirmed that ROS production can be the result of mitochondrial dysfunction as well as intense mitochondrial activity. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. Implementing an open-access CASA software for the assessment of stallion sperm motility: Relationship with other sperm quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaretta, Elisa; Munerato, Mauro; Yeste, Marc; Galeati, Giovanna; Spinaci, Marcella; Tamanini, Carlo; Mari, Gaetano; Bucci, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Setting an open-access computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) may benefit the evaluation of motility in mammalian sperm, especially when economic constraints do not allow the use of a commercial system. There have been successful attempts to develop such a device in Zebra fish sperm and the system has been used in very few studies on mammalian spermatozoa. Against this background, the present study aimed at developing an open-access CASA system for mammalian sperm using the horse as a model and based upon the Image J software previously established for Zebra fish sperm. Along with determining the sperm progressive motility and other kinetic parameters (such as amplitude of lateral head displacement), the "results" window was adjusted to simplify subsequent statistical analyses. The path window was enriched with colored sperm trajectories on the basis of the subpopulation they belong to and a number that allowed the sperm track to be associated to the sperm motility data shown in the "results" window. Data obtained from the novel plugin (named as CASA_bgm) were compared with those of the commercial CASA Hamilton-Thorn IVOS Vers.12, through Bland Altman's plots. While the percentage of total and progressive motile sperm, VCL, VAP, VSL, LIN and STR and ALH were in agreement with those obtained with the commercial system, BCF significantly differed between the two systems probably due to their settings. Interestingly, a positive and significant correlation between the percentages of total motile sperm evaluated through CASA_bgm and those showing high mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated by JC-1 staining was found. In conclusion, CASA_bgm ImageJ plugin could be useful and reliable for stallion sperm motility analysis and it is our aim to apply this system to other mammalian species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Fertility preservation in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Laure; Grémeau, Anne-Sophie; Vorilhon, Solène; Pons, Hanae; Chabrot, Cécile; Grèze, Victoria; Pouly, Jean-Luc; Brugnon, Florence

    2018-01-01

    Since the improvement of cancer diagnosis and treatment, survival rates of these patients increase. Gonadal damages are frequent consequences of cancer treatments with different evidence of impaired fertility. In this context, fertility preservation should be proposed to patients exposed to potentially gonadotoxic treatments. Different preservation approaches may be proposed depending on patient age, sex, cancer type and type of treatment. The indications of fertility preservation depend on sexual maturity. In young girls, ovarian cortex cryopreservation is the only technique feasible in order to preserve their reproductive potential. Vitrification of oocytes which needs ovarian stimulation or oocytes in vitro maturation is becoming more commonly performed for pubertal women to preserve their fertility. Ovarian cortex freezing could be offered to emergency fertility preservation of adult female cancer patients. In prepubertal boys, testicular tissue cryopreservation is the only line treatment for fertility preservation. For future use, various approaches are being evaluated such as spermatogonial stem cell injection or in vitro maturation. Cryopreservation of spermatozoa is, today, an established and successful technique for male adults. When there are no spermatozoa in ejaculate, sperm can be retrieved after treatment of testicular biopsy. The French bioethics law clearly indicates that fertility preservation should be proposed to patients exposed to potentially gonadotoxic treatment. Today, many approaches are possible. Fertility preservation indications are based on multidisciplinary consultations within platforms for the fertility preservation in order to optimize the patient care. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of stallion epididymal spermatozoa at collection and effect of two refrigeration protocols on the quality of the frozen/thawed sperm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, T; Lopes, G; Ferreira, P; Leal, I; Rocha, A

    2012-12-01

    Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is a useful tool to preserve genetic material of valuable stallions after emergency castration or unexpected death. For that, testicles and epididymides are generally sent refrigerated to the laboratory. Collection of epididymal spermatozoa is a simple procedure that reduces the volume of the material to be shipped, and may improve the quality of the chilled epididymal sperm cells. In the present study we compared the characteristics of frozen/thawed epididymal spermatozoa after refrigeration of the epididymis or after direct refrigeration of the extended epididymal sperm cells. Ejaculated sperm samples were obtained from 10 healthy stallions with at least 15 days of sexual rest, before routine orchiectomies. Spermatozoa were recovered from the epididymal tail immediately after castration (EPI), after refrigeration of the epididymis for 24h at 4°C (EPI R) and recovered from epididymal tail immediately after castration and stored for 24h at 4°C (EPI RR). Total motility, straight-line velocity, percentage of rapid cells, viability and morphological defects were similar (p>0.05) among different treatments, and post-thaw viability was higher (psperm. The similarity of post-thaw parameters led us to conclude that immediate collection and refrigeration of the epididymal sperm cells or refrigeration of the whole epididymis are equally efficient as a means of transporting material for 24h before cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Fertility transition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, D; Aramburu, C E

    1992-12-01

    Data from national censuses and sample surveys are the basis for this examintion of differential fertility and the fertility transition in Peru. Changes in the level and structure of fertility in the 3 major geographic regions are compared, and the role of contraceptive usage and nuptiality changes in the fertility decline are analyzed. Peru's total fertility rate was estimated at 6.85 in 1965 and has since declined to 6.56 in 1965-70, 6.00 in 1970-75, 5.30 in 1975-80, 4.65 in 1980-85, and 4.00 in 1985-90. The fertility decline varied in intensity and timing in the geographic regions. A clear fertility decline began among upper and middle income groups in the principal cities in the 1960s, spreading gradually to the urban low income sectors. Not until the late 1970s did the fertility decline spread to the rest of the population, coinciding with the years of severe economic crisis. The urban total fertility rate declined from 6 to 3.77 during 1961-86, but rural fertility increased through 1972 to 8.12, before declining slightly to 7.62 in 1981 and more markedly to 6.65 in 1986. Sociocultural and economic differences between Peru's natural regions are appreciable, and account for the contrasts in fertility trends. The greatest changes occurred in metropolitan Lima, which already had relatively low fertility in 1961. Its total fertility rate declined 44% from 5.6 in 1961 to 3.13 in 1986. Fertility declined by slightly under 40% in the rest of the coast, by almost 25% in the jungle, and by scarcely 14% in the sierra. The total fertility rates in 1961 and 1986, respectively, were 6.38 and 4.13 on the coast, 6.64 and 6.45 in the highlands, and 7.92 and 5.97 in the lowlands. The fertility decline, especially in the lower classes, was a response initially to the process of cultural modernization which in slightly over 2 decades saw a profound transformation of Peru from a rural, Andean, illiterate, and agrarian society to an urban, coastal, literate, and commercial society

  11. Fertilizer micro-dosing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    is currently being replaced by a multi- stakeholder system involving NGOs, agro- dealers, microfinance institutions and farmer organizations. Under this system, farmers are linked to both credit institutions and fertilizer suppliers, with their crop production serving as collateral for fertilizer purchases. Known in. West Africa as.

  12. Determination of some enzymes and macro- and microelements in stallion seminal plasma and their correlations to semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Sandra; Bergmann, Martin; Bostedt, Hartwig

    2006-07-15

    Seminal plasma is very important for sperm metabolism as well as sperm function and survival and transport in the female genital tract. Analysis of enzyme activities and concentrations of elements can estimate integrity and function of sperm cell membranes. In man much data are available about biochemical analyses of seminal plasma. However, not many studies have been conducted in horses yet. We collected ejaculates from 72 stallions, measured the volume, obtained seminal plasma by centrifugation and examined spermatozoa with light microscopy for motility, concentration, for dead sperm and morphology. Of seminal plasma fluid, we measured activities of aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), acid phosphatase (AcP) and lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as concentrations of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), total and ionised calcium (Ca(TOTAL)/Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), phosphate (P), chloride (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). In addition, correlations among different parameters in light microscopy and seminal plasma were statistically examined by using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Median enzyme activities for AST, GGT, AlP, AcP and LDH were 80.0, 7,500, 30,200, 20.0, 81.0 IU/L, respectively. Concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Ca(TOTAL), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), P, Cl were 110.5, 22.1, 2.9, 1.7, 3.1, 1.1 and 114.5 mmol/L, and of microelements Cu, Fe and Zn were 17.8, 1.9 and 13.2 micromol/L, respectively. Furthermore, we found significant correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and AST, GGT, AlP, AcP and LDH as well as Fe and Zn. This made us propose a primary testicular and epididymal origin of these parameters. Significant correlation between GGT and motility may be a sign for its function for cell protection against free radicals. LDH activity significantly correlates with motility and progressive motility, live:dead-ratio and pathomorphology. In our study, LDH seems to

  13. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol) on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Angela; Stout, Tom A E; Gadella, Bart M; Sostaric, Edita; Pizzi, Flavia; Colenbrander, Ben; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Minervini, Fiorenza

    2011-10-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Stallion spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 1 pM - 0.1 mM. After 2 hours exposure, motility parameters were evaluated by computer-assisted analysis, and acrosome integrity was examined by flow cytometry after staining with fluoroscein-conjugated peanut agglutinin. Mycotoxins affected sperm parameters only at the highest concentration tested (0.1 mM) after 2 hours exposure. In this respect, all of the compounds reduced the average path velocity, but only alpha-zearalenol reduced percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm. Induction of motility patterns consistent with hyperactivation was stimulated according to the following rank of potency: alpha-zearalenol > 17beta-estradiol > zearalenone = beta-zearalenol. The hyperactivity-associated changes observed included reductions in straight-line velocity and linearity of movement, and an increase in the amplitude of lateral head displacement, while curvilinear velocity was unchanged. In addition, whereas alpha- and beta- zearalenol increased the percentages of live acrosome-reacted sperm, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol had no apparent effect on acrosome status. In short, alpha-zearalenol inhibited normal sperm motility, but stimulated hyperactive motility in the remaining motile cells and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction. Beta-zearalenol induced the acrosome reaction without altering motility. Conversely, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol did not induce

  14. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colenbrander Ben

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Methods Stallion spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 1 pM - 0.1 mM. After 2 hours exposure, motility parameters were evaluated by computer-assisted analysis, and acrosome integrity was examined by flow cytometry after staining with fluoroscein-conjugated peanut agglutinin. Results Mycotoxins affected sperm parameters only at the highest concentration tested (0.1 mM after 2 hours exposure. In this respect, all of the compounds reduced the average path velocity, but only alpha-zearalenol reduced percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm. Induction of motility patterns consistent with hyperactivation was stimulated according to the following rank of potency: alpha-zearalenol >17beta-estradiol > zearalenone = beta-zearalenol. The hyperactivity-associated changes observed included reductions in straight-line velocity and linearity of movement, and an increase in the amplitude of lateral head displacement, while curvilinear velocity was unchanged. In addition, whereas alpha- and beta- zearalenol increased the percentages of live acrosome-reacted sperm, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol had no apparent effect on acrosome status. In short, alpha-zearalenol inhibited normal sperm motility, but stimulated hyperactive motility in the remaining motile cells and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction. Beta-zearalenol induced the acrosome reaction without altering motility

  15. Commercial Nitrogen Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer nitrogen (N) purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year...

  16. Protect Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoking and alcohol Drugs such as steroids, cigarettes, marijuana and alcohol can negatively impact your health in ... STIs) don’t just affect a women’s fertility. Everyone knows that if you don’t practice safe ...

  17. Commercial Phosporus Fertilizer Purchased

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Amounts of fertilizer P2O5 purchased by states in individual years 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011, and the % change in average amounts purchased per year from...

  18. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen

  19. Levodopa, fertility, and longevity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.A. Jr.; Searcy, A.W.

    1977-04-29

    High concentrations of the dopaminergic drug levodopa (L-dopa, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) administered to mice in their diet affected fertility to a moderate degree and prolonged the mean life-span by a maximum of 50%.

  20. Fertility outcomes in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Elisabeth Juul; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Lindenberg, Svend

    2016-01-01

    of fertility treatments, and the number of successful pregnancies differ significantly between women with unexplained infertility with and without asthma.245 women with unexplained infertility (aged 23-45 years) underwent questionnaires and asthma and allergy testing while undergoing fertility treatment. 96...... women entering the study had either a former doctor's diagnosis of asthma or were diagnosed with asthma when included. After inclusion they were followed for a minimum of 12 months in fertility treatment, until they had a successful pregnancy, stopped treatment, or the observation ended.The likelihood...... pregnancies during fertility treatment, 39.6 versus 60.4% (p=0.002). Increasing age was of negative importance for expected time to pregnancy, especially among asthmatic women (interaction between age and asthma on time to pregnancy, p=0.001). Female asthmatics had a longer time to pregnancy and less often...

  1. Optimizing Male Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  2. Optimizing Natural Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  3. Weight and Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  4. Queering the fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura

    2013-06-01

    A sociologist examines contemporary engagements of queer bodies and identities with fertility biomedicine. Drawing on social science, media culture, and the author's own empirical research, three questions frame the analysis: 1. In what ways have queers on the gendered margins moved into the center and become implicated or central users of biomedicine's fertility offerings? 2. In what ways is Fertility Inc. transformed by its own incorporation of various gendered and queered bodies and identities? And 3. What are the biosocial and bioethical implications of expanded queer engagements and possibilities with Fertility Inc.? The author argues that "patient" activism through web 2.0 coupled with a largely unregulated free-market of assisted reproduction has included various queer identities as "parents-in-waiting." Such inclusions raise a set of ethical tensions regarding how to be accountable to the many people implicated in this supply and demand industry.

  5. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...... gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More...... on the effects on the stand level, and especially on the landscape level, including late rotation management of the forest....

  6. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome. Use of injectable fertility drugs, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), to induce ovulation can cause ovarian hyperstimulation ... after eight to 14 days — you will take human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or other medications to help the eggs ...

  7. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.

  8. Prediction of bull fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients of reprodu......In the last years, thanks to the improvement in the prognosis of cancer patients, a growing attention has been given to the fertility issues. International guidelines on fertility preservation in cancer patients recommend that physicians discuss, as early as possible, with all patients...... data have become available, and several issues in this field are still controversial and should be addressed by both patients and their treating physicians.In April 2015, physicians with expertise in the field of fertility preservation in cancer patients from several European countries were invited...... data was encouraged. On the basis of the data presented, as well as the expertise of the invited speakers, a total of ten recommendations were discussed and prepared with the aim to help physicians in counseling their young patients interested in fertility preservation.Although there is a great...

  10. A long-day light program accelerates seasonal coat changes but is without effect on semen and metabolic parameters in Shetland pony stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrammel, Nadine; Deichsel, Katharina; Aurich, Jörg; Aurich, Christine

    2016-03-15

    Horses are seasonal breeders, and robust breeds may exhibit a winter hypometabolism when kept under semiferal conditions. In this study, we analyzed the effects of artificial long days on rectal temperature, heart rate, heart rate variability, hematology, coat changes, semen parameters, and plasma testosterone concentrations in Shetland stallions stabled overnight and assigned to a control group (CON, n = 9) kept under natural photoperiod, and a treatment group exposed to a long-day light program from 15 December to 20 March (AL, n = 9). During the 8-month study, rectal temperature, heart rate, and heart rate variability at no time differed between groups. Plasma total protein (P coat and total sperm count but only changes in hair coat but not semen parameters were advanced by a long-day light program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. North American fertilizer capacity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

  12. Equine Arteritis Virus Has Specific Tropism for Stromal Cells and CD8+T and CD21+B Lymphocytes but Not for Glandular Epithelium at the Primary Site of Persistent Infection in the Stallion Reproductive Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carossino, Mariano; Loynachan, Alan T; Canisso, Igor F; Cook, R Frank; Campos, Juliana R; Nam, Bora; Go, Yun Young; Squires, Edward L; Troedsson, Mats H T; Swerczek, Thomas; Del Piero, Fabio; Bailey, Ernest; Timoney, Peter J; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2017-07-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has a global impact on the equine industry as the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory, systemic, and reproductive disease of equids. A distinctive feature of EAV infection is that it establishes long-term persistent infection in 10 to 70% of infected stallions (carriers). In these stallions, EAV is detectable only in the reproductive tract, and viral persistence occurs despite the presence of high serum neutralizing antibody titers. Carrier stallions constitute the natural reservoir of the virus as they continuously shed EAV in their semen. Although the accessory sex glands have been implicated as the primary sites of EAV persistence, the viral host cell tropism and whether viral replication in carrier stallions occurs in the presence or absence of host inflammatory responses remain unknown. In this study, dual immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence techniques were employed to unequivocally demonstrate that the ampulla is the main EAV tissue reservoir rather than immunologically privileged tissues (i.e., testes). Furthermore, we demonstrate that EAV has specific tropism for stromal cells (fibrocytes and possibly tissue macrophages) and CD8 + T and CD21 + B lymphocytes but not glandular epithelium. Persistent EAV infection is associated with moderate, multifocal lymphoplasmacytic ampullitis comprising clusters of B (CD21 + ) lymphocytes and significant infiltration of T (CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + , and CD25 + ) lymphocytes, tissue macrophages, and dendritic cells (Iba-1 + and CD83 + ), with a small number of tissue macrophages expressing CD163 and CD204 scavenger receptors. This study suggests that EAV employs complex immune evasion mechanisms that warrant further investigation. IMPORTANCE The major challenge for the worldwide control of EAV is that this virus has the distinctive ability to establish persistent infection in the stallion's reproductive tract as a mechanism to ensure its maintenance in equid

  13. Effects of different artificial insemination techniques and sperm doses on fertility of normal mares and mares with abnormal reproductive history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieme, H; Bonk, A; Hamann, H; Klug, E; Katila, T

    2004-09-01

    The effects of different artificial insemination (AI) techniques and sperm doses on pregnancy rates of normal Hanoverian breed mares and mares with a history of barrenness or pregnancy failure using fresh or frozen-thawed sperm were investigated. The material included 187 normal mares (148 foaling and 39 young maiden mares) and 85 problem mares with abnormal reproductive history. Mares were randomly allotted into groups with respect to AI technique (routine AI into the uterine body, transrectally controlled deep intracornual AI ipsilateral to the preovulatory follicle, or hysteroscopic AI onto the uterotubal junction ipsilateral to the preovulatory follicle), storage method of semen (fresh, frozen-thawed), AI volume (0.5, 2, 12 ml), and sperm dose (50 x 10(6) or 300 x 10(6) progressively motile sperm (pms) for fresh semen and 100 or 800 x 10(6) frozen-thawed sperm with >35% post-thaw motility). The mares were inseminated once per cycle, 24 h after hCG administration when fresh semen was used, or 30 h for frozen-thawed semen. Differences in pregnancy rates between treatment groups were analyzed by Chi-squared test, and for most relevant factors (insemination technique, mare, semen, and stallion) expectation values and confidence intervals were calculated using multivariate logistic models. Neither insemination technique, volume, sperm dose, nor mare or stallion had significant effects (P > 0.05) on fertility. Type of semen, breeding mares during foal heat, and an interaction between insemination technique, semen parameters, and mares did have significant effects (P insemination into the uterine body appears to be superior to hysteroscopic insemination and in normal mares, the highest pregnancy rates can be expected by hysteroscopic insemination.

  14. The fertilizer nitrogen problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.; Halstead, E.H.

    1974-01-01

    A world-wide fossil fuel crisis has surfaced in the past year by reason of shortage and high cost, which is felt throughout all segments of human society. Nor has the agriculture sector, with its very high demand for energy to supply its power, machinery, fertilizer, processing and transport, escaped the energy crisis. Among the agricultural inputs, fertilizer nitrogen is one of major concern. This commodity is currently in extremely short supply, world prices having more than doubled in the past year alone. Serious as this situation is to agricultural production in the highly developed countries of the world, it is a real disaster to the production potential of the developing countries. The birth of the 'Green Revolution' in those countries in the last ten years came about from an amalgamation of higher yielding varieties, improved pest and disease control, better crop watering practices, and the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen. Shortcomings in any one of these requisites invalidates the entire package. (author)

  15. Globalization and Contemporary Fertility Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, Arun S

    2017-09-01

    The rise of the global network of nation-states has precipitated social transformations throughout the world. This article examines the role of political and economic globalization in driving fertility convergence across countries between 1965 and 2009. While past research has typically conceptualized fertility change as a country-level process, this study instead employs a theoretical and methodological framework that examines differences in fertility between pairs of countries over time. Convergence in fertility between pairs of countries is hypothesized to result from increased cross-country connectedness and cross-national transmission of fertility-related schemas. I investigate the impact of various cross-country ties, including ties through bilateral trade, intergovernmental organizations, and regional trade blocs, on fertility convergence. I find that globalization acts as a form of social interaction to produce fertility convergence. There is significant heterogeneity in the effects of different cross-country ties. In particular, trade with rich model countries, joint participation in the UN and UNESCO, and joining a free trade agreement all contribute to fertility convergence between countries. Whereas the prevailing focus in fertility research has been on factors producing fertility declines, this analysis highlights specific mechanisms-trade and connectedness through organizations-leading to greater similarity in fertility across countries. Globalization is a process that propels the spread of culturally laden goods and schemas impinging on fertility, which in turn produces fertility convergence.

  16. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future. PMID:24478294

  17. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  18. Fertilizing Southern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. Broadfoot; A. F. Ike

    1967-01-01

    If present trends continue, fertilizing may soon be economically feasible in southern hardwood stands. Demands for the wood are rising, and the acreage alloted for growing it is steadily shrinking. To supply anticipated requests for information, the U. S. Forest Service has established tree nutrition studies at the Southern Hardwoods Laboratory in Stoneville,...

  19. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the pollen grain reaches the stigma through outsourcedagents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to selectthe right type of pollen. Similar to a marriage in humanbeings, flowering plants also have evolved elaborate screeningprocess to select the right pollen grains and to reject thewrong ones. Even after ...

  20. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After the pollen grain reaches the stigma through outsourced agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- lect the right type of pollen. Similar to a marriage in human beings, flowering plants also have evolved elaborate screen- ing process to select the right pollen grains and to reject the wrong ones.

  1. (ajst) pedological characteristics, general fertility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    described and analysed for their chemical, physical and mineralogical characteristics. Based on these data, general fertility is ... Key words: Pedological characteristics, fertility, soil classification, benchmark soils, Morogoro. District, Tanzania. INTRODUCTION .... under Eucalyptus spp . and Hyperrhenia spp . ustic. 6.

  2. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord ... a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, ...

  3. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ...

  4. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries ... Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  5. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and fertility after a spinal cord ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  6. Agriculture: Nutrient Management and Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilizers and soil amendments can be derived from raw materials, composts and other organic matter, and wastes, such as sewage sludge and certain industrial wastes. Overuse of fertilizers can result in contamination of surface water and groundwater.

  7. Socioeconomic status and fertility decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dribe, Martin; Breschi, Marco; Gagnon, Alain

    2017-01-01

    America to analyse the relationship between socio-economic status and fertility during the fertility transition. Using comparable analytical models and class schemes for each population, we examined the changing socio-economic differences in marital fertility and related these to common theories...

  8. Dendrochemical response to soil fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; Jeffrey S. Tepp; Bryan R. Swistock; Pamela J. Edwards; William E. Sharpe; Mary Beth Adams; James N. Kochenderfer

    2003-01-01

    Use of chemical element content of tree rings to detect soil acid or base changes was tested at 13 sites of former forest fertilization trials in the eastern United States and Canada. Ammonium sulfate or nitrogen fertilization was the typical acidification treatment, while lime added with or without other fertilizer was the typical base treatment. Molar ratios of...

  9. North American fertilizer capacity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  11. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open ... Diagnosed with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation ...

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  13. [Stress and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ősapay, György; Ősapay, Klára

    2015-08-30

    In Western countries, sperm quality and fertility of men significantly worsened. Female infertility does not show a better trend either. Subtle defects in the reproductive functions can not be explained by the current methods, and "unexplained infertility" is becoming a more common diagnosis. Every year 1 million couples seek expensive and time consuming fertility treatment in the world. Deeper understanding of an unhealthy lifestyle and the environmental damages may lead to personalized treatments to increase the chance of conception.The effects of various stressors on the male and female reproductive performance were scientifically substantiated by Selye and coworkers in 1976. Cognitive therapy methods can be applied against emotional stressors, supplementation by antioxidants against reactive oxygen compounds, and administration of vitamins and trace elements, especially when deficiency is found, may help before medical intervention on a rational and economical way in the fight against infertility.

  14. Sperm preparation for fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Gadella, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Description This book contains 19 chapters that discuss theoretical and applied andrology for domestic, zoo and wild animals. Topics include semen and its constituents; sperm production and harvest; determinants of sperm morphology; sperm preparation for fertilization; practical aspects of semen cryopreservation; evaluation of semen in the andrology laboratory; genetic aspects of male reproduction; emerging techniques and future development of semen evaluation and handling and applied androlo...

  15. Fertilization of SRC Willow, I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L.; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    of nitrogen, and that similar biomass production response can be achieved by use of mineral fertilizer, sewage sludge and animal manure. A 2-year experiment was established with the clone Tordis grown on a sandy soil in northern Jutland, Denmark. The experiment included mineral fertilizer, sludge and manure......, and treatments of different doses up to 360 kg nitrogen ha. The fertilization led to a modest but significant increase in biomass production. The largest production of 11.9 oven dried tons/ha/year was obtained for the application of 60 kg nitrogen ha annually. Higher doses did not lead to increased biomass...... production; in fact, production seemed to decline with increasing fertilization application (not significant). We found no difference in production between different types of fertilizers. The limited response of the fertilization may be caused by a high fertility of the soil due to former agricultural...

  16. Urinary paraben concentrations and in vitro fertilization outcomes among women from a fertility clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chiu, Yu-Han; Messerlian, Carmen; Williams, Paige L.; Sabatini, Mary E.; Toth, Thomas L.; Ford, Jennifer B.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between urinary paraben concentrations and IVF outcomes among women attending an academic fertility center. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Fertility clinic in a hospital setting. Patient(s) A total of 245 women contributing 356 IVF cycles. Intervention(s) None. Quantification of urinary concentrations of parabens by isotope-dilution tandem mass spectrometry, and assessment of clinical endpoints of IVF treatments abstracted from electronic medical records at the academic fertility center. Main Outcome Measure(s) Total and mature oocyte counts, proportion of high quality embryos, fertilization rates, and rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live births. Results The geometric mean of the urinary concentrations of methyl (MP), propyl (PP) and butyl paraben (BP) in our study population were 133, 24 and 1.5 µg/L, respectively. In models adjusted for age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, smoking status and primary infertility diagnosis, urinary MP, PP and BP concentrations were not associated with IVF outcomes, specifically total and mature oocyte counts, proportion of high embryo quality and fertilization rates. Moreover, no significant associations were found between urinary paraben concentrations and rates of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live births. Conclusion(s) Urinary paraben concentrations were not associated with IVF outcomes among women undergoing infertility treatments. PMID:26654974

  17. Television and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Basten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted in the field of utilising the media - television and radio in particular - to promote particular public health messages. However, a burgeoning canon has examined how mass media can play a role in affecting change in fertility preferences and outcomes. In this paper we review these researches which have primarily focussed upon higher fertility settings. The impact of mass media presentation of families and children in low fertility settings has not yet been subject to rigorous sociological investigation so its impact can not be accurately inferred. However, given the pervasive nature of mass media and celebrity culture, we suggest that this is an important avenue for future research. We conclude that television plays a multi-faceted role in shaping individuals decision-making procedures concerning both demographic events and public health interactions. To illustrate this, we present a model which demonstrates a sliding scale of intent - but not impact - of various genres in order to understand the actual role of the media in shaping attitudes towards family size - either explicitly in terms of edutainment or implicitly as a forms of normalization.

  18. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biedka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient’s sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  19. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key

  20. Depletion of Intracellular Thiols and Increased Production of 4-Hydroxynonenal that Occur During Cryopreservation of Stallion Spermatozoa Lead to Caspase Activation, Loss of Motility, and Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Muñoz, Patricia; Ortega Ferrusola, Cristina; Vizuete, Guillermo; Plaza Dávila, Maria; Rodriguez Martinez, Heriberto; Peña, Fernando J

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been linked to sperm death and the accelerated senescence of cryopreserved spermatozoa. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered relevant signaling molecules for sperm function, only becoming detrimental when ROS homeostasis is lost. We hereby hypothesize that a major component of the alteration of ROS homeostasis in cryopreserved spermatozoa is the exhaustion of intrinsic antioxidant defense mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, semen from seven stallions was frozen using a standard technique. The parameters of sperm quality (motility, velocity, and membrane integrity) and markers of sperm senescence (caspase 3, 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitochondrial membrane potential) were assessed before and after cryopreservation. Changes in the intracellular thiol content were also monitored. Cryopreservation caused significant increases in senescence markers as well as dramatic depletion of intracellular thiols to less than half of the initial values (P spermatozoa without active caspase 3 (r = 0.996, P spermatozoa; additionally, 4-hydroxynonenal levels were negatively correlated with thiol levels (r = -0.856). In conclusion, sperm functionality postthaw correlates with the maintenance of adequate levels of intracellular thiols. The accelerated senescence of thawed spermatozoa is related to oxidative and electrophilic stress induced by increased production of 4-hydroxynoneal in thawed samples once intracellular thiols are depleted. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Development of the knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNees P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Jukkala1, Karen Meneses1, Andres Azuero1, June Cho1, Patrick McNees1,21School of Nursing, 2School of Health Professions, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USAObjective: Infertility is a severe and often underestimated consequence of successful treatment for breast cancer. Ensuring young breast cancer survivors receive patient-centered health information on the impact of treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options in a timely manner is a critical component of high quality nursing care. The objective of this manuscript is to report the process used to develop and examine the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure a breast cancer survivor’s self-assessed knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation.Design: A scale development and descriptive study.Setting: Online and global.Participants: Ninety-two young breast cancer survivors (ages 25–45 years.Methods: Participants completed the Knowledge of Fertility and Fertility Preservation (KF Scale as part of their participation in a larger study, the Fertility Cancer Project (FCP.Results: An exploratory factor analysis revealed five domains: normal reproductive function; general information about fertility; cancer treatment factors affecting fertility; infertility information; and alternative parenting options. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of the construct with a demonstrated good fit between the factor structure of the new scale and the observed data. Many participants self-assessed their overall knowledge of fertility and fertility preservation as “a little” and the majority rated their knowledge of infertility information as “a little”.Conclusion: The KF Scale can be used to provide useful information to support health care professionals in the development of patient-centered education that is responsive to the unique needs of each young breast cancer survivor. The initial testing of the KF Scale indicates

  2. Reconstructing historical fertility change in Mongolia: Impressive fertility rise before continued fertility decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Spoorenberg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, historical fertility change in Mongolia has been analyzed starting from the 1960s. It is generally accepted that the adoption of pro-natalist policies resulted in very high fertility levels during the 1960s and 1970s and that their relaxation in the mid-1970s contributed to the onset of fertility decline. Objective: The objective of this paper is to reconstruct fertility levels and trends in Mongolia before the 1960s in order to offer an alternative view of the historical fertility change in the country. Methods: Mobilizing a large set of data from different sources and applying diverse estimation techniques, a consistent reconstruction of nearly a century of fertility change in Mongolia is conducted. For the first time, fertility estimates before 1960 are introduced. The quality of these estimates is assessed through cross-comparison and prospective reconstruction of the country's population. Results: The different fertility estimates give a very consistent picture of historical fertility change in Mongolia, indicating that total fertility stagnated until the late 1940s and then increased by about 2.5 children per woman within 15 years. The population of Mongolia can be consistently reproduced assuming almost constant fertility between 1918 and 1956. Conclusions: The improvement in health and living standards related to the establishment of a socialist society is the main factor explaining the variations in fertility before the 1960s in Mongolia. This study reinstates the importance of social and economic development in explaining fertility change in the country. Comments: This study calls for demographers to reconstruct long-term population development in statistically less-developed countries to better understand the global process of fertility transition.

  3. [[Fertility in Japan: 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosima, K; Yamamoto, C

    1992-04-01

    Japan's number of births for 1990 was 1,229,044, which was 25,000 less than 1989. The decrease, however, was smaller than the decrease which occurred between 1988 and 1989. Table 1 shows total number of births of Japanese and number of births of non-Japanese. Since 1987 number of births of non-Japanese has been slightly over 7000 every year, constituting 0.6% of total births. Table 2 shows total number of Japanese births, number of those with Japanese parents, number of those with non-Japanese mothers and number of those with non-Japanese fathers. The number of those with at least one non-Japanese parent was slightly over 1% in 1990. Table 3 shows in thousands, (1) number of births, (2) married female population ages 20-34, (3) female population ages 20-34, (4) total population. The second wave of baby boomers is now beginning to get married and reproduce, which has resulted in a slight increase in child births among women below 24. Child births among those below age 23 were 94,871 in 1988, 95,102 in 1989, and 98,632 in 1990. The same data for those below age 24 was 143,495 in 1989 and 147,037 in 1990. 1990's number of births was 63.1% of 1970's, which showed the onset of a second baby boom. This is due to a lower rate of currently married women, lower number of women ages 20 to 34, and lower fertility rate among currently married women. Total fertility rate dropped from 2.18 to 1.47 for males, from 2.13 to 1.53 for females, from 2.16 to 1.50 for the total. Ever-married total fertility rate went from 2.08 to 1.95 for males, from 2.13 to 1.98 for females. The reason why TFR was so low in 1980's was that total first marriage rate was as low as 70%. Between 1989 and 1990 age-specific fertility rates for males 34 years and above and for females 31 years and above, as well as that for both males and females 22 years and under, increased. 31-year-old males and 28-year-old females showed the highest age-specific fertility rate in 1990. Between 1975 and 1990 average age

  4. [Obesity and male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  5. Fertility and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korula George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The changing social scenario together with economic growth and an increase in job opportunities has to a great extent reduced gender inequality and has resulted in more and more older women seeking help from infertility clinics. Fertility and aging have always been closely linked and the age of the female partner remains the single most important factor in predicting success with treatment. Although tests for the ovarian reserve are an important informative tool and are helpful in selecting treatment options, they are poor predictors of the outcome.

  6. Modeling fertility curves in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Gayawan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of fertility patterns is an essential method researchers use to understand world-wide population patterns. Various types of fertility models have been reported in the literature to capture the patterns specific to developed countries. While much effort has been put into reducing fertility rates in Africa, models which describe the fertility patterns have not been adequately described. This article presents a flexible parametric model that can adequately capture the varying patterns of the age-specific fertility curves of African countries. The model has parameters that are interpretable in terms of demographic indices. The performance of this model was compared with other commonly used models and Akaike's Information Criterion was used for selecting the model with best fit. The presented model was able to reproduce the empirical fertility data of 11 out of 15 countries better than the other models considered.

  7. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  8. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  9. Fertilizers in Leaching Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Ciesielczuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter contained in the waste of food industry or occurring in the households, in the absence of contamination with other kind of waste, may be used to create a “fertiliser”, which could be even reused in the organic production of arable crops. Particular attention is drawn to the fertilisers which may be applied in the case of amateur cultivation of pot plants and in the allotment gardens. The paper presents the results of research regarding the dynamics of the release of nutrients from tablets created with the help of encapsulation of the mixture manufactured from solvent extraction waste of coffee (SCG, modified by the ash obtained from low temperature burning of biomass. In this study, the mixture was determined as a fertilizer. Collagen, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl alcohol, shellac as well as sodium water glass have been applied as testing membranes in order to slow down the elution of the components from a fertilizer into solution. The durability tests have been carried out according to PN-EN-13266 standard over 118 days at the temperature of 25°C. The obtained results indicate significant differentiation with regard to the leaching of nutrients and organic matter from the tablets depending on the applied membrane. Strong inhibition concerning leaching of the components through membranes and from shellac and polyvinyl acetate has been observed. The remaining membranes did not inhibit the leaching of nutrients in the long-lasting manner; however, even they may be applied in the agricultural practice.

  10. Bariatric surgery and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Divya K; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2010-06-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most reliable way to sustain weight loss in the morbidly obese. Reproductive age women comprise the majority of bariatric patients, and many may be interested in conceiving after surgery. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the recent literature on bariatric surgery and fertility to assist providers in patient counseling. Obesity adversely impacts fecundability and IVF outcomes through a variety of mechanisms. The body of literature on reproductive outcome after bariatric surgery is sparse and of mixed quality. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve menstrual cyclicity in anovulatory women, but little is published on the impact of surgical weight loss on spontaneous or IVF-treatment-related pregnancy rates. The increased risk of miscarriage in obese women may decline after bariatric surgery. There are currently insufficient data to support recommendations regarding the ideal timing for pregnancy after bariatric surgery. Obesity has been shown to adversely impact fertility, and weight loss is associated with significant improvement in many parameters of reproductive function. Further research is required as to the specific impact of surgical weight loss on pregnancy and miscarriage rates, as well as the optimal timing of pregnancy after bariatric surgery.

  11. Obesogens and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A M; Alves, M G; Mathur, P P; Oliveira, P F; Cavaco, J E; Rato, L

    2017-01-01

    In the last decades, several studies evidenced a decrease in male fertility in developed countries. Although the aetiology of this trend in male reproductive health remains a matter of debate, environmental compounds that predispose to weight gain, namely obesogens, are appointed as contributors because of their action as endocrine disruptors. Obesogens favour adipogenesis by an imbalance of metabolic processes and can be found virtually everywhere. These compounds easily accumulate in tissues with high lipid content. Obesogens change the functioning of male reproductive axis, and, consequently, the testicular physiology and metabolism that are pivotal for spermatogenesis. The disruption of these tightly regulated metabolic pathways leads to adverse reproductive outcomes. Notably, adverse effects of obesogens may also promote disturbances in the metabolic performance of the following generations, through epigenetic modifications passed by male gametes. Thus, unveiling the molecular pathways by which obesogens induce toxicity that may end up in epigenetic modifications is imperative. Otherwise, a transgenerational susceptibility to metabolic diseases may be favoured. We present an up-to-date overview of the impact of obesogens on testicular physiology, with a particular focus on testicular metabolism. We also address the effects of obesogens on male reproductive parameters and the subsequent consequences for male fertility. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  12. CONCENTRAÇÃO PLASMÁTICA DE TESTOSTERONA EM RUFIÕES EQÜINOS DA RAÇA MANGALARGA PLASMIC CONCENTRATION OF TESTOSTERONE IN MANGALARGA STALLION TEASERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Altamiro Garcia Nogueira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a concentração plasmática de testosterona em rufiões eqüínos da raça Mangalarga. Utilizaram-se 15 eqüinos, não castrados, com idade variando de 38 a 55 meses, separados em três grupos de cinco animais. O Grupo 1 foi utilizado para controle e os Grupos II e III foram transformados em rufiões pelo método de circuncisão com encurtamento do pênis. Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significativa nos níveis plasmáticos do hormônio entre garanhões e rufiões e nem entre as diferentes épocas de avaliação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Eqüino; testosterona; rufião.

    The plasmic concentration of testosterone in Mangaiarga stallions teasers was estimated to be compared to stallions, in different seasons. Fifteen stallions divided into 3 groups of 5 animals each were used. Group I was used as control, and all animals from groups II and III were made teasers by the method of circumcision with penis shortening. No diferences were observed.

    KEY-WORDS: Equine; testosterone; teasers.

  13. Unmet fertility expectations and the perception of fertility problems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individual and social expectations about childbearing inform the perception of fertility problems if more than a few months pass without a noticeable pregnancy. Such problems are usually attributed to women, especially if the male partner has proven his fertility with another spouse/sexual partner. Community education on ...

  14. Downregulation of eca-mir-128 in seminal exosomes and enhanced expression of CXCL16 in the stallion reproductive tract are associated with long-term persistence of equine arteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carossino, Mariano; Dini, Pouya; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Loynachan, Alan T; Canisso, Igor F; Shuck, Kathleen M; Timoney, Peter J; Cook, R Frank; Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2018-02-14

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV) can establish long-term persistent infection in the reproductive tract of stallions and is shed in the semen. Previous studies showed that long-term persistence is associated with a specific allele of the CXCL16 gene ( CXCL16S ) and that persistent infection is maintained despite the presence of a local inflammatory and humoral and mucosal antibody responses. Here, we demonstrated that equine seminal exosomes (SEs) are enriched in a small subset of miRNAs. Most importantly, we demonstrated that long-term EAV persistence is associated with the downregulation of an SE-associated miRNA (eca-mir-128) and with an enhanced expression of CXCL16 in the reproductive tract, a putative target of eca-mir-128. The findings presented herein suggest that SE eca-mir-128 is implicated in the regulation of the CXCL16/CXCR6 axis in the reproductive tract of persistently infected stallions, a chemokine axis strongly implicated in EAV persistence. This is a novel finding and warrants further investigation to identify its specific mechanism in modulating the CXCL16/CXCR6 axis in the reproductive tract of the EAV long-term carrier stallion. IMPORTANCE Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the ability to establish long-term persistent infection in the stallion reproductive tract and to be shed in semen, which jeopardizes its worldwide control. Currently, the molecular mechanisms of viral persistence are being unraveled, and these are essential for the development of effective therapeutics to eliminate persistent infection. Recently, it has been determined that long-term persistence is associated with a specific allele of the CXCL16 gene ( CXCL16S ) and is maintained despite induction of local inflammatory, humoral and mucosal antibody responses. This study demonstrated that long-term persistence is associated with the downregulation of seminal exosome miRNA eca-mir-128 and enhanced expression of its putative target, CXCL16, in the reproductive tract. For the first

  15. The GBFEL-TIE (Ground Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) Sample Survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    U.S. Army Engineer Mexico to Zacatecas (some 800 km). Located primarily District, Ft. Worth as Contract No. DACW63 -86-D- between the two major mountain...provided seriously mis- nada Experimental Range has demonstrated that soil leading assemblage data. The comparative analyses movement of...scaled aerial photos and the use of systematic maps during survey, it was difficult to locate the bound- soil coring for subsurface investigations. To be

  16. Women's education and fertility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The education of women results in changes in women's health status, family well being, and fertility decline. The aim of human rights and social justice is also served by increasing women's educational levels. A review of the trends in developing countries has shown that there is a strong correlation between advanced female education (10 or more years) and lower fertility. Data for 26 countries was presented in table form for total fertility rates by years of education. There were many differences in the patterns of fertility by educational level based on country level of development. The data appeared to show stronger correlations between fertility and education in more prosperous societies; culture and social structure also influenced fertility. Partial primary education has been shown in some countries to be related to increased fertility. A UN study found a curvilinear relationship between fertility and education in 14 out of 38 countries with World Fertility Surveys. There were only 3 countries with Demographic and Health Surveys which showed the curvilinear pattern. The UN study confirmed that maternal education was related to shorter durations of postpartum abstinence and short durations of lactation. Caution was urged in interpreting that an increase in a few years of schooling in a dominant rural, illiterate population would facilitate rapid fertility decline. A critical threshold effect for educational attainment was found in mainly the least developed countries. Female education has direct and indirect effects on fertility. Education may affect breast feeding patterns, contraceptive use, social norms about small families, later age at marriage, and later age at first birth. The suggestion was that education provided for reproductive choice and reduces the gap between actual and desired family size. At the country and individual level of analysis, contraceptive use was linked with education. Effective contraceptive use was still however impeded by

  17. Development of a Semi-controller for a Variable Rate Fertilizer Applicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianbin; Wang, Xiu; Mao, Yijin; Chen, Liping; Hu, Lingyan

    In this paper, aiming at the current development of domestic agricultural production, introduced a variable fertilizer controller which suits for a domestic food-producing areas to promote output. The variable rate fertilization controller combined with the current Chinese made fertilizer equipment; mechanism of metering system for the applicator uses a flute wheel. The amount of fertilizer is determined by the rotation speed of flute wheel. The use of the control system can be inconsistent in soil fertility, pre-division of plots with different fertilizer way through the process of moving the driver automatically adjusts the amount of fertilizer direction buttons to precision variable fertilization. Papers on the electronic structure of the controller and software design in detail. In addition, we have examined the performance of this new product in the field by using different fertilizer and requirement. The results reveal that semi-automatic controller work well by controlling the quantity of fertilizer precisely. Specifically, coefficient of variation of fertilizing is controlled to be less than 5%. That means this new type semi-automatic controller worth developing in further.

  18. Nutraceuticals in reproduction of bulls and stallions Nutracêuticos na reprodução de touros e garanhões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Paes de Arruda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The industry has made available in the market a series of substances (nutraceuticals which intent would be to optimize the use of nutrients in some metabolic paths, influencing positively reproductive performance in animals. However, the response to the use of nutraceuticals varies according to the animal. As the organism is highly complex and in order to achieve a perfect activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, an ideal interaction in molecular basis is needed, where the nutraceuticals can have their direct action. The aim of this study was to review the function and research results using the main nutraceuticals (β carotene, vitamin A, L-carnitine, omegas 3, 6 and 9 and Gamma-oryzanol on reproductive characteristics of bulls and stallions.A indústria tem disponibilizado no mercado uma série de substâncias (nutracêuticos com a intenção de otimizar a utilização de nutrientes em algumas vias metabólicas, influenciando positivamente o desempenho reprodutivo dos animais. No entanto, a resposta ao uso de nutracêuticos varia de acordo com o animal. Como o organismo é altamente complexo e, a fim de alcançar perfeita atividade do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-gonadal, uma interação ideal na base molecular é necessária, onde os nutracêuticos podem ter sua ação direta. O objetivo neste estudo foi revisar a função e resultados de pesquisas usando os principais nutracêuticos (β-caroteno, vitamina A, L-carnitina, ômegas 3, 6 e 9 e gama-orizanol sobre as características reprodutivas de touros e garanhões.

  19. Fertility Desire and Reproductive Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of HIV positive men and women in the era of better access to antiretroviral therapy and improved health status is important in planning and organizing appropriate health services. To assess the fertility desire and reproductive health care needs of men and ...

  20. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: The age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular cross section is significant in regard to fertility potential, and a value of 1% or less (approximately Sertoli cells only) may predict low fertility potential. To our knowledge Sertoli cells only have not been observed before 15 months of life...

  1. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss.......To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss....

  2. Determinants of fertility in Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    factors. Fertility reduction was smaller where contraceptive use was small because of the late age at first sexual intercourse, and also since birth rate at older ages was already low. Mechanisms for HIV- associated sub-fertility in rural. Zimbabwe included more frequent widowhood and divorce, reduced coital frequency, ...

  3. Fertility treatment in obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide. This has major adverse consequences for health in general and fertility in women in particular. With the increasing number of women in reproductive age being obese, there is also an increasing need for fertility treatment. And with more pregnant women

  4. Fertilizing Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Roger D. Right

    1979-01-01

    This report supplements a slide-tape presentation of the same title. Part I of the report describes the current practice of nitrogen fertilization of Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and Oregon and the effects of this fertilization on tree growth and water quality. Part II discusses factors that affect costs and revenues from investments in forest...

  5. to nitrogen and organic fertilizer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of the compound fertilizer (NPK) were superior to single fertilizer (urea) and organic manure (cowdung) in that order. Average cumulative fresh weight of waterleaf under the different manurial regimes were 1.89 kg, 1.65 kg and 0.89 kg for NPK, urea and cowdung, respectively. Studies are, however, continuing to ...

  6. Obesity and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Damian; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of reproductive age has increased over the past 30 years. Infertility affects 1 in 7 couples, and female obesity is associated with anovulation. The mechanisms by which excessive fat delays time to pregnancy (TTP) appear rooted in ovulatory problems and direct effects on oocytes, causing poorer embryo development, as well as in effects on the endometrium. Weight loss in women has been shown to improve conception, but not necessarily live birth rates following fertility treatment, and further research in this area is needed. The obesity epidemic has been accompanied by a potential rise in male infertility, which has been attributed to hormonal disturbances and compromised semen parameters.

  7. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  8. Fertilization of SRC Willow, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L.; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is an emerging cropping system in focus for production of biomass for energy. To increase production, the willow is commonly fertilized, but studies have shown differing effects of fertilization on biomass production, ranging from almost no response...... to considerable positive effects. Focus has also been on replacing mineral fertilizer with organic waste products, such as manure and sludge. However, the effect on biomass production and environmental impact of various dosage and types of fertilizer is not well described. Therefore we studied the environmental...... impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  9. Fertilizers in cereals crops. Effect of fertilization in grain quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaj, Mariana

    1997-01-01

    In the last years the yields of the maize cultivation in the Pampeana production region have constantly increased, foreseeing higher increases of yield in the next years. Such increase is due, between other motives, to the use of hybrids of higher potential yield. There is a direct relation between the yield potential of a genotype and the nutrients demand, fact that constitutes one of the geneticists concerns. Maize hybrids reach its maximum expression when the plant is cultivated in good supplied soils with balanced quantities of nutrients that in several cases are reached with the practice of fertilization. The quantitative and qualitative vegetal response to the use of phosphate fertilizers depend of soils, of the environmental conditions, of fertilizer and the way of its application as well as of the maize hybrid that was used. To direct the practice of fertilization towards the reposition of the soil nutrients extracted by genotypes of high yield without producing excesses that increase costs and put in danger the environment, it is necessary to know the real coefficient used by the plants of the phosphorus available in the soils. The isotopic methodology allows to distinguish the phosphorus coming from two nutrient sources: soil and fertilizer, even in the juvenile phase of vegetal development and to evaluate the efficiency of fertilizers in plant nutrition. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the use of phosphorus coming from one of the phosphorus source available (soil, fertilizer), that should allow to increase and make more specific the knowledge's level of the different maize hybrids. This is obtained by determination of the grade of use of nutrient (of the soil) and of the nutrient of fertilizers, evaluating the qualitative and quantitative responses to fertilization

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for ...

  11. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult ...

  12. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  13. Comparison of unenriched versus 15N-enriched fertilizer as a tracer for N fertilizer uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meints, V.W.; Shearer, G.; Kohl, D.H.; Kurtz, L.T.

    1975-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted on three soils with differing cropping and fertilization histories to determine whether unenriched fertilizer N can be used in the same manner as 15 N-enriched fertilizer to estimate the amount of plant N derived from fertilizer. Estimates using unenriched fertilizer N were compared with estimates using two 15 N enrichment levels. Use of unenriched fertilizer N led to underestimation of the amount of fertilizer N in the plant material in four of six cases when compared to 15 N-enriched fertilizer. Standard deviations of the estimates of fertilizer-derived N in plant material were considerably greater when unenriched fertilizer was used. (U.S.)

  14. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  15. Development of a 'wet' variant of electron beam gas treatment technology adapted to economic and technological conditions of developing countries to remove NOx, SO2 and particulates from flue gas and produce fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainchtein, O.L.; Piotrovskiy, V.V.; Savenkov, A.S.; Smirnov, I.K.; Salimov, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Institute Energostal with its co-authors has carried out real gas tests of the EB flue gas treatment technology at a 1000 m 3 /h experimental installation at Lipetsk Metallurgical Plant (Lipetsk, Russia), including agricultural tests to utilize the by-product. On the basis of the results obtained, a ''wet'' variant of the EB technology has been developed. A conceptual, basic and working design was engineered for a 100,000 m 3 /h EB demonstration unit at Slavyanskaya Power Plant (Donbass, Ukraine). In a ''wet'' variant of the technology, the following problems are believed to be harmoniously solved: reduction of power consumption for irradiation due to heterogenous reactions based on the so-called droplet mechanism, efficiency and reliability of collecting ammonia salts by wet dust catchers, wet granulation of the by-product using traditional equipment. A ''wet'' variant of the EB technology has a low capital cost and requires less floor area. Therefore, despite all its disadvantages typical for any wet method of gas purification, the ''wet'' EB technology can find its application in developing countries with low levels of economy. In many countries of this type, in particular, in the countries of the former Soviet Union, wet methods of gas treatment and fertilizer granulation are still widely used. As a matter of fact, it is a conventionally ''wet'' method (hence the inverted commas), since no waste water is discharged into the environment

  16. Research Progress in the Effect and Mechanism of Fertilization Measures on Soil Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Dongfeng; WANG, Limin; LI, Weihua; QIU, Xiaoxuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized the domestic and foreign research progress in the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility. It elaborated the relationship between fertilization measures and basic physical and chemical properties, soil enzyme activity, soil microorganism fertility index, and soil animal fertility index. It pointed out future researches about the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility include: (i) the relationship between fine and hig...

  17. FERLENT - a controlled release fertilizer produced from a polymer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Mayra; Arces, Milagros; Cuesta, Ernesto; Corredera, Pilar; Sardina, Carmen; Rieumont, Jacques; Quintana, Patricia; Bartolo, Pascual; Guenther, Bluma

    2011-01-01

    The possibility to use release controlled fertilizers in the agriculture of the tropical countries is more important than in the agriculture of the countries of the template regions. In this context, this work purpose the development of a new Fertilizer of Controlled Release named FERLENT, which was obtained starting from a polymeric material, under controlled conditions which allowed to corroborate the adjustment of the synthesis parameters under the modulate of nutrients liberation. It was characterized by, Scanning Microscopy Electron (SEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). (author)

  18. Healthy Sperm: Improving Your Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Getting pregnant Healthy sperm aren't always a given. Understand how lifestyle factors can affect your ... of retrieving and storing sperm before treatment. Adopting healthy lifestyle practices to promote your fertility — and avoiding things ...

  19. Preserving Fertility while Battling Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some oncologists neglect to discuss the possibility of treatment-related infertility with patients of reproductive age. Researchers are developing decision aids to help patients make an informed, carefully considered decision about fertility.

  20. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate ... from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After ...

  1. IVF-In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Issues surrounding the controversial topic of in vitro fertilization and artificial manipulation of reproduction are discussed. The author examines the moral and ethical implications and presents results of a survey of various religious groups. (SA)

  2. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ...

  3. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, ...

  4. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  5. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury ... 2525 info@facingdisability.com SIGN UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER Your email address * This iframe contains the logic ...

  6. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  7. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  8. In vivo fertilization of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the in vivo fertilization process of banana cultivars. The diploid hybrid (AA 091087-01 was the male progenitor. Flower samples were checked for fertilization from the first to the twentieth day after pollination. The size of the diploid ovules increased gradually at the beginning of the seed formation process. On the other hand, in the AAA triploids (Cavendish subgroup, the not fertilized ovules were aborted. In the AAB triploids (Prata subgroup some ovules were fertilized. The flowers of Grand Naine, Nanicão and 'Pacovan' cultivars presented necrosis in the distal part of the ovary on the first day after pollination. Necrosis can hinder pollen tube growth towards the ovule, which might be related to the low seed yield in 'Pacovan' cultivars and to the absence of seeds in the Cavendish subgroup cultivars.

  9. Obesity: modern man's fertility nemesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; Du Plessis, Stefan S.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related...

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open ... Diagnosed with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation ...

  11. Reducing ammonia volatilization from compound fertilizers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paul

    2012-09-13

    Sep 13, 2012 ... formulated fertilizer + 18.92 g zeolite (T5), 22.30 g 10:10:10 formulated fertilizer + 4.06 g zeolite (T6), and ... compound fertilizer could minimize ammonia loss. ..... North China Plan. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst.63:187-195. Cottenie A (1980). Soil testing and plant testing as a basis of fertilizer recommendation.

  12. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um controlador eletrônico para equipamentos de aplicação de insumos Development and evaluation of electronic control system in equipments for application of fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio K. Umezu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho, objetivou-se o desenvolvimento e avaliação de um sistema de controle para compensar a variação na rotação de acionamento dos dosadores de fertilizantes sólidos de um equipamento para formulação, dosagem e aplicação de fertilizantes sólidos no sulco, a taxas variáveis, em função da alteração da temperatura do óleo hidráulico. Desenvolveram-se controladores do tipo PID, para assegurar a manutenção precisa das rotações desejadas nos motores hidráulicos de acionamento dos dosadores de fertilizante. O equipamento foi testado em laboratório, utilizando-se sinais de testes padronizados, onde foi avaliado o seu comportamento em função do aquecimento do óleo hidráulico. Os testes realizados mostraram que o sistema de controle de rotação implementado foi adequado, mantendo inalterado o comportamento do sistema hidráulico, mesmo na ocorrência de variação da temperatura do óleo hidráulico.The objective of this research was the development and evaluation of a control system used to compensate variation on angular speed of dosers in an equipment for formulation, dosing and application of solid fertilizers in the furrow, at variable rates, by monitoring the hydraulic oil temperature changes. PID controllers were designed to guarantee the desired angular speed of the hydraulic motors dosing shaft. The equipment was tested in laboratory using standard signal tests procedure, being able to analyze the machine behavior as a function of the hydraulic oil temperature variations. The accomplished tests showed that the implemented control system was suitable and exhibited a steady behavior even during hydraulic oil temperature changes.

  13. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Gunnar; Rønsen, Marit; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumula...... who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Despite some differences in the levels of childlessness, country differences in fertility outcome are generally small. The cohort analyses thus support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime....

  14. The economics of fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loraine, J A

    1982-01-01

    The statement that economics and fertility are closely interrelated is a truism. The classical economists--Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill and John Maynard Keynes appreciated this fact, and their reviews are recounted and their prescience is assessed. Adam Smith (1723-1790) was primarily concerned with the desire of humankind to better his/her material conditions. Although he did not put forward a specific population policy, the tenet of his writing is pronatalist. Economic advantages would accrue to parents by the production of many children. Yet, underneath Smith's optimism, there was an apocalyptic vision of the distant future, i.e., the "steady state" when resources would be depleted or near exhaustion, when capital accumulation would have ceased, and living standards would be dropping vertiginously. In his 1st "Essay on Population" Malthus maintained that "the power of population is infinitely greater than the power of the earth to produce subsistence of men." Malthus can be complimented on his prescience. There is little question that the planet of today is grossly overpopulated and that a great gulf exists between numbers of people and their aspirations and the resources which the earth can provide for them. Malthus was particularly concerned about the population food dilemma, and that is still much in evidence in 1982. 2 concomitants of overpopulation--excessive urbanization and joblessness--could not be foreseen by Malthus. Marx did not deny the basic tenet promulgated by Malthus but to him this was simply an artifact of capitalist society which required "enormous reserves of proletarians" in order to maintain its odius system. Officially Communist governments remain in a Marxist straitjacket regarding the population issue. Mills approach was strongly antinatalist; he saw little need for an increase in human numbers. Mills was concerned that because of unlimited population growth and wealth the earth would lose much of its

  15. Patriarchy and fertility in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lerch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Theories of fertility collapse in the post-socialist era imply a decline in the moral primacy of traditional social institutions. Yet gender inequality actually increased in many countries, and there is a scarcity of empirical evidence for the role played by traditional social institutions in reproductive decision-making. OBJECTIVE We investigate whether patriarchal institutions sustained the fertility levels in Albania. The geography of marriage and family enlargement is related to the importance of patriarchy in kinship organisation and in the public sphere. To account for this spatial relationship we test the evidence for different pathways in patriarchal influence on reproductive decision-making including social effects, socialisation in patriarchal ideals, and the promotion of male fertility. METHODS We reconstruct reproductive histories from the 2001 Census and use data on attitudes and fertility intentions from the Reproductive and Health Survey 2002. Multilevel logistic regressions on marriage and (the intention of higher order births are used. RESULTS A majority of women endorsed patriarchal ideals and fertility transition was less advanced in more patriarchal municipalities. Patriarchal kinship organisation promoted early marriages and high fertility, which is shown to be achieved by social learning among peers and intergenerational social influences respectively, as well as by women's socialisation and a stopping behaviour in childbearing dominated by son-preference. Although gender inequality in the public sphere has also sustained the level of fertility and decreased the risk of marriage, it was not accounted for by these pathways of patriarchal influence. CONCLUSIONS Despite Albania's gradual opening to the world in a period of economic and political crisis, traditional social institutions remain important for family behaviours.

  16. Low Fertility Preservation Utilization Among Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Leena; Tishelman, Amy C; Caltabellotta, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2017-07-01

    Research demonstrates a negative psychosocial impact of infertility among otherwise healthy adults, and distress among adolescents facing the prospect of future infertility due to various medical conditions and treatments that impair reproductive health. Guidelines state that providers should counsel transgender youth about potential infertility and fertility preservation (FP) options prior to initiation of hormone therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the rates of fertility counseling and utilization of FP among a cohort of adolescents with gender dysphoria seen at a large gender clinic. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of electronic medical records was conducted of all patients with ICD-9/10 codes for gender dysphoria referred to Pediatric Endocrinology for hormone therapy (puberty suppression and/or cross-sex hormones) from January 2014 to August 2016. Seventy-eight patients met inclusion criteria. Five children were prepubertal, no hormone therapy was considered, and they were therefore excluded. Of the remaining 73 patients, 72 had documented fertility counseling prior to initiation of hormone therapy and 2 subjects attempted FP; 45% of subjects mentioned a desire or plan to adopt, and 21% said they had never wanted to have children. Utilization rates of FP are low among transgender adolescents. More research is needed to understand parenthood goals among transgender youth at different ages and developmental stages and to explore the impact of gender dysphoria on decision-making about FP and parenthood. Discussions about infertility risk, FP, and other family building options should be prioritized in this vulnerable adolescent population. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fertility assurance through extrapair fertilizations and male paternity defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Stone, Lewi; Lotem, Arnon

    2003-03-07

    Extrapair paternity has been observed in many formally monogamous species. Male pursuit of extrapair fertilizations is explained by the advantages of having offspring that receive essential paternal care from other males. Since females are capable of exercising a degree of control over the post-copulatory sperm competition, extrapair paternity cannot persist unless it confers fitness benefits on cuckolding females. Thus, extrapair paternity involves cooperation between mated females and extrapair males. On the other hand, paired males frequently exhibit strategies that minimize their loss of paternity and/or conserve paternal investment if paternity is lost. Hence, extrapair attributes of diverse species and populations reported in the literature are particular solutions of evolutionary games involving gender-specific cuckolding/anti-cuckolding strategies. Here we use methods of evolutionary game theory to study the role of male paternity guarding strategies in situations where females seek extrapair fertilizations for reasons of genetic compatibility and/or in pursuit of genetic diversity for their offspring. Our results indicate that in these circumstances pursuit of extrapair fertilizations is the only evolutionary stable female strategy. Males, on the other hand, have two, mutually exclusive, evolutionary stable strategies: full time pursuit of extrapair fertilizations and a compromise strategy wherein they protect in-pair paternity during their mate's fertile periods and pursue extrapair paternity the rest of the time. The relative merits of these two strategies are determined by the efficiency of male in-pair paternity defense, breeding synchrony, fitness advantages of extrapair over in-pair offspring, and the intensity of competition for extrapair fertilizations from floater males.

  18. Enhancing Soil Fertility through Intercropping, Inoculation and Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M. A.; Hussain, N.; Schmeisky, H.; Rasheed, M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of intercropping grass (Panicum maximum) and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) alone or coupled with inoculation or fertilizer on soil fertility. The study comprised of two field experiments conducted under rain fed conditions for two years (June 2005 to September 2007) at National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan. In one experiment intercropping (33, 50 and 67%) of grass and legumes alone as well as coupled with seed inoculation were studied while, same set of treatments was combined with fertilizer application at the rates of 25, 75 and 50 kg/ha (N, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and K/sub 2/O) in the second experiment. Total soil N increased by 0.008 percent due to symbiotic fixation in addition to plant uptake under best treatment when compared with grass alone while, soil organic matter increased by 0.19 percent. After crop harvest soil N content was determined to be higher in all the treatments of the experiment compared with growing grass alone. Legumes caused rhizobial N fixation that caused an increase in soil N. Similarly, intercropping and inoculation increased this soil characteristic that was found to be non-significant in the first crop but later on became significant, especially when intercropping of grass with legumes after seed inoculation was investigated or fertilizer was supplemented to the crops. Thus, not only grass used the symbiotically fixed N by companion legumes but also enhanced the soil N content. The effect of fertilizer was not measurable statistically in case of soil organic matter. This parameter, in general, was not affected significantly when assessed after first crop harvest. Nevertheless, legumes alone or intercropped within grass increased this important soil constituent. Inoculation proved further beneficial in this regard but combination of intercropping (especially 67%) either with seed inoculation or application of fertilizer was found as the best technique for

  19. Male fertility in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, S H

    2011-04-05

    Infertility rates among males with cystic fibrosis (CF) approximate 97%. No information is currently available within Ireland determining an understanding of fertility issues and the best methods of information provision to this specialized group. This study aimed to determine understanding and preferred approaches to information provision on fertility issues to Irish CF males. A Descriptive Study utilizing prospective coded questionnaires was mailed to a male CF cohort (n=50). Sections included demographics, fertility knowledge & investigation. Response rate was 16\\/50 (32%). All were aware that CF affected their fertility. More than two-thirds (n=11) were able to provide explanations whilst only one-third (n=5) provided the correct explanation. Significant numbers stated thoughts of marriage and a future family. Half have discussed fertility with a healthcare professional (HCP). Mean age of discussion was 21.9 years. One third preferred an earlier discussion. The commonest first source for information was written material which was also the preferred source. Three-quarters requested further information preferring again, written material. Significant gaps in sex education of Irish CF males exist. Discussion should be initiated by HCPs and centre-directed written material devised to address deficiencies.

  20. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Obesity: modern man's fertility nemesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2010-07-01

    The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related to obesity. Mechanisms for explaining the effect of obesity on male infertility include abnormal reproductive hormone levels, an increased release of adipose-derived hormones and adipokines associated with obesity, and other physical problems including sleep apnea and increased scrotal temperatures. Recently, genetic factors and markers for an obesity-related infertility have been discovered and may explain the difference between fertile obese and infertile obese men. Treatments are available for not only infertility related to obesity, but also as a treatment for the other comorbidities arising from obesity. Natural weight loss, as well as bariatric surgery are options for obese patients and have shown promising results in restoring fertility and normal hormonal profiles. Therapeutic interventions including aromatase inhibitors, exogenous testosterone replacement therapy and maintenance and regulation of adipose-derived hormones, particularly leptin, may also be able to restore fertility in obese males. Because of the relative unawareness and lack of research in this area, controlled studies should be undertaken and more focus should be given to obesity as an etiolgy of male infertility.

  2. Fertility determinants in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, C W

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the proximate determinants of fertility in Puerto Rico using data from a 1982 island-wide study. Contraceptive use was found to be the primary direct determinant of fertility in Puerto Rico, both for the total population and for each level of education studied. Female sterilization is the most prevalent method of contraception used in Puerto Rico at each educational level. Marriage is also important in Puerto Rico and is the only proximate determinant that varies across education groups. Late age at first marriage, in addition to high contraceptive use, accounts for the below-replacement fertility of women who have more than a high school education. In contrast, women who have not completed high school tend to marry early and not practice contraception for birth-spacing purposes. This study shows the advantages of analyzing fertility determinants at the population subgroup level (i.e., women of various educational attainment levels) so that the fertility of the total population can be better understood.

  3. Inorganic phosphorus fertilizer ameliorates maize growth by reducing metal uptake, improving soil enzyme activity and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wencheng; Wu, Jiahui; Liu, Xiaowen; Chen, Xianbin; Wu, Yingxin; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-09-01

    Recently, several studies have showed that both organic and inorganic fertilizers are effective in immobilizing heavy metals at low cost, in comparison to other remediation strategies for heavy metal-contaminated farmlands. A pot trial was conducted in this study to examine the effects of inorganic P fertilizer and organic fertilizer, in single application or in combination, on growth of maize, heavy metal availabilities, enzyme activities, and microbial community structure in metal-contaminated soils from an electronic waste recycling region. Results showed that biomass of maize shoot and root from the inorganic P fertilizer treatments were respectively 17.8 and 10.0 folds higher than the un-amended treatments (CK), while the biomass in the organic fertilizer treatments was only comparable to the CK. In addition, there were decreases of 85.0% in Cd, 74.3% in Pb, 66.3% in Cu, and 91.9% in Zn concentrations in the roots of maize grown in inorganic P fertilizer amended soil. Consistently, urease and catalase activities in the inorganic P fertilizer amended soil were 3.3 and 2.0 times higher than the CK, whereas no enhancement was observed in the organic fertilizer amended soil. Moreover, microbial community structure was improved by the application of inorganic P fertilizer, but not by organic fertilizer; the beneficial microbial groups such as Kaistobacter and Koribacter were most frequently detected in the inorganic P fertilizer amended soil. The negligible effect from the organic fertilizer might be ascribed to the decreased pH value in soils. The results suggest that the application of inorganic P fertilizer (or in combination with organic fertilizer) might be a promising strategy for the remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils in electronic waste recycling region. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: We evaluated whether adult fertility potential was better when unilateral orchiopexy was done at ages 2 to 6 years or later, and we identified those at risk for infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Unilateral orchiopexy was performed simultaneously with testicular biopsy in 11 patients 2...... similar fertility potentials were found in adulthood. Five of the 65 patients (7.7%, 95% confidence limits 2.5 to 17%) may experience infertility, representing 33% of both groups with less than 1% of the age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular transverse section (approximately no germ cells......) in the biopsy specimen at orchiopexy. CONCLUSIONS: Between ages 2 and 12 years the timing of unilateral orchiopexy may vary without an effect on subsequent fertility potential. When biopsy at surgery lacks germ cells, there is an approximately 33% age independent risk of subsequent infertility. Otherwise...

  5. Fertility effects of cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Donald E; Hacker, Neville

    2003-01-01

    Cancer sufferers are a subfertile group, and most treatments have the potential to adversely affect gonadal function. As cancer treatment becomes more effective and survival rates improve there are more cancer survivors in the reproductive age group for whom parenting is an important consideration. This article outlines the effects on fertility of cancer treatments and techniques to minimise the risk of infertility. The overall prospects for younger cancer sufferers to either retain their fertility or have genetic offspring is now better than ever before, due to advances in assisted reproductive technology, the appropriate use of fertility sparing surgery and other techniques to reduce the toxicity of therapy on the reproductive organs. These advances raise new moral and ethical concerns that must be considered before advising cancer sufferers of the options for preserving reproductive capacity.

  6. Antisperm antibodies and fertility association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, B; Cardona-Maya, W

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the relation between antisperm antibodies (ASA) and human fertility by reviewing the scientific literature of the last 45 years. We carried out a review of scientific literature about antisperm antibodies and infertility published in spanish or english in databases as Pubmed, Medline, Scielo, some books and another gray literature include information related to this review and that is published in the last 45 years. Infertile couples suffer infertility by immunological mechanisms mainly by the presence of antisperm antibodies ASA in blood, semen or cervicovaginal secretions; the formation of ASA in men and women may be associated with disturbance in immunomodulatory mechanisms that result in functional impairment of sperm and thus its inability to fertilize the oocyte. Immunological infertility caused by ASA is the result of interference of these antibodies in various stages of fertilization process, inhibiting the ability of interaction between sperm and oocyte. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. North American fertilizer capacity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    This listing of fertilizer producers and their production capacities was compiled in February 1993 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. TVA does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the information. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Information is given on the following types of fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, potash, nitric acid, superphosphoric acid, upgraded phosphoric acids, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  8. MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND MALE FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Semen is a complex mixture containing a variety of organic and inorganic compounds. While the production and functions of semen are well understood, studies focused on the macro- and micronutrients necessary for male fertility are constantly appearing with new information. Chemical elements play a crucial role in male reproduction, as an unbalance in their amounts may lead to defective spermatogenesis, reduced libido, and consequently, male fertility impairment. Dietary and feeding supplementation has the ability to increase male reproductive performance which is why the effects of minerals in diet cannot be ignored. This review will provide recent information to a better understanding of the positive as well as negative roles of selected macro- and micronutrients on male fertility.

  9. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  10. Migration and Fertility in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    M. FRAMURZ K. KIANI

    1987-01-01

    The phenomena of migration and fertility has not drawn much attention in Pakistan. A few studies based on census data, the National bnpact Survey 1968-69 and the Population Growth Survey 1968-71 showed higher crude birth rates for rural areas than for urban areas. However, recent studies showed higher urban fertility in Pakistan. In view of the increasing rate of rural migration to the urban areas it is important to understand the contribution of migration to popUlation growth. The main objec...

  11. Fertility prognosis for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a fertility prognosis model for infertile couples. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: In the period November 30, 1977 to June 1, 1985, 321 consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital. Investigation of the female...... MEASURE: The Cox regression model was used to predict the time required to conceive based on informations provided by fertility investigations. RESULTS: Three of 16 prognostic variables (the period of infertility, the female infertility factor, and the P-test) possess significant prognostic information...

  12. North American fertilizer capacity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  13. Fertility potential after unilateral orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    biopsy simultaneously with unilateral orchiopexy. In adulthood 56 of the 87 patients agreed to measurement of serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone and testicular volume, and 54 provided specimens for semen analysis. RESULTS: The number of spermatogonia per tubular cross....... CONCLUSIONS: The age matched number of spermatogonia per tubular cross section is significant in regard to fertility potential, and a value of 1% or less (approximately Sertoli cells only) may predict low fertility potential. To our knowledge Sertoli cells only have not been observed before 15 months of life...

  14. A single nucleotide polymorphism in COQ9 affects mitochondrial and ovarian function and fertility in Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single missense mutation at position 159 of COQ9 (GàA) has been associated with genetic variation in fertility in Holstein cattle, with the A allele associated with higher fertility. COQ9 is involved in the synthesis of coenzyme COQ10, a component of the electron transport system of the mitochondr...

  15. Soil Fertility Status on Organic Paddy Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to determine fertility status of the soil after organic paddy experiments using kinds and doses of organic fertilizers. Experiment was conducted at greenhouse laboratory in Faculty of Agriculture Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. Experimental design used completely randomized design with 9 kinds of treatment was replicated 3 times. Experiments were the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations that are based on fulfilling nutrient requirements of 120 kg N ha-1. Result shows that the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizers and Azolla inoculum had no effect on changes of soil fertility status. Soil fertility status was not significantly correlated with cow manure (0,16ns, Azolla fertilizer (0,26ns and Azolla inoculum (0,16ns. Average of final soil fertility status included fertile category, which was similar as the initial soil fertility status. Average of final soil properties of treatment but nevertheless was relatively higher than in no treatment, indicating the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations had greater impact to soil properties. Cow manure despite increased available K2O and dry grain, but it did not significantly increase the soil fertility status from fertile to very fertile. This was presumably due to the relatively short experiment period, only one planting season had not given significant effect to soil properties. Implication of this study is the use of cow manure, Azolla fertilizer, Azolla inoculum and its combinations although did not increase the soil fertility status but could maintain soil fertility status as the initial conditions before planting.

  16. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow How does caregiving for your partner often affect romantic relationships? play_arrow What are the common treatments for ... play_arrow How does a spinal cord injury affect male fertility? play_arrow Where can people get information on sex and ... Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map ...

  17. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  18. France: High and stable fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The current total fertility rate in France is around 1.9 children per woman. This is a relatively high level by current European standards and makes France an outlier, despite the fact that its other demographic trends, especially conjugal behaviour, and social and economic trends are not very different from other Western European countries. France can serve as a counterfactual test case for some of the hypotheses advanced to explain the current low level of fertility in most European countries (delay in fertility, decline in marriage, increased birth control, greater economic uncertainty. France's fertility level can be partly explained by its active family policy introduced after the Second World War, and adapted in the 1980s to accommodate women's entry into the labour force. This policy is the result of a battle, fuelled by pro-natalism, between the conservative supporters of family values and the promoters of state-supported individual equality. French family policy thus encompasses a wide range of measures based on varying ideological backgrounds, and it is difficult to classify in comparison to the more precisely focused family policies of other European welfare states. The active family policy seems to have created especially positive attitudes towards two- or three child families in France.

  19. Plant fertilization: maximizing reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2012-06-19

    Sperm competition does not occur in flowering plants as typically only a single pair of sperm cells is delivered for double fertilization. Two recent reports show that plants are capable of avoiding reproductive failure when defective sperm cells are released. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Global fertility and population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ...

  3. Soil fertility and plant nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, R.G.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The applications of isotopic and related techniques, including autoradiography, radiation absorption, radiation scattering and activation analysis, in investigations on soil fertility and plant nutrition are discussed. The unique information that can be obtained with isotopes and radiation techniques is indicated. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are discussed in relation to other methods of obtaining similar information. (U.K.)

  4. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (egg and central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca2+ is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes including mammals. PMID:26859271

  5. Strong families and declining fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilevych, Yuliya

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine

  6. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping

  7. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment may affect my child’s fertility. Will my child’s cancer or cancer treatment affect his/her fertility? What are the options to ...

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health. You may feel uncomfortable discussing issues of reproduction with your child. Ask Your Doctor Discussing fertility ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in patients facing gonadotoxic therapies: a committee opinion. ...

  9. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can ... child’s fertility before he/she begins cancer treatment (see figure below). Can you refer us to a ...

  10. Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Queenie V.; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described. PMID:24290744

  11. Fertility preservation methods for female neoplastic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Pup, L.; Campagnutta, E.; Giorda, G.; De Piero, G.; Sopracordevole, F.; Sisto, R.

    2006-01-01

    Background. The ability to have biological children is of great importance to cancer patients and fertility preservation before the oncological treatment is nowadays not rare. Oncologists have the responsibility to inform patients about the risks that their cancer treatment will permanently impair fertility and about the ways to limit this iatrogenic damage. Methods of fertility preservation are evolving quickly, yet the medical oncology literature is still poor regarding this topic. Indications and contraindications, limits and controversies of the fertility sparing techniques are reviewed in order to help the oncologist to counsel patients. Conclusions. Any oncologist seeing reproductive-aged patients should discuss the fertility implications of the oncological treatment and the fertility preservation options. A referral to appropriate fertility specialists as early as possible is recommended. People attempting fertility preservation in the context of cancer treatment are encouraged to enrol in clinical trials. (author)

  12. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Children Diagnosed with Cancer You are here Home » Patients Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer ... SJ, et al. Incorporating fertility preservation into the care of young oncology patients. Cancer. 2010;117:4- ...

  13. Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) fertility affecting factors

    OpenAIRE

    JONÁŠOVÁ, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    Usually, Pteridium aquilinum reproduces vigorously by the use of rhizomes. An occurence of fertile populations is rather rarely recorded. The aim of this bachelor thesis was to estimate the cause and factors affecting the fertility.

  14. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Sorry, you need to enable JavaScript to visit this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu ...

  15. Psychological aspects of male fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Alice Toft; Madsen, Svend Aage Lykke; Humaidan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment.......To explore and to identify the possible need for psychological communicative support in men undergoing fertility treatment....

  16. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Navigator Website References The Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in patients facing gonadotoxic therapies: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2013; 100:1224- ...

  17. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... study approved by an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility preservation options for children diagnosed with cancer: Visit SaveMyFertility. ...

  18. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and ... Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents. Cancer ...

  19. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation and the ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility ... specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be ...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fertility preservation center closest to you Visit the Pediatric Oncofertility Research Foundation Visit the Patient Navigator Website ... Ginsberg JP. New advances in fertility preservation for pediatric cancer patients. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2010;23:9- ...

  1. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... JP, Kolon TF. Fertility Preservation in Children and Adolescents With Cancer . Urology. 2016;91:190-6. Loren ... 10. Nieman CL, et al. Fertility preservation and adolescent cancer patients: lessons from adult survivors of childhood ...

  2. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be fertility preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner ... there are options for preserving fertility in your child diagnosed with cancer. You may be focused on ...

  3. The fertility of internal migrants to Kinshasa

    OpenAIRE

    Anglewicz, Philip; Corker, Jamaica; Kayembe, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The rapid population growth of many African cities has important implications for population health, yet little is known about factors contributing to increasing population, such as the fertility of internal migrants. We examine whether in-migrants to Kinshasa have different fertility patterns than lifetime Kinshasa residents, and identify characteristics of migrants that may explain differences in fertility. We also use detailed migration histories to examine whether fertility differs by fea...

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_Main_Menu About SaveMyFertility Provider ... of a clinical study approved by an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility ...

  5. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment may affect my child’s fertility. Will my child’s cancer or cancer treatment affect his/her fertility? What are the options to try to preserve my child’s fertility before he/she begins cancer treatment (see figure below). Can you refer us ...

  6. Three Cell Fusions during Double Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunck, Stefanie; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-05-07

    Fertilization of both egg and central cell is a major distinguishing feature of flowering plants. Now, Maruyama et al. report a third cell fusion event between the persistent synergid and the fertilized central cell shortly after double fertilization in Arabidopsis. This causes rapid dilution of pollen tube attractant(s), preventing polytubey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. North American fertilizer capacity data. Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  8. Determinants of fertility levels in Kafanchan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Ogbonnas

    2013-07-01

    Fertility is high while mortality is low. However, as a measure towards demographic readjustment, a further reduction in the level of mortality may lead to decline in fertility. Some future planning implications of the existing fertility' evels are discussed in the light of the current population policy and development planning in the country.

  9. Air pollution and human fertility rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. Aims: We assessed the association

  10. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this website. Skip to main content SaveMyFertility An Online Fertility Preservation Toolkit for Patients and Their Providers ... Visit the Oncofertility Consortium Web site Use the online Clinic/Center Finder to find the fertility preservation ...

  11. Utilização de manequim para coleta de sêmen eqüino e sua influência sobre características reprodutivas do garanhão Use of a phantom for equine semen collection and its influence upon stallion reproductive characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Silva Filho

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se as características físicas do ejaculado e de comportamento do garanhão durante a coleta de sêmen, diante de uma égua em cio ou de um manequim. O manequim utilizado mostrou-se mais eficiente e seguro do que uma égua em cio, tanto para o garanhão quanto para o veterinário. Com o uso do manequim, apenas o tempo de reação do garanhão foi maior. Entretanto, o volume de sêmen, motilidade espermática, número de espermatozóides por ejaculado e espermatozóides móveis por ejaculado foram menores com o uso do manequim, embora a concentração espermática por ml fosse maior. A menor estimulação sexual do garanhão diante do manequim parece ser a causa das diferenças encontradas no comportamento e características seminais do garanhão.The objective of this trial was to compare stallion behavior during semen collection, and semen characteristics, using an estrous mare or a phantom to collect semen. The use of a phantom was more efficient and safer than the use of an estrous mare for the stallion as much as for the veterinarian. Using the phantom, only the sexual stimulation period of the stallion was longer. The semen volume, sperm motility, number of spermatozoa per ejaculate and spermatozoa motility per ejaculate were smaller using the phantom, but the sperm concentration was greater. The lower sexual stimulation of the stallion with the panthom seems to be the reason for the differences in its behavior and semen characteristics.

  12. Uranium and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural applications of chemical fertilizers are a worldwide practice. The specific activity of uranium-238 and heavy metals in phosphate fertilizers depends on the phosphate ore from which the fertilizer produced and on the chemical processing of the ore. Composite phosphate fertilizers samples where collected and the uranium-238 specific activity, in Bq/kg, and As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se concentration, in ppm, were measured. The annual addition of these elements in soil due to fertilization were calculated and discussed. (author)(tk)

  13. The Determinants of Low Fertility in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, A.; Rajan, Sowmya; Morgan, S. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework focusing on factors that enhance or reduce fertility relative to desired family size (see Bongaarts 2001), we study fertility variation across time (1992–2006) and space (states) in India. Our empirical analyses use data from three waves of the Indian National Family Health Surveys. We find that this framework can account for a substantial portion of the variation in the TFR across the states and over time. Our estimates focus attention on the critical components of contemporary Indian fertility, especially desired family size, unwanted fertility, son preference, and fertility postponement. PMID:24993746

  14. Advanced reproductive age and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kimberly; Case, Allison

    2011-11-01

    To improve awareness of the natural age-related decline in female and male fertility with respect to natural fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and provide recommendations for their management, and to review investigations in the assessment of ovarian aging. This guideline reviews options for the assessment of ovarian reserve and fertility treatments using ART with women of advanced reproductive age presenting with infertility. The outcomes measured are the predictive value of ovarian reserve testing and pregnancy rates with natural and assisted fertility. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in June 2010, using appropriate key words (ovarian aging, ovarian reserve, advanced maternal age, advanced paternal age, ART). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated into the guideline to December 2010. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table). Primary and specialist health care providers and women will be better informed about ovarian aging and the age-related decline in natural fertility and about options for assisted reproductive technology. 1. Women in their 20s and 30s should be counselled about the age-related risk of infertility when other reproductive health issues, such as sexual health or contraception, are addressed as part of their primary well-woman care. Reproductive-age women should be aware that natural fertility and assisted reproductive technology success (except with egg donation) is significantly lower for women in their late 30s and 40s. (II-2A) 2. Because of the decline in fertility and the

  15. Fertility prognosis for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a fertility prognosis model for infertile couples. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: In the period November 30, 1977 to June 1, 1985, 321 consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital. Investigation of the female...... MEASURE: The Cox regression model was used to predict the time required to conceive based on informations provided by fertility investigations. RESULTS: Three of 16 prognostic variables (the period of infertility, the female infertility factor, and the P-test) possess significant prognostic information....... The period of infertility and the P-test are best scored as continuous variables, whereas the female infertility factor are best categorized in four classes, i.e., normal, ovulation or cervical disorder, anatomic disorder, or a combination of disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The three prognostic variables...

  16. Determinants of fertility in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: From the result, materials used for roof, wall and floor were found to have a significant relation to fertility level of women in the last five years. ... rial of the room's roof and main construction mate- rial of the room's floor and type of fuel ..... Hockihg, R.R., J.W. Green, and R.H. Bremer, Var- iance components estimation ...

  17. Habits, aspirations and endogenous fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences as well as on endogenous fertility, this paper investigates the implications of the interaction of the endogenous determination of the number of children with habit and aspiration formation in an OLG model. In contrast with the previous literature, we show that greater aspirations may lead to higher savings, and more interestingly, always increase the neoclassical economic growth.

  18. [Determinants of fertility in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, L

    1983-08-01

    An attempt to systematize variables or factors traditionally associated with fertility, this study is not intended as a theoretical framework. 2 periods in Costa Rican fertility are recognized: one before 1960 and one after 1960. Within these periods 4 stages, each with different "key" determinants, are recognized. Until 1960, high fertility rates prevailed, with more than 6 children as total. Fluctuations were due to voluntary factors such as nuptiality and breastfeeding, and involuntary factors such as demand for less children during economic recession. Between 1960 and 1975 fertility declined. It is believed that the "key" factors in this fertility decline were on the contraceptive "offert" side rather than on the children demand side. The participation of peasants and low socioeconomic groups in the fertility decline and governmental health and family planning services are also recognized as important factors. Since the mid 70's a new stage of relative stability has been reached with an apparent convergence towards a total fertility of 3 children. How close this level is reached in the near future will depend on the control of unwanted fertility. The possibility of a 2nd fertility decline in Costa Rica depends mainly on factors which determine why couples have a 3rd child. Consequently, investigation of these factors is suggested to anticipate the future course of Costa Rican fertility. Basic fertility data are given in tables and an appendix.

  19. Optimal nitrogen fertilization of boreal conifer forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest fertilization offers a means to increase the production of renewable resources. Nitrogen is the most common fertilizer in boreal upland forests. There is plenty of research on the effect of nitrogen fertilization on volume growth, but less research on the optimal timing of fertilization and optimal management of fertilized stands. Methods This study used simulation and optimization to analyze the profitability of fertilization, optimal management of fertilized stands and the effects of fertilization on cash flows and timber yields. The management of 100 stands representing the most common growing sites of Scots pine and Norway spruce was optimized. Results Fertilization improved profitability in most of the analyzed stands. Profitability improved most in spruce stands growing on mesic site. Improving stem quality increased the economic benefit of fertilization. The timber yields of medium-aged conifer stands can be increased by almost 1 m3ha-1a-1 (15% in sub-xeric pine and mesic spruce sites and about 0.5 m3ha-1a-1 (5% in mesic pine and herb-rich spruce sites when the recommended nitrogen dose (150 kg ha-1 is applied once in 30 years. Conclusions Nitrogen fertilization of boreal conifer forest should be used mainly in spruce-dominated stands growing on medium sites. The gains are the highest in stands where the mean tree diameter is 16–20 cm and stand basal area is 14–20 m2ha-1.

  20. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Oktay, Kutluk

    2014-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. PMID:24623991

  1. Diagnostic imaging in fertility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, A.C.; Fleischer, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Some 10%-15% of married couples are affected by a fertility disorder. The number of infertile couples seeking medical assistance has increased dramatically in the past decade. The roles of diagnostic imaging with radiography and US (conventional and transvaginal) is emphasized in the assessment of couples with fertility disorders and an unexpectedly higher incidence of fetal wastage secondary to unsuspected uterine anomalies. The most frequently utilized radiographic examination in infertile patients is hysterosalpingography (HSG). Techniques and complications of HSG are illustrated. The normal anatomy, variants, and congenital anomalies of the uterus and fallopian tubes are demonstrated, as are the numerous abnormalities such as filling defects of the uterine cavity, synechiae, effects of maternal diethylstilbestrol exposure, inflammatory tubal disease, and the more common HSG findings following uterine and tubal surgery. The role of diagnostic imaging in male infertility, including vasography and varicocele detection, are addressed. Conventional and transvaginal US in the management of gynecologic fertility disorders are examined, with an emphasis on follicular monitoring, guided follicular aspirations, endometrial evaluations, and evaluation of other disorders (such as endometriosis) associated with infertility

  2. Educational differentials in cohort fertility during the fertility transition in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hyun Yoo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: While there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between women's education and fertility rates, few of these studies have examined the pattern of fertility differentials over the course of the fertility transition. As a country that has experienced a rapid decline in fertility and marked improvements in women's educational attainment over the last several decades, South Korea represents an ideal case for studying this dynamic association. Objective: The aim of the article is to explain the pattern of fertility differentials by level of education and the contribution of the changes in women's educational attainment to the fertility decline during the fertility transition in South Korea. Methods: Drawing upon data from the Korean censuses conducted between 1970 and 2010, I analyze completed cohort fertility for women born between 1926 and 1970 using demographic-decomposition techniques and cohort parity progression ratios by level of education. Results: The differences in fertility by educational attainment have gradually declined over the transition, with fertility almost converging at a low level among recent birth cohorts. Fertility in South Korea had been declining in all of the social groups until the sub-replacement fertility was reached. The change in women's educational attainment then became an important factor in the further decline in fertility. The trend toward fewer children quickly spread from the most educated to the least educated women throughout the fertility transition. Conclusions: The transformation of fertility behaviors across social strata has been a key element in the Korean fertility transition. Although educational expansion, particularly the introduction of mass education, has contributed to falling fertility in South Korea, the role of education in fertility decline is more pronounced in the diffusion of innovative ideas and behaviors, which reduced fertility differentials across

  3. Equine spermatozoa stored in the epididymis for up to 96h at 4°C can be successfully cryopreserved and maintain their fertilization capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L A; Gadea, J; García-Vázquez, F A; Avilés-López, K; Matás, C

    2013-01-30

    After injury or death of a valuable male, recovery of epididymal spermatozoa may be the last chance to ensure preservation of its genetic material. The objective of this research was to study the effect of sperm storage, at 4°C up to 96h, in the epididymides obtained from castrated horses and its effect on different functional sperm parameters. Aims were to study the effect of (1) sperm storage on viability and chromatin condensation; (2) pre-incubation of recovered epididymal sperm in the freezing extender, prior cryopreservation, on viability and chromatin condensation; and (3) freezing-thawing on viability, chromatin condensation, ROS generation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and heterologous fertilization rate (ICSI and IVF using bovine oocytes) of sperm recovered from the epididymis up to 96h post castration. The average volume (720±159μL) and the concentration (6.5±0.4×10(9) spermatozoa/mL) of sperm recovered from the epididymis were not affected by storage. Sperm viability after refrigeration at 4°C for up to72h was similar (Psperm dilution in the freezing media showed similar values up to 48h, while viability was preserved up to 72h (PEpididymal storage did not affect sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation patterns; although the pattern of phosphorylation changed to strong staining of the equatorial segment when the sperm where capacitated in sperm-TALP. Finally, successful and similar pronuclear formation (analyzed by ICSI) and in vitro penetration (evaluated with bovine zone free oocyte) was observed using cryopreserved sperm obtained from prolong epididymal storage at 4°C. In conclusion, cryopreservation of epididymal stallion sperm stored for up to 72h in the epididymis at 4°C, maintain both viability and ability to fertilize in vitro. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Liquid Organic Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture: Nutrient Uptake of Organic versus Mineral Fertilizers in Citrus Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Bermejo, Almudena; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of two liquid organic fertilizers, an animal and a plant-based fertilizer, with mineral fertilization on citrus trees. The source of the fertilizer (mineral or organic) had significant effect in the nutritional status of the organic and conventionally managed mandarins. Nutrient uptake, vegetative growth, carbohydrate synthesis and soil characteristics were analyzed. Results showed that plants fertilized with animal based liquid fertilizers exhibited higher total biomass with a more profuse development of new developing organs (leaves and fibrous roots). Liquid organic fertilization resulted in an increased uptake of macro and micronutrients compared to mineral fertilized trees. Moreover, organic fertilization positively affected the carbohydrate content (fructose, glucose and sucrose) mainly in summer flush leaves. Liquid organic fertilization also resulted in an increase of soil organic matter content. Animal-based fertilizer, due to intrinsic composition, increased total tree biomass and carbohydrate leaves content, and led to lower soil nitrate concentration and higher P and Mg exchangeable in soil extract compared to vegetal-based fertilizer. Therefore, liquid organic fertilizers could be used as an alternative to traditional mineral fertilization in drip irrigated citrus trees.

  5. Fertility preservation during cancer treatment: clinical guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg KA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenny A Rodriguez-Wallberg,1,2 Kutluk Oktay3,4 1Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Reproductive Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Innovation Institute for Fertility Preservation, Rye and New York, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA Abstract: The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer today will become long-term survivors. The threat to fertility that cancer treatments pose to young patients cannot be prevented in many cases, and thus research into methods for fertility preservation is developing, aiming at offering cancer patients the ability to have biologically related children in the future. This paper discusses the current status of fertility preservation methods when infertility risks are related to surgical oncologic treatments, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Several scientific groups and societies have developed consensus documents and guidelines for fertility preservation. Decisions about fertility and imminent potentially gonadotoxic therapies must be made rapidly. Timely and complete information on the impact of cancer treatment on fertility and fertility preservation options should be presented to all patients when a cancer treatment is planned. Keywords: fertility preservation, cancer, cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, fertility-sparing surgery, cancer survival, quality of life

  6. Fertility preservation for female cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Miyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2018-03-03

    An improvement in the survival rates of cancer patients and recent advancements in assisted reproductive technologies have led to remarkable progress in oncofertility and fertility preservation treatments. Currently, for adults and postpubertal girls, oocyte or embryo cryopreservation is an established method. If their cancer treatment cannot be postponed for 2 weeks, ovarian tissue cryopreservation is offered as an experimental technique. For prepubertal girls, ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only option. As for ovarian protection, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of GnRH agonist in fertility preservation. In the past decade, the concept of fertility preservation for cancer patients has been rapidly spreading, but at present only a small part of young cancer patients receive fertility preservation services. It is partly because of the lack of adequate provision of information on fertility preservation and the lack of referral from oncology to the fertility clinic. In Japan, the clinical practice guidelines for fertility preservation in childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer patients was issued last year by the Japan Society of Clinical Oncology (JSCO). It would help Japanese health care providers, including oncologists and reproductive specialists, to increase their knowledge on fertility preservation for cancer patients and move forward the fertility preservation services. For further progress, it is also needed to establish a national registration system of fertility preservation for cancer patients to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the current management.

  7. Are Nitrogen Fertilizers Deleterious to Soil Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay- Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil is one of the most important natural resources and medium for plant growth. Anthropogenic interventions such as tillage, irrigation, and fertilizer application can affect the health of the soil. Use of fertilizer nitrogen (N for crop production influences soil health primarily through changes in organic matter content, microbial life, and acidity in the soil. Soil organic matter (SOM constitutes the storehouse of soil N. Studies with 15N-labelled fertilizers show that in a cropping season, plants take more N from the soil than from the fertilizer. A large number of long-term field experiments prove that optimum fertilizer N application to crops neither resulted in loss of organic matter nor adversely affected microbial activity in the soil. Fertilizer N, when applied at or below the level at which maximum yields are achieved, resulted in the build-up of SOM and microbial biomass by promoting plant growth and increasing the amount of litter and root biomass added to soil. Only when fertilizer N was applied at rates more than the optimum, increased residual inorganic N accelerated the loss of SOM through its mineralization. Soil microbial life was also adversely affected at very high fertilizers rates. Optimum fertilizer use on agricultural crops reduces soil erosion but repeated application of high fertilizer N doses may lead to soil acidity, a negative soil health trait. Site-specific management strategies based on principles of synchronization of N demand by crops with N supply from all sources including soil and fertilizer could ensure high yields, along with maintenance of soil health. Balanced application of different nutrients and integrated nutrient management based on organic manures and mineral fertilizers also contributed to soil health maintenance and improvement. Thus, fertilizer N, when applied as per the need of the field crops in a balanced proportion with other nutrients and along with organic manures, if available with the

  8. Fertility assurance through extrapair fertilization, and male parental effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Stone, Lewi

    2002-07-01

    Extrapair paternity (EPP) has been observed in many formally monogamous species. Male pursuit of extrapair fertilizations (EPF) is explained by the advantages of having offspring that receive essential paternal care from other males. Because females are capable of exercising a degree of control over the post-copulatory sperm competition, EPP's persistence indicates that females benefit from EPF. Thus, EPP involves cooperation between mated females and extrapair males. On the other hand, mated males exhibit a spectrum of anti-cuckolding strategies. Hence, extrapair attributes of diverse species and populations reported in the literature are particular solutions of evolutionary games involving gender-specific cuckolding/anti-cuckolding strategies. Here we use game theoretical methods to study the effect of male paternal effort conserving strategies in situations where females seek EPF for reasons of genetic compatibility and/or in pursuit of genetic diversity for their offspring. Our results indicate that in these circumstances pursuit of EPF is the only evolutionary stable female strategy. Males, on the other hand, have two, mutually exclusive, evolutionary stable strategies: males that restrict parental care regardless of their mate's fidelity, and males that never restrict parental care. That is, when females seek EPF for reasons of fertility assurance and/or genetic diversity, the conditional male strategy--therein the male's parental efforts are based on his certainty of paternity--loses in competition with the unconditional strategies.

  9. Couples' fertility decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The decision about whether to start a family within a partnership can be viewed as a result of an interaction process. The influence of each of the partners in a couple differs depending on their individual preferences and intentions towards having children. Both of the partners additionally influence each other's fertility intentions and preferences. Objective: We specify, estimate, and test a model that examines the decision about whether to have a child as a choice that is made jointly by the two partners. The transition to the birth of a (further child is investigated with the explicit consideration of both the female partner and the male partner in the partnership context. Methods: An approach for modelling the interactive influences of the two actors in the decision-making process was proposed. A trivariate distribution consisting of both the female and the male partners' fertility intentions, as well as the joint generative decision, was modelled. A multivariate non-linear probit model was chosen and the problem of identification in estimating the relative effects of the actors was resolved. These parameters were used to assess the relative importance of each of the partners' intentions in the decision. We carried out the analysis with MPLUS. Data from the panel of intimate relationships and family dynamics (pairfam was used to estimate the model. Results: The biographical context of each of the partners in relation to their own as well as to their partner's fertility intentions was found to be of considerable importance. Of the significant individual and partner effects, the male partner was shown to have the greater influence. But the female partner was found to have stronger parameters overall and she ultimately has a veto power in the couple's final decision.

  10. Teenage fertility and life chances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellings, K; Wadsworth, J; Johnson, A; Field, J; Macdowall, W

    1999-09-01

    Teenage mothers and their children face poorer prospects in life than do women who delay motherhood until later in life. Moreover, patterns of early childbearing tend to be repeated in subsequent generations. Therefore, an understanding of the factors associated with early fertility is important for the prevention of adverse consequences. This paper uses data from the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles to explore these associations. Early sexual intercourse is an important predictor of early fertility, as is poor educational attainment, although it is not clear to what extent pregnancy acts to thwart academic ambitions, or to what extent poor educational performance leads to a need to seek personal fulfilment in other than academic goals. Thus, interventions designed to influence age at first intercourse and to improve educational performance both have potential in terms of impacting on teenage pregnancy rates. Family background also exerts a powerful influence on teenage fertility. Young people for whom one or both parents are absent are more likely to become parents early in life. However, the most important factor of family life determining the chances of teenage motherhood appear to be the quality of communication about sexual matters with the home. In terms of outcomes, teenage mothers are more likely to live in social housing, are less likely to be in paid employment and have larger than average sized families. Certain areas of the country, notably the older, run-down industrial areas, have higher rates of teenage motherhood than the newer, more prosperous areas. Because most of these effects are independent of one another, there is potential merit in intervening to prevent unintended conception at several points in a young woman's life. Primary preventive efforts are needed to reduce the rates at which teenage pregnancy occurs in this country. Yet, if the cycle of deprivation that means the children of young mothers themselves enter

  11. Nanocomposites for controlled release of nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Viviane J.M. da; Visconte, Leila L.Y.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V.

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at the development of nano structured materials capable of reducing the rate of release of nitrogen in the soil from an agricultural nitrogen fertilizer. Four different systems of polymer composites were prepared: (1) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, (2) montmorillonite clay/thermoplastic starch and fertilizer, (3) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and also (4) montmorillonite clay/fertilizer, thermoplastic starch and polycaprolactone. It was confirmed the formation of nano structured materials by elemental analysis (CHN) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The kinetics of nitrogen release was detected by enzymatic colorimetric analysis and spectroscopy in the ultraviolet/visible. The results showed that all materials evaluated were able to reduce the rate of release of nitrogen in the fertilizers. (author)

  12. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  13. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Transaksi Elektronik Ritel Pupuk Dengan Metode Electronic Data Interchange (EDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Oktavia Adiwijaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer distribution from distributor to agents, are required to be responsive in addressing the demand for fertilizers. Distributors are also required to be able to manage inventory in the warehouse, to avoid overstocking of fertilizer. Design and implementation of a fertilizer retail electronic commerce applications using electronic data interchange (EDI method is applied in this study. The system is built to help distributors to control the existence of the stock of fertilizer so no excess stock. In addition, the use of EDI can provide information quickly (real-time without having to go directly to the warehouse locations.

  14. Pollen fertility studies in Jatropha L.

    OpenAIRE

    Sasikala. R; M.Paramathma; R. Kalaiyarasi

    2009-01-01

    Pollen fertility percentage is conducted for 10 Jatropha species and an interspecific backcrossing hybrid between Jatrophacurcas x Jatropha integerrima (BC3F1). Totally nine species namely Jatropha villosa var. villosa , Jatropha villosa var.villosa , Jatropha multifida, Jatropha podagrica, Jatropha maheswarii, Jatropha glandulifera, Jatropha gossypifolia,Jatropha integerrima and Jatropha curcas had more than 84 per cent of pollen fertility. BC3F1 hybrid recorded the highestpollen fertility p...

  15. The intimate genetics of Drosophila fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppin, Benjamin; Dubruille, Raphaëlle; Horard, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    The union of haploid gametes at fertilization initiates the formation of the diploid zygote in sexually reproducing animals. This founding event of embryogenesis includes several fascinating cellular and nuclear processes, such as sperm–egg cellular interactions, sperm chromatin remodelling, centrosome formation or pronuclear migration. In comparison with other aspects of development, the exploration of animal fertilization at the functional level has remained so far relatively limited, even in classical model organisms. Here, we have reviewed our current knowledge of fertilization in Drosophila melanogaster, with a special emphasis on the genes involved in the complex transformation of the fertilizing sperm nucleus into a replicated set of paternal chromosomes. PMID:26246493

  16. Regulation of fertilization and early seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doughty, James

    2014-04-01

    Plant reproduction meetings often deal either with pre-fertilization processes such as flowering and pollen biology or post-fertilization processes such as embryogenesis and seed development. The Biochemical Society Focused Meeting entitled 'Regulation of Fertilization and Early Seed Development' was organized to close this gap and to discuss mechanistic similarities and future research directions in the reproductive processes shortly before, during and after fertilization. As an outcome of the workshop, invited speakers and a few selected oral communication presenters contributed focused reviews and technical articles for this issue of Biochemical Society Transactions. We provide here a short overview of the contents and highlights of the various articles.

  17. The need to improve fertility awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Harper

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Women and men globally are delaying the birth of their first child. In the UK, the average age of first conception in women is 29 years. Women experience age-related fertility decline so it is important that men and women are well-informed about this, and other aspects of fertility. A group of UK stakeholders have established the Fertility Education Initiative to develop tools and information for children, adults, teachers, parents and healthcare professionals dedicated to improving knowledge of fertility and reproductive health.

  18. [The impact of obesity on fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesant, M-H; Wunder, D; Pralong, F; Giusti, V

    2010-03-31

    There are many negative impacts of obesity on fertility. Obese couples present decreased sperm count, decreased ovulation and conception rates, increased erectile dysfunction and spontaneous abortion rate as well as increased maternal and foetal complications of pregnancy. Moreover, obesity tends to decrease response to fertility treatments. Fortunately, intensive lifestyle modifications can restore fertility while decreasing pregnancy complications risk. With the increasing trend of obesity to affect young populations, taking care of these infertile couples rapidly is capital to restore fertility and decrease its related pregnancy complications.

  19. Tunisia: high fertility stalls development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, M

    1985-01-01

    Despite government policy enacted in 1964 to reduce fertility in order to hasten socioeconomic progress, population pressures continue to impair development in Tunisia. The birth rate fell 20% over the last 2 decades, but this accomplishment has been outweighed by a 50% decline in mortality rates. As a result, the rate of natural population increase has remained relatively constant at 2.5%/year. The initial decline in fertility that followed introduction of the national family planning program appears to have reached a plateau, explained in part by the resurgence of conservatism and religious fundamentalism and the consequent emphasis on women's childbearing roles. Unemployment in rural areas has led to widespread migration and unemployment is as high as 20% in the nonagricultural sector. Many young Tunisians lack adequate educational preparation to enter the labor force; in 1982, 27% of new job entrants could not read or write. The government's plan to decentralize development to stabilize population and achieve equilibrium between regions has been thwarted by the pace of population growth and limited resources. The rural regions where population is increasing the fastest are also the most difficult to reach with family planning programs. On the other hand, there have been some successes in this area when services have been adapted to the lifestyle and traditions of those in these isolated rural villages.

  20. Immunological approaches to fertility regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, V C

    1978-01-01

    Strong evidence that specific immunogenic components of the reproductive system exist that are not represented in other body systems has led to efforts to develop an acceptable vaccine for fertility regulation. The aim is to create a vaccine administered infrequently by trained technicians outside the clinical environment. For safety and practical reasons, an approach using active immunization with a vaccine is preferred to passive immunization with antibodies. In current research with sperm antigens, a lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme (LDH-X), an enzyme normally present on the sperm surface, reduced fertility in mice and rabbits. However, significant embryo mortality occurred. Other sperm antigens have been tested and rejected. Most of the research on ovum antigens is directed toward the zona pellucida, and work is in progress to isolate experimental quantities of specific zona pellucida antigens. Antibodies to human zona are reported to react with pig zona and vice versa, providing a model system. Antibodies to whole-placenta homogenates reportedly disrupt pregnancy in several laboratory animal species, and 2 placenta-specific proteins are potential antigens since antibodies to them do not react with any other tissue so far tested. Of 3 protein hormones isolated from placental tissue, 2 are potential antigens. The possible hazards of antifertility vaccines can be divided into 2 categories: problems related to immunization and problems caused by antibodies produced.

  1. Impact of obesity on female fertility and fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Murizah M; Norman, Robert J

    2008-03-01

    Obesity and overweight are common conditions that have consequences not only on general health but also to a great extent on reproductive health. There is a high prevalence of obese women in the infertile population and numerous studies have highlighted the link between obesity and infertility. Obesity contributes to anovulation and menstrual irregularities, reduced conception rate and a reduced response to fertility treatment. It also increases miscarriage and contributes to maternal and perinatal complication. Reduction of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is associated with improvements in reproductive functions; hence, treatment of obesity itself should be the initial aim in obese infertile women before embarking on ovulation-induction drugs or assisted reproductive techniques. While various strategies for weight reduction, including diet, exercise, pharmacological and surgical intervention exist, lifestyle modification continues to be of paramount importance.

  2. Study on the placement of phosphorus fertilizer to improve fertilizer utilization by lowland rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, W.H.; Riswantoro; Mardjo, M.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment for studying the placement of phosphorus fertilizer was carried out in the glass house by using 32 P-labelled superphosphate. The specific activity of the labelled fertilizer used was 0,25 mCi/g P 2 O 5 . Three placement methods were studied: (1) Hill placement: Fertilizer was burried at a distance of 5cm from the plants at the depth of 5 cm, (2) Surface placement: Fertilizer was spread on the surface, and (3) Soil mixed application: Fertilizer was mixed with the soil at the depth of 5 cm. Superphosphate was applied at the rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 kg P 25 /ha. Results obtained from the experiment showed that the dry matter production was significantly affected by the methods of placement of phosphorus fertilizer. Soil mixed placement gave the lowest yield of dry plant material. It differed significantly from the two other methods of placement. However, there was no significant difference between hill and surface placement. The placement of phosphorus fertilizer significantly affected the total uptake of phosphorus nutrient, uptake fertilizer phosphorus, and the percentage of fertilizer utilization. Surface placement gave the highest utilization of fertilizer when supplied at rates higher than 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha. At low rate applications, hill placement was the best, but, at rates higher than 60 kg P 2 O 5 /ha the percentage of fertilizer utilization decreased. Soil mixed application was the least efficient fertilizer utilization. (author)

  3. Genetic analysis of fertility restoration genes for WAtype cytoplasmic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen staining test with 1% I2KI solution showed segregation ratio of 15:1 (fertile: sterile), representing two nuclear independent dominant genes controlling the trait carried by fertile parent DN-33-18. Segregation for spikelet fertility in F2 confirmed the results of pollen fertility test. Molecular tagging of fertility restorer genes ...

  4. 5 Assessment of fertility status.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    status of the soils on which coconuts are grown and possible fertilizer recommendation is not common. Since coconut yield is generally ... and some basic cations. Amendments and fertilizers with high K content must also be considered. +. +. +. + ..... Dolimitic lime contains both calcium and magnesium. These elements will ...

  5. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women's educational attainment. The results show remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries and very small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64 cohort than in the 1950-54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education. An interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Country differences in fertility outcome are generally rather low. Childlessness is highest in Finland and lowest in Norway, and the educational differentials are largest in Norway. Despite such differences, the cohort analyses in many ways support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER USAGE BY VEGETABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    of organic fertilizers. Therefore, there is a need to assess the use of organic fertilizer among vegetable growers as it directly affects yield of vegetables. This study was ... select 120 respondents who were interviewed. Results from the ... to solve the problem of inadequate nutritional benefits to meet the populace‟s nutritional ...

  7. interaction between phosphorus fertilizer and arbuscular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Field experiment was carried out in the Northern Guinea Savanna agro-ecology of Nigeria to examine the interaction between Phosphorus (P) fertilizer and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal. (AMF) inoculants on cassava yield components. The experiment was laid in a split plot design with P fertilizers as main plot ...

  8. Soil fertility decline: definitions and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    In permanent agricultural systems, soil fertility is maintained through applications of manure, other organic materials, inorganic fertilizers, lime, the inclusion of legumes in the cropping systems, or a combination of these. In many parts of the world the availability, use, and profitability of

  9. Response of Penstemon Fruticosus to fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. O. Klock

    1976-01-01

    Bush penstemon (Penstemon fruticosus (Pursh) Greene), an attractive ground cover on east Cascade slopes, appears to survive under low fertility, xeric conditions. These plant characteristics are desirable for revegetating severely disturbed areas. Seedling response to fertilization was tested to find if growth rates could be increased to provide...

  10. Education Differences in Intended and Unintended Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; England, Paula; Edgington, Sarah; Kangas, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Using a hazards framework and panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2004), we analyze the fertility patterns of a recent cohort of white and black women in the United States. We examine how completed fertility varies by women's education, differentiating between intended and unintended births. We find that the education…

  11. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Suhag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.

  12. Concise Review: Fertility Preservation: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    González, Clara; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta; Veiga, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Fertility preservation is an emerging field in medicine that enables men, women, and children to maintain reproductive health when it is threatened by gonadotoxic treatment or nononcologic malignancies that can impair spermatogenesis and ovogenesis. Established methods include sperm cryopreservation or experimental testicular tissue cryopreservation for males, and oocyte cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation for females. Fertility preservation treatments must be addressed throug...

  13. Characterization of the fertilization independent endosperm ( FIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproduction of angiosperm plants initiates from two fertilization events: an egg fusing with a sperm to form an embryo and a second sperm fusing with the central cell to generate an endosperm. The tryptophan-aspartate (WD) domain polycomb protein encoded by fertilization independent endosperm (FIE) gene, has been ...

  14. Fertility and money in an OLG model

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    We extend the two-period-lived-agent overlapping generations model with endogenous fertility and demand for money to understand whether and how the introduction of a money sector modifies what we have so far learned about fertility behaviours. It is shown that the existence of money may tend to exacerbate existing problems of either under-population or over-population.

  15. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of fertility wanted...

  16. Differentials of fertility in rural Butajira.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    married women are using contraception, which is low to affect the fertility level significantly. Objectives: To ... The first consists of socio- economic variables ... age at marriage). Studies in a number of countries indicate that wherever fertility is high, maternal, infant and child mortality rates are high. On average, in developing ...

  17. Sperm Quality and Fertility Following Prolonged Immobilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sperm Quality and Fertility Following Prolonged Immobilization Stress in Wistar Rats. ... All the females that were mated with the control males became pregnant and produced litters. On the ... These results therefore, confirm and expand existing literatures reporting impaired fertility following long-term exposure to stress.

  18. Menstrual cycle pattern and fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize how the menstrual cycle pattern relates to fertility regardless of potential biases caused by inappropriate coital timing during the menstrual cycle or early embryonal loss. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Healthy couples recruited throughout Denmark....... PATIENT(S): Two hundred ninety-five couples who were planning their first pregnancy were followed up from the discontinuation of birth control until a pregnancy was recognized within six menstrual cycles. Early embryonal losses were detected by changes in urinary hCG levels. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The probability of pregnancy occurring within one menstrual cycle (fecundity). RESULT(S): In women who had a cycle length that differed by >10 days from the usual cycle length, fecundity was approximately 25% that of women who had no variation (odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval...

  19. Fertility drugs and cancer: a guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Methodological limitations in studying the association between the use of fertility drugs and cancer include the inherent increased risk of cancer in women who never conceive, the low incidence of most of these cancers, and that the age of diagnosis of cancer typically is many years after fertility drug use. Based on available data, there does not appear to be a meaningful increased risk of invasive ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or endometrial cancer following the use of fertility drugs. Several studies have shown a small increased risk of borderline ovarian tumors; however, there is insufficient consistent evidence that a particular fertility drug increases the risk of borderline ovarian tumors, and any absolute risk is small. Given the available literature, patients should be counseled that infertile women may be at an increased risk of invasive ovarian, endometrial, and breast cancer; however, use of fertility drugs does not appear to increase this risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  1. On the fertility transition in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis

    A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent with the predicti......A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent...... with the predictions of the unified growth theory and sheds important insights in explaining the sustained income growth Africa has experienced since 1995. The paper also shows that the effects of income per capita and child mortality on fertility rates are non-robust and inconsistent with the predictions...

  2. Erratum to: Fertilization of SRC Willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is an emerging cropping system in focus for production of biomass for energy. To increase production, the willow is commonly fertilized, but studies have shown differing effects of fertilization on biomass production, ranging from almost no response...... to considerable positive effects. Focus has also been on replacing mineral fertilizer with organic waste products, such as manure and sludge. However, the effect on biomass production and environmental impact of various dosage and types of fertilizer is not well described. Therefore we studied the environmental...... impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  3. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H

    2009-01-01

    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both...... chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  4. Effect of biochar compound fertilizers on crop yield and fertilizer N use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianqing; Fu, Xiangfeng; Xie, Qiu; Qiu, Liangzhu; Lu, Zexian; Pan, Genxing

    2017-04-01

    In order to meet the increasing demand for food in China, chemical fertilizers (NPK fertilizers) application continue to rise in agricultural production. Overuse of nitrogen fertilizer has occurred widely, and causes great challenges in environmental sustainability. To meet the need for reducing chemical fertilizer use and enhancing fertilizer N use efficiency, biochar compound fertilizers (BCF) are currently produced. Biochar are produced from crop straw with a maximum temperature of 500-600oC. Biochar compound fertilizer produced by rotary granulator. The nutrients proportion are 15:15:10 ( N:P2O5:K2O). Field experiments were conducted in 8 sites across the major crop production areas from Heilongjiang in north east to Hubei in central China, from Yili, Xinjiang in the west to Suqian, Jiangsu in the east. The results showed that rice and maize yield increased by 6-10% and 5-12%, respectively, compared with chemical fertilizer. N use efficiency increased by 9.4-45.46% for rice, and 12.39-52.93% for maize. The rate of fertilizer application decreased by 8-12%, and a cost saving by 8-10% compared with chemical fertilizer. Protein content of grain increased by 3-10%. It indicates that biochar had the potential to form a more effective fertilizer that improved crop yield and the quality.

  5. Young female cancer patients' experiences with fertility counselling and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeg, Didde; Schmidt, Lone; Tryde Macklon, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fertility counselling for young women newly diagnosed with cancer is an important field of preconceptional counselling. This qualitative, small-scale study explored how young women newly diagnosed with cancer experienced specialized fertility preservation counselling and treatment...... in the public Danish health care system. Methods: Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with five women below 40 years recently diagnosed with cancer. All women received fertility counselling by a fertility specialist at the Fertility Clinic, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark before...... were aware that chemotherapy could destroy their eggs. The participants described how specialized fertility counselling and fertility preservation contributed to a belief in life after cancer, which gave them hope that they would survive their cancer disease. Further, the women described how...

  6. Estimation of natural radioactivity in different fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.; Sonkawade, R.G.; Kant, K.

    2011-01-01

    Fertilizers have become essential to the agricultural field all over the world. The natural radionuclides of fertilizers consist mainly of 226 Ra, 232 Th, isotopes with their decay products. The level of activity concentration of radionuclides in phosphate fertilizers provides useful information in the monitoring of environmental contamination. The concepts of natural radiation are essential for radiation protection purpose. Radionuclides present in fertilizers affect the common people and farmers immensely. They are produced and used worldwide in increasing quantities to replenish natural nutrients depleted from soils because of forming and erosion. However, the mining, processing and use of fertilizer materials in massive quantities redistribute radioactive trace elements throughout the environment, principally uranium, radium, radium decay products. The agricultural phosphate fertilizer industries use raw materials that consist of phosphate rocks, phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphate. The level of activity concentration of radionuclides in different fertilizers provides useful information in the monitoring of environmental contamination. Radiological impacts of phosphate rocks mining and manufacture could be significant due to the elevated radioactivity contents of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K, in some phosphate deposits. The concepts of natural radiation are essential for radiation protection purpose. This paper emphasis on the public risk assessment in an integrated manner assessing doses to members of the public via the atmospheric aquatic and secondary pathways. In the present study radioactivity in different fertilizer samples, which are widely used in Indian fields, was determined. The experimental work includes the measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using gamma spectrometry and radon concentration and exhalation rates measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors to asses a

  7. Pregnancy and fertility following bariatric surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Melinda A; Yermilov, Irina; Li, Zhaoping; Maglione, Margaret; Newberry, Sydne; Suttorp, Marika; Hilton, Lara; Santry, Heena P; Morton, John M; Livingston, Edward H; Shekelle, Paul G

    2008-11-19

    Use of bariatric surgery has increased dramatically during the past 10 years, particularly among women of reproductive age. To estimate bariatric surgery rates among women aged 18 to 45 years and to assess the published literature on pregnancy outcomes and fertility after surgery. Search of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1998-2005) and multiple electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, Controlled Clinical Trials Register Database, and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effectiveness) to identify articles published between 1985 and February 2008 on bariatric surgery among women of reproductive age. Search terms included bariatric procedures, fertility, contraception, pregnancy, and nutritional deficiencies. Information was abstracted about study design, fertility, and nutritional, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes after surgery. Of 260 screened articles, 75 were included. Women aged 18 to 45 years accounted for 49% of all patients undergoing bariatric surgery (>50,000 cases annually for the 3 most recent years). Three matched cohort studies showed lower maternal complication rates after bariatric surgery than in obese women without bariatric surgery, or rates approaching those of nonobese controls. In 1 matched cohort study that compared maternal complication rates in women after laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery with obese women without surgery, rates of gestational diabetes (0% vs 22.1%, P bariatric surgery group. Findings were supported by 13 other bariatric cohort studies. Neonatal outcomes were similar or better after surgery compared with obese women without laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery (7.7% vs 7.1% for premature delivery; 7.7% vs 10.6% for low birth weight, P nutrition, fertility, cesarean delivery, and contraception were limited. Rates of many adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes may be lower in women who become pregnant after having had bariatric surgery compared with rates in pregnant women who are obese; however, further data

  8. The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyborova, Oxana

    2010-05-01

    The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves

  9. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J.C.; Koert, E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? SUMMARY ANSWER Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these

  10. Fertility awareness online: the efficacy of a fertility education website in increasing knowledge and changing fertility beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, J C; Koert, E

    2015-02-01

    How effective is online education in increasing knowledge of fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and changing beliefs about the timing of parenthood? Exposure to an online educational intervention resulted in immediate changes in participants' beliefs about the ideal timing of parenthood, and a significant increase in their knowledge of fertility and ART treatments and options; most of these changes were not sustained over time, particularly for men. Research has identified significant gaps in men's and women's knowledge of fertility and ART, contributing to the trend to delay childbearing. Effective educational programs need to be developed, to support informed fertility and child-timing decisions. Pre-post intervention study of 199 currently childless men and women, and a 6-month follow-up of 110 of these participants. One hundred and ninety-nine childless participants between the ages of 18 and 35 were asked to complete 4 beliefs and 22 knowledge questions prior to, and immediately after, reading 10 online posts related to: fertility testing and preservation, fertility history and lifespan, the effects of health and fitness on fertility, and assisted reproduction. Six months later, 110 of the original sample repeated the 26-item survey. Participants' fertility and ART knowledge scores increased significantly immediately after the intervention, as did their confidence in their fertility and ART knowledge. Participants' beliefs about the ideal and latest age a woman or man should consider producing a child decreased. However, 6 months later, participants' beliefs and knowledge levels largely returned to their pre-intervention levels, particularly for the men in the study. The sample size and the recruitment methods may limit the generalizability of these findings. Previous studies have demonstrated the short-term efficacy of online educational approaches to increase fertility knowledge and support informed family planning decisions. Web

  11. Cat fertilization by mouse sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yong-Xun; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Yu, Xian-Feng; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Wang, Qing-Ling; Gao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Yong-Nan; Sun, Shao-Chen; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2012-11-01

    Interspecies intracytoplasmic sperm injection has been carried out to understand species-specific differences in oocyte environments and sperm components during fertilization. While sperm aster organization during cat fertilization requires a paternally derived centriole, mouse and hamster fertilization occur within the maternal centrosomal components. To address the questions of where sperm aster assembly occurs and whether complete fertilization is achieved in cat oocytes by interspecies sperm, we studied the fertilization processes of cat oocytes following the injection of cat, mouse, or hamster sperm. Male and female pronuclear formations were not different in the cat oocytes at 6 h following cat, mouse or hamster sperm injection. Microtubule asters were seen in all oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of cat, mouse or hamster sperm. Immunocytochemical staining with a histone H3-m2K9 antibody revealed that mouse sperm chromatin is incorporated normally with cat egg chromatin, and that the cat eggs fertilized with mouse sperm enter metaphase and become normal 2-cell stage embryos. These results suggest that sperm aster formation is maternally dependent, and that fertilization processes and cleavage occur in a non-species specific manner in cat oocytes.

  12. [Recent world fertility trends and their implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, H

    1976-10-01

    High fertility levels of 40-50% have continued in major parts of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. During the 1970's the upward fertility trend was seen in the socialistic countries. A downward trend in European countries began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's. Declining tendencies of fertility were still slow in the 1970's in some Western countries. Fertility trends reflect government policies which are divided into 7 categories: 1) family planning has been disseminated freely in Western countries; 2) birth control was realized with legalized abortion influenced by the difficulties of the postwar period (Japan); family planning is promoted by the government to restrain the rapid population increase (most Asian countries); 4) some Asian countries have adopted policies of social welfare giving privilege to lower parity children and compulsive adaptation to birth control (Singapore, India, and South Korea); 5) a high level of fertility is recognized in relation to a new economic order and shortage of labor (Latin America); 6) recovery of fertility is desireable because socialistic welfare policies have resulted in low fertility (Eastern European countries); and, 7) social reform and birth control are promoted though "overpopulation" theory is rejected (China). Categories 1 and 4 recognize birth control and 5 and 7 deny it. Political organizations of 1 to 5 differ from those of 6 and 7. (Author's Modified)

  13. Intergenerational fertility correlations in contemporary developing counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the magnitude of intergenerational continuities in total and effective fertility among women in a group of 46 contemporary developing countries. Information collected from 93,000 women aged 45-49 for estimation of maternal mortality in the demographic and health surveys (DHS) program is analyzed using Pearson product moment intergenerational fertility correlations. A positive but usually small intergenerational correlation is found for both completed fertility (CFS, total number of children born) and effective fertility (EFS, number of children surviving to age of reproduction). Although the developing countries are mainly located in sub-Saharan Africa, a similar pattern appears to hold for the Asian and Latin American countries included. Women in the second generation with no education have a stronger relationship with their parents' fertility than women with some education. The relationship is also stronger in rural than in urban areas and in countries with lower levels of development. Intergenerational correlations of completed fertility in both generations are marginally stronger than for effective fertility largely because the number of a woman's total sibs is more strongly related to her subsequent childbearing than her number of adult sibs. Values of intergenerational correlations for these countries are similar to published values for a number of Western pretransitional populations, but well below values in contemporary developed societies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Diverging patterns of fertility decline in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathías Nathan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The total fertility rate (TFR in Uruguay fell from 2.5 to 1.9 children per woman between 1996 and 2011. However, no study to date has examined the decline of the TFR by observing changes in fertility patterns by birth order. Objective: The main aim of this study is to analyze recent changes in fertility level and timing of childbearing by birth order in Uruguay. Methods: We estimate unconditional and conditional age- and birth-order-specific fertility rates for 1996-2011 using data from vital statistics, population census, and national population estimates. Additionally, three period summary measures of birth-order-specific fertility quantum are calculated: TFR, PATFR and TFRp*. Timing changes by birth order are examined with MAB and TMAB, focusing on MAB1 and its standard deviation and comparing their evolutions in Uruguay with those of selected countries. Results: Fertility decline fits a parity-specific stopping model with a moderate increase in the mean ages of first, second, and third births. The distribution of conditional fertility rates for first and second births depicts an asymmetric bimodal shape linked to the increasing heterogeneity of the timing of childbearing. Compared to countries with similar fertility trends, heterogeneity in the age at first birth in Uruguay is remarkably high. Conclusions: Previous studies suggest that heterogeneity in first and second birth timing is related to structural social inequalities, as women from lower social strata have not significantly changed the age at which they bear a first child, whereas women of middle to high social strata have started to postpone it. The new evidence reinforces the idea that postponement transition in Uruguay cannot be studied without considering this consolidation of social status polarization in fertility timing.

  15. Exploring the fertility trend in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakarya Al Zalak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The unusual fertility increase experienced by several Arab countries in the recent years is particularly visible in Egypt, where fertility declined very slowly after 2000 and started to increase again between 2008 and 2014. Objective: We first check the quality and measurement accuracy of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS. The analysis confirms the trend since 2000. We descriptively look for possible underlying causes. Methods: We use quality criteria to check DHS data and control for tempo effect. We also perform a proximate determinants analysis to study the mechanisms affecting fertility, particularly marriage and contraceptive use patterns. Results: The trend in fertility, which has been at a level slightly below 3.5 children per woman since 2000, is due to an increase in parity one-to-three children and a steady decline in parity four-and-more children. While changes in contraception use had the largest and a growing suppressing effect before 2000, after the turn of the century there was no change in the impact of either marriage or contraception on fertility. Conclusions: We find that well-educated women between 20 and 29 years lack labour market opportunities. They may have preponed their fertility. Fertility could start declining again once the labour market situation for women has improved. On the other hand, the family model of three children is still widespread in the country. Contribution: The article studies the fertility increase in Egypt. It contributes to the literature on exceptions to the demographic transition, such as stalls in fertility decline, particularly in the context of Arab countries.

  16. Blended fertilizers as draw solutions for fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuntsho, Sherub; Shon, Ho Kyong; Majeed, Tahir; El Saliby, Ibrahim; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Sangyoup

    2012-04-17

    In fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination, the final nutrient concentration (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK)) in the product water is essential for direct fertigation and to avoid over fertilization. Our study with 11 selected fertilizers indicate that blending of two or more single fertilizers as draw solution (DS) can achieve significantly lower nutrient concentration in the FDFO product water rather than using single fertilizer alone. For example, blending KCl and NH(4)H(2)PO(4) as DS can result in 0.61/1.35/1.70 g/L of N/P/K, which is comparatively lower than using them individually as DS. The nutrient composition and concentration in the final FDFO product water can also be adjusted by selecting low nutrient fertilizers containing complementary nutrients and in different ratios to produce prescription mixtures. However, blending fertilizers generally resulted in slightly reduced bulk osmotic pressure and water flux in comparison to the sum of the osmotic pressures and water fluxes of the two individual DSs as used alone. The performance ratio or PR (ratio of actual water flux to theoretical water flux) of blended fertilizer DS was observed to be between the PR of the two fertilizer solutions tested individually. In some cases, such as urea, blending also resulted in significant reduction in N nutrient loss by reverse diffusion in presence of other fertilizer species.

  17. Fertility (male and female) and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Kathryn J; Partridge, Ann H

    2012-10-20

    The impact of oncologic treatments on fertility and menopausal symptoms is often significant for patients with cancer. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy can all damage the reproductive organs or the hypothalamic pituitary axis that controls them, impairing fertility and causing hormonally mediated symptoms such as hot flashes. Understanding these risks and strategies to mitigate them may substantially improve cancer survivorship care. For both female and male patients who desire a future biologic child, there are a variety of fertility preservation techniques that should be considered. For cancer survivors who experience menopausal symptoms, lifestyle changes may be beneficial, and hormonal and nonhormonal pharmacologic agents are well proven to reduce symptom burden.

  18. Fertile blanket for an epithermal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millot, J.P.; Alibran, P.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a fertile blanket for the core of an epithermal nuclear reactor comprising fissile fuel assemblies emitting a neutron flux and fertile blankets absorbing the neutron flux to produce plutonium or reflecting it. The fertile blanket is made of a binary alloy of uranium with a weight ratio between 85 and 95 % and of one of the elements of the Vsub(a) and VIsub(a) column of the periodic classification of elements, in a weight proportion between 5 and 15 % [fr

  19. The nitrogen mineral fertilizer tax in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    Sweden’s tax on mineral fertilizers had been in place for 25 years when it was suddenly revoked in 2009 in response to the financial crisis. Initially it targeted both nitrogen and phosphorus, but cadmium present in phosphorus replaced the latter taxation base after the first ten years. The tax...... 6%, corresponding annually to about 10,000 tonnes of N. The cadmium tax component has previously been found to have been effective. The fertilizer tax was introduced initially to complement a price regulation charge on fertilizers that generated revenues for export subsidies to farmers. The latter...

  20. Fertility Preservation for Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Diane; Simons, Lisa; Johnson, Emilie K; Lockart, Barbara A; Finlayson, Courtney

    2017-07-01

    To describe fertility preservation (FP) utilization by transgender adolescents within a pediatric gender clinic between July 2013 and July 2016. A retrospective chart review was conducted to abstract demographic and clinical information among adolescents initiating gender-affirming hormones, including patient age at initial FP consultation, birth-assigned sex, race/ethnicity, and outcome of FP consultation. In our sample of 105 transgender adolescents, a total of 13 (seven transgender men and six transgender women) between the age of 14.2 and 20.6 years were seen in formal consultation for FP before initiating hormones. Of these adolescents, four completed sperm cryopreservation and one completed oocyte cryopreservation. Rates of FP utilization among transgender youth were low, which is consistent with a recently published report of FP utilization among transgender youth at another pediatric institution. Identified barriers to FP in our sample included cost, invasiveness of procedures, and desire not to delay medical transition. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Zinc fertilization in cowpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Brito Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants, due to its role as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor in a large number of enzymes. The element is necessary for the synthesis of tryptophan, which is a precursor of indoleacetic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two cowpea cultivars fertilized with four doses of Zn (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg of Zn ha-1 regarding dry grain yield (PGS, in addition to quantifying leaf and grain Zn content and grain crude protein. The experiment was conducted in the town of Brejo, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. A 4 x 2 factorial scheme was used with four replications. Response functions were adjusted by calculating the Zn doses which provided a maximum technical efficiency for each genotype. The tested cultivars of cowpea showed no great difference regarding Zn demand applied to the soil, ranging from 3.2 to 3.4 kg of Zn ha-1 for BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba, respectively. Concerning Zn use efficiency, BRS Guariba was more responsive than was BRS Tumucumaque, i.e. the same dose of Zn produced 70 kg grain and 2.1 kg crude protein per hectare.

  2. Men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Collins, Veronica; Holden, Carol; Young, Kate; McLachlan, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel. However, evidence suggests that the lack of a partner or a partner willing to commit to parenthood is the main reason for later childbearing. To better understand men's contributions to childbearing decisions and outcomes, the literature pertaining to men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was reviewed. The electronic databases of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to identify investigations of men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility, infertility, reproductive health or childbearing using relevant fertility keyword search terms. Studies were included if they had investigated factors associated with men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, had been conducted in a high-income country and were published in an English language peer-reviewed journal between January 2005 and August 2016. The search yielded 1349 citations. Of these, 47 papers representing 43 unique studies were included in the review. Where response rate was reported, it ranged between 13 and 94%. Studies varied in terms of research design; inclusion and exclusion criteria; recruitment strategies; adequacy of sample size; recruitment and retention rates and data collection tools. However, findings were consistent and indicate that men almost universally value parenthood, want and expect to become fathers, and aspire to have at least two children. Yet

  3. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  4. Adição de alanina, glicina e glutamina ao meio crioprotetor seminal de garanhões Mangalarga Marchador Addition of alanine, glycine and glutamine to frozen seminal extender from Mangalarga Marchador stallions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fagundes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho verificar o efeito da adição de alanina, glicina e glutamina ao meio crioprotetor seminal de garanhões Mangalarga Marchador. Foram utilizados cinco garanhões provenientes do haras Lugavi. Três ejaculados de cada garanhão, após coleta e avaliação, foram divididos em seis tratamentos: sem adição de aminoácidos, adição de 40 mM de alanina, adição de 40 mM de glicina, adição de 60 mM de glutamina, adição de 7 mM de alanina + 7 mM de glicina + 20 mM de glutamina e adição de 40 mM de alanina + 40 mM de glicina + 60 mM de glutamina ao diluente de congelamento convencional. Foram avaliados os parâmetros motilidade total, motilidade progressiva, retidão, linearidade, velocidade média do percurso, velocidade linear, velocidade curvilínea, amplitude lateral de cabeça e frequência de batimentos dos espermatozoides por meio de análise espermática assistida por computador (CASA, funcionalidade da membrana plasmática por choque hiposmótico e integridade de membrana acrossomal pelo teste FITC-PSA. Não houve melhora nos parâmetros de motilidade e cinética espermática nem na funcionalidade de membrana, entretanto, a adição de aminoácidos ao meio crioprotetor seminal aumentou o número de espermatozoides com membrana acrossomal íntegra. Os melhores resultados neste teste são obtidos com 40 mM de alanina (78,6 ± 13,6, 40 mM de glicina (74,7 ± 19,6 ou 7 mM de alanina + 7 mM de glicina + 20 mM de glutamina (76,8 ± 17,5, porém outros estudos devem ser realizados para determinação da concentração ideal desses componentes.The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of the addition of alanine, glycine and glutamine on frozen seminal extender of Mangalarga marchador breed stallions. Five stallions were used from the Lugavi stables. Three ejaculates from each stallion were divided into six treatments: without the addition of amino acids, addition of 40 mM alanine, addition of 40 m

  5. Human rights to in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Dickens, Bernard M; Dughman-Manzur, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    The Inter-American Court of Human Rights (the Court) has ruled that the Supreme Court of Costa Rica's judgment in 2000 prohibiting in vitro fertilization (IVF) violated the human right to private and family life, the human right to found and raise a family, and the human right to non-discrimination on grounds of disability, financial means, or gender. The Court's conclusions of violations contrary to the American Convention on Human Rights followed from its ruling that, under the Convention, in vitro embryos are not "persons" and do not possess a right to life. Accordingly, the prohibition of IVF to protect embryos constituted a disproportionate and unjustifiable denial of infertile individuals' human rights. The Court distinguished fertilization from conception, since conception-unlike fertilization-depends on an embryo's implantation in a woman's body. Under human rights law, legal protection of an embryo "from conception" is inapplicable between its creation by fertilization and completion of its implantation in utero. © 2013.

  6. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are important. Understanding there may be fertility preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be ...

  7. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update . J Clin Oncol. 2013; ... Incorporating fertility preservation into the care of young oncology patients. Cancer. 2010;117:4-10. Download Patient ...

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oncol. 2016;17(5):567-76. Ginsberg JP. New advances in fertility preservation for pediatric cancer patients. ... 121 Chicago, IL, 60611 (312) 503-2504 Social Media Parking Maps Shuttles Directory Bookstore Library

  9. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility preservation options available and ... 121 Chicago, IL, 60611 (312) 503-2504 Social Media Parking Maps Shuttles Directory Bookstore Library

  10. Fertilizer effects on attaining vegetation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This project was developed to evaluate the effects of varying the substrate and fertilization regimes on the success of complex warm-season grass and forb seedings on recent roadside construction sites. Re-vegetating construction projects is required...

  11. Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  12. Side Effects of Injectable Fertility Drugs (Gonadotropins)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's FAQs about In Vitro Fertilization REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH TOPICS Topics Index NEWS AND PUBLICATIONS Publications Overview News and Research Ethics Documents Practice Committee Documents Patient Fact Sheets and ...

  13. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their ... health. You may feel uncomfortable discussing issues of reproduction with your child. Ask Your Doctor Discussing fertility ...

  14. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Children Diagnosed with Cancer Ask Your Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer ... study approved by an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility preservation options for ...

  15. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... guideline update . J Clin Oncol. 2013; 31: 2500-10. Nieman CL, et al. Fertility preservation and adolescent ... of young oncology patients. Cancer. 2010;117:4-10. Download Patient Guide for Children Northwestern University © 2015 ...

  16. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... center closest to you Visit the Pediatric Oncofertility Research Foundation Visit the Patient Navigator Website References The Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in patients facing gonadotoxic ...

  17. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... feel fertility preservation and the ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be ... preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve ...

  18. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility preservation options available and having your ... improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be aware there are options for preserving ...

  19. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a clinical study approved by an IRB . Resources For more information about infertility risk and fertility ... Campus Emergency Information University Policies Oncofertility Consortium 303 E Superior Street, Suite 10-121 Chicago, IL, 60611 ( ...

  20. Plant nutrition and soil fertility manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, J. Benton

    2012-01-01

    .... With over 70 percent new material, the second edition of the Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Manual discusses the principles determining how plants grow and the elements essential for successful...

  1. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Information for Patients Many adult survivors of childhood cancer feel fertility preservation and the ability to ... after chemotherapy in male and female survivors of childhood cancer treated between 1970 and 1999: a report ...

  2. Ovulation monitoring and fertility knowledge: Their relationship to fertility experience in a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righarts, Antoinette; Dickson, Nigel P; Parkin, Lianne; Gillett, Wayne R

    2017-08-01

    Various aspects of fertility knowledge, including the timing of the fertile window, have consistently been found to be poor. Limited evidence also suggests ovulation monitoring to time intercourse could be common. However, there have been no studies that compare these two aspects of fertility and women's fertility/infertility experiences. To examine the frequency of ovulation monitoring and its relationship with fertility knowledge and experience. A cross-sectional study of women aged 25-50 years resident in southern New Zealand was undertaken in 2011. Randomly selected women were asked to complete a fertility questionnaire. Outcome prevalence measures were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and associations investigated using χ 2 tests and Poisson regression. Ovulation monitoring was common, having ever been undertaken by 31.4% (95% CI: 28.5-34.3%) of the 1034 participants. However, knowledge was poor, particularly regarding the fertile window. More women who had ever monitored ovulation correctly identified the fertile window, although the proportion was still very low (18.4 vs 13.1% in those who had not, P = 0.027). Regression modelling showed ovulation monitoring was independently associated with seeking medical help to conceive, education and fertility experience, but not with knowledge. This study confirms ovulation monitoring was commonly undertaken. However, many women, including those who had monitored their ovulation, had poor fertility knowledge and failed to identify the fertile window. Poor fertility knowledge needs to be addressed, especially among women intending to conceive. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Unrealized fertility: Fertility desires at the end of the reproductive career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Casterline

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: 'Unrealized fertility' is a failure to achieve desired fertility. Unrealized fertility has been examined in low-fertility societies but, with the exception of research on infertility, has been neglected in research on non-Western societies. Objective: We conduct a multicountry investigation of one form of unrealized fertility, namely a reproductive career which ends with the woman desiring further children. Methods: We analyze 295,854 women aged 44‒48 in 252 surveys (DHS, RHS, PAP conducted in the period 1986-2015 in 78 countries. Two indicators of unrealized fertility are constructed: (i a comparison of ideal versus actual number of children; (ii the desire for another child. We estimate multilevel regressions with covariates at individual and aggregate levels. Results: Unrealized fertility is far more prevalent according to the first indicator than the second. It is more common among women with fewer living children and women whose first birth occurs after age 20, and it is distinctly higher in sub-Saharan Africa and lower in South Asia. The evidence on trend over the course of fertility transition is mixed: for the second indicator but not the first, the net effect is a reduction in the prevalence of unrealized fertility as fertility declines. Conclusions: Unrealized fertility occurs frequently in most societies and therefore deserves more rigorous research, especially on its consequences for emotional, social, economic, and demographic outcomes. Contribution: We provide the first comprehensive documentation of the prevalence of unrealized fertility across a broad set of contemporary non-Western societies.

  4. "The Impact of Malaria Eradication on Fertility"

    OpenAIRE

    Adrienne M. Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The malaria eradication campaign that started in Sri Lanka in the late 1940s virtually eliminated malaria transmission on the island. I use the pre-eradication differences in malaria endemicity within Sri Lanka to identify the effect of malaria eradication on fertility and child survival. Malaria eradication increased the number of live births through increasing age specific fertility and causing an earlier first birth. The effect of malaria on the transition time to higher order births is in...

  5. Radiological impact of use of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, V.K.; Chinnaesakki, S.; Sartandel, S.J.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Puranik, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the results of gamma spectrometric measurements of 238 U, 233 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in rock phosphates and various types of phosphate fertilizers and by-products. The increase in soil natural radioactivity has been assessed for major Indian crops. No significant increase in soil natural radioactivity is expected due to the application of phosphate fertilizers for agricultural productions. (author)

  6. [On the recent fertility decline in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara Atoh, M

    1982-05-01

    After having been maintained at replacement level for about 15 years, Japanese fertility has been declining since 1973. The application of the decomposition technique to the decline in crude birthrate (CBR) between 1973-80 has clarified that 40% of the total change in the CBR is explained by changes in the age composition, 50% by the decline in proportions of couples married, and 10% by a short-term decline in marital fertility. The change in age composition in this period refers to the abrupt shrinkage of the younger cohort, which is most exposed to the prospect of marriage; those in their 20s. This is in turn an echo of the precipitous decline in birth just after the short-term baby boom during the postwar years. If we take into account the historical steadiness of marriage throughout Japan, the decline in the proportions of those married would seem to be the postponement of marriage without any rise in the celibacy rate. Several factors are presumably conducive to the recent marriage squeeze but the recent rise in high school and college enrollment rates for both men and women appears most responsible for the change. It remains to be studied whether the disequilibration of the sex ratio among marriageable cohorts due to the abrupt change in cohort size, the decline in substantive wage rates since the oil crisis in 1973, or changes in the social mechanism for selection of spouses (decrease in arranged marriages), is causally relevant to the marriage squeeze. The cause for the shortterm decline in marital fertility is difficult to discern. According to several recent fertility surveys of married women, there has been little change in completed fertility, fertility goals (by measuring the total intended number of children), and fertility control behavior which is measured by the proportion of contraceptive usage or induced abortion timing of initiation for contraceptive usage, and contraceptive methods used). Thus, the shortterm decline in marital fertility is

  7. Soil Fertility and Biodiversity in Organic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Mäder, Paul; Fliessbach, Andreas; Dubois, David; Gunst, Lucie; Fried, Padruot; Niggli, Urs

    2002-01-01

    An understanding of agroecosystems is a key to determining effective farming systems. Here we report results from a 21-year study of agronomic and ecological performance of biodynamic, bioorganic, and conventional farming systems in Central Europe. We found crop yields to be 20% lower in the organic systems, although input of fertilizer and energy was reduced by 34 to 53% and pesticide input by 97%. Enhanced soil fertility and higher biodiversity found in organic plots may render these system...

  8. Soil fertility and biodiversity in organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäder, Paul; Fliessbach, Andreas; Dubois, David; Gunst, Lucie; Fried, Padruot; Niggli, Urs

    2002-05-31

    An understanding of agroecosystems is key to determining effective farming systems. Here we report results from a 21-year study of agronomic and ecological performance of biodynamic, bioorganic, and conventional farming systems in Central Europe. We found crop yields to be 20% lower in the organic systems, although input of fertilizer and energy was reduced by 34 to 53% and pesticide input by 97%. Enhanced soil fertility and higher biodiversity found in organic plots may render these systems less dependent on external inputs.

  9. Effects of partial fertilizer substitution by organic fertilizer on growth of peanut at seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Wang, Yue; Dai, Jian; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    In response to the Ministry of agriculture’s action plan for chemical fertilizer reductions and organic fertilizers instead of fertilizersand discuss the optimum consumption and proportion of peanut biochar-based fertilization.Six different fertilization treatments were set up:C40, C50(standard consumption), C60, C40+M, C30+M and C20+M. Seelding height, chlorophyll content and total biomass were also measured on 6th, 2017. The results showed that C20+M treatment had the highest plant height and the highest biomass in Peanut Seedlings, while the content of chlorophyll increased with the amount of biochar applied.

  10. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  11. Fertility preservation for patients with gynecologic malignancies: The Korean Society for Fertility Preservation clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Kim, Tak; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Fertility preservation plays a central role in cancer care since an increasingly large number of cancer patients are surviving as a result of improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Physicians who take part in the initial diagnosis and management of gynecologic cancer should understand the importance of fertility preservation. Since indications for fertility preservation are limited to early-stage gynecologic cancer, a surgeon must carefully consider each indication. Before performing fertility-sparing surgery, health professionals should compare its oncologic and pregnancy outcomes with those of other standard treatments. Individualized treatment strategies should be delivered depending on the patient's situation, and physicians should provide timely information and appropriate counseling.

  12. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Sara; Rowe, Heather; Kirkman, Maggie; Jordan, Lynne; McNamee, Kathleen; Bayly, Christine; McBain, John; Sinnott, Vikki; Fisher, Jane

    2016-02-15

    As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health.

  13. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.

  14. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE, regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients.

  15. Soil fertility assessment and mapping of spatial variability at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on soil fertility assessment and mapping of arable land helps to design appropriate soil fertility management practices. Experiment was conducted at Amaregenda-Abajarso sub-watershed to assess the fertility status and mapping the spatial variability of selected soil fertility parameters. Based on land use type, ...

  16. Interracial-Interethnic Unions and Fertility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Vincent Kang

    2008-01-01

    How does the fertility of interracial and interethnic couples compare to the fertility of endogamous couples? If exogamous couples have transcended the boundary between them, then exogamy should not affect fertility. Alternatively, opposition to the relationship from the couple's family and friends may reduce fertility. This study uses 2000-2005…

  17. Levels and proximate determinants of fertility in Butajira District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    analysis. Total fertility rate was used to measure the magnitude of fertility. Moreover, the Bongaarts' method of measuring the fertility inhibition effect of each proximate determinant was applied (10). Fertility determinants were categorized as indirect (distal) and proximate (direct) factors as shown in the following diagram.

  18. Effects of mineral and organic fertilizers on crop productivity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other two fields grown with the same crops without fertilizer application served as control treatment. In addition, a greenhouse experiment was run to ... It was concluded that biophysical factors (field location and initial soil fertility status) greatly influenced crop yield and fertilizer. Keywords: Bean, maize, fertilizer response, ...

  19. Enhancing inorganic fertilizer use in Imo State, Nigeria | Ogoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased and more efficient fertilizer use hold the key to increase in crop yield per hectare, but there are limitations. This work, therefore, attempts a review of constraints to fertilizer use in Imo state including: high cost and unavailability of fertilizers; profitability of fertilizer use; lack of soil test; dependence on unpredictable ...

  20. Characterization and fine mapping of a female fertility associated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Female-sterile line can be used as a pollinator which has a great potential for hybrid seeds production. However, reports on female fertility are fewer than male fertility. Here, we characterized a recessive female fertility weakening mutant ff1(t) from rice. The spikelet fertility was seriously affected in the mutant. Reciprocal ...

  1. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the postharvest fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30456-3', 'PITA 14' and Agbagba) to fertilizer types (inorganic fertilizer, organic fertilizer and control (no fertilizer) were evaluated in 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 cropping seasons. The experimental design was a 4 x 3 factorial in randomized block ...

  2. Do couples make fertility plans one birth at a time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J R

    1983-05-01

    Criteria are specified for distinguishing one-decision from sequential-decision models of fertility. Sequential decisions are not demonstrated by parity-specific differences in fertility determinants. Sequential models must demonstrate the importance of unanticipated intervening events in changing fertility plans or fertility experience. They must demonstrate that the intervening events are not caused by the fertility. Two empirical tests are designed to determine which model best fits the data. One test predicts fertility plans, the other fertility events. Both tests provide some support for sequential models.

  3. How to build additional soil fertility in organic cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    FertilCrop, Consortium

    2015-01-01

    FertilCrop aims at improving soil fertility using synergies provided by improved crop management techniques. The improvement of organic farming systems by building a higher level of soil fertility is important to develop more sustainable agroecosystems that safeguard soils and guarantee unrestrained crop growth. FertilCrop evaluates farming systems that efficiently build soil fertility based on field trials and farm networks in 13 European countries.

  4. The International Glossary on Infertility and Fertility Care, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Adamson, G David; Dyer, Silke; Racowsky, Catherine; de Mouzon, Jacques; Sokol, Rebecca; Rienzi, Laura; Sunde, Arne; Schmidt, Lone; Cooke, Ian D; Simpson, Joe Leigh; van der Poel, Sheryl

    2017-09-01

    Can a consensus and evidence-driven set of terms and definitions be generated to be used globally in order to ensure consistency when reporting on infertility issues and fertility care interventions, as well as to harmonize communication among the medical and scientific communities, policy-makers, and lay public including individuals and couples experiencing fertility problems? A set of 283 consensus-based and evidence-driven terminologies used in infertility and fertility care has been generated through an inclusive consensus-based process with multiple stakeholders. In 2006 the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART) published a first glossary of 53 terms and definitions. In 2009 ICMART together with WHO published a revised version expanded to 87 terms, which defined infertility as a disease of the reproductive system, and increased standardization of fertility treatment terminology. Since 2009, limitations were identified in several areas and enhancements were suggested for the glossary, especially concerning male factor, demography, epidemiology and public health issues. Twenty-five professionals, from all parts of the world and representing their expertise in a variety of sub-specialties, were organized into five working groups: clinical definitions; outcome measurements; embryology laboratory; clinical and laboratory andrology; and epidemiology and public health. Assessment for revisions, as well as expansion on topics not covered by the previous glossary, were undertaken. A larger group of independent experts and representatives from collaborating organizations further discussed and assisted in refining all terms and definitions. Members of the working groups and glossary co-ordinators interacted through electronic mail and face-to-face in international/regional conferences. Two formal meetings were held in Geneva, Switzerland, with a final consensus meeting including independent experts as well as observers and

  5. The International Glossary on Infertility and Fertility Care, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Adamson, G David; Dyer, Silke; Racowsky, Catherine; de Mouzon, Jacques; Sokol, Rebecca; Rienzi, Laura; Sunde, Arne; Schmidt, Lone; Cooke, Ian D; Simpson, Joe Leigh; van der Poel, Sheryl

    2017-09-01

    Can a consensus and evidence-driven set of terms and definitions be generated to be used globally in order to ensure consistency when reporting on infertility issues and fertility care interventions, as well as to harmonize communication among the medical and scientific communities, policy-makers, and lay public including individuals and couples experiencing fertility problems? A set of 283 consensus-based and evidence-driven terminologies used in infertility and fertility care has been generated through an inclusive consensus-based process with multiple stakeholders. In 2006 the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART) published a first glossary of 53 terms and definitions. In 2009 ICMART together with WHO published a revised version expanded to 87 terms, which defined infertility as a disease of the reproductive system, and increased standardization of fertility treatment terminology. Since 2009, limitations were identified in several areas and enhancements were suggested for the glossary, especially concerning male factor, demography, epidemiology and public health issues. Twenty-five professionals, from all parts of the world and representing their expertise in a variety of sub-specialties, were organized into five working groups: clinical definitions; outcome measurements; embryology laboratory; clinical and laboratory andrology; and epidemiology and public health. Assessment for revisions, as well as expansion on topics not covered by the previous glossary, were undertaken. A larger group of independent experts and representatives from collaborating organizations further discussed and assisted in refining all terms and definitions. Members of the working groups and glossary co-ordinators interacted through electronic mail and face-to-face in international/regional conferences. Two formal meetings were held in Geneva, Switzerland, with a final consensus meeting including independent experts as well as observers and

  6. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    often acidosis. This paper presents and integral description of cattle diet management according to phases, and a new approach to cattle diet with respect to fertility observed in reproduction over a longer time period at large diary cow farms.

  7. Female Employment Reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. PMID:25816301

  8. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  9. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  10. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed to ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics on ...

  11. Slow fertilization of stickleback eggs: the result of sexual conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frommen Joachim G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertilization success in sperm competition in externally fertilizing fish depends on number and quality of sperm. The time delay between sequential ejaculations may further influence the outcome of sperm competition. Such a time interval can load the raffle over fertilization if fertilization takes place very fast. Short fertilization times are generally assumed for externally fertilizing fish such as the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. In this pair-spawning fish, territorial males often try to steal fertilizations in nests of neighbouring males. This sneaking behaviour causes sperm competition. Sneakers will only get a share of paternity when eggs are not fertilized immediately after sperm release. Contrary to males, females may be interested in multiple paternity of their clutch of eggs. There thus may be a sexual conflict over the speed of fertilization. Results In this study we used two different in vitro fertilization experiments to assess how fast eggs are fertilized in sticklebacks. We show that complete fertilization takes more than 5 min which is atypically long for externally fertilizing fishes. Conclusion This result suggests that the time difference does not imply high costs to the second stickleback male to ejaculate. Slow fertilization (and concomitant prolonged longevity of sperm may be the result of sexual conflict in which females aimed at complete fertilization and/or multiple paternity.

  12. Agroforestry: A second soil fertility paradigm? A case of soil fertility management in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mango, Nelson; Hebinck, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the claim whether agro-forestry is a second soil fertility
    paradigm. The answer to this question, however, is not unequivocal. Farmers in
    Western Kenya generally do not apply fertiliser and rather rely on many soil fertility replenishment (SFR) strategies. Scientists

  13. Impact of child mortality and fertility preferences on fertility status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the effects of child mortality and fertility preference on fertility status in rural Ethiopia. Design: Case-referent where the cases were women with number of children ever born alive was less than five and controls were women with number of children ever born alive greater or equal to five.

  14. Effect of N fertilizer and foliar-applied Fe fertilizer at various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrSohrabi

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... block design with three replications at the research farm of Kurdistan University in 2009. The experimental treatments consisted of three different levels of N fertilizer application as follows: 0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1, and two levels of Fe fertilizer (spray with iron and non-sprayed). Results indicate that.

  15. Assessment of testicular volume: A comparison of fertile and sub-fertile West African men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Tijani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Testicular volume on scrotal ultrasound correlates well with severity of oligospermia in men with sub-fertility. While the critical mean testicular volume necessary for adequate spermatogenesis has not been determined, it appears there is an optimal testicular volume of 18–20 ml at which spermatogenesis is at its peak in sub-fertile Nigerian men.

  16. An overview of fertilizer-P recommendations in Europe: soil testing, calibration and fertilizer recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan-Meille, L.; Rubaek, G.H.; Ehlert, P.A.I.; Genot, V.; Hofman, G.; Goulding, K.; Recknagel, J.; Provolo, G.; Barraclough, P.

    2012-01-01

    The procedure for applying phosphorus (P) fertilizer to soil can be divided into three consecutive steps: (i) Measurement of soil-P availability, (ii) calibration of the soil-P fertility level and (iii) estimation of the recommended P dose. Information on each of these steps was obtained for 18

  17. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  18. Preparation and characterization of controlled-release fertilizers coated with marine polysaccharide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Song; Qin, Yukun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xing, Rong'e.; Yu, Huahua; Li, Kecheng; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Encapsulation of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizers by membranes can be used to control the release of nutrients to maximize the fertilization effect and reduce environmental pollution. In this research, we formulated a new double-coated controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) by using food-grade microcrystalline wax (MW) and marine polysaccharide derivatives (calcium alginate and chitosan-glutaraldehyde copolymer). The pellets of water-soluble nitrogen fertilizer were coated with the marine polysaccharide derivatives and MW. A convenient and eco-friendly method was used to prepare the CRF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the products. The nitrogen-release properties were determined in water using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The controlled-release properties of the fertilizer were improved dramatically after coating with MW and the marine polysaccharide derivatives. The results show that the double-coated CRFs can release nitrogen in a controlled manner, have excellent controlled-release features, and meet the European Standard for CRFs.

  19. Scrotal abnormalities and infertility in west African men: A comparison of fertile and sub-fertile men using scrotal ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Tijani

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Male sub-fertility was associated with a higher prevalence of scrotal abnormalities. Apart from the diagnoses of the possible causes of the sub-fertility, routine scrotal US was able to diagnose other abnormalities of clinical relevance in the sub-fertile male. Scrotal US is a valuable tool in the evaluation of the sub-fertile west African man and should be considered in the routine evaluation of the sub-fertile west African man.

  20. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  1. Environmental protection foliar fertilization in areas subject to limitation of fertilizers use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavriluta, I.; Alexandrescu, A; Budoi, G.; Bireescu, L.; Bireescu, G.

    1999-01-01

    Significant increases of plant productivity have been recorded in field experiments conducted between 1991 - 1994 using general purpose complex foliar fertilizers as well as aminoacid containing complex foliar fertilizers. These increases at the same time had positive environmental effects against chemical pollution, especially with nitrates. As a rule, the greater the degree of nutrient efficiency, especially of nitrate, the lower are the losses, which are subject to transfer to the environment. So in the light of environmental protection against chemical pollution using foliar fertilization is certainly beneficial for crops and for all other components of the agricultural environment giving rise to its significant improvement. Both, foliar and soil fertilization in areas with limitation of fertilizer use should be carried out under a continuous and strict analytical check of plant, soil and water. Refs. 14 (author)

  2. Implementation strategy for achieving replacement level fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The recommendation of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development at the ESCAP regional conference was to adopt strategies for attaining replacement-level fertility of 2.1 or 2.2 children by 2010. East Asian countries, except Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the Southeast Asian countries Singapore and Thailand have already reached replacement-level fertility. Most larger Oceanic countries have also done so. Only South Asian Sri Lanka and southern India have attained replacement level. The following conditions slow or hinder the goal, but they do not provide an "absolute" barrier to fertility decline: social welfare schemes and old age security, son preference, lack of government family planning, poverty, relatively high mortality, low status of women, and education status. Theories of demographic transition have postulated that economic and social development initially brings a decline in mortality, and later brings a decline in fertility; and high fertility was an adaptation to high mortality. Policy gets caught in the lag between mortality and fertility decline. Eventually the cultural motives for high fertility are undercut by social and economic development. Although the generalization that economic growth slows fertility is true for South Asia, the correlation is uneven. Forceful government-sponsored family planning programs in Bangladesh and China may lead the way to strategies for decline in ESCAP region. A Thailand study suggested important factors were fundamental social change, the increased cost of children, cultural acceptance of birth control, a latent demand for fertility control, and government efforts in family planning. ESCAP countries have in common relatively high morality and inadequate public health programs, patriarchal structures, and limited female autonomy, poverty and landlessness, lack of community cohesiveness, and inadequate family planning programs. Weaknesses in programs are attributed to

  3. Farmers behavior on using fertilizer in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdana, Tomy; Renaldy, Eddy; Utami, Hesty Nurul; Sadeli, Agriani Hermita; Mahra Arari, H.; Ginanjar, Tetep; Ajeng Sesy N., P.; Fernianda Rahayu, H.; Sanjaya, Sonny

    2018-02-01

    Fertilizer is one of the important materials in farming system to improve quality and quantity of harvest. Most of farmers in Indonesia using fertilizer, one of substantial fertilizer is NPK that contain of complex nutrient, there are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. There are tendency for farmers using NPK based on quality products and speed of decomposition. Nowadays, market size for NPK fertilizer has been dramatically increase and it will impact on intensify of fertilizer use. The potential requirement in marketing does not balanced with consumer behavior analysis. Meanwhile, agricultural sector (include horticulture, floriculture, bio-pharmacy and plantation) have been wieldly increase of the farming system annualy. This research is study case which is analyzed local NPK fertilizer competitive advantage compared to imported NPK fertilizer through consumer point of view towards product quality in four districts in West Java province, i.e., West Bandung, Garut, Bogor and Cianjur District with target respondents are farmers who use NPK fertilizer. NPK fertilizer qualities are based on product attributes, which are; availability, nutrient content, price, basic ingredients, form of fertilizer, speed of decomposition, label, color, type, design and size of packaging. It was analyzed using sematic differential attitude models and multi attribute attitude snake diagram model. The evaluation ranking of consumers interests towards fertilizer attribute characteristics showed that consumer intention before deciding to buy or use a NPK fertilizer will consider nutrient content, speed of decomposition, form of fertilizer and availability of products. Consumer's attitude towards all NPK fertilizer attribute quality illustrated that imported fertilizer is considered to be more positive than local fertilizer. Fertilizer companies or industries should be able to maintain their fertilizer production especially concerning nutrient content and availability of products through a

  4. Fertility Adaptation of Child Migrants to Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the fertility behavior of immigrant women arriving to Canada before age 19 using the 20 per cent sample of the Canadian Census from 1991 through 2006. Findings show that fertility increases with age at immigration, and is particularly high for those immigrating in their late teens. This pattern prevails regardless of the country of origin or whether the mother tongue of the migrant is an official language in Canada or not. We do not find a ‘critical age’ at which the behavior of migrants with and without official mother tongue start to diverge by more, even though the fertility of migrants without official mother tongue is always higher on average. Formal education matters as the fertility of immigrants who arrived to Canada before adulthood and graduated from college is similar to that of their native peers regardless of their age of arrival. However, the fertility of those with less than tertiary education increasingly diverges with age at migration from similarly educated Canadians. PMID:23800074

  5. Balancing guava nutrition with liming and fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava response to liming and fertilization can be monitored by tissue testing. Tissue nutrient signature is often diagnosed against nutrient concentration standards. However, this approach has been criticized for not considering nutrient interactions and to generate numerical biases as a result of data redundancy, scale dependency and non-normal distribution. Techniques of compositional data analysis can control those biases by balancing groups of nutrients, such as those involved in liming and fertilization. The sequentially arranged and orthonormal isometric log ratios (ilr or balances avoid numerical bias inherent to compositional data. The objectives were to relate tissue nutrient balances with the production of "Paluma" guava orchards differentially limed and fertilized, and to adjust the current patterns of nutrient balance with the range of more productive guava trees. It was conducted one experiment of 7-yr of liming and three experiments of 3-yr with N, P and K trials in 'Paluma' orchards on an Oxisol. Plant N, P, K, Ca and Mg were monitored yearly. It was selected the [N, P, K | Ca, Mg], [N, P | K], [N | P] and [Ca | Mg] balances to set apart the effects of liming (Ca-Mg and fertilizers (N-K on macronutrient balances. Liming largely influenced nutrient balances of guava in the Oxisol while fertilization was less influential. The large range of guava yields and nutrient balances allowed defining balance ranges and comparing them with the critical ranges of nutrient concentration values currently used in Brazil and combined into ilr coordinates.

  6. [Education, modernity, and fertility in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stycos, J M

    1980-01-01

    In an effort to identify the causal mechanisms involved in the relationship between education and fertility in Costa Rica, all married women who were interviewed in the National Fertility Survey were reinterviewed in 1977-78. Questions on modernity and attitudes toward family size were designed to measure the extent of their influence on fertility. Questions on modernity were grouped into 4 measures of mass communications/information, sex roles, husband's power, and "instrumental activism." The intercorrelation of the 4 measures was enough to justify their use as separate subscales but high enough to permit their combined use as a single measure of modernity. The correlation between the combined total and education was strong and positive at .68, while the correlation between education and the number of live births controlled for age was -.35. Results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that high levels of general information and exposure to mass media are responsible for the positive correlation between education and fertility. A variety of scales were developed to measure the extent to which predispositions toward family size, numerical preference, and desire for additional children were responsible for the relationship between general information and fertility. Modernity and education showed strong negative relationships to predisposition toward family size, moderate negative relationships to size preference, and almost no relationship to the desire for more children.

  7. Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

    1991-12-31

    The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers` desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

  8. Secondary containment large fertilizer storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, E.L.; Broder, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    The large quantities of fertilizer and pesticide, which are handled by retail facilities, have made these operations the target of regulations aimed at protecting water supplies. These regulations and dealers' desire to protect water supplies have made environmental protection a primary concern. Currently, nine states have adopted regulations which require secondary containment of fertilizers and agrichemicals. An additional seven states are developing regulations. Volume requirements and performance specifications of secondary containment structures for fertilizer storage tanks are included in all regulations. Among the different containment problems presented by retail sites, the large tanks (tanks with capacities greater than 100,000 gallons) present the greatest challenge for design and cost evaluation to determine the most effective containment system. The objective of this paper is to provide secondary containment designs for large fertilizer tanks using readily available construction materials. These designs may be innovative to some extent, but they must incorporate field experience and knowledge from trials, errors, and successful installations for existing and newly constructed fertilizer storage tanks. Case studies are presented to indicate projected costs for these alternatives.

  9. Recent scenario of obesity and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, K K; Chambial, S; Dwivedi, S; Misra, S; Sharma, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this review was to provide current scenario linking obesity and male fertility. Obesity has been linked to male fertility because of lifestyle changes, internal hormonal environment alterations, and sperm genetic factors. A few studies assessing the impact of obesity on sperm genetic factor have been published, but they did not lead to a strong consensus. Our objective was to explore further the relationship between sperm genetic factor and obesity. There are emerging facts that obesity negatively affects male reproductive potential not only by reducing sperm quality, but in particular it alters the physical and molecular structure of germ cells in the testes and ultimately affects the maturity and function of sperm cells. Inhibition of microRNA in the male pronucleus of fertilized zygotes produces offspring of phenotypes of variable severity depending on miRNAs ratios. Hence, these RNAs have a role in the oocyte development during fertilization and in embryo development, fetal survival, and offspring phenotype. It has been reported that the miRNA profile is altered in spermatozoa of obese males, however, the impact of these changes in fertilization and embryo health remains as yet not known. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. [Variations of soil fertility level in red soil region under long-term fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han-qing; Xu, Ming-gang; Lü, Jia-long; Bao, Yao-xian; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-sheng

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term (1982-2007) field experiment of "anthropogenic mellowing of raw soil" at the Qiyang red soil experimental station under Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and by using numerical theory, this paper studied the variations of the fertility level of granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil under six fertilization patterns. The fertilization patterns included non-fertilization (CK), straw-returning without fertilizers (CKR), chemical fertilization (NPK), NPK plus straw-return (NPKR), rice straw application (M), and M plus straw-return (MR). The soil integrated fertility index (IFI) was significantly positively correlated with relative crop yield, and could better indicate soil fertility level. The IFI values of the three soils all were in the order of NPK, NPKR > M, MR > CK, CKR, with the highest value in treatment NPKR (0.77, 0.71, and 0.71 for granite red soil, quaternary red soil, and purple sandy shale soil, respectively). Comparing with that in the treatments of no straw-return, the IFI value in the treatments of straw return was increased by 6.72%-18.83%. A turning point of the IFI for all the three soils was observed at about 7 years of anthropogenic mellowing, and the annual increasing rate of the IFI was in the sequence of purple sandy shale soil (0.016 a(-1)) > quaternary red clay soil (0.011 a(-1)) > granite red soil (0.006 a(-1)). It was suggested that a combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers and/or straw return could be an effective and fast measure to enhance the soil fertility level in red soil region.

  12. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the

  13. Fertilizer application and root development analyzed by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the development of the soybean root system under different application of fertilizer applying neutron imaging technique. When neutron beam was irradiated, the root image as well as fertilizer imbedded in a thin aluminum container was clearly projected, since water amount in roots are higher than that in soil. Through image analysis, the development of root system was studied under different application of the fertilizer. The development of a main root with lateral roots was observed without applying fertilizer. When the fertilizer was homogeneously supplied to the soil, the morphological development of the root showed the similar pattern to that grown without fertilizer, in different to the amount of the fertilizer. In the case of local application of the fertilizer, lateral position or downward to the main root, the inhibition of the root growth was observed, suggesting that the localization of the fertilizer is responsible for reduction of the soybean yield. (author)

  14. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest; Psenicka, Martin; Linhart, Otomar

    2015-08-01

    Standardization of fertilization protocols for sterlet Acipenser ruthenus is crucial for improving reproductive techniques and for conservation purposes. Our objectives were to determine the number of sperm (tested 430,000:1, 43,000:1, 4300:1, 430:1 sperm to egg) required to fertilize eggs and explore how pre-incubation of eggs in freshwater for 0min, 0.5min, 1min, and 10min interacts with different sperm ratios. Fertilization success ranged from 29.7% at 430:1 to 84.2% at 430,000:1. Pre-incubation time had no effect on fertilization success at 430,000:1 and 43,000:1 sperm to egg ratios, while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10min. At 0min pre-incubation the proportion of fertilized eggs increased at the 430,000:1 ratio, while at 1min fertilization increased at the 4300:1 ratio. At the 10min pre-incubation time, fertilization increased at the 43,000:1 ratio. Moreover, at the 0.5min pre-incubation time, the 43,000:1 ratio increased the fertilization rate than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for fertilization can enhance fertilization rate of sterlet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fertility sparing treatment in borderline ovarian tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rosa Maria; Vazquez-Vicente, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are low malignant potential tumours. They represent 10–15% of all epithelial ovarian malignancies. Patients with this type of tumour are younger at the time of diagnosis than patients with invasive ovarian cancer. Most of them are diagnosed in the early stages and have an excellent prognosis. It has been quite clearly established that the majority of borderline ovarian tumours should be managed with surgery alone. Because a high proportion of women with this malignancy are young and the prognosis is excellent, the preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of these tumours. In this systemic review of the literature, we have evaluated in-depth oncological safety and reproductive outcomes in women with borderline ovarian tumours treated with fertility-sparing surgery, reviewing the indications, benefits, and disadvantages of each type of conservative surgery, as well as new alternative options to surgery to preserve fertility. PMID:25729420

  16. Spatial Divisions and Fertility in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan Pillai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian subcontinent can be divided into four geographical divisions. In this paper, we characterize three of the four divisions; the Northern Plains, the Deccan Plateau, and the Northern Mountains or the Himalayan as regions with dissimilar climatic and physical resources. It is argued that human adaptations to these variations would be varied by differences in social organization of production and consumption resulting in differences in fertility differences across the three divisions. We found significant differences in the median age at motherhood as well as in the total family size. The effects of the three selected fertility determinants, age at marriage, years of woman's education, and level of child loss on family size also varied significantly across the three divisions. There is considerable homogeneity with respect to fertility levels within the zones considered in this study.

  17. Male Fertility After Inguinal Hernia Mesh Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Andreas Pagh; Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To determine whether patients who receive an inguinal hernia repair father the same number of children as the background population. BACKGROUND:: Although the effect of inguinal hernia repair on male fertility has previously been investigated through indirect measures, no previous...... studies have evaluated the final measure of male fertility, which is the number of children fathered by patients. METHODS:: Prospectively collected data on 32,621 male patients between the ages of 18 and 55 years who received 1 or more inguinal hernia repairs during the years 1998 to 2012 were found in 5...... hernia repair using Lichtenstein technique or laparoscopic approach did not father fewer children than expected. Thus, inguinal hernia repair using Lichtenstein or laparoscopic approach did not impair male fertility....

  18. Lifetime impact of cash transfer on fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Albert Kim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In most OECD countries, fertility level is below the natural generation replacement level, and many OECD countries implement pro-natal policies, including direct cash transfer schemes. However, evaluations of the long-run impact of such policies are surprisingly rare. We investigate whether the cash transfer increases completed fertility, exploiting a quasi-experiment from a pro-natal cash transfer called Allowance for Newborn Children (ANC. We first devise a measure of ANC impact for different birth cohorts, because the policy lasted for a decade and affected cohorts with different intensities at different ages. The results show that ANC impact on fertility has little permanent component.

  19. [Impact of educational attainments on women's fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D

    1985-11-29

    The fertility rates of Chinese women of different educational backgrounds and ages were studied. The results indicate that women with higher educational backgrounds are likely to marry later in life, and have fewer children. The converse is also true; women with little or no education marry very young and have significantly more offspring. It is noted that many of the poory educated are traditionally conservative; they strongly desire at least 1 male offspring, and generally understand the least about matters related to family planning. In terms of economics and human investment, intellectuals are less likely to want more than 1 child. 2 of the most effective ways in which fertility rates may be lowered are to reduce early fertility and to improve the educational levels of women.

  20. Parental Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Childhood Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura O.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment......, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013). Information on time to pregnancy and fertility treatment...... was obtained from pregnancy questionnaires in early pregnancy. Children developing epilepsy were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Prescription Registry until 2013. Data were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for potential confounders...

  1. Fertility Regulation in an Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Christopher; Thomas, Duncan; Frankenberg, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Substantial international aid is spent reducing the cost of contraception in developing countries, as part of a larger effort to reduce global fertility and increase investment per child worldwide. The importance for fertility behaviors of keeping contraceptive prices low, however, remains unclear. Targeting of subsidies and insufficient price variation have hindered prior attempts to estimate the effect of monetary and non-monetary contraceptive costs on fertility behavior. Using longitudinal survey data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we exploit dramatic variation in prices and incomes that was induced by the economic crisis in the late 1990s to pin down the effect of contraceptive availability and costs as well as household resources on contraceptive use and method choice. The results are unambiguous: monetary costs of contraceptives and levels of family economic resources have a very small (and well-determined) impact on contraceptive use and choice of method. PMID:25843969

  2. Measurements of natural radioactivity in phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannides, K.G.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Papachristodoulou, C.A.; Tzialla, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The natural radioactivity, mainly due to radium ( 226 Ra), in phosphate fertilizers used in north-western Greece has been measured by γ-spectroscopy. Also radioactivity measurements were performed in soil samples and were compared to samples from undisturbed soils. 226 Ra belongs to the 238 U chain and is the precursor of radon gas ( 222 Rn). The radon concentrations in warehouses, where large quantities of fertilizers are kept, were measured with CR-39 SSNTDs. The radium concentrations in the fertilizers ranged from 0 to 4584 Bq kg -1 and the radon concentrations in warehouses were measured 540-3320 Bq m -3 . The results are discussed from the radiation protection point of view

  3. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  4. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring γ-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Decomposing trends in nonmarital fertility among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeone, Felicia Yang; Lichter, Daniel T; Strawderman, Robert L

    2009-09-01

    For Latinos, high rates of nonmarital fertility reinforce economic inequality and slow the pace of social and economic incorporation into American society. Changes in the nonmarital fertility ratio--nonmarital births as a percentage of all births (NMFR)--among women aged 15-44 over the period 1994-2005 were partitioned into three components: changes in marital and in nonmarital fertility, and in the proportion of women who were married. Annual birth data were drawn from the national Natality Detail File, and population estimates were drawn from the Current Population Surveys. Analyses were conducted for blacks, whites and Latinas, as well as for selected subgroups of Latinas; differences in NMFRs between racial and ethnic groups were also calculated. NMFRs were largely unchanged between 1994 and 2002, and then began to rise; they averaged 43% for Latinas, 69% for blacks and 23% for whites over the study period. In 2005, 48% of births to Latinas were nonmarital. Most of the rise in Latinas' NMFR was linked to a decline in marriage. Among foreign-born Latinas, a six-percentage-point increase in the NMFR was due mostly to a rise in nonmarital fertility and a decline in marital fertility, which offset the beneficial effects of a rising marriage rate. The difference between Latinas' and whites' NMFRs was largely attributed to Latinas' higher nonmarital fertility, whereas the difference between blacks' and whites' NMFRs was driven mostly by lower marriage rates among blacks. Efforts to reduce out-of-wedlock childbearing among Latinas are needed, and programs should promote healthy marriages, especially among foreign-born Latinas.

  6. Third world programs confront adolescent fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    Recently, there have been efforts to identify workable youth programs and effective research projects that could deal with the problem of adolescent fertility. Typical objectives identified at various conferences concerned with this problem included the following: 1) focus attention on the adverse medical and socioeconomic efforts of early pregnancy; 2) draw attention to the current dimensions of adolescent fertility and its changing patterns; 3) encourage development of programs; and 4) impress decision makers with the importance of programs for adolescents. These conferences express a sense of urgency in developing programs before teen-age pregnancy reaches epidemic proportions. Most of the projects already underway are still pilot efforts and have an impact on a very small sector of the population. Yet, they are positive steps toward a solution of the rising problems of adolescent fertility and help to identify workable solutions. A few of these projects -- underway in Colombia, Argentina, Chile, Cost Rica, Guatemala and Mexico -- are reviewed. The consensus of all conferences held to date has been that cross-cultural interchanges is crucial to the spread of programs and ideas that can be adapted to local conditions. 2 key recommendations have emerged from a meeting of donor and support agencies held in Washington, D.C. in May: 1) a major conference should take place during the International Year of the Child (1979) that would focus on early sexual activity and fertility and 2) an Adolescent Fertility Council should be appointed. An Adolescent Fertility Council would provide a structure to correlate and stimulate interaction, while recognizing that country and culture specific programs are essential.

  7. The use of incentives for fertility reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishik, S M

    1978-02-01

    Incentives, i.e., either monetary or other benefits, can be used to reward couples for limiting their fertility; disincentives, or penalties, can be imposed for excessive fertility. Examples of the use of incentives or disincentives by the governments of India, Singapore, and Hawaii are cited. Direct cash payments or tax exemptions (timed variously) are the most common incentive used. The effectiveness and the morality of incentive/disincentive programs are discussed. It is felt that incentives should only be used after a social consensus has been reached and after family planning services have been made available to all groups in the society.

  8. Playing the Fertility Game at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciliberto, Federico; Miller, Amalia Rebecca; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2016-01-01

    We study workplace peer effects in fertility decisions using a game theory model of strategic interactions among coworkers that allows for multiple equilibria. Using register-based data on fertile-aged women working in medium sized establishments in Denmark, we uncover negative average peer effects....... Allowing for heterogeneous effects by worker type, we find that positive effects dominate across worker types defined by age or education. Negative effects dominate within age groups and among low-education types. Policy simulations show that these estimated effects make the distribution of where women...

  9. Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-01-01

    It is predicted that Japan and European Union will soon experience appreciable decreases in their populations due to persistently low total fertility rates (TFR) below replacement level (2.1 child per woman). In the United States, where TFR has also declined, there are ethnic differences. Caucasi......It is predicted that Japan and European Union will soon experience appreciable decreases in their populations due to persistently low total fertility rates (TFR) below replacement level (2.1 child per woman). In the United States, where TFR has also declined, there are ethnic differences...

  10. Fertility Effects on Female Labor Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundborg, Petter; Plug, Erik; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF induced fertility variation in childless families to estimate the causal effect of having children on female labor supply using IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of IVF success do not depend on labor market histories, IVF...... treatment success provides a plausible instrument for childbearing. Our IV estimates indicate that fertility effects are: (a) negative, large and long lasting; (b) much stronger at the extensive margin than at the intensive margin, and (c) similar for mothers, not treated with IVF, which suggests that IVF...

  11. Intrauterine fertilization capsules--a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, S; Lindenberg, S; Sundberg, K

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of 26 women with tubal infertility was attempted using intrauterine capsules loaded with oocytes and spermatozoa. The stimulation protocol was as used for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer and consisted of short-term use of Buserelin, human menopausal gonadotropin, and human...... and piston from an intrauterine device. Six complete capsules and parts of two other capsules were expelled. None of the women became pregnant, compared with a pregnancy rate of 21% per aspiration following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer during the same period....

  12. [Environment and lifestyle: Impacts on male fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendayan, M; Alter, L; Swierkowski-Blanchard, N; Caceres-Sanchez, L; Selva, J; Robin, G; Boitrelle, F

    2018-01-01

    In this last century, an increase of men infertility has been registered. It has been suggested that environmental factors could a negative impact over sperm quality. Among these factors, impact of environmental toxicant has been spread by media. In this review of scientific literature, we identify several environmental factors that could impact men fertility in a negative way. These factors are tobacco, marijuana, weight, body mass index, heat, nutritional state, electromagnetic waves and altitude. For each of these factors, the impact over men fertility, their mechanism, as well their influence over the use of Assisted Reproductive Technics are reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  14. [Fertility preservation and cancer in the male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyvraz, Recrosio Céline; Vaucher, Laurent; Primi, Marie-Pierre

    2012-12-05

    Improvement in cancer treatments resulted in an increased number of men surviving cancer. Quality of life has become an important issue in these patients. Anti cancer treatments might have transient or definitive harmful effects on male fertility. Sperm cryoconservation is currently the only proven method to preserve fertility in patients undergoing oncologic treatment. It should be proposed to every patient at reproductive age before chemotherapy, radiotherapy or any surgery involving reproductive tract. Despite low use rate, this simple method could allow patients presenting infertility after treatment to father a child.

  15. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  16. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2003-01-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  17. Bisphenol-A Affects Male Fertility via Fertility-related Proteins in Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Lee, June-Sub; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    The xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that has been studied for its impact on male fertility in several species of animals and humans. Growing evidence suggests that xenoestrogens can bind to receptors on spermatozoa and thus alter sperm function. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of BPA (0.0001, 0.01, 1, and 100 μM for 6 h) on sperm function, fertilization, embryonic development, and on selected fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. Our results showed that high concentrations of BPA inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics by significantly decreasing ATP levels in spermatozoa. High BPA concentrations also increased the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm proteins involved in protein kinase A-dependent regulation and induced a precocious acrosome reaction, which resulted in poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. In addition, BPA induced the down-regulation of β-actin and up-regulated peroxiredoxin-5, glutathione peroxidase 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Our results suggest that high concentrations of BPA alter sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development via regulation and/or phosphorylation of fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. We conclude that BPA-induced changes in fertility-related protein levels in spermatozoa may be provided a potential cue of BPA-mediated disease conditions. PMID:25772901

  18. Fertility assessment in thalassemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ansari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility in β-thalassemia patients is typically considered to be the consequence of iron deposition in the endocrine glands. Adult male patients with β-thalassemia, on regular blood transfusions, are prone to developing acquired hypogonadism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility indicators in male patients with β-thalassemia major and intermedia. In this study we evaluated testicular volume, semen parameters and serum FSH, LH, and Testosterone concentrations in 62 male patients in reproductive age, with major and intermedia thalassemia, at a tertiary care hospital in Tehran, Iran. The range of serum ferritin level in our patients was from 182 to 11053 ng/mL (mean 2067 ng/mL. The mean concentration of sperm was 61.04 million per milliliter. The mean volume of right and left testes was 11.4 cc and 11.7 cc, respectively. Those patients who had lower testicular volumes significantly had lower sperm concentration, lower percents of motile and also lower percents of normal morphologic sperms (P=0.04. The frequency of hypogonadism was significantly higher in patients whose testicular volume was lower (P=0.02. Hypogonadism and hypothyroidism were seen in 22.6% and 17.7% of patients, respectively. Patients with hypogonadism had significantly lower ejaculate volume, lower sperm concentration, lower percents of motile and progressively motile sperms and also lower percents of normal morphologic sperms (P=0.001. This study suggests that in thalassemic men, concentrations of serum testosterone, LH, FSH has significant correlation with sperm parameters and testicular volume.   β地中海贫血患者中的男性不育症通常被认为是内分泌腺中铁沉积的结果。成年男性β地中海贫血患者在常规输血时易发生获得性性腺功能减退。本研究旨在评估男性重型和中间型β地中海贫血患者的生育指标。在本研究中,我们在伊朗德黑兰的一家三级保健医院对62名处于

  19. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations and association with in vitro fertilization outcomes among women from a fertility clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Gaskins, Audrey J; Chiu, Yu-Han; Williams, Paige L; Ehrlich, Shelley; Chavarro, Jorge E; Petrozza, John C; Ford, Jennifer B; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2015-09-01

    Are urinary BPA concentrations associated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes among women attending an academic fertility center? Urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with adverse reproductive and pregnancy outcomes among women from a fertility clinic. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is detected in the urine of most Americans. Although animal studies have demonstrated that BPA reduces female fertility through effects on the ovarian follicle and uterus, data from human populations are scarce and equivocal. This prospective cohort study between 2004 and 2012 at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center included 256 women (n = 375 IVF cycles) who provided up to two urine samples prior to oocyte retrieval (total N = 673). Study participants were women enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study. Intermediate and clinical end-points of IVF treatments were abstracted from electronic medical records. We used generalized linear mixed models with random intercepts to evaluate the association between urinary BPA concentrations and IVF outcomes adjusted by age, race, body mass index, smoking status and infertility diagnosis. The specific gravity-adjusted geometric mean of BPA was 1.87 µg/l, which is comparable to that for female participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012. Urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with endometrial wall thickness, peak estradiol levels, proportion of high quality embryos or fertilization rates. Furthermore, there were no associations between urinary BPA concentrations and implantation, clinical pregnancy or live birth rates per initiated cycle or per embryo transfer. Although we did not find any associations between urinary BPA concentrations and IVF outcomes, the relation between BPA and endometrial wall thickness was modified by age. Younger women (women (≥37 years old) had thinner endometrial thickness across increasing quartiles of

  20. Partner Communication, Discordant Fertility Goals, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... males = 1.9 [95% CI = 1.2-3.1]). Discussion of FP is a key determinant of contraceptive use; in couples with discordant fertility goals, pro-natalist males do not always dictate contraceptive behavior in urban Kenya. (Afr J Reprod Health 2013; 17[3]: 79-90). Keywords: Male involvement; Family planning; Couples, Discussion ...

  1. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with cancer. You may be focused on cancer treatment and your child’s immediate health. You may feel ... can help start the conversation: Cancer and cancer treatment may affect my child’s fertility. Will my child’s ...

  2. Determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia | Alemayehu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worldwide, adolescents suffer from a disproportionate share of reproductive health problem. Throughout the world, over 14 million adolescents aged 15-19 years give birth annually. The purpose of this study was to assess the level and identify proximate and other determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia.

  3. Fertility Intentions, Contraceptive Awareness and Contraceptive Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study measured contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive use and fertility intentions among 1408 women of reproductive age in three communities in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Contraceptive knowledge was relatively high, with 64.6% of women having heard of at least one method. Radio and health facilities were the ...

  4. 7 CFR 2902.22 - Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Such fertilizers need to meet applicable land disposal restriction standards for any hazardous constituents they contain, as required under 40 CFR 266.20(d). (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a biobased content of at least 71 percent, which shall be based on the amount of...

  5. Fertilization: a sticky sperm protein in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Snell, William J

    2014-02-17

    During fertilization in eukaryotes, gametes of the opposite sex undergo a complex series of interactions that culminate in cell fusion. A new study on gamete interaction in plants has identified the first protein in multicellular organisms shown by gene disruption to be essential for gamete membrane adhesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The cultural evolution of fertility decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Cultural evolutionists have long been interested in the problem of why fertility declines as populations develop. By outlining plausible mechanistic links between individual decision-making, information flow in populations and competition between groups, models of cultural evolution offer a novel and powerful approach for integrating multiple levels of explanation of fertility transitions. However, only a modest number of models have been published. Their assumptions often differ from those in other evolutionary approaches to social behaviour, but their empirical predictions are often similar. Here I offer the first overview of cultural evolutionary research on demographic transition, critically compare it with approaches taken by other evolutionary researchers, identify gaps and overlaps, and highlight parallel debates in demography. I suggest that researchers divide their labour between three distinct phases of fertility decline—the origin, spread and maintenance of low fertility—each of which may be driven by different causal processes, at different scales, requiring different theoretical and empirical tools. A comparative, multi-level and mechanistic framework is essential for elucidating both the evolved aspects of our psychology that govern reproductive decision-making, and the social, ecological and cultural contingencies that precipitate and sustain fertility decline. PMID:27022079

  7. Multipartnered Fertility and Depression among Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Carlson, Marcia J.

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the association between multipartnered fertility (MPF)--when parents have children with more than one partner--and depression. Random-effects models suggested that MPF is associated with a greater likelihood of depression, net of family structure and other covariates.…

  8. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O

    2001-01-01

    Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First...

  9. Pedological characteristics, general fertility and classification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detailed characterization of soils earmarked as “Benchmark Soils of Morogoro District”, Tanzania, was carried out to provide data required for planning and execution of soil fertility studies and transfer of agro-technology in the area. Benchmark soils are defined as those occurring in extensive areas and whose ...

  10. MAXIMIZING THE FERTILITY POTENTIAL OF TURKEY SEMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkeys are the only commercial poultry species completely dependent upon artificial insemination for fertile egg production. Although time and labor-intensive, artificial insemination has proven to be a key strategy for achieving rapid genetic improvements in economically important traits such as g...

  11. INFLUENCE OF LEGUME RESIDUE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    designed crop rotation creates farm diversity and improves soil condition and fertility. Despite its associated ... management practices like crop rotation which is fundamental to a sustainable cropping system. 10062 .... as chlorophyll, nucleotides, alkaloids, proteins, enzymes, hormones and vitamins[19]. The higher grain ...

  12. Fertility of female ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irek Malecki

    Abstract. In two experiments, one carried in South Africa and the other in Western Australia, the duration of sperm storage and the fertile period following separation of sexes were investigated by egg break-out and by counting the sperm in the perivitelline membrane (spermOPVL) above the germinal disc (GD) region.

  13. Calendula and camelina response to nitrogen fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerging oil-seed crops calendula (Calendula officinalis) and camelina (Camelina sativa L.) can provide a domestic, renewable, non-food alternative to imported oil sources for bioenergy and industrial purposes. However, very little information exists concerning nitrogen (N) fertilizer guidelines...

  14. Some important factors affecting fertility in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Milan P.; Caro-Petrović V.; Ružić-Muslić D.; Maksimovic N.; Ilić Z.; Milošević B.; Stojković J.

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of sheep production is conditioned by fertility. According to some authors number of offspring obtained per lambing is more important than gain of weight. Genetic relationships involving reproductive traits were seldom studied. Reproductive traits have low heritabilities, a discrete phenotypic expression, and are expressed only in sexually mature ewes leading to low selection intensities and long generation intervals. Documentation of realized se...

  15. Reducing ammonia volatilization from compound fertilizers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonia volatilization is a direct loss of available nitrogen in agriculture. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of amending NPK fertilizer with different rates of clinoptilolite zeolite on ammonia volatilization, soil exchangeable ammonium, and available nitrate. Seven treatments evaluated were: 250 g soil ...

  16. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  17. Phosphorus in recycling fertilizers - analytical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2017-05-01

    The importance of secondary raw materials for phosphorus (P) fertilizer production is expected to increase in the future due to resource depletion, supply risks, and heavy metal contamination of fossil phosphate resources. Municipal wastewater is a promising source for P recovery. In Germany for instance, it contains almost 50% of the total amount of P that is currently applied as mineral fertilizer. Several procedures have been developed to recover and re-use P resulting in a growing number of recycling fertilizers that are currently not regulated in terms of fertilizer efficiency. We tested various materials and matrices for their total P content, solubility of P in neutral ammonium citrate (P nac ) and water, and performed robustness tests to check if existing analytical methods are suitable for those new materials. Digestion with inverse aqua regia was best suited to determine the total P content. P nac sample preparation and analyses were feasible for all matrices. However, we found significant time and temperature dependencies, especially for materials containing organic matter. Furthermore, several materials didn't reach equilibrium during the extractions. Thus, strict compliance of the test conditions is strongly recommended to achieve comparable results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Is glycosylated haemoglobin a marker of fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    1999-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study of time to pregnancy in a population of first-time pregnancy planners without previous reproductive experience. The objective of this paper is to report and discuss a finding of a strong relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and fertility. A total...

  19. Better fertilizer use in the Sahel

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    the long-term effects of fertilizer micro-dosing on potential soil nutrient depletion. Researchers will also look at whether micro-credit borrowing systems will improve adoption rates of these farming techniques. Under the planned system, required credit is made available to farm households using grain crops as collateral.

  20. Sea urchin egg fertilization and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of subgravity (much less than unit gravity) on fertilization, cell division, differentiation, and growth of a relatively simple biological system (eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata) were considered. The experiment was flown on Gemini 3 and recovered as scheduled. However, the experiment objectives were not achieved, primarily for mechanical reasons.

  1. In vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Twisk, Moniek; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Verhoeve, Harold R.; Vogel, Niels E. A.; Arts, Eus G. J. M.; de Vries, Jan W. A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Buys, Charles H. C. M.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Veen, Fulco

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy rates in women of advanced maternal age undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) are disappointingly low. It has been suggested that the use of preimplantation genetic screening of cleavage-stage embryos for aneuploidies may improve the effectiveness of IVF in these women.

  2. Integrated Public Education, Fertility and Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnert, Leonid V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of integration in public education. I show that the flight from the integrated multicultural public schools to private education increases private educational expenditures and, as a result, decreases fertility among more affluent parents whose children flee. In contrast, among less prosperous parents…

  3. Effect of Fertilizer and Incorporated Organic Matter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    N,O occur shortly after the addition of fertilizer. 2 years, before which the site had been used or organic matter (Larsson et al., 1998; Weitz et for seed production. The site is characterized al., 2001), within 24 hours after rainfall events by low soil nutrient status (Table 1). Mean. (Dick et al., 2001) and are associated with soil.

  4. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... preservation and the ability to have a future family are important. Understanding there may be fertility preservation options available and having your child see a reproductive specialist in a timely manner can improve their future quality of life. Introduction You may not be aware there are ...

  5. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Coyle

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  6. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Jacqueline M; Kaschak, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  7. World Fertility Survey: Major Findings and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Fertility Survey, London (England).

    A survey was conducted in 42 developing countries and in 20 developed countries to determine fertility practices and trends. Both individual and household questionnaires were used by interviewers to gather data. Findings concerning marriage patterns, contraception, reproductive motivation, childspacing, breastfeeding, maternal and child health,…

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patients and Their Providers Open menu Reprotopia_Main_Menu About SaveMyFertility Provider Pocket Guides Provider Pocket Guides ... Campus Emergency Information University Policies Oncofertility Consortium 303 E Superior Street, Suite 10-121 Chicago, IL, 60611 ( ...

  9. URBANIZATION AND FERTILITY RATES IN ETHIOPIA1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Economists view fertility rates as a demand-led factor heavily influenced by income levels, livelihoods, and ... A National Population Policy was initiated in 1993 when the current government took power, with the ... Specifically, the econometric tests reported in Section 4 allow us to explore whether the determinants of rural ...

  10. Endometriosis and fertility: women's accounts of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K; Fisher, J; Kirkman, M

    2016-03-01

    What do women with endometriosis recall being told about their fertility by their healthcare providers? Women recalled being given varied information and advice, and gave examples of empathic and individualized care from doctors but also reported opportunities for enhancing clinical practice. There is evidence of an association between endometriosis and infertility. However, the strength of this association and the mechanisms that underlie it are not yet known nor are the implications for optimum healthcare. This study used in-depth cross-sectional qualitative research methods. Women aged at least 18 years who lived in Victoria, Australia, and who had been surgically diagnosed with endometriosis were invited to participate in in-depth interviews about their experience of endometriosis. Twenty-six women of diverse backgrounds and experiences of endometriosis were interviewed from January to September 2014. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically using a data-driven approach. All women encountered medical professionals who were aware of the association between endometriosis and infertility, and who were proactive in ensuring fertility was addressed within endometriosis care. Women recalled being given varied, often conflicting, information about the consequences for their fertility of an endometriosis diagnosis. While some recounted positive experiences with the way their doctor communicated with them about endometriosis and fertility, all women reported adverse experiences such as receiving insufficient or inappropriate information or having their doctor prioritize their fertility over other aspects of their care, including quality of life and symptom relief, without first consulting them. The perspectives of the women's doctors were not sought. The findings may not translate to settings that differ from a predominantly Anglo-Saxon country with both universal public and private healthcare systems. Women's fertility needs and priorities differ for many

  11. Radiological investigation of phosphate fertilizers: Leaching studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Németh, Szabolcs; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2017-07-01

    The raw materials of the phosphate fertilizer industry are the various apatite minerals. Some of these have high levels of natural radionuclides, and thus phosphate fertilizers contain significant amounts of U-238, K-40 and Ra-226. These can leach out of the fertilizers used in large quantities for resupplying essential nutrients in the soil and can then enter the food chain through plants, thereby increasing the internal dose of the affected population. In the current study, the radiological risk of eight commercially available phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate, NPK, PK) and their leaching behaviours were investigated using different techniques (gamma and alpha spectrometry), and the dose contributions of using these fertilizers were estimated. To characterize the leaching behaviour, two leaching procedures were applied and compared -the MSZ 21470-50 (Hungarian standard) and the Tessier five-step sequential extraction method. Based on the evaluation of the gamma-spectra, it is found that the level of Th-232 in the samples was low (max.7 ± 6 Bq kg -1 ), the average Ra-226 activity concentration was 309 ± 39 Bq kg -1 (min. 10 ± 8 Bq kg -1 , max. 570 ± 46 Bq kg -1 ), while the K-40 concentrations (average 3139 ± 188 Bq kg -1 , min. 51 ± 36 Bq kg -1 ) could be as high as 7057 ± 427 Bq kg -1 . The high K-40 can be explained by reference to the composition of the investigated fertilizers (NPK, PK). U concentrations were between 15 and 361 Bq kg -1 , with the average of 254 Bq kg -1 , measured using alpha spectrometry. The good correlation between P 2 O 5 content and radioactivity reported previously is not found in our data. The leaching studies reveal that the mobility of the fertilizer's uranium content is greatly influenced by the parameters of the leaching methods. The availability of U to water ranged between 3 and 28 m/m%, while the Lakanen-Erviö solution mobilized between 10 and 100% of the U content. Copyright © 2016

  12. Fertility preservation: a challenge for IVF-clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahhan, Taghride; Mol, Femke; Kenter, Gemma G.; Balkenende, Eva M. E.; de Melker, Annemieke A.; van der Veen, Fulco; Dancet, Eline A. F.; Goddijn, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Acute fertility preservation for women is an interdisciplinary treatment that requires adequate information provision and early referral. This quality management project aimed to improve fertility preservation care by using a practical tool: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT)

  13. Fertility considerations in young women with hematological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jadoul, Pascale; Kim, S Samuel; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-01-01

    The need for practice guidelines for fertility preservation in young women with hematological malignancies has been increased. To develop recommendations, publications relevant to fertility preservation and hematological cancers were identified through a PubMed database search and reviewed...

  14. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda; Mencarini, Letizia; Tanturri, Maria Letizia; Begall, Katia

    2008-01-01

    Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women's increased labour

  15. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.; Mencarini, L.; Tanturri, M.L.; Begall, K.

    2008-01-01

    Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty in explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women’s increased

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor ... learn what sexual changes or changes to your fertility you may have. The changes you may have ...

  17. The great debate: varicocele treatment and impact on fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Will, Matthew A; Swain, Jason; Fode, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the current literature on the impact and potential mechanisms of varicocele repair on male fertility.......To evaluate the current literature on the impact and potential mechanisms of varicocele repair on male fertility....

  18. Ovarian Cysts and Fertility: Is There a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a link between ovarian cysts and fertility? Answers from Charles Coddington, M.D. Some ovarian cysts can be associated with decreased fertility. However, it depends on the type of ovarian ...

  19. Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Effects of Cancer Treatment on Fertility KidsHealth / For Parents / ... infertile couple's embryo via in vitro fertilization. Emotional Effects As you explore the options, it's important to ...

  20. Situation on the market of mineral fertilizers in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Zalewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes international and domestic supply-demand situation on the market of mineral fertilizers. The article also analyses factors which had an influence on the increase of mineral fertilizers prices.