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Sample records for stalk rot caused

  1. Biochemical response and host-pathogen relation of stalk rot fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stalk rot is a destructive disease in maize caused by Fusarium and Macrophomina species. A study was carried out to understand the mode of infection, host biochemical response and comparison of inoculation techniques in Fusarium verticillioides and Macrophomina phaseolina in maize. In seed inoculation experiment, ...

  2. Maize Cob Rot in Kenya and Its Association with Stalk Borer Damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanga, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    Cob rots are a major cause of crop loss in areas such as western Kenya that experience prolonged rainfall during the period of crop maturation. Cob rot fungi cause spoilage of the grain and some of them produce mycotoxins which can pose a health risk to humans and animals consuming foods prepared from contaminate grain. survey conducted in western Kenya in 1998 showed that cob rot incidence exceeded 20%. In the following year when rainfall was greater around the harvest period, cob rot fungi affected 68% of cobs. in 1998 stalk borer larvae (mainly Busseola fusca) damaged 20% of the cobs and there was a strong correlation (R= 0.87) between cob rot incidence and borer damage. In 1999 almost half of the cobs sampled showed evidence of borer damage. The result indicate that the high cob rot incidence in this pert of Kenya is due to stalk bore damage, which predisposes the cobs to fungal infection, and that management of the borer would greatly decrease cob rot incidence

  3. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm line HA-BSR1 highly tolerant to Sclerotinia basal stalk rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a devastating disease that causes a significant damage to worldwide sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production by reducing seed yield and quality. The objective of this research was to develop highly BSR tolerant sunflower g...

  4. Status of maize stalk rot complex in western belts of Nepal and its integrated management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize stalk rot complex is becoming a serious threat for maize growing areas of Nepal. A field monitoring for maize stalk rot complex was done during crop season (August, 2016 covering 10 farmers field each of Surkhet, Banke, Dang, Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts. Maize crop showed highly susceptible reaction to the disease at western belts of Dang and susceptible reaction was marked in Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts while the disease effect was mild at Banke and Surkhet district. Most of the plant diseases managed successfully through the application of bio-control agents, host resistance, chemicals and other different cultural control methods. The result of field experiment conducted at Dang showed that all the treatments had significant (P≤0.05 effect on percent disease index (PDI and crop yield over farmers practice to control maize stalk rot. The higher percent disease control (52.36% and yield increase (40.29% were recorded from the plot sprayed with streptocyclin @ 2 g L-1 and insecticide (cypermethrin + chloropyrifos @ 2.5 ml L-1 of water during knee height and subsequent spray after 15 days interval as compared to farmers practice. Out of 30 genotypes, Rampur composit, Arun 2, Rampur 34, RamS03F08, TLBRS07F16 and Rampur 24 were found resistant against stalk rot complex with higher yield at Rampur Chitwan.

  5. Organics and mineral fertilizers and biological control on the incidence of stalk rot and corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Blume

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of area under maize (Zea mays L. and the use of no tillage have favored the incidence of stalk rot on this crop. The study aimed to evaluate the organic fertilizers and the treatment of corn seeds with Trichoderma spp. on the production of dry matter (DM of shoot, incidence of stalk rot and corn yield. The experiment consisted in a factorial with split-plot in strips, on the randomized block design with four replicates, and the fertilization treatments (pig slurry; swine deep bedding; cattle slurry; mineral fertilizer; control treatment were applied to the plots and the seeds treatment (with and without Trichoderma spp. in the subplots. At the flowering stage, three corn plants per subplot were collected for the assessment of DM production. At physiological maturity stage, the incidence of stalk rot was assessed, and the ears of corn harvested for productivity assessment. The organic and mineral fertilizers increased the production of DM and productivity of corn. Trichoderma spp. increased the production of DM of corn, but had no reflection on productivity. The incidence of stalk rot in corn was higher in treatments with organic and mineral fertilization. Organic fertilizers increase dry matter production of shoot and corn yield, and Trichoderma spp. provides an increase in dry matter production of shoot.

  6. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Zahirul I; Hulke, Brent S; Qi, Lili; Scheffler, Brian E; Pegadaraju, Venkatramana; McPhee, Kevin; Gulya, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Functional markers for Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance in sunflower were obtained using gene-level information from the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. Sclerotinia stalk rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers for genes controlling resistance to S. sclerotiorum will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana defense genes known to be associated with Sclerotinia disease resistance in a sunflower association mapping population evaluated for Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance. The total candidate gene sequence regions covered a concatenated length of 3,791 bp per individual. A total of 187 polymorphic sites were detected for all candidate gene sequences, 149 of which were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 38 were insertions/deletions. Eight SNPs in the coding regions led to changes in amino acid codons. Linkage disequilibrium decay throughout the candidate gene regions declined on average to an r (2) = 0.2 for genetic intervals of 120 bp, but extended up to 350 bp with r (2) = 0.1. A general linear model with modification to account for population structure was found the best fitting model for this population and was used for association mapping. Both HaCOI1-1 and HaCOI1-2 were found to be strongly associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance and explained 7.4 % of phenotypic variation in this population. These SNP markers associated with Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance can potentially be applied to the selection of favorable genotypes, which will significantly improve the efficiency of MAS during the development of stalk rot resistant cultivars.

  7. Biological Control of Fusarium Stalk Rot of Maize Using Bacillus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is an economically important crop in worldwide. While the consumption of the maize is steadily increasing, the yield is decreasing due to continuous mono-cultivation and infection of soil-borne fungal pathogens such as Fusarium species. Recently, stalk rot disease in maize, caused by F. subglutinans and F. temperatum has been reported in Korea. In this study, we isolated bacterial isolates in rhizosphere soil of maize and subsequently tested for antagonistic activities against F. subglutinans and F. temperatum. A total of 1,357 bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere. Among them three bacterial isolates (GC02, GC07, GC08 were selected, based on antagonistic effects against Fusarium species. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were most efficient in inhibiting the mycelium growth of the pathogens. The three isolates GC02, GC07 and GC08 were identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. thuringiensis using 16S rRNA sequence analysis, respectively. GC02 and GC07 bacterial suspensions were able to suppress over 80% conidial germination of the pathogens. GC02, GC07 and GC08 were capable of producing large quantities of protease enzymes, whereas the isolates GC07 and GC08 produced cellulase enzymes. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were more efficient in phosphate solubilization and siderophore production than GC08. Analysis of disease suppression revealed that GC07 was most effective in suppressing the disease development of stalk rot. It was also found that B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 have an ability to inhibit the growth of other plant pathogenic fungi. This study indicated B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 has potential for being used for the development of a biological control agent.

  8. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant against Fusarium verticillioides to Control Stalk and Ear Rot Disease of Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Narayan Borah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.. F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F. verticillioides was evaluated in vitro on maize stalks and seeds. Further, the effect of RL on the mycelia of F. verticillioides was investigated by scanning electron microscopy which revealed visible damage to the mycelial structure as compared to control samples. In planta, treatment of maize seeds with a RL concentration of 50 mg l-1 resulted in improved biomass and fruiting compared to those of healthy control plants and complete suppression of characteristic disease symptoms and colonization of maize by F. verticillioides. The study highlights the potential of RLs to be used for an effective biocontrol strategy against colonization of maize plant by F. verticillioides.

  9. Genotyping-by-sequencing uncovers the introgression alien segments associated with Sclerotinia basal stalk rot resistance from wild species—I. Helianthus argophyllus and H. petiolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR), caused by Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease in sunflower worldwide. The progress of breeding for Sclerotinia BSR resistance has been hampered due to the lack of effective sources of resistance for cultivated sunflower. Our objective was to transfer BSR resista...

  10. Identification of sources of resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nicoli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Adoption of resistant cultivars is the primary measure used to control anthracnose stalk rot. The goal of this study was to identify maize-resistant genotypes to anthracnose stalk rot, which are similar to the hybrid 2B710. Experiments were performed at Embrapa Maize and Sorghum experimental fields in Brazil. The first experimental trial evaluated 234 maize lines as well as two commercials hybrids, BRS1010 (susceptible and 2B710 (resistant. Artificial inoculations were performed with a strain at the blister (R2 phase, and evaluation of disease severity was performed after 30 days. The second experimental trial evaluated 48 maize lines and hybrids, inoculated with two Colletotrichum graminicola strains. In the first trial, eight resistance groups were formed, and the last lines were more resistant, as was the hybrid 2B710, with values between 11.50% and 23.0% of severity. In the second trial, there was an interaction between the two factors, lines and isolates, and the lines often showed the same reaction features as those obtained in the first trial. However, the disease severity was higher for most lines, even when using other isolates. These lines with effective levels of resistance could be used in future studies of inheritance, in programs to develop hybrids, and to identify molecular markers associated with resistance to anthracnose stalk rot in maize.

  11. A transposon-directed epigenetic change in ZmCCT underlies quantitative resistance to Gibberella stalk rot in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Qin; Wang, Weixiang; Li, Yipu; Guo, Yanling; Zhang, Dongfeng; Ma, Xuena; Song, Wei; Zhao, Jiuran; Xu, Mingliang

    2017-09-01

    A major resistance quantitative trait locus, qRfg1, significantly enhances maize resistance to Gibberella stalk rot, a devastating disease caused by Fusarium graminearum. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. We adopted a map-based cloning approach to identify the resistance gene at qRfg1 and examined the dynamic epigenetic changes during qRfg1-mediated maize resistance to the disease. A CCT domain-containing gene, ZmCCT, is the causal gene at the qRfg1 locus and a polymorphic CACTA-like transposable element (TE1) c. 2.4 kb upstream of ZmCCT is the genetic determinant of allelic variation. The non-TE1 ZmCCT allele is in a poised state, with predictive bivalent chromatin enriched for both repressive (H3K27me3/H3K9me3) and active (H3K4me3) histone marks. Upon pathogen challenge, this non-TE1 ZmCCT allele was promptly induced by a rapid yet transient reduction in H3K27me3/H3K9me3 and a progressive decrease in H3K4me3, leading to disease resistance. However, TE1 insertion in ZmCCT caused selective depletion of H3K4me3 and enrichment of methylated GC to suppress the pathogen-induced ZmCCT expression, resulting in disease susceptibility. Moreover, ZmCCT-mediated resistance to Gibberella stalk rot is not affected by photoperiod sensitivity. This chromatin-based regulatory mechanism enables ZmCCT to be more precise and timely in defense against F. graminearum infection. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Foot Rot of Ulluco Caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    OpenAIRE

    Keisuke, TOMIOKA; Toyozo, SATO; Tateo, NAKANISHI; National Agricultural Research Center for Western Region; National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences; National Agricultural Research Center for Western Region

    2002-01-01

    Severe rot of stem bases caused by Pythium aphanidermatum was found on ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus) grown in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan, in September 1999. The name "foot rot of ulluco" is proposed for this new disease.

  13. Pituitary stalk compression by the dorsum sellae: possible cause for late childhood onset growth disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Iwasaki, Satoru; Okamoto, Shingo; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Otake, Shoichiro; Fujioka, Masayuki; Hirohashi, Shinji; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pituitary stalk compression by the dorsum sellae and clinical or laboratory findings in short stature children. We retrospectively reviewed magnetic resonance images of the pituitary gland and pituitary stalk for 34 short stature children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency and 24 age-matched control cases. We evaluated the degree of pituitary stalk compression caused by the dorsum sellae. Body height, GH level, pituitary height and onset age of the short stature were statistically compared between cases of pituitary stalk compression with associated stalk deformity and cases without compression. Compression of the pituitary stalk with associated stalk deformity was seen in nine cases within the short stature group. There were no cases observed in the control group. There were no significant differences found for body height, GH level and pituitary height between the cases of pituitary stalk compression with associated stalk deformity and cases without compression. However, a significant difference was seen in the onset age between cases with and without stalk compression. Pituitary stalk compression with stalk deformity caused by the dorsum sellae was significantly correlated with late childhood onset of short stature.

  14. Stand tending and root rot in Norway spruce stands - economical effects caused by root rot at different thinning regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Mats

    1997-01-01

    This report is divided into three parts: 1) a literature study describing the most common fungi causing rot in wood and descriptions of various strategies to reduce economic loss from root rot, 2) a check of a model describing the development of butt rot in pure Norway spruce plantations in southern Sweden, and 3) simulated economic effects of root rot in stands with various stand tending. The rot model was used to estimate future rot frequencies in the economic calculations. In order to avoid overestimations of rot frequencies, the calculations were also executed when assuming slower growth of rot than shown in the model. When analysing the economical effects of rot, the following three thinning programmes were used: Program 1: thinning at the ages of 30- and 45 years. Final felling at the ages 50-, 55-, 60-, 65-, and 70 years. Program 2: thinning at the ages of 40- and 60- years. Final felling at the ages 65 and 75 years. Program 3: thinning at the ages of 30-, 40-, 55-, and 70 years. Final felling at the ages 80 and 90 years. With an interest rate of 3%, programme 2 (final felling at the age of 65 years) had the highest value at present. This result was valid when presuming butt rot in the stand as well as when presuming no butt rot in the stand. There was a small difference between the value at present in programme 1 (final felling at the age of 60 years) and in programme 3 (final felling at the age of 80 years). When presuming butt rot in the stand, the value at present in programme 3 decreased somewhat more in comparison to the value at present in programme 1. Compared to no butt rot in the stand, the optimal final felling time appeared five to ten years earlier when assuming butt rot in the stand. Stand tending programme 1 and an interest rate of 3% were used. Interest rates 2 and 4% did not indicate shorter rotation. The calculated optimal time of final felling appeared at the same stand age whether assuming rot preset or not. The results in this study

  15. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  16. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  17. Persistence of Gliocephalotrichum spp. causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, fruit rot of rambutan is an important problem that limits the storage, marketing and long-distance transportation of the fruit. A complex of pathogens has been reported to cause fruit rot of rambutan and significant post-harvest economic losses. During 2009 and 2011 rambutan fruit rot was...

  18. Sclerotinia Rot on Basil Caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Sang Hahm

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During growing season of 2011 to 2013, Sclerotinia rot symptoms consistently have been observed on basil in Yesan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do in Korea. The typical symptom formed initially brownish spot on leaf and stem, and then advancing margins, wilting the whole plant and blighting, eventually died. On the surface of diseased lesions was observed cottony, white, dense mat of mycelial growth, and sclerotia (30–100 µm diameter formed on stem and leaf. Morphological and cultural characteristic on potato dextrose agar, color of colony was white and colorless chocolate, sclerotium of irregular shape of the oval was black and 5–50 µm diameter in size. In pathogenicity test, necrosis and wilt of the inoculated stem were observed in all plants and the pathogen was reisolated from stems. On the basis of mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis, this fungus was identified as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This is the first report of Sclerotinia rot on basil caused by S. sclerotiorum in Korea.

  19. Root rots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  20. Fungicides reduce Rhododendron root rot and mortality caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, but not by P. plurivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhododendron root rot, caused by several Phytophthora species, can cause devastating losses in nursery-grown plants. Most research on chemical control of root rot has focused on Phytophthora cinnamomi. However, it is unknown whether treatments recommended for P. cinnamomi are also effective for othe...

  1. First report of Fusarium redolens causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium spp., is a yield-limiting disease of wheat world-wide, especially in dry Mediterranean climates. In order to identify Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat, a survey was conducted in summer 2013 in the major wheat growing regions of T...

  2. Delayed diagnosis of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome with severe recurrent hyponatremia caused by adrenal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Mi Jang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS involves the occurrence of a thin or absent pituitary stalk, hypoplasia of the adenohypophysis, and ectopic neurohypophysis. Diagnosis is confirmed using magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with PSIS have a variable degree of pituitary hormone deficiency and a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. The clinical course of the disease in our patient is similar to that of a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. This is thought to be caused by failure in the suppression of vasopressin secretion due to hypocortisolism. To the best of our knowledge, there is no case report of a patient with PSIS presenting with hyponatremia as the first symptom in Korean children. Herein, we report a patient with PSIS presenting severe recurrent hyponatremia as the first symptom, during adolescence and explain the pathophysiology of hyponatremia with secondary adrenal insufficiency.

  3. First report of in-vitro fludioxonil-resistant isolates of Fusarium spp. causing potato dry rot in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium species and is of worldwide importance. Measures for controlling dry rot in storage are limited. Dry rot has been managed primarily by reducing tuber bruising, providing conditions for rapid wound heal...

  4. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm caused by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Date palm is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of several countries, including Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, North Africa etc. Inflorescence rot is a serious disease of date palm which limits its yield. The identification of the causal organism is a key step to tackling this disease, and such studies ...

  5. Two unusual causes of pituitary stalk thickening in children without clinical features of diabetes insipidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Furlan, Gisella; Fieggen, Anthony G.; Wilmshurst, Jo

    2003-01-01

    Pituitary stalk thickening has a wide differential diagnosis, but almost all infundibular diseases present with diabetes insipidus (DI). We present a child with metastatic involvement of the pituitary stalk from a primary pontine tumour and a child with tuberculous infiltration of the pituitary stalk and associated meningeal inflammation. Neither child presented with DI. Even though both metastatic disease and tuberculous infiltration of the stalk have been reported in adults, these are the first reports with accompanying cross-sectional images of pituitary stalk involvement by these diseases in children. (orig.)

  6. Two unusual causes of pituitary stalk thickening in children without clinical features of diabetes insipidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Furlan, Gisella; Fieggen, Anthony G.; Wilmshurst, Jo [Department of Paediatric Neuroradiology, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, 7700, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-07-01

    Pituitary stalk thickening has a wide differential diagnosis, but almost all infundibular diseases present with diabetes insipidus (DI). We present a child with metastatic involvement of the pituitary stalk from a primary pontine tumour and a child with tuberculous infiltration of the pituitary stalk and associated meningeal inflammation. Neither child presented with DI. Even though both metastatic disease and tuberculous infiltration of the stalk have been reported in adults, these are the first reports with accompanying cross-sectional images of pituitary stalk involvement by these diseases in children. (orig.)

  7. Root rot symptoms in sugar beet lines caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum may cause both Fusarium yellows and Fusarium root rot diseases with severe yield losses in cultivated sugar beet worldwide. These two diseases cause similar foliar symptoms but different root response and have been proposed to be due to two distinct F. oxyspo...

  8. Simultaneous Detection of Brown Rot- and Soft Rot-Causing Bacterial Pathogens from Potato Tubers Through Multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, R K; Singh, Dinesh; Baranwal, V K

    2016-11-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi et al. and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al. (Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum) are the two major bacterial pathogens of potato causing brown rot (wilt) and soft rot diseases, respectively, in the field and during storage. Reliable and early detection of these pathogens are keys to avoid occurrence of these diseases in potato crops and reduce yield loss. In the present study, multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed for simultaneous detection of R. solanacearum and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora from potato tubers. A set of oligos targeting the pectatelyase (pel) gene of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora and the universal primers based on 16S r RNA gene of R. solanacearum were used. The standardized multiplex PCR protocol could detect R. solanacearum and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora up to 0.01 and 1.0 ng of genomic DNA, respectively. The protocol was further validated on 96 stored potato tuber samples, collected from different potato-growing states of India, viz. Uttarakhand, Odisha, Meghalaya and Delhi. 53.1 % tuber samples were positive for R. solanacearum, and 15.1 % of samples were positive for E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, and both the pathogens were positive in 26.0 % samples when BIO-PCR was used. This method offers sensitive, specific, reliable and fast detection of two major bacterial pathogens from potato tubers simultaneously, particularly pathogen-free seed certification in large scale.

  9. Stem rots of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense: pathogen biology and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, C A

    2005-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has been grown in Papua New Guinea since the early 1960s. The most important disease of oil palm in PNG is a stem rot of the palm base. This is the same disease that constitutes a major threat to sustainable oil palm production in SE Asia. Investigations into the causal pathogen have revealed that the stem rots in PNG are caused predominantly by the basidiomycete Ganoderma boninense, with a minor pathogen identified as G. tornatum G. tornatum was found to have a broad host range whereas G. boninense appears to be restricted to palms. The population structure of G. boninense was investigated using inter-fertility studies between isolates collected from basal stem rots on oil palm. Although the G. boninense field populations are predominantly comprised of distinct individuals, a number of isolates were found that share single mating alleles. This indicates that out-crossing had occurred over several generations in the resident or wild population of G. boninense prior to colonization of oil palm. No direct hereditary relationship between isolates on neighbouring diseased palms was found, although an indirect link between isolates causing upper stem rot and basal stem rot was detected.

  10. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Pérombelon, M.C.M.; Jafra, S.; Lojkowska, E.; Potrykus, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Sledz, W.

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in

  11. First report of frosty pod rot caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR) is a devastating cacao disease caused by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri (Aime and Phillips-Mora, 2005). The disease is confined to 13 countries in Central and South America and constitutes a permanent threat for cacao cultivation worldwide. In July 2012, FPR was detect...

  12. Biodiversity of Fusarium species causing ear rot of maize in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görtz, A.; Oerke, E.C.; Steiner, U.; Waalwijk, C.; Vries, de P.M.; Dehne, H.W.

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, maize is one of the most important agriculture commodities, a major component in animal feed as well as an essential substrate producing biogas. Maize car rot poses a major impact worldwide as it is caused by several Fusarium spp., most of which have the ability to produce mycotoxins.

  13. Mucor rot - An emerging postharvest disease of mandarin fruit caused by Mucor piriformis and other Mucor spp. in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, an emerging, undescribed postharvest fruit rot disease was observed on mandarin fruit after extended storage in California. We collected decayed mandarin fruit from three citrus packinghouses in the Central Valley of California in 2015 and identified this disease as Mucor rot caused...

  14. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance the resistance of ginger (Zingiber officinale) to rhizome rot, caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5 g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, relative to the untreated control, with...

  15. rDNA-based characterization of a new binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing root rot on kale in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Buzeto, A.L.; Nakatani, A.K.; Souza, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the first report of the occurrence of a binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing hypocotyl and root rot in kale in Brazil. Rhizoctonia spp. were isolated from kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with symptoms of hypocotyl and root rot. The isolates, characterized as binucleate

  16. Molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to Gibberella ear rot, in corn, caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M Liakat; Taylor, Jeff H; Jie, Liu; Sun, Genlou; William, Manilal; Kasha, Ken J; Reid, Lana M; Pauls, K Peter

    2005-06-01

    Gibberella ear rot, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of corn (Zea mays) grown in northern climates. Infected corn is lower yielding and contains toxins that are dangerous to livestock and humans. Resistance to ear rot in corn is quantitative, specific to the mode of fungal entry (silk channels or kernel wounds), and highly influenced by the environment. Evaluations of ear rot resistance are complex and subjective; and they need to be repeated over several years. All of these factors have hampered attempts to develop F. graminearum resistant corn varieties. The aim of this study was to identify molecular markers linked to the genes for resistance to Gibberella ear rot. A recombinant inbred (RI) population, produced from a cross between a Gibberella ear rot resistant line (CO387) and a susceptible line (CG62), was field-inoculated and scored for Gibberella ear rot symptoms in the F4, F6, and F7 generations. The distributions of disease scores were continuous, indicating that resistance is probably conditioned by multiple loci. A molecular linkage map, based on segregation in the F5 RI population, contained 162 markers distributed over 10 linkage groups and had a total length of 2237 cM with an average distance between markers of 13.8 cM. Composite interval mapping identified 11 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Gibberella ear rot resistance following silk inoculation and 18 QTLs following kernel inoculation in 4 environments that accounted for 6.7%-35% of the total phenotypic variation. Only 2 QTLs (on linkage group 7) were detected in more than 1 test for silk resistance, and only 1 QTL (on linkage group 5) was detected in more than 1 test for kernel resistance, confirming the strong influence of the environment on these traits. The majority of the favorable alleles were derived from the resistant parent (CO387). The germplasm and markers for QTLs with significant phenotypic effects may be useful for marker-assisted selection

  17. Growth without growth hormone in combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome

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    Sang Soo Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is an essential element for normal growth. However, reports of normal growth without GH have been made in patients who have undergone brain surgery for craniopharyngioma. Normal growth without GH can be explained by hyperinsulinemia, hyperprolactinemia, elevated leptin levels, and GH variants; however, its exact mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We diagnosed a female patient aged 13 with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS. The patient has experienced recurrent hypoglycemic seizures since birth, but reached the height of 160 cm at the age of 13, showing normal growth. She grew another 8 cm for 3 years after the diagnosis, and she reached her final adult height of 168 cm which was greater than the midparental height, at the age of 16. The patient's blood GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels were consistently subnormal, although her insulin levels were normal. Her physical examination conducted at the age of 15 showed truncal obesity, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis, which are metabolic features of GH deficiency (GHD. Herein, we report a case in which a PSIS-induced CPHD patient attained her final height above mid parental height despite a severe GHD.

  18. A rare cause of hyperprolactinemia: persistent trigeminal artery with stalk-section effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, G.; Baltacioglu, F.; Cimsit, C.; Akpinar, I.; Erzen, C.; Kilic, T.; Pamir, N.

    2001-01-01

    The primitive trigeminal, otic, hypoglossal, and proatlantal intersegmental arteries are fetal anastomoses between the carotid and vertebrobasilar systems. Persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most frequent embryonic communication between the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems in adults. We report a case of PTA compressing the left side of the pituitary gland and stalk, in a patient with elevated blood prolactin level. (orig.)

  19. Report of postharvest rot of kiwifruit in Korea caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Han; Kwon, Young Ho; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2015-08-03

    In May 2014, sclerotinia rot symptoms caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were observed on stored kiwifruit in Jinju, South Korea. The symptoms appeared as soft, water-soaked lesions on fruit covered with a white mycelium. The morphological characteristics and the internal transcribed spacer sequences of rRNA of the pathogen isolated from the sclerotinia rot showed it to be S. sclerotiorum. This was confirmed by performing a pathogenicity test with pure cultures of S. sclerotiorum and by reisolating S. sclerotiorum from artificially inoculated kiwifruits. Our results should help promote a better understanding of the diseases that affect kiwifruit and improve practices for postharvest disease control in the kiwifruit industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential of bulb-associated bacteria for biocontrol of hyacinth soft rot caused by Dickeya zeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafra, S; Przysowa, J; Gwizdek-Wiśniewska, A; van der Wolf, J M

    2009-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were selected on the basis of antibiosis against D. zeae, siderophore production, and the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs)-inactivation. In in vitro assays, 35 out of 565 hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates produced antimicrobial substances against D. zeae, whereas 20 degraded AHLs, and 35 produced siderophores. Isolates of interest were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and reaction in BIOLOG tests. Twenty-six isolates that differed in characteristics were selected for pathogenicity testing on hyacinth cultivars, Pink Pearl and Carnegie. Two strains identified as Rahnella aquatilis and one as Erwinia persicinus significantly reduced tissue maceration caused by D. zeae 2019 on hyacinth bulbs, but not on leaves. Hyacinth bulbs harbour bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups that are antagonistic to D. zeae, and some can attenuate decay of bulb tissue. Selected hyacinth-associated bacterial isolates have potential for control of soft rot disease caused by D. zeae in hyacinth bulb production.

  1. Rhizopus Soft Rot on Lily Caused by Rhizopus oryzae in Korea

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    Soo-Sang Hahm

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus soft rot of lily (Lilium longiflorum caused by Rhizopus oryzae was observed in the experimental field in Taean Lily Experiment Station in Korea, 2012. The typical symptoms were water-soaked lesions on bottom stem and leaf rot. The lesion rapidly expanded and the plant was softened totally. The fungus grew vigorously at an optimum temperature (25oC and brownish colony and black sporangia were formed on potato dextrose agar medium. Sporangiophores formed on end of sporangia were sub-globose, brownish and 6-10 μm in size. Sporangia were globose, blackish and 87-116 μm in size. Sporangiospores were irregularly oval and sub-globose, brownish 4-8 μm in size. On the basis of mycological characteristics, analyzing sequences of internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, and pathogenicity test on host plants, the causal fungus was identified as R. oryzae. This is the first report of Rhizopus soft rot on lily caused by R. oryzae in Korea.

  2. Interaction between N-fertilizer and water availability on borer-rot complex in sugarcane

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    Luiz Eduardo da Rocha Pannuti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrogen availability in fertigation and rainfed management, as well as their interactions with the incidence of and damage caused by D. saccharalis and red rot in sugarcane. The experiment consisted of four treatments (0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer with irrigation; 0 and 150 kg ha–1 of N-fertilizer in rainfed management in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The evaluated parameters were the number of holes and internodes with red rot per meter of cultivation, stalk yield and sugar content. In the laboratory (T = 25 ± 2 °C; R.H. = 70 ± 10%: 12:12-L:D, we evaluated the attractiveness and consumption of fragments of stalks from the different treatments for fourth instar larvae through choice and no-choice tests in a randomized complete block design with ten replications. Nitrogen fertilization via irrigation has favorable effects on borer-rot complex and leads to higher gains in stalk and sugar yields when compared to rainfed management. The increments of stalk and sugar yields due to nitrogen fertilization compensates for the increase in borer-rot complex infestation. In laboratory tests, D. saccharalis larvae were similarly attracted to all treatments regardless of the doses of N-fertilizer or the water regimes evaluated. However, fragments of sugarcane stalks produced with nitrogen fertilization were consumed more by D. saccharalis in both water regimes.

  3. Lettuce genotype resistance to "soft rot" caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum

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    Kátia Cilene da Silva Felix

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot, caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc, is the main bacterial disease affecting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. crops in Brazil and leads to significant yield losses. This study aimed to assess the reaction of lettuce genotypes to soft rot induced by a virulent isolate and the stability of the resistance to three isolates varying in virulence. Using a descriptive ordinal scale ranging from 1 to 9 a classification system was defined: class 1 = resistant (R: severity (Sev 3.5. Of the 41 tested genotypes, 14 were classified as MR and 27 as S when inoculated with a Pcc isolate of intermediate virulence. Eleven of these genotypes (four S and seven MR were selected to test their resistance stability against three other isolates with an increasing degree of virulence (Pcc36 < Pcc-A1.1 < Pcc-23. Out of the 11 genotypes eight retained the original classification and three moved from S to MR resistant class when challenged with the least virulent isolate. Vitória de Santo Antão was the only genotype classified as MR for all tested isolates and is a promising candidate for durable soft rot resistance breeding.

  4. Effects of Fungicides, Essential Oils and Gamma Irradiated Bioagents on Chickpea Root Rot Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Batal, A.I.; Fathy, R.M.; Ismail, A.A.; Mubark, H.M.; Mahmoud, Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii (S. rolfsii) causes root rot disease in several crops including Cicer arietinum (chickpea) that results in low yield. In vitro experiments on fungicides, vitavax and monceren T, and essential oils, clove and mint oils, were conducted to control root rot disease of chickpea caused by S. rolfsii. The treatments resulted in 80 % suppression of root rot disease. Gliocladium virens (G. virens) and Gliocladium deliquescens (G. deliquescens) were effective as biocontrol agents against S. rolfsii. The results showed that these treatments greatly reduced the root rot disease in chickpea. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy on the pathogenecity of G. virens and G. deliquescens against S. rolfsii were investigated. The results revealed that gamma irradiation increased the pathogenecity of G. virens and G. deliquescens against S. rolfsii

  5. Desfolha, população de plantas e precocidade do milho afetam a incidência e a severidade de podridões de colmo Defoliation, plant population, and earliness of maize affect the incidence and severity of stalk rots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Bassay Blum

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available As relações entre fonte e dreno interferem sobre a ocorrência de podridões de colmo na cultura do milho (Zea mays. O estudo foi conduzido em Lages, SC, para avaliar o efeito da desfolha, população de plantas e híbridos sobre as podridões do colmo do milho. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com parcelas sub-subdivididas e três repetições. Os híbridos P32R21 (superprecoce, Premium (precoce e C333B (tardio foram testados sem desfolha e com 50% de desfolha no estágio de espigamento nas populações de 25.000, 50.000, 75.000 e 100.000 plantas ha-1. Avaliaram-se a incidência e a severidade das podridões do colmo causadas por Colletotrichum graminicola, Diplodia maydis e Fusarium moniliforme. O híbrido P32R21 foi o mais afetado pelos fungos causadores de podridões. Nos híbridos P32R21 e Premium, as plantas desfolhadas foram mais severamente infectadas pelos patógenos do que as intactas. O aumento da população de plantas aumentou a intensidade (incidência ou severidade de podridões de colmo nas plantas intactas e diminuiu a ocorrência nas desfolhadas.The relationship between source and sink interferes on maize (Zea mays stalk rot occurrence. This study was conducted in Lages, SC, Brazil, to evaluate the effect of defoliation, plant population, and hybrids on the intensity (incidence or severity of maize stalk rots. The experiment was set in a randomized complete block design (three replications with a split-split-plot arrangement. The hybrids P32R21 (very early, Premium (early and C333B (late were tested without defoliation and with 50% defoliation on ear formation stage at plant populations of 25,000, 50,000, 75,000, and 100,000 plants ha-1. The incidence and severity of Colletotrichum graminicola, Diplodia maydis and Fusarium moniliforme stalk rots were evaluated. The hybrid P32R21 was the most affected by stalk rots. Defoliation enhanced rots on P32R21 and Premium. Enhancements in plant population increased

  6. Etiology and Population Genetics of Colletotrichum spp. Causing Crown and Fruit Rot of Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña-Padilla, A R; Mackenzie, S J; Bowen, B W; Legard, D E

    2002-11-01

    ABSTRACT Isolates of Colletotrichum spp. from diseased strawberry fruit and crowns were evaluated to determine their genetic diversity and the etiology of the diseases. Isolates were identified to species using polymerase chain reaction primers for a ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and their pathogenicity was evaluated in bioassays. Isolates were scored for variation at 40 putative genetic loci with random amplified polymorphic DNA and microsatellite markers. Only C. acutatum was recovered from diseased fruit. Nearly all isolates from crowns were C. gloeosporioides. In crown bioassays, only isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry caused collapse and death of plants. A dendrogram generated from the genetic analysis identified several primary lineages. One lineage included isolates of C. acutatum from fruit and was characterized by low diversity. Another lineage included isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns and was highly polymorphic. The isolates from strawberry formed distinctive clusters separate from citrus isolates. Evaluation of linkage disequilibrium among polymorphic loci in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns revealed a low level of disequilibrium as would be expected in sexually recombining populations. These results suggest that epidemics of crown rot are caused by Glomerella cingulata (anamorph C. gloeosporioides) and that epidemics of fruit rot are caused by C. acutatum.

  7. Integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad-Uz-Zaman, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rejwan; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Alam Bhuiyan, Md Khurshed; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-02-01

    An investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) through the integration of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolate STA7, mustard oil cake and Provax 200. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective isolate of T. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. The pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of R. solani was evaluated against strawberry and isolate SR1 was selected as the test pathogen due to its highest virulent (95.47% mortality) characteristics. Among the 20 isolates of T. harzianum, isolate STA7 showed maximum inhibition (71.97%) against the test pathogen (R. solani). Among the fungicides, Provax-200 was found to be more effective at lowest concentration (100 ppm) and highly compatible with Trichoderma isolates STA7. In the case of organic amendments, maximum inhibition (59.66%) of R. solani was obtained through mustard oil cake at the highest concentration (3%), which was significantly superior to other amendments. Minimum percentages of diseased roots were obtained with pathogen (R. solani)+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment, while the highest was observed with healthy seedlings with a pathogen-inoculated soil. In the case of leaf and fruit rot diseases, significantly lowest infected leaves as well as fruit rot were observed with a pathogen+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment in comparison with the control. A similar trend of high effectiveness was observed by the integration of Trichoderma, fungicide and organic amendments in controlling root rot and fruit diseases of strawberry. Single application of Trichoderma isolate STA7, Provax 200 or mustard oil cake did not show satisfactory performance in terms of disease-free plants, but when they were applied in combination, the number of healthy plants increased significantly. The

  8. Detection, identification and differentiation of Pectobacterium and Dickeya species causing potato blackleg and tuber soft rot: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, R; Pérombelon, McM; Jafra, S; Lojkowska, E; Potrykus, M; van der Wolf, Jm; Sledz, W

    2015-01-01

    The soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium and Dickeya species (formerly classified as pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) cause important diseases on potato and other arable and horticultural crops. They may affect the growing potato plant causing blackleg and are responsible for tuber soft rot in storage thereby reducing yield and quality. Efficient and cost-effective detection and identification methods are essential to investigate the ecology and pathogenesis of the SRE as well as in seed certification programmes. The aim of this review was to collect all existing information on methods available for SRE detection. The review reports on the sampling and preparation of plant material for testing and on over thirty methods to detect, identify and differentiate the soft rot and blackleg causing bacteria to species and subspecies level. These include methods based on biochemical characters, serology, molecular techniques which rely on DNA sequence amplification as well as several less-investigated ones.

  9. Characteristics of Brown Rot Caused by Monilinia fructicola on Stone Fruit in Korea

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    Hun-Tak Oh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In June and July 2015 and 2017, typical signs and symptoms of brown rot were observed on the fruit of Japanese apricot, peach, apricot, Japanese plum, and sweet cherry with incidence levels of 2-5% in Jeonju and Imsil, Korea. Early symptoms were small, circular, light brown spots that eventually destroyed entire fruit. Small sporodochia later appeared on the surface. Conidia isolated from each host were one-celled, hyaline, lemon-shaped and borne in branched monilioid chains. The optimal temperature range for hyphal growth of all the isolates was 20-25°C. The growth of hyphae was faster on potato dextrose agar and oatmeal agar than others. Multiple alignments using the ITS sequences from different host showed that they matched each other (100%. The ITS sequences showed 100% identity to those of M. fructicola. Based on the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis via internal transcribed spacer (ITS, all the isolate was identified as M. fructicola. Pathogenicity of representative isolates was proved by artificial inoculation, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. This is the first confirmed report on brown rot caused by M. fructicola on stone fruit in Korea.

  10. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Poten tial Mycotoxin Production in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canxing Duan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  11. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. PMID:27338476

  12. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-06-21

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B₁, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China.

  13. Analysis of microbial taxonomical groups present in maize stalks suppressive to colonization by toxigenic Fusarium spp.: A strategy for the identification of potential antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Moretti, A.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Somma, S.; Kastelein, P.

    2015-01-01

    Pink ear rot of maize caused by Fusarium verticillioides, Fusariumproliferatum and Fusariumgraminearumcan lead to severe yield losses and contamination of grain with a range of mycotoxins. Maize stalks colonized by Fusarium spp. are the main primary inoculum source for Fusarium incited epidemics in

  14. Research on basal stem rot (BSR) of ornamental palms caused by basidiospores from Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H P; Fong, Y K

    2005-01-01

    Basidiospores were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma infecting oil palms from an estate in Johor and from ornamental palms (including oil palms) from Singapore. The spores were then germinated to obtain homokaryotic mycelia. Based on clamp connection formation in paired hyphal fusions, tester strains were identified from the homokaryons isolated. Compatibility tests were then carried out using these testers to determine the relatedness of the homokaryotic Ganoderma isolates, both from Johor and from Singapore. Results from the compatibility tests showed that Ganoderma from both locations belong to the same species, while the Ganoderma isolates from Singapore share some common alleles. The pathogenicity tests carried out on Chrysalidocarpus lutescens seedlings using inoculum growing on rubber wood blocks showed that dikaryotic mycelia can cause basal stem rot infection.

  15. Temporal occurrence and niche preferences of Phytophthora species causing brown rot of citrus in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rot of citrus fruits is caused by several species of Phytophthora and is currently of serious concern for the California citrus industry. Two species, P. syringae and P. hibernalis, are quarantine pathogens in China, a major export market for California citrus. To maintain trade and estimate t...

  16. Development of Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici on resistant and susceptible watermelon fruit of different ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon is an important crop grown in 44 states in the United States. Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is a serious disease in the southeastern U.S., where over 50% of the watermelons are produced. The disease has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers, especially in...

  17. Potential of bulb-associated bacteria for biocontrol of hyacinth soft rot caused by Dickeya zeae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafra, S.; Przysowa, J.; Gwizdek-Wisniewska, A.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were

  18. First report of Colletotrichum fructicola and C. queenslandicum causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In rambutan production, fruit rot is the main pre- and post-harvest disease of concern. In a 2008-2013 fruit disease survey, fruit rot was observed in eight orchards in Puerto Rico. Infected fruit were collected and 1 mm2 tissue sections were surface disinfested with 70% ethanol followed by 0.5% sod...

  19. First Report of Calonectria hongkongensis Causing Fruit Rot of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Latoni-Brailowsky, E.I.; Rivera-Vargas, L.I.; Goenaga, R.J.; Crous, P.W.; French-Monar, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Fruit rot of rambutan is a pre- and post-harvest disease problem of rambutan orchards. In 2011, fruit rot was observed at USDA-ARS orchards in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Infected fruit were collected and 1 mm2 tissue sections were surface disinfested with 70% ethanol followed by 0.5% sodium

  20. First report of Calonectria hongkongensis causing fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit rot is a major pre- and post-harvest disease problem in rambutan orchards. In 2011, fruit rot was observed at the USDA-TARS orchards in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Infected fruit were collected and tissue sections (1 mm2) were superficially sterilized with 70% ethanol and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. ...

  1. The persistence of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit rot of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a pre and post-harvest disease problem that affects fruit quality. Significant post-harvest losses have occurred worldwide and several pathogens have been identified in Malaysia, Costa Rica, Hawaii, Thailand, and Puerto Rico. In 2011, fruit rot was o...

  2. Pathogenicity and genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum causing soybean root rot in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is an important edible legume cultivated around the world. However, soybean production is seriously impacted by the widespread occurrence of root rot disease. In this study, genetic diversity and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot of soybean in Heilongjiang province...

  3. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad SAADOUN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicotianae, while the cultivars Beldi and Baker were susceptible. Plant inoculations were performed with P. nicotianae zoospores, and severity of root rot was rated 30 days post- inoculation using a 0 (healthy plant to 5 (dead plant severity score. On SCM334 rootstock and with ‘Beldi’ or ‘Baker’ scions, the intensity of root rot was very low (mean score 0.1–0.2 and plants were healthy. However, with Baker or Beldi rootstocks and SCM334 scions, root rot was severe (mean score 3.1–4.6, leading to high numbers of wilting and dead plants. This severe root rot was similar to that observed on non-grafted plants of ‘Baker’ and ‘Beldi’ inoculated with the pathogen. Under greenhouse conditions, measurements of agronomic characters indicated non-consistent improvement of these features on the scion cultivar when SCM334 was the rootstock. Since plant foliage is not attacked by this pathogen, these results show that susceptible chili pepper scions grafted onto SCM334 rootstocks could be used for root rot management and improvement of pepper yields in P. nicotianae infested soils.

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Dickeya sp. Isolates B16 (NIB Z 2098) and S1 (NIB Z 2099) Causing Soft Rot of Phalaenopsis Orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alič, Špela; Naglič, Tina; Llop, Pablo; Toplak, Nataša; Koren, Simon; Ravnikar, Maja; Dreo, Tanja

    2015-09-10

    The genus Dickeya contains bacteria causing soft rot of economically important crops and ornamental plants. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of two Dickeya sp. isolates from rotted leaves of Phalaenopsis orchids. Copyright © 2015 Alič et al.

  5. [Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. to fungi caused root rot of Sophora tonkinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liu-yan; Jiang, Ni; Tang, Mei-qiong; Miao, Jian-hua; Li, Lin-xuan

    2011-04-01

    To study the antagonism of Trichoderma spp. to fungi S9(Fusarium solani)which caused root rot of Sophora tonkinensis and discuss the further develop prospects of microbial biological control in soil-borne diseases on Chinese herbal medicines. Antagonism of H2 (Trichoderma harsianum), M6 (Trichoderma viride) and K1 (Trichoderma koningii) to Fusarium solani were researched by growth rate and confront culture. And their mechanisms were discussed. H2 and M6 had obvious competitive advantage, the growth rate of which were 1.43-2.72 times and 1.43-1.95 times as S9 respectively. The space competitive advantage of K1 was relatively weak; the growth rate was slower than S9. The antagonism of three species of Trichoderma spp. to S9 was in varying degrees. The antagonism to S9 of M6 and H2 was better,the inhibition rate were 100% and 82.35% respectively, even cultivated S9 for three days in advance. And their inhibition indexes were both reached class I. The inhibition index and inhibition rate of K1 was respectively 46.36% and class IV. The Trichoderma spp. could cause S9 mycelium to appear some phenomenon just like fracture, constriction reduced, digestion, etc. which were observed under the microscope. Trichoderma harsianum and Trichoderma viride showed the further develop prospects in the fight against soil-borne disease on Chinese herbal medicines.

  6. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália.

  7. Hendersonia Creberrima, the cause of soft brown rot of mango in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Van der westhuizen, G.C.A.

    1976-01-01

    A soft brown rot of mangoes in South Africa, is especially severe in export fruit kept in cold storage for prolonged periods. At present mangoes can be exported most economically by sea. This involves storage at 11 0 C for approximately 21 days. Unfortunately, these appear to be ideal conditions for the development of soft brown rot. Losses as high as 80% were recorded. The South African fungus agrees in morphology and cultural characters with Hendersonia Creberrima

  8. Control of root rot of chickpea caused by Sclerotium rolfsii by different agents and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasha Mohammed Fathy El- Said, R.M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii causes root rot disease in several crops including chickpea that result in low yield. Artificial infection of chickpea seedlings by S. rolfsii in vitro demonstrated that different tissues of the plant completely disintegrated by fungal infection. In vitro and green house pot experiments demonstrated that inducers in combination with fungicides, oils and bio agents resulted in about 80 % suppression of root rot disease. Treatments have no phyto toxic effect on chickpea seedlings at low doses. Gliocladium virens and Gliocladium deliquescens were effective as biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii. The percent of survival plants, fresh weight, dry weight and plant height of chickpea plants increased with different treatments with inducers compared with the control. Chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll amounts increased to the maximum values. The activity of two plant enzymes, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase increased. In this study, gamma irradiation of chickpea seeds at doses 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Gy have negative effect on survival, plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of chickpea. The effect of gamma irradiation at doses 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy on the antagonistic effect of Gliocladium virens and Gliocladium deliquescens against S. rolfsii were investigated. The results revealed that gamma irradiation increase the antagonistic effect of Gliocladium virens and Gliocladium deliquescens against S. rolfsii . Effect of gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 5 kGy on the mycelial growth and pathogenicity of S. rolfsii were investigated. The results revealed that gamma irradiation at doses 0.25 up to 3.0 kGy increase the pathogenicity of S. rolfsii but gamma irradiation at dose 5.0 kGy completely inhibited the growth of S. rolfsii. Extracellular polygalacturonase was characterized and purified by precipitation with 70 % ammonium sulfate, dialysis and gel filtration through Sephadex 75

  9. Wheat protection from root rot caused by fusarium culmorum using silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashed, A.O.M.; Mohamed, A.A.R.; Abobakr, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials have a positive impact on agriculture. Silver nanoparticles were used to enhance seed germination, plant growth, and as antimicrobial agents to control plant diseases. In the present study, the effectiveness of silver nanoparticles on seed germination of wheat, growth parameters, and control of root rot disease caused by Fusarium culmorum were examined. Three different concentrations (10, 20, and 40 mg/l) were used. Exposure to AgNPs had no significant effects on the seed germination at 10 mg/l and 20 mg/l while at 40 mg/l significant effects were observed compared to that in the control (untreated). Germination was highest (86 percent) after exposure to 20 mg/l of AgNPs. AgNPs, at all concentrations tested, had significant effects on the pre-emergence, post-emergence and survival as compared to the control (infected and untreated with AgNPs); the highest effects were observed after exposure to 40 mg/l of AgNPs (15, 10, and 75 percent respectively). Additionally, our results indicate that plant height, fresh weight, and dry weight were significantly increased at 10 mg/l (23.4 cm, 6 g, and 1.45 g), and 20 mg/l (27.3 cm, 7.5 g, and 1.98 g) respectively, compared with that of the control. However, higher concentration (40 mg/l) of AgNPs decreased the growth parameters. (author)

  10. Genetic Diversity Among Colletotrichum falcatum Isolates Causing Red Rot of Sugarcane in Subtropical Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratinderbir KAUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver Genetic diversity of Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot of sugarcane was assessed based on morphological, pathological and molecular characteristics especially from sub-tropical Indian conditions. Sixteen isolates of this pathogen were collected based on the extensive survey on prominent varieties grown in the region along with some elite selections. Morphological observations (colony colour, mycelium pattern and sporulation grouped the isolates into two distinct types (C1: light type and C2: dark type. However, quantitative data on colony diameter showed five clusters for these isolates. Pathogenic characterization of these isolates on fourteen standard differentials formed six groups, ingroup 1: (CF-Pb-1 isolates Cf-157, Cf-249 and Cf-248 were the most virulent while group 6 (CF-Pb-6 isolates Cf-60 and Cf-247 were the least one. The genetic relatedness among the isolates using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis revealed sufficient molecular polymorphism, which in turn confirmed the variation in virulence of different isolates. The data categorized different isolates into two major clusters and five independent lineages. Polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.701 to 0.929. Isolate Cf-223 was found to be genetically most diverse among all the isolates. Present study inferred that morphological grouping of most of the isolates showed positive correlation with the pathogenic variability while molecular diversity did not showed such associations.

  11. Pathogenic characterization of lasiodplodia causing stem end rot of mango and its control using botanicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, S. F.; Hussain, Y.; Iram, S.

    2017-01-01

    Two widely cultivated mango fruit varieties White chounsa and Sindhri were collected from two major mango growing areas of Punjab and Sindh Provinces of Pakistan. This study was focused on pathological characterization of predominant postharvest diseases such as stem end rot of mango (Mangifera indica) caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and evaluation of bio-control activity by different plant extracts. L. theobromae aggressiveness of isolates was tested by artificial inoculations under controlled conditions, all isolates proved pathogenic in varying degree of aggressiveness on (Sindhri and White chounsa) with reference to control. Calculated standard error mean varied in lesion area produced by pathogens 6-63cm/sup 2/ (Sindhri) and 60-170 cm/sup 2/ (White chounsa). Re-isolation of respective fungi verified the Koch's postulates. Plant extract of Datura stramonium, Aloe-vera, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, were used to control the radial growth of L. theobromae. Comparative analysis showed D. Stramonium and E. camaldulensis extracts most efficiently reduced the growth of Lasiodiplodia isolates, in comparison to Aloe-vera extract, restrict the 15-20% growth. All pathological results and treatments were significant at p<0.05 through ANOVA. This study emphasizes the behavior of pathogens which could be helpful in mango breeding to introduce resistance toward Lasiodiplodia and referred plants provide the best alternative of chemical fungicides. (author)

  12. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amaresh; Keizerweerd, Amber T; Que, Youxiong; Grisham, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, is a destructive disease prevalent in most sugarcane-producing countries. Disease-free sugarcane planting materials (setts) are essential as the pathogen spreads primarily through infected setts. The present study was undertaken to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of C. falcatum. C. falcatum genomic DNA was isolated from pure mycelium culture and infected tissues. Four sets of primers corresponding to a unique DNA sequence specific to C. falcatum were designed. Specificity of the LAMP test was checked with DNA of another fungal pathogen of sugarcane, Puccinia melanocephala, as well as two closely-related species, Colletotrichum fructivorum and Colletotrichum acutatum. No reaction was found with the three pathogens. When C. falcatum DNA from pure culture was used in a detection limit analysis, sensitivity of the LAMP method was observed to be ten times higher than that of conventional PCR; however, sensitivity was only 5 times higher when DNA from C. falcatum-infected tissues was used. Using the LAMP assay, C. falcatum DNA is amplified with high specificity, efficiency, and rapidity under isothermal conditions. Moreover, visual judgment of color change in <1 h without further post-amplification processing makes the LAMP method convenient, economical, and useful in diagnostic laboratories and the field.

  13. Induced resistance in tomato fruit by γ-aminobutyric acid for the control of alternaria rot caused by Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiali; Sun, Cui; Zhang, Yangyang; Fu, Da; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2017-04-15

    The study investigated the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the control of alternaria rot in tomato fruit and the possible mechanism involved. Our results showed exogenous GABA could stimulate remarkable resistance to the alternaria rot, while it had no direct antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, along with the expression of these corresponding genes, were significantly induced in the GABA treatment. The obtained data suggested GABA induced resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen A. alternata, at least in part by activating antioxidant enzymes, restricting the levels of cell death caused by reactive oxygen species. Meanwhile, the key enzyme genes of GABA shunt, GABA transaminase and succinic-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, were found up-regulated in the GABA treatment. The activation of the GABA shunt might play a vital role in the resistance mechanism underpinning GABA-induced plant immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biochemical and physiological responses of oil palm to bud rot caused by Phytophthora palmivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Chacón, Andrés Leonardo; Camperos-Reyes, Jhonatan Eduardo; Ávila Diazgranados, Rodrigo Andrés; Romero, Hernán Mauricio

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, global consumption of palm oil has increased significantly, reaching almost 43 million tons in 2010. The sustainability of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) cultivation has been compromised because of the bud rot disease whose initial symptoms are caused by Phytophthora palmivora. There was a significant incidence of the disease, from an initial stage 1 of the disease to the highest stage 5, that affected photosynthetic parameters, content of pigments, sugars, polyamines, enzymatic antioxidant activities, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and β-(1,3) glucanase (β-Gluc, EC 3.2.1.39). In healthy palms photosynthesis was 13.29 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in average, while in stage 5 the average photosynthesis was around 3.66 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1). Additionally, total chlorophyll was reduced by half at the last stage of the disease. On the contrary, the contents of putrescine, spermine and spermidine increased three, nine and twelve times with respect to stage 5, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and β-(1,3) glucanase showed an increase as the severity of the disease increased, with the latter increasing from 0.71 EAU in healthy palms to 2.60 EAU in plants at stage 5 of the disease. The peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) enzymatic activity and the content of spermidine were the most sensitive indicators of disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. First report of anthracnose fruit rot of blueberry caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose fruit rot is the most important disease of blueberry in New Jersey. Most fungicide applications in New Jersey and other blueberry growing regions is for the control of this disease. The causal agent of this disease has been reported to be Colletotrichum acutatum and other species in the ...

  16. First report of Gliocephalotrichum bulbilium and G. simplex causing fruit rot of rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, significant post-harvest disease losses of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) have been reported and several pathogens have been associated with fruit rot. Even though rambutan was introduced to Puerto Rico in 1927, it was not until 1998 that commercial farms were established in the wester...

  17. Isolation and identification of bacteria causing blackleg and soft rot of potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp. are important causal agents of blackleg and soft rot of potato. To understand the outbreak of blackleg in the Northeastern U.S. in 2015, samples were collected from symptomatic plants, dormant tubers, and surface water in 2016 and 2017. Diseased plant samples wer...

  18. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  19. Pink Mold Rot on Unishiu Orange (Citrus unshiu Mac. Caused by Trichothecium roseum (Pers. Link ex Gray in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyeuk Kwon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, a pink mold rot was observed on unishiu orange (Citrus unshiu Mac. fruits at the Wholesale Market for Agricultural Products, Jinju, Korea. The symptom on unishiu orange was a water-soaked lesion on the surface of fruit, which later on enlarged to form softened brown rot lesions. The diseased fruits were covered with pink-colored mold, consisting of conidia and conidiophores of the pathogen. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth was 25oC. Conidia were hyaline, smooth, 2-celled, and thick-walled conidia with truncate bases, ellipsoidal to pyriform, characteristically held together zig-zag chains and 12−26 × 8−12 μm in size. Conidiophore was erect, colorless, unbranched, and 4−5 μm wide. On the basis of mycological characteristics, pathogenicity test, and molecular analysis with complete ITS rDNA region, the causal fungus was identified as Trichothecium roseum (Pers. Link ex Gray. This is the first report of pink mold rot caused by T. roseum on unishiu orange in Korea.

  20. Chitosan and oligochitosan enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; Wisniewski, Michael; Kennedy, John F; Jiang, Yusong; Tang, Jianmin; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-20

    The ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to enhance ginger (Zingiber officinale) resistance to rhizome rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in storage was investigated. Both chitosan and oligochitosan at 1 and 5g/L significantly inhibited rhizome rot, with the best control at 5g/L. Chitosan and oligochitosan applied at 5g/L also reduced weight loss, measured as a decrease in fresh weight, but did not affect soluble solids content or titratable acidity of rhizomes. The two compounds applied at 5g/L induced β-1,3-glucanase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity and the transcript levels of their coding genes, as well as the total phenolic compounds in rhizome tissues. Therefore, the ability of chitosan and oligochitosan to reduce rot in stored rhizomes may be associated with their ability to induce defense responses in ginger. These results have practical implications for the application of chitosan and oligochitosan to harvested ginger rhizomes to reduce postharvest losses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of biocontrol agents from food microbial isolates for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Schneider, Karin E; Li, Xiu-Zhen

    2008-08-15

    An unconventional strategy of screening food microbes for biocontrol activity was used to develop biocontrol agents for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Forty-four microbial isolates were first screened for their biocontrol activity on apple fruit. Compared with the pathogen-only check, seven of the 44 isolates reduced brown rot incidence by >50%, including four bacteria: Bacillus sp. C06, Lactobacillus sp. C03-b and Bacillus sp. T03-c, Lactobacillus sp. P02 and three yeasts: Saccharomyces delbrueckii A50, S. cerevisiae YE-5 and S. cerevisiae A41. Eight microbial isolates were selected for testing on peaches by wound co-inoculation with mixtures of individual microbial cultures and conidial suspension of M. fructicola. Only two of them showed significant biocontrol activity after five days of incubation at 22 degrees C. Bacillus sp. C06 suppressed brown rot incidence by 92% and reduced lesion diameter by 88% compared to the pathogen-only check. Bacillus sp.T03-c reduced incidence and lesion diameter by 40% and 62%, respectively. The two isolates were compared with Pseudomonas syringae MA-4, a biocontrol agent for post-harvest peach diseases, by immersing peaches in an aliquot containing individual microbial isolates and the pathogen conidia. Treatments with isolates MA-4, C06 and T03-c significantly controlled brown rot by 91, 100, and 100% respectively. However, only isolates MA-4 and C06 significantly reduced brown rot by 80% and 15%, respectively when bacterial cells alone were applied. On naturally infected peaches, both the bacterial culture and its cell-free filtrate of the isolate C06 significantly controlled peach decay resulting in 77 and 90% reduction, respectively, whereas the treatment using only the bacterial cells generally had no effect. Isolate C06 is a single colony isolate obtained from a mesophilic cheese starter, and has been identified belonging to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results have clearly

  2. Control of Fusarium verticillioides, cause of ear rot of maize, by Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Shankar, Arakere C Udaya; Reddy, Munagala S; Niranjana, Siddapura R; Prakash, Harishchandra S; Shetty, Hunthrike S; Mortensen, Carmen N

    2009-07-01

    Maize is one of the staple food crops grown in India. Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is the most important fungal pathogen of maize, associated with diseases such as ear rot and kernel rot. Apart from the disease, it is capable of producing fumonisins, which have elicited considerable attention over the past decade owing to their association with animal disease syndromes. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate ecofriendly approaches by using a maize rhizosphere isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Trev.) Mig. and its formulation to control ear rot disease and fumonisin accumulation, and also to study the capacity to promote growth and yield of maize. In vitro assays were conducted to test the efficacy of P. fluorescens as a seed treatment on seed germination, seedling vigour and also the incidence of F. verticillioides in different maize cultivars. The field trials included both seed treatment and foliar spray. For all the experiments, P. fluorescens was formulated using corn starch, wheat bran and talc powder. In each case there were three different treatments of P. fluorescens, a non-treated control and chemical control. Pure culture and the formulations, in comparison with the control, increased plant growth and vigour as measured by seed germination, seedling vigour, plant height, 1000 seed weight and yield. P. fluorescens pure culture used as seed treatment and as spray treatment enhanced the growth parameters and reduced the incidence of F. verticillioides and the level of fumonisins to a maximum extent compared with the other treatments. The study demonstrates the potential role of P. fluorescens and its formulations in ear rot disease management. The biocontrol potential of this isolate is more suited for fumonisin reduction in maize kernels intended for human and animal feed. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Podridão peduncular e qualidade de mangas 'Tommy atkins' procedentes do mercado atacadista de Campina Grande-PB Stalk rot and quality of 'Tommy atkins' mangos from the wholesale market of Campina Grande-PB, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbs Cintra de Souza Gomes

    2010-12-01

    one of the largest producers of mango (Mangifera indica L. in the world. However, significant losses are observed in all stages of production chain, mainly in the retail market, which are correlated almost entirety to incidence of fungal diseases. In this way, the objective of this study was to determine the incidence of natural infection of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, causal agent of stem-end rot, and postharvest quality of 'Tommy Atkins' mangos, traded in the wholesale market of the Central de Abastecimento (EMPASA from Campina Grande, Paraíba State, Brazil. To determine natural incidence of the disease it was collected 40 fruits at mature-green maturity stage from four different wholesale marketing stores at EMPASA that were sent to Laboratory of Phytopathology (CCA/UFPB. After sanitization, fruits were kept at room conditions (28 ± 2 ºC and RH 75 ± 6% during eight days, determining first symptoms and signals of the pathogen. The characteristics of quality were determined by collecting 10 fruits from each wholesale marketing store. Fruits were transported to the Laboratory of Biology and Postharvest Technology (CCA/UFPB, where it was evaluated Soluble Solids (SS, Titratable Acidity (TA, SS/TA, and pH. Data were subjected to variance analysis of and means compared by the Tukey test at 5% of probability. Mango commercialized in the wholesale market of EMPASA, Campina Grande, showed low SS and high TA contents characterizing fruit at the beginning of maturation. Fruits showed 88.9% of natural incidence of stalk rot in the eighth day of storage, which is deleterious for retail quality of fruits, characterizing a causal factor for the higher postharvest losses.

  5. Basal Root Rot, a new Disease of Teak (Tectona grandis in Malaysia caused by Phellinus noxius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farid, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal root rot of teak was first reported from Sabak Bernam, Selangor making this the first report of the disease on teak in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungus found associated with the disease was Phellinus noxious. The disease aggressively killed its host irrespective of the host health status. Bark depression at the root collar which was visible from a distance was the characteristic symptom and the main indicator in identifying the disease in the plantation since above ground symptoms of the canopy could not be differentiated from crowns of healthy trees. However, although above ground symptoms were not easily discernible, the disease was already advanced and the trees mostly beyond treatment; 3.4 % of the trees in the plantation were affected and the disease occurred both on solitary trees and in patches. Below ground, infected trees had rotted root systems, mainly below and around the collar region with brown discolored wood and irregular golden-brown honeycomb-like pockets of fungal hyphae in the wood. Pathogenicity tests showed that the fungus produced symptoms similar to those observed in the plantation and killed two year-old teak plants. The disease killed all the inoculated hosts within three months, irrespective of wounded or unwounded treatments.

  6. Diagnosis and Integrated Management of Fruit Rot in Cucurbita argyrosperma, Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Díaz Nájera

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit rot is the principal phytopathological problem of pipiana pumpkin (Cucurbita argyrosperma Huber in the state of Guerrero. The aims of this research were to 1 identify the causal agent of southern blight on pumpkin fruits by morphological, pathogenic, and molecular analysis (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2; 2 evaluate in vitro Trichoderma spp. strains and chemical fungicides; and 3 evaluate under rainfed field conditions, the strains that obtained the best results in vitro, combined with fungicides during two crop cycles. Number of commercial and non-commercial fruits at harvest, and seed yield (kg ha-1 were registered. Morphological, pathogenic and molecular characterization identified Sclerotium rolfsii as the causal agent of rot in pipiana pumpkin fruits. Now, in vitro conditions, the highest inhibition of S. rolfsii were obtained by Trichoderma virens strain G-41 (70.72%, T. asperellum strain CSAEGro-1 (69%, and the fungicides metalaxyl (100%, pyraclostrobin (100%, quintozene (100%, cyprodinil + fludioxonil (100%, and prochloraz (100%. Thiophanate-methyl only delayed growth (4.17%. In field conditions, during the spring-summer 2015 cycle, T. asperellum strain CSAEGro-1 + metalaxyl, and T. asperellum + cyprodinil + fludioxonil, favored the highest number of fruits and seed yield in the crop.

  7. Stalking and Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermeyer, Britta; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Sorrentino, Renee; Booth, Brad D

    2016-12-01

    The three widely known stalker classifications assist in categorizing stalkers, which allows for better management of violence risk. Although 80% of stalking is done by men, women also engage in stalking, and their violence risk should not be underestimated. Juvenile stalkers do exist and juvenile stalking is also associated with violence. Clinicians can become a victim of stalking and may become victims of stalking by proxy, a special type of stalking behavior where the stalker involves other people or agencies to communicate with or track their victim. A careful stalking violence risk assessment is essential in the intervention and risk management process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Graham, James H.; Cubero, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reduci...

  9. T4-related bacteriophage LIMEstone isolates for the control of soft rot on potato caused by 'Dickeya solani'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien M Adriaenssens

    Full Text Available The bacterium 'Dickeya solani', an aggressive biovar 3 variant of Dickeya dianthicola, causes rotting and blackleg in potato. To control this pathogen using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized two closely related and specific bacteriophages, vB_DsoM_LIMEstone1 and vB_DsoM_LIMEstone2. The LIMEstone phages have a T4-related genome organization and share DNA similarity with Salmonella phage ViI. Microbiological and molecular characterization of the phages deemed them suitable and promising for use in phage therapy. The phages reduced disease incidence and severity on potato tubers in laboratory assays. In addition, in a field trial of potato tubers, when infected with 'Dickeya solani', the experimental phage treatment resulted in a higher yield. These results form the basis for the development of a bacteriophage-based biocontrol of potato plants and tubers as an alternative for the use of antibiotics.

  10. Investigations on Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins causing Fusarium ear rot of maize in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala-Mayrhofer, Vitore; Varga, Elisabeth; Marjakaj, Robert; Berthiller, Franz; Musolli, Agim; Berisha, Defrime; Kelmendi, Bakir; Lemmens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After wheat, maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important cereal crop in Kosovo and a major component of animal feed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and identity of the Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize kernels in Kosovo in 2009 and 2010, as well as the mycotoxin contamination. The disease incidence of Fusarium ear rot (from 0.7% to 40% diseased ears) on maize in Kosovo is high. The most frequently Fusarium spp. identified on maize kernels were Fusarium subglutinans, F. verticillioides/F. proliferatum and F. graminearum. Maize kernel samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS and found to be contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-sulphate, moniliformin, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2. This is the first report on the incidence and identification of Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize as well as the mycotoxin contamination in Kosovo.

  11. Control of bull’s-eye rot of apple caused by Neofabraea perennans and Neofabraea kienholzii using pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull’s-eye rot is a major postharvest disease of apple caused by several fungi belonging to the Neofabraea and Phlyctema genera. Chemical control of these fungi is a crucial component of disease management for apples that are conventionally grown. The efficacy of several pre-harvest and postharvest ...

  12. Detection and identification of six Monilinia spp. causing brown rot using TaqMan real-time PCR from pure cultures and infected apple fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rot is a severe disease affecting stone and pome fruits. This disease was recently confirmed to be caused by the following six closely related species: Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructigena, Monilia polystroma, Monilia mumecola and Monilia yunnanensis. Because of differenc...

  13. First report of root rot of cowpea caused by Fusarium equiseti in Georgia in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rot was observed on cowpea in Tift County, Georgia, in May of 2015. The disease occurred on approximately 10% of cowpea plants in 2 fields (2 ha). Symptoms appeared as sunken reddish brown lesions on roots and stems under the soil line, secondary roots became dark brown and rotted, and infected...

  14. Efficacy of plant essential oils on postharvest control of rots caused by fungi on different stone fruits in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Reyes, Jorge Giovanny; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2013-04-01

    The antifungal activity of plant essential oils was evaluated as postharvest treatment on stone fruit against brown rot and grey mold rot of stone fruit caused by Monilinia laxa and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The essential oils from basil (Ocimum basilicum), fennel (Foeniculum sativum), lavender (Lavandula officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), oregano (Origanum vulgare), peppermint (Mentha piperita), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), savory (Satureja montana), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and wild mint (Mentha arvensis) were tested at two different concentrations on apricots (cv. Kyoto and cv. Tonda di Costigliole), nectarines (cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross) and plums (cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun). The volatile composition of the essential oils tested was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The treatments containing essential oils from oregano, savory, and thyme at 1% (vol/vol) controlled both B. cinerea and M. laxa growing on apricots cv. Tonda di Costigliole and plums cv. Italia and cv. TC Sun; however, the same treatments were phytotoxic for the carposphere of nectarines cv. Big Top and cv. Nectaross. Treatments with 10% (vol/vol) essential oils were highly phytotoxic, notwithstanding their efficacy against the pathogens tested. The essential oils containing as major components α-pinene, p-cymene, carvacrol, and thymol showed similar results on stone fruit, so their antimicrobial activity and the phytotoxicity produced could be based on the concentration of their principal compounds and their synergistic activity. The efficacy of the essential oil treatments on control of fungal pathogens in postharvest depended on the fruit cultivar, the composition and concentration of the essential oil applied, and the length of storage.

  15. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum – the Causal Agent of Calla Soft Rot in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ivanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial strains were isolated from above- and underground parts of diseased calla plants originating from different localities in Serbia and one locality in Montenegro. They were characterized by studying their pathogenic, cultural, biochemical and physiologicalcharacteristics. All investigated strains caused soft rot of calla leaf stalks, potato slices and aloe leaves, and induced hypersensitive reaction on tobacco. Bacteriological properties of the strains indicated that symptoms on calla plants were caused by Gram-negative, nonfluorescent, oxidase negative, catalase positive and facultatively anaerobic bacterium belonging to the genus Pectobacterium. The investigated strains grew at 37ºC and in 5% NaCl, utilised lactose and trechalose, and produced neither indol nor lecitinase. These results, as well as the characteristic growth on Logan’s differential medium indicated that soft rot of tuber and stem base of calla plants was caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This is the first report of this pathogen affecting calla plants in Serbia.

  16. Rot caused by Stereum sanguinolentum and its spread through the Norway spruce stem in the LHC Obrova noha management-plan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čermák

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the LHC Obrova noha management-plan area (Municipal Forests Prostějov, peeling and browsing damage to spruce (Picea abies caused by red deer was monitored. In total, 20 plots of an area of 25 × 25 m were monitored in stands aged 26–65 years. On the whole, 56% of 1561 trees were damaged by peeling and browsing, 82% of the damaged trees were attacked by Stereum sanguinolentum (Alb. et Schw.: Fr. Fr. Trees in the 3rd age class affected by rot show the highest proportion, viz 92% trees damaged by peeling. In the plots, in total 90 sample trees with the presence of rot were cut down. Peeling damage happened 6 to 41 years ago. The rot affected 10 to 94% of the sample tree stem volume (on average 39%. The volume of devalued wood is in positive correlation with a time elapsed after peeling damage (r = 0.683. The rot spread vertically through the tree stem by an average speed of 10.5 cm.year– 1 (from 1.3 to 28.1 cm.year–1. The progress rate negatively correlated with a period elapsed after the stem damage (r = –0.723.

  17. Genetic Diversity Among Colletotrichum falcatum Isolates Causing Red Rot of Sugarcane in Subtropical Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratinderbir KAUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver Genetic diversity of Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot of sugarcane was assessed based on morphological, pathological and molecular characteristics especially from sub-tropical Indian conditions. Sixteen isolates of this pathogen were collected based on the extensive survey on prominent varieties grown in the region along with some elite selections. Morphological observations (colony colour, mycelium pattern and sporulation grouped the isolates into two distinct types (C1: light type and C2: dark type. However, quantitative data on colony diameter showed five clusters for these isolates. Pathogenic characterization of these isolates on fourteen standard differentials formed six groups, ingroup 1: (CF-Pb-1 isolates Cf-157, Cf-249 and Cf-248 were the most virulent while group 6 (CF-Pb-6 isolates Cf-60 and Cf-247 were the least one. The genetic relatedness among the isolates using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis revealed sufficient molecular polymorphism, which in turn confirmed the variation in virulence of different isolates. The data categorized different isolates into two major clusters and five independent lineages. Polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.701 to 0.929. Isolate Cf-223 was found to be genetically most diverse among all the isolates. Present study inferred that morphological grouping of most of the isolates showed positive correlation with the pathogenic variability while molecular diversity did not showed such associations.

  18. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae) by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad SAADOUN; Mohamed Bechir ALLAGUI

    2013-01-01

    Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicoti...

  19. Endophytic Bacteria Improve Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Induce Suppression of Root Rot Caused by Fusarium solani under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non–rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated. Four bacterial isolates, namely Bacillus cereus NUU1, Achromobacter xylosoxidans NUU2, Bacillus thuringiensis NUU3, and Bacillus subtilis NUU4 colonizing root tissue demonstrated plant beneficial traits and/or antagonistic activity against F. solani and thus were characterized in more detail. The strain B. subtilis NUU4 proved significant plant growth promotion capabilities, improved symbiotic performance of host plant with rhizobia, and promoted yield under saline soil as compared to untreated control plants under field conditions. A combined inoculation of chickpea with M. ciceri IC53 and B. subtilis NUU4 decreased H2O2 concentrations and increased proline contents compared to the un-inoculated plants indicating an alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress. Furthermore, the bacterial isolate was capable to reduce the infection rate of root rot in chickpea caused by F. solani. This is the first report of F. solani causing root rot of chickpea in a salinated soil of Uzbekistan. Our findings demonstrated that the endophytic B. subtilis strain NUU4 provides high potentials as a stimulator for plant growth and as biological control agent of chickpea root rot under saline soil conditions. These multiple relationships could provide promising practical approaches to increase the productivity of legumes under salt stress.

  20. Possible sources of genetic resistance in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense--prospects for future breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Gasselin, T; Asmady, H; Flori, A; Jacquemard, J C; Hayun, Z; Breton, F; de Franqueville, H

    2005-01-01

    Oil palm estates in southeast Asia suffer from substantial losses due to basal stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense. Field observations have been carried out in North Sumatra, Indonesia, on a series of planting materials of known origin. Differences in susceptibility to the disease have been detected within the two Elaeis species, guineensis and oleifera. Within Elaeis guineensis, material of Deli origin is highly susceptible compared to material of African origin. It is also possible to detect differences in reaction between parents and between crosses within a given origin. The variability of resistance to basal stem rot within the same cross is also illustrated by the diverse responses of clones derived from palms of the same origin. The prospects opened up by these results are discussed, and the importance of performing an early selection test is highlighted.

  1. Clarification of the Etiology of Glomerella Leaf Spot and Bitter Rot of Apple Caused by Colletotrichum spp. Based on Morphology and Genetic, Molecular, and Pathogenicity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eugenia; Sutton, Turner B; Correll, James C

    2006-09-01

    pathogenic only on fruit. Isolates of G. cingulata capable of causing both GLS and bitter rot were included in haplotypes and groups based on the sequence analysis of the 200-bp intron that also included isolates capable of causing bitter rot only. Additionally, isolates of G. cingulata from the United States and Brazil which cause GLS were included in different haplotypes and sequence analysis groups. Therefore, one hypothesis is that isolates of G. cingulata from the United States capable of causing both GLS on foliage and bitter rot on fruit may have arisen independently of Brazilian isolates of G. cingulata capable of causing both GLS and bitter rot, and the two groups of isolates may represent distinct populations.

  2. Organic amendments conditions on the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus caused by three Fusarium spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrego-Benjumea, A.I.; Melero-Vara, J.M.; Basallote-Ureba, M.J.

    2015-07-01

    Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), F. proliferatum (Fp) and F. solani (Fs) are causal agents associated with roots of asparagus affected by crown and root rot, a disease inflicting serious losses worldwide. The propagule viability of Fusarium spp. was determined on substrate artificially infested with Fo5, Fp3 or Fs2 isolates, amended with either poultry manure (PM), its pellet (PPM), or olive residue compost (ORC) and, thereafter, incubated at 30 or 35°C for different periods. Inoculum viability was significantly affected by these organic amendments (OAs) in combination with temperature and incubation period. The greatest reduction in viability of Fo5 and Fs2 occurred with PPM and loss of viability achieved was higher at 35°C than at 30ºC, and longer incubation period (45 days). However, the viability of Fp3 did not decrease greatly in most of the treatments, as compared to the infested and un-amended control, when incubated at 30ºC. After incubation, seedlings of asparagus Grande´ were transplanted into pots containing substrates infested with the different species of Fusarium. After three months in greenhouse, symptoms severity in roots showed highly significant decreases, but Fp3 caused lower severity than Fo5 and Fs2. Severity reduction was particularly high at 30ºC (by 15 days incubation for Fs2 and by 30-45 days for Fo5), after PPM treatment, as well as PM-2% for Fo5 and Fs2 incubated during 30 and 45 days at both temperatures, and with ORC (15-30 days incubation). Moreover, assessment of plants fresh weight showed significantly high increases in Fo5 and Fs2, with some rates of the three OAs tested, depending on incubat. (Author)

  3. Organic amendments conditions on the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus caused by three Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Borrego-Benjumea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum (Fo, F. proliferatum (Fp and F. solani (Fs are causal agents associated with roots of asparagus affected by crown and root rot, a disease inflicting serious losses worldwide. The propagule viability of Fusarium spp. was determined on substrate artificially infested with Fo5, Fp3 or Fs2 isolates, amended with either poultry manure (PM, its pellet (PPM, or olive residue compost (ORC and, thereafter, incubated at 30 or 35°C for different periods. Inoculum viability was significantly affected by these organic amendments (OAs in combination with temperature and incubation period. The greatest reduction in viability of Fo5 and Fs2 occurred with PPM and loss of viability achieved was higher at 35°C than at 30ºC, and longer incubation period (45 days. However, the viability of Fp3 did not decrease greatly in most of the treatments, as compared to the infested and un-amended control, when incubated at 30ºC. After incubation, seedlings of asparagus `Grande´ were transplanted into pots containing substrates infested with the different species of Fusarium. After three months in greenhouse, symptoms severity in roots showed highly significant decreases, but Fp3 caused lower severity than Fo5 and Fs2. Severity reduction was particularly high at 30ºC (by 15 days incubation for Fs2 and by 30-45 days for Fo5, after PPM treatment, as well as PM-2% for Fo5 and Fs2 incubated during 30 and 45 days at both temperatures, and with ORC (15-30 days incubation. Moreover, assessment of plants fresh weight showed significantly high increases in Fo5 and Fs2, with some rates of the three OAs tested, depending on incubation period and temperature.

  4. Inhibitory effect of some spice essential oils on Penicillium digitatum causing postharvest rot in citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgül, Attila

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study to control blue mould caused by Penicillium digitatum, essential oil of cumin was applied with filter paper discs of 6 mm diameter which were soaked in 0,04 ml oil and vapour effect inhibited completely mycelial growth and spore germination of pathogen in vitro. When filter paper discs soaked in essential oils of black thyme, dill, coriander and rosemary were placed on the culture medium (PDA, they had no effect on the mycelial growth. Their vapour effect inhibited mycelial growth of pathogen 85.8%, 82.8%, 80% and 71.4% respectively. Dill and rosemary oils also prevented mycelial colour.En este estudio para controlar las manchas azules causadas por Penicillium digitatum, se aplicó aceite esencial de comino en discos de papel de filtro de 6 mm de diámetro, los cuales fueron empapados en 0,04 ml de aceite y su vapor inhibió completamente el crecimiento micelar y la germinación de esporas del patógeno in vitro. Cuando los discos de papel de filtro empapados en aceites esenciales de tomillo, eneldo, culantro y romero se colocaron sobre el medio de cultivo (PDA, no se observó efecto sobre el crecimiento micelar. Los efectos de sus vapores inhibieron el crecimiento micelar de patógenos en un 85,8%, 82,8%, 80% y 71,4% respectivamente. Los aceites de eneldo y romero también evitaron la aparición del color micelar.

  5. Wilt, crown, and root rot of common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) caused by a novel Fusarium sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new crown and root rot disease of landscape plantings of the malvaceous ornamental common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) was first detected in Washington State in 2012. The main objectives of this study were to complete Koch's postulates, document the disease sypmtoms photographically, and iden...

  6. Effect of essential oil of Satureja hortensis against Bacillus pumilus, which cause of soft rot on some plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih

    2017-04-01

    In this study, it is aimmed to be determined the antimicrobial effects of the essential oil in vitro conditions, extracted from wild forms of plant which is known as Satureja hortensis around the world and grows naturally at Erzurum province of Turkey against Bacillus pumilus isolates, which are the agent of Soft Rot for some fruits and vegetables. For this purpose, 18 isolates of B. pumilus which have been determined as the agent of Soft Rot in previous studies performed in plants such as potatos, onions, strawberries, melons and watermelons. As the positive control, Streptomycin antibiotics sold as ready produce were used. According to the obtained results, the essential oil have the antibactericidal effect of 19-29 mm against 18 isolates of B. pumilus. It has been observed that the antibiotics used as the positive control has the antibacterial effect of 16-22 mm. In conclusion, the essential oil has the lethal effect against 18 B. pumilus isolates which are agents of Soft Rot. It is assesed that these essential oil extracted from Satureja hortensis can be used against these Soft Rot pathogens.

  7. First report of fusarium avenaceum causing wet core rot of ‘elstar’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de Fred; Lans, van der Arie; Leeuwen, van Paul; Hollinger, T.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands. ‘Elstar’, the main cultivar, occupies 40% of the apple production area. Symptoms of apple wet core rot were observed on Elstar in January to March 2013 after 4 to 6 months’ storage in different packing houses at controlled

  8. First report of Lasmenia sp. causing rachis necrosis, flower abortion, fruit rot and leaf spots on rambutan in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambutan is an exotic tropical fruit that has increased in commercial importance for growers in Puerto Rico. In 2008 and 2009, fruit rot and lesions on both leaves and inflorescences were observed. A total of 276 diseased samples from these plant parts were collected at commercial orchards, Agricult...

  9. First report of Colletotrichum godetiae causing bitter rot on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de F.A.; Lans, van der A.M.; Leeuwen, van P.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands, with a total production of 418,000 tons in 2011. Symptoms of apple bitter rot were observed on ‘Golden Delicious’ apples in the Netherlands in July 2013 after 9 months of storage in a packing house at controlled atmosphere.

  10. First Report of Cadophora luteo-olivacea Causing Side Rot on ‘Conference’ Pears in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Pham, K.T.K.; Lemmers, M.E.C.; Boer, de Astrid; Leeuwen, van Paul; Hollinger, T.C.; Haas, de B.H.; Köhl, J.

    2016-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis) is an important fruit crop in the Netherlands. Symptoms of side rot disease of pear fruits were first observed in 2008 on cv. Conference in storage in the Netherlands. Typical round to oval, dark-brown, and slightly sunken spots (size 0.5 to 1.0 cm in diameter) appeared after

  11. Uso del escobajo como sustrato para el crecimiento de hongos de la pudrición blanca, la producción de enzimas ligninolíticas y la decoloración de tinturas Grape stalks as substrate for white rot fungi, lignocellulolytic enzyme production and dye decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Levin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el potencial del escobajo, un residuo agroindustrial, como sustrato para el crecimiento y la producción de enzimas lignocelulósicas de tres hongos causantes de pudrición blanca en la madera: Trametes trogii, Stereum hirsutum y Coriolus antarcticus. Para ello se utilizaron técnicas de fermentación en estado sólido. También se ensayó la decoloración de colorantes industriales sobre estos cultivos. La pérdida de peso seco del sustrato fue similar después del día 60 (33-43 %. C. antarcticus produjo las mayores actividades de lacasa y Mn-peroxidasa (33,0 y 1,6 U/g peso seco. La mayor actividad endoglucanasa fue medida en cultivos de S. hirsutum (10,4 U/g, y la mayor actividad endoxilanasa en T. trogii (14,6 U/g. El sistema C. antarcticus/escobap mostró un importante potencial para su aplicación en la biorremediación de efluentes textiles, con porcentajes de decoloración de 93, 86, 82, 82, 77 y 58 % para índigo carmín, verde de malaquita, azure B, azul R brillante de remazol, cristal violeta y xilidina, respectivamente, en 5 h.The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of grape stalks, an agroindustrial waste, for growth and lignocellulolytic enzyme production via solid-state fermentation, using the following three white rot fungi: Trametes trogii, Stereum hirsutum and Coriolus antarcticus. The decolorization of several dyes by the above mentioned cultures was also investigated. Similar values of dry weight loss of the substrate were measured after 60 days (33-43 %. C. antarcticus produced the highest laccase and Mn-peroxldase activities (33.0 and 1.6 U/g dry solid. The maximum endoglucanase production was measured in S. hirsutum cultures (10.4 U/g, while the endoxylanase peak corresponded to T. trogii (14.6 U/g. The C. antarcticus/grape stalk system seems potentially competitive in bioremediation of textile processing effluents, attaining percentages of decolorization of 93, 86, 82, 82

  12. Identification and Differentiation of Monilinia Species Causing Brown Rot of Pome and Stone Fruit using High-Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasileiou, Antonios; Madesis, Panagiotis B; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2016-09-01

    Brown rot is a devastating disease of stone fruit caused by Monilinia spp. Among these species, Monilinia fructicola is a quarantine pathogen in Europe but has recently been detected in several European countries. Identification of brown rot agents relies on morphological differences or use of molecular methods requiring fungal isolation. The current study was initiated to develop and validate a high-resolution melting (HRM) method for the identification of the Monilinia spp. and for the detection of M. fructicola among other brown rot pathogens. Based on the sequence of the cytb intron from M. laxa, M. fructicola, M. fructigena, M. mumecola, M. linhartiana, and M. yunnanensis isolates originating from several countries, a pair of universal primers for species identification and a pair of primers specific to M. fructicola were designed. The specificity of the primers was verified to ensure against cross-reaction with other fungal species. The melting curve analysis using the universal primers generated six different HRM curve profiles, each one specific for each species. Τhe HRM analysis primers specific to M. fructicola amplified a 120-bp region with a distinct melt profile corresponding to the presence of M. fructicola, regardless of the presence of other species. HRM analysis can be a useful tool for rapid identification and differentiation of the six Monilinia spp. using a single primer pair. This novel assay has the potential for simultaneous identification and differentiation of the closely related Monilinia spp. as well as for the differentiation of M. fructicola from other common pathogens or saprophytes that may occur on the diseased fruit.

  13. Detection of bacterial soft-rot of crown imperial caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using specific PCR primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mahmoudi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Pectobacterium is one of the major destructive causal agent in most crop plants throughout the world. During a survey in spring of 2005 in the rangeland of Kermanshah and Isfahan, provinces of Iran, samples of bulbs and stems of crown imperial with brown spot and soft rot were collected. Eight strains of pectolytic Erwinia were isolated and purified from these samples. Phenotypic tests indicated that the strains were gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, motile with peritrichous flagella. They were oxidase negative, catalase positive and also able to macerate potato slices. Pathogenicity of all the strains were confirmed on corn, philodendron and crown imperial by inoculation of these crops with a bacterial suspension and reisolation of the strain from symptomatic tissues. A pair of specific PCR primers was used to detect these bacterial strains. The primer set (EXPCCF/EXPCCR amplified a single fragment of the expected size (0.55 kb from genomic DNA of all strains used in this study. In nested PCR, the primer set (INPCCR/INPCCF amplified the expected single fragment (0.4 kb from the PCR product of first PCR amplification. On the basis of the biochemical and phenotypic characteristics and PCR amplification by the specific PCR primers, these strains were identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. This is the first report of occurrence of crown imperial bacterial soft-rot in Iran.

  14. Combination of antagonistic yeasts with two food additives for control of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola on sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, G Z; Tian, S P; Xu, Y; Chan, Z L; Li, B Q

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate beneficial effect of two food additives, ammonium molybdate (NH4-Mo) and sodium bicarbonate (NaBi), on antagonistic yeasts for control of brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola in sweet cherry fruit under various storage conditions. The mechanisms of action by which food additives enhance the efficacy of antagonistic yeasts were also evaluated. Biocontrol activity of Pichia membranefaciens and Cryptococcus laurentii against brown rot in sweet cherry fruit was improved by addition of 5 mmol l(-1) NH4-Mo or 2% NaBi when stored in air at 20 and 0 degrees C, and in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage with 10% O2 + 10% CO2 at 0 degrees C. Population dynamics of P. membranefaciens in the wounds of fruit were inhibited by NH4-Mo at 20 degrees C after 1 day of incubation and growth of C. laurentii was inhibited by NH4-Mo at 0 degrees C in CA storage after 60 days. In contrast, NaBi did not significantly influence growth of the two yeasts in fruit wounds under various storage conditions except that the growth of P. membranefaciens was stimulated after storage for 45 days at 0 degrees C in CA storage. When used alone, the two additives showed effective control of brown rot in sweet cherry fruit and the efficacy was closely correlated with the concentrations used. The result of in vitro indicated that growth of M. fructicola was significantly inhibited by NH4-Mo and NaBi. Application of additives improved biocontrol of brown rot on sweet cherry fruit under various storage conditions. It is postulated that the enhancement of disease control is directly because of the inhibitory effects of additives on pathogen growth, and indirectly because of the relatively little influence of additives on the growth of antagonistic yeasts. The results obtained in this study suggest that an integration of NH4-Mo or NaBi with biocontrol agents has great potential in commercial management of postharvest diseases of fruit.

  15. Evaluation of Muscodor suthepensis strain CMU-Cib462 as a postharvest biofumigant for tangerine fruit rot caused by Penicillium digitatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarach, Nakarin; Bussaban, Boonsom; Nuangmek, Wipornpan; Pithakpol, Wasna; Jirawattanakul, Bantoon; Matsui, Kenji; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2016-01-15

    This study investigated both the in vitro and in vivo biofumigant ability of the endophytic fungus Muscodor suthepensis CMU-Cib462 to control Penicillium digitatum, the main cause of tangerine fruit rot. Volatile compounds from M. suthepensis inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen. The most abundant compound was 2-methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3-methylbutan-1-ol. They showed median effective doses (ED50) on P. digitatum growth of 74.91 ± 0.73 and 250.29 ± 0.29 µL L(-1) airspace respectively. Rye grain was found to be a suitable solid medium for M. suthepensis inoculum production. The results indicated that mycofumigation with a 30 g rye grain culture of M. suthepensis for 12 h controlled tangerine fruit rot. The percentage weight loss and soluble solids concentration of fumigated tangerines were similar to those of non-infected and non-fumigated fruits. Muscodor suthepensis has potential as a biofumigant for controlling postharvest disease of tangerine fruit. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Stalking: a neurobiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Falaschi, Valentina; Lombardi, Amedeo; Mungai, Francesco; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays stalking is becoming a real social emergency, as it may often fuel severe aggressive behaviours. No exhaustive aetiological hypothesis is still available regarding this complex phenomenon. However, the detailed descriptions of some of its peculiar features allow to draw with cautions some general suggestions. Probably stalking may arise from the derangement of those neural networks subserving the so-called social brain and the pair bonding formation, in particular the processes of attachment/separation, attraction/romantic love/reward. In addition, it seems to be modulated by excessive functioning of the dopamine system coupled with decreased serotonin tone. It is believed that the investigation and deepening of its possible neurobiological substrates may be helpful in the prevention of the severe consequences of stalking.

  17. Red rot resistant transgenic sugarcane developed through expression of β-1,3-glucanase gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Nayyar

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is a commercially important crop, vulnerable to fungal disease red rot caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went. The pathogen attacks sucrose accumulating parenchyma cells of cane stalk leading to severe losses in cane yield and sugar recovery. We report development of red rot resistant transgenic sugarcane through expression of β-1,3-glucanase gene from Trichoderma spp. The transgene integration and its expression were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in first clonal generation raised from T0 plants revealing up to 4.4-fold higher expression, in comparison to non-transgenic sugarcane. Bioassay of transgenic plants with two virulent C. falcatum pathotypes, Cf 08 and Cf 09 causing red rot disease demonstrated that some plants were resistant to Cf 08 and moderately resistant to Cf 09. The electron micrographs of sucrose storing stalk parenchyma cells from these plants displayed characteristic sucrose-filled cells inhibiting Cf 08 hyphae and lysis of Cf 09 hyphae; in contrast, the cells of susceptible plants were sucrose depleted and prone to both the pathotypes. The transgene expression was up-regulated (up to 2.0-fold in leaves and 5.0-fold in roots after infection, as compared to before infection in resistant plants. The transgene was successfully transmitted to second clonal generation raised from resistant transgenic plants. β-1,3-glucanase protein structural model revealed that active sites Glutamate 628 and Aspartate 569 of the catalytic domain acted as proton donor and nucleophile having role in cleaving β-1,3-glycosidic bonds and pathogen hyphal lysis.

  18. Response of the Andean diversity panel to root rot in a root rot nursery in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Andean Diversity Panel (ADP) was evaluated under low-fertility and root rot conditions in two trials conducted in 2013 and 2015 in Isabela, Puerto Rico. About 246 ADP lines were evaluated in the root rot nursery with root rot and stem diseases caused predominantly by Fusarium solani, which cause...

  19. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis 2A-2B strain: a rhizospheric inhabitant of Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr., with antifungal activity against root rot causing phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Raudales, Inés; De La Cruz-Rodríguez, Yumiko; Alvarado-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Fraire-Mayorga, Ahuitz; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Balderas-Hernández, Victor; Fraire-Velázquez, Saúl

    2017-01-01

    A Bacillus velezensis strain from the rhizosphere of Sporobolus airoides (Torr.) Torr . , a grass in central-north México, was isolated during a biocontrol of phytopathogens scrutiny study. The 2A-2B strain exhibited at least 60% of growth inhibition of virulent isolates of phytopathogens causing root rot. These phytopathogens include Phytophthora capsici , Fusarium solani , Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani . Furthermore, the 2A-2B strain is an indolacetic acid producer, and a plant inducer of PR1, which is an induced systemic resistance related gene in chili pepper plantlets. Whole genome sequencing was performed to generate a draft genome assembly of 3.953 MB with 46.36% of GC content, and a N50 of 294,737. The genome contains 3713 protein coding genes and 89 RNA genes. Moreover, comparative genome analysis revealed that the 2A-2B strain had the greatest identity (98.4%) with Bacillus velezensis.

  20. Controlling the root and stem rot of cucumber, caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, using resistance cultivars and grafting onto the cucurbit rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rostami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber damping off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum is the most important root and stem rot that limits greenhouse cultivations. In this study, relative susceptibility of grafting commercial cucumber cultivars including Alpha, Caspian 340, Storm 5910, Shalim 616, Delta scar, Janette 810, Festibal C5, Royal, Negyn, Soltan and Fadia on two Cucurbita rootstocks were evaluated against P. aphanidermatum . Disease severity, survival and seedling growth were used for the evaluation. The results showed significant differences between the studied cultivars (p≤0.01. Caspian 340 and Alpha with 15.7% and 100% disease severity had more and less tolerant to P. aphanidermatum, respectively. Cucurbita maxima rootstock was more resistant than Cucurbita pepo to P. aphanidermatum. C. pepo had less compatibility with the cucumber and showed little resistance to the pathogen. The study revealed that grafting Caspian340 on the resistant cucurbit rootstock i.e. Cucurbita maxima could be used as disease control strategies in greenhouses.

  1. Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Machota Jr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies, Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%, Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%, Penicillium spp. (10.1%, Fusarium spp. (7.7%, followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.

  2. Characterization of calla Lily sot rot caused by Pectobacterium Carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum ZT0505 bacterial growth and pectate lyase activity under different conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, L.; Guo, L.; Custers, J.B.M.; Zhang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Soft rot is a major disease of calla lily (Zantedeschia spp.) and other important crops worldwide. In this report, the bacterial isolate ZT0505 proved to be a soft rot pathogen of calla lily growing around Kunming (subtropical China) and was identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp.

  3. Fusarium basal rot in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.; Brink, van den L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium basal rot of onion, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, is a steadily increasing problem in The Netherlands. Financial losses for Dutch farmers confronted with Fusarium basal rot is substantial, due to yield reduction and high storage costs. This paper describes the development and

  4. Pituitary stalk craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Welling, Leonardo Christiaan; de Faria, Jose Weber Vieira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2011-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are benign but aggressive neoplasms arising along the craniopharyngeal duct. It is frequently located in the suprasellar region. Primarily pituitary stalk craniopharyngioma is unusual and uncommonly early diagnosed, before it enlarges and extends to supra or parasselar region. This unusual location and the small size pose therapeutic dilemmas, since it has the ability to grow larger. Currently, no consensus exists regarding the optimal management. The authors have recommended complete resection. PMID:22715220

  5. Agro-ecological variations of sheath rot disease of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae and DNA fingerprinting of the pathogen's population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajul Islam Chowdhury, M; Salim Mian, M; Taher Mia, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2015-12-28

    To examine the impact of regional and seasonal variations on the incidence and severity of sheath rot, a major seed-borne disease of rice caused by Sarocladium oryzae, data on incidence and severity were collected from 27 selected fields in the Gazipur, Rangpur, Bogra, Chittagong, Comilla, Gopalgonj, Jessore, Manikgonj, and Bhola districts of Bangladesh in rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Cultural variability of 29 pathogen isolates obtained from 8 different locations was studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and genetic variability was determined by DNA fingerprinting using variable number tandem repeat-polymerase chain reaction markers. Overall, disease incidence and severity were higher in irrigated rice. Disease incidence and severity were highest in the Bhola district in rain-fed rice and lowest in irrigated rice. Mycelial growth of 29 representative isolates was found to vary on PDA and the isolates were divided into 6 groups. The range of the overall size of conidia of the selected isolates was 2.40-7.20 x 1.20-2.40 μm. Analysis of the DNA fingerprint types of the 29 isolates of S. oryzae, obtained from the amplification reactions, revealed 10 fingerprinting types (FPTs) that were 80% similar. FPT-1 was the largest group and included 13 isolates (44.8%), while FPT-2 was the third largest group and included 3 isolates. Each of FPT-3, 4, 5, and 6 included only 1 isolate. We observed no relationship between cultural and genetic groupings.

  6. Mediators and Moderators of the Association Between Stalking Victimization and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Connor R; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J; Goodnight, Jackson A

    2017-03-01

    The current study aims to understand mediators and moderators of the relationship between stalking victimization and depression. Based on the reformulated learned helplessness theory, which emphasizes the role of internal, global, and stable attributions for negative events in the development of depression, we predicted that the association between stalking victimization and depression would be mediated by attributions for the stalking and characterological self-blame. We predicted that the association between stalking victimization and helplessness attributions or characterological self-blame, in turn, would be moderated by gender, sex-role identity, and length of stalking. Specifically, we hypothesized that female victims, victims possessing a feminine sex-role identity, and victims experiencing longer stalking episodes would be more likely to experience depression in comparison with male victims, victims possessing a masculine sex-role identity, and victims experiencing shorter stalking episodes. The results indicated that global attributions for the cause of stalking significantly mediated the relationship between stalking victimization and depression. The results for stable attributions, internal attributions, and characterological self-blame were nonsignificant. Furthermore, gender, sex-role identity, and length of stalking did not moderate the association between stalking and attributional style or characterological self-blame. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Control of Fusarium verticillioides, cause of ear rot of maize, by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayaka, Siddaiah Chandra; Shankar, Akarere C. Udaya; Reddy, Munagala S.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Maize is one of the staple food crops grown in India. Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg is the most important fungal pathogen of maize, associated with diseases such as ear rot and kernel rot. Apart from the disease, it is capable of producing fumonisins, which have...... disease and fumonisin accumulation, and also to study the capacity to promote growth and yield of maize. In vitro assays were conducted to test the efficacy of P. fluorescens as a seed treatment on seed germination, seedling vigour and also the incidence of F. verticillioides in different maize cultivars....... verticillioides and the level of fumonisins to a maximum extent compared with the other treatments. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the potential role of P. fluorescens and its formulations in ear rot disease management. The biocontrol potential of this isolate is more suited for fumonisin reduction in maize...

  8. Lo stalking, un reato senza genere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Iaccarino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An individual who watches, follows, tracks and controls the victim with the aim of intervening, in a more or less violent way, in their private life is called a stalker or a “prowler always on the lookout”, because they commit repeated actions or attempted contacts or real communications, not desired by the victim, which may cause discomfort, anxiety, nuisance, concern and fear to the victim. Stalking is a term that may apply to any gender. To Lombroso’s “monster woman” and Hart’s “old maids’ madness” it is necessary to add the phenomenon of stalking committed by women whose modus operandi, without doubt, is more sly and subtle than the one of men. It refers to the retrospective act analysed by classic theories.

  9. Efficacies of quorum sensing inhibitors, piericidin A and glucopiericidin A, produced by Streptomyces xanthocidicus KPP01532 for the control of potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Eun; Han, Jae Woo; Jeon, Byeong Jun; Kim, Beom Seok

    2016-03-01

    To discover potential inhibitors of the quorum sensing (QS) system, a library of microbial culture extracts was screened with Chromobacterium violaceumCV026 strain. The culture extract of Streptomyces xanthocidicus KPP01532 contained quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSIs) of the CV026 strain. The active constituents of the culture extract of strain KPP01532 were purified using a series of chromatographic procedures, and based on data from NMR and mass spectroscopy, piericidin A and glucopiericidin A were identified. Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) is a plant pathogen that causes blackleg and soft rot diseases on potato stems and tubers. The virulence factors of Eca are regulated by QS. The expression of virulence genes (pelC, pehA, celV and nip) under the control of QS was monitored using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The transcription levels of the four genes were significantly lower when Eca was exposed to piericidin A or glucopiericidin A. These two compounds displayed similar control efficacies against soft rot caused by Eca in potato slices as furanone C-30. Therefore, piericidin A and glucopiericidin A are potential QSIs that suppress the expression of the virulence genes of Eca, suggesting that they could have potential use as control agents of soft rot disease on potato tubers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Stalk-length-dependence of the contractility of Vorticella convallaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul Chung, Eun; Ryu, Sangjin

    2017-12-01

    Vorticella convallaria is a sessile protozoan of which the spasmoneme contracts on a millisecond timescale. Because this contraction is induced and powered by the binding of calcium ions (Ca2+), the spasmoneme showcases Ca2+-powered cellular motility. Because the isometric tension of V. convallaria increases linearly with its stalk length, it is hypothesized that the contractility of V. convallaria during unhindered contraction depends on the stalk length. In this study, the contractile force and energetics of V. convallaria cells of different stalk lengths were evaluated using a fluid dynamic drag model which accounts for the unsteadiness and finite Reynolds number of the water flow caused by contracting V. convallaria and the wall effect of the no-slip substrate. It was found that the contraction displacement, peak contraction speed, peak contractile force, total mechanical work, and peak power depended on the stalk length. The observed stalk-length-dependencies were simulated using a damped spring model, and the model estimated that the average spring constant of the contracting stalk was 1.34 nN µm-1. These observed length-dependencies of Vorticella’s key contractility parameters reflect the biophysical mechanism of the spasmonemal contraction, and thus they should be considered in developing a theoretical model of the Vorticella spasmoneme.

  11. Stalking the ultimate particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you missed the ARTE programme entitled "L'Ultime Particule" broadcast in February, you have another chance to catch it in CERN's Main Auditorium on 13 March. "L'Ultime Particule" is a documentary by the French director Michel Andrieu that seeks to explain particle physics through a contemplative quest for the research physicists of matter of today and yesteryear. Invariably kitted out in a red parka and a soft hat, the programme's investigator scours the planet and the archives in search of the research physicists who are stalking the ultimate particle, the Higgs boson, in their quest to understand the structure of matter. Naturally enough, CERN is an important stage of his journey where Michel Andrieu and his team spent several days last year. Both from the physics and metaphysical points of view, "L'Ultime Particule" is worth seeing. The film's director, Michel Andrieu, will introduce his documentary and answer questions from the audience after the documentary has been shown. L'Ultime Particule by Mic...

  12. Evaluation of microbial products for the control of zucchini foot and root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta ROBERTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial products containing bacteria (Cedomon [Pseudomonas chlororaphis MA342, PC-MA342], Mycostop [Streptomyces sp. K61, SG-K61], Proradix®Agro [Pseudomonas sp. DSMZ13134, PS-DSMZ13134] and fungi (Clonotry [Trichoderma harzianum and Clonostachys rosea, TH+CR], Remedier [T. asperellum ICC012 and T. gamsii ICC080, TA-ICC012+TG-ICC080], Rootshield WP [T. harzianum T22, TH-T22] were tested for efficacy against Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae race 1 (FSC7 strain on zucchini. They were applied to seeds (S, plant growth substrate (PGS and both (S+PGS in a growth chamber experiment, and to PGS, transplantation soil mixture (TSM and both (PGS+TSM in a greenhouse experiment. FSC7 was inoculated in PGS at sowing time in the growth chamber and in TSM at transplant in the greenhouse. In the growth chamber, the most effective products were Cedomon (S and S+PGS treatments, Rootshield (PGS treatment and Proradix (S+PGS treatment, reducing the disease by 39.7, 43.1, 25.8 and 36.4%, respectively. In the greenhouse, all tested products applied to PGS reduced the disease severity and more markedly when applied to PGS+TSM. In the PGS and PGS+TSM treatments, Cedomon was the most effective product showing a disease decrease by 42.4 and 59.5%, respectively. The data obtained in vivo were consistent with the ability of the antagonists to colonize zucchini rhizosphere and with their inhibitory effects on the growth of the pathogen in in vitro assays. The bacteria caused the greatest growth inhibition of FSC7 showing abnormal morphology, while Trichoderma spp. parasitized FSC7 hyphae. Bacteria were the most active in reducing pathogen colony growth through antibiotic metabolites. All antagonists produced exo- and endochitinase enzymes. Trichoderma strains showed greater levels of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase and endochitinase, whereas SG-K61 was the most active producer of chitin 1,4-β-chitobiosidase. These results indicate that the studied bioproducts have potential

  13. The toll of stalking: the relationship between features of stalking and psychopathology of victims.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Winkel, F.W.; Arensman, E.; Sheridan, L.; Freeve, A.

    2002-01-01

    Information on the psychological consequences of stalking on victims is scarce. The present study aimed to investigate whether stalking victims have a heightened prevalence of psychopathology and the extent to which symptom levels are associated with stalking features. Stalking victims (N = 241)

  14. Health Care Professionals as Victims of Stalking: Characteristics of the Stalking Campaign, Consequences, and Motivation in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquadro Maran, Daniela; Varetto, Antonella; Zedda, Massimo; Franscini, Monica

    2015-07-05

    Stalking is a phenomenon characterized by a set of repetitive behaviors, intrusive surveillance, control, communication, and search of contact with a victim who is afraid and/or worried and/or annoyed by such unwanted attention. Literature analysis shows that Health Care Professionals (HCPs) are at greater risk of being stalked than the general population. As described by Mullen, Pathé, Purcell, and Stuart, stalkers may have different motives: relational rejection, an infatuation, an inability to express their own emotions and recognize those of others, or a desire for revenge. The aim of this study was to explore stalkers' motivation as perceived by their victims, characteristics of stalking campaigns, and consequences. A copy of the Italian modified version of The Network for Surviving Stalking (NSS) Questionnaire on Stalking, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State Trait Inventory (STAI) Y1-Y2 scales were distributed in six Italian state hospitals. Participants included 1,842 HCPs, 256 (13.9%) of which had been victims. The majority of victims reported that stalkers were Rejected (96, 37.5%), Intimacy seekers (41, 16%), Incompetent suitors (60, 23.4%), and/or Resentful (43, 16.8%; χ 2 = 163.3, p = .001). Stalking campaigns were characterized by several behaviors, principally contact (by telephone calls, text message) and following. The stalking campaign caused in victims both physical and emotional consequences, the most frequent being weight changes, sleep disorders, weakness, apprehension, anger, and fear. The most used coping strategies were moving away and moving toward, the less used was moving inward. Intervention programs and preventive measures (both individual and organizational) for HCP victims and those who could be considered at risk are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. The influence of root rot incidence on cassava genotype on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria cassava root rot causes serious yield losses in cassava tuber production every year. However, the influence of root rot incidence on cassava genotype at harvest on consumers' acceptability of the gari produced from it has not been studied. A sensory evaluation was conducted on gari processed from the tuberous ...

  16. Improvement of resistance to Fusarium root rot through gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR), caused by Fusarium solani f.sp. , is one of the most serious root rot diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) throughout the world. Yield losses of up to 84% have been attributed to the disease. Development and deployment of resistant materials is the most feasible approach to managing ...

  17. Paraphoma crown rot of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moslemi, Azin; Ades, Peter Kevin; Groom, Tim; Crous, Pedro; Nicolas, Marc Edward; Taylor, Paul William James

    2016-01-01

    Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) is commercially cultivated for the extraction of natural pyrethrin insecticides from the oil glands inside seeds. Yield-decline has caused significant yield losses in Tasmania during the last decade. A new pathogen of pyrethrum causing crown rot and reduced

  18. Contribution to the discussion on the criminalization of stalking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović-Stefanović Dušica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The serious and complex nature of stalking, as a social phenomenon, is reflected in diverse forms of this illicit act, the severity of consequences caused by its commission, and the likelihood of being turned into violence. Whereas it may be observed from different perspectives, in this paper stalking is examined from the aspect of substantive criminal law. In the first part of this article, the author provides an overview of legal provisions on the crime of stalking as envisaged in selected European legislations. In the second part of the paper, the author re-examines the capacity of the existing Serbian criminal legislation to respond to this problem, especially through the envisaged criminal offence of endangering safety of another. In conclusion, the author discusses the inadequacy of the existing legislation and the need for further legislative intervention in this area.

  19. Differential induction of chitinase in Piper colubrinum in response to inoculation with Phytophthora capsici, the cause of foot rot in black pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep Varma, R.; Johnson George, K.; Balaji, S.; Parthasarathy, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant chitinases have been of particular interest since they are known to be induced upon pathogen invasion. Inoculation of Piper colubrinum leaves with the foot rot fungus, Phytophthora capsici leads to increase in chitinase activity. A marked increase in chitinase activity in the inoculated leaves was observed, with the maximum activity after 60 h of inoculation and gradually decreased thereafter. Older leaves showed more chitinase activity than young leaves. The level of chitinase in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) upon inoculation was found to be substantially high when compared to P. colubrinum. RT–PCR using chitinase specific primers revealed differential accumulation of mRNA in P. colubrinum leaves inoculated with P. capsici. However, hyphal extension assays revealed no obvious differences in the ability of the protein extracts to inhibit growth of P. capsici in vitro. PMID:23961037

  20. Phytophthora cinnamon causing stem canker and root rot of nursery-grown Platanus × acerifolia: first report in the Northern emisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo PILOTTI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lethal stem and root cankers were observed in nursery-grown Platanus × acerifolia trees in Rome. Externally, canker lesions appeared as bluish or blackish areas starting from the stem base and extending upward. Inner bark was necrotised. In some cases an irregularly-shaped callus reaction attempted to heal the bark lesions. Black-stained necrosis affected the primary roots and the small branch roots to different degrees. The presence of Ceratocystis platani was excluded in the diseased trees. Phytophthora-like organisms were isolated from the altered tissue. Morphological and ITS-region-based analyses identified the isolates as Phytophthora cinnamomi. A pathogenicity test confirmed P. cinnamomi as the causal agent of the disease here defined as: stem canker and root rot of plane tree. This is the first report of P. cinnamomi in Platanus spp. in the Northern emisphere.

  1. Evaluation of cotton stalks destroyers

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, Aloisio; Borges, Pedro H. de M.

    2013-01-01

    The destruction of the cotton crop residues (cotton stalks) is a mandatory procedure in Brazil for prophylactic issues, but is a subject unexplored by the research and there are few studies that deal with this issue. However, this is not encouraged in recent decades, studies aimed at developing and evaluating equipment for this purpose. The present study had the objective to evaluate six methods for mechanical destruction of cotton crop residues. Each method was defined based on the principle...

  2. Laminated Root Rot of Western Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.E. Nelson; N.E. Martin; R.E. Williams

    1981-01-01

    Laminated root rot is caused by the native fungus Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gilb. It occurs throughout the Northwestern United States and in southern British Columbia, Canada. The disease has also been reported in Japan and Manchuria. In the United States, the pathogen is most destructive in pure Douglas-fir stands west of the crest of the Cascade Range in Washington...

  3. Stalking: Notion, characteristics and social responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades stalking phenomenon is recognized and actualized in the world in professional, scientific circles, in media and the everyday talk. Recently, stalking is identified as specific and complex problem studied separately from domestic violence, workplace abuse, sexual harassment, threats, following, homicide, voyeurism and the other phenomenon to which stalking may or not be related. This paper is aimed to determine the notion of stalking and its relationship with similar phenomena, to review the research about the prevalence and nature of stalking, as well as to review the measures for its prevention, supporting victims and prosecution of offenders. Finally, the paper intend to contribute toward initiation of research and legal reforms regarding stalking victimisation in Serbia.

  4. Adolescent stalking and risk of violence✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Reidy, Dennis E.; Kernsmith, Poco D.

    2018-01-01

    Stalking perpetration and the associated risk for violence among adolescents has generally been neglected. In the present study, 1236 youth completed surveys assessing empirically established stalking indicators, threats and aggression toward stalking victims, dating violence, and violent delinquency. Latent Profile Analysis identified 3 latent classes of boys: non-perpetrators (NP), hyper-intimate pursuit (HIP), and comprehensive stalking perpetrators (CSP) and, and 2 classes for girls: NP and HIP. Boys in the CSP class were the most violent youth on nearly all indices with boys in the HIP class demonstrating an intermediate level of violence compared to NP boys. Girls in the HIP class were more violent than NP girls on all indices. These findings suggest stalking in adolescence merits attention by violence prevention experts. In particular, juvenile stalking may signify youth at risk for multiple forms of violence perpetrated against multiple types of victims, not just the object of their infatuation. PMID:27641644

  5. Effect of climate on the distribution of Fusarium spp. causing crown rot of wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Grant J; Smiley, Richard W; Walker, Carl; Huggins, David; Rupp, Richard; Abatzoglou, John; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly; Paulitz, Timothy C

    2013-11-01

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most widespread root and crown diseases of wheat in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States. Our objectives were to characterize crown rot severity and distribution throughout the PNW by conducting a survey of 210 fields covering the diverse dryland wheat-producing areas of Washington and Oregon and to utilize a factor analysis statistical approach to determine the effects of climate and geography on species distribution and disease severity. Climatic variables were based on 30-year averages and 2008 and 2009 separately (the 2 years of the survey). Mean annual temperature, mean temperature in the coldest month, mean temperature in the warmest month, mean annual precipitation, snowfall, elevation, soil type, and cropping intensity were highly intercorrelated. The factor analysis of the climate variables resulted in the development of two latent factors that could be used as predictor variables in logistic regression models for the presence or absence of Fusarium spp. and of FCR disease scores. Isolates of Fusarium spp. were recovered from 99% of 105 fields sampled in 2008 and 97% of fields in 2009. There were differences between years for responses of FCR and nodes scores, and isolations of Fusarium pseudograminearum with more significant results in 2008, due to warmer drier weather. Results of the factor analysis showed that the distribution of F. pseudograminearum occurred in a greater frequency in areas of the PNW at lower elevations with lower moisture and higher temperatures in 2008, whereas F. culmorum occurred in greater frequency in areas at higher elevations with moderate to high moisture and cooler temperatures consistently across both years. Disease scores increased with increasing levels of factors 1 (primarily temperature) and 2 (primarily precipitation). Both the frequency of pathogen species and disease scores were influenced by the year, indicating that soilborne pathogens are responsive to short

  6. The Fear Factor: Exploring Predictors of Fear among Stalking Victims throughout the Stalking Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyns, Bradford W.; Englebrecht, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    The crime of stalking has received much research attention, yet there are still important questions to be explored surrounding this behavior. One such question relates to definitions of stalking, including the requirement that victims must express fear to qualify as victims of stalking. The current study addresses this issue by exploring the…

  7. Erwinia carotovora extracellular proteases : characterization and role in soft rot

    OpenAIRE

    Kyöstiö, Sirkka R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) strain EC14, a Gram-negative bacterium, causes soft rot on several crops, including potato. Maceration of potato tuber tissue is caused by secreted pectolytic enzymes. Other cell-degrading enzymes may also have roles in pathogenesis, including cellulases, phospholipases, and protease(s). The objectives of this research were to (1) characterize Ecc extracellular protease (Prt) and (2) elucidate its role in potato soft rot. A gene enc...

  8. Biocontrol ability and action mechanism of food-isolated yeast strains against Botrytis cinerea causing post-harvest bunch rot of table grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parafati, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandro; Restuccia, Cristina; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Strains belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from different food sources, were tested in vitro as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the post-harvest pathogenic mold Botrytis cinerea. All yeast strains demonstrated antifungal activity at different levels depending on species and medium. Killer strains of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae showed the highest biocontrol in vitro activity, as demonstrated by largest inhibition halos. The competition for iron and the ability to form biofilm and to colonize fruit wounds were hypothesized as the main action mechanisms for M. pulcherrima. The production of hydrolytic enzymes and the ability to colonize the wounds were the most important mechanisms for biocontrol activity in A. pullulans and W. anomalus, which also showed high ability to form biofilm. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect on pathogen growth was observed for the species W. anomalus, S. cerevisiae and M. pulcherrima. Our study clearly indicates that multiple modes of action may explain as M. pulcherrima provide excellent control of postharvest botrytis bunch rot of grape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  10. Bacterial Infection Potato Tuber Soft Rot Disease Detection Based on Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhiyong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot is a severe bacterial disease of potatoes, and soft rot infection can cause significant economic losses during the storage period of potatoes. In this study, potato soft rot was selected as the research object, and a type of potato tuber soft rot disease early detection method based on the electronic nose technology was proposed. An optimized bionic electronic nose gas chamber and a scientific and reasonable sampling device were designed to detect a change in volatile substances of the infected soft rot disease of potato tuber. The infection of soft rot disease in potato tuber samples was detected and identified by using the RBF NN algorithm and SVM algorithm. The results revealed that the proposed bionic electronic nose system can be utilized for early detection of potato tuber soft rot disease. Through comparison and analysis, the recognition rate using the SVM algorithm reached up to 89.7%, and the results were superior to the RBF NN algorithm.

  11. The prevalence of stalking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, S.; Kunst, M.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Over eight years after the enactment of the Dutch anti-stalking provisions there are still no figures detailing the prevalence of stalking in The Netherlands. This article aims to estimate the lifetime and annual prevalence of this form of victimization within the Dutch population. Questionnaires

  12. Utilization of enzyme supplemented Telfairia occidentalis stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight (8) week feeding trial was carried out to assess the use of enzyme natuzyme supplemented Telfairia occidentalis stalk extract as growth inducer in the practical diet for Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets at 0 ml of stalk extract and enzyme (TRT 1), 15 ml (TRT 2) and 30 ...

  13. Stalking: Criminological and criminal law aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the historical aspects of stalking crime, the author first provides an overview of different definitions of this socially negative behavior in the legal documents of countries where such conduct was first criminalized. The author presents statistical data on the scope of stalking in the United States and Australia. The second part of the paper discusses different types of stalkers, whose distinctive features are analyzed in more detail. In particular, the author focuses on the causal link between the stalking crime and violence, as well as the victims' responses to their own victimization. In the next part of this article, the author provides a detailed analysis of a wide range of consequences of stalking crime. In some cases, the victim of stalking may become the perpetrator of a criminal act of murder, whereas the stalker becomes a victim of this serious form of homicide. Although these cases are not numerous, they call for further analysis and proposing new legal solutions related to the privileged forms of murder, which are aimed at improving the position of the victim of stalking who is the perpetrator of such homicide. Finally, the author argues in favour of incriminating a new type of felony - the crime of stalking (in line with the model envisaged in the criminal legislation of the Republic of Croatia, as well as a privileged homicide which may be designated as a murder of a stalker committed by a victim of stalking.

  14. Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crime, Teens, and Trauma Assault Bullying and Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Dating Violence Sexual Assault Robbery and Property Crime ... and Victimization in the News Media Reporting on Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Do's and Don'ts Sandusky Criminal Trial & ...

  15. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Thomazella, Daniela P T; Teixeira, Paulo José P L; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Schuster, Stephan C; Carlson, John E; Guiltinan, Mark J; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Farmer, Andrew; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Crozier, Jayne; Davis, Robert E; Shao, Jonathan; Melnick, Rachel L; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-02-27

    The basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the source of chocolate, and FPR is one of the most destructive diseases of this important perennial crop in the Americas. This hemibiotroph infects only cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty days, culminating in plant necrosis and sporulation of the fungus without the formation of a basidiocarp. We sequenced and assembled 52.3 Mb into 3,298 contigs that represent the M. roreri genome. Of the 17,920 predicted open reading frames (OFRs), 13,760 were validated by RNA-Seq. Using read count data from RNA sequencing of cacao pods at 30 and 60 days post infection, differential gene expression was estimated for the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of this plant-pathogen interaction. The sequencing data were used to develop a genome based secretome for the infected pods. Of the 1,535 genes encoding putative secreted proteins, 1,355 were expressed in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. Analysis of the data revealed secretome gene expression that correlated with infection and intercellular growth in the biotrophic phase and invasive growth and plant cellular death in the necrotrophic phase. Genome sequencing and RNA-Seq was used to determine and validate the Moniliophthora roreri genome and secretome. High sequence identity between Moniliophthora roreri genes and Moniliophthora perniciosa genes supports the taxonomic relationship with Moniliophthora perniciosa and the relatedness of this fungus to other basidiomycetes. Analysis of RNA-Seq data from infected plant tissues revealed differentially expressed genes in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. The secreted protein genes that were upregulated in the biotrophic phase are primarily associated with breakdown of the intercellular matrix and modification of the fungal mycelia, possibly to mask the fungus from plant defenses. Based on the transcriptome data, the

  16. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  17. Body Stalk Syndrome: A Curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Javalgi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Limb body wall complex (LBWC /Body stalk syndrome anomaly refers to a rare complicated polymalformative fetal malformation syndrome of uncertain etiology firstly described by Van Allen et al in 1987. There are very few cases reported in literature and thus we report a rare case of LBWC. Twenty seven years female presented to labour room with 32 weeks of gestation with no prenatal care and delivered a low birth weight still born fetus weighing 1100gms. On fetal autopsy large abdominal wall defect was noted with difficulty in identifying abdomino-pelvic organs and ambiguous genitalia. Placenta weighed 250gms with attached short umbilical cord measuring 7cms, arising from periphery. A cyst noted attached to placental membrane measuring 9x5cms which on dissection retrieved partially maldeveloped organs. Post mortem radiological findings included Absence of right femur with short tibia and right fibula, Complex vestibral malformation, Craniosynostosis and Overcrowding of ribs.

  18. The consequences of coping with stalking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Katrine Bindesbøl Holm; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to explore: (1) how victims of stalking experience the phenomenon in their daily life, (2) how the nature of stalking informs the victim's internal coping strategies, and (3) how the victims' internal coping strategies negatively affect their daily life...... and well-being. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 victims of stalking. Thematic content analysis was employed, and themes were primarily identified inductively and broad into dialogue with concepts, such as Foucault's panopticism. RESULTS: The results of the study...

  19. Characterizing butt-rot fungi on USA-affiliated islands in the western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Robert L. Schlub; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Roland J. Quitugua; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; J. D. Sweeney

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are genera that commonly cause tree butt-rot on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. These fungal genera can be quite prevalent, especially in older mangrove stands. Although the majority of infections caused by these fungi lead to severe rotting of the heartwood, they typically do not directly kill the living tissues of the sapwood,...

  20. Identification of metastases in the pituitary stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubiger, O

    1982-09-01

    Two cases of metastasis in the pituitary stalk are presented. In both cases, presenting with diabetes insipidus, the demonstration of a small (under 1 cm) metastasis in the pituitary stalk was possible using a current generation scanner. Patients with known primary tumors presenting with a diabetes insipidus should be examined by CT before therapy with antidiuretic hormone is initiated. In cases of visible metastasis, a specific therapy together with the hormone-substitution should be discussed.

  1. Time Course of Resolution of Hyperprolactinemia After Transsphenoidal Surgery Among Patients Presenting with Pituitary Stalk Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Hasan A; Cote, David J; Castlen, Joseph P; Burke, William T; Liu, Yong-Hui; Smith, Timothy R; Laws, Edward R

    2017-01-01

    Primary lactotroph disinhibition, or stalk effect, occurs when mechanical compression of the pituitary stalk disrupts the tonic inhibition by dopamine released by the hypothalamus. The resolution of pituitary stalk effect-related hyperprolactinemia postoperatively has not been studied in a large cohort of patients. We performed a retrospective review to investigate the time course of recovery of lactotroph disinhibition after transsphenoidal surgery. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for all patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery with the senior author from April 2008 to November 2014. Of 556 pituitary adenomas, 289 (52.0%) were eliminated: 77 (13.9%) had an immunohistochemically confirmed prolactinoma, 119 (21.4%) patients had previous surgery, 93 (16.7%) had incomplete medical records, leaving 267 patients (48.0%) for final analysis. Of these patients, 72 (27.0%) had increased serum prolactin levels (≥23.3 ng/mL), suggestive of pituitary stalk effect (maximum prolactin level = 148.0 ng/mL). Patients with stalk effect were more likely than those with normal serum prolactin levels to present with menstrual dysfunction (29.7% vs. 19.4%; P Transsphenoidal surgery can provide durable normalization of serum prolactin levels and related symptoms caused by pituitary stalk compression-related lactotroph disinhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavior of hybrid corn crop as second rot incidence in West Region Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and influence of stalk rot and ear in cultivation of hybrid corn second crop in west region Paraná. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six transgenic corn hybrids (DKB 330PRO, P4285HX, P3646HX, 30F53HX, P3340HX and P3161HX with four replications at spacing of 0.90 m between rows and 0.20 m between plants. The characteristics evaluated were: number of healthy and symptomatic plants, number of ears healthy and symptomatic and total number of spikes. After harvest, we assessed the length of ears healthy and symptomatic, bulk grain ears healthy and symptomatic, thousand grain weight of ears healthy and symptomatic, and grain mass per spike weighted, thousand grain weight and weighted productivity. The hybrid P3646HX showed 100% of plants with stem base rot (Colletotrichum graminicola and soft rot cob (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. Zeae and 100% of ears with symptoms of soft rot, followed by hybrid 30F53HX, DKB 330PRO with 34.9 and 29.1% of ears with symptoms of soft rot respectively. The hybrid DKB330PRO showed healthy spikes and patients with superior size, resulting in less interference in the grain yield. The hybrid P3340 productivity was higher, with 7952 kg ha-1 , followed by hybrid 30F53HX and DKB330PRO. A positive correlation between agronomic characteristics and grain yield.

  3. Soft rot erwiniae: from genes to genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Ian K; Bell, Kenneth S; Holeva, Maria C; Birch, Paul R J

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY The soft rot erwiniae, Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica (Eca), E. carotovora ssp. carotovora (Ecc) and E. chrysanthemi (Ech) are major bacterial pathogens of potato and other crops world-wide. We currently understand much about how these bacteria attack plants and protect themselves against plant defences. However, the processes underlying the establishment of infection, differences in host range and their ability to survive when not causing disease, largely remain a mystery. This review will focus on our current knowledge of pathogenesis in these organisms and discuss how modern genomic approaches, including complete genome sequencing of Eca and Ech, may open the door to a new understanding of the potential subtlety and complexity of soft rot erwiniae and their interactions with plants. The soft rot erwiniae are members of the Enterobacteriaceae, along with other plant pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora and human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. Although the genus name Erwinia is most often used to describe the group, an alternative genus name Pectobacterium was recently proposed for the soft rot species. Ech mainly affects crops and other plants in tropical and subtropical regions and has a wide host range that includes potato and the important model host African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha). Ecc affects crops and other plants in subtropical and temperate regions and has probably the widest host range, which also includes potato. Eca, on the other hand, has a host range limited almost exclusively to potato in temperate regions only. Disease symptoms: Soft rot erwiniae cause general tissue maceration, termed soft rot disease, through the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes. Environmental factors such as temperature, low oxygen concentration and free water play an essential role in disease development. On potato, and possibly other plants, disease symptoms may differ, e.g. blackleg disease is associated

  4. [Nurses' experiences of stalking: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina; Lupo, Roberto; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review aimed to synthetize the results of the main studies analysing nurses' experience of stalking in different clinical settings. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE (through PubMed), CINAHL (through EBSCOhost) and the search engine "Google Scholar". Searches were limited to articles published in English and Italian, and published between 1999 and 2013. Stalking refers to a behavioural pattern characterized by persistent unwanted communications and contacts imposed to another person, which, consequently suffer from distress, fear, and anxiety. Several studies explored the risk of stalking in healthcare system, especially in doctors and psychiatrists. Some authors analysed nurses' experience of stalking with particular attention to mental health professionals as a group category with an increased risk of stalking by patients. Results of some studies carried out in different clinical settings (medical and surgical areas, and other healthcare settings) also revealed, even if in a minority, the presence of this phenomenon, showing the presence of staking's behaviours by patients and healthcare colleagues too. However, more researches with large sample size are needed to better understand the phenomenon of stalking in nurses working in different clinical areas.

  5. Some thoughts on the neurobiology of stalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid; Fisher, Helen

    2005-11-01

    The authors examine the crime of stalking, including the cognitive traits, emotional reactions, attachment pathology, violence patterns and sex differences of samples of stalking offenders. They focus on two common types of stalkers: 1) those who sustain pursuit of a former sexual intimate who has rejected them; and 2) those who pursue a stranger or acquaintance who has failed to return the stalker's romantic overtures. The authors discuss data from neuroimaging (fMRI) studies of romantic love which suggest that these forms of stalking may be associated with heightened activity of subcortical dopaminergic pathways of the "Reward System" of the brain, perhaps in combination with low activity of central serotonin. The authors propose that this set of neural correlates may contribute to the stalker's focused attention, increased energy, following behaviors, obsessive thinking about and impulsivity directed toward the victim. To further explore the neural systems associated with stalking behavior, they also discuss several biopsychological phenomena associated with romantic rejection, including the "protest response," "frustration attraction," "abandonment rage" and "mate guarding." They illustrate the parallels between stalking and addiction. They conclude that stalking may be associated with a specific set of biological components and they offer suggestions for further research into this pathological emotional/motivational state.

  6. Biological Control of White Rot in Garlic Using Burkholderia pyrrocinia CAB08106-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Seop Han

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available White rot caused by Sclerotium cepivorum was reported to be severe soil-born disease on garlic. Disease progress of white rot of garlic (Allium sativum L. was investigated during the growing season of 2009 to 2011 at Taean and Seosan areas. The white rot disease on bulb began to occur from late April and peaked in late May. The antifungal bacteria, Burkholderia pyrrocinia CAB08106-4 was tested in field bioassay for suppression of white rot disease. As a result of the nucleotide sequence of the gene 16S rRNA, CAB008106-4 strain used in this study has been identified as B. pyrrocinia. B. pyrrocinia CAB080106-4 isolate suppressed the white rot with 69.6% control efficacy in field test. These results suggested that B. pyrrocinia CAB08106-4 isolate could be an effective biological control agent against white rot of garlic.

  7. Nonchemical, cultural management strategies to suppress phytophthora root rot in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora cinnamomi causes root rot of highbush blueberry and decreases plant growth, yield, and profitability for growers. Fungicides can suppress root rot, but cannot be used in certified organic production systems and fungicide resistance may develop. Alternative, non-chemical, cultural manag...

  8. Improving cost-effectiveness of brown rot control: the value of bio-economic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukers, A.; Werf, van der W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1995, the Dutch potato production chain has been hit by several outbreaks of brown rot, a quarantine disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2. To avoid establishment of brown rot in the potato production chain and avert the consequences on potato export, the Dutch government

  9. Fungicide rotation schemes for managing Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon across southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern states produce about 50% of the watermelons in the United States (U.S.) where conditions are optimal for development of Phytophthora fruit rot prevail. Phytophthora fruit rot significantly limits watermelon production by causing serious yield losses to growers before and after harvest. ...

  10. Resistance to post-harvest microbial rot in yam: Integration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-harvest microbial rot is an important disease that causes severe losses in yam (Dioscorea spp.) storage. Rot from microbial infection of healthy yam tubers reduces their table quality and renders them unappealing to consumers. A study was carried out at Bimbilla in the Nanumba North District of Ghana to evaluate ...

  11. [Stalking: From "romantic pursuit" to sexual predation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleau, Virginie; Harika-Germaneau, Ghina; Delbreil, Alexia; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2018-06-01

    Deriving from the English verb "to stalk", stalking denotes an unwelcome, repetitive, and intrusive harassing and/or threatening behavior directed toward a specific individual, and can result in physical and/or sexual offending - even leading to homicide. French harassment legislation has evolved over the years, and the last law closest to the international anti-stalking laws had been promulgated in 2014. According to a review, up to 16% of women and 7% of men are stalked in their life, and 80% of the stalkers are known to their victims. Stalkers are a heterogeneous population, either seeking an intimate relationship with someone the stalker knows or with a celebrity, or being revenge-motivated, or tracking their victims with the aim of offending them. Stalkers threat their victims in about half of the cases, and physically offend them in a third of the cases, violence being more often directed against ex-intimates. Sexual offending would be the consequence of harassment behavior for some stalkers, and would be the initial aim of the stalking for others. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Huanglongbing increases Diplodia Stem End Rot in Citrus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most devastating diseases of citrus is caused by the a-Proteobacteria Candidatus Liberibacter. Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans is a fungal pathogen which has been known to cause a postharvest stem-end rot of citrus, the pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx, an...

  13. Isolation of Stem rot Disease Causing Organism of Brinjal and their in-vitro Inhibition with Fungicides and Bio-control Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaily Javeria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different strains of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were isolated from the diseased samples collected from different hosts and locations. Among the 14 isolates, 12 isolates colonies covered the entire Petri plates within 96 hours but, two isolates from fababean and yellow mustard showed slow colony growth within 96 hours. All isolates produced sclerotia which were varied in number, but the fenugreek isolate produced maximum (43 number of sclerotia and lambs quarter isolate produced minimum number of sclerotia (12 on PDA medium. To examine inhibitory effect of fungicide on the mycelial growth of the pathogen, 9 fungicides were tested in vitro against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, of those carbendazim, carboxin, topsin-M and carbendazim+ mancozeb (SAAF were found most effective and inhibited the mycelial growth of pathogen up to 100 per cent at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% concentration. The effect of different bioagents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. koningii, T. atroviride, T. longibraciatum, Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosome and Penicillium notatum in inhibiting the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was studied through “Dual Culture Technique”. The data showed that among the eight biocontrol agent six were fond effective. The maximum inhibition was found by T. harzianum causing 70.82% inhibition of mycelial growth of the pathogen S. sclerotiorum.

  14. Comparison of the degradation of 14C-labeled DHP and corn stalk lignins by micro- and macrofungi and bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, K.; Trojanowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    To what extent and by which mode microfungi and bacteria from soil are able to degrade lignin have been investigated and their activity compared with those of white and brown rot Basidiomycetes. The experiments were made by means of specifically 14C-labeled DHPs prepared by polymerization of correspondingly labeled coniferyl alcohol. Also, a corn stalk material was used which was specifically labeled in the lignin part. This material was prepared by infusion of specifically labeled cinnamic acid compounds into growing maize plants. The potential of the organisms to degrade several specifically labeled phenols was determined and compared. White and brown rot fungi, as well as several microscopic fungi, were able to degrade phenolcarboxylic and cinnamic acids and even some phenolic compounds with completely alkylated phenolic hydroxl groups. They could also introduce hydroxl groups into benzoic and pi-hydroxybenzoic acids before ring cleavage. As compared to brown rot, the white rot fungi released higher amounts of CO2 from the aromatic and side chain carbons of DHP and plant lignins. Some brown rot fungi, however, had similar capacities in degrading DHP lignin as white rot fungi. They especially released more CO2 from methoxyl groups. This release was dependent upon the added carbohydrate source and could be either repressed or enhanced. Several bacteria, especially Nocardia spp. and Pseudomonas spp., were tested for their potential to degrade the labeled lignins or phenols. Most of these bacteria did not appreciably degrade lignins, although they were highly active in the metabolization of phenols. Some Nocardia spp., however, were found to have a noteworthy capacity in the degradation of lignins and phenols. Preliminary studies of the potentials of the organisms to attack labeled lignin sulfonates either in liquid or soil cultures are presented. (Refs. 100)

  15. Multicellular stalk-like structures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelberg, D.; Mimran, A.; Martinetto, H.; Otto, J.; Simchen, G.; Karin, M.; Fink, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    Stalk formation is a novel pattern of multicellular organization. Yeast cells which survive UV irradiation form colonies that grow vertically to form very long (0.5 to 3.0 cm) and thin (0.5 to 4 mm in diameter) multicellular structures. We describe the conditions required to obtain these stalk-like structures reproducibly in large numbers. Yeast mutants, mutated for control of cell polarity, developmental processes, UV response, and signal transduction cascades were tested and found capable of forming stalk-like structures. We suggest a model that explains the mechanism of stalk formation by mechanical environmental forces. We show that other microorganisms (Candida albicans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Escherichia coli) also form stalks, suggesting that the ability to produce stalks may be a general property of microorganisms. Diploid yeast stalks sporulate at an elevated frequency, raising the possibility that the physiological role of stalks might be disseminating spores

  16. Stalking Behavior and the Cycle of Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Frances L.

    1997-01-01

    Refines the behavioral definition of stalking, investigates the role stalking plays in domestic violence, and develops demographic profiles of stalkers and their victims. Results based on information taken from 141 college women show that subjects who reported significantly more abuse during relationships were more likely to be stalked by former…

  17. STALKED BARNACLES CONCHODERMA AURITUM ON AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower jaw, the palate and the penis of the sperm whale - Carke 1966). The occurrence of. C. auritum on the body skin of an elephant seal is therefore ... It can be inferred from Sorensen's remark that "barnacles up to an inch in length have been seen ... " that a stalked barnacle was involved, and Laws indeed refers to those.

  18. Vulture worries stalk activists on Uttarayan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Vulture worries stalk activists on Uttarayan. Anon. Ahmedabad – When kites take to the skies on Uttarayan, animal activists will be biting their nails in apprehension. Their main concern is the White-rumped. Vulture, a highly endangered species, of which only 137 birds are left in the city, according to figures ...

  19. Enkele kanttekeningen bij de strafbaarstelling van stalking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klink, B.M.J.; Royakkers, L.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    In dit artikel gaan wij nader in op het fenomeen stalking in het algemeen en het wetsvoorstel dienaangaande in het bijzonder. §2 biedt een conceptuele analyse van het begrip ¿belaging', dat door ons wordt opgevat als een vorm van geestelijke mishandeling. Beseft dient te worden dat het hierbij niet

  20. Characterizing forest root‐ and butt‐rot fungi in Yap, Palau, Pohnpei, Kosrae, Guam and Saipan [Chapter III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Yuko Ota; Norio Sahashi; Robert L. Schlub; Roger Brown; Sara M. Ashiglar; Amy L. Ross-Davis; John W. Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma and Phellinus are two common fungal genera causing butt-rot on trees growing on USA-affiliated islands of the western Pacific. Although these fungi can be quite prevalent, especially in some older mangrove stands, it appears that the majority of infections caused by these fungi leads to severe rotting of the heartwood but do not kill the living...

  1. Biochemical response and host-pathogen relation of stalk rot fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. nirupma

    photosynthesis, which are the vital processes taking place inside the plant, leading to wide fluctuations in sugars (Klement ... The suspension spray was prepared by taking. 200 ml of ..... biochemical factors due to cell response that is, defence .... by Fusarium moniliforme on corn growth and cellular morphology. Plant Dis.

  2. Transection of the pituitary stalk: evaluation of two cases by computerized tomography and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, L.L.F. do; Mendonca, R.A.; Natal, M.R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present two cases of pituitary dwarfism where the study by high resolution computed tomography and by magnetic resonance imaging show transection of the pituitary stalk as the cause of the endocrine disturb. The importance of these methods on the investigation of disturbs of the hypothalamus-hypophyseal axis is stressed. (author)

  3. Detecting cotton boll rot with an electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Boll Rot is an emerging disease of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., caused by the opportunistic bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans (Ewing and Fife). Unlike typical fungal diseases, bolls infected with P. agglomerans continue to appear normal externally, complicating early and rapid detectio...

  4. Antagonistic Effect of Native Bacillus Isolates against Black Root Rot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in eastern Africa. Black root rot (Fusarium solani) is known to cause great yield losses in faba bean, especially in the highlands of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological control ability of native Bacillus species on the basis of ...

  5. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  6. Control of yam tuber rot with leaf extracts of Xylopia aethiopica and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN

    Investigation was carried out to test the potency of some plant extracts for the control of yam tuber rot caused by Fusarium ... The extracts of suppressed the growth of these fungi in culture ..... Methodolgy for analysis of Vegetable drug. Practical.

  7. Efficacy of four plant extracts in the control of root rot disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garcinia cola) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts in the control of root rot of cowpea caused by Pythium aphanidermatum was carried out in vitro and in the field (in vivo). They were evaluated for their antifungal activity over P.

  8. The effect of Cerasus avium stalk extract on albumin glycation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Abdoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins is the major cause of diabetic complications. The inhibition of glycation process can reduce complications of diabetes. In the Iranian traditional medicine, the decoction (boiled extraction of Cerasus avium stalk is used as a hypoglycemic agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of decoction and ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Cerasus avium stalk on albumin glycation reaction. Methods: In this experimental study, first, the ethanolic, aqueous and decoction extracts of Cerasus avium stalk were prepared. Then, different concentrations of these extracts were prepared and added to albumin and glucose solutions. Finally, compared to control group that was not treated with any extracts, the albumin glycation rate in the groups treated with various concentrations of extracts was evaluated using TBA (thio-barbituric acid method. Results: The results showed that compared to control group, decoction of Cerasus avium stalk in the concentrations of 20, 10 and 2 mg/dl could reduce albumin glycation to 85.10±1.55, 72.35±1.75 and 51.25±1.22 %, respectively (P>0.001. Moreover, in the concentration of 20 mg/dl, the inhibitory effect of decoction of Cerasus avium stalk on the albumin glycation reaction was higher than those of aqueous (P=0.021 and ethanolic (P=0.009 extracts. Conclusion: The findings showed that the extracs of Cerasus avium stalk, in particular in the decoction form, could significantly reduce the rate of albumin glycation; therefore, it can be used for decreasing diabetes mellitus complications.

  9. Case of pituitary stalk transection syndrome ascertained after breech delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Kaori; Hidaka, Takao; Ono, Yosuke; Kochi, Keiko; Yasoshima, Kuniaki; Arai, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Pituitary stalk transection syndrome (PSTS) is a rare complication that can accompany breech delivery. Early diagnosis of this syndrome is difficult, and it may cause a serious delay in the diagnosis. We present a case of PSTS ascertained after breech delivery. A 20-year-old woman presented with primary amenorrhea. The patient was born by breech delivery and had a history of treatment for pituitary dwarfism. Her laboratory findings showed pituitary hypothyroidism, and hormone replacement therapy was initiated. At 28 years old, she became pregnant and had a normal delivery at 38 weeks' gestation. One year after delivery, her thyroid hormone level changed. Laboratory test showed adrenocortical insufficiency, and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland showed transection of the pituitary stalk and development of an ectopic posterior lobe. These findings were compatible with PSTS. When a patient who has been born by breech delivery presents with symptoms of pituitary deficiency, PSTS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Stalking: A Multidimensional Framework for Assessment and Safety Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert

    2015-09-03

    Despite the high prevalence of stalking and the risk of harm it poses to victims, arrest rates, prosecutions, and convictions for stalking continue to be low in the United States. The overall goal of this article is to introduce a multidimensional framework of stalking that adds to the current literature by (1) providing a conceptual framework consistent with legal elements of many stalking statutes to facilitate assessment, communication, documentation, and safety planning for stalking several victims; (2) introducing a more systematic way of assessing course of conduct and the context of fear in stalking situations in order to increase the understanding of cumulative fear for stalking victims; (3) emphasizing the aspects of stalking harm that go beyond violence and that show how harm from stalking accumulates over time including life sabotage; and (4) discussing 12 risk factors derived from the overall multidimensional framework that can be used to describe the big picture of stalking and to facilitate safety planning for victims. Implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alula Gebresas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a place in north Ethiopia. The clay binders that are mixed with carbonized sesame stalk were found to have 69 liquid limits; thus, the optimum amount of clay that should be added as a binder is 15%, which results in better burning and heat holding capacity and better heating time. The developed briquetting machine has a capacity of producing 60 Kg/hr but the carbonization kiln can only carbonize 3.1 Kg in 2 : 40 hours; hence, it is a bottle neck for the briquette production. The hydrocarbon laboratory analysis showed that the calorific value of the charcoal produced with 15% clay content is 4647.75 Cal/gm and decreases as clay ratio increases and is found to be sufficient energy content for cooking.

  12. Stalking. Part II: Victims' problems with the legal system and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, K M; Robinson, G E

    1998-06-01

    This paper is the second of 2 parts reviewing the topic of stalking. It focuses on victims difficulties with the legal system and the psychotherapeutic tasks for victims and therapists. Computerized literature searches were used to identify relevant papers from psychiatric and legal journals. Publications by victims' and women's organizations provided additional information. Victims suffer emotional consequences from being stalked. Additional stress is caused by the legal system's lack of understanding of the causes and consequences of stalking and inadequate and unenforced laws. The treatment of victims requires a comprehensive approach, including education, supportive psychotherapy, and discussion of practical measures. Therapists may overidentify with the patient's powerlessness or hesitate to take on a case out of fear of the stalker. Female therapists may protect themselves against the realization of their own vulnerability by blaming the victim, while male therapists may feel defensive or overprotective. Stalking is a crime with major mental health consequences which is often poorly understood by society. Therapists need to be aware of the victim's emotional reactions, the types of legal and practical supports available, and the possible biases of society. Further education and research should be encouraged.

  13. Do men and women differ in their perceptions of stalking: an exploratory study among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Eric G; Smith, Brad; Geistman, James; Cluse-Tolar, Terry; Jiang, Shanhe

    2013-01-01

    Stalking is a crime that can terrify its victims and ultimately take a severe emotional toll. Although a growing body of research has examined stalking experiences and reactions of victims, there has been far less research on whether men and women differ in their perceptions of stalking. Toward this end, a survey of college students at a large public 4-year Midwestern university was undertaken. We examined differences is how men and women view stalking and whether gender differences were moderated by prior stalking experience. Specifically, we examined whether there were gender differences in perceptions of the pervasiveness of stalking, the harm stalking does, who tends to be stalked, if stalking mainly involves former relational partners, possible motivations for stalking, the line between courtship and stalking, and notions of victim blaming. We found significant differences in stalking views between men and women on all the measures, except for perceptions of the line between courtship and stalking. Women tended to perceive stalking as more pervasive and harmful. Men were more likely to perceive stalking as involving strangers and to blame the victim for the stalking. Female and male respondents also differed in their perceptions of motivations for stalking. Prior victim stalking experience did not moderate the gender differences. Although being a prior stalking victim had a significant association with 4 of the 7 stalking perception variables, its effect sizes were smaller than that of gender.

  14. Neofusicoccum luteum associated with leaf necrosis and fruit rot of olives in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sergeeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neofusicoccum luteum is reported for the first time from olives (Olea europaea, causing fruit rot and leaf necrosis. Affected fruits initially became brown with pycnidia developing on the surface, later drying out and becoming mummified. The fungus was shown to be pathogenic on both fruits and leaves. The association of Botryosphaeriaceae with rotting olive fruits in Mediterranean regions and in New South Wales, Australia indicates that these fungi play a significant role in fruit rots of olives and deserve greater attention.

  15. Rapid polyether cleavage via extracellular one-electron oxidation by a brown-rot basidiomycete

    OpenAIRE

    Kerem, Zohar; Bao, Wuli; Hammel, Kenneth E.

    1998-01-01

    Fungi that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers and also the principal agents of decay in wooden structures, but the extracellular mechanisms by which they degrade lignocellulose remain unknown. To test the hypothesis that brown-rot fungi use extracellular free radical oxidants as biodegradative tools, Gloeophyllum trabeum was examined for its ability to depolymerize an environmentally recalcitrant polyether, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), that cannot penetrate cell membranes....

  16. BIOMODIFICATION OF KENAF USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmina Halis,; Hui Rus Tan,; Zaidon Ashaari,; Rozi Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    White rot fungi can be used as a pretreatment of biomass to degrade lignin. It also alters the structure of the lignocellulosic matter, thus increasing its accessibility to enzymes able to convert polysaccharides into simple sugars. This study compares the ability of two species of white rot fungi, Pycnoporous sanguineus and Oxyporus latemarginatus FRIM 31, to degrade lignin in kenaf chips. The white rot fungi were originally isolated from the tropical forest in Malaysia. Kenaf chips were fir...

  17. Antifungal properties of Musa paradisiaca (Plantain) peel and stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of plantain (Musa paradisiaca (L) AAB genomic group) peel and stalk extracts were investigated using percentage inhibition test. Complete inhibition of growth (100%) was observed for Aspergillusniger, Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus stolonifer at 1.0 mg/ml concentration of stalk extract. Peel extract inhibited A.

  18. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  19. Stalking als Straftatbestand : Neue Tendenzen in den EU-Mitgliedstaaten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Suzanne; Bachman, Roland; Ortiz-Müller, Wolf

    2017-01-01

    Article 34 of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence obliges signatory states to criminalize stalking. This article provides an inventory of criminal anti-stalking legislation in the 28 EU Member States in order to see whether they

  20. 78 FR 1125 - National Stalking Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... some point in their lives, 1 in 6 women and 1 in 19 men will be stalked, and many of these crimes will.... It can include implied or explicit threats; harassment; or nonconsensual communication through phone..., stalking tends to escalate over time, and it is sometimes followed by sexual assault or homicide. My...

  1. Bio-oil production from cotton stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jilu; Yi Weiming; Wang Nana

    2008-01-01

    Cotton stalk was fast pyrolyzed at temperatures between 480 deg. C and 530 deg. C in a fluidized bed, and the main product of bio-oil is obtained. The experimental result shows that the highest bio-oil yield of 55 wt% was obtained at 510 deg. C for cotton stalk. The chemical composition of the bio-oil acquired was analyzed by GC-MS, and its heat value, stability, miscibility and corrosion characteristics were determined. These results showed that the bio-oil obtained can be directly used as a fuel oil for combustion in a boiler or a furnace without any upgrading. Alternatively, the fuel can be refined to be used by vehicles. Furthermore, the energy performance of the pyrolysis process was analyzed. In the pyrolysis system used in our experiment, some improvements to former pyrolysis systems are done. Two screw feeders were used to prevent jamming the feeding system, and the condenser is equipped with some nozzles and a heat exchanger to cool quickly the cleaned hot gas into bio-oil

  2. Association of Pectolytic Fluorescent PSeudomonas with Postharvest Rots of Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H. El-Hendawy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of pectolytic fluorescent pseudomonads were obtained from a rotted onion bulb and identified as Pseudomonas marginalis. At both 4 and 25oC, all isolates caused soft rot to detached plant parts of onion and to carrot, celery, cucumber, pepper, spinach, tomato and turnip (but not garlic. They did not however cause any symptoms in living plants of these same species. These results suggest that the onion isolates are a postharvest pathogen which is not destructive in the field but becomes a threat to fresh vegetables stored at low-temperature. Analysis of cellulosolytic and pectic enzymes revealed that pectic lyases, but not polygalacturonases, pectin methyl esterases and cellulases were produced in culture by each isolate.

  3. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  4. [Mental health impact of stalking in men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter; Dressing, Harald

    2006-08-01

    Using data from the Mannheim stalking study, the present report analyses gender differences with regard to various mental health indicators and potential mediator effects of stalking victimization. Furthermore, we were interested in whether the impact of stalking on mental health was comparable for men and women. The study included a postal survey of 675 community residents on the experience of intruding harassment and on mental health indicators. In the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-D, Lowe et al. 2001), women scored higher on most of the subscales (depression, anxiety, somatic complaints, stress, psychosocial impairment) than men. Furthermore, more women fulfilled criteria for at least one threshold or subthreshold mental disorder syndrome according to DSM-IV, and more women were under psychotropic medication. However, the identified associations were completely mediated by the higher prevalence of stalking victims in women. In contrast, the associations of stalking victimization with poor mental health, psychosocial functioning, and use of medication were largely comparable across gender.

  5. Assessment of Sugarcane Germplasm ( Saccharum spp. complex Against Red Rot Pathogen Colletotrichum Falcatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went is the most important disease of sugarcane in India inflicting substantial loss to both cane industry and cane growers. To keep in view the importance of red rot disease of sugarcane, 117 accession of sugarcane germplasm including different Saccharum species and Indian and foreign commercial hybrids were tested against red rot with Cf 07, Cf 08 & Cf 09 (national pathotypes by plug method of inoculation. Out of 117, 6 were found resistant and 12 were moderately resistant against red rot and rest were moderately susceptible/susceptible/highly susceptible. Theses resistance and moderately resistant accession can be further utilize to produce resistance varieties against the most devastating pathogen of sugarcane.

  6. [Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-yin; Zheng, Zheng; Zou, Xing-xing; Fang, Cai-xia; Luo, Yan

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of corn stalk digested alone at different total solid (TS) loading rates and co-digestion of various proportions of corn stalk and vermicompost were investigated by batch model at 35 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C. The organic loading rates (OLRs) studied were in the range of 1.2%-6.0% TS and increasing proportions of vermicompost from 20% to 80% TS. A maximum methane yield of corn stalk digested alone was 217.60 mL/g obtained at the TS loading rate of 4.8%. However, when the TS loading rate was 6.0%, the anaerobic system was acidified and the lowest pH value was 5.10 obtained on day 4 and the biogas productivity decreased. Furthermore, co-digestion of vermicompost and corn stalk in varying proportions were investigated at constant of 6.0% TS. Co-digestion with vermicompost improved the biodegradability of corn stalk and the methane yield was improved by 4.42%-58.61%, and led to higher pH values, higher volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and lower alkalinity content compared with corn stalk digested alone. The maximum biogas yield and methane yield of 410.30 mL/g and 259. 35 mL/g were obtained for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk respectively. Compared with corn stalk digested alone, co-digested with vermicompost didn' t affect methane content and the fermentation type, but promoted the destruction of crystalline of cellulose and the highest destruction rate was 29.36% for 40% vermicompost and 60% corn stalk. Therefore, adding vermicompost was beneficial for the decomposition and increasing the biotransformation rate of corn stalk.

  7. Fungal hydroquinones contribute to brown rot of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa R. Suzuki; Christopher G. Hunt; Carl J. Houtman; Zachary D. Dalebroux; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2006-01-01

    The fungi that cause brown rot of wood initiate lignocellulose breakdown with an extracellular Fenton system in which Fe2+ and H2O2 react to produce hydroxyl radicals (•OH), which then oxidize and cleave the wood holocellulose. One such fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, drives Fenton chemistry on defined media by reducing Fe3+ and O2 with two extracellular hydroquinones,...

  8. Soft rot decay capabilities and interactions of fungi and bacteria from fumigated utility poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.J.K.; Worrall, J.J.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives were to (1) identify microfungi and bacterial associates isolated from fumigated southern pine poles from EPRI project RP 1471-72, (2) study the soft-rot capabilities of predominant fungi, and (3) study interactions among microorganisms in relation to wood decay. Methods for identification followed standard techniques using morphological and physiological criteria. Soft-rot by microfungi alone and with bacteria was determined as weight loss and anatomical examination of wood blocks using light microscopy and limited electron microscopy. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was the predominant bacterium. Twenty-one species of microfungi were identified including four new species. A book entitled IDENTIFICATION MANUAL FOR FUNGI FROM UTILITY POLES IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES was published. An improved soft-rot test was devised. Fifty-one of 84 species (60%) of microfungi from poles tested were soft-rot positive; that is much greater than previously reported. Three types of anatomical damage of wood of pine or birch caused by soft-rot fungi were described. Interaction tests showed that, in some cases, there was a strong synergism between bacteria and fungi in causing weight loss, but results were inconsistent. Although soft rot is often most apparent under conditions of very high moisture, intermediate moisture levels appear to be optimal, as with basidiomycete decayers

  9. 7 CFR 29.6039 - Stem rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or frozen stem resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is inactive in cured tobacco...

  10. Nature & prevalence of stalking among New Zealand mental health clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Frances A; Thom, Katey; Dixon, Robyn

    2007-04-01

    Stalking involves recurrent and persistent unwanted communication or contact that generates fear for safety in the victims. This pilot study evaluated the nature and prevalence of stalking among New Zealand nurses and physicians working in mental health services. An anonymous questionnaire asking respondents to describe their experiences with 12 stalking behaviors was distributed to 895 clinicians. Results indicated that regardless of discipline, women were more likely than men to have experienced one or more stalking behaviors, including receiving unwanted telephone calls, letters, and approaches; receiving personal threats: and being followed, spied on, or subject to surveillance. Women also reported higher levels of fearfulness as a consequence of stalking behaviors. Nearly half of the stalkers were clients; the remaining were former partners, colleagues, or acquaintances. In client-related cases, the majority of respondents told their colleagues and supervisors first, and the majority found them to be the most helpful resource. The results of this pilot study indicate a need for further research focused on the stalking of mental health clinicians in New Zealand and for development of workplace policies for adequate response to the stalking of mental health clinicians.

  11. Stalking Victimization in LGBTQ Adults: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Walls, N Eugene; Whitfield, Darren L; Kattari, Shanna K; Ramos, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Stalking is often considered to be a form of interpersonal violence; yet, despite an increase in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ)-specific research on other forms of interpersonal violence, such as intimate partner violence and sexual assault, there is a relative lack of literature on stalking victimization of LGBTQ individuals, particularly as it relates to gender identity. This is problematic given the results of numerous studies indicating LGBTQ individuals, and transgender individuals in particular, experience victimization in various forms and contexts at alarming rates. In the current study, we examined secondary data to determine the prevalence of lifetime stalking victimization and subsequent police reporting in a large community-based sample of LGBTQ individuals living in Colorado ( N = 1,116). In addition, using chi-square analyses, we examined independence of stalking experiences and police reporting by both gender identity ( transgender, cisgender male, cisgender female) and sexual orientation ( gay, lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual, queer, other). Approximately 15% of the total sample reported ever experiencing stalking; yet, only about one quarter of those who were stalked reported it to police. Although no statistically significant differences emerged by gender identity or sexual orientation, transgender, bisexual, and queer participants had the highest prevalence of lifetime stalking victimization. Moreover, these groups reported the lowest prevalence of reporting their victimization to the police. We provide suggestions to improve the development of research on this topic including a need for an inclusive definition of stalking and studies using larger, representative samples to better discern potential significant differences in stalking experiences of LGBTQ persons.

  12. The prevalence and nature of stalking in the Australian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rosemary; Pathé, Michele; Mullen, Paul E

    2002-02-01

    This study examines the extent and nature of stalking victimisation in a random community sample. A postal survey was distributed to 3700 adult men and women selected from the electoral roll in the State of Victoria. Outcome measures included the lifetime and annual cumulative incidence of stalking, the duration and methods of harassment, rates of associated violence and responses to victimisation. Almost one in four respondents (23.4%;432) had been stalked, the unwanted behaviour they were subjected to being both repeated and fear-provoking. One in 10 (197) had experienced a protracted course of stalking involving multiple intrusions spanning a period of at least one month. Women were twice as likely as men to report having been stalked at some time in their lives, though the rates of victimisation in the 12 months prior to the study did not differ significantly according to gender. Younger people were significantly more likely than older respondents to report having been stalked. Victims were pursued by strangers in 42% of cases. The most common methods of harassment involved unwanted telephone calls, intrusive approaches and following. Associated threats (29%) and physical assaults (18%) frequently arose out of the stalking. Significant social and economic disruption was created by the stalking for 63% of victims. Most sought assistance to manage their predicament (69%). The experience of being stalked is common and appears to be increasing. Ten percent of people have been subjected at some time to an episode of protracted harassment. Assaults by stalkers are disturbingly frequent. Most victims report significant disruption to their daily functioning irrespective of exposure to associated violence.

  13. Spatial Heterogeneity of SOM Concentrations Associated with White-rot Versus Brown-rot Wood Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen; Ma, Qiang; Dai, Yucheng; Yuan, Haisheng; Ye, Ji; Yu, Wantai

    2017-10-23

    White- and brown-rot fungal decay via distinct pathways imparts characteristic molecular imprints on decomposing wood. However, the effect that a specific wood-rotting type of fungus has on proximal soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation remains unexplored. We investigated the potential influence of white- and brown-rot fungi-decayed Abies nephrolepis logs on forest SOM stocks (i.e., soil total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)) and the concentrations of amino sugars (microbial necromass) at different depths and horizontal distances from decaying woody debris. The brown-rot fungal wood decay resulted in higher concentrations of soil C and N and a greater increase in microbial necromass (i.e., 1.3- to 1.7-fold greater) than the white-rot fungal wood decay. The white-rot sets were accompanied by significant differences in the proportions of the bacterial residue index (muramic acid%) with soil depth; however, the brown-rot-associated soils showed complementary shifts, primarily in fungal necromass, across horizontal distances. Soil C and N concentrations were significantly correlated with fungal rather than bacterial necromass in the brown-rot systems. Our findings confirmed that the brown-rot fungi-dominated degradation of lignocellulosic residues resulted in a greater SOM buildup than the white-rot fungi-dominated degradation.

  14. Evaluation of elastic modulus and hardness of crop stalks cell walls by nano-indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Wu; Siqun Wang; Dingguo Zhou; Cheng Xing; Yang Zhang; Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural biomaterials such as crop stalks are natural sources of cellulosic fiber and have great potential as reinforced materials in bio-composites. In order to evaluate their potential as materials for reinforcement, the nano-mechanical properties of crop-stalk cell walls, i.e. those of cotton (Gossypium herbaceu) stalk, soybean (Glycine max) stalk, cassava (...

  15. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  16. Stalking: terrorism at our doors--how social workers can help victims fight back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Mary-Ann Leitz

    2003-10-01

    Stalking is a dangerous and devastating crime that irrevocably changes the lives of victims but is frequently misunderstood and minimized. Victims report that their lives are never the same after they have been stalked. Stalking is prevalent and gender-neutral and occurs across all socioeconomic lines and in all clinical settings. The prevalence of stalking provides many opportunities for social workers to intervene, but first they must recognize and understand the problem. This article explains common misconceptions about stalking, contains a brief discussion of the types of stalking, the elements necessary to criminally charge someone with stalking, strategies for the victims, and suggestions for future research.

  17. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  18. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt.

  19. 75 FR 81085 - National Stalking Awareness Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... victimization than men. Stalking can be a difficult crime to recognize. The majority of survivors do not report... affects too many Americans to remain a hidden crime, and a strong stand is required in order to both...

  20. Stalking: The term, features and proposals de lege ferenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Višnja M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper author analyzes main features of stalking, which is recognized as a serious problem in many countries and provided as a criminal offense. There are presented comparative legela solutions of this criminal offense in the countries that have incriminated it firs, as well as in neighboring countries. In recent years in Republic of Serbia it has been indicated to prevalence of the stalking, especially among the former partners, and considering that there is a need for such behavior to be incriminated. Also, Serbia's ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence assumed an obligation to prescribe stalking as criminal offense. This paper proposes the possible way of prescribing stalking with analysis of certain elements of the legal description.

  1. Erwinia chrysanthemi: pectolytic bacterium causing soft rot outbreaks of arracacha in Brazil Erwinia chrysanthemi: bactéria pectolítica envolvida na "mela" da mandioquinha-salsa no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work was to identify the pectolytic bacteria associated with soft rot of arracacha roots in Brazil. From 1998 to 2001, 227 isolates of Erwinia spp. were obtained from arracacha roots and identified by biochemical and physiological tests (pectolytic activity, lecithinase, a-methyl glucoside, phosphatase, erythromycin sensivity, growth at 37ºC. Of these isolates, 89.9% were identified as E. chrysanthemi (Ech, 9.7% as E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc and 0.5% as E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. The identity of seventeen out of twenty representative isolates of Ech and Ecc was confirmed by PCR (primers '149f', 'L1r', 'ADE1', 'ADE2'.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as bactérias pectolíticas envolvidas na podridão-mole de raízes de mandioquinha-salsa no Brasil. De 1998 a 2001, 227 isolados de Erwinia spp. foram obtidos de raízes de mandioquinha-salsa e identificados por testes bioquímicos e fisiológicos (atividade pectolítica, lecitinase, a-methyl glucosídeo, fosfatase, sensibilidade à eritromicina, crescimento a 37ºC. Destes isolados, 89,9% foram identificados como E. chrysanthemi (Ech, 9,7% como E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc e somente 0,5% como E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica. A identidade de 20 isolados representativos de Ech e Ecc foi confirmada por PCR (primers '149f', 'L1r', 'ADE1', 'ADE2', com exceção de dois isolados de Ech e um de Ecc.

  2. Behavioral and Mental Health Correlates of Youth Stalking Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Kernsmith, Poco D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Results Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. Conclusions These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. PMID:27743623

  3. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-03-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously.

  4. Comparing methods for inducing root rot of Rhododendron with Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. plurivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. plurivora in containerized Rhododendron, can cause significant losses in the nursery industry. Studies commonly use a 48 h flooding event to stimulate root infection. While flooding rarely occurs in container nurseries, plants may sit in a shallow pu...

  5. A single dominant Ganoderma species is responsible for root rot of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ganoderma root rot is the most serious disease affecting commercially planted Acacia mangium in plantations in Indonesia. Numerous Ganoderma spp. have been recorded from diseased trees of this species and to a lesser extent Eucalyptus, causing confusion regarding the primary cause of the disease. In this study, a ...

  6. A stalk of grain and light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erín Moure

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available "Stalk of Grain and Light" is an excerpt from O Resplandor (Toronto: Anansi, forthcoming 2010, a book of poetry that explodes notions of authorship and translation. In it, the heteronymic character Elisa Sampedrín translates from Nichita Stãnescu, though she knows no Romanian, and the orthonymic character Erín Moure translates Paul Celan, using not Celan but English transcreations from the language of Celan by Oana Avasilichioaei which she appropriates and reorganizes to create the true translation of a poem by Paul Celan, which exists only in her mind. In this world where corporations copyright human cells, where academics and libraries appropriate works of writers, and where writing itself - moreso than visual art - is limited by expanded notions of plagiarism and ownership, of continuity of copyright for decades that prevents works from influencing art's future, Moure refutes the idea that writing is inspired out of nowhere. Here it is rooted to human interaction, to love and loss, to the art of others, and is dedicated to creating a world where the free irruption of thought is possible, and lineages are acknowledged.

  7. A stalk of grain and light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erín Moure

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2009n56p33 "Stalk of Grain and Light" is an excerpt from O Resplandor (Toronto: Anansi, forthcoming 2010, a book of poetry that explodes notions of authorship and translation. In it, the heteronymic character Elisa Sampedrín translates from Nichita Stãnescu, though she knows no Romanian, and the orthonymic character Erín Moure translates Paul Celan, using not Celan but English transcreations from the language of Celan by Oana Avasilichioaei which she appropriates and reorganizes to create the true translation of a poem by Paul Celan, which exists only in her mind. In this world where corporations copyright human cells, where academics and libraries appropriate works of writers, and where writing itself - moreso than visual art - is limited by expanded notions of plagiarism and ownership, of continuity of copyright for decades that prevents works from influencing art's future, Moure refutes the idea that writing is inspired out of nowhere. Here it is rooted to human interaction, to love and loss, to the art of others, and is dedicated to creating a world where the free irruption of thought is possible, and lineages are acknowledged.

  8. Grapevine bunch rots: impacts on wine composition, quality, and potential procedures for the removal of wine faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Christopher C; Blackman, John W; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2013-06-05

    Bunch rot of grape berries causes economic loss to grape and wine production worldwide. The organisms responsible are largely filamentous fungi, the most common of these being Botrytis cinerea (gray mold); however, there are a range of other fungi responsible for the rotting of grapes such as Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and fungi found in subtropical climates (e.g., Colletotrichum spp. (ripe rot) and Greeneria uvicola (bitter rot)). A further group more commonly associated with diseases of the vegetative tissues of the vine can also infect grape berries (e.g., Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola ). The impact these fungi have on wine quality is poorly understood as are remedial practices in the winery to minimize wine faults. Compounds found in bunch rot affected grapes and wine are typically described as having mushroom, earthy odors and include geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-octen-1-ol, fenchol, and fenchone. This review examines the current state of knowledge about bunch rot of grapes and how this plant disease complex affects wine chemistry. Current wine industry practices to minimize wine faults and gaps in our understanding of how grape bunch rot diseases affect wine production and quality are also identified.

  9. Gonadotrophic status in adolescents with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottembourg, Diane; Linglart, Agnès; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Lahlou, Najiba; Teinturier, Cécile; Bougnères, Pierre; Carel, Jean-Claude

    2008-07-01

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is a frequent cause of GH deficiency (GHD) and is commonly associated with other PH deficiencies (PHDs). Although previous reports have correlated multiple PHDs with severe anatomical lesions, the status of the gonadotrophic axis has not yet been thoroughly analysed. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 27 patients (15 males, 12 females) with GHD and PSIS defined by MRI findings. The status of the gonadotrophic axis was evaluated in children who were at least 14.5 years (boys) or 13 years (girls). Out of 27 patients, five displayed spontaneous full pubertal development with normal hormonal values at the final evaluation, whereas 22 of 27 patients (81%) had complete (n = 18) or partial pubertal deficiency. Three girls had primary amenorrhoea with normal gonadotrophin values, raising the possibility of subtle disturbances of gonadotrophin pulsatility. Of the 21 patients with TSH or ACTH deficiency, 17 (81%) had complete gonadotrophin deficiency. Two of our six patients with apparently isolated GHD during childhood had gonadotrophin deficiency. Cryptorchidism was present at birth in six boys (40%). Of these six boys, one had normal pubertal development. Ten of 11 boys with micropenis at birth had gonadotrophin deficiency. Gonadotrophin deficiency is a common finding in adolescents with PSIS and is frequently associated with other PHDs. However its severity is variable, ranging from complete gonadotrophin deficiency to normogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. The occurrence of gonadotrophin deficiency in 33% of children with apparently isolated GHD and PSIS has important implications for the counselling and follow-up of these patients.

  10. In vitro growth and cell wall degrading enzyme production by Argentinean isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina, the causative agent of charcoal rot in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Araceli M; Gally, Marcela; Szapiro, Gala; Itzcovich, Tatiana; Carabajal, Maira; Levin, Laura

    Macrophomina phaseolina is a polyphagous phytopathogen, causing stalk rot on many commercially important species. Damages caused by this pathogen in soybean and maize crops in Argentina during drought and hot weather have increased due its ability to survive as sclerotia in soil and crop debris under non-till practices. In this work, we explored the in vitro production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes [pectinases (polygalacturonase and polymethylgalacturonase); cellulases (endoglucanase); hemicellulases (endoxylanase) and the ligninolytic enzyme laccase] by several Argentinean isolates of M. phaseolina, and assessed the pathogenicity of these isolates as a preliminary step to establish the role of these enzymes in M. phaseolina-maize interaction. The isolates were grown in liquid synthetic medium supplemented with glucose, pectin, carboxymethylcellulose or xylan as carbon sources and/or enzyme inducers and glutamic acid as nitrogen source. Pectinases were the first cell wall-degrading enzymes detected and the activities obtained (polygalacturonase activity was between 0.4 and 1.3U/ml and polymethylgalacturonase between 0.15 and 1.3U/ml) were higher than those of cellulases and xylanases, which appeared later and in a lesser magnitude. This sequence would promote initial tissue maceration followed by cell wall degradation. Laccase was detected in all the isolates evaluated (activity was between 36U/l and 63U/l). The aggressiveness of the isolates was tested in maize, sunflower and watermelon seeds, being high on all the plants assayed. This study reports for the first time the potential of different isolates of M. phaseolina to produce plant cell wall-degrading enzymes in submerged fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective Predation of a Stalking Predator on Ungulate Prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Heurich

    Full Text Available Prey selection is a key factor shaping animal populations and evolutionary dynamics. An optimal forager should target prey that offers the highest benefits in terms of energy content at the lowest costs. Predators are therefore expected to select for prey of optimal size. Stalking predators do not pursue their prey long, which may lead to a more random choice of prey individuals. Due to difficulties in assessing the composition of available prey populations, data on prey selection of stalking carnivores are still scarce. We show how the stalking predator Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx selects prey individuals based on species identity, age, sex and individual behaviour. To address the difficulties in assessing prey population structure, we confirm inferred selection patterns by using two independent data sets: (1 data of 387 documented kills of radio-collared lynx were compared to the prey population structure retrieved from systematic camera trapping using Manly's standardized selection ratio alpha and (2 data on 120 radio-collared roe deer were analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Among the larger red deer prey, lynx selected against adult males-the largest and potentially most dangerous prey individuals. In roe deer lynx preyed selectively on males and did not select for a specific age class. Activity during high risk periods reduced the risk of falling victim to a lynx attack. Our results suggest that the stalking predator lynx actively selects for size, while prey behaviour induces selection by encounter and stalking success rates.

  12. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  13. Genetic analysis of partial resistance to basal stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower

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    Amouzadeh Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is one of the major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs implicated in partial resistance to basal stem rot disease were identified using 99 recombinant inbred lines (RILs from the cross between sunflower parental lines PAC2 and RHA266. The study was undertaken in a completely randomized design with three replications under controlled conditions. The RILs and their parental lines were inoculated with a moderately aggressive isolate of S. sclerotiorum (SSKH41. Resistance to disease was evaluated by measuring the percentage of necrosis area three days after inoculation. QTLs were mapped using an updated high-density SSR and SNP linkage map. ANOVA showed significant differences among sunflower lines for resistance to basal stem rot (P≤0.05. The frequency distribution of lines for susceptibility to disease showed a continuous pattern. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed 5 QTLs for percentage of necrotic area, localized on linkage groups 1, 3, 8, 10 and 17. The sign of additive effect was positive in 5 QTLs, suggesting that the additive allele for partial resistance to basal stem rot came from the paternal line (RHA266. The phenotypic variance explained by QTLs (R2 ranged from 0.5 to 3.16%. Identified genes (HUCL02246_1, GST and POD, and SSR markers (ORS338, and SSL3 encompassing the QTLs for partial resistance to basal stem rot could be good candidates for marker assisted selection.

  14. New record of Phytophthora root and stem rot of Lavandula angustifolia

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    Leszek B. Orlikowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora cinnamomi was isolated from rotted root and stem parts of lavender as well as from soil taken from containers with diseased plants. Additionally Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium spp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were often isolated from diseased tissues. P. cinnamomi colonised leaves and stem parts of 4 lavender species in laboratory trials and caused stem rot of plants in greenhouse experiments. Cardinal temperature for in vitro growth were about 7,5 and 32°C with optimum 25-27,5°C. The species colonised stem tissues at temperature ranged from 10° to 32°C.

  15. Survey of root rot diseases of sugar bett in Central Greece

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    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive survey was conducted during the summer and autumn of 2004 in sugar beet fields in the area of Larissa, Thessaly region, with plants showing symptoms of root rot diseases. The aim of the monitoring was to identify the causal agents of root rot diseases. In total, 76 sugar beet fields were surveyed and 5-10 diseased roots were examined from each field. Isolations, carried out on PDA, showed that two main fungal pathogens causing root rot were Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora cryptogea. The former was isolated in 46% of the fields and the latter in 38% of the fields. In addition, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp., Scerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia violacea were isolated in 14%, 7%, 4% and 1% of the fields respectively. In most of the surveyed fields only one pathogen species was isolated and only in a few of them more than one fungal species was identified.

  16. Suppression of crown and root rot of wheat by the rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia LOUNACI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A seedling bioassay was developed for screening a wheat root-associated rhizobacterial strain of Paenibacillus polymyxa for ability to suppress crown and root rot pathogens of wheat. The primary aim was to evaluate the ability of P. polymyxa to suppress Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. verticillioides and Microdochium nivale, the fungal pathogens responsible for Fusarium crown and root rot and head blight of wheat in Algeria. Bioassays conducted under controlled conditions indicated that seed treatments with P. polymyxa strain SGK2 significantly reduced disease symptoms caused by all four fungal pathogens. Plant growth promotion (increased shoot and root dry weights, however, depended on the pathogen tested. Our results indicate that seed treatments with a biocontrol agent could be an additional strategy for management of wheat crown and root rot pathogens.

  17. Body Stalk Anomaly in a 9-Week Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio E. Quijano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Body stalk anomaly is a rare and severe malformation syndrome in which the exact pathophysiology and trigger factors are still unknown. This is a case of a 30-year-old patient who underwent ultrasound at 9 weeks of gestation. It revealed an abnormal location of the inferior body of the embryo in the coelomic space. The findings suggested a short umbilical cord syndrome. In order to confirm the diagnosis, the patient was scheduled for a second ultrasonography at 11 weeks of gestation. The obtained images, confirmed the location of the inferior body in the coelomic space with no visible bladder, absence of the right leg, severe abdominal wall defect, consistent with an omphalocele, and a short 5 mm umbilical cord. These last ultrasonographic findings were consistent with body stalk anomaly. Because of severe malformation incompatible with life, the patient was offered termination of pregnancy. Pathologic examination confirmed the suspected pathology of body stalk anomaly.

  18. Moniliophthora roreri, causal agent of cacao frosty pod rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Bryan A; Evans, Harry C; Phillips-Mora, Wilbert; Ali, Shahin S; Meinhardt, Lyndel W

    2017-12-01

    Taxonomy: Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) H.C. Evans et al. ; Phylum Basidiomycota; Class Agaricomycetes; Order Agaricales; Family Marasmiaceae; Genus Moniliophthora. Biology: Moniliophthora roreri attacks Theobroma and Herrania species causing frosty pod rot. Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the host of major economic concern. Moniliophthora roreri is a hemibiotroph with a long biotrophic phase (45-90 days). Spore masses, of apparent asexual origin, are produced on the pod surface after initiation of the necrotrophic phase. Spores are spread by wind, rain and human activity. Symptoms of the biotrophic phase can include necrotic flecks and, in some cases, pod malformation, but pods otherwise remain asymptomatic. Relationship to Moniliophthora perniciosa: Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao, are closely related. Their genomes are similar, including many of the genes they carry which are considered to be important in the disease process. Moniliophthora perniciosa, also a hemibiotroph, has a typical basidiomycete lifestyle and morphology, forming clamp connections and producing mushrooms. Basidiospores infect meristematic tissues including flower cushions, stem tips and pods. Moniliophthora roreri does not form clamp connections or mushrooms and infects pods only. Both pathogens are limited to the Western Hemisphere and are a threat to cacao production around the world. Agronomic importance: Disease losses caused by frosty pod rot can reach 90% and result in field abandonment. Moniliophthora roreri remains in the invasive phase in the Western Hemisphere, not having reached Brazil, some islands within the Caribbean and a few specific regions within otherwise invaded countries. The disease can be managed by a combination of cultural (for example, maintenance of tree height and removal of infected pods) and chemical methods. These methods benefit from regional application, but can be cost prohibitive. Breeding for

  19. Associations of planting date, drought stress, and insects with Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin B1 contamination in California maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M W; Munkvold, G P

    2010-05-01

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is one of the most common diseases of maize, causing yield and quality reductions and contamination of grain by fumonisins and other mycotoxins. Drought stress and various insects have been implicated as factors affecting disease severity. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the interactions and relative influences of drought stress, insect infestation, and planting date upon Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Three hybrids varying in partial resistance to Fusarium ear rot were sown on three planting dates and subjected to four irrigation regimes to induce differing levels of drought stress. A foliar-spray insecticide treatment was imposed to induce differing levels of insect injury. Populations of thrips (Frankliniella spp.), damage by corn earworm (Helicoverpa zeae), Fusarium ear rot symptoms, and fumonisin B1 levels were assessed. There were significant effects of hybrid, planting date, insecticide treatment, and drought stress on Fusarium ear rot symptoms and fumonisin B1 contamination, and these factors also had significant interacting effects. The most influential factors were hybrid and insecticide treatment, but their effects were influenced by planting date and drought stress. The more resistant hybrids and the insecticide-treated plots consistently had lower Fusarium ear rot severity and fumonisin B1 contamination. Later planting dates typically had higher thrips populations, more Fusarium ear rot, and higher levels of fumonisin B1. Insect activity was significantly correlated with disease severity and fumonisin contamination, and the correlations were strongest for thrips. The results of this study confirm the influence of thrips on Fusarium ear rot severity in California, USA, and also establish a strong association between thrips and fumonisin B1 levels.

  20. Mechanisms of qualitative and quantitative resistance to Aphanomyces root rot in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphanomyces root rot (ARR), caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, is one of the most important diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in the United States. Two races of the pathogen are currently recognized. Most modern alfalfa cultivars have high levels of resistance to race 1 but few cultivars have resi...

  1. root rot disease of five fruit tree seedlings in the nursery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KAMALDEEN

    on them. Our experience in the nursery in Port Harcourt had been that many tree species of the tropical region are susceptible to root rot diseases of fungal origin. The fungal invasion of the succulent root tissues causes the young tree seedlings to dieback; their leaves becomes discoloured, wilted and eventually dead.

  2. Differential stress-induced regulation of two quinone reductases in the brown rot Basidiomycete Gloeophyllum trabeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni Cohen; Melissa R. Suzuki; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2004-01-01

    Quinone reductases (QRDs) have two important functions in the basidiomycete Gloeophyllum trabeum, which causes brown rot of wood. First, a QRD is required to generate biodegradative hydroxyl radicals via redox cycling between two G. trabeum extracellular metabolites, 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ) and 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2,5- DMBQ). Second, because 2,...

  3. Plectosphaerella species associated with root and collar rots of horticultural crops in southern Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlucci, A.; Raimondo, M.L.; Santos, J.; Phillips, A.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plectosphaerella cucumerina, most frequently encountered in its Plectosporium state, is well known as a pathogen of several plant species causing fruit, root and collar rot, and collapse. It is considered to pose a serious threat to melon (Cucumis melo) production in Italy. In the present study, an

  4. Seventeen years of research on genetics of resistance to Aphanomyces root rot of pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphanomyces root rot, caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches, is a major soil borne disease of pea in many countries. Genetic resistance is considered to be a main way to control the disease. Since 2000, INRA has engaged a long-term research program to study genetic resistance to A. euteiches ...

  5. Occurrence of the root-rot pathogen, Fusarium commune, in midwestern and western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; R. K. Dumroese; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium commune can cause damping-off and root rot of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries. The pathogen is only reported in Oregon, Idaho, and Washington within United States. Fusarium isolates were collected from midwestern and western United States to determine occurrence of this pathogen. DNA sequences of mitochondrial small subunit gene were used to identify F....

  6. Creating prescription maps from historical imagery for site-specific management of cotton root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Phymatotrichopsis omnivore, is a severe plant disease that has affected cotton production for over a century. Recent research found that a commercial fungicide, Topguard (flutriafol), was able to control this disease. As a result, Topguard Terra Fungic...

  7. Rhizoctonia solani as a component in the bottom rot complex of glasshouse lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, T.

    1983-01-01

    The basal parts of maturing glasshouse lettuce can be attacked by several soil fungi, which cause bottom rot. Until recently quintozene was generally applied against this disease complex. The study of the causal fungi - especially Rhizoctonia solani - and their control was

  8. Genetic Architecture of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) Resistance in Soybean Revealed Using a Diverse Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methodologies available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient ...

  9. Combining fuzzy set theory and nonlinear stretching enhancement for unsupervised classification of cotton root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton root rot is a destructive disease affecting cotton production. Accurate identification of infected areas within fields is useful for cost-effective control of the disease. The uncertainties caused by various infection stages and newly infected plants make it difficult to achieve accurate clas...

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Laetiporus and other brown rot polypore genera in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were investigated among North American species of Laetiporus, Leptoporus, Phaeolus, Pycnoporellus, and Wolfiporia using ITS, nuclear large subunit and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA sequences. Members of these genera have poroid hymenophores, simple septate hyphae and cause brown rots in a variety of...

  11. Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... species of white-rot fungi; Corioliopsis polyzona and Pleurotus squarrosulus, and two species of brown- rot fungi; Lentinus ... The results indicated that biodegradation by rot fungi differs in intensity according to the fungus ..... wood of coast red wood Sequoia Sempervirens (D. Don). For. Prod. J. 33(5): 15-20 ...

  12. RESISTANCE TO POST-HARVEST MICROBIAL ROT IN YAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    for resistance to internal rot, with Olordor and Kplondzo recording the lowest internal microbial rot, suggesting their potential in .... material. Dried maize stocks were then used to cover the pile of tubers. There were four .... effort in breeding for host plant resistance. Also, ... rot in Dioscorea species under all storage methods.

  13. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade ...

  14. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white-rot/brown-rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Riley; Asaf A. Salamov; Daren W. Brown; Laszlo G. Nagy; Dimitrios Floudas; Benjamin W. Held; Anthony Levasseur; Vincent Lombard; Emmanuelle Morin; Robert Otillar; Erika A. Lindquist; Hui Sun; Kurt M. LaButti; Jeremy Schmutz; Dina Jabbour; Hong Luo; Scott E. Baker; Antonio G. Pisabarro; Jonathan D. Walton; Robert A. Blanchette; Bernard Henrissat; Francis Martin; Daniel Cullen; David S. Hibbett; Igor V. Grigoriev

    2014-01-01

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32% of the described fungi and include most wood-decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic...

  15. Steam explosion distinctively enhances biomass enzymatic saccharification of cotton stalks by largely reducing cellulose polymerization degree in G. barbadense and G. hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wei, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Shiguang; Liu, Mingyong; Tu, Yuanyuan; Li, Ao; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yanting; Zhang, Xuewen; Tai, Hongzhong; Peng, Liangcai; Xia, Tao

    2015-04-01

    In this study, steam explosion pretreatment was performed in cotton stalks, leading to 5-6 folds enhancements on biomass enzymatic saccharification distinctive in Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum species. Sequential 1% H2SO4 pretreatment could further increase biomass digestibility of the steam-exploded stalks, and also cause the highest sugar-ethanol conversion rates probably by releasing less inhibitor to yeast fermentation. By comparison, extremely high concentration alkali (16% NaOH) pretreatment with raw stalks resulted in the highest hexoses yields, but it had the lowest sugar-ethanol conversion rates. Characterization of wall polymer features indicated that biomass saccharification was enhanced with steam explosion by largely reducing cellulose DP and extracting hemicelluloses. It also showed that cellulose crystallinity and arabinose substitution degree of xylans were the major factors on biomass digestibility in cotton stalks. Hence, this study has provided the insights into cell wall modification and biomass process technology in cotton stalks and beyond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Damage to spruce stands by deer barking and subsequent rots in Forest Range Proklest, the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise “Masaryk Forest” (the Drahany Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čermák

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with determination of the rate of damage by red deer barking, determination of the rate of damage by a subsequent rot caused by Stereum sanguinolentum and the rate of its progress. The paper elucidates causes of the damage and quantifies depreciation of wood by rots in the Proklest Forest Range, the Křtiny Training Forest Enterprise “Masaryk Forest“. The deer barking caused damage to 85% of stands. In the most damaged 2nd and 4th age classes, rot caused by Stereum sanguinolentum was noticed in 89% of damaged trees. The greatest proportion is made by damage from the 70s of the last century. After the 80s, the damage occurred only exceptionally. The average percentage loss of wood is highest in the 2nd age class, viz. 38%. The determined progress of the rot ranged from 1 to 36.4 cm.year-1.

  17. Shift of the pituitary stalk in intrasellar pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Jusuke; Tokiguchi, Susumu; Nakamori, Akitoshi; Watanabe, Akira; Yokoyama, Motoharu.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-one patients from a group of 344 patients undergoing the evaluation of intrasellar or parasellar tumors were diagnosed on CT as having an intrasellar pituitary adenoma. Axial transverse sections were performed at -10 0 to Reid's basal line, using 1.5-mm-thick slices and sagittal and coronal reformation. Of these 51 patients, 17 showed a shift of the pituitary stalk. The area where a tumor was thought to be located within the sella turcica on preoperative CT became defective on CT after transsphenoidal surgery in all cases. Histological verification was obtained in all cases. Also, the shift of the pituitary stalk was normalized or markedly improved after surgery in all cases. In functioning tumors, all cases except two showed an endocrinologically normal state or a marked improvement after transsphenoidal surgery. On the basis of the above-mentioned facts, it was concluded that the shift of the pituitary stalk in intrasellar pituitary adenomas indicated the evidence of a mass and its location in the sella turcica. However, a shift of the pituitary stalk was also observed under other conditions, such as empty sella and tuberculum sellae meningioma, and so it is not a pathognomonic finding in intrasellar pituitary adenomas. (author)

  18. The Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Stalking Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Troy E; Shea, Daniel E; Daffern, Michael; MacKenzie, Rachel D; Ogloff, James R P; Mullen, Paul E

    2018-03-01

    This study assessed the reliability and validity of the Stalking Risk Profile (SRP), a structured measure for assessing stalking risks. The SRP was administered at the point of assessment or retrospectively from file review for 241 adult stalkers (91% male) referred to a community-based forensic mental health service. Interrater reliability was high for stalker type, and moderate-to-substantial for risk judgments and domain scores. Evidence for predictive validity and discrimination between stalking recidivists and nonrecidivists for risk judgments depended on follow-up duration. Discrimination was moderate (area under the curve = 0.66-0.68) and positive and negative predictive values good over the full follow-up period ( Mdn = 170.43 weeks). At 6 months, discrimination was better than chance only for judgments related to stalking of new victims (area under the curve = 0.75); however, high-risk stalkers still reoffended against their original victim(s) 2 to 4 times as often as low-risk stalkers. Implications for the clinical utility and refinement of the SRP are discussed.

  19. Enhanced ethanol production from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet sorghum (sugar sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) is one kind of non-grain energy crops. As a novel green regenerated high-energy crop with high utility value, high yield of biomass, the sweet sorghum is widely used and developed in China. Stalk juice of sweet sorghum was used as the main substrate for ethanol ...

  20. Deactivation of tannins in raisin stalk by polyethylene glycol-600 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6000) and urea on dry and organic matter digestibility (IVDMD and IVOMD, respectively) and gas production in vitro. Raisin stalk contained 8.6% crude protein, 85% dry matter, 7% ash, 13.95% total extractable phenol (TEPH) and 2.13% total ...

  1. Comparative Study of Root, Stalk and Leaf Essential Oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-03-03

    Mar 3, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The root, stalk and leaf essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus grown in Kaduna, North Central Nigeria were extracted separately by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-MS. The chemical composition analysis by. GC-MS of the oils allowed the identification of 34, 26 and 16 compounds ...

  2. Stalking on Campus: Ensuring Security with Rights and Liberties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Julie; Longo, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    College campuses are often perceived as idyllic communities. While there is much truth in such perceptions, not surprisingly there are many complicated issues on college campuses. Stalking is one such problem that seems to persist and thrive in the cloistered college setting. Campus safety efforts must temper security practices with civil rights…

  3. Evaluation of cotton stalk hydrolysate for xylitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcı, Burcu; Akpinar, Ozlem; Bolukbasi, Ufuk; Yilmaz, Levent

    2016-07-03

    Cotton stalk is a widely distributed and abundant lignocellulosic waste found in Turkey. Because of its rich xylose content, it can be a promising source for the production of xylitol. Xylitol can be produced by chemical or biotechnological methods. Because the biotechnological method is a simple process with great substrate specificity and low energy requirements, it is more of an economic alternative for the xylitol production. This study aimed to use cotton stalk for the production of xylitol with Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022. For this purpose, the combined effects of different oxygen concentration, inoculum level and substrate concentration were investigated to obtain high xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate. Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022 afforded different concentrations of xylitol depending on xylose concentration, inoculum level, and oxygen concentration. The optimum xylose, yeast concentration, and airflow rate for cotton stalk hydrolysate were found as 10.41 g L(-1), 0.99 g L(-1), and 1.02 vvm, respectively, and under these conditions, xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate were obtained as 36% and 0.06 g L(-1) hr(-1), respectively. The results of this study show that cotton stalk can serve as a potential renewable source for the production of xylitol.

  4. 77 FR 211 - National Stalking Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ..., tragically, stalking can be a precursor to more violent offenses, including sexual assault and homicide. The... Federal agencies, we are promoting new tools to decrease the incidence of domestic violence, sexual... and harmful behavior. This month, let us come together to prevent abuse, violence, and harassment in...

  5. Studies on storage rot of cocoyam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uc network

    42(3): 2059-2068. Eze, C.S (1984). Studies on storage rot of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) at Nsukka. MSc. Dissertation, Dept of Botany, Univ of Nigeria, Nsukka. 73pp. Loyonga, S. N and Nzietchueng S. (1987). Cocoyam and African food crisi. In: Tropical Root Crops: Root crops and the African food crisis Terry ...

  6. Rhizoctonia crown and root rot disease nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BSDF cooperative CRR Eastern Evaluation Nursery Rhizoctonia crown and root rot Evaluation Nursery in 2016 was a randomized complete-block design with five replications in 15 feet long, one-row plots (20 in row spacing), at the Saginaw Valley Research and Education Center near Frankenmuth, MI. F...

  7. BIOMODIFICATION OF KENAF USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmina Halis,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available White rot fungi can be used as a pretreatment of biomass to degrade lignin. It also alters the structure of the lignocellulosic matter, thus increasing its accessibility to enzymes able to convert polysaccharides into simple sugars. This study compares the ability of two species of white rot fungi, Pycnoporous sanguineus and Oxyporus latemarginatus FRIM 31, to degrade lignin in kenaf chips. The white rot fungi were originally isolated from the tropical forest in Malaysia. Kenaf chips were first inoculated with each fungus separately using corn steep liquor as a fungal growth promoter. The kenaf chips were inoculated with white rot fungus for a period of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks, after which they were observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Chemical analyses were conducted following TAPPI Standard Methods and Fourier Transmission Infra Red (FTIR. SEM observations showed evidence of fungal colonization. When calculating weight loss, both P. sanguineus and O. latemarginatus FRIM 31 showed the greatest reduction. Amounts by mass of cellulose, hemicelluloses, extractives, and lignin in the treated kenaf chips all were lowered. The results show that O. latemarginatus FRIM 31 had a greater ability to degrade lignin when compared to P. sanguineus.

  8. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Veit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common cystic fibrosis (CF causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del, results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR at the apical plasma membrane (PM of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670 in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect.

  9. Digenic Inheritance of PROKR2 and WDR11 Mutations in Pituitary Stalk Interruption Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Shana E; Li, Dong; Kim, Yeon Joo; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Rapaport, Robert; Levine, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS, ORPHA95496) is a congenital defect of the pituitary gland characterized by the triad of a very thin/interrupted pituitary stalk, an ectopic (or absent) posterior pituitary gland, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the anterior pituitary gland. Complex genetic patterns of inheritance of this disorder are increasingly recognized. The objective of this study was to identify a genetic cause of PSIS in an affected child. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed by using standard techniques, with prioritized genetic variants confirmed via Sanger sequencing. To investigate the effects of one candidate variant on mutant WDR11 function, Western blotting and coimmunofluorescence were used to assess binding capacity, and leptomycin B exposure along with immunofluorescence was used to assess nuclear localization. We describe a child who presented in infancy with combined pituitary hormone deficiencies and whose brain imaging demonstrated a small anterior pituitary, ectopic posterior pituitary, and a thin, interrupted stalk. WES demonstrated heterozygous missense mutations in two genes required for pituitary development, a known loss-of-function mutation in PROKR2 (c.253C>T;p.R85C) inherited from an unaffected mother, and a WDR11 (c.1306A>G;p.I436V) mutation inherited from an unaffected father. Mutant WDR11 loses its capacity to bind to its functional partner, EMX1, and to localize to the nucleus. WES in a child with PSIS and his unaffected family implicates a digenic mechanism of inheritance. In cases of hypopituitarism in which there is incomplete segregation of a monogenic genotype with the phenotype, the possibility that a second genetic locus is involved should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Stalking by patients: doctors' experiences in a Canadian urban area (Part II)--physician responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Karen M; Robinson, Gail Erlick

    2013-07-01

    Stalking involves recurrent unwanted communication, harassment, and intrusive behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine physicians' experiences of being stalked by their patients, with particular attention to the emotional impact on the physicians and their actions taken. A questionnaire designed to study the nature and the impact of stalking experiences among physicians was sent to 3159 randomly chosen physicians in the Greater Toronto Area. Approximately 15% (14.9%) of the 1190 physicians who responded reported having been stalked. The physicians reported feeling angry, frustrated, anxious, frightened, lacking control, and helpless. The physicians coped in a number of ways including terminating the physician-patient relationship, but many just ignored the problem. Most had no previous knowledge about stalking. Physicians experience a range of emotions as a result of being a victim of stalking. In view of the prevalence and the impact, physicians may benefit from education to help prepare them for the possibility of being stalked.

  11. Pituitary stalk transection syndrome: Comparison of clinico-radiological features in adults and children with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Chinmay; Moorthy, Srikanth; Pullara, Sreekumar K; Rajeshkannan, R; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G

    2012-01-01

    Hypo-pituitarism results from impaired production of one or more of anterior pituitary trophic hormones. A rare cause of hypo-pituitarism is pituitary stalk transection syndrome. The MRI features of this condition in children and its association with hormonal deficiencies have been reported earlier. Reports on adults with this disorder are scarce, with only one small case series published in the recent literature. We studied the hormonal deficiency pattern and MRI findings of 12 patients with pituitary stalk transection syndrome who presented to our department between 2004 and 2011. Six patients were children and six were adults (≥18 years). This article compares the adult clinico-radiological phenotype of pituitary transection syndrome with the pediatric group of patients with same condition

  12. Isolation screening and characterisation of local beneficial rhizobacteria based upon their ability to suppress the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and tomato foot and root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato crown and root rot or tomato foot and root rot (TFRR) is caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (Forl). The disease occurs in both greenhouse and outdoor tomato cultivations and cannot be treated efficiently with the existing fungicides. We conducte...

  13. Integrated Management of Stem Rot Disease (Sclerotium rolfsii) of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Using Rhizobium and Trichoderma harzianum (ITCC - 4572)

    OpenAIRE

    GANESAN, S.; KUPPUSAMY, R. GANESH; SEKAR, R.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi cause heavy crop losses all over the world. With variable climate from region to region, most crops grown in India are susceptible to diseases caused by soil-borne fungal pathogens. Among tropical and subtropical land crops, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil seed crop, providing vegetable oil as human food and oil cake meal as animal poultry feed. A large number of diseases attack groundnut plants in India; of these, stem rot (collar rot) ca...

  14. The Induction of Noble Rot (Botrytis cinerea Infection during Postharvest Withering Changes the Metabolome of Grapevine Berries (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Garganega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Negri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural or induced development of noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea during the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening is used in some traditional viticulture areas to produce high-quality wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji. In this research, we wanted to verify if by changing the environmental conditions during post-harvest withering we could induce the noble rot development on harvested berries in order to positively change the wine produced from withered Garganega berries. Therefore, we exposed the berries to postharvest withering under normal or artificially humid conditions, the latter to induce noble rot. The presence of noble rot symptoms was associated with the development of B. cinerea in the berries maintained under humid conditions. The composition of infected and non-infected berries was investigated by untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We also explored the effects of the two withering methods on the abundance of volatile organic compounds in wine by yeast-inoculated micro-fermentation followed by targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed significant metabolic differences between berries withered under normal and humid conditions, indicating that noble rot affects berry metabolism and composition. As well as well-known botrytization markers, we detected two novel lipids that have not been observed before in berries infected with noble rot. Unraveling the specific metabolic profile of berries infected with noble rot may help to determine the compounds responsible for the organoleptic quality traits of botrytized Garganega wines.

  15. CONTROL OF POSTHARVEST TOMATO ROT BY SPORE SUSPENSION AND ANTIFUNGAL METABOLITES OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momein H. El-Katatny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rot of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum fruits caused by several fungal pathogens is a detrimental disease leading to substantial yield loses worldwide. Alternaria isolates were the most common fungal species isolated from healthy or rotten fruits. Trichoderma harzianum spore suspension and culture filtrate were tested for their antagonistic activity on controlling tomato fruit rot. T. harzianum isolates suppressed or interfered with the growth of different postharvest tomato fungal pathogens albeit at different degrees. Their culture filtrate inhibited pathogen spore germination possibly due to the released extracellular diffusible metabolite(s. Besides, aberrant morphology of conidia was observed with deformation of hyphal tips. Furthermore, the resulting mycelia appeared desiccated with coagulated protoplasm leading to complete collapse of protoplasm in presence of T. harzianum culture filtrate. Application of T. harzianum spores to tomato fruits decreased disease severity significantly with the most profound effect at higher spore concentrations (108 cells per ml. Similarly, culture filtrate of T. harzianum prevented pathogen spore germination on the surface of tomato fruits leading to decreased incidence of rot symptoms at high culture filtrate concentrations. This work provides strong evidence that T. harzianum is a competent antagonist and its spore suspension and culture filtrate can be used efficiently to control postharvest tomato rot.

  16. Rapid polyether cleavage via extracellular one-electron oxidation by a brown-rot basidiomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerem, Z; Bao, W; Hammel, K E

    1998-09-01

    Fungi that cause brown rot of wood are essential biomass recyclers and also the principal agents of decay in wooden structures, but the extracellular mechanisms by which they degrade lignocellulose remain unknown. To test the hypothesis that brown-rot fungi use extracellular free radical oxidants as biodegradative tools, Gloeophyllum trabeum was examined for its ability to depolymerize an environmentally recalcitrant polyether, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), that cannot penetrate cell membranes. Analyses of degraded PEOs by gel permeation chromatography showed that the fungus cleaved PEO rapidly by an endo route. 13C NMR analyses of unlabeled and perdeuterated PEOs recovered from G. trabeum cultures showed that a major route for depolymerization was oxidative C---C bond cleavage, a reaction diagnostic for hydrogen abstraction from a PEO methylene group by a radical oxidant. Fenton reagent (Fe(II)/H2O2) oxidized PEO by the same route in vitro and therefore might account for PEO biodegradation if it is produced by the fungus, but the data do not rule out involvement of less reactive radicals. The reactivity and extrahyphal location of this PEO-degrading system suggest that its natural function is to participate in the brown rot of wood and that it may enable brown-rot fungi to degrade recalcitrant organopollutants.

  17. Biocontrol with Trichoderma species for the management of postharvest crown rot of banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sangeetha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum musae cause the postharvest crown rot disease complex of banana. In vitro experiments evaluated the effect of twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. from the soil of organic banana orchards (‘native isolates’ and eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. from culture collections (‘introduced isolates’ on the two pathogens. The native and introduced Trichoderma spp. had varied antagonistic effects against the two pathogens. Eight Trichoderma spp. isolates effective in the in vitro assays were evaluated singly on fruits both at room temperature and in cold storage. Single antagonists did not satisfactorily control crown rot on the fruits as compared with the fungicide carbendazim. However, two isolates of T. viride, one of T. harzianum and one of T. koningii performed well when applied singly, and these were selected for evaluation in isolate mixtures. There was very little antagonism between these isolates. Of 11 two-way, three-way and four-way mixtures of these isolates, the four-way and a three-way mixtures reduced crown rot incidence, both at room temperature and in cold storage, giving better control than carbendazim. The study identified consortia of compatible Trichoderma antagonists with superior biocontrol potential for the management of the postharvest crown rot complex of banana.

  18. Clinical and radiological features of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chul Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe diagnosis of pituitary stalk lesion has been based on clinical feature, radiologic assessment for its critical location and role. This study aimed to investigate clinical symptoms, endocrine disturbance, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents and to evaluate differences between neoplastic lesions with the others.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of patients under 18 years old with pituitary stalk lesions diagnosed at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital between 2000 and 2013, by a text search for head MRI reports by using 'pituitary stalk', 'infundibulum', and 'infundibular stalk', as keywords.ResultsFor the 76 patients, sixteen patients (21.1% had congenital lesions, and 52 (68.4% had neoplasms. No inflammatory lesions were found. Diabetes insipidus (DI was the most common endocrine defect, diagnosed in 38 patients (50%. There was male predominance especially in neoplastic group. Thickened pituitary stalk was, but enhancement of lesion was not, associated with neoplasm. DI was more prevalent in neoplastic stalk lesions. Anterior pituitary dysfunction such as growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiencies were less prevalent in neoplastic lesions of pituitary stalk.ConclusionIn conclusion, the etiology of pituitary stalk lesions in children and adolescents is diverse and different from that in adults. Neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions can be differentiated from nonneoplastic lesions by systemic evaluation of clinical, hormonal, radiological findings.

  19. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  20. Phenolic compounds analysis of root, stalk, and leaves of nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET).

  1. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves) samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET). PMID:22593694

  2. [Effects of hot-NaOH pretreatment on Jerusalem artichoke stalk composition and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Jingwen; Li, Yang; Shen, Fei

    2015-10-01

    In order to explore the possibility of Jerusalem artichoke stalk for bioenergy conversion, we analyzed the main composition of whole stalk, pitch, and core of the stalk. Meanwhile, these parts were pretreated with different NaOH concentrations at 121 degrees C. Afterwards, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. Jerusalem artichoke stalk was characterized by relatively high lignin content (32.0%) compared with traditional crop stalks. The total carbohydrate content was close to that of crop stalks, but with higher cellulose content (40.5%) and lower hemicellulose (19.6%) than those of traditional crop stalks. After pretreatment, the lignin content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased by 13.1%-13.4%, 8.3%-13.5%, and 19.9%-27.2%, respectively, compared with the unpretreated substrates. The hemicellulose content in the whole stalk, pitch, and core decreased 87.8%-96.9%, 87.6%-95.0%, and 74.0%-90.2%, respectively. Correspondingly, the cellulose content in the pretreated whole stalk, pitch, and core increased by 56.5%-60.2%, 52.2%-55.4%, and 62.7%-73.2%, respectively. Moreover, increase of NaOH concentration for pretreatment could improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of the whole stalk and pitch by 2.3-2.6 folds and 10.3-18.5 folds, respectively. The hydrolysis of pretreated stalk core decreased significantly as 2.0 mol/L NaOH was employed, although the increased NaOH concentration can also improve its hydrolysis performance. Based on these results, hot-NaOH can be regarded as an option for Jerusalem artichoke stalk pretreatment. Increasing NaOH concentration was beneficial to hemicellulose and lignin removal, and consequently improved sugar conversion. However, the potential decrease of sugar conversion of the pretreated core by higher NaOH concentration suggested further optimization on the pretreatment conditions should be performed.

  3. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, T M; Boominathan, K; Reddy, C A

    1996-01-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. PMID:8837429

  5. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    OpenAIRE

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts ...

  6. Pituitary gland and its stalk observed by high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Fukami, Tsuneharu; Matsumoto, Keizo.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed to be important to recognize the CT findings of normal pituitary gland and the stalk for the acurate morphological diagnosis of pituitary microadenoma. In a consecutive series of normal 103 cases, the CT scans obtained by high resolution CT (CE-CT, Metrizamide CT) were analized and compared with 6 cases of microadenoma. The pituitary stalk demonstrated by the reconstructed coronal CT was examined and the inclination of the stalk was measured. The mean value of the inclination of pituitary stalk was 1.4 +- 1.7 0 in normal group and 9.3 +- 2.4 0 in microadenoma group. The form of the pituitary gland demonstrated by a reconstructed mid-saggital CT were classified into the following 3 types. Type I : The gland filling the whole pituitary fossa. Type II : The gland filled with small CSF space localized in the upper-anterior part in the pituitary fossa. Type III : The enlarged CSF space of more than half of the depth of pituitary fossa and the gland localized in the retro-lower part. As for the shape of pituitary gland, type I was revealed in 26 cases (7 cases in male and 19 cases in female), Type II was revealed in 31 cases (12 cases in male and 19 cases in female), Type III was revealed in 46 cases (25 cases in male and 21 cases in female). Type I was shown in female, especially in 10 years old young female. In 19 cases of 30 years to 40 years female, Type II was shown in 9 cases. In 44 male cases, Type I and Type II were shown in all ages. In the aged, Type III was shown in more than the other types. On the other hand, Type I was noted in 5 out of 6 cases of microadenoma group. (author)

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF CORN STALK HEMICELLULOSE PYROLYSIS IN A TUBULAR REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Jin Lv; Shu-Bin Wu; Rui Lou

    2010-01-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of corn stalk hemicellulose were investigated in a tubular reactor at different temperatures, with focus mainly on the releasing profiles and forming behaviors of pyrolysis products (gas, char, and tar). The products obtained were further identified using various approaches (including GC, SEM, and GC-MS) to understand the influence of temperature on product properties and compositions. It was found that the devolatilization of hemicellulose mainly occurred at low tem...

  8. MANAGEMENT OF ROOT ROT IN AVOCADO TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE RODRIGUES DA SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Root rot (Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands is one of the most restrictive factors to avocado growing in main producing regions worldwide. In Brazil, scientific reports on the effectiveness of control methods are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of gypsum applications and dolomitic limestone to the soil and potassium phosphite sprays in controlling this disease in ‘Hass’ avocado, grown without irrigation. The application of dolomitic limestone or gypsum alone is not effective to recover plants affected by root rot. The application of potassium phosphite, combined or not with dolomitic lime or gypsum enables the partial recovery ‘Hass’ avocado plants affected by the disease.

  9. Enhancement of Cotton Stalks Composting with Certain Microbial Inoculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdel-Twab Seoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of inoculation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Azotobacter chrococcum microbes on cotton stalks composting was studied in an attempt to achieve rapid maturity and desirable characteristics of produced compost. Composting process was maintained for 16 weeks under aerobic conditions with proper moisture content and turning piles. The C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to about 30:1 before composting using chicken manure. Temperature evolution and its profile were monitored throughout the composting period. Mineralization rates of organic matter and changes in nitrogen content during composting stages were evaluated. Total plate count of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, cellulose decomposers and Azotobacter were determined during composting periods. The treatment of cotton stalks inoculated with both P. chrysosporium and Azotobacter gave the most desirable characteristics of the final product with respect to the narrow C/N ratio, high nitrogen content and high numbers of Azotobacter. The phytotoxicity test of compost extracts was evaluated. The use of P. chrysosporium in composting accelerated markedly decomposition process, so that 16 weeks composting enough to produce a stable and mature compost suitable for use as fertilizer while the fertilizer obtained by composting cotton stalks mixed with chicken manure and inoculated with microorganisms is highest quality Compost.

  10. The effect of CaCl2 on growth rate, wood decay and oxalic acid accumulation in Serpula lacrymans and related brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Bo Jensen; Carol Clausen; Frederick Green

    2006-01-01

    The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, is one of the most destructive copper-tolerant fungi causing timber decay in buildings in temperate regions. Calcium and oxalic acid have been shown to play important roles in the mechanism of wood decay. The effect of calcium on growth and decay was evaluated for 12 strains of S. lacrymans and compared to five brown-rot fungi....

  11. Pathogen toxin-indiced electrolyte leakage and phytoalexin accumulation as indices of red-rot (Colletotrichum falcatum Went resistance in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mohanraj

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A phytotoxin produced by the sugarcane red-rot fungus Colletotrichum falcatum Went was partially purified. The phytotoxin caused increased electrolyte leakage in susceptible sugarcane varieties and higher levels of phytoalexins (3-deoxyanthocyanidins in resistant sugarcane varieties. This relationship between phytotoxin induced changes and disease reaction could possibly be used as an additional index to rapidly identify red-rot resistant varieties.

  12. Ganoderma boninense basidiospores in oil palm plantations: evaluation of their possible role in stem rots of Elaeis guineensis

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, R. W.; Flood, J.; Hasan, Y.; Wills, Mary A.; Cooper, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Basidiospores are implicated in the distribution and genetic diversity of Ganoderma boninense, cause of basal stem rot (BSR) and upper stem rot (USR) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Measurement of aerial basidiospores within plantations in Sumatra showed continuous and high production over 24 h (range c. 2–11 000 spores m−3) with maximum release during early evening. Basidiospores applied to cut surfaces of fronds, peduncles and stems germinated in situ. Equivalent, extensive wounds are crea...

  13. A survey of pre-harvest ear rot diseases of maize and associated mycotoxins in south and central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukanga, Mweshi; Derera, John; Tongoona, Pangirayi; Laing, Mark D

    2010-07-15

    Maize ear rots reduce grain yield and quality with implication on food security and health. Some of the pathogenic fungi produce mycotoxins in maize grain posing a health risk to humans and livestock. Unfortunately, the levels of ear rot and mycotoxin infection in grain produced by subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan countries are not known. A survey was thus conducted to determine the prevalence of the ear rot problem and levels of mycotoxins in maize grain. A total of 114 farmsteads were randomly sampled from 11 districts in Lusaka and southern provinces in Zambia during 2006. Ten randomly picked cobs were examined per farmstead and the ear rot disease incidence and severity were estimated on site. This was followed by the standard seed health testing procedures for fungal isolation in the laboratory. Results indicated that the dominant ear rots were caused by Fusarium and Stenocarpella. Incidence of Fusarium verticillioides ranged from 2 to 21%, whereas that of Stenocarpella maydis reached 37% on ear rot diseased maize grain. In addition, 2-7% F. verticillioides, and 3-18% Aspergillus flavus, respectively, were recovered from seemingly healthy maize grain. The mean rank of fungal species, from highest to lowest, was F. verticillioides, S. maydis, A. flavus, Fusarium graminearum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Botrydiplodia spp., and Cladosporium spp. The direct competitive ELISA-test indicated higher levels of fumonisins than aflatoxins in pre-harvest maize grain samples. The concentration of fumonisins from six districts, and aflatoxin from two districts, was 10-fold higher than 2 ppm and far higher than 2 ppb maximum daily intake recommended by the FAO/WHO. The study therefore suggested that subsistence farmers and consumers in this part of Zambia, and maybe also in similar environments in sub-Saharan Africa, might be exposed to dangerous levels of mycotoxins due to the high levels of ear rot infections in maize grain. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm is caused by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zulfiqar-Ali

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... Key words: Fusarium proliferatum, ITS1, ITS4, pathogenecity, PCR, isolates, phylogeny. INTRODUCTION. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the important income sources for many farmers in different parts of. Iraq, Iran and North Africa. Date palm trees are infected by several pathogens like fungi, ...

  15. Physiological studies of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing collar rot of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MUTHUKUMAR

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... In vitro studies were conducted on the effect of temperature, pH levels, carbon, nitrogen and amino acids on the ... (Shukla et al., 1998) and it is affected by several fungal diseases; of ..... isolated from tomato fruit. Indian J.

  16. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring the Rio Grande Valley cotton stalk destruction program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A.J.; Gerbermann, A.H.; Summy, K.R.; Anderson, G.L. (Department of Agriculture, Weslaco, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Post harvest cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalk destruction is a cultural practice used in the Rio Grande Valley to suppress over wintering populations of boll weevils (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) without using chemicals. Consistent application of this practice could substantially reduce insecticide usage, thereby minimizing environmental hazards and increasing cotton production profits. Satellite imagery registered within a geographic information system was used to monitor the cotton stalk destruction program in the Rio Grande Valley. We found that cotton stalk screening procedures based on standard multispectral classification techniques could not reliably distinguish cotton from sorghum. Greenness screening for cotton plant stalks after the stalk destruction deadline was possible only where ground observations locating cotton fields were available. These findings indicate that a successful cotton stalk destruction monitoring program will require satellite images and earth referenced data bases showing cotton field locations.

  17. Psychological Impact of Stalking on Male and Female Health Care Professional Victims of Stalking and Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Acquadro Maran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate stalking experiences in a sample of Health Care Professionals, or HCPs, who experienced domestic violence in their previous relationships with an intimate romantic or non-romantic who had become their stalkers. A comparison between males and females was made to highlight the differences among the genders. The findings showed that, for the most part, the victims experienced stalking by a stalker that was not of the same gender. Moreover, the nature of the relationship was romantic, for the most part, for both female and male subjects, suggesting that the principal motivation of stalking is the disruption of an intimate relationship. Regarding domestic violence, females described the phenomenon from a different perspective, indicating verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, while males indicated only verbal abuse. Females tended to amplify, more than the males, depression, and state and trait anxiety. Even if all symptoms were expressed in both females and males, the males exhibited a lack of confidence in their bodies, and the emotional literacy made the expression of distress more difficult. At the same time, the expression of anxiety presented in the women permitted them to become progressively less victimized over time; depression and anxiety allow the recognition of these symptoms as signs of distress and to intervene to reduce them.

  18. Psychological Impact of Stalking on Male and Female Health Care Professional Victims of Stalking and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquadro Maran, Daniela; Varetto, Antonella

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate stalking experiences in a sample of Health Care Professionals, or HCPs, who experienced domestic violence in their previous relationships with an intimate romantic or non-romantic who had become their stalkers. A comparison between males and females was made to highlight the differences among the genders. The findings showed that, for the most part, the victims experienced stalking by a stalker that was not of the same gender. Moreover, the nature of the relationship was romantic, for the most part, for both female and male subjects, suggesting that the principal motivation of stalking is the disruption of an intimate relationship. Regarding domestic violence, females described the phenomenon from a different perspective, indicating verbal, physical, and sexual abuse, while males indicated only verbal abuse. Females tended to amplify, more than the males, depression, and state and trait anxiety. Even if all symptoms were expressed in both females and males, the males exhibited a lack of confidence in their bodies, and the emotional literacy made the expression of distress more difficult. At the same time, the expression of anxiety presented in the women permitted them to become progressively less victimized over time; depression and anxiety allow the recognition of these symptoms as signs of distress and to intervene to reduce them.

  19. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  20. Development and application of qPCR and RPA genus and species-specific detection of Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora sansomeana root rot pathogens of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important diseases in the Midwest US, causing losses of up to 44 million bushels per year. Disease may also be caused by P. sansomeana, however the prevalence and damage caused by this species is not well known, partl...

  1. QTL mapping of fruit rot resistance to the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici in a recombinant inbred line Capsicum annuum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, R P; Ashrafi, H; Hill, T A; Chin-Wo, S Reyes; Van Deynze, A E; Hausbeck, M K

    2014-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is an important pepper (Capsicum annuum) pathogen causing fruit and root rot, and foliar blight in field and greenhouse production. Previously, an F6 recombinant inbred line population was evaluated for fruit rot susceptibility. Continuous variation among lines and partial and isolate-specific resistance were found. In this study, Phytophthora fruit rot resistance was mapped in the same F6 population between Criollo del Morelos 334 (CM334), a landrace from Mexico, and 'Early Jalapeno' using a high-density genetic map. Isolate-specific resistance was mapped independently in 63 of the lines evaluated and the two parents. Heritability of the resistance for each isolate at 3 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) was high (h(2) = 0.63 to 0.68 and 0.74 to 0.83, respectively). Significant additive and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to isolates OP97 and 13709 (3 and 5 dpi) and 12889 (3 dpi only). Mapping of fruit traits showed potential linkage with few disease resistance QTL. The partial fruit rot resistance from CM334 suggests that this may not be an ideal source for fruit rot resistance in pepper.

  2. Yield survey and nutritional evaluation of garlic stalk for ruminant feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y H; Kim, Y I; Oh, Y K; Ahmadi, F; Kwak, W S

    2017-01-01

    Very limited information exists on the ruminal degradation kinetics of nutrients in garlic stalk. The present study aimed to survey the annual yield of garlic stalk in Korea and determine its feed-nutritive value for ruminants. In Experiment 1, garlic stalk was incubated in situ in the rumen of two Hanwoo steers (360 ± 15 kg body weight) and removed after 12, 24, or 48 h to determine the ruminal degradation kinetics of DM and NDF. Rice straw was also included for comparison. In Experiment 2, In Experiment 2, six male Corriedale sheep were randomized to two dietary treatments to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients in garlic stalk. Diets included a control ration without garlic stalk (60% concentrate mix +40% ryegrass) or a treatment ration (70% control diet +30% garlic stalk). The Korean national yield of garlic stalk (sun-dried basis) in 2016 was estimated to be 31,910 tons, with the southern coastal regions producing the highest quantity. Compared with rice straw, garlic stalk had lower NDF, higher ADF, and greater effective degradabilities of DM and NDF, resulting in a greater TDN value (56.3%), which was higher than that obtained for rice straw (43.7%). These results provide basic information on the ruminal DM and NDF degradation kinetics of garlic stalk, which would be helpful for the efficient utilization of this by-product in ruminant diets.

  3. Yield survey and nutritional evaluation of garlic stalk for ruminant feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very limited information exists on the ruminal degradation kinetics of nutrients in garlic stalk. The present study aimed to survey the annual yield of garlic stalk in Korea and determine its feed-nutritive value for ruminants. Methods In Experiment 1, garlic stalk was incubated in situ in the rumen of two Hanwoo steers (360 ± 15 kg body weight and removed after 12, 24, or 48 h to determine the ruminal degradation kinetics of DM and NDF. Rice straw was also included for comparison. In Experiment 2, In Experiment 2, six male Corriedale sheep were randomized to two dietary treatments to determine the apparent digestibility of nutrients in garlic stalk. Diets included a control ration without garlic stalk (60% concentrate mix +40% ryegrass or a treatment ration (70% control diet +30% garlic stalk. Results The Korean national yield of garlic stalk (sun-dried basis in 2016 was estimated to be 31,910 tons, with the southern coastal regions producing the highest quantity. Compared with rice straw, garlic stalk had lower NDF, higher ADF, and greater effective degradabilities of DM and NDF, resulting in a greater TDN value (56.3%, which was higher than that obtained for rice straw (43.7%. Conclusion These results provide basic information on the ruminal DM and NDF degradation kinetics of garlic stalk, which would be helpful for the efficient utilization of this by-product in ruminant diets.

  4. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated wit...

  5. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control

    OpenAIRE

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-indus...

  6. Association of Enterobacter cloacae and other bacteria with onion bulb rot in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 1.6 million metric tons of onion bulbs are produced annually in the Pacific Northwest USA. Bulb decay can be a major problem and is caused by a variety of plant pathogens. Onion bulbs exhibiting symptoms of bacterial rot were sampled to determine the causal agents. Enterobacter cloacae...

  7. Effects of compost amendment and the biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea on the development of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) on cowpea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndiaye, M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina is a destructive pathogen causing charcoal rot of cowpea and other crops in the semi- arid areas of the Sahel (north-west Africa). Chemical management is not feasible in conditions of subsistence farming, and the plurivorous nature of the fungus limits the effectiveness of

  8. Conductimetric detection of Pseudomonas syringae pathover pisi in pea seeds and soft rot Erwinia spp. on potato tubers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, B.

    1996-01-01


    Pea bacterial blight and potato blackleg are diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi ( Psp ) and soft rot Erwinia spp., respectively. The primary source of inoculum for these bacteria is

  9. Responses to recurrent index selection for reduced fusarium ear rot and lodging and for increased yield in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium ear rot caused by the pathogen Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg damages maize (Zea mays L.) grain production and is associated with contamination of grain by fumonisin, a mycotoxin harmful to both humans and animals. Recurrent selection may be an effective way to combine improveme...

  10. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  11. Occurrence of the root-rot pathogen, Fusarium commune, in forest nurseries of the midwestern and western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jane E. Stewart; R. Kasten Dumroese; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium commune can cause damping-off and root rot of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries, and this pathogen has been previously reported from Oregon, Idaho, and Washington, USA. We collected Fusarium isolates from additional nurseries in the midwestern and western USA to more fully determine occurrence of this pathogen. We used DNA sequences of the mitochondrial...

  12. Grain Yield and Fusarium Ear Rot of Maize Hybrids Developed From Lines With Varying Levels of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides and other Fusarium spp. is found in all U.S. maize growing regions. Affected grain often contains carcinogenic mycotoxins called fumonisins. We tested the hypothesis that inbred lines with greater resistance to fumonisin contamination would pro...

  13. Accelerated detection of brown-rot decay : comparison of soil block test, chemical analysis, mechanical properties, and immunodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. A. Clausen; S. N. Kartal

    2003-01-01

    Early detection of wood decay is critical because decay fungi can cause rapid structural failure. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different methods purported to detect brown-rot decay in the early stages of development. The immunodiagnostic wood decay (IWD)test, soil block test/cake pan test, mechanical property tests, and chemical...

  14. Gene-for-gene relationships between strawberry and the causal agent of red stele root rot, Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weg, van de W.E.

    1997-01-01

    Red stele (red core) root rot is the major soil-borne disease of strawberries (Fragaria spp.) in many areas with cool, moist soil conditions. It is caused by the soil-borne fungus Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae. Red stele

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Serratia plymuthica A30, Isolated from Rotting Potato Tuber Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica A30 is a Gram-negative bacterium expressing antagonistic activity toward blackleg- and soft rot-causing Dickeya sp. biovar 3 ("Dickeya solani"). Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain A30, which has been isolated from rotten potato tuber tissue. [KEYWORDS: biovar 3

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Serratia plymuthica A30, Isolated from Rotting Potato Tuber Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica A30 is a Gram-negative bacterium expressing antagonistic activity toward blackleg- and soft rot-causing Dickeya sp. biovar 3 (“Dickeya solani”). Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain A30, which has been isolated from rotten potato tuber tissue

  17. Fungicide rotation schemes for managing Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon across Southeastern United States (NC, SC, and GA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora capsici has been documented as a pathogen on a wide variety of vegetable crops in the family Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and plants belonging to 23 other families. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelons caused by P. capsici is particularly severe in southeastern U.S where optima...

  18. Weevil - red rot associations in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Clifford H. Foster

    1957-01-01

    The presence of red rot (Fomes pini) in pruned white pine stands has often been attributed to the act of pruning. This assumption may well be true for heavily stocked stands where thinning has been neglected and pruning scars are slow to heal. The question then arises: How do we account for the red rot often found in vigorous unpruned white pine stands? Evidence...

  19. Fungi associated with base rot disease of aloe vera (Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... full base rot disease after 6 days of inoculation. Key words: Fungi, base rot, Aloe vera. INTRODUCTION. Aloe barbadensis Miller, popularly called Aloe vera is a phanerogame angiosperm which belongs to the family. Liliaceae. The plant is a perennial drought resistant succulent plant (Figure 1). Aloe vera is ...

  20. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  1. Impact of management strategies in the basal rot, charcoal rots epidemiology and Phaseolus vulgaris L. yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulacio Osorio Dilcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of chemical, physical, biologycal and cultural strategies individually or combinated were evaluated in the epidemiology of the basal rot (Sclerotium rolfsii, charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina and the Phaseolus vulgaris cv Tacarigua yield at Barinas state from Venezuela. In the experiment, Tebuconazole (Teb was applicated at seed (1 L/Ton and at soil, a los 30 y 60 days after of the sow (1 L/ha; Trichoderma harzianum (Tri was applicated at seed (15 g for each 1.5 k and to 15, 30, 45 y 60 days after of the sow (30 g/10 L of water. On the other hand, soil was solarizated (Sol during 15 days and calcium nitrate (Ca (60 g/10 L of water was applicated each 15 days until 60 days of growth of cultivated plants. Basal rot was registered as far as 42 days after of the sow, showing less of 5.3% in Teb y the combination SolTeb. The hightest incidence of this disease was observed in the treatment Tri with 28.5%, being highter that control (14.5%. Last to 42 days predominated the charcoal rot in the rest of the plants for a total of 100% of incidente in everything the treatments. Nevertheless, Teb showed the hightest yield with 555 k/ha, being different estatistically at treatment TriCa, which showed the lowest yield with 31 k/ha, however, the roots not formed nodules nitrogen uptake in these replications with the fungicide and Ca. It is concluded that S. rolfsii was sensible at action of some of the treatments; but not M. phaseolina; nevertheless, the plants were capables to produce seeds health apparently in treatments in which observed less severity of charcoal rot.

  2. Diagnostic of dry rot in living trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaetzler, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The γ-desorption method has been used in the early diagnosis of dry rot in trees. The attenuation of a 60 keV γ-beam ( 241 Am) has been measured on eleven healthy spruce disks. It is seen that early diagnostic of rotten trees is limited by natural density variation of the wood itself, but for a 95% confidence level that the wood is diseased, a tree must have an average of less than 0.59 g./cm 3 . (Auth/C.F.)

  3. Fungi associated with fruit crown rot in organic banana (Musa spp. L. in Piura, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Aguilar Anccota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The department of Piura is the principal banana-producing zone in Peru, sharing 87% of exportations. In this zone, one of the most important postharvest diseases is crown rot. The economic loses attributed to this disease are estimated to be between 25 and 30% of organic bananas exported. The objective of this study was to identify the causal agents associated with this disease. Samples taken refrigerated fruit from the areas of Querecotillo, Salitral and Mallares were taken and selected after the fact. Thielaviopsis paradoxa, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum musae and Fusarium verticilloides. In order to demonstrate the pathogenicity of the isolated species, inoculations were given in the area of the crown of the fruit on healthy bananas. These fungi caused symptoms of infection in different proportions, concluding that crown rot is a disease with a complex etiology.

  4. Temporal changes in wood crystalline cellulose during degradation by brown rot fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howell, Caitlin; Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Goodell, Barry

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of wood by brown rot fungi has been studied intensely for many years in order to facilitate the preservation of in-service wood. In this work we used X-ray diffraction to examine changes in wood cellulose crystallinity caused by the brown rot fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coniophora...... planes in all degraded samples after roughly 20% weight loss, as well as a decrease in the average observed relative peak width at 2¿ = 22.2°. These results may indicate a disruption of the outer most semi-crystalline cellulose chains comprising the wood microfibril. X-ray diffraction analysis of wood...... subjected to biological attack by fungi may provide insight into degradative processes and wood cellulose structure....

  5. A comparison of soda and soda-AQ pulps from cotton stalks | Akgül ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, cotton stalks (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were cooked using soda and soda-anthraquinone (AQ) process. Nine soda cooks were conducted by changing cooking conditions including active alkali charge and pulping time. Soda-AQ cooks were obtained by adding 0.075, 0.10, 0.15, 0.2% AQ (based on o.d stalks) to ...

  6. study on the chopping and mixing of cotton stalks with soil | Sa glam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -type, splined-type and vertical-blade rotating dredge). Field experiments were conducted with each type to determine the proportion of non-uprooted cotton stalks; mean “post-chopping height” of the stalks, measured from soil surface; and the ...

  7. Stalking Victimization among College Women and Subsequent Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhi, Eric R.; Clayton, Heather; Surrency, Heather Hepler

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the incidence of stalking victimization and subsequent help-seeking behaviors among college women. Participants and Methods: A stratified random sample of college women (N = 391) completed an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire in spring 2006. Results: One-fifth of women reported stalking victimization while…

  8. Radiation-induced grafting of sweet sorghum stalk for copper(II) removal from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Jing; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation-induced grafting was used to modify the stalk. • Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin participated in grafting reaction. • Both the structure and composition of stalk had influence on grafting. • The sorption capacity of the grafted stalk increased about five times. -- Abstract: The influence of main components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of the sweet sorghum stalk on radiation-induced grafting reaction and adsorption of copper from aqueous solution was investigated. Sweet sorghum stalk was grafted with acrylic acid induced by γ-irradiation. The results showed that the grafted stalk contained 1.6 mmol/g carboxyl groups, and its maximal adsorption capacity was 13.32 mg/g. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of the raw materials were confirmed to involve in grafting reaction through comparing the grafting yield and the structure of the grafted materials. Both the structure and the composition of the sweet sorghum stalk had influence on the grafting reaction and adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity of the grafted sweet sorghum stalk increased about five times, and the adsorption isotherm of the grafted materials conformed to the Langmuir model. The main mechanism for copper adsorption involved in ion exchange

  9. Victims of stalking in India: A study of girl college students in Tirunelveli City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaishankar Karuppannan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The word 'stalking' was not commonly known in India, until Priyadharshini Mattoo's case (1996 hit the headlines. Eve teasing, a colloquial word for gender harassment is popularly known and Tamil Nadu Prohibition of Eve-Teasing Act, 1998 on that was developed after the brutal killing of a girl named Sarika Shah in Chennai. Though, stalking is there in the past, it was not acknowledged with this terminology and it was always merged with Eve teasing. On the other hand, stalking is much graver than Eve teasing and it is an obsessive behaviour. After the Matoo's case, the Indian Criminal Justice System awoke and the National Commission for Women is ready with a draft Bill (Sexual Assault Prevention Bill to make the Indian Penal Code more effective against the menace of stalkers. Research studies related to stalking in India are sparse and there is a need to study this phenomenon in depth. This paper presents some results from a study of stalking victims among Girl College students at Tirunelveli City, Tamil Nadu, India. In-depth questionnaire data are drawn on to investigate the course and nature of prolonged stalking in 150 self-defined victims. Findings indicate a pattern of repeated intrusions, the stalking harassment methods, lack of reporting behaviour, and effects of stalking on the victims.

  10. Utilization of bio-waste cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... three-layer particleboard containing different cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks and underutilized paulownia (paulownia fortunie) wood particle ratios (30, 50 and 70%) using urea formaldehyde resin. Addition of cotton stalk and paulownia wood in particleboard improved mechanical properties of resulting composites ...

  11. Antibacterial Effect of Potassium Tetraborate Tetrahydrate against Soft Rot Disease Agent Pectobacterium carotovorum in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas A. Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum is one of most common bacterial diseases occurring in fruits and vegetables worldwide, yet consumer-acceptable options for post-harvest disease management are still insufficient. We evaluated the effect of potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate (B4K2O7.4H2O (PTB on the growth of P. carotovorum using strain BA17 as a representative of high virulence. Complete inhibition of bacterial growth was achieved by treatment with PTB at 100 mM both at pH 9.2 and after adjustment to pH 7.0. Bactericidal activity was quantified and validated by counting fluorescently labeled live and dead bacterial cells using flow cytometry, and reconfirmed using qPCR with high-affinity photoreactive DNA binding dye propidium monoazide (PMA. The results of flow cytometry, qPCR, and culturing confirmed that bacterial cells were killed following exposure to PTB at 100 mM. Bacterial cell membranes were damaged following a 5-min treatment and extrusion of cytoplasmic material from bacterial cells was observed using electronic transmission microscopy. Soft rot incidence on inoculated tomato fruit was significantly reduced by dipping infected fruits in PTB at 100 mM for 5 min and no lesions developed following a 10-min treatment. PTB does not pose a hazard to human health and is an effective alternative to other bactericides and antibiotics for controlling soft rot disease of tomato caused by P. carotovorum.

  12. Pyrolysis Characteristics of Corn Stalk with Solid Heat Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of corn stalk with a solid heat carrier was studied under temperatures ranging from 430 to 620 °C. The solid heat carrier used was high-temperature ash from a CFB boiler. The yields of three products and their characteristics were investigated. Moreover, the distributions of sulfur and nitrogen in the products were determined. The results indicate that with increasing temperature, the char yield decreased, gas yield increased, and calorific value of the gas increased from 10.13 to 16.65 MJ/m3. The yield of bio-oil reached a maximum, 14.24 wt.%, at 510 °C. Light-oil in the bio-oil accounted for more than 69.12 wt.%. The elemental composition of the char and char ash were analyzed. The distribution of sulfur and nitrogen in the char decreased to 60.44 and 46.52 wt.%, respectively, depending on the raw materials used. These results provide basic data for the possible industrial application of corn stalk.

  13. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group) through Embryo Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij B.; Kalia, Pritam; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R.

    2017-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1) were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC) primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC) interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC) × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC) was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s) for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides. PMID:28769959

  14. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group through Embryo Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij B. Sharma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group resulting into 10–50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome, therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1 were generated between cauliflower “Pusa Sharad” and Ethiopian mustard “NPC-9” employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2n = 18, CC × B. carinata (2n = 4x = 34, BBCC was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F1 hybrid and BC1 plants. The F1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides.

  15. Introgression of Black Rot Resistance from Brassica carinata to Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis Group) through Embryo Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brij B; Kalia, Pritam; Singh, Dinesh; Sharma, Tilak R

    2017-01-01

    Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ( Xcc ) is a very important disease of cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10-50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B 1 ) were generated between cauliflower "Pusa Sharad" and Ethiopian mustard "NPC-9" employing in vitro embryo rescue technique. Direct ovule culture method was better than siliqua culture under different temperature regime periods. Hybridity testing of F 1 inter-specific plants was carried out using co-dominant SSR marker and Brassica B and C genome-specific (DB and DC) primers. Meiosis in the di-genomic (BCC) interspecific hybrid of B. oleracea botrytis group (2 n = 18, CC) × B. carinata (2 n = 4x = 34, BBCC) was higly disorganized and cytological analysis of pollen mother cells revealed chromosomes 2 n = 26 at metaphase-I. Fertile giant pollen grain formation was observed frequently in interspecific F 1 hybrid and BC 1 plants. The F 1 inter-specific plants were found to be resistant to Xcc race 1. Segregation distortion was observed in BC 1 generation for black rot resistance and different morphological traits. The At1g70610 marker analysis confirmed successful introgression of black rot resistance in interspecific BC 1 population. This effort will go a long way in pyramiding gene(s) for resistance against black rot in Cole crops, especially cauliflower and cabbage for developing durable resistance, thus minimize dependency on bactericides.

  16. Stalking of psychiatrists: psychopathological characteristics and gender differences in an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, Vincenzo M; Pomilla, Antonella; Ricci, Serafino; D'Argenio, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    Research has indicated that medical doctors and paramedics are at higher risk of being stalked than the general population. In particular, mental health care professionals alone represent one third of the victims of harassment. Because of the lack of studies in this specific sector, especially in Italy, in this study, we examined the stalking of psychiatrists by their patients, considering gender differences and the incidence of stalking in private practice and public mental health clinics in Rome. We found that the rate of stalking in private mental health settings is higher than that in public settings and that the perpetrators of stalking are mainly women who mostly target mental health professionals working in private practice. Implications of the findings are noted and discussed.

  17. Hormonal regulation of the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk in Muscari armeniacum Leichtl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Saniewski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that chilling of Muscari bulbs is necessary for the growth of the inflorescence stalk and flowering, but not for the growth of leaves. Gibberellic acid (GA accelerated stem growth and flowering in chilled Muscari bulbs. In the present experiment it was shown that in unchilled derooted Muscari bulbs the growth of leaves, but not the growth of the inflorescence stalk, was observed when bulbs were stored in water, GA at a concentration of 50 and 100 mg/L, benzyladenine (BA at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/L, or a mixture of GA+BA (50+25 mg/L, but abscisic acid (ABA at a concentration of 10 mg/L greatly inhibited the growth of leaves. In chilled derooted Muscari bulbs the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk was observed when bulbs were stored in water or GA, but BA and GA+BA treatments totally inhibited the growth of the inflorescence stalk without an effect on the growth of leaves. These results clearly showed that the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk in Muscari bulbs are controlled by plant growth regulators in different ways. ABA totally inhibited the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk in chilled derooted Muscari bulbs. It was shown that after the excision of the inflorescence bud in cultivated chilled Muscari bulbs, the inflorescence stalk died, but application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA 0.5% in the place of the removed inflorescence bud induced the growth of the inflorescence stalk. IAA applied under the inflorescence bud inhibited the development of flowers (flower-bud blasting and induced the growth of the inflorescence stalk below the treatment site. These results are discussed with reference to hormonal regulation of stem (stalk growth in tulip, narcissus, hyacinth, and Hippeastrum.

  18. Biodiversity of Fusarium species in Mexico associated with ear rot in maize, and their identification using a phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rodríguez, Irma; Yañez-Morales, María de J; Silva-Rojas, Hilda V; García-de-Los-Santos, Gabino; Guzmán-de-Peña, Doralinda A

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum, F. subglutinans, and F. verticillioides are known causes of ear and kernel rot in maize worldwide. In Mexico, only F. verticillioides and F. subglutinans, have been reported previously as causal agents of this disease. However, Fusarium isolates with different morphological characteristics to the species that are known to cause this disease were obtained in the Highland-Valley region of this country from symptomatic and symptomless ears of native and commercial maize genotypes. Moreover, while the morphological studies were not sufficient to identify the correct taxonomic position at the species level, analyses based in the Internal Transcribed Spacer region and the Nuclear Large Subunit Ribosomal partial sequences allowed for the identification of F. subglutinans, F. solani, and F. verticillioides, as well as four species (F. chlamydosporum, F. napiforme, F. poae, and F. pseudonygamai) that had not previously been reported to be associated with ear rot. In addition, F. napiforme and F. solani were absent from symptomless kernels. Phylogenetic analysis showed genetic changes in F. napiforme, and F. pseudonygamai isolates because they were not true clones, and probably constitute separate sibling species. The results of this study suggest that the biodiversity of Fusarium species involved in ear rot in Mexico is greater than that reported previously in other places in the world. This new knowledge will permit a better understanding of the relationship between all the species involved in ear rot disease and their relationship with maize.

  19. Gibberella ear rot of maize (Zea mays) in Nepal: distribution of the mycotoxins nivalenol and deoxynivalenol in naturally and experimentally infected maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Anne E; Busman, Mark; Manandhar, Gyanu; Jarosz, Andrew M; Manandhar, Hira K; Proctor, Robert H

    2008-07-09

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum (sexual stage Gibberella zeae) causes ear rot of maize (Zea mays) and contamination with the 8-ketotrichothecenes nivalenol (1) or 4-deoxynivalenol (2), depending on diversity of the fungal population for the 4-oxygenase gene (TRI13). To determine the importance of 1 and 2 in maize ear rot, a survey of naturally contaminated maize in Nepal was combined with experiments in the field and in a plant growth room. In the survey, 1 contamination was 4-fold more frequent than 2 contamination and 1-producers (TRI13) were isolated more than twice as frequently as 2-producers (Psi TRI13). In maize ear rot experiments, genetically diverse 1-producers and 2-producers caused ear rot and trichothecene contamination. Among strains with the same genetic background, however, 1-producers caused less ear rot and trichothecene contamination than did 2-producers. The high frequency of 1 contamination and the high virulence of many 1-producers are of concern because maize is a staple food of rural populations in Nepal and because 1 has proven to be more toxic than 2 to animals.

  20. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Biological Control Agent for Potato Soft Rot in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Ali, M. E.; Khan, A. A.; Akanda, A. M.; Uddin, Md. Kamal; Hashim, U.; Abd Hamid, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5–62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5%) antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7%) of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers. PMID:22645446

  1. Molecular Detection of Monilinia fructigena as Causal Agent of Brown Rot on Quince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Hrustić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Monilinia are important causal agents of fruit rot on pome and stone fruits in Serbia. The pathogen is very harmful, especially on small properties and cottage plantations where intensive control measures are not applied. Quince is importanthost for the pathogens of this genus. During spring 2010, intensive occurrence of mummified fruits overwintering on branches of the quince was observed. The pathogen was isolated using standard phytopathological methods. Pathogenicity of eight obtained isolates was tested by artificial inoculation of injured apple fruits. Identification was performed according to pathogenic, morphological and ecological properties, and was confirmed by Multiplex polimeraze chain reaction, PCR. All the isolates studied caused brown rot on inoculated apple fruits. The isolates form light yellow colonies with lobate margins,with single-celled, transparent, elliptical or oval conidia in chains, regardless temperature or light presence. Sclerotia are observed in 14 days old cultures. The highest growth rate of most of the isolates is at 27°C and in dark. Based on studied pathogenic, morphological and ecological characteristics, it was found that the Monilinia fructigena is causal agent of brown rot of quince. Using specific primers (MO368-5, MO368-8R, MO368-10R, Laxa-R2for detection of Monilinia species in Multiplex PCR reaction, the expected fragment 402 bp in size was amplified, which confirmed that the studied isolates belonged to the speciesM. fructigena.

  2. Isolation, Characterization, and Identification of Biological Control Agent for Potato Soft Rot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 91 isolates of probable antagonistic bacteria of potato soft rot bacterium Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc were extracted from rhizospheres and endophytes of various crop plants, different soil varieties, and atmospheres in the potato farming areas of Bangladesh. Antibacterial activity of the isolated probable antagonistic bacteria was tested in vitro against the previously identified most common and most virulent soft rot causing bacterial strain Ecc P-138. Only two isolates E-45 and E-65 significantly inhibited the in vitro growth of Ecc P-138. Physiological, biochemical, and carbon source utilization tests identified isolate E-65 as a member of the genus Bacillus and the isolate E-45 as Lactobacillus sp. The stronger antagonistic activity against Ecc P-138 was found in E-65 in vitro screening and storage potatoes. E-65 reduced the soft rot infection to 22-week storage potatoes of different varieties by 32.5–62.5% in model experiment, demonstrating its strong potential to be used as an effective biological control agent for the major pectolytic bacteria Ecc. The highest (62.5% antagonistic effect of E-65 was observed in the Granola and the lowest (32.7% of that was found in the Cardinal varieties of the Bangladeshi potatoes. The findings suggest that isolate E-65 could be exploited as a biocontrol agent for potato tubers.

  3. Potential of popcorn germplasm as a source of resistance to ear rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railan do Nascimento Ferreira Kurosawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because of its multi-purpose nature, popcorn has sparked the interest of the World Trade Organization as regards fungal contamination by mycotoxins. However, no investigations have been conducted on popcorn for resistance of genotypes to ear rot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of popcorn genotypes as to resistance to ear rot and rotten kernels, as an initial step for the implementation of a breeding program with the popcorn crop in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Thirty-seven accessions from different ecogeographic regions of Latin America were evaluated in 2 cultivation periods, in a randomized block design with 4 replications. We evaluated the incidence of rotten ears, incidence of rotten ears caused by Fusarium spp., severity of ears with Fusarium spp. rot, and incidence of rotten kernels. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott clustering test (p < 0.05. A significant effect was observed for all evaluated variables, characterizing them as efficient in the discrimination of genotypic variability for reaction to fungal injuries in popcorn. The gene pool of the tropical and temperate Germplasm Collection evaluated here has the potential to generate superior segregants and provide hybrid combinations with alleles of resistance to diseases affecting ears and stored kernels. Based on the different variables and times, the experiment was conducted, and genotypes L65, L80, and IAC 125 showed the highest levels of resistance.

  4. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  5. The Use of Antioxidants to Control Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of Fusarium spp were isolated from pepper plants collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Fusarium solani isolate FP2 and F. oxysporum isolate FP4 were highly pathogenic isolates but the other isolates moderate or less pathogenic to pepper plants (cv. Anaheim-M. The four antioxidant compounds (coumaric acid, citric acid, propylgalate and salicylic acid each at 100 and 200 ppm were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo agonist to Fusarium pathogenic isolates caused root rot and wilt diseases in pepper plants. All tested antioxidant compounds reduced damping-off, root rot/wilt and area under root rot/wilt progress curve when used as seed soaking, seedling soaking, and soil drench especially at 200 ppm under greenhouse and field conditions compared with untreated plants. All chemicals increased fresh and dry weight of seedling grown in soil drenching or seed treatment with any antioxidants. At the same time, all tested chemicals significantly increase plant growth parameters i.e plant length, plant branching, and total yield per plant in case of seedling soaking or soil drench. In general, propylgalate at 200 ppm was more efficient in reducing infection with damping-off, root rot and wilt diseases as well as increasing the seedling fresh weight, dry weight, plant length, plant branching, number of pod plant-1 and pod yield plant-1. On the other hand, all tested antioxidants had less or no effect on mycelial dry weight and mycelial leaner growth. On the contrary, all chemicals much reduced spore formation in both Fusarium species at 100 or 200 ppm and the inhibitory effect of antioxidants increased with increasing their concentrations.

  6. Lignin as a facilitator, not a barrier, during saccharification by brown rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Jonathan S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Tschirner, Ulrike [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Blanchette, Robert A [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Filley, Timothy [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2012-11-28

    This research focused on the biology of a group of wood-degrading fungi that cause brown rot in wood, with particular attention to the potential to mimic this biological approach ex situ for bioprocessing lignocellulosic biomass. Supported by the long-standing theory that these fungi use a two-step oxidative/enzymatic approach during brown rot, our team’s objectives were as follows: 1) to determine the discrete timing of lignin modifications, 2) to correlate these alterations with biocatalyst efficiency and ingress into plant cell walls, and 3) to reproduce modifications prior to saccharification for efficient bioprocessing. The core findings of our research were that 1) lignin modifications occur nearly coincident with enzyme secretion during brown rot and 2) there is no specificity to the benefit that a brown rot pretreatment has on the efficacy of cellulases – it is a general enhancement best predicted by chemical changes to lignin and side-chain hemicellulose sugars. In our work, this meant we could attain and predict broad improvements in saccharification using commercial cellulase cocktails, in some cases more than three-fold of that in untreated biomass. This project was completed with minimal variance from the original project management plan (PMP), resulting in fourteen presentations and posters, four peer-reviewed publications, and one additional publication now in review. The publications have been valuable to other scientists working toward similar goals and have been cited in thirteen peer-reviewed publications written by others since 2010. We are working with ADM to advance application options for industry, building on the lessons learned during this DOE award period.

  7. Energy balance associated with the degradation of lignocellulosic material by white-rot and brown-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien, Delphine; Bédu, Hélène; Buée, Marc; Kohler, Annegret; Goodell, Barry; Gelhaye, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Forest soils cover about 30% of terrestrial area and comprise between 50 and 80% of the global stock of soil organic carbon (SOC). The major precursor for this forest SOC is lignocellulosic material, which is made of polysaccharides and lignin. Lignin has traditionally been considered as a recalcitrant polymer that hinders access to the much more labile structural polysaccharides. This view appears to be partly incorrect from a microbiology perspective yet, as substrate alteration depends on the metabolic potential of decomposers. In forest ecosystems the wood-rotting Basidiomycota fungi have developed two different strategies to attack the structure of lignin and gain access to structural polysaccharides. White-rot fungi degrade all components of plant cell walls, including lignin, using enzymatic systems. Brown-rot fungi do not remove lignin. They generate oxygen-derived free radicals, such as the hydroxyl radical produced by the Fenton reaction, that disrupt the lignin polymer and depolymerize polysaccharides which then diffuse out to where the enzymes are located The objective of this study was to develop a model to investigate whether the lignin relative persistence could be related to the energetic advantage of brown-rot degradative pathway in comparison to white-rot degradative pathway. The model simulates the changes in substrate composition over time, and determines the energy gained from the conversion of the lost substrate into CO2. The energy cost for the production of enzymes involved in substrate alteration is assessed using information derived from genome and secretome analysis. For brown-rot fungus specifically, the energy cost related to the production of OH radicals is also included. The model was run, using data from the literature on populous wood degradation by Trametes versicolor, a white-rot fungus, and Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown-rot fungus. It demonstrates that the brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) was more efficient than the white-rot

  8. Effect of Banana Stalk Organic Fertilizer on the Growth of Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheli; DING; Lina; HAN; Zhiqiang; JIN; Bizun; WANG; Huicai; ZENG; Wei; ZHENG; Yingdui; HE; Xiaoping; ZANG

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of waste disposal after banana harvest,we use banana stalk to produce banana stalk organic fertilizer,through a plot experiment. We compare the influence of normal organic fertilizer( Wanlubao) and banana stalk organic fertilizer as base fertilizers on Chinese cabbage growth,and evaluate the economic benefits of banana stalk organic fertilizer. The results show that organic fertilizer has little effect on water content and nutrient content of Chinese cabbage,but has significant effect on plant height and leaf width. Using organic fertilizer can increase the production of Chinese cabbage by 22. 50%- 43. 10%. With 6750 kg / ha normal organic fertilizer,Chinese cabbage gets the highest yield,which reaches 30135 kg / ha,followed by the treatment of 6750 kg / ha stalk organic fertilizer. At farmers’ conventional fertilization level( 4500 kg / ha),stalk organic fertilizer can increase the yield by more than 3. 50% in comparison with the normal organic fertilizer,and the economic benefit increases by 1800 yuan / ha. As a kind of banana waste cycling product,banana stalk organic fertilizer is of low cost and good effect,and can be used instead of normal organic fertilizer.

  9. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  10. The influence of root rot incidence on cassava genotype on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... model statistical procedures with the SAS system for windows. Comparisons ... significantly different at probability 0.05%. The results of this ... Due to inefficient harvesting, packaging ... from rot for gari processing. Where there ...

  11. Production and optimization of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and optimization of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot fungus Schizophyllum ... size and nutritional factors (carbon and nitrogen ratio, mediators and metal ions). ... scale production of these enzymes for diverse industrial applications.

  12. Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    morelet) in Ijaiye Forest Reserve, 38 km northwest of Ibadan, Nigeria. The wood samples were inoculated separately with two species of white-rot fungi; Corioliopsis polyzona and Pleurotus squarrosulus, and two species of brownrot fungi; ...

  13. Pathological and rhizospherical studies on root-rot disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... Rhizoctonia solani root-rot aggressive pathogens to squash on media containing culture of Trichoderma ..... The bacteriology of root region of cat ... (2004): Comparison of the behavior of a transformed hygromycin resistant ...

  14. DEGRADATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY WHITE ROT BASIDIOMYCETES

    OpenAIRE

    B.P. PARMAR, P.N. MERVANA B.R.M. VYAS*

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Dyes released by the textile industries pose a threat to environmental quality. Ligninolytic white-rot basidiomycetes can effectively degrade colored effluents and conventional dyes. White-rot fungi produce various isoforms of extracellular oxidases including laccase, Mn peroxidase and lignin peroxidase (LiP), which are involved in the degradation of lignin in their natural lignocellulosic substrates.  The textile industry, by far the most avid user of synthetic dyes, is in need...

  15. Victims of stalking in India: A study of girl college students in Tirunelveli City

    OpenAIRE

    Jaishankar Karuppannan; Kosalai Puthisigamani

    2007-01-01

    The word 'stalking' was not commonly known in India, until Priyadharshini Mattoo's case (1996) hit the headlines. Eve teasing, a colloquial word for gender harassment is popularly known and Tamil Nadu Prohibition of Eve-Teasing Act, 1998 on that was developed after the brutal killing of a girl named Sarika Shah in Chennai. Though, stalking is there in the past, it was not acknowledged with this terminology and it was always merged with Eve teasing. On the other hand, stalking is much graver t...

  16. Could a deletion in neuraminidase stalk strengthen human tropism of the novel avian influenza virus H7N9 in China, 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhu, Feng; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Lufang; Chen, Yue; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-01-20

    Objective. A novel avian influenza A virus (AIV) H7N9 subtype which emerged in China in 2013 caused worldwide concern. Deletion of amino-acids 69 to 73 in the neuraminidase stalk was its most notable characteristic. This study is aimed to discuss the tropism and virulence effects of this deletion. Neuraminidase gene sequences of N9 subtype were collected from NCBI and GISAID. MEGA6.0, Stata12.0, and UCSF Chimera were employed for sequence aligning, significance testing, and protein tertiary structure homology modeling. A total of 736 sequences were obtained; there were 81 human isolates of the novel AIV H7N9, of which 79 had the deletion. Among all the 654 avian origin sequences, only 43 had the deletion (p deletion obviously changed the spatial direction of neuraminidase. The deletion in neuraminidase stalk could have strengthened human tropism of the novel AIV H7N9, as well as its virulence.

  17. A genomics-informed, SNP association study reveals FBLN1 and FABP4 as contributing to resistance to fleece rot in Australian Merino sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris Belinda J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fleece rot (FR and body-strike of Merino sheep by the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina are major problems for the Australian wool industry, causing significant losses as a result of increased management costs coupled with reduced wool productivity and quality. In addition to direct effects on fleece quality, fleece rot is a major predisposing factor to blowfly strike on the body of sheep. In order to investigate the genetic drivers of resistance to fleece rot, we constructed a combined ovine-bovine cDNA microarray of almost 12,000 probes including 6,125 skin expressed sequence tags and 5,760 anonymous clones obtained from skin subtracted libraries derived from fleece rot resistant and susceptible animals. This microarray platform was used to profile the gene expression changes between skin samples of six resistant and six susceptible animals taken immediately before, during and after FR induction. Mixed-model equations were employed to normalize the data and 155 genes were found to be differentially expressed (DE. Ten DE genes were selected for validation using real-time PCR on independent skin samples. The genomic regions of a further 5 DE genes were surveyed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP that were genotyped across three populations for their associations with fleece rot resistance. Results The majority of the DE genes originated from the fleece rot subtracted libraries and over-representing gene ontology terms included defense response to bacterium and epidermis development, indicating a role of these processes in modulating the sheep's response to fleece rot. We focused on genes that contribute to the physical barrier function of skin, including keratins, collagens, fibulin and lipid proteins, to identify SNPs that were associated to fleece rot scores. Conclusions We identified FBLN1 (fibulin and FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein 4 as key factors in sheep's resistance to fleece rot. Validation of these

  18. Brown rot fungal early stage decay mechanism as a biological pretreatment for softwood biomass in biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Michael J.; Leak, David J.; Spanu, Pietro D.; Murphy, Richard J. [Division of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Porter Alliance, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    A current barrier to the large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuels is the cost associated with the energy and chemical inputs required for feedstock pretreatment and hydrolysis. The use of controlled partial biological degradation to replace elements of the current pretreatment technologies would offer tangible energy and cost benefits to the whole biofuel process. It has been known for some time from studies of wood decay that, in the early stages of growth in wood, brown rot fungi utilise a mechanism that causes rapid and extensive depolymerisation of the carbohydrate polymers of the wood cell wall. The brown rot hyphae act as delivery vectors to the plant cell wall for what is thought to be a combination of a localised acid pretreatment and a hydroxyl radical based depolymerisation of the cell wall carbohydrate polymers. It is this quality that we have exploited in the present work to enhance the saccharification potential of softwood forest residues for biofuel production. Here we show that after restricted exposure of pine sapwood to brown rot fungi, glucose yields following enzymatic saccharification are significantly increased. Our results demonstrate the potential of using brown rot fungi as a biological pretreatment for biofuel production. (author)

  19. Comparative studies on thermochemical characterization of corn stover pretreated by white-rot and brown-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yelin; Yang, Xuewei; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Fuying

    2011-09-28

    The effects of white-rot and brown-rot fungal pretreatment on the chemical composition and thermochemical conversion of corn stover were investigated. Fungus-pretreated corn stover was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis to characterize the changes in chemical composition. Differences in thermochemical conversion of corn stover after fungal pretreatment were investigated using thermogravimetric and pyrolysis analysis. The results indicated that the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2 has great lignin-degrading ability, whereas the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis sp. IMER2 preferentially degrades the amorphous regions of the cellulose. The biopretreatment favors thermal decomposition of corn stover. The weight loss of IMER2-treated acid detergent fiber became greater, and the oil yield increased from 32.7 to 50.8%. After CD2 biopretreatment, 58% weight loss of acid detergent lignin was achieved and the oil yield increased from 16.8 to 26.8%.

  20. Association mapping in sunflower for sclerotinia head rot resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusari Corina M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sclerotinia Head Rot (SHR is one of the most damaging diseases of sunflower in Europe, Argentina, and USA, causing average yield reductions of 10 to 20 %, but leading to total production loss under favorable environmental conditions for the pathogen. Association Mapping (AM is a promising choice for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL mapping, as it detects relationships between phenotypic variation and gene polymorphisms in existing germplasm without development of mapping populations. This article reports the identification of QTL for resistance to SHR based on candidate gene AM. Results A collection of 94 sunflower inbred lines were tested for SHR under field conditions using assisted inoculation with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Given that no biological mechanisms or biochemical pathways have been clearly identified for SHR, 43 candidate genes were selected based on previous transcript profiling studies in sunflower and Brassica napus infected with S. sclerotiorum. Associations among SHR incidence and haplotype polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes were tested using Mixed Linear Models (MLM that account for population structure and kinship relationships. This approach allowed detection of a significant association between the candidate gene HaRIC_B and SHR incidence (P  Conclusions These results suggest that AM will be useful in dissecting other complex traits in sunflower, thus providing a valuable tool to assist in crop breeding.

  1. Discovery of dense aggregations of stalked crinoids in Izu-Ogasawara trench, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oji, Tatsuo; Ogawa, Yujiro; Hunter, Aaron W; Kitazawa, Kota

    2009-06-01

    Stalked crinoids are recognized as living fossils that typically inhabit modern deep-water environments exceeding 100 m. Previous records of stalked crinoids from hadal depths (exceeding 6000 m) are extremely rare, and no in-situ information has been available. We show here that stalked crinoids live densely on rocky substrates at depths over 9000 m in the Izu-Ogasawara Trench off the eastern coast of Japan, evidenced by underwater photos and videos taken by a remotely operated vehicle. This is the deepest in-situ observation of stalked crinoids and demonstrates that crinoid meadows can exist at hadal depths close to the deepest ocean floor, in a fashion quite similar to populations observed in shallower depths.

  2. The Intersection of Stalking and the Severity of Intimate Partner Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Patrick Q; Hayes, Brittany E

    2018-04-01

    Using data from the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study (N = 464), this study examined the intersection of stalking and the severity of intimate partner abuse while controlling for previously identified risk factors of intimate partner homicide. Findings indicate that (a) victims of life-threatening abuse by an intimate partner were significantly more likely to experience stalking than victims of nonlethal abuse; (b) after controlling for key risk factors, stalking increased the risk of life-threatening abuse; and (c) threats to kill the victim if she left was the only significant stalking-related behavior that increased the risk for life-threatening abuse. In addition, an offender's prior record and a higher number of previous abusive incidents increased the risk of life-threatening abuse. Implications for prevention and future directions for research are discussed.

  3. Study of Nutrient Content Variation in Bulb And Stalk of Onions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    Keywords: Onion bulbs and stalks, proximate, nutrient elements, vitamins A and C; oxalate. ... application of fertilizers, manure, compost and ..... iron products, the use of natural source of Fe such .... in Fish and Sediment from Kubanni River,.

  4. Reaction of arracacha genotypes to the root soft rot caused by Pectobacterium chrysanthemi Reação de genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes causada por Pectobacterium chrysanthemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Paulo Henz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to screen thirty-two arracacha genotypes for their reaction to root soft rot. Twenty roots of each genotype were inoculated with two Pectobacterium chrysanthemi isolates in a randomized experiment (10 roots/isolate. After inoculation, roots were individually wrapped with PVC film and kept at 26ºC in closed plastic bags. Soft rot lesions were recorded after 36 hours and genotypes were grouped in four classes of susceptibility by cluster analysis: 10 were less susceptible, 16 intermediate, 3 susceptible and 3 very susceptible. All the tested arracacha genotypes showed only variation in the degree of susceptibility.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a reação de 32 genótipos de mandioquinha-salsa à podridão-mole das raízes. Vinte raízes de cada genótipo foram inoculadas com dois isolados de Pectobacterium chrysanthemi em um experimento casualizado (10 raízes/isolado. Após a inoculação, as raízes foram embaladas com filmes de PVC e mantidas a 26ºC em sacos de plástico. As lesões de podridão-mole foram avaliadas após 36 horas e os genótipos agrupados em quatro classes de suscetibilidade por análise de agrupamento: 10 foram menos suscetíveis, 16 intermediários, 3 suscetíveis e 3 muito suscetíveis. Todos os genótipos avaliados demonstraram apenas variação no grau de suscetibilidade.

  5. Colonization of habitat islands in the deep sea: recruitment to glass sponge stalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Stace E.

    2001-04-01

    Biogenic structures in the deep sea often act as hard substratum 'islands' for the attachment of encrusting fauna. At an abyssal station in the NE Pacific, stalks of hexactinellid sponges in the genus Hyalonema are habitat islands for species-rich epifaunal communities. An experimental study was conducted to (1) determine the colonization rates of artificial Hyalonema stalks, (2) compare the species composition and diversity of recruits to newly available substrata to that of the natural communities, and (3) examine the vertical distribution of recruits. Four sets of six artificial sponge stalks, constructed of Hyalonema spicules, were deployed at 4100 m depth for 3- to 5-month periods. There was no difference in net colonization or immigration rate among the four deployments. Colonization rates were similar to those reported for other deep-sea, hard substratum recruitment experiments. The taxa that recruited to the artificial stalks were a subset of the taxa found in natural communities. However, several taxa important in structuring natural communities did not recruit to the artificial stalks. The two taxa with the highest invasion rates, a calcareous foraminiferan ( Cibicides lobatulus) and a serpulid polychaete ( Bathyvermilia sp.), also were the two taxa with greatest relative abundance in natural communities. Vertical distributions of Cibicides and an agglutinated foraminiferan ( Telammina sp.) were skewed towards the top of the artificial stalks, potentially because of active habitat selection. These results have several implications for natural Hyalonema stalk communities. Most importantly, species composition and abundance of individuals in the stalk communities appear to be maintained by frequent recruitment of a few common taxa and infrequent recruitment of many rare taxa. An argument is presented for temporal-mosaic maintenance of diversity in these deep-sea, hard substratum communities.

  6. Effect of Mowing Cotton Stalks and Preventing Plant Re-Growth on Post-Harvest Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard F.; Kemerait, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major parasite of cotton in the U.S., and management tactics for this nematode attempt to minimize population levels. We compared three post-harvest practices for their ability to reduce nematode population levels in the field, thereby reducing initial nematode population for the next year's crop. The three practices tested were: 1) chemical defoliation before harvest plus cutting cotton stalks after harvest, 2) chemical defoliation plus applying a herbicide to kill plants prior to cutting the stalks, and 3) chemical defoliation without cutting stalks. Experiments were conducted in both the greenhouse and in the field. The greenhouse experiments demonstrated that M. incognita reproduction (measured as egg counts and root gall rating indices) was significantly greater when stalks were not cut. Cutting stalks plus applying herbicide to kill cotton roots did not significantly reduce nematode reproduction compared to cutting stalks alone. In field experiments, cutting stalks reduced egg populations and root galling compared to defoliation without stalk cutting. In a greenhouse bioassay which used soil from the field plots, plants grown in soil from the defoliation only treatment had greater root gall ratings and egg counts than in the stalk cutting plus herbicide treatment. Therefore, we conclude that cutting cotton stalks immediately after harvest effectively reduces M. incognita reproduction, and may lead to a lower initial population density of this nematode in the following year. PMID:22736845

  7. Pseudomonas cichorii as the causal agent of midrib rot, an emerging disease of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottyn, Bart; Heylen, Kim; Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanhouteghem, Katrien; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Bleyaert, Peter; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Höfte, Monica; De Vos, Paul; Maes, Martine

    2009-05-01

    Bacterial midrib rot of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) is an emerging disease in Flanders (Belgium) and fluorescent pseudomonads are suspected to play an important role in the disease. Isolations from infected lettuces, collected from 14 commercial greenhouses in Flanders, yielded 149 isolates that were characterized polyphasically, which included morphological characteristics, pigmentation, pathogenicity tests by both injection and spraying of lettuce, LOPAT characteristics, FAME analysis, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, as well as DNA-DNA hybridization. Ninety-eight isolates (66%) exhibited a fluorescent pigmentation and were associated with the genus Pseudomonas. Fifty-five of them induced an HR+ (hypersensitive reaction in tobacco leaves) response. The other 43 fluorescent isolates were most probably saprophytic bacteria and about half of them were able to cause rot on potato tuber slices. BOX-PCR genomic fingerprinting was used to assess the genetic diversity of the Pseudomonas midrib rot isolates. The delineated BOX-PCR patterns matched quite well with Pseudomonas morphotypes defined on the basis of colony appearance and variation in fluorescent pigmentation. 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses allowed most of the fluorescent isolates to be allocated to Pseudomonas, and they belonged to either the Pseudomonas fluorescens group, Pseudomonas putida group, or the Pseudomonas cichorii/syringae group. In particular, the isolates allocated to this latter group constituted the vast majority of HR+ isolates and were identified as P. cichorii by DNA-DNA hybridization. They were demonstrated by spray-inoculation tests on greenhouse-grown lettuce to induce the midrib rot disease and could be re-isolated from lesions of inoculated plants. Four HR+ non-fluorescent isolates associated with one sample that showed an atypical midrib rot were identified as Dickeya sp.

  8. Behavioral and Mental Health Correlates of Youth Stalking Victimization: A Latent Class Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2016-12-01

    Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected in 2013 and data analyses were performed in 2015. Analysis indicated the presence of a non-victim class, a minimal exposure class, and a victim class for boys and girls alike. Approximately 14% of girls and 13% of boys were in the stalking victim class. Adolescents in the victim class reported more symptoms of post-traumatic stress, mood disorder, and hopelessness, as well as more instances of alcohol use, binge drinking, and physical dating violence victimization. Girls in the victim class also reported engaging in sexting behaviors and oral sex with significantly more partners than their non-victim peers. These findings provide valuable knowledge of the prevalence and pertinent health correlates of stalking victimization in adolescence. The data suggest a substantial proportion of adolescents are victims of stalking and are likewise at risk for a number of deleterious health outcomes. As such, this population merits further attention by prevention researchers and practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Enzymatic saccharification of high pressure assist-alkali pretreated cotton stalk and structural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuang-kui; Su, Xia; Yang, Weihua; Wang, Yanqin; Kuang, Meng; Ma, Lei; Fang, Dan; Zhou, Dayun

    2016-04-20

    Cotton stalk is a potential biomass for bioethanol production, while the conversion of direct saccharification or biotransformation of cotton stalk is extremely low due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose. To enhance the enzymatic conversion of cotton stalks, the enzymatic saccharification parameters of high pressure assist-alkali pretreatment (HPAP) cotton stalk were optimized in the present study. Results indicated that a maximum reducing sugar yield of 54.7g/100g dry biomass cellulose was achieved at a substrate concentration of 2%, 100rpm agitation, 0.6g/g enzyme loading, 40°C hydrolysis temperature, 50h saccharification time, and pH 5.0. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to identify structural changes in native, pretreated biomass and hydrolyzed residues. Structural analysis revealed large part of amorphous cellulose and partial crystalline cellulose in the HPAP cotton stalk were hydrolyzed during enzymatic treatment. HPAP cotton stalk can be used as a potential feed stock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro decomposition of Sphagnum by some microfungi resembles white rot of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Adrianne V; Tsuneda, Akihiko; Currah, Randolph S

    2006-06-01

    The abilities of some ascomycetes (Myxotrichaceae) from a Sphagnum bog in Alberta to degrade cellulose, phenolics, and Sphagnum tissue were compared with those of two basidiomycetes. Most Myxotrichaceae degraded cellulose and tannic acid, and removed cell-wall components simultaneously from Sphagnum tissues, whereas the basidiomycetes degraded cellulose and insoluble phenolics, and preferentially removed the polyphenolic matrix from Sphagnum cell walls. Mass losses from Sphagnum varied from up to 50% for some ascomycetes to a maximum of 35% for the basidiomycetes. The decomposition of Sphagnum by the Myxotrichaceae was analogous to the white rot of wood and indicates that these fungi have the potential to cause significant mineralization of carbon in bogs.

  11. Incidence of butt rot in a tree species experiment in northern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronnberg, J; Vollbrecht, G.; Thomsen, Iben Margrete

    1999-01-01

    The susceptibility to infections by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. was examined in a 28-year-old tree species experiment in northern Jutland, Denmark. Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), Caucasian fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl) Lindl.), noble fir (Abies...... trees infected, respectively. Silver fir and Caucasian fir were almost free from infections. Maximum extension of H. annosum rot columns were in Japanese larch (18 dm). Heterobasidion annosum was found to be the most important decay causing fungus. Mating tests assigned all isolated strains of H...

  12. Investigation on the Effect of Kenaf Core and Stalk Fiber on the Medium Density Fiber Board Properties Made of Poplar Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh SH.Alizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the use of material non-forest resources, in this study the possibility of using the kenaf stalk fibers mixed with poplar fibers in producing medium density fiber board was considered. Variable factors such as density at two levels (0.55, 0.75 g/cm3 and the percentage incorporation of fiber (%50 poplar fibers, - %50 kenaf core fiber, %50 poplar fiber, -% 50 kenaf stalk fiber and %100 poplar fibers were considered. Steaming time and temperature (175°C, 10min, press time and temperature (5 min, 175°C, Pressing pressure (30 kg/cm3, fiber cake moisture (%12 and urea-formaldehyde resin with Concentration of %50 of the study factors were fixed. Results show that adding kenaf core fibers to the poplar fibers increases modulus of elasticity and water absorption but thickness swelling reduces. Increased density in board made with kenaf core has caused increase in bending strength, modulus of elasticity and internal bond strength and their water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 and 24 hours were competitive with poplar (MDF. On the other hand Populus fiber– kenaf stalk board mechanical and physical properties were competitive with (MDF board made of %100 poplar fibers. Finally we can say that according to the statistical analysis, the best treatment in this study was using kenaf core fibers, in making poplar (MDF with 0.75 g/cm3 density.

  13. Extraction and Hydrophobic Modification of Cotton Stalk Bark Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton stalk bark fiber (CSBF was extracted at high temperature and under high pressure, under the condition of the alkali content of 11 wt%. Experimental results proved that the extraction yield of CSBF was 27.3 wt%, and the residual alkali concentration was 2.1 wt%. Then five kinds of modifiers including methyl methacrylate (MMA, MMA plus initiator, epoxy propane, copper ethanolamine, and silane coupling agent were chosen to modify the surface of CSBF. It was found by measuring water retention value (WRV that these five kinds of modifiers were all effective and the silane coupling agent was best modifier among all. The optimal modifying conditions of silane coupling agent were obtained: modifier concentration was 5%, the mixing temperature was 20°C, the mixing time was 1 h, and vacuum drying time was 1 h. Under the optimal condition, the WRV of the modified CSBF was 89%. It is expected that these modified CSBF may be a filler with strengthening effect in wood plastic composites (WPC fields.

  14. Fast pyrolysis product distribution of biopretreated corn stalk by methanogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tipeng; Ye, Xiaoning; Yin, Jun; Jin, Zaixing; Lu, Qiang; Zheng, Zongming; Dong, Changqing

    2014-10-01

    After pretreated by methanogen for 5, 15 and 25 days, corn stalk (CS) were pyrolyzed at 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C by Py-GC/MS and product distribution in bio-oil was analyzed. Results indicated that methanogen pretreatment changed considerably the product distribution: the contents of sugar and phenols increased; the contents of linear carbonyls and furans decreased; the contents of linear ketones and linear acids changed slightly. Methanogen pretreatment improved significantly the pyrolysis selectivity of CS to phenols especially 4-VP. At 250 °C, the phenols content increased from 42.25% for untreated CS to 79.32% for biopretreated CS for 5 days; the 4-VP content increased from 28.6% to 60.9%. Increasing temperature was contributed to convert more lignin into 4-VP, but decreased its content in bio-oil due to more other chemicals formed. The effects of biopretreatment time on the chemicals contents were insignificant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Light absorption of organic aerosol from pyrolysis of corn stalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghua; Chen, Yanju; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-11-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) can absorb solar radiation in the low-visible and ultra-violet wavelengths thereby modifying radiative forcing. Agricultural waste burning emits a large quantity of organic carbon in many developing countries. In this work, we improved the extraction and analysis method developed by Chen and Bond, and extended the spectral range of OC absorption. We examined light absorbing properties of primary OA from pyrolysis of corn stalk, which is a major type of agricultural wastes. Light absorption of bulk liquid extracts of OA was measured using a UV-vis recording spectrophotometer. OA can be extracted by methanol at 95%, close to full extent, and shows polar character. Light absorption of organic aerosol has strong spectral dependence (Absorption Ångström exponent = 7.7) and is not negligible at ultra-violet and low-visible regions. Higher pyrolysis temperature produced OA with higher absorption. Imaginary refractive index of organic aerosol (kOA) is 0.041 at 400 nm wavelength and 0.005 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively.

  16. Cytotoxic Triterpenoids from the Stalks of Microtropis triflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kui-Wu; Zhou, Man-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Bioassay-guided phytochemical investigation of the stalks of Microtropis triflora Merr. & F.L. Freeman led to the isolation of ten triterpenes 1 - 10, including one novel compound 3,24-epoxy-2α,24-dihydroxyfriedelan-29-oic acid (1). Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HR-ESI mass spectrometry, 1D- and 2D-NMR ( 1 H, 13 C, 1 H, 1 H-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY), and by comparison with the data reported. The cytotoxicities of compounds 1 - 10 against a panel of cultured human tumor cell lines (Bcap37, SMMC7721, HeLa, CNE) were evaluated. The new compound 1 showed moderate anti-tumor activities with IC 50 values of 39.22, 29.24, 23.28, and 68.81 μm/ml, respectively. These results might be helpful for explaining the use of M. triflora in traditional medicine. Triterpenes are characteristic of Microtropis genus and could be useful as potential chemotaxonomic markers. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. Incidence of root rot diseases of soybean in Multan Pakistan and its management by the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.I.; Tahir, M.I.; Mahmood, S.

    2012-01-01

    Eight villages in Multan district were surveyed to record incidence of disease and losses of soybean (Glycine max L.) caused by root rot fungi. The root incidence ranged 10-17% and losses ranged 6.75-15.5%. The evaluation of four PGPR isolates was used in combination with organic amendment for the management of root-rot disease incidence and to reduce the population of root pathogenic fungi and to increase the yield in field. This study demonstrated effective biological control by the PGPR isolates tested, thereby indicating the possibility of application of rhizobacteria for control of soil bor ne diseases of soybean in Pakistan and other countries. (author)

  18. Association mapping for #Phytophthora# pod rot resistance in a cacao (#Theobroma cacao# L.) population grown in farmers' field

    OpenAIRE

    Efombagn, Mousseni Ives Bruno; Sounigo, Olivier; Courtois, Brigitte; Fouet, Olivier; Jeanneau, Mélanie; Lemainque, Arnaud; Pavek, Sylvana; Lanaud, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) caused by the specie Phytophthora megakarya is an important disease of cacao tree. Association mapping identified markers linked to PPR resistance in a cacao population of 260 trees planted under high disease pressure in a single plantation in a farmer's field. These cacao trees were derived from both selfing and full-sib progenies. The resistance traits were assessed through field observations of the natural pod attacks of the disease on the trunk (PRTnk) or the ca...

  19. Reaction of Cauliflower Genotypes to Black Rot of Crucifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincon Rafael da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate six cauliflower genotypes regarding their resistance to black rot and their production performance. To do so, it was conducted two field experiments in Ipameri, Goiás, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013. It was used a randomized block design, with four replications (total of 24 plots. Each plot consisted of three planting lines 2.5 m long (six plants/line, spaced 1.0 m apart, for a total area of 7.5 m². Evaluations of black rot severity were performed at 45 days after transplanting, this is, 75 days after sowing (DAS, and yield evaluations at 90 to 105 DAS. The Verona 184 genotype was the most resistant to black rot, showing 1.87 and 2.25% of leaf area covered by black rot symptom (LACBRS in 2012 and 2013. However, it was not among the most productive materials. The yield of the genotypes varied between 15.14 and 25.83 t/ha in both years, Lisvera F1 (21.78 and 24.60 t/ha and Cindy (19.95 and 23.56 t/ha being the most productive. However, Lisvera F1 showed 6.37 and 9.37% of LACBRS and Cindy showed 14.25 and 14.87% of LACBRS in 2012 and 2013, being both considered as tolerant to black rot.

  20. Cyber stalking victimisation of women: Evaluating the effectiveness of current laws in India from restorative justice and therapeutic jurisprudential perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Victimisation of women through cyber stalking is one of the most serious crimes against women. Many countries including India have developed laws regulating cyber stalking. This article argues that since both, restorative justice (RJ and therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ are victim oriented, the issue of cyber stalking of women may be dealt with by RJ process and the laws in this regard must be analysed by the legal actors with a background in RJ and TJ philosophy. India had earlier taken up therapeutic punishment policy to enforce rights of the accused. But the modern principles of TJ have still not been considered in the RJ background in cyber stalking cases. This article therefore examines whether RJ and TJ principles can replace retributive principles for cyber stalking victimisation. It also examines the Indian cyber stalking law from RJ and TJ perspectives to assess its effectiveness for victims.

  1. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit.

  2. Extracellular oxidases and the transformation of solubilised low-rank coal by wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Graham, L.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-31

    The involvement of extracellular oxidases in biotransformation of low-rank coal was assessed by correlating the ability of nine white-rot and brown-rot fungi to alter macromolecular material in alkali-solubilised brown coal with the spectrum of oxidases they produce when grown on low-nitrogen medium. The coal fraction used was that soluble at 3.0{<=}pH{<=}6.0 (SWC6 coal). In 15-ml cultures, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Lentinus lepideus and Trametes versicolor produced little or no lignin peroxidase, manganese (Mn) peroxidase or laccase activity and caused no change to SWC6 coal. Ganoderma applanatum and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus also produced no detectable lignin or Mn peroxidases or laccase yet increased the absorbance at 400 nm of SWC6 coal. G. applanatum, which produced veratryl alcohol oxidase, also increased the modal apparent molecular mass. SWC6 coal exposed to Merulius tremellosus and Perenniporia tephropora, which secreted Mn peroxidases and laccase and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which produced Mn and lignin peroxidases was polymerised but had unchanged or decreased absorbance. In the case of both P. chrysosporium and M. tremellosus, polymerisation of SWC6 coal was most extensive, leading to the formation of a complex insoluble in 100 mM NaOH. Rigidoporus ulmarius, which produced only laccase, both polymerised and reduced the A{sub 400} of SWC6 coal. P. chrysosporium, M. tremellosus and P. tephropora grown in 10-ml cultures produced a spectrum of oxidases similar to that in 15-ml cultures but, in each case, caused more extensive loss of A{sub 400}, and P. chrysosporium depolymerised SWC6 coal. It is concluded that the extracellular oxidases of white-rot fungi can transform low-rank coal macromolecules and that increased oxygen availability in the shallower 10-ml cultures favours catabolism over polymerisation. (orig.)

  3. Reduced polymorphism associated with X chromosome meiotic drive in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Christianson

    Full Text Available Sex chromosome meiotic drive has been suggested as a cause of several evolutionary genetic phenomena, including genomic conflicts that give rise to reproductive isolation between new species. In this paper we present a population genetic analysis of X chromosome drive in the stalk-eyed fly, Teleopsis dalmanni, to determine how this natural polymorphism influences genetic diversity. We analyzed patterns of DNA sequence variation at two X-linked regions (comprising 1325 bp approximately 50 cM apart and one autosomal region (comprising 921 bp for 50 males, half of which were collected in the field from one of two allopatric locations and the other half were derived from lab-reared individuals with known brood sex ratios. These two populations are recently diverged but exhibit partial postzygotic reproductive isolation, i.e. crosses produce sterile hybrid males and fertile females. We find no nucleotide or microsatellite variation on the drive X chromosome, whereas the same individuals show levels of variation at autosomal regions that are similar to field-collected flies. Furthermore, one field-caught individual collected 10 years previously had a nearly identical X haplotype to the drive X, and is over 2% divergent from other haplotypes sampled from the field. These results are consistent with a selective sweep that has removed genetic variation from much of the drive X chromosome. We discuss how this finding may relate to the rapid evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation that has been documented for these flies.

  4. Employing response surface methodology (RSM) to improve methane production from cotton stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Khalid, Habiba; Li, Wanwu; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Guangqing; Chen, Chang

    2018-03-01

    China is the largest cotton producer with the cotton output accounting for 25% of the total world's cotton production. A large quantity of cotton stalk (CS) waste is generated which is burned and causes environmental and ecological problems. This study investigated the anaerobic digestibility of CS by focusing on improving the methane yield by applying central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The purpose of this study was to determine the best level of factors to optimize the desired output of methane production from CS. Thus, it was necessary to describe the relationship of many individual variables with one or more response values for the effective utilization of CS. The influences of feed to inoculum (F/I) ratio and organic loading (OL) on methane production were investigated. Results showed that the experimental methane yield (EMY) and volatile solid (VS) removal were calculated to be 70.22 mL/gVS and 14.33% at F/I ratio of 0.79 and organic loading of 25.61 gVS/L, respectively. Characteristics of final effluent showed that the anaerobic system was stable. This research laid a foundation for future application of CS to alleviate the problems of waste pollution and energy output.

  5. GmPGIP3 enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiyun; Wei, Xuening; Rong, Wei; Dang, Liang; Du, Li-Pu; Qi, Lin; Xu, Hui-Jun; Shao, Yanjun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2015-05-01

    Take-all (caused by the fungal pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Ggt) and common root rot (caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana) are devastating root diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Development of resistant wheat cultivars has been a challenge since no resistant wheat accession is available. GmPGIP3, one member of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) family in soybean (Glycine max), exhibited inhibition activity against fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs) in vitro. In this study, the GmPGIP3 transgenic wheat plants were generated and used to assess the effectiveness of GmPGIP3 in protecting wheat from the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. Four independent transgenic lines were identified by genomic PCR, Southern blot, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The introduced GmPGIP3 was integrated into the genomes of these transgenic lines and could be expressed. The expressing GmPGIP3 protein in these transgenic wheat lines could inhibit the PGs produced by Ggt and B. sorokiniana. The disease response assessments postinoculation showed that the GmPGIP3-expressing transgenic wheat lines displayed significantly enhanced resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases caused by the infection of Ggt and B. sorokiniana. These data suggested that GmPGIP3 is an attractive gene resource in improving resistance to both take-all and common root rot diseases in wheat.

  6. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod rot, underwent increases in genome sizes and gene numbers by different mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and P. palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing black pod rot of cacao. While Ppal is a cosmopolitan plant pathogen, cacao is the only known host of importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. Therefore, we have sequenced both the Pmeg and...

  7. Investigations of material balance and the formation of metabolites on white rot in clamps in soil loaded with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarth, M.

    1993-01-01

    One examines from a concrete case to what extent the potential danger of white rot in bio-beds caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) is reduced. The potential danger is mainly determined by the remainder of the PAH's. The remainder paths to be considered (micro-biological decomposition, transport and abiotic processes) are shown. (orig.) [de

  8. Experimental co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost to improve biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangyin; Zheng Zheng; Yang Shiguan; Fang Caixia; Zou Xingxing; Luo Yan

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of corn stalk and vermicompost (VC) as well as mono-digestion of corn stalk were investigated. Batch mono-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 o C and initial total solid loading (TSL) ranged from 1.2% to 6.0%. Batch co-digestion experiments were performed at 35 ± 1 o C and initial TSL of 6% with VC proportions ranged from 20% to 80% of total solid (TS). For mono-digestion of corn stalk, a maximum methane yield of 217.60 ± 13.87 mL/g TS added was obtained at initial TSL of 4.8%, and acidification was found at initial TSL of 6.0% with the lowest pH value of 5.10 on day 4. Co-digestion improved the methane yields by 4.42-58.61% via enhancing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration and pH value compared with mono-digestion of corn stalk. The maximum biogas yield of 410.30 ± 11.01 mL/g TS added and methane yield of 259.35 ± 13.85 mL/g TS added were obtained for 40% VC addition. Structure analysis by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that the lowest crystallinity of 35.04 of digested corn stalk was obtained from co-digestion with 40% VC, which decreased 29.4% compared to 49.6 obtained from un-treated corn stalk. It is concluded that co-digestion with VC is beneficial for improving biodigestibility and methane yield from corn stalk.

  9. Stalk-dependent and Stalk-independent Signaling by the Adhesion G Protein-coupled Receptors GPR56 (ADGRG1) and BAI1 (ADGRB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Ayush; Purcell, Ryan H; Nassiri-Toosi, Zahra; Hall, Randy A

    2016-02-12

    The adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) are a large yet poorly understood family of seven-transmembrane proteins. A defining characteristic of the aGPCR family is the conserved GAIN domain, which has autoproteolytic activity and can cleave the receptors near the first transmembrane domain. Several aGPCRs, including ADGRB1 (BAI1 or B1) and ADGRG1 (GPR56 or G1), have been found to exhibit significantly increased constitutive activity when truncated to mimic GAIN domain cleavage (ΔNT). Recent reports have suggested that the new N-terminal stalk, which is revealed by GAIN domain cleavage, can directly activate aGPCRs as a tethered agonist. We tested this hypothesis in studies on two distinct aGPCRs, B1 and G1, by engineering mutant receptors lacking the entire NT including the stalk (B1- and G1-SL, with "SL" indicating "stalkless"). These receptors were evaluated in a battery of signaling assays and compared with full-length wild-type and cleavage-mimicking (ΔNT) forms of the two receptors. We found that B1-SL, in multiple assays, exhibited robust signaling activity, suggesting that the membrane-proximal stalk region is not necessary for its activation. For G1, however, the results were mixed, with the SL mutant exhibiting robust activity in several signaling assays (including TGFα shedding, activation of NFAT luciferase, and β-arrestin recruitment) but reduced activity relative to ΔNT in a distinct assay (activation of SRF luciferase). These data support a model in which the activation of certain pathways downstream of aGPCRs is stalk-dependent, whereas signaling to other pathways is stalk-independent. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The Growth of Root Rot Disease on Pepper Seed Applied by Trichoderma Harzianum Inoculum

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    S. Sofian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Root rot disease on pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici is one of the most important diseases on pepper. The using of antagonistic fungus of Trichoderma harzianum as a biological control agent of the pathogen is one of the important alternatives in controlling P. capsici without causing negative effects on the environment. The objectives of the research were to study about the ability of T. harzianum inoculum application in inhibiting the development of root-rot disease, influenced the growth of pepper seed, to studythe effective length time application of T. harzianum inoculum in inhibiting the development of root rot disease, and increased the growth of pepper seedlings. This research was arranged in a completely randomized design, with five treatments of length time application of T. harzianum inoculum i.e. control treatment without applicationtime of T. harzianum inoculum (K, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 0 week (S0, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 1 week (S1, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for two weeks (S2, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for three weeks (S3, and application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 4 weeks (S4 before planting. Each treatment was repeated15 times. The observed parameterswere disease percentage, the inhibition of antagonistic fungus, disease infection rate, plant height, number of leaves, wet and dry weight of plant, stem and leaves on pepper seed, and P. capsici population density. The result showed that application time of T. harzianum inoculumfor 4 weeks (S4 before planting is the most effective time in inhibiting the development of root rot disease than the other treatment sand also had significant effect on increasing the growth of pepper seed. The antagonism test showed that T. harzianum could inhibit P. capsiciin vitro. This result proves that application time of T. harzianum inoculums

  11. Perceptual advertisement by the prey of stalking or ambushing predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2012-12-21

    There has been previous theoretical explorations of the stability of signals by prey that they have detected a stalking or ambush predator, where such perceptual advertisement dissuades the predator from attacking. Here we use a game theoretical model to extend the theory to consider some empirically-motivated complexities: (i) many perceptual advertisement signals appear to have the potential to vary in intensity, (ii) higher intensity signals are likely to be most costly to produce, and (iii) some high-cost signals (such as staring directly at the predator) can only be utilised if the prey is very confident of the existence of a nearby predator (that is, there are reserved or unfakable signals). We demonstrate that these complexities still allow for stable signalling. However, we do not find solutions where prey use a range of signal intensities to signal different degrees of confidence in the proximity of a predator; with prey simply adopting a binary response of not signalling or always signalling at the same fixed level. However this fixed level will not always be the cheapest possible signal, and we predict that prey that require more certainty about proximity of a predator will use higher-cost signals. The availability of reserved signals does not prohibit the stability of signalling based on lower-cost signals, but we also find circumstances where only the reserved signal is used. We discuss the potential to empirically test our model predictions, and to develop theory further to allow perceptual advertisement to be combined with other signalling functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal Stress Analysis for Ceramics Stalk in the Low Pressure Die Casting Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Nao-Aki; Hendra, Nao-Aki; Takase, Yasushi; Li, Wenbin

    Low pressure die casting (LPDC) is defined as a net shape casting technology in which the molten metal is injected at high speeds and pressure into a metallic die. The LPDC process is playing an increasingly important role in the foundry industry as a low-cost and high-efficiency precision forming technique. The LPDC process is that the permanent die and filling systems are placed over the furnace containing the molten alloy. The filling of the cavity is obtained by forcing the molten metal by means of a pressurized gas in order to rise into a ceramic tube, which connects the die to the furnace. The ceramics tube called stalk has high temperature resistance and high corrosion resistance. However, attention should be paid to the thermal stress when the stalk is dipped into the molten aluminum. It is important to develop the design of the stalk to reduce the risk of fracture because of low fracture toughness of ceramics. In this paper, therefore, the finite element method is applied to calculate the thermal stresses when the stalk is dipped into the crucible by varying the dipping speeds and dipping directions. It is found that the thermal stress can be reduced by dipping slowly if the stalk is dipped into the crucible vertically, while the thermal stress can be reduced by dipping fast if it is dipped horizontally.

  13. Mass transfer effect of the stalk contraction-relaxation cycle of Vorticella convallaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiazhong; Admiraal, David; Ryu, Sangjin

    2014-11-01

    Vorticella convallaria is a genus of protozoa living in freshwater. Its stalk contracts and coil pulling the cell body towards the substrate at a remarkable speed, and then relaxes to its extended state much more slowly than the contraction. However, the reason for Vorticella's stalk contraction is still unknown. It is presumed that water flow induced by the stalk contraction-relaxation cycle may augment mass transfer near the substrate. We investigated this hypothesis using an experimental model with particle tracking velocimetry and a computational fluid dynamics model. In both approaches, Vorticella was modeled as a solid sphere translating perpendicular to a solid surface in water. After having been validated by the experimental model and verified by grid convergence index test, the computational model simulated water flow during the cycle based on the measured time course of stalk length changes of Vorticella. Based on the simulated flow field, we calculated trajectories of particles near the model Vorticella, and then evaluated the mass transfer effect of Vorticella's stalk contraction based on the particles' motion. We acknowlege support from Laymann Seed Grant of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  14. Cultural Models Shaping Stalking From a Content Analysis of Italian Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caputo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing spread of stalking in recent years has captured the community’s and media’s interest and highlighted complex legal, clinical and cultural issues. This phenomenon, far from being an individual problem, can be considered as a product of a growing culture that seems to reveal the crisis of current rules of social coexistence. This work aims at detecting the cultural repertoires that organise the stalking discourse, from an analysis of Italian newspaper articles, within a socio-constructivist paradigm. Emotional text analysis was conducted on a corpus of headlines and subheadings derived from 496 articles. These articles were published in major national newspapers and helped to identify four cultural repertoires (clusters that characterise the social representation of stalking: gender violence and women’s social independence (Cluster 1, psychological violence and control as illusion of intimacy (Cluster 2, anomic violence and intolerant individualism (Cluster 3, domestic violence and women’s marital obligation (Cluster 4. These repertoires are conceived along three latent dimensions which respectively refer to the cultural functions of stalking (Factor 1, representations of the victim (Factor 2, and gender inequalities (Factor 3. The paper offers a key to a social contextualisation of stalking in Italy, in order to re-think work practices within institutional agencies that deal with this phenomenon.

  15. Integrated management of foot rot of lentil using biocontrol agents under field condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Hasan, M M; Hossain, I; Rahman, S M E; Ismail, Alhazmi Mohammed; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2012-07-01

    The efficacy of cowdung, Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA)-biofertilizer, and Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU)-biofungicide, alone or in combination, was evaluated for controlling foot rot disease of lentil. The results exhibited that BINA-biofertilizer and BAUbiofungicide (peat soil-based Rhizobium leguminosarum and black gram bran-based Trichoderma harzianum) are compatible and have combined effects in controlling the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii, which cause the root rot of lentil. Cowdung mixing with soil (at 5 t/ha) during final land preparation and seed coating with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide (at 2.5% of seed weight) before sowing recorded 81.50% field emergence of lentil, which showed up to 19.85% higher field emergence over the control. Post-emergence deaths of plants due to foot rot disease were significantly reduced after combined seed treatment with BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide. Among the treatments used, only BAU-biofungicide as the seed treating agent resulted in higher plant stand (84.82%). Use of BINA-biofertilizer and BAU-biofungicide as seed treating biocontrol agents and application of cowdung in the soil as an organic source of nutrient resulted in higher shoot and root lengths, and dry shoot and root weights of lentil. BINA-biofertilizer significantly increased the number of nodules per plant and nodules weight of lentil. Seeds treating with BAUbiofungicide and BINA-biofertilizer and soil amendment with cowdung increased the biomass production of lentil up to 75.56% over the control.

  16. Chemical Characterization of Different Sumac and Pomegranate Extracts Effective against Botrytis cinerea Rots

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    Flora V. Romeo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel and sumac (Rhus coriaria L. fruit and leaf extracts were chemically characterized and their ability to inhibit table grape (cv. Italia rots caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated on artificially inoculated berries. Different extraction methods were applied and extracts were characterized through Ultra Fast High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Photodiode array detector and Electrospray ionization Mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn for their phenol and anthocyanin contents. The concentrated pomegranate peel extract (PGE-C was the richest in phenols (66.97 g gallic acid equivalents/kg while the concentrated sumac extract from fruits (SUF-C showed the highest anthocyanin amount (171.96 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/kg. Both phenolic and anthocyanin profile of pomegranate and sumac extracts were quite different: pomegranate extract was rich in cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and ellagic acid derivatives, while sumac extract was characterized by 7-methyl-cyanidin 3-galactoside and gallic acid derivatives. The concentrated extracts from both pomegranate peel and sumac leaves significantly reduced the development of Botrytis rots. In particular, the extract from pomegranate peel completely inhibited the pathogen at different intervals of time (0, 12, and 24 h between treatment and pathogen inoculation on fruits maintained at 22–24 °C and high relative humidity (RH. This extract may represent a valuable alternative to control postharvest fungal rots in view of its high efficacy because of the low cost of pomegranate peel, which is a waste product of processing factories.

  17. Positive Regulation of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin H by Rot (Repressor of Toxin) Protein and Its Importance in Clonal Complex 81 Subtype 1 Lineage-Related Food Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato'o, Yusuke; Hisatsune, Junzo; Nagasako, Yuria; Ono, Hisaya K; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2015-11-01

    We previously demonstrated the clonal complex 81 (CC81) subtype 1 lineage is the major staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP)-associated lineage in Japan (Y. Sato'o et al., J Clin Microbiol 52:2637-2640, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00661-14). Strains of this lineage produce staphylococcal enterotoxin H (SEH) in addition to SEA. However, an evaluation of the risk for the recently reported SEH has not been sufficiently conducted. We first searched for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes and SE proteins in milk samples that caused a large SFP outbreak in Japan. Only SEA and SEH were detected, while there were several SE genes detected in the samples. We next designed an experimental model using a meat product to assess the productivity of SEs and found that only SEA and SEH were detectably produced in situ. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of SEH production using a CC81 subtype 1 isolate. Through mutant analysis of global regulators, we found the repressor of toxin (Rot) functioned oppositely as a stimulator of SEH production. SEA production was not affected by Rot. seh mRNA expression correlated with rot both in media and on the meat product, and the Rot protein was shown to directly bind to the seh promoter. The seh promoter sequence was predicted to form a loop structure and to hide the RNA polymerase binding sequences. We propose Rot binds to the promoter sequence of seh and unfolds the secondary structure that may lead the RNA polymerase to bind the promoter, and then seh mRNA transcription begins. This alternative Rot regulation for SEH may contribute to sufficient toxin production by the CC81 subtype 1 lineage in foods to induce SFP. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. The special neuraminidase stalk-motif responsible for increased virulence and pathogenesis of H5N1 influenza A virus.

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    Hongbo Zhou

    Full Text Available The variation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus results in gradually increased virulence in poultry, and human cases continue to accumulate. The neuraminidase (NA stalk region of influenza virus varies considerably and may associate with its virulence. The NA stalk region of all N1 subtype influenza A viruses can be divided into six different stalk-motifs, H5N1/2004-like (NA-wt, WSN-like, H5N1/97-like, PR/8-like, H7N1/99-like and H5N1/96-like. The NA-wt is a special NA stalk-motif which was first observed in H5N1 influenza virus in 2000, with a 20-amino acid deletion in the 49(th to 68(th positions of the stalk region. Here we show that there is a gradual increase of the special NA stalk-motif in H5N1 isolates from 2000 to 2007, and notably, the special stalk-motif is observed in all 173 H5N1 human isolates from 2004 to 2007. The recombinant H5N1 virus with the special stalk-motif possesses the highest virulence and pathogenicity in chicken and mice, while the recombinant viruses with the other stalk-motifs display attenuated phenotype. This indicates that the special stalk-motif has contributed to the high virulence and pathogenicity of H5N1 isolates since 2000. The gradually increasing emergence of the special NA stalk-motif in H5N1 isolates, especially in human isolates, deserves attention by all.

  19. Integrated Management of Causal Agents of Postharvest Fruit Rot of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Grahovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of poor quality and fruit loss (during storage and transportare diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Economic losses which are the consequenceof the phytopathogenic fungus activity after harvest exceed the losses in the field.Themost important postharvest fungal pathogens of apple fruits are: Botrytis cinerea Pers. exFr., Penicillium expansum (Lk. Thom., Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck. Grem., Colletotrichumgloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., Monilinia sp., Gloeosporium album Osterw, Alternaria alternata(Fr. Keissler, Cladosporium herbarium Link., Cylindrocarpon mali (Alles. Wollenw., Stemphyliumbotryosum Wallr. The use of available protection technologies can significantly reducelosses caused by pathogens in storage. The concept of integrated pest management (IPMin apple fruits i.e. sustainable approach in control of causal agents of postharvest fruit rot,using cultural, physical, biological and chemical measures, to minimize economic, healthand risks to consumers and environment, is presented in the paper.

  20. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian

    .04% for SmC and SSC pretreated samples, respectively) compared with untreated cotton stalk samples (17.93%). Washing of pretreated cotton stalks alone caused no significant increase in cellulose conversion. However, a heat treatment (autoclaving) followed by washing remarkably improved (Pconversion to 14.94% and 17.81% for SmC and SSC pretreatment, respectively. Mathematical models describing holocellulose consumption, lignin degradation, cellulase and ligninolytic enzyme production, and oxygen uptake associated with the growth of P. chrysosporium during 14 days fungal pretreatment were developed. For SmC pretreatment, model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression and validated using an independent set of experimental data. Models yielded sufficiently accurate predictions for holocellulose consumption (R2=0.9772 and 0.9837, 1d and 3d oxygen flushing, respectively), lignin degradation (R2=0.9879 and 0.8682) and ligninolytic enzyme production (R2=0.8135 and 0.9693) under both 1 and 3d oxygen flushing conditions. However, the prediction capabilities for fungal growth (1d and 3d), cellulase production (3d) and oxygen uptake (3d) were limited. For SSC, the models were established in three phases (I: day 0-4, II: day 4-7, III: day 7-14). After validation it was shown that the developed models can yield sufficiently accurate predictions for fungal growth (R 2=0.9724), holocellulose consumption (R2=0.9686), lignin degradation (R2=0.9309) and ligninolytic enzyme production (R2=0.9203); however predictions of cellulase production were fair (R2=0.6133). Although significant delignification occurred during fungal pretreatment indicating the presence of ligninolytic enzymes, common spectrophotometric enzyme assays failed to detect lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities in fungal pretreatment cultures. Efforts were made to overcome the drawbacks of standardized assays by performing protein gel electrophoresis and crude enzyme delignification studies

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of thickened pituitary stalk proceeding to langerhans cell histiocytosis in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halefoglu, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has shown isolated pituitary stalk thickening in certain cases of idiopathic or secondary central diabetes insipidus (Dl) due to infiltrative processes. We present a 4-year-old boy who was initially diagnosed as having central Dl. The MRI showed isolated pituitary stalk thickening with prominent homogeneous contrast enhancement. The remaining findings on MRI were within normal limits. The patient's personal and family history and laboratory and clinical findings were unremarkable; therefore, he was initially diagnosed as having idiopathic Dl. Since central Dl and isolated pituitary stalk thickening may be considered to be the first manifestations of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, we decided to follow up the patient. After 5 months, following the initial diagnosis, on skeletal X-ray survey, the patient did indeed develop multiple lytic skull lesions which, on biopsy, were histologically typical bone lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Hui Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome comprises of 15,766 bp including 13 protein coding genes, 7 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base of Antarctic stalked jellyfish constitutes of 26.5% for A, 19.6% for C, 19.8% for G, 34.1% for T and show 90% identity to Sessile Jelly, Haliclystus sanjuanensis, in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The complete mitogenome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, contributes fundamental and significant DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for seahorse phylogeny. The complete sequence was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KU947038.

  3. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  4. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  5. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

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    M. M. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L., cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham., chatim (Alstonia scholaris L., mander (Erythrina variegata, bael (Aegle marmelos L., marigold (Tagetes erecta, onion (Allium cepa, garlic (Allium sativum L., neem (Azadiracta indica, lime (Citrus aurantifolia, and turmeric (Curcuma longa L. were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments.

  6. Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, S.M.; Hansen, K.; Romanish, M.; Thorn, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia

  7. Fungi associated with base rot disease of aloe vera ( Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi associated with base rot disease of Aloe vera (syn. Aloe barbadensis) were investigated in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Fungi and their percentage frequency were Aspergillus verocosa 28.03%, Fusarium oxysporium 24.24%, Plectosphaerella cucumerina 16.67%, Mammeria ehinobotryoides 15.91% and Torula ...

  8. Management of Potato Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghany, H.; Moussa, Z.; Abd El-Rahman, A.F.; Salem, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation aims to apply a safe practice to minimize potato losses due to soft rot disease of tubers kept under ambient temperature. In this regard, gamma irradiation was used to extend keeping quality through its effect on soft rot bacteria. Eight bacterial isolates were recovered on Logan’s medium from kitchen kept tubers with symptoms of soft rot disease. Five isolates were found pathogenic and tentatively identified as Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense on the basis of the usual bacteriological methods. A molecular method using 16SrDNA sequence analysis for verification of the identity of two isolates was made. The two bacterial isolates, Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense, were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays. Complete inhibition occurred at doses 2.5 and 2.0 KGy for high densities (Approximately 4.0x10"9 CFU/ml) of P. atrosepticum and P. carotovorum sub sp. brasiliense, respectively. The D10 value of gamma irradiation was 0.24 KGy for P. atrosepticum and 0.20 KGy for P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. Irradiation of artificially infected tubers with soft rot bacteria using the two mentioned D10 doses for the two bacterial species increased the shelf life of tubers kept under ambient temperature. The internal chemical quality of tubers was shown to be improved by keeping the tubers under ambient temperature after irradiation by the two D10 doses 0.24 and 0.20 KGy

  9. Short-term Lost Productivity per Victim: Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, or Stalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; Liu, Yang; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo; Florence, Curtis; Merrick, Melissa T; DeGue, Sarah; Lokey, Colby N

    2018-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to estimate victims' lifetime short-term lost productivity because of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking. U.S. nationally representative data from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey were used to estimate a regression-adjusted average per victim (female and male) and total population number of cumulative short-term lost work and school days (or lost productivity) because of victimizations over victims' lifetimes. Victims' lost productivity was valued using a U.S. daily production estimate. Analysis was conducted in 2017. Non-institutionalized adults with some lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking (n=6,718 respondents; survey-weighted n=130,795,789) reported nearly 741 million lost productive days because of victimizations by an average of 2.5 perpetrators per victim. The adjusted per victim average was 4.9 (95% CI=3.9, 5.9) days, controlling for victim, perpetrator, and violence type factors. The estimated societal cost of this short-term lost productivity was $730 per victim, or $110 billion across the lifetimes of all victims (2016 USD). Factors associated with victims having a higher number of lost days included a higher number of perpetrators and being female, as well as sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking victimization by an intimate partner perpetrator, stalking victimization by an acquaintance perpetrator, and sexual violence or stalking victimization by a family member perpetrator. Short-term lost productivity represents a minimum economic valuation of the immediate negative effects of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking. Victims' lost productivity affects family members, colleagues, and employers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2018-01-01

    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines. PMID:29303966

  11. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Santoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO, was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v/v in the diffusor significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola, but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea. In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea. Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  12. Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Vapor Treatments Control Brown Rot and Improve the Storage Quality of Peaches and Nectarines, but Could Favor Gray Mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Karin; Maghenzani, Marco; Chiabrando, Valentina; Bosio, Pietro; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2018-01-05

    The effect of biofumigation, through slow-release diffusors, of thyme and savory essential oils (EO), was evaluated on the control of postharvest diseases and quality of peaches and nectarines. EO fumigation was effective in controlling postharvest rots. Naturally contaminated peaches and nectarines were exposed to EO vapors for 28 days at 0 °C in sealed storage cabinets and then exposed at 20 °C for five days during shelf-life in normal atmosphere, simulating retail conditions. Under low disease pressure, most treatments significantly reduced fruit rot incidence during shelf-life, while, under high disease pressure, only vapors of thyme essential oil at the highest concentration tested (10% v / v in the diffusor) significantly reduced the rots. The application of thyme or savory EO favored a reduction of brown rot incidence, caused by Monilinia fructicola , but increased gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea . In vitro tests confirmed that M. fructicola was more sensitive to EO vapors than B. cinerea . Essential oil volatile components were characterized in storage cabinets during postharvest. The antifungal components of the essential oils increased during storage, but they were a low fraction of the volatile organic compounds in storage chambers. EO vapors did not influence the overall quality of the fruit, but showed a positive effect in reducing weight loss and in maintaining ascorbic acid and carotenoid content. The application of thyme and savory essential oil vapors represents a promising tool for reducing postharvest losses and preserving the quality of peaches and nectarines.

  13. Ecological and physiological aspects of aestivation-diapause in the larvae of two Pyralid stalk borers of maize in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Stalk borers are highly destructive to a large number of important graminaceous crops all over the world. Some examples of economically important stalk borers and a general description of their life-cycle are mentioned in chapter 1. In the same chapter difficulties in controlling the insects are

  14. Entre les violences conjugales et le harcèlement moral : le stalking .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Desurmont

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ce livre de la criminologue Murielle Anteo est le premier publié en langue française sur le stalking si l’on excepte les travaux encore inédits de Virginie Léon (2004. Comme le rappelle l’auteure, le terme est emprunté à l’anglais to stalk (hanter, rôder, et désigne un comportement menaçant, initié par un individu dont l’objectif conscient ou inconscient est l’objectivation de sa victime à des fins de domination. L’agression prend différentes formes : ...

  15. Body stalk anomaly in Denmark during 20 years (1970-1989)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Body stalk anomaly is a severe defect of the abdominal wall with uncovered thoracic and/or abdominal organs. The umbilical cord is absent or very short. Here I present epidemiological and clinical data on 16 infants with body stalk anomaly. The 16 infants represent 3.4% of the 469 infants...... ascertained in an almost complete nationwide data set of live- and stillborn infants born with abdominal wall defects during the two decades 1970-1989 in Denmark. The prevalence was 0.12 per 10,000 live- and stillborn. Nine of the infants were stillbirths, seven were live births, and they all died shortly...

  16. Identification and Pathogenicity of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot Disease of Girasole Tuber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During 2010-2011 growing seasons six bacterial isolates were separated from naturally infected girasole plants tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. �Balady�, showing soft rot, collected from experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, in El-Minia University, Egypt. Pathogenicity tests showed various virulence for the bacteria isolated from girasole tubers, found pathogenic. These organisms were characterized as rod-shaped, Gram negative, ?-methyl-d-glucoside medium, reducing substances from sucrose, phos, phatase activity and deep cavities on pectate medium. Otherwise, diagnostic tests suggested that the pathogen was Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. The isolated bacteria caused soft rot of wounded tubers when inoculated into tissues. The bacterial isolates were compared for their degree of pathogenicity as well as for differences in specific symptoms, induced in different hosts. The tested isolates could infect several host ranges, such as fruits of apricot, apple, olive, lemon, squash, eggplant and potato tubers, bulbs and garlic and onion cloves, roots radish, carrot, sweet potato and rape. On the other hand, no symptoms were exhibited on pods of bean and cowpea, faba bean, fruits of pepper and tomato. The extracts of experimentally diseased girasole tubers were active in pectinase and also in caboxymethyl cellulose at pH 6 compared to enzyme activities in healthy tissues. Also, the isolated bacteria increased the total and reducing sugars in infected tissues.

  17. Crown sheath rot of rice: host-range and varietal resistance to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília do Nascimento Peixoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several gramineous plants occurring in rice fields show symptoms of crown sheath rot of rice, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis (Ggg, under natural conditions of infection. The pathogenicity of the Ggg-a 01 isolate, collected from rice, was tested on seven grass species and eight cereals, under greenhouse conditions, in order to get information on host-range and resistance of rice genotypes to crown sheath rot. The inoculation tests showed that the rice isolate was pathogenic to weeds such as Echinochloa crusgalli, Pennisetum setosum, Brachiaria sp., Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Eleusine indica and Cenchrus echinatus, and that these species are potential hosts to the pathogen. Winter cereals such as wheat, oat, rye, barley and triticale, as well as sorghum, maize and millet, presented different degrees of susceptibility to the Ggg-a isolate. Significant differences were observed in relation to lesion height and production of hyphopodia and perithecia on culms. Perithecia were not observed on millet, sorghum, southern sandbur and maize. The resistance of 58 upland rice genotypes was tested, and the SCIA16 and SCIA08 genotypes presented lesion height significantly smaller, being considered resistant, when compared to the highly susceptible CNAS10351 genotype.

  18. Pretreatment of radiata pine using two white rot fungal strains Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkavand, Ehsan; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel J.; Young, Brent R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fungal pretreatment by two New Zealand native white rot fungi was proposed. • Trametes versicolor was more efficient in selective degradation of pine wood chips. • Both fungal strains significantly decreased crystallinity index of biomass only after week 7 of degradation. • Structural analysis showed that Trametes versicolor and Stereum hirsutum increased porous surface area of woody biomass. - Abstract: Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor, were studied over a period of 3–7 weeks for pretreatment of radiata pine wood chips. Chemical analysis of pretreated biomass showed that the two studied strains were able to selectively degrade lignin. Selective lignin degradation was greater in week 3 of the pretreatment by Trametes versicolor compared to the other strain. Lengthening pretreatment time increased both lignin and cellulose losses which caused a reduction in selective lignin degradation for both strains. X-ray diffractometry showed that after seven weeks of pretreatment, the crystallinity of the woody biomass was decreased significantly. It decreased from 46% for untreated wood chips to 37% and 44% for Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor treated biomass, respectively. The pretreatment with these two white rot fungi showed that 3-week pretreatment provided a cellulose rich biomass with the minimum cellulose loss compared to the other time of pretreatment.

  19. A combination of biocontrol agents improves the management of dry root rot (Macrophomina phaseolina in greengram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thilagavathi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol agents Trichoderma viride (strains Tv1 and Tv13, Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1 and Py15 and Bacillus subtilis (Bs16 were tested individually and in combination for their effectiveness against root rot of greengram caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. As regards the compatibility of the biocontrol agents with each other, T. viride strains were not compatible with B. subtilis (Bs16, but P. fluorescens strains were compatible with B. subtilis and T. viride. Of the biocontrol agents tested in vitro against M. phaseolina, combinations of P. fluorescens+T. viride (Pf1+Tv1, Pf1+Tv13 and Py15+Tv1 inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen and they also promoted the growth of the greengram seedlings. A combination of Pf1+Tv1 was most effective in reducing root rot incidence under glass-house and field conditions as compared with other single or combined treatments or the untreated control. The activity of the defense-related enzymes peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenyl alanine ammonia lyase was significantly greater in greengram plants treated with a talc based formulation containing Pf1+Tv1 followed by Pf1+Tv13 and Py15+Tv1, than in plants receiving other treatments or the untreated control. Moreover, a combination of Pf1+Tv1 followed by Pf1+Tv13 and Py15+Tv1 significantly increased yield under glass house and field conditions.

  20. Immobilization of the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor to degrade the herbicide atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, S; Santos, C; Lima, N; Diez, M C

    2016-12-01

    Herbicides cause environmental concerns because they are toxic and accumulate in the environment, food products and water supplies. There is a need to develop safe, efficient and economical methods to remove them from the environment, often by biodegradation. Atrazine is such herbicide. White-rot fungi have the ability to degrade herbicides of potential utility. This study formulated a novel pelletized support to immobilize the white-rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor to improve its capability to degrade the atrazine using a biopurification system (BS). Different proportions of sawdust, starch, corn meal and flaxseed were used to generate three pelletized supports (F1, F2 and F3). In addition, immobilization with coated and uncoated pelletized supports (CPS and UPS, respectively) was assessed. UPS-F1 was determined as the most effective system as it provided high level of manganese peroxidase activity and fungal viability. The half-life (t 1/2 ) of atrazine decreased from 14 to 6 days for the control and inoculated samples respectively. Inoculation with immobilized A. discolor produced an increase in the fungal taxa assessed by DGGE and on phenoloxidase activity determined. The treatment improves atrazine degradation and reduces migration to surface and groundwater.

  1. Shade tree spatial structure and pod production explain frosty pod rot intensity in cacao agroforests, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Avelino, Jacques; Deheuvels, Olivier; Cilas, Christian; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-03-01

    Vegetation composition and plant spatial structure affect disease intensity through resource and microclimatic variation effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent effect and relative importance of host composition and plant spatial structure variables in explaining disease intensity at the plot scale. For that purpose, frosty pod rot intensity, a disease caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao pods, was monitored in 36 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica in order to assess the vegetation composition and spatial structure variables conducive to the disease. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the most causal factors. Firstly, pod production, cacao tree density and shade tree spatial structure had significant independent effects on disease intensity. In our case study, the amount of susceptible tissue was the most relevant host composition variable for explaining disease intensity by resource dilution. Indeed, cacao tree density probably affected disease intensity more by the creation of self-shading rather than by host dilution. Lastly, only regularly distributed forest trees, and not aggregated or randomly distributed forest trees, reduced disease intensity in comparison to plots with a low forest tree density. A regular spatial structure is probably crucial to the creation of moderate and uniform shade as recommended for frosty pod rot management. As pod production is an important service expected from these agroforests, shade tree spatial structure may be a lever for integrated management of frosty pod rot in cacao agroforests.

  2. Quantification of the changes in potent wine odorants as induced by bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea) and powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Pinar, Angela; Rauhut, Doris; Ruehl, Ernst; Buettner, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Fungal infections are detrimental for viticulture since they may reduce harvest yield and wine quality. This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on wine aroma by quantification of representative aroma compounds using Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis (SIDA). For this purpose, samples affected to a high degree by each fungus were compared with a healthy sample in each case; to this aim, the respective samples were collected and processed applying identical conditions. Thereby, the effects of bunch rot were studied in three different grape varieties: White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer whereas the influence of powdery mildew was studied on the hybrid Gm 8622-3. Analyses revealed that both fungal diseases caused significant changes in the concentration of most target compounds. Thereby, the greatest effects were increases in the concentration of phenylacetic acid, acetic acid and γ-decalactone for both fungi and all grape varieties. Regarding other compounds, however, inconsistent effects of bunch rot were observed for the three varieties studied.

  3. Two different PCR approaches for universal diagnosis of brown rot and identification of Monilinia spp. in stone fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, I; Cubero, J; Melgarejo, P

    2007-12-01

    To design a protocol for the universal diagnosis of brown rot by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in plant material and subsequently Monilinia spp. identification. Primers for discrimination of Monilinia spp. from other fungal genera by PCR were designed following a ribosomal DNA analysis. Discrimination among species of Monilinia was subsequently achieved by developing primers using SCAR (Sequence Characterised Amplified Region) markers obtained after a random amplified polymorphic DNA study. In addition, an internal control (IC) based on the utilization of a mimic plasmid was designed to be used in the diagnostic protocol of brown rot to recognize false negatives due to the inhibition of PCR. The four sets of primers designed allowed detection and discrimination of all Monilinia spp. causing brown rot in fruit trees. Addition of an IC in each PCR reaction performed increased the reliability of the diagnostic protocol. The detection protocol presented here, that combined a set of universal primers and the inclusion of the plasmid pGMON as an IC for diagnosis of all Monilinia spp., and three sets of primers to discriminate the most important species of Monilinia, could be an useful and valuable tool for epidemiological studies. The method developed could be used in programmes to avoid the spread and introduction of this serious disease in new areas.

  4. Postharvest biological control of brown rot in peaches after cold storage preceded by preharvest chemical control 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pathogenic fungi cause skin darkening and peach quality depreciation in post harvest. Therefore, alternative techniques to chemical treatment are necessary in order to reduce risks to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of Trichoderma harzianum in association with different fungicides applied before harvest to 'Eldorado' peaches for brown rot control and other quality parameters during storage. The treatments consisted of five preharvest fungicide applications (control, captan, iprodione, iminoctadine and tebuconazole associated with postharvest application of T. harzianum, after cold storage (with and without application, in three evaluation times (zero, two and four days at 20 °C, resulting in a 5x2x3 factorial design. The application of T. harzianum only brought benefits to the control of brown rot when combined with the fungicide captan, at zero day shelf life. After two days, there was a greater skin darkening in peaches treated with T. harzianum compared with peaches without the treatment, except for peaches treated with the fungicide iprodione and T. harzianum The application of T. harzianum during postharvest showed no benefits for the control of brown rot, however, the association with fungicides reduced the incidence of Rhizopus stolonifer during the shelf life.

  5. Quantification of the Changes in Potent Wine Odorants as Induced by Bunch Rot (Botrytis cinerea and Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lopez Pinar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are detrimental for viticulture since they may reduce harvest yield and wine quality. This study aimed to characterize the effects of bunch rot and powdery mildew on wine aroma by quantification of representative aroma compounds using Stable Isotope Dilution Analysis (SIDA. For this purpose, samples affected to a high degree by each fungus were compared with a healthy sample in each case; to this aim, the respective samples were collected and processed applying identical conditions. Thereby, the effects of bunch rot were studied in three different grape varieties: White Riesling, Red Riesling and Gewürztraminer whereas the influence of powdery mildew was studied on the hybrid Gm 8622-3. Analyses revealed that both fungal diseases caused significant changes in the concentration of most target compounds. Thereby, the greatest effects were increases in the concentration of phenylacetic acid, acetic acid and γ-decalactone for both fungi and all grape varieties. Regarding other compounds, however, inconsistent effects of bunch rot were observed for the three varieties studied.

  6. Relevance of the main postharvest handling operations on the development of brown rot disease on stone fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Maria; Segarra, Joan; Casals, Carla; Teixidó, Neus; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep

    2017-12-01

    Brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. is one of the most important postharvest diseases of stone fruit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the main postharvest operations of fruit - hydrocooling, cold room, water dump, sorting and cooling tunnel - in the development of M. laxa on peaches and nectarines artificially infected 48, 24 or 2 h before postharvest operations. Commercial hydrocooling operation reduced incidence to 10% in 'Pp 100' nectarine inoculated 2 and 24 h before this operation; however, in 'Fantasia' nectarine incidence was not reduced, although lesion diameter was decreased in all studied varieties. Hydrocooling operation for 10 min and 40 mg L -1 of sodium hypochlorite reduced brown rot incidence by 50-77% in nectarines inoculated 2 h before operation; however, in peach varieties it was not reduced. Water dump operation showed reduction of incidence on nectarine infected 2 h before immersion for 30 s in clean water at 4 °C and 40 mg L -1 sodium hypochlorite; however, in peach varieties it was not reduced. Cold room, sorting and cooling tunnel operation did not reduce brown rot incidence. From all studied handling operations on stone fruit packing houses, hydrocooling is the most relevant in the development of brown rot disease. Duration of the treatment seems to be more important than chlorine concentration. In addition, hydrocooling and water dump were less relevant in peaches than in nectarines. As a general trend, hydrocooling and water dump reduced incidence on fruit with recent infections (2 or 24 h before operation); however, when infections have been established (48 h before operation) diseases were not reduced. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Fengycin produced by Bacillus subtilis 9407 plays a major role in the biocontrol of apple ring rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haiyan; Ru, Jinjiang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qi; Li, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Apple ring rot, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea, is a serious apple disease in China. Bacillus subtilis 9407 was isolated from healthy apples and showed strong antifungal activity against B. dothidea. To identify the primary antifungal compound of B. subtilis 9407 and determine its role in controlling apple ring rot, a transposon mutant library was constructed using TnYLB-1, and a mutant completely defective in antifungal activity was obtained. The gene inactivated in the antifungal activity mutant had 98.5% similarity to ppsB in B. subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168, which encodes one of the five synthetases responsible for synthesizing fengycin. A markerless ppsB deletion mutant was constructed. Compared with the wild-type strain, lipopeptide crude extracts from ΔppsB showed almost no inhibition of B. dothidea mycelial growth. Furthermore, fengycin-like lipopeptides (retention factor 0.1-0.2) that exhibited antifungal activity against B. dothidea were observed in the wild-type strain by thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography analysis, but not in ΔppsB. Semipreparative reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) detection revealed that ΔppsB lost the ability to synthesize fengycin. These results suggest that ppsB is responsible for synthesizing fengycin and that fengycin is the major antifungal compound produced by B. subtilis 9407 against B. dothidea. Moreover, a biocontrol assay showed that the control efficacy of ΔppsB was reduced by half compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that fengycin plays a major role in controlling apple ring rot disease. This is the first report on the use of a B. subtilis strain as a potential biological control agent to control apple ring rot disease by the production of fengycin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological attributes of fungi associated with stem end rot of mango (mangifera indica l.) cultivars in postharvest fruit losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, A.; Nafees, M.; Ashraf, I.; Qureshi, R.

    2014-01-01

    Stem end rot majorly contribute in post-harvest losses of mango during storage. Maximum disease incidence (70%) was recorded in Sindhari cultivar followed by Chaunsa (64%), Fajri (62.5%) and 50% in both Langra and Anwar ratol. In vitro studies were carried out to identifyfungal pathogens responsible for rotting and decaying mango fruits during storage along with isolation and testing their pathogencity on healthy fruits. Results revealed that all selected commercial mango varieties infected by stem end rot. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasidodiplodia theobromae, Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus niger, Dothiorella domonicana were identified from Sindhri mango fruits, in which of C. gloeosporioides was found the most prevalent. Phomopsis mangiferae, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Altrnaria spp. Aspergillus niger, A. flavis were found in Chaunsa and Phomopsis mangiferae was most prevalent, while Botryodiplodia theobromae caused infection to locally cosumed Fajri variety. Effect of abiotic factors like pH, temperature, light intensity and carbon sources were tested against these isolates. The most efficient carbon source was glucose, which supported the maximum growth of the P. mangiferae and L. Theobromae, while C. gloeosporioides had maximum growth on lactose. All fungi had maximum growth at pH range of 6-6.5 and temperature range of 25-30 degree C on PDA medium. Alternate cycles of 12hr light and 12 hr darkness resulted maximum mycelial growth as compared to the 24 hour continuous exposure to either dark or light. Susceptibility of fungi with cultivars and intensity of spread under specific abiotic conditions provides basic information in this paper to minimize stem end rot of mango in field and storage conditions. (author)

  9. Potential worldwide distribution of Fusarium dry root rot in common beans based on the optimal environment for disease occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Renan; Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Yoshida, Fernanda; Silva-Abud, Lidianne Lemes; Lobo, Murillo

    2017-01-01

    Root rots are a constraint for staple food crops and a long-lasting food security problem worldwide. In common beans, yield losses originating from root damage are frequently attributed to dry root rot, a disease caused by the Fusarium solani species complex. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of common bean dry root rot on a global scale and to project changes based on future expectations of climate change. Our approach used a spatial proxy of the field disease occurrence, instead of solely the pathogen distribution. We modeled the pathogen environmental requirements in locations where in-situ inoculum density seems ideal for disease manifestation. A dataset of 2,311 soil samples from commercial farms assessed from 2002 to 2015 allowed us to evaluate the environmental conditions associated with the pathogen's optimum inoculum density for disease occurrence, using a lower threshold as a spatial proxy. We encompassed not only the optimal conditions for disease occurrence but also the optimal pathogen's density required for host infection. An intermediate inoculum density of the pathogen was the best disease proxy, suggesting density-dependent mechanisms on host infection. We found a strong convergence on the environmental requirements of both the host and the disease development in tropical areas, mostly in Brazil, Central America, and African countries. Precipitation and temperature variables were important for explaining the disease occurrence (from 17.63% to 43.84%). Climate change will probably move the disease toward cooler regions, which in Brazil are more representative of small-scale farming, although an overall shrink in total area (from 48% to 49% in 2050 and 26% to 41% in 2070) was also predicted. Understanding pathogen distribution and disease risks in an evolutionary context will therefore support breeding for resistance programs and strategies for dry root rot management in common beans.

  10. Potential worldwide distribution of Fusarium dry root rot in common beans based on the optimal environment for disease occurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Macedo

    Full Text Available Root rots are a constraint for staple food crops and a long-lasting food security problem worldwide. In common beans, yield losses originating from root damage are frequently attributed to dry root rot, a disease caused by the Fusarium solani species complex. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of common bean dry root rot on a global scale and to project changes based on future expectations of climate change. Our approach used a spatial proxy of the field disease occurrence, instead of solely the pathogen distribution. We modeled the pathogen environmental requirements in locations where in-situ inoculum density seems ideal for disease manifestation. A dataset of 2,311 soil samples from commercial farms assessed from 2002 to 2015 allowed us to evaluate the environmental conditions associated with the pathogen's optimum inoculum density for disease occurrence, using a lower threshold as a spatial proxy. We encompassed not only the optimal conditions for disease occurrence but also the optimal pathogen's density required for host infection. An intermediate inoculum density of the pathogen was the best disease proxy, suggesting density-dependent mechanisms on host infection. We found a strong convergence on the environmental requirements of both the host and the disease development in tropical areas, mostly in Brazil, Central America, and African countries. Precipitation and temperature variables were important for explaining the disease occurrence (from 17.63% to 43.84%. Climate change will probably move the disease toward cooler regions, which in Brazil are more representative of small-scale farming, although an overall shrink in total area (from 48% to 49% in 2050 and 26% to 41% in 2070 was also predicted. Understanding pathogen distribution and disease risks in an evolutionary context will therefore support breeding for resistance programs and strategies for dry root rot management in common beans.

  11. Preparation of nitrogen-doped cotton stalk microporous activated carbon fiber electrodes with different surface area from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk for electrochemical degradation of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunquan Li

    Full Text Available Cotton-stalk activated carbon fibers (CSCFs with controllable micropore area and nitrogen content were prepared as an efficient electrode from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk by steam/ammonia activation. The influence of microporous area, nitrogen content, voltage and initial concentration on the electrical degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB was evaluated by using CSCFs as anode. Results showed that the CSCF electrodes exhibited excellent MB electrochemical degradation ability including decolorization and COD removal. Increasing micropore surface area and nitrogen content of CSCF anode leaded to a corresponding increase in MB removal. The prepared CSCF-800-15-N, which has highest N content but lowest microporous area, attained the best degradation effect with 97% MB decolorization ratio for 5 mg/L MB at 12 V in 4 h, implying the doped nitrogen played a prominent role in improving the electrochemical degradation ability. The electrical degradation reaction was well described by first-order kinetics model. Overall, the aforesaid findings suggested that the nitrogen-doped CSCFs were potential electrode materials, and their electrical degradation abilities could be effectively enhanced by controlling the nitrogen content and micropore surface area. Keywords: Cotton stalk, Nitrogen content, Electrode, Surface area, Methylene blue

  12. A comparison of soda and soda-AQ pulps from cotton stalks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Duzce University, Faculty of Forestry, Konuralp Campus, 81620 Düzce, Turkey. ... two in Latin America and three in Africa and Middle East. (Casey, 1990). ... After that the cotton stalks were dried in the laboratory atmosphere, ...

  13. Thermal Stress and Heat Transfer Coefficient for Ceramics Stalk Having Protuberance Dipping into Molten Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Nao-Aki; Hendra; Li, Wenbin; Takase, Yasushi; Ogura, Hiroki; Higashi, Yusuke

    Low pressure die casting is defined as a net shape casting technology in which the molten metal is injected at high speeds and pressure into a metallic die. The low pressure die casting process plays an increasingly important role in the foundry industry as a low-cost and high-efficiency precision forming technique. In the low pressure die casting process is that the permanent die and filling systems are placed over the furnace containing the molten alloy. The filling of the cavity is obtained by forcing the molten metal, by means of a pressurized gas, to rise into a ceramic tube having protuberance, which connects the die to the furnace. The ceramics tube, called stalk, has high temperature resistance and high corrosion resistance. However, attention should be paid to the thermal stress when the stalk having protuberance is dipped into the molten aluminum. It is important to reduce the risk of fracture that may happen due to the thermal stresses. In this paper, thermo-fluid analysis is performed to calculate surface heat transfer coefficient. The finite element method is applied to calculate the thermal stresses when the stalk having protuberance is dipped into the crucible with varying dipping speeds. It is found that the stalk with or without protuberance should be dipped into the crucible slowly to reduce the thermal stress.

  14. Gene duplication, tissue-specific gene expression and sexual conflict in stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard H; Narechania, Apurva; Johns, Philip M; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2012-08-19

    Gene duplication provides an essential source of novel genetic material to facilitate rapid morphological evolution. Traits involved in reproduction and sexual dimorphism represent some of the fastest evolving traits in nature, and gene duplication is intricately involved in the origin and evolution of these traits. Here, we review genomic research on stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae) that has been used to examine the extent of gene duplication and its role in the genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism. Stalk-eyed flies are remarkable because of the elongation of the head into long stalks, with the eyes and antenna laterally displaced at the ends of these stalks. Many species are strongly sexually dimorphic for eyespan, and these flies have become a model system for studying sexual selection. Using both expressed sequence tag and next-generation sequencing, we have established an extensive database of gene expression in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc, the adult head and testes. Duplicated genes exhibit narrower expression patterns than non-duplicated genes, and the testes, in particular, provide an abundant source of gene duplication. Within somatic tissue, duplicated genes are more likely to be differentially expressed between the sexes, suggesting gene duplication may provide a mechanism for resolving sexual conflict.

  15. Synergistic effect on co-pyrolysis of capsicum stalks and coal | Niu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the depletion of fossil fuel and the concern about environmental issues, the utilization of biomass resources has attracted increasing worldwide interest. The pyrolysis behavior of capsicum stalks and Baoji coal mixtures was investigated by TG-DSC. Results show that the thermal degradation temperature range of ...

  16. A study on the chopping and mixing of cotton stalks with soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION ... porating plant residues into soil reduces the risk of soil ... stalks into soil increases the productivity of the field. ... producers were asked about the total area of their agricultural fields .... are made of forged steel in one piece. ... maintenance works such as thinning, weeding and irrigation.

  17. Continuous ethanol production using yeast immobilized on sugar-cane stalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, J.N. de [Alagoas Univ., Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: jnunes@ctec.ufal.br; Lopes, C.E. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Franca, F.P. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica

    2004-09-01

    Sugar-cane stalks, 2.0 cm long, were used as a support for yeast immobilization envisaging ethanol production. The assays were conducted in 38.5 L fermenters containing a bed of stalks with 50% porosity. The operational stability of the immobilized yeast, the efficiency and stability of the process, as well as the best dilution rate were evaluated. Molasses from demerara sugar production was used in the medium formulation. It was diluted to obtain 111.75 {+-} 1.51 g/L without any further treatment. Sulfuric acid was used to adjust the pH value to around 4.2. Every two days Kamoran HJ (10 ppm) or with a mixture containing penicillin (10 ppm) and tetracycline (10 ppm), was added to the medium. Ethanol yield and efficiency were 29.64 g/L.h and 86.40%, respectively, and the total reducing sugars conversion was 74.61% at a dilution rate of 0.83 h{sup -1}. The yeast-stalk system was shown to be stable for over a 60 day period at extremely variable dilution rates ranging from 0.05 h{sup -1} to 3.00 h{sup -1}. The concentration of immobilized cell reached around 109 cells/gram of dry sugar-cane stalk when the fermenter was operating at the highest dilution rate (3.00 h{sup -1}). (author)

  18. Effects of fistular onion stalk extract on the level of NO and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... In this study, we investigated the effects of fistular onion stalk extracts on nitric oxide ... and flavonoids in onion (Knekt et al., 1996). ... cells lie between blood flow and smooth muscle cells. ... strated by a reduction in the blood vessel dilation factors .... raw onion inhibits platelet-mediated thrombosis in dogs.

  19. Wet Oxidation Pretreatment of Tobacco Stalks and Orange Waste for Bioethanol Production. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Carlos; Fernandez, Teresa; Garcia, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Wet oxidation (WO) was used as a pretreatment method prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of tobacco stalks and orange waste. The pretreatment, performed at 195 degrees C and an oxygen pressure of 1.2 MPa, for 15 min, in the presence of Na2CO3, increased the cellulose content of the materials and gave c...

  20. Carbohydrate Status of Tulip Bulbs during Cold-Induced Flower Stalk Elongation and Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, H.; Rook, F.; Kolloffel, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a cold treatment on the carbohydrate status of the scales and flower stalk of Tulipa gesneriana L. cv Apeldoorn bulbs during growth after planting was studied and compared with bulbs not given cold treatment. Bulbs were stored dry for 12 weeks at 5[deg]C (precooled) or 17[deg]C (noncooled). Only the 5[deg]C treatment led to rapid flower stalk elongation and flowering following planting at higher temperatures. Precooling enhanced mobilization of starch, fructans, and sucrose in the scales. The cold-stimulated starch breakdown was initially accompanied by increased [alpha]-amylase activity per scale. In noncooled bulbs, [alpha]-amylase activity slightly decreased or remained more or less constant. Cold-induced flower stalk elongation was partially accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose content and an increase in the glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight. The starch content in internodes initially decreased and subsequently increased; [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode showed a peak pattern during starch breakdown and increased thereafter. The internodes of noncooled bulbs, on the contrary, accumulated sucrose. Their glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight remained low. Starch breakdown was not found and [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode remained at a low level. Precooling of tulip bulbs thus favors reserve mobilization in the scales and flower stalk and glucose accumulation in the elongating internodes. PMID:12232100

  1. Relative Efficacy of On-Farm Weeds as Soil-Amendement for Managing Dry Root Rot of Clusterbean in an Arid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mawar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of certain on-farm weeds as soil amendments was ascertained against Macrophomina phaseolina, a soil-borne pathogen causing dry root rot of crops grown under rainfed conditions in arid regions. Population changes in M. phaseolina were determined in soils amended separately with residues (1%, w:w of Aerva persica, Celosia argentea, Corchorus depressus, Euphorbia hirta, Heliotropium subulatum and Polycarpaea corymbosa, for a period of 90 days. Significant reductions by 90.4–100% in the population of M. phaseolina were achieved with all the weed residues except P. corymbosa. Celosia and Euphorbia residues completely eradicated viable propagules of M. phaseolina. A strong increase (44–61% in the population of antagonistic actinomycetes was also found in soil amended with Corchorus and Euphorbia. In field tests, soil amended (50 g m2 with Euphorbia, Aerva and Celosia residues significantly reduced dry root rot incidence on clusterbean and also reduced M. phaseolina propagules in the soil. However, dry root rot incidence in Polycarpaea-amended soil (5.8–24.6% was not significantly different from that in non-amended soil (4.3–25.3% in both years of the experiment. P. corymbosa also increased the number of propagules of M. phaseolina in the soil. The results demonstrate that dry root rot of rainfed-cultivated annual crops in arid land can be managed with certain weeds as a soil amendment.

  2. Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot on Apples in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Nakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora is a genus of Oomycota responsible for some of the most serious diseases with great economic impact (Judelson and Blanco, 2005. While 54 species were found in the 20th century (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 another 51-54 new species have been identified(Brasier, 2008 since the year 2000. They are spread worldwide and have broad range of host plants – fruit trees, citrus, forest and park species. Phytophthora can cause serious damages in orchards and nurseries of apples, cherries, etc. In Bulgaria they have been found first on young apples and cherries (1998-1999 in Plovdiv region (Nakova, 2003. Surveys have been done for discovering disease symptoms in Plovdiv and Kjustendil regions. Isolates have been obtained from infected plant material (roots and stem bases applying baiting bioassay (green apples, variety Granny Smith and/or PARP 10 selective media. Phytophthora strains were identified based on standard morphology methods – types of colonies on PDA, CMA, V 8, type and size of sporangia, oogonia and antheridia, andoospores. Cardial temperatures for their growth were tested on CMA and PDA.For molecular studies, DNA was extracted from mycelium using the DNA extraction kit.DNA was amplified using universal primers ITS 6 and ITS 4. Amplification products concentrations were estimated by comparison with the standard DNA. Sequencing was done at the Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI, Dundee, Scotland. Phytophthora root and crown rot symptoms first appear in early spring. Infected trees show bud break delay, have small chlorotic leaves, and branches die all of a sudden. Later symptoms are found in August-September. Leaves of the infected trees show reddish discoloration and drop down. Both symptoms are connected with lesions (wet, necrotic in appearance at stem bases of the trees.Disease spread was 2-3% in most gardens, only in an apple orchard in Bjaga (Plovdiv region it was up to 8-10%. Morphologically, the isolates acquired from

  3. Removal of phenanthrene in contaminated soil by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Zeng, Defang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of phenanthrene by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms in soil. A 60-day experiment was conducted. Inoculation with earthworms and/or white-rot fungus increased alfalfa biomass and phenanthrene accumulation in alfalfa. However, inoculations of alfalfa and white-rot fungus can significantly decrease the accumulation of phenanthrene in earthworms. The removal rates for phenanthrene in soil were 33, 48, 66, 74, 85, and 93% under treatments control, only earthworms, only alfalfa, earthworms + alfalfa, alfalfa + white-rot fungus, and alfalfa + earthworms + white-rot fungus, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the combination of alfalfa, earthworms, and white-rot fungus is an effective way to remove phenanthrene in the soil. The removal is mainly via stimulating both microbial development and soil enzyme activity.

  4. Colchicine affects cell motility, pattern formation and stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium by altering calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloz, Yekaterina; O'Day, Danton H

    2012-04-01

    Previous work, verified here, showed that colchicine affects Dictyostelium pattern formation, disrupts morphogenesis, inhibits spore differentiation and induces terminal stalk cell differentiation. Here we show that colchicine specifically induces ecmB expression and enhances accumulation of ecmB-expressing cells at the posterior end of multicellular structures. Colchicine did not induce a nuclear translocation of DimB, a DIF-1 responsive transcription factor in vitro. It also induced terminal stalk cell differentiation in a mutant strain that does not produce DIF-1 (dmtA-) and after the treatment of cells with DIF-1 synthesis inhibitor cerulenin (100 μM). This suggests that colchicine induces the differentiation of ecmB-expressing cells independent of DIF-1 production and likely through a signaling pathway that is distinct from the one that is utilized by DIF-1. Depending on concentration, colchicine enhanced random cell motility, but not chemotaxis, by 3-5 fold (10-50 mM colchicine, respectively) through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving phospholipase C, calmodulin and heterotrimeric G proteins. Colchicine's effects were not due to microtubule depolymerization as other microtubule-depolymerizing agents did not have these effects. Finally normal morphogenesis and stalk and spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 10 mM colchicine were rescued through chelation of Ca2+ by BAPTA-AM and EDTA and calmodulin antagonism by W-7 but not PLC inhibition by U-73122. Morphogenesis or spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 50 mM colchicine could not be rescued by the above treatments but terminal stalk cell differentiation was inhibited by BAPTA-AM, EDTA and W-7, but not U-73122. Thus colchicine disrupts morphogenesis and induces stalk cell differentiation through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving specific changes in gene expression and cell motility. Copyright © 2011 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B

  5. Following basal stem rot in young oil palm plantings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, G; Bridge, P D

    2005-01-01

    The PCR primer GanET has previously been shown to be suitable for the specific amplification of DNA from Ganoderma boninense. A DNA extraction and PCR method has been developed that allows for the amplification of the G. boninense DNA from environmental samples of oil palm tissue. The GanET primer reaction was used in conjunction with a palm-sampling programme to investigate the possible infection of young palms through cut frond base surfaces. Ganoderma DNA was detected in frond base material at a greater frequency than would be expected by comparison with current infection levels. Comparisons are made between the height of the frond base infected, the number of frond bases infected, and subsequent development of basal stem rot. The preliminary results suggest that the development of basal stem rot may be more likely to occur when young lower frond bases are infected.

  6. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Fusarium are causal agents of onion rot in field and storage. Most prevalent are F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae and F. solani, and recently F. proliferatum, a toxigenic species. Most frequently isolated fungi in our field experiments were F. solani and F. proliferatum with different pathogenicity. Certain differences in antagonistic activity of Trichoderma asperellum on different isolates of F. proliferatum and F. solani have been found in in vitro study in dual culture, expressed as a slower inhibition of growth of the former, and faster of the latter pathogen. Antagonistic abilities of species from genus Trichoderma (T. asperellum are important, and have already been exploited in formulated biocontrol products in organic and conventional production, in order to prevent soil borne pathogens inducing fusarium wilt and rot. The importance of preventing onion infection by Fusarium spp., possible mycotoxin producers, has been underlined.

  7. Growth of wheat and lettuce and enzyme activities of soils under garlic stalk decomposition for different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2017-07-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) stalk is a byproduct of garlic production that is normally thought of as waste but is now considered a useful biological resource. It is necessary to utilize this resource efficiently and reasonably to reduce environmental pollution and achieve sustainable agricultural development. The effect of garlic stalk decomposed for different durations was investigated in this study using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa L.) as test plants. Garlic stalk in early stages of decomposition inhibited the shoot and root lengths of wheat and lettuce, but it promoted the shoot and root lengths in later stages; longer durations of garlic stalk decomposition significantly increased the shoot and root fresh weights of wheat and lettuce, whereas shorter decomposing durations significantly decreased the shoot and root fresh weights; and garlic stalk at different decomposition durations increased the activities of urease, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase in soil where wheat or lettuce was planted. Garlic stalk decomposed for 30 or 40 days could promote the growth of wheat and lettuce plants as well as soil enzyme activities. These results may provide a scientific basis for the study and application of garlic stalk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  9. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL OF STALK LENGTH IN THE BLOOM-FORMING, FRESHWATER BENTHIC DIATOM DIDYMOSPHENIA GEMINATA (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Cathy; Bothwell, Max

    2011-10-01

    Blooms of the freshwater stalked diatom Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngb.) M. Schmidt in A. Schmidt typically occur in oligotrophic, unshaded streams and rivers. Observations that proliferations comprise primarily stalk material composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) led us to ask whether or not the production of excessive EPS is favored under nutrient-limited, high-light conditions. We conducted experiments in outdoor flumes colonized by D. geminata using water from the oligotrophic, D. geminata-affected Waitaki River, South Island, New Zealand, to determine the relationship between D. geminata stalk length, cell division rates, and light intensity under ambient and nutrient-enriched conditions. Stalk lengths were measured in situ, and cell division rates were estimated as the frequency of dividing cells (FDC). FDC responded positively to increasing light intensity and to nutrient additions (N+P and P). Under ambient conditions, stalk length increased as light level increased except at low ambient light levels and temperature. Nutrient enrichment resulted in decreased stalk length and negative correlations with FDC, with this effect most evident under high light. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that extensive stalk production in D. geminata occurs when cell division rates are nutrient limited and light levels are high. Thus, photosynthetically driven EPS production in the form of stalks, under nutrient-limited conditions, may explain the development of very high biomass in this species in oligotrophic rivers. The responses of FDC and stalk length under nutrient-replete conditions are also consistent with occurrences of D. geminata as a nondominant component of mixed periphyton communities in high-nutrient streams. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Cellulose Degradation by Cellulose-Clearing and Non-Cellulose-Clearing Brown-Rot Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Highley, Terry L.

    1980-01-01

    Cellulose degradation by four cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi in the Coniophoraceae—Coniophora prasinoides, C. puteana, Leucogyrophana arizonica, and L. olivascens—is compared with that of a non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungus, Poria placenta. The cellulose- and the non-cellulose-clearing brown-rot fungi apparently employ similar mechanisms to depolymerize cellulose; most likely a nonenzymatic mechanism is involved.

  12. A Simple Method for Assessing Severity of Common Root Rot on Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common root rot caused by Cochliobolus sativus is a serious disease of barley. A simple and reliable method for assessing this disease would enhance our capacity in identifying resistance sources and developing resistant barley cultivars. In searching for such a method, a conidial suspension of C. sativus was dropped onto sterilized elongated subcrown internodes and incubated in sandwich filter paper using polyethylene transparent envelopes. Initial disease symptoms were easily detected after 48h of inoculation. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found in each experiment (A, B and C between sandwich filter paper and seedling assays, indicating that this testing procedure was reliable. The method presented facilitates a rapid pre-selection under uniform conditions which is of importance from a breeder’s point of view.

  13. Attempts to control Fusarium root rot of bean by seed dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, G; Baudino, M; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2008-01-01

    In summer 2006, a root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum was observed in commercial farms on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the cv Billò and Borlotto. A study was undertaken in order to evaluate the efficacy of different biological control agents applied as seed dressing. In the presence of a medium-high disease incidence, among the biocontrol agents tested, Trichoderma harzianum T 22, Bacillus subtilis QST 713, followed by Pseudomonas chlororaphis, provided generally the best control. Their efficacy was also consistent in the different trials. Also the mixture of T. harzianum + T. viride provide a good disease control. Streptomyces griseoviridis and the 3 strains of Fusarim oxysporum, although less effective, provided a partial control of the disease. The fungicide mancozeb provided only a partial disease control.

  14. Improving the yield and quality of DNA isolated from white-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, R C; Kapoor, R K; Lal, R

    2004-01-01

    A new simple method used to eliminate polysaccharides that cause problems during DNA isolation was established for 6 different white-rot fungi using 1% hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as wash buffer and followed by centrifugation. Variation in the DNA yield and quality was ascertained using precipitating agents, detergents and cell-wall-hydrolyzing chitinase. Considerable amount of exopolysaccharides from fungal biomass was removed with the use of 1% CTAB wash buffer followed by centrifugation. The DNA varied in terms of yield and quality. For the DNA extraction use of 2% SDS in extraction buffer worked best for Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, Cyathus bulleri, Cyathus striatus and Cyathus stercoreus, while 2% CTAB worked best for Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pleurotus ostreatus. Elimination of phenol and use of absolute ethanol for precipitating DNA resulted in good yield and quality of DNA. This DNA was amenable to restriction endonuclease digestion.

  15. Incidence, progression and intensity of Bud Rot in Elaeis guineensis Jacq. in San Lorenzo, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rivas Figueroa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BUD rot (BR is the most serious disease of oil palm in Latin America; in Equator has caused more than 150 million USD of losses. The aim of this work was to determine the incidence, progression and disease intensity of BR in E. guineensis. Incidence and disease progression was determined from data of oil palm enterprises: Palesema, PDA, Palpailón, Energy & Palma y Alespalma during 2006-2013. Disease intensity was determined at 2013. Incidence was 66.75 % and disease intensity was 46 %. Based on projections of accumulative incidence a polynomial equation was built that predicted 78.30 % of cumulative incidence for 2014, indicating exponential growth of BR from 2009 to 2013. Magnitude of damages based on incidence, disease progression and infection index indicated the occurrence of a lethal form of BR in San Lorenzo, province of Esmeraldas, Equator.

  16. Estimating white trunk rot in aspen stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan C. Jones; Michael E. Ostry

    1998-01-01

    Advanced decay caused by Phellinus tremulae was estimated in 295 trembling aspen on 30 plots in 2 Minnesota counties using existing inventory guides, and then measured by felling and sectioning the trees. In standing trees, decay volume was underestimated by 38% compared to measured decay volume in felled trees. The most reliable external indicator...

  17. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF FOUR FUNGAL ISOLATES TO GANODERMA BONINENSE, THE CAUSAL AGENT OF BASAL STEM ROT OF OIL PALM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Four fungal isolates from soils obtained from three sites of the oil palm plantations in North Sumatra were found antagonistic to Ganoderma boninense, the causal agent of basal stem rot of oil palm. Penicillium citrinum inhibited the growth of the pathogen and formed a zone of inhibition on the agar media. Trichoderma harzianum BIO - 1 as well as BIO - 2 and T. viride not only repressed the growth of the pathogen but also caused lysis of the hyphae, and the colony was totally overgrown by the antagonists.

  18. Effect of gamma radiation treatment on some fungi causing storage diseases of banana fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Ashmawi, A.M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Banana is one of the most popular fruits in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. in recent years, the quality of egyptian banana markedly declined. A major factor contributing to this decline is the development of fruit rot, which is the most widely occurring disease either in the field or in storage. Different fungi attack banana fruits causing considerable losses. Most of the fungi responsible for post harvest rots of banana are usually carried from the field, on the surface of the fruit itself or in injured and rotting fruits causing severe rats during storage. These rots make the fruits difficult to handle and undesirable to the consumers. Botryodiplodia theobromae is known to be the most important pathogen responsible for the infection in storage

  19. Hypothalamic-pituitary vascularization in pituitary stalk transection syndrome: is the pituitary stalk really transected? The role of gadolinium-DTPA with spin-echo T1 imaging and turbo-FLASH technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genovese, E. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Maghnie, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Beluffi, G. [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Pediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Villa, A. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Sammarchi, L. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Severi, F. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Pavia (Italy); Campani, R. [Dept. of Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    We examined 14 patients, aged 10-25 years, with idiopathic hypopituitarism. All presented an ectopic posterior pituitary at the median eminence with a hypoplastic anterior pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight patients had isolated growth hormone deficit (IGHD) and six had multiple hormone deficits (MPHD). Unenhanced MRI showed the pituitary stalk, which was extremely thin, in only three patients, while T1-weighted images obtained after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) showed a thin pituitary stalk in seven patients (six with IGHD and one with MPHD), demonstrating a preserved vascular component of the stalk. MRI with Gd-DTPA was more sensitive than unenhanced MRI in detecting the pituitary stalk in patients with hypopituitarism with an ectopic posterior pituitary: the stalk was demonstrated in 50 % of the cases (seven patients), versus 21.4 % (three patients) by unenhanced MRI. The dynamic study of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis performed with turbo-FLASH sequences after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA showed the residual anterior pituitary to have arterial enhancement times, which suggests that an arterial system compensates for the absent or diminished blood supply from the portal system, independent of stalk detection. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Hypothalamic-pituitary vascularization in pituitary stalk transection syndrome: is the pituitary stalk really transected? The role of gadolinium-DTPA with spin-echo T1 imaging and turbo-FLASH technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genovese, E.; Maghnie, M.; Beluffi, G.; Villa, A.; Sammarchi, L.; Severi, F.; Campani, R.

    1997-01-01

    We examined 14 patients, aged 10-25 years, with idiopathic hypopituitarism. All presented an ectopic posterior pituitary at the median eminence with a hypoplastic anterior pituitary on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight patients had isolated growth hormone deficit (IGHD) and six had multiple hormone deficits (MPHD). Unenhanced MRI showed the pituitary stalk, which was extremely thin, in only three patients, while T1-weighted images obtained after intravenous injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) showed a thin pituitary stalk in seven patients (six with IGHD and one with MPHD), demonstrating a preserved vascular component of the stalk. MRI with Gd-DTPA was more sensitive than unenhanced MRI in detecting the pituitary stalk in patients with hypopituitarism with an ectopic posterior pituitary: the stalk was demonstrated in 50 % of the cases (seven patients), versus 21.4 % (three patients) by unenhanced MRI. The dynamic study of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis performed with turbo-FLASH sequences after bolus injection of Gd-DTPA showed the residual anterior pituitary to have arterial enhancement times, which suggests that an arterial system compensates for the absent or diminished blood supply from the portal system, independent of stalk detection. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Molecular characterization of a novel thermostable laccase PPLCC2 from the brown rot fungus Postia placenta MAD-698-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongde An

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: This is the first identified thermo activated and thermostable laccase in brown rot fungi. This investigation will contribute to understanding the roles played by laccases in brown rot fungi.

  2. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razzagh Mahmoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L. is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

  3. Haldane’s Rule Is Linked to Extraordinary Sex Ratios and Sperm Length in Stalk-Eyed Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Christianson, Sarah J.; Brand, Cara L.; Ru, George; Shell, Wyatt

    2014-01-01

    We use three allopatric populations of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni from Southeast Asia to test two predictions made by the sex chromosome drive hypothesis for Haldane’s rule. The first is that modifiers that suppress or enhance drive should evolve rapidly and independently in isolated populations. The second is that drive loci or modifiers should also cause sterility in hybrid males. We tested these predictions by assaying the fertility of 2066 males derived from backcross experiments involving two pairs of populations and found that the proportion of mated males that fail to produce any offspring ranged from 38 to 60% among crosses with some males producing strongly female-biased or male-biased sex ratios. After genotyping each male at 25–28 genetic markers we found quantitative trait loci (QTL) that jointly influence male sterility, sperm length, and biased progeny sex ratios in each pair of populations, but almost no shared QTL between population crosses. We also discovered that the extant XSR chromosome has no effect on sex ratio or sterility in these backcross males. Whether shared QTL are caused by linkage or pleiotropy requires additional study. Nevertheless, these results indicate the presence of a “cryptic” drive system that is currently masked by suppressing elements that are associated with sterility and sperm length within but not between populations and, therefore, must have evolved since the populations became isolated, i.e., in hybrid sterility. PMID:25164880

  4. Application of Trichoderma harzianum in the control of basal stem rot of oil palms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah F; Ilias G N M

    2004-01-01

    @@ The palm, Elaeis guineensis, has its origins in Africa but is planted on a commercial basis in several countries Statistics for 2002 showed that in the lead for land mass under oil palm cultivation is Indonesia, at 3,769,000 ha, followed by Malaysia at 3,376,000 ha; however, the world' s leading producer of palm oil is still Malaysia, since the 1970's. Both countries are predicted to produce 82.4%of the world's palm oil production by the year 2005. However, the palm is susceptible to basal stem rot, a devastating disease which results in direct loss of field stands and to which no effective chemical control is yet available. Caused by Ganoderma boninense, infected palms appear symptomless, at the first sign of disease, at least 50 % of the internal trunk tissue stem would have actually rotted. This study investigated the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum (isolate FA 1132) as a biological control agent, using 6-month old oil palm seedlings as models and the experiment performed in a greenhouse at 29-30 ℃ ambient conditions. The plants were artificially infected with G. boninense and a conidial suspension of 1 × 109-9 × 109 spores/mL was applied as a soil drench at 1L/plant every 2 weeks for 20weeks. The parameters examined were efficacy of the biocontrol agent and the effect of Trichodermaincorporated mulch in addition to the soil drench. Efficacy was assessed in terms disease severity index (DSI) where a higher percentage indicates a higher severity. Results showed that infection first sets in on untreated plants at week 12 and got worse progressively. The completely untreated plants were all infected and the DSI at 20 weeks after infection (wa. i.) was 92. 5%. Plants given only a Trichoderma -infused food base supplement without conidial suspension gave a DSI of 70% whereas those given a conidial soil drench without supplemental food base gave a DSI of 85% at 20 w.a.i.Infected plants given a conidial treatment together with a food base supplement gave a DSI

  5. Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in Sugarcane Stalk Juice Using a Real-Time Fluorescent (TaqMan PCR Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ying Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ratoon stunting disease (RSD of sugarcane, one of the most important diseases seriously affecting the productivity of sugarcane crops, was caused by the bacterial agent Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx. A TaqMan probe-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay was established in this study for the quantification of Lxx detection in sugarcane stalk juice. A pair of PCR primers (Pat1-QF/Pat1-QR and a fluorogenic probe (Pat1-QP targeting the Part1 gene of Lxx were used for the qPCR assay. The assay had a detection limit of 100 copies of plasmid DNA and 100 fg of Lxx genomic DNA, which was 100-fold more sensitive than the conventional PCR. Fifty (28.7% of 174 stalk juice samples from two field trials were tested to be positive by qPCR assay, whereas, by conventional PCR, only 12.1% (21/174 were tested to be positive with a published primer pair CxxITSf#5/CxxITSr#5 and 15.5% (27/174 were tested to be positive with a newly designed primer pair Pat1-F2/Pat1-R2. The new qPCR assay can be used as an alternative to current diagnostic methods for Lxx, especially when dealing with certificating a large number of healthy cane seedlings and determining disease incidence accurately in commercial fields.

  6. Exploring of Agro Waste (Pineapple Leaf, Corn Stalk, and Napier Grass) by Chemical Composition and Morphological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Angzzas Sari Mohd Kassim; Halizah Awang; Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is a country that is a rich source of agricultural waste material. Three different crops were studied here, including pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaf, corn (Zea mays) stalk, and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum). These crops are characterized as agricultural waste materials in Malaysia and have a high potential to be used as alternative fibers for the paper making industry. The objective of this work was to analyze the chemical composition of pineapple leaf, corn stalk, and Napier ...

  7. Effect of Preserving the Pituitary Stalk During Resection of Craniopharyngioma in Children on the Diabetes Insipidus and Relapse Rates and Long-Term Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing; Fan, Yanqin; Cen, Bo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preserving an infiltrated pituitary stalk during the resection of craniopharyngioma of pituitary stalk origin on postoperative outcomes and thus provide a theoretical basis for microsurgical treatment and prognosis. We screened the clinical data of all 103 pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma undergoing surgical treatment at our department between January 2006 and January 2013 and conducted a retrospective analysis of 82 patients with craniopharyngioma originating in the pituitary stalk. The patients were followed up from 12 months to 8 years. We analyzed the effect of preserving the pituitary stalk on the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates, postoperative relapse rate, and mortality. In the total resection group (n = 67), the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates were significantly lower in the 46 patients (68.7%) with a pituitary stalk than in those whose pituitary stalk was removed (P  0.05). In the subtotal resection group (n = 15), a significant difference was observed in the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates (P  0.05). For children with craniopharyngioma of pituitary stalk origin, preserving the pituitary stalk has a significant effect on the early and persistent diabetes insipidus rates. When intraoperative exploration showed excessive adhesion between the tumor and pituitary stalk, we opted to preserve the pituitary stalk, which significantly reduced the early and persistent postoperative diabetes insipidus rates, without significantly increasing the relapse or mortality rate.

  8. Stalk yield of sugarcane cultivars under different water regimes by subsurface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson S. de Andrade Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the stalk yield of ten sugarcane cultivars (RB962962, RB931011, RB931530, RB98710, RB92579, RB867515, RB863129, SP791011, RB72545 and VAT90212 subjected to water deficit, full irrigation and water surplus by subsurface drip irrigation, during three cropping seasons (2011-2014. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Field of Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, in dystrophic Red Yellow Argisol. The cultivars RB962962 (162.3 Mg ha-1 and RB867515 (158.5 Mg ha-1 have better stalk yield compared with other cultivars in all water regimes and cropping seasons.

  9. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium on modified corn stalk using different cross-linking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suhong; Zhu, Yi; Han, Zhijun; Feng, Gao; Jia, Yuling; Fu, Kaifang; Yue, Qinyan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, four different types of adsorbents modified from corn stalk were synthesized after the reaction with epichlorohydrin, N,N-dimethylformamide, triethylamine and different cross-linking agents. The surface functional groups and thermal stability of modified corn stalk (MCSs) were characterized using FTIR and TG analysis, respectively. The feasibility of using MCSs to remove Cr(VI) were evaluated. Adsorption isotherms were determined and modeled with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations. The experimental results showed that MCS modified using diethylenetriamine (DETA) had the best modification effect, and the adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) reached as high as 227.27 mg/g at 323 K. Thermodynamic study showed that the Cr(VI) adsorption onto MCSs was endothermic processes. As a result, MCS by using DETA as cross-linking agent has good potential for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions.

  10. Mesoporous activated carbon from corn stalk core for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Li, Chun; Qi, Hui; Yu, Kaifeng; Liang, Ce

    2018-04-01

    A novel mesoporous activated carbon (AC) derived from corn stalk core is prepared via a facile and effective method which including the decomposition and carbonization of corn stalk core under an inert gas atmosphere and further activation process with KOH solution. The mesoporous activated carbon (AC) is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. These biomass waste derived from activated carbon is proved to be promising anode materials for high specific capacity lithium ion batteries. The activated carbon anode possesses excellent reversible capacity of 504 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2C. Compared with the unactivated carbon (UAC), the electrochemical performance of activated carbon is significantly improved due to its mesoporous structure.

  11. Thermogravimetric kinetics of corn stalk pretreated by oleaginous fungi Cunninghamella echinulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianguo; Gao, Shi; Wan, Jilin; Zeng, Yelin; Ma, Fuying; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2011-04-01

    The thermogravimetric and composition of corn stalk pretreated by oleaginous fungi Cunninghamella echinulata had been studied in this paper. Results indicated that pretreatment by oleaginous fungi C. echinulata could decrease the activation energy and make the pyrolysis more efficient and energy-saving. By bio-pretreatment, the contents of elements agreed with the weight loss, sugar content, and oil contents, especially the sulfur content was greatly decreased, greatly eliminating the inventory of gas contamination such as the emission of SOx and making the pyrolysis more environmentally friendly. Therefore, corn stalk with sugar pretreated by oleaginous fungi C. echinulata should be a good pyrolysis material to obtain high quality bio-oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microstructure and nanomechanical properties of single stalks from diatom Didymosphenia geminata and their change due to adsorption of selected metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgłobicka, Izabela; Chlanda, Adrian; Woźniak, Michał; Łojkowski, Maciej; Szoszkiewicz, Robert; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Wyroba, Elżbieta; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2017-08-01

    We present topographical and nanomechanical characterization of single Didymosphenia geminata stalk. We compared the samples before and after adsorption of metal ions from freshwater samples. Transmission electron microscopy studies of single stalk cross-sections have shown three distinct layers and an additional thin extra coat on the external layer (called "EL"). Using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), we found that topography of single stalks after ionic adsorption differed significantly from topography of pristine stalks. AFM nanoindentation studies in ambient conditions yielded elastic moduli of 214 ± 170 MPa for pristine stalks and 294 ± 108 MPa for stalks after ionic adsorption. Statistical tests showed that those results were significantly different. We conducted only preliminary comparisons between ionic adsorption of several stalks in air and in water. While the stalks with ions were on average stiffer than the pristine stalks in air, they became more compliant than the pristine stalks in water. We also heated the stalks and detected EL softening at 50°C ± 15°C. AFM nanoindentation in air on the softened samples yielded elastic moduli of 26 ± 9 MPa for pristine samples and 43 ± 22 MPa for stalks with absorbed metal ions. Substantial decrease of the EL elastic moduli after heating was expected. Significantly different elastic moduli for the samples after ionic adsorption in both cases (i.e., for heated and nonheated samples), as well as behavior of the stalks immersed in water, point to permanent structural EL changes due to ions. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  13. IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING ANGIOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TENSOR FASCIAE LATAE VASCULAR STALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana Ugrenovic

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the most important and most common type of arteriosclerosis and is a general term for several diseases in which the artery wall becomes thicker and less elastic. The most common location of atherosclerosis occurrence is arteries of lower extremities, while arteries of upper extremities as well as visceral arteries are far less and far rarely affected with this degenerative process.The most frequent ones are occlusive changes on bifurcation of the abdominal aorta (aortoiliac obstructive atherosclerosis “Morbus Leriche”, trunk of the femoral artery and initial part of the popliteal artery (femoropopliteal obstructive atherosclerosis.Angiography, as additional method in medicine, gives the most precise insight into anatomical changes on blood vessels. With intention of estimating the possibility of using a slice (lobe part of the tensor fasciae latae (m. TFL in plastic and reconstructive surgery, we have analyzed 50 angiograms of femoral artery. The first group included Morbus Leriche patients (25 analyzed angiographics, while the second one comprised patients with femoropopliteal segment disease (also 25 analyzed angiographics. With angiographic analysis of the lateral femoral circumflex artery (LCFA and its branch, which is dominant in vascularisation of m. TFL slice, we discovered that the diameter of its source, as well as of its branches, is bigger in cases of femoropopliteal segment disease. Then, the reduction of the source diameter of LCFA and its branches, caused by vascular disease, leads to decreased blood supply of m. TFL, diminishing its quality and limiting its usage in surgery.In Morbus Leriche cases, m. TFL slice cannot be used in plastic and reconstructive surgery, its quality being decreased, due to poor vascularization. In femoropopliteal segment disease cases, thanks to normal blood supply, m. TFL slice can be widely used for reconstructions or covering of defects, especially in inguinal region, which is

  14. Measurement of the heat of smoldering combustion in straws and stalks by means of simultaneous thermal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fang; Yi, Weiming; Zha, Jianwen [School of Light Industry and Agricultural Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong 255049 (China)

    2009-01-15

    In order to investigate reaction heat of agro-stalks smoldering, wheat straw, corn stalk, cotton stalk, millet straw, sorghum stalk and sweet potato rattan powder were smoldered and pyrolyzed in a simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA). The samples were placed in a platinum crucible (5 mm x 5 mm) with a lid (with a 1 mm hole) on a high-accuracy differential scanning calorimetry-heat capacity (DSC-cp) holder in the furnace of an STA and heated from 303 to 1073 K at a heating rate of 10 K min{sup -1}. Sweeping gas with a flow rate of 25 ml min{sup -1} was air and nitrogen during smoldering and pyrolysis, respectively. Results showed that the heat emission characteristic of the smoldering process differed remarkably from the pyrolysis process. Based on the analysis of the DSC curves, oxidative polymer degradation heat and char oxidation heat were obtained from experimental data. It showed that the oxidative polymer degradation heat of the agro-stalks is more than 6.92 MJ kg{sup -1} consumed matter, higher than that of cellulose paper. And char oxidation heat is around 23 MJ kg{sup -1} consumed matter, similar to that of cellulose paper, but higher than that of cigarette. Total net heat emission of smoldering in STA was also obtained. These data can be used as reference data in analyzing smoldering of agro-stalks under similar conditions. (author)

  15. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igathinathane, C. [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, 130 Creelman Street, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762 (United States); Womac, A.R. [Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science, 2506 E. J. Chapman Drive, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Sokhansanj, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, P. O. Box 2008, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Company, 100 Park Royal South West Vancouver, British Columbia, V7T 1A2 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force-displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4-5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths {>=} 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks. (author)

  16. Corn stalk as matrix in decomposting toilet for treating urine and feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintawardani, N.; Nilawati, D.; Astuti, J. T.

    2017-03-01

    Bio-Toilet technology (BT) which is appropriate for the habits of Indonesian people has been studied and developed. BT is a dry toilet technology commonly uses ligno-cellulosic waste materials as matrix to facilitate the growth of natural microbes. In aerobic condition, microbes degrade feces and urine. Mineral as the leftover of feces and urine, such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) remain in the rest of matrix waste. After certain period. matrix can be harvested and used as soil conditioner. BT uses much less water, mobile, and very useful to be applied in areas where water availability is limited. BT type with different capacities, user amounts and mixing systems has been developed using sawdust for matrix. Since corn stalk is categorized as useless and priceless waste, its application in BT is challenging. Performance of BT with corn stalk as matrix to degrade feces and urine of carnivore imitating the human waste was observed. BT M-15 manual mixing type with paddle was filled with chopped corn stalk as much as 45% of total volume. This BT was designed for 15 person as users per day if 80% reactor volume was filled with ligno-cellulosic matrix. It is assumed that 150 g of feces are discharged once per person/day and 1000 mL of urine 6-8 times per day. Start up process was made in the beginning to initialize the needed microbes in the reactor (matrix). The discharge of feces and urine were increased slowly and gradually the users were increased from 1 to 4 users per day. Performance of BT was indicated by the change in the pile that showed by moisture content, temperature and pH. C/N ratio in matrix decreased significantly from 43 to 17. This result showed that the corn stalk could be used as matrix in BT.

  17. Is nectar reabsorption restricted by the stalk cells of floral and extrafloral nectary trichomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Gustavson, P; Davis, A R

    2015-01-01

    Reabsorption is a phase of nectar dynamics that occurs concurrently with secretion; it has been described in floral nectaries that exude nectar through stomata or unicellular trichomes, but has not yet been recorded in extrafloral glands. Apparently, nectar reabsorption does not occur in multicellular secretory trichomes (MST) due to the presence of lipophilic impregnations - which resemble Casparian strips - in the anticlinal walls of the stalk cells. It has been assumed that these impregnations restrict solute movement within MST to occur unidirectionally and exclusively by the symplast, thereby preventing nectar reflux toward the underlying nectary tissues. We hypothesised that reabsorption is absent in nectaries possessing MST. The fluorochrome lucifer yellow (LYCH) was applied to standing nectar of two floral and extrafloral glands of distantly related species, and then emission spectra from nectary sections were systematically analysed using confocal microscopy. Passive uptake of LYCH via the stalk cells to the nectary tissues occurred in all MST examined. Moreover, we present evidence of nectar reabsorption in extrafloral nectaries, demonstrating that LYCH passed the stalk cells of MST, although it did not reach the deepest nectary tissues. Identical (control) experiments performed with neutral red (NR) demonstrated no uptake of this stain by actively secreting MST, whereas diffusion of NR did occur in plasmolysed MST of floral nectaries at the post-secretory phase, indicating that nectar reabsorption by MST is governed by stalk cell physiology. Interestingly, non-secretory trichomes failed to reabsorb nectar. The role of various nectary components is discussed in relation to the control of nectar reabsorption by secretory trichomes. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. LOFT reactor vessel 290/sup 0/ downcomer stalk instrument penetration flange stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finicle, D.P.

    1978-06-06

    The LOFT Reactor Vessel 290/sup 0/ Downcomer Stalk Instrument Penetration Flange Stress Analysis has been completed using normal operational and blowdown loading. A linear elastic analysis was completed using simplified hand analysis techniques. The analysis was in accordance with the 1977 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, for a Class 1 component. Loading included internal pressure, bolt preload, and thermal gradients due to normal operating and blowdown.

  19. Effect of irradiation and insect pest control on rots and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus Degeer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is associated with rots in stored yam tubers. The current study was designed to assess the effect of irradiation and other insect pest control strategies on rots and sensory quality of stored yams. 450 tubers each of two varieties of white yam ...

  20. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot

  1. Enzymatic oxalic acid regulation correlated with wood degradation in four brown-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup; Frederick Green III; Patricia K. Lebow; Bo Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a key component in the initiation of brown-rot decay and it has been suggested that it plays multiple roles during the degradation process. Oxalic acid is accumulated to varying degrees among brown-rot fungi; however, details on active regulation are scarce. The accumulation of oxalic acid was measured in this study from wood degraded by the four brown-...

  2. Copper tolerance of brown-rot fungi : time course of oxalic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Green; Carol A. Clausen

    2003-01-01

    The increase in the use of non-arsenical copper-based wood preservatives in response to environmental concerns has been accompanied by interest in copper-tolerant decay fungi. Oxalic acid production by brown-rot fungi has been proposed as one mechanism of copper tolerance. Fifteen brown-rot fungi representing the genera Postia, Wolfiporia, Meruliporia, Gloeophyllum,...

  3. Biocontrol of charcoal-rot of sorghum by actinomycetes isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Streptomyces but with different species in BLAST analysis. This study indicates that the selected actinomycetes have the potential for PGP and control of charcoal-rot disease in sorghum. Key words: Antagonistic actinomycetes, biocontrol, charcoal-rot, Macrophomina phaseolina. INTRODUCTION.

  4. Antifungal Effects Of Botanical Leaf Extracts On Tuber Rots Of Yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fungicidal effects of dry and fresh leaf extracts of Axardirachta indica (L) and Ocimum grattissimum on the rot of yam tubers were investigated. Fusaruim oxysporium, Rhjzopus stolonifer, Botryodiplodia theobromae and Aspergillus Niger (root pathogens) were isolated from the rotted yam. Both dry and fresh leaf extracts ...

  5. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol

    2005-01-01

    -rot fungi is thought to be due in part to oxalic acid production and accumulation. Oxalic acid has been implicated in copper tolerance by the formation of copper oxalate crystals. Twelve isolates of the dry rot fungus, S. lacrymans and four other brown rot species were evaluated for weight loss on wood...

  6. Thermal Decomposition Properties of Materials from Different Parts of Corn Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwei Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To help better utilize corn stalk (CS, pyrolysis behavior of materials from different parts of the CS including corn stalk without pith, corn root, and corn leaf were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA at heating rates of 5, 10, 20, and 25 °C/min. The apparent activation energies determined by the Friedman method for corn stalk without pith, corn root, and corn leaf were in the range of 26.4 to 103.6 kJ/mol, 37.6 to 69.5 kJ/mol, and 35.0 to 103.9 kJ/mol, respectively, depending on the conversion. The main thermal decomposition occurred within a temperature range of 200 to 350 °C (±10 °C. Most of the volatile materials decomposed at less than a 0.8 conversion rate. At greater than a 0.8 conversion rate, the remaining material was mainly char, and the decomposition of char proceeded at higher conversion rates. Different pyrolysis characteristics in the CS indicated that different treatments should be chosen according to different parts for achieving the optimum conversion rate in practical applications.

  7. Spontaneous rupture of pedunculate gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor into the gastrocelic ligament presenting as a stalked mass surrounded by loculated hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Yong Ho [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is one of the most common mesenchymal tumors of the stomach, which may be asymptomatic or cause symptoms such as pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and obstruction. Hemoperitoneum due to spontaneous rupture of the tumor is an extremely rare complication. We described a case of a 52-year-old man with a large pedunculated GIST causing loculated hematoma within the gastrocolic ligament. The patient visited our hospital due to a 3 week history of epigastric pain. A computed tomography scan revealed a 10.3 x 7.5 x 9.4 cm sized mass that was growing exophytically from the greater curvature of the stomach and was surrounded by loculated hematoma within the gastrocolic ligament. Laparotomy revealed a large stalked gastric mass surrounded by loculated hematoma within the gastrocolic ligament and blood fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Pathologic examination confirmed a GIST, of the high risk group.

  8. Tow-step degradation of pyrene by white-rot fungi and soil microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wische, C. in der; Martens, R.; Zadrazil, F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of soil microorganisms on mineralization of 14 C-labelled pyrene by white-rot fungi in solid-state fermentation was investigated. Two strains of white-rot fungi, Dichomitus squalens and a Pleurotus sp., were tested. The fungi were incubated on milled wheat straw contaminated with [ 14 C]pyrene for 15 weeks. CO 2 and 14 CO 2 liberated from the cultures were determined weekly. To study the effect of soil microorganisms on respiration and [ 14 C]pyrene mineralization in different periods of fungal development, the fungal substrate was covered with soil at different times of incubation (after 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 or 11 weeks). The two fungi showed contrasting ecological behaviour in competition with the soil microflora. Pleurotus sp. was highly resistant to microbial attack and had the ability to penetrate the soil. D. squalens was less competitive and did not colonize the soil. The resistance of the fungus was dependent on the duration of fungal preincubation. Mineralization of [ 14 C]pyrene by mixed cultures of D. squalens and soil microorganisms was higher than by the fungus or the soil microflora alone when soil was added after 3 weeks of incubation or later. With Pleurotus sp., the mineralization of [ 14 C]pyrene was enhanced by the soil microflora irrespective of the time of soil application. With D. squalens, which in pure culture mineralized less [ 14 C]pyrene than did Pleurotus sp., the increase of [ 14 C]pyrene mineralization caused by soil application was higher than with Pleurotus sp. (orig.)

  9. Fungal accumulation of metals from building materials during brown rot wood decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Jellison, Jody

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes the accumulation and translocation of metal ions in wood during the degradation performed by one strain of each of the three brown rot fungi; Serpula lacrymans, Meruliporia incrassata and Coniophora puteana. These fungi species are inhabitants of the built environment where the prevention and understanding of fungal decay is of high priority. This study focuses on the influence of various building materials in relation to fungal growth and metal uptake. Changes in the concentration of iron, manganese, calcium and copper ions in the decayed wood were analyzed by induced coupled plasma spectroscopy and related to wood weight loss and oxalic acid accumulation. Metal transport into the fungal inoculated wood was found to be dependent on the individual strain/species. The S. lacrymans strain caused a significant increase in total iron whereas the concentration of copper ions in the wood appeared decreased after 10 weeks of decay. Wood inoculated with the M. incrassata isolate showed the contrary tendency with high copper accumulation and low iron increase despite similar weight losses for the two strains. However, significantly lower oxalic acid accumulation was recorded in M. incrassata degraded wood. The addition of a building material resulted in increased weight loss in wood degraded by C. puteana in the soil-block test; however, this could not be directly linked specifically to the accumulation of any of the four metals recorded. The accumulation of oxalic acid seemed to influence the iron uptake. The study assessing the influence of the presence of soil and glass in the soil-block test revealed that soil contributed the majority of the metals for uptake by the fungi and contributed to increased weight loss. The varying uptake observed among the three brown rot fungi strains toward the four metals analyzed may be related to the specific non-enzymatic and enzymatic properties including bio-chelators employed by each of the species during wood

  10. Clinical management of foot rot in goats: A case report of lameness

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    Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Foot rot is one of the most important causes of lameness and economic losses in sheep and goats world-wide. This case report described the clinical management of lameness due to foot rot in two female Boer goats aging 4-year both from two different farms in Selangor, Malaysia. Materials and methods: The goats were presented with the complaint of non-weight bearing lameness of the right forelimbs. The hoof was broken and the interdigital space was filled with dirt and exuding a foul smelling odor. Results: On clinical examination, the goats were looking as dull and isolated with body condition scores of 2.5/5 (case 1 and 3/5 (case 2, respectively. The goats had a rectal temperature of 38.8°C and 40.4°C, pulse rate of 80 and 100 beats per minutes, and respiratory rate of 44 and 24 cycles per minute, respectively. Blood sample was collected for complete blood count and serum biochemistry from case 1 only. The hoof was thoroughly washed and disinfected. Parenteral administrations of Flunixin meglumine (dosed at 2.2 mg/kg bwt, IM thrice daily and Oxytetracycline (dosed at 20 mg/kg bwt, IM case 1 once and Sulfadiazine+trimethoprim (dosed at 1 mL/16 kg bwt, IM case 2 for 3 days. Topical oxytetracycline was applied to the area for 5 days. Conclusion: The prognosis was very good as there was a significant improvement in the hoof injury of both animals. The goats were recovered after 7 days of treatment. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 110-116

  11. Bacteriophages of Soft Rot Enterobacteriaceae-a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp., formerly pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) are ubiquitous necrotrophic bacterial pathogens that infect a large number of different plant species worldwide, including economically important crops. Despite the fact that these bacteria have been studied for more than 50 years, little is known of their corresponding predators: bacteriophages, both lytic and lysogenic. The aim of this minireview is to critically summarize recent ecological, biological and molecular research on bacteriophages infecting Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. with the main focus on current and future perspectives in that field. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effect of irradiation on the potato tubers rotting during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Z.; Fiszer, W.

    1991-01-01

    The potato tubers subjected to irradiation in autumn were found dry and soft rotting more numerous than non-irradiated ones for the whole period of storage and especially in April and May. The above mentioned phenomenon brought about a little quicker elimination of tubers naturally infected by pectinolytic bacteria. Susceptibility of both kinds of tubers was similar to Fusarium sulphureum introduced under a cover tissue. The irradiation of potato tubers in autumn 1986 led to the appearance of some hard tubers with brown ring spots in spring 1987

  13. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Bovine Foot Rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, David C

    2017-07-01

    Bovine foot rot (BFR) is an infectious disease of the interdigital skin and subcutaneous tissues of beef and dairy cattle that occurs under a variety of management and environmental settings. The anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, and Prevotella intermedia are commonly isolated from lesions. A multitude of host, agent, and environmental factors contribute to the development of BFR. Initiation of systemic antimicrobial therapy early in the course of disease commonly leads to resolution. Delays in treatment may result in extension of infection into deeper bone, synovial structures, or ligamentous structures, and the prognosis for recovery is reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of Rot in bacterial autolysis regulation of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xinmin; Xia, Rui; He, Nianan; Fang, Yuting

    2013-09-01

    Autolysis is an important process in cell wall turnover in Staphylococcus aureus, performed by several peptidoglycan hydrolases or so-called autolysins and controlled by many regulators. Rot is a global regulator that regulates numerous virulence genes, including genes encoding lipase, hemolysins, proteases and genes related to cell surface adhesion. The aim of our study was to determine whether Rot has the ability to regulate autolysis. We compared Triton-X-100-induced autolysis of S. aureus NCTC8325 and its rot knock-out mutant. We found that the rot mutant showed increased autolysis rates. By examining the transcript level of several autolysins and some known regulators responsible for regulating autolysis using real-time RT-PCR assays, we found that transcription of two autolysins (lytM, lytN) and one regulatory operon (lrgAB) was changed in the rot mutant. An in vitro approach was undertaken to determine which of these genes are directly controlled by Rot. Rot proteins were overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified. Gel mobility shift DNA binding assays were used and showed that in-vitro-purified Rot can directly bind to the promoter region of lytM, lytN, lrgA and lytS. We also tested biofilm formation of the rot mutant, and it showed enhancement in biofilm formation. Taken together, our results reveal that Rot affects autolysis by directly regulating autolysins LytM and LytN, and, via a regulatory system, LrgAB. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Recovery from diabetes insipidus and preservation of thyroid function after craniopharyngioma removal and pituitary stalk sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-11-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a slow-growing tumor, but long-term tumor control with maintenance of quality of life is sometimes very difficult to achieve, and hypothalamic disturbance should be strictly avoided in the treatment. However, management of the pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk varies among surgeons and institutions. This retrospective review identified 44 patients, 24 males and 20 females with craniopharyngiomas who were initially treated by surgery through the extended transsphenoidal approach with pituitary stalk sectioning at a single institute. If the tumor bed involved the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, pituitary stalk, anterior and/or mid portion of the third ventricle floor, these structures were removed en-bloc together with the tumor. The closest attention was paid to preserve fine arteries running along the surface of optic chiasm and the lateral walls of the third ventricle. Surgical outcome and changes in postoperative endocrinological status were investigated. Gross total removal was achieved in 40 of 44 patients (91%), and all patients could discharge without autonomic and/or thermal disturbances. Tumor remnants were identified with tight adhesion to the perforating arteries in 2 cases, tight adhesion to mammillary bodies in 1, and optic chiasm in 1. Administration of anti-diuretic hormone could be discontinued in 23 of 44 patients (52.3%) with improved diabetes insipidus (DI), although no patient could discontinue glucocorticoid administration. Preservation of thyroid function was achieved in another 23 of 44 patients (52.3%), and recovery from DI was correlated with preservation of thyroid function (p=0.016). Pituitary dysfunction is partially reversible even with pituitary stalk sectioning. Regrowth of tumor in the anterior and/or mid portion of the third ventricle floor including pituitary stalk can possibly be prevented by aggressive tumor removal, and co-achievement of long-term tumor control with maintenance of quality of life

  16. Innovative Prototype for Separate Harvesting of Cynara Cardunculus Achenes and Stalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pari, L.; Fedrizzi, M.; Pansini, L. (Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unita di Ricerca per l' Ingegneria Agraria, Monterotondo, RM (Italy))

    2008-10-15

    The CRA-ING took part to the Cynara cardunculus harvesting tests organized in Spain in 2007, where UPM has experimental cultivations in the Instituto Madrileno de Investigacion y Desarrollo Rural, Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDRA) de la Consejeria de Economia y Innovacion Tecnologica de la Comunidad de Madrid in El Encin, near Alcala De Henarez. The harvesting tests were carried out in week 33 (August 13th-17th); the cultivation was found part in good condition of maturity, part still not ready for harvesting. The test was carried out on the dried part of the crops. The tests aimed at evaluating a new mechanical equipment (head) working connected to a selfpropelled combine for separated harvesting of the different fractions obtainable by the cultivation assigned to different transformation: oil extraction from seeds and energy production from epigeous biomass combustion. During the tests carried out in 2006 in Portugal and Spain, it was observed how a combine harvester with a maize head was able to separate the seed with good accuracy. Likewise the difficulty of collecting the lignocellulosic fraction after its passage was highlighted. A combine with a wheat head could cut the stalk in an appropriate height range, but could not separate the head from the stalk. A sunflower head cut the capitula, but not the stalk. The project concept, supplied to a Firm that already builds heads for maize, wheat, sunflowers, soybean and so on, included the upper devices of a maize head and a classic wheat head (without the paddle wheel) in the lower part, to obtain capitula detachment and effective threshing and, at the same time, the stalk cut. Some modifications were specified to allow the cut of the stalk next to the ground and its successive tier in the space between the front wheels, where the discharge system of the threshing device would then provide to drop the remains of the capitula threshing. The basic concept of the machine, to separate and thresh the capitula and to drop

  17. Neuraminidase stalk length and additional glycosylation of the hemagglutinin influence the virulence of influenza H5N1 viruses for mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yumiko; Swayne, David E; Thomas, Colleen; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne; Naffakh, Nadia; Warnes, Christine; Altholtz, Melanie; Donis, Ruben; Subbarao, Kanta

    2009-05-01

    Following circulation of avian influenza H5 and H7 viruses in poultry, the hemagglutinin (HA) can acquire additional glycosylation sites, and the neuraminidase (NA) stalk becomes shorter. We investigated whether these features play a role in the pathogenesis of infection in mammalian hosts. From 1996 to 2007, H5N1 viruses with a short NA stalk have become widespread in several avian species. Compared to viruses with a long-stalk NA, viruses with a short-stalk NA showed a decreased capacity to elute from red blood cells and an increased virulence in mice, but not in chickens. The presence of additional HA glycosylation sites had less of an effect on virulence than did NA stalk length. The short-stalk NA of H5N1 viruses circulating in Asia may contribute to virulence in humans.

  18. Neuraminidase Stalk Length and Additional Glycosylation of the Hemagglutinin Influence the Virulence of Influenza H5N1 Viruses for Mice▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yumiko; Swayne, David E.; Thomas, Colleen; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne; Naffakh, Nadia; Warnes, Christine; Altholtz, Melanie; Donis, Ruben; Subbarao, Kanta

    2009-01-01

    Following circulation of avian influenza H5 and H7 viruses in poultry, the hemagglutinin (HA) can acquire additional glycosylation sites, and the neuraminidase (NA) stalk becomes shorter. We investigated whether these features play a role in the pathogenesis of infection in mammalian hosts. From 1996 to 2007, H5N1 viruses with a short NA stalk have become widespread in several avian species. Compared to viruses with a long-stalk NA, viruses with a short-stalk NA showed a decreased capacity to elute from red blood cells and an increased virulence in mice, but not in chickens. The presence of additional HA glycosylation sites had less of an effect on virulence than did NA stalk length. The short-stalk NA of H5N1 viruses circulating in Asia may contribute to virulence in humans. PMID:19225004

  19. Biopesticide activity of sugarcane associated rhizobacteria: Ochrobactrum intermedium strain NH-5 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain NH-300 against red rot under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem HASSAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum falcatum is the major fungal pathogen causing sugarcane red rot. Four antagonistic bacterial strains exhibiting biocontrol activity against this pathogen in greenhouse conditions were characterized for production of different antifungal metabolites and biocontrol determinants to elucidate the mechanism of action involved in their antagonistic activity. The strains were also evaluated under field conditions to assess their biocontrol potential. All the strains produced hydrogen cyanide (HCN, and volatile and diffusible antibiotics. In addition, the Ochrobactrum intermedium strain NH-5 produced siderophores and the broad spectrum antibiotic 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG; Pseudomonas sp. NH-203 produced siderophores, and Pseudomonas sp. NH-276 produced protease. Two strains, Ochrobactrum intermedium NH-5 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia NH-300, exhibited good biocontrol activity, suppressing red rot by 44–52% on two sugarcane varieties, SPF-234 and Co-1148, in field experiments. The strains gave consistent results in three consecutive years and showed potential to be used as biopesticides.

  20. Draft whole genome sequence of groundnut stem rot fungus Athelia rolfsii revealing genetic architect of its pathogenicity and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iquebal, M A; Tomar, Rukam S; Parakhia, M V; Singla, Deepak; Jaiswal, Sarika; Rathod, V M; Padhiyar, S M; Kumar, Neeraj; Rai, Anil; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-07-13

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oil seed crop having major biotic constraint in production due to stem rot disease caused by fungus, Athelia rolfsii causing 25-80% loss in productivity. As chemical and biological combating strategies of this fungus are not very effective, thus genome sequencing can reveal virulence and pathogenicity related genes for better understanding of the host-parasite interaction. We report draft assembly of Athelia rolfsii genome of ~73 Mb having 8919 contigs. Annotation analysis revealed 16830 genes which are involved in fungicide resistance, virulence and pathogenicity along with putative effector and lethal genes. Secretome analysis revealed CAZY genes representing 1085 enzymatic genes, glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, carbohydrate-binding modules, auxillary activities, glycosyl transferases and polysaccharide lyases. Repeat analysis revealed 11171 SSRs, LTR, GYPSY and COPIA elements. Comparative analysis with other existing ascomycotina genome predicted conserved domain family of WD40, CYP450, Pkinase and ABC transporter revealing insight of evolution of pathogenicity and virulence. This study would help in understanding pathogenicity and virulence at molecular level and development of new combating strategies. Such approach is imperative in endeavour of genome based solution in stem rot disease management leading to better productivity of groundnut crop in tropical region of world.