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Sample records for stal hemiptera cicadoidea

  1. Efecto insecticida del extracto de semillas de Neem (Azadirachta indica sobre Collaria scenica, Stal (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Daniel Villamil Montero

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. This work was developed with the objetive to evaluate the insecticidal effect of the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against grass bug nymphs Collaria scenica Stal. For that, an extract was prepared from green fruits of Neem by rotaevaporación. The extract was diluted in three ppm concentrations corresponding to treatments. Using thin-layer chromatography we identified the presence of Azaridactina. DCA essay was carried out with 4 treatments and 5 repetitions that included the three extract concentrations and a control. In each repetition were used 15 nymphs, randomly placed in plastic boxes with food and the corresponding concentration. Every day an extract application was made and recorded mortality percentage, number of exuviae and number of individuals who came to adulthood in each treatment. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Games-Howell for each variable. The three concentrations of Neem seed extract had a negative effect on the development of the bugs. The more concentrated treatment (250 ppm was the most effective, showing a 97% mortality, fewer exuvias and and fewer adults in the end of the experiment.

  2. Aspecto de la biología de la Chinche de encaje Dictyla monotropidia Stal (Hemiptera: Tingidae) y evaluación de la eficiencia de entomopatógenos ENT1512.

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    Martínez Córdoba, Harol Enrique

    2011-01-01

    La chinche de encaje Dictyla monotropidia Stal (Hemiptera :Tingidae) produce necrosamiento y caída prematura de las hojas del nogal cafetero Cordia alliodora al alimentarse. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron evaluar la fluctuación poblacional, el ciclo de vida y el efecto de entomopatógenos sobre la plaga. Se evaluó el número de insectos y el porcentaje de hojas afectadas en los árboles (PHAA) y los platos mensualmente durante un año en un lote de C. alliodora. Se crió al insecto y...

  3. Induction of insect plant resistance to the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in sugarcane by silicon application

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    Korndorfer, A.P.; Grisoto, E.; Vendramim, J.D., E-mail: korndorfer@hotmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Changes in the agroecosystem with the increase of green cane harvesting in Brazil affected the insect populations associated to this crop, and secondary pests like the spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata Stal, became much more important. Many studies have demonstrated the active role played by silicon in plant defense against herbivory. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of silicon applications on the biology of the spittlebug reared on two resistant (SP79-1011 and SP80-1816) and one susceptible (SP81-3250) sugarcane cultivars. Sugarcane plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to different treatments: with and without silicon fertilizer in two different soil type (sandy and clay soil). The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their growth and maintenance of the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. After emergence, adult males and females were placed in cages for mating and oviposition. The silicon absorbed and accumulated in the plant caused an increase in nymphal mortality, and depending on the sugarcane cultivar tested this element also provided an increase in the duration of the nymphal stage and a decrease in the longevity of males and females. 'SP79-1011' presented the highest silicon content in leaves, and M. fimbriolata had the highest nymph mortality and the shortest female longevity. The pre-oviposition period, fecundity and egg viability were not affected by the silicon content in plants or the cultivar used. (author)

  4. [Development of Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 fed on mice and through a silicone membrane (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)].

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    Rocha, D da S; da Fonseca, A H; Costa, F A; Jurberg, J; Galvão, C

    1997-01-01

    Rhodnius pictipes (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) from Serra Norte, State of Pará, Brazil, acclimatized in an insectary at the Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Departamento de Entomologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, were fed through a silicone membrane. In order to know the viability and the efficiency of this membrane compared with insects fed on mice, the number of bloodmeals taken, period of development of the five nymphal instars, longevity of adults, average amount of blood intake in each meal and percent of mortality were observed. A total of 310 insects, were used, comprising 50 nymphs of each instar, as well as 30 male and 30 female adults. Insects fed artificially had reduced minimal and maximal periods of development than the group fed on mice. The largest relative increase of body weight was observed in the 2nd instar followed by the 1st, and the amount of blood ingested increased during the development, to the 5th instar for both groups. There were no significant differences between the groups fed artificially and in vivo according to Tukey's test for p > 0.05. The percent of mortality in the 1st instar was 18% for artificially fed and 16% for the group fed on mice; these percentages decreased as insects developed until the 4th instar, without mortality, returning to increase in the 5th instar. R. pictipes was shown to be easily adaptable to artificial feeding, and could be considered as an important and viable experimental model.

  5. Cytogenetic characterization of Taphronota thaelephora Stal. 1873 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taphronota thaelephora Stal. 1873 is generating a lot of interest for biological and cytogenetic studies because it has demonstrated the potential for a future veritable pest in Cameroon. The lack of previously established karyotype for the species has necessitated this study. Testes from five adult individuals collected from ...

  6. Stal van de toekomst is geen stal, in de stal van de toekomst lopen stal en weide naadloos in elkaar over.

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    Capellen, van de J.; Koning, de C.J.A.M.; Vrolijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hoe ziet de huisvesting van koeien er in 2025 uit? Op de beurs AgroTechniek Holland in Biddinghuizen krijgen bezoekers een kijkje in de stal van de toekomst, die laat zien dat de wensen van boer, koe en consument prima kunnen samengaan.

  7. Could Fidicina mannifera (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Fidicinini) promote a resource pulse in two Brazilian Cerrado vegetation classes?

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    Oliveira, R N; Caramori, S S; Maccagnan, D H B

    2017-11-01

    Cicadas are usually studied regarding their importance in agriculture. However, the possibility of this group to represent a pulse of nutrients can also imply on the success of a given species in the biome. The aim of this study was to assess the level of total soluble proteins and lipids of Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius, 1803), and to determine whether the species can promote a pulse of nutrients in two vegetation classes of the Brazilian Cerrado. To assess the pulse of nutrients, it was concluded the determination of total soluble proteins and lipids from samples of males and adult females of F. mannifera, and the spatial distribution of exuviae of this species was also calculated in two vegetation classes of the Brazilian Cerrado. The amount of protein provided by each individual did not differ between males and females (p = 0.66) but females had 40% more lipids than males (p = 0.05). Regarding F. mannifera the gallery forest offered 11.75 g/ha of protein, 3.91 g/ha of lipids, and the Cerrado stricto sensu offered 4.25 g/ha of protein, and 1.41 g/ha of lipid. The male cicadas have a hollow abdomen, which houses a resonance chamber for sound production in order to attract females to mate, and females store larger amounts of lipids, mainly located in the abdominal cavity, where the body fat is directly linked to the reproductive system for the development of the ovaries and egg production after emergence. The mass occurrence of F. mannifera in the Brazilian Cerrado and the fast availability of proteins and lipids make this species a food resource that can directly impact the diet of secondary consumers and scavengers, although the amount of nutrients available by F. mannifera does not promote a pulse of nutrients in the study site.

  8. Could Fidicina mannifera (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Fidicinini promote a resource pulse in two Brazilian Cerrado vegetation classes?

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    R. N. Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cicadas are usually studied regarding their importance in agriculture. However, the possibility of this group to represent a pulse of nutrients can also imply on the success of a given species in the biome. The aim of this study was to assess the level of total soluble proteins and lipids of Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius, 1803, and to determine whether the species can promote a pulse of nutrients in two vegetation classes of the Brazilian Cerrado. To assess the pulse of nutrients, it was concluded the determination of total soluble proteins and lipids from samples of males and adult females of F. mannifera, and the spatial distribution of exuviae of this species was also calculated in two vegetation classes of the Brazilian Cerrado. The amount of protein provided by each individual did not differ between males and females (p = 0.66 but females had 40% more lipids than males (p = 0.05. Regarding F. mannifera the gallery forest offered 11.75 g/ha of protein, 3.91 g/ha of lipids, and the Cerrado stricto sensu offered 4.25 g/ha of protein, and 1.41 g/ha of lipid. The male cicadas have a hollow abdomen, which houses a resonance chamber for sound production in order to attract females to mate, and females store larger amounts of lipids, mainly located in the abdominal cavity, where the body fat is directly linked to the reproductive system for the development of the ovaries and egg production after emergence. The mass occurrence of F. mannifera in the Brazilian Cerrado and the fast availability of proteins and lipids make this species a food resource that can directly impact the diet of secondary consumers and scavengers, although the amount of nutrients available by F. mannifera does not promote a pulse of nutrients in the study site.

  9. A new genus and species of tettigarctid cicada from the early Miocene of New Zealand: Paratettigarcta zealandica (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Tettigarctidae

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    Uwe Kaulfuss

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of primitive cicada (Hemiptera: Tettigarctidae is described from the early Miocene of southern New Zealand. Paratettigarcta zealandica gen. et sp. n. is the first cicada (Cicadoidea fossil from New Zealand and exhibits wing venation patterns typical for the subfamily Tettigarctinae. It differs from other fossil taxa and the extant genus Tettigarcta in the early divergence of CuA2 from the nodal line in the forewing, its parallel-sided subcostal cell, the early bifurcation of vein M and long apical cells of the hindwing, and in wing pigmentation patterns.

  10. Billgren versus Edelfelt : The Illustrations for J. L. Runeberg's Fanrik Stals sagner

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    van der Hoeven, Adriaan

    2008-01-01

    Albert Edelfelt's Illustrations for Runeberg's Fanrik Stals sagner from 1900 are without doubt the best known of all made for this epic narrative. Nevertheless, in 2004, Swedish artist Ernst Billgren took up the challenge of creating a new image of the Tales of Ensign Stal. Edelfelt works in a

  11. Mecanismo antidiurético en Rhodnius Prolixus (Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Ivonne Gómez

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Se propone para R. prolixus un mecanismo antidiurético, cuya actividad se pone de manifiesto una vez transcurrido el periodo diurético y se mantiene hasta que el insecto es alimentado nuevamente. Presumiblemente este mecanismo actua a nivel del esfinter rectal proximal y es inhibido por la ingesta, distención mecanica del buche y desinhibición central por decapitación. Se sugiere que la actividad antidiurética es mantenida por vía nerviosa y se modifica cuando hay distensión del buche o canudo es interrumpida la senãl nerviosa por decapitación. Se pone de manifiesto que la excreción de orina en R. prolixus no es controlada exclusivamente por la hormona diurética, sino que factores no ligados a la hemolinfa mantienen en estado diurético y no diurético a los insectos.An antidiuretic mechanism is proposed for Rhodnius prolixus, whose activity is manifested when the diuretic phase has terminated and is maintained until the insect has fed again. Presumably this mechanism acts at the level of the proximal rectal sphincter and is inhibited by ingestion, mechanical distension of the gut and central desinhibition by decapitation. It is suggested that the antidiuretic activity is maintained by the nervous system and is modified when there is distention of the gut or when the nervous signal is interrupted by decapitacion. It is demonstrated that the excretion of urine in R. prolixus is not controlled exclusively by the diuretic hormone, but rather that factors not linked to the haemolvmph maintain the insects in a diuretic or nondiuretic state.

  12. Susceptibility of Triatoma sordida Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to alpha-cypermethrin under natural climatic conditions

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    Grasielle Caldas DÁvila Pessoa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:INTRODUCTION:Despite the recommendations by interpretation of resistance ratios obtained in laboratory bioassays, little is known about the actual impact of these results in the effectiveness of vector control activities in the field. In this context, our objective was to determine the mean value of different resistance ratios obtained by laboratory bioassays performed as part of the chemical control strategies of Triatoma sordida in the field.METHODS:Field bioassays were developed in Monte Azul and Coração de Jesus (Southeast, Brazil. In each location, samples were formed with three domestic units treated with alpha-cypermethrin 20.0% (Alfatek (r 200 SC. One day after spraying, 10 fifth-instar nymphs remained in contact with the surfaces treated (adobe with plaster, adobe without plaster, or wood with insecticide in plastic cones for 72h. Three cones were exposed inside the intradomicile and the peridomicile. The insects in the control group were exposed to an insecticide-free piece of cardboard. Mortality was measured 72h after removal of the insects from the treated surfaces. The tests were realized in triplicate.RESULTS:Mortality was 100.0% in all locations, except for Monte Azul; Landinho (96.6% and Coração de Jesus; Barriguda (96.6%.CONCLUSIONS:Although the resistant populations in laboratory tests proved to be susceptible in the field, this observation is not sufficient to suggest that the cut-off points used to justify the resistance ratio should be changed. In this sense, we recommend that laboratory and field bioassays are carried out with a greater number of Triatominae populations to allow more in-depth consideration of the subject.

  13. Biologia do triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 em condiçoes de laboratórios (Hemiptera: Reduvidae: Triatominae I. Ciclo evolutivo Biology of triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 under laboratory conditions (Hemiptera: Reduvidae: Triatominae: I. Evolutive cycle

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    Teresa Cristina M. Gonçalves

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas observações do ciclo evolutivo do Triatoma vitticeps com alimentação semanal em camundongo, em condições de laboratório. De quatro casais virgens obtiveram-se 435 ovos, sendo que 149 destinaram-se ao ciclo evolutivo e 286 ao estudo da resistência ao jejum, o que constituirá a segunda etapa deste trabalho. Apenas 50 exemplares atingiram a fase adulta num período X (S = 270 ± 45 dias. Quanto ao tempo de incubação, o 1° e o 2° estádios foram realizados, cada um, em menos de um mês, enquanto que os 3º, 4º e 5º estádios requereram cerca de um, dois e três meses, respectivamente. A procura pelo 1º repasto ocorreu de forma sensível no 3º, 6º e 10º dias. Em todos os estádios, mais de 50% dos exemplares realizaram apenas um repasto, com exceção do 5º, onde foram necessários dois. No que diz respeito ao intervalo de tempo entre o oferecimento do repasto, o ato de picar, e a duração do repasto, observou-se que estes aumentaram gradativamente de acordo com o estádio. Dos 423 repastos realizados, 390 não foram seguidos de defecação no prazo de 10 min. Sob este aspecto parece que o T. vitticeps não é um bom transmissor do T. cruzi. O experimento teve a duração de 13 meses e neste período as temperaturas máximas e mínimas e a umidade relativa do ar variaram em média de 28 ± 2°C a 25 ± 2°C e 80 ± 2%, respectivamente. O material é proveniente da criação mantida no Departamento de entomologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.Observations were made on the evolutive cycle of Triatoma vitticeps, held under laboratory conditions and fed weekly in mice. Of the 435 eggs obtained, from 4 virgen couples, 149 were purposed for the biological cycle study and 286 to evaluate their resistance to starvation, which shall be a second part of this work. Only 50 specimens reached the adult stage in a period of X (S = 270 ± 45 days. At the incubation time, the first and second instars were of less than a month for each, while the third, fourth and fifth instars requires approximately one, two and three months, respectively. The search for the first meal occured clearly on the 3rd, 6th and 10th day. During all the stages,more than 50% of the specimens had only one blood-meal, except the fifth one, when two blood-meals were required. In relation to the time-lapse between the presenting of the blood-meal and the beginning of feeding, as well as the length of the blood-meal, it was observed that these increased gradually according to the stage. From the 423 blood-meals performed, 390 were not followed by defecation in the settled period of 10 min. Under this point of view, t. vitticeps seems to be a poor transmissor of T. cruzi. The experiment was carried out for 13 months and by this time the averages of minimum and maximum temperatures and the humidity were 25 ± 2°C - 28 ± 2°C and 80 ± 2%, respectively. The material belongs to the triatomine colony held at the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Department of Entomology.

  14. Estudos sobre a resistência ao jejum e aspectos nutricionais de Triatoma lecticularia (Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Studies on the resistance to fasting and nutritional aspects of Triatoma lecticularia (Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    José Jurberg

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo sobre a resistência ao jejum em todas as fases evolutivas e pesagens em diferentes situações nutricionais de Triatoma lecticularia (alimentado; não alimentado; na morte após o jejum com temperatura e umidade registradas. Observou-se que os períodos de resistência das fases ninfais apresentaram médias (dias crescentes: 1º: 45,84; 2º: 61; 3º: 88,74; 4º: 123,47; 5º 162,30. Na fase adulta as médias foram aproximadas à do 3º estádio (para os machos 88,94 e para as fêmeas 83,66. O procedimento de pesagens permitiu registrar a quantidade de sangue ingerido, a perda de peso durante o jejum e o respectivo percentual em relação ao peso inicial. Esta espécie tem assinalada sua distribuição geográfica na região Neártica, onde tem sido encontrda infectada com Trypanosoma cruzi associada a Neotoma micropus Baird e Spermophilus variagatus (Erxeleben.The resistance to fasting of Triatoma lecticularia was studied in all phases of the life cycle and the insect weighed in different nutritional situations (fed, not fed, death after starvation. The temperature and humidity level were also recorded. The nymphal phases showed increasing resistance to fasting as demonstrated by the following averages (days 1st 45.84; 2nd 61; 3rd 88.74; 4th 123.44; 5th 162.30. Upon the adult phase, the averages were similar to those of the 3rd stage for the male insects 88.94 and for females 83.66. The weighing technique allowed for the measeurement of the quantity of blood ingested, the weight loss during the fast and the percentage weight lost as related to the initial weight. The species is found in the Neartic region where it has been found infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and is associated with the terrestial rodents Neotoma micropus Baird and Spermophilus variagatus (Erxelebem.

  15. First report of Eratyrus mucronatus, Stal, 1859, (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae), in the State of Rondônia, Brazil.

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    Meneguetti, Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira; Trevisan, Olzeno; Rosa, Renato Moreira; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of the Eratyrus mucronatus species in the State of Rondonia, Brazil. These specimens were caught by chance in the forest and later they were collected using luminous traps. After finding these specimens, the number of the Triatominae genera in Rondonia rose to four, while its species rose to seven. Complimentary studies will be conducted in order to allow for clearer understanding the ecology of this arthropod, its possible role in transmitting Chagas' disease and its current geographical distribution.

  16. First report of Eratyrus mucronatus, Stal, 1859, (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae, in the State of Rondônia, Brazil

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    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of the Eratyrus mucronatus species in the State of Rondonia, Brazil. METHODS: These specimens were caught by chance in the forest and later they were collected using luminous traps. RESULTS: After finding these specimens, the number of the Triatominae genera in Rondonia rose to four, while its species rose to seven. CONCLUSIONS: Complimentary studies will be conducted in order to allow for clearer understanding the ecology of this arthropod, its possible role in transmitting Chagas' disease and its current geographical distribution.

  17. Sulfonation of glycopeptide antibiotics by sulfotransferase StaL depends on conformational flexibility of aglycone scaffold.

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    Shi, Rong; Munger, Christine; Kalan, Lindsay; Sulea, Traian; Wright, Gerard D; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2012-07-17

    Although glycopeptide antibiotics (GPAs), including vancomycin and teicoplanin, represent the most important class of anti-infective agents in the treatment of serious gram-positive bacterial infections, their usefulness is threatened by the emergence of resistant strains. GPAs are complex natural products consisting of a heptapeptide skeleton assembled via nonribosomal peptide synthesis and constrained through multiple crosslinks, with diversity resulting from enzymatic modifications by a variety of tailoring enzymes, which can be used to produce GPA analogues that could overcome antibiotic resistance. GPA-modifying sulfotransferases are promising tools for generating the unique derivatives. Despite significant sequence and structural similarities, these sulfotransferases modify distinct side chains on the GPA scaffold. To provide insight into the spatial diversity of modifications, we have determined the crystal structure of the ternary complex of bacterial sulfotransferase StaL with the cofactor product 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate and desulfo-A47934 aglycone substrate. Desulfo-A47934 binds with the hydroxyl group on the 4-hydroxyphenylglycine in residue 1 directed toward the 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate and hydrogen-bonded to the catalytic His67. Homodimeric StaL can accommodate GPA substrate in only one of the two active sites because of potential steric clashes. Importantly, the aglycone substrate demonstrates a flattened conformation, in contrast to the cup-shaped structures observed previously. Analysis of the conformations of this scaffold showed that despite the apparent rigidity due to crosslinking between the side chains, the aglycone scaffold displays substantial flexibility, important for enzymatic modifications by the GPA-tailoring enzymes. We also discuss the potential of using the current structural information in generating unique GPA derivatives.

  18. Infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) is associated with housing characteristics in rural Mexico.

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    Cohen, Justin M; Wilson, Mark L; Cruz-Celis, Adriana; Ordoñez, Rosalinda; Ramsey, Janine M

    2006-11-01

    Long-term control of Chagas disease requires not only interruption of the human transmission cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi Schyzotrypanum, Chagas, 1909 by controlling its domestic triatomine vectors but also surveillance to prevent reinfestation of residences from sylvatic or persistent peridomestic populations. Although a number of potential risk factors for infestation have been implicated in previous studies, the explanatory power of resulting models has been low. Two years after cessation of triatomine vector control efforts in the town of Chalcatzingo, Morelos, 78 environmental, socioecological, and spatial variables were analyzed for association with infestation by Triatoma pallidipennis Stal 1872 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), the principal vector of T. cruzi. We studied 712 residences in this rural community to identify specific intradomestic and peridomestic risk factors that predicted infestation with T. pallidipennis. From numerous characteristics that were identified as correlated with infestation, we derived multivariate logistic regression models to predict residences that were more or less likely to be infested with T. pallidipennis. The most important risk factors for infestation included measurements of house age, upkeep, and spatial location in the town. The effects of certain risk factors on infestation were found to be modified by spatial characteristics of residences. The results of this study provide new information regarding risk factors for infestation by T. pallidipennis that may aid in designing sustainable disease control programs in rural Mexico.

  19. Distribuição Geográfica e Dispersão Alti-latitudinal de Alguns Gêneros e Espécies da Tribo Triatomini Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Galvão Cleber

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Distribution and Alti-latitudinal Dispersion of Some Genera and Species of the Tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae - With the currently known distribution of genera and species of the tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919, maps and diagrams were prepared, showing the geographical area occupied by the species and their respective dispersion in grades of latitude and altitude. Two genera are not treated: Panstrongylus Berg, 1879, already published and Triatoma Laporte, 1832, that is being published partially in several articles. Genus Eratyrus Stal, 1859, has two species, while Dipetalogaster Usinger, 1939, Mepraia Mazza, Gajardo & Joerg, 1940, Paratriatoma Barber, 1938 and recently created genus Hermanlentia Jurberg & Galvão, 1997, have only one each. The study of these maps and diagrams permits a better knowledge about some ecological requirements of Chagas' disease vectors and detects gaps in the geographical distribution, where the species were not found but probably they could be prevalent

  20. Lethal effects of a Mexican Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) strain against Meccus pallidipennis (Stal)

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    Lino, Zumaquero Rios José; Juventino, López-Tlacomulco José; Raúl, Rojas García; Estibaliz, Sansinenea

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835) Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872). Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis) species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 × 106 spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis. PMID:25242941

  1. Lethal effects of a Mexican Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) strain against Meccus pallidipennis (Stal).

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    Lino, Zumaquero Rios José; Juventino, López-Tlacomulco José; Raúl, Rojas García; Estibaliz, Sansinenea

    2014-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835) Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872). Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis) species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 × 10(6) spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis.

  2. Lethal effects of a Mexican Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo strain against Meccus pallidipennis (Stal

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    Zumaquero Rios José Lino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835 Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872. Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 x 10(6 spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis.

  3. Biology of Triatominae (Reduviidae Hemiptera from North of Formosa County (Goiás-Brazil I. Length of life cycle of Triatoma sordida (Stal. 1859

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    Dalva A. Mello

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the life cycle of Triatoma sordida was studied. The mean length from egg to adult was 213 days. The mean length in days from each stage was: 24.3 (± 1.30 for the first. 32.8 (± 1.45 (2nd, 36.1 (± 1.50 (3rd, 44.6 (± 1.85 (4th and 52.0 (± 1.92 (5th. The mean egg incubation períod was 23.2 (± 1.40. Overall mortality was 18.8% and egg viability was 82.5%.Foi estudado no presente trabalho o ciclo biológico do Triatoma sordida A média da duração do ciclo de ovo a adulto foi 213 dias. A média de duração em dias para cada estágio foi 24,3 (± 1,30 para o primeiro, 32,8 (± 1,45 para o segundo, 36,1 (± 1,50 para o terceiro, 44,6 (± 1,85 para o quarto e 52,0 (± 1,92 para o quinto. A média do período de incubação dos ovos foi 23,2 (± 1,40. A mortalidade em todos ps estágios foi 18,8% e a viabilidade dos ovos foi 82,5%.

  4. Morphological, biological and molecular characterization of three strains of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) isolated from Triatoma sordida (Stal) 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) and a domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIMOLDI, ALINE; TOMÉ ALVES, RENATA; AMBRÓSIO, DANIELA LUZ; FERNANDES, MARIA ZENAIDE TITA; MARTINEZ, ISABEL; DE ARAÚJO, RENATO FREITAS; CICARELLI, REGINA MARIA BARRETO; DA ROSA, JOÃO ARISTEU

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A study was conducted of the biological, morphological and molecular characters of 3 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi (SI5, SI8 and SIGR3) isolated from specimens of Triatoma sordida collected in Santo Inácio and a domestic cat. In order to carry out the study, the following parameters were evaluated: pre-patent period, parasitaemia curves, morphology of the parasites, mortality rates, histopathological lesions and molecular typing. The strains presented variable pre-patent periods, low parasitaemia and no animal mortality. The morphological study of trypomastigotes showed a predominance of intermediate-width and short-length forms, as well as low nuclear index. Epimastigotes presented a low nuclear index, intermediate-width forms in strains SI5 and SI8, and large-width forms in SIGR3. A shorter length could be noted in strains SI8 and SIGR3, whereas SI5 displayed an intermediate length. The histopathological study did not detect amastigote nests in tissues. The amplification of the divergent domain of 24Sα rRNA, HSP60 and GPI genes of strains SI5, SI8 and SIGR3 classified the 3 strains into Group II. Biological parameters made it possible to classify the strains isolated in Santo Inácio (BA) into Biodeme III, Zymodeme 1 and Group II of T. cruzi. PMID:22217619

  5. A phylogenetic revision of the true bug genus Heraeus Stal 1862 (Hemiptera: Rhyparochromidae: Myodochini), with the description of two new genera and 30 new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to this study, the genus Heraeus Stål included 14 species, all of which are restricted to the Western Hemisphere. Three species (H. cinnamomeus Barber, H. coquilletti Barber, H. plebejus Stål) are known from the Nearctic Region, nine (H. caliginosus Slater & Baranowski, H. cincticornis Stål, H...

  6. Peridomiciliary colonies of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in rural areas of the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    Claudiney Biral dos Santos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the colonization of human dwellings by triatomines occurs in areas with native vegetation of the caatinga or cerrado types. In areas of Atlantic forest such as in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo, there are no species adapted to live in human habitations. The few autochthonous cases of Chagas disease encountered in Espírito Santo have been attributed to adult specimens of Triatoma vitticeps that invade houses from forest remnants. In recent years, the entomology unit of the Espírito Santo State Health Secretariat has recorded nymphs infected with flagellates similar to Trypanosoma cruzi in rural localities. Entomological surveys were carried out in the residences and outbuildings in which the insects were found, and serological examinations for Chagas disease performed on the inhabitants. Four colonies were found, all associated with nests of opossums (Didelphis aurita, 111 specimens of T. vitticeps, and 159 eggs being collected. All the triatomines presented flagellates in their frass. Mice inoculated with the faeces presented trypomastigotes in the circulating blood and groups of amastigotes in the cardiac muscle fibres. Serological tests performed on the inhabitants were negative for T. cruzi. Even with the intense devastation of the forest in Espírito Santo, there are no indications of change in the sylvatic habits of T. vitticeps. Colonies of this insect associated with opossum nests would indicate an expansion of the sylvatic environment into the peridomicile.

  7. Genomic insights into the glutathione S-transferase gene family of two rice planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal and Sogatella furcifera (Horvath (Hemiptera: Delphacidae.

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    Wen-Wu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferase (GST genes control crucial traits for the metabolism of various toxins encountered by insects in host plants and the wider environment, including insecticides. The planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera are serious specialist pests of rice throughout eastern Asia. Their capacity to rapidly adapt to resistant rice varieties and to develop resistance to various insecticides has led to severe outbreaks over the last decade. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the genome sequence of N. lugens, we identified for the first time the complete GST gene family of a delphacid insect whilst nine GST gene orthologs were identified from the closely related species S. furcifera. Nilaparvata lugens has 11 GST genes belonging to six cytosolic subclasses and a microsomal class, many fewer than seen in other insects with known genomes. Sigma is the largest GST subclass, and the intron-exon pattern deviates significantly from that of other species. Higher GST gene expression in the N. lugens adult migratory form reflects the higher risk of this life stage in encountering the toxins of non-host plants. After exposure to a sub-lethal dose of four insecticides, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, buprofezin or beta-cypermethrin, more GST genes were upregulated in S. furcifera than in N. lugens. RNA interference targeting two N. lugens GST genes, NlGSTe1 and NlGSTm2, significantly increased the sensitivity of fourth instar nymphs to chlorpyrifos but not to beta-cypermethrin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first elucidation of the nature of the GST gene family in a delphacid species, offering new insights into the evolution of metabolic enzyme genes in insects. Further, the use of RNA interference to identify the GST genes induced by insecticides illustrates likely mechanisms for the tolerance of these insects.

  8. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  9. Development of a tool for defining and identifying the dying patient in hospital: Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care (CriSTAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Morrell, Magnolia; Hillman, Ken

    2015-03-01

    To develop a screening tool to identify elderly patients at the end of life and quantify the risk of death in hospital or soon after discharge for to minimise prognostic uncertainty and avoid potentially harmful and futile treatments. Narrative literature review of definitions, tools and measurements that could be combined into a screening tool based on routinely available or obtainable data at the point of care to identify elderly patients who are unavoidably dying at the time of admission or at risk of dying during hospitalisation. Variables and thresholds proposed for the Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care (CriSTAL screening tool) were adopted from existing scales and published research findings showing association with either in-hospital, 30-day or 3-month mortality. Eighteen predictor instruments and their variants were examined. The final items for the new CriSTAL screening tool included: age ≥65; meeting ≥2 deterioration criteria; an index of frailty with ≥2 criteria; early warning score >4; presence of ≥1 selected comorbidities; nursing home placement; evidence of cognitive impairment; prior emergency hospitalisation or intensive care unit readmission in the past year; abnormal ECG; and proteinuria. An unambiguous checklist may assist clinicians in reducing uncertainty patients who are likely to die within the next 3 months and help initiate transparent conversations with families and patients about end-of-life care. Retrospective chart review and prospective validation will be undertaken to optimise the number of prognostic items for easy administration and enhanced generalisability. Development of an evidence-based tool for defining and identifying the dying patient in hospital: CriSTAL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Biologia do Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 em condições de laboratório (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: II. Resistência ao jejum Biology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 under laboratory conditions (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: II. Resistance to starvation

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    Teresa Cristina M. Gonçalves

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Em prosseguimento ao estudo da biologia do Triatoma vitticeps (Gonçalves et al., 1988, foram feitas observações sobre a sua resistência ao jejum. Dos 286 ovos obtidos, apenas 201 eclodiram e atingiram o estádio pretendido para as observações. Os demais não eclodiram, não completaram a muda ou morreram sem motivo aparente. As ninfas foram acondicionadas, individualmente em frascos de Borrel, devidamente registrados. Para a alimentação foram utilizados camundongos e a medida que as ninfas atingiam o estágio pretendido a alimentação era suspensa até ocorrer a morte. A avaliação da resistência ao jejum foi feita da seguinte forma: o intervalo de dias entre o último repasto e a morte e entre a muda e a morte. Verificou-se que a resistência está diretamente relacionada com a fase de desenvolvimento. Para os parâmetros último repasto/morte e muda/morte, ambos os sexos foram menos resistentes do que as ninfas de 3º e 2º estádios, respectivamente. O experimento teve duração de 15 meses e neste período as temperaturas máxima e mínima e a umidade relativa do ar variaram em média de 25 ± 2ºC e 81 ± 3% UR, respectivamente. O material foi proveniente da criação de triatomíneos mantida no Departamento de Entomologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.Following the study on the biology of Triatoma vitticeps (Gonçalves et al. 1988 observations have been made on its resistance to starvation. Of the 286 eggs obtained only 201 hatched and reached the intended stage for observation. The others did not eclode, neither reached the ecdisis nor died, without explanation. The nymphs were kept, separately, in Borrel flasks and properly listed. The blood-meal was performed in mice, although the insects were kept without feeding as soon as moulted. The starvation was evaluated in two ways: the time-lapse in days between the last meal/death and between mult/death. The starvation was directly related with the developmental stage. In relation to the parameters las meal/death and moult/death, both sexes were less resistant than 3rd and 2nd stage, respectively. The experiment have been carried out for 15 months and by this time the average minimum and maximum temperatures and the humidity were 25 ± 2ºC and 81 ± 3% UR, respectively. The material spent belongs to the triatomine colony of the Oswaldo Cruz Institut Department of Entomology.

  11. Genetic structure of Pseudococcus microcirculus (Hemiptera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. A. ZETTLER

    Genetic structure of Pseudococcus microcirculus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations on epiphytic orchids in south Florida. J. A. ZETTLER. ∗. , K. ADAMS, B. FREDERICK, A. GUTTING, N. INGEBRETSEN, A. RAGSDALE and A. SCHREY. Department of Biology, Armstrong State University, Savannah, GA 31419, USA.

  12. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  13. Climatic factors and populational dynamics of Mahanarva posticata (Stal-1855) (Homoptera-Cercopidae) as a contribution to a possible regional implantation of the sterile male technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.L. de

    1981-01-01

    A field study on the population dynamics of M. posticata (STAL, 1855) (Homoptera-Cercopidae) was carried out from 1971 to 1978 under the ecological conditions prevailing in the Litoral-Mata-Sul Zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. The results indicated that maximal infestation of the sugar cane crops by the insect generally occured in June and in July, and it was dependent on rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The population density of adults was decreased markedly during the months of January, February and March. Technical and economical viability of the insect control by the male-sterilization-techniques through radiation was also demonstrated. The technique is to be used isolated or with other conventional procedures in the combat of froghopper infestations in the sugar cane growing in Pernambuco, Brazil. (Author) [pt

  14. NOTA PRÉVIA SOBRE ALGUNS DADOS BIONÔMICOS DO PREDADOR DE ABELHAS Apiomerus nigrilobus Stal, 1872 OBTIDOS EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO PRELIMINARY NOTE ON BIONOMIC DATA OF THE HONEYBEE PREDATOR Apiomerus nigrilobus STAL, 1872 GOTTEN IN LABORATORY CONDITIONS

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    Érico Amaral

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Esta nota prévia apresenta alguns dados bionômicos do predador de abelhas Apiomerus nigrilobus Stal, 1872 obtidos sob condições de laboratório. O estudo foi realizado no Departamento de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz” da Universidade do Estado de São Paulo, no período de março de 1972 a dezembro de 1973. O ciclo biológico médico constatado para este predador foi de 246 dias. Os autores apresentam três quadros que resumem os dados obtidos.

    This preliminary note presents some bionomics data of the honeybee predator Apiomerus nigrilobus Stal, 1872 obtained in laboratory. The study was conducted at the Agricultural College ";Luiz de Queiroz” U.S.P. — São Pau1o, Brazil, from March 1972 to December 1973. The evolutionary cycle of this predator, on an average, is 246 days. A table is presented showing the results.

  15. Efecto de la alternación de fuentes sanguíneas sobre la fecundidad y la fertilidad de Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

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    Elis José Aldana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evidencia que si el éxito reproductivo de Rhodnius prolixus Stal está relacionado a la fuente alimentaria, entonces las necesidades biológicas del insecto son satisfechas en modos diferentes según el tipo de alternancia entre dichas fuentes de alimentación; tales diferencias son reveladas mediante los cambios en fertilidad y fecundidad del insecto. Se realizaron nueve alternancias, en cada una se suministraron dos alimentaciones, en unas se alternó la fuente de alimentación y en los controles se suministraron dos alimentaciones con la misma fuente. Las fuentes alimentarias fueron paloma, gallina y humano, esta última mediante un aparato de alimentación artificial; estas fuentes se escogieron en el supuesto que son fuentes alimentarias encontradas en los ecotopos silvestre, peri-domicilio y domicilio respectivamente. En todos los tipos de alternancia se encontró una relación lineal entre la fecundidad y el tiempo de oviposición, que la relación entre cantidad de sangre ingerida y la fecundidad varían, que la tasa de fecundidad aumenta en la segunda alimentación respecto a la primera y que la fertilidad fue superior al 95 %. Effects of alternating blood sources on fecundity and fertility of Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: ReduviidaeIn this work it is argued that if the reproductive parameters of Rhodnius prolixus Stal are related to the blood source upon which it feeds, then the insects biological needs must be satisfied in different ways by the alternation between blood sources, reveled through changes in the fecundity and fertility of individuals of this insect species. Nine experiments were conducted, each one consisting of two feedings, in which the blood source were either alternated or remained the same. The meal sources used were pigeon, hen and human blood, selected according to the resources found in the sylvatic, peri-domestic and domestic ecotopes respectively. It was found that the quantity of

  16. Fonte alimentar e potencial vetorial de Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 com relação à doença de Chagas humana no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Feeding and vectorial capacity of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 in relation with human chagas' disease in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    João Carlos Pinto Dias

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available In paralel with several other epidemiologic and entomologic data of 19 Municipalities of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, the feeding pattern of 222 Triatoma vitticeps is studied through precipitin tests. Very high levels of natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi are observed in adult insects, in contrast with the abscence or minimum degrees of infection among nymphs and human individuals. The precipitin tests showed the contact of the insects with multiple blood sources, chiefly human and birds, followed by rodents and marsupials. The data suggest that T. vitticeps in spite of being highly antropophilic, become infected by T. cruzi in sylvatic ambient and occasionally invade houses. The species doesn't seem to be - at least until now - a good vector in the domestic cycle of Chagas' disease. Several factors seem to be involved in this conclusion, mainly the low density of the insect in the houses, its hardness to coloniza them, its slowness concerning to suction and defecation and possibly its low susceptibility to different T. cruzi strains.

  17. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses. PMID:23144967

  18. Comparación del ciclo de vida de Rhodnius colombiensis Moreno, Jurberg & Galvão, 1999 y Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1872(Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae en condiciones de laboratorio

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    Andrea Arévalo

    2007-01-01

    Resultados. Los promedios de duración de todos los estadios de desarrollo de R. colombiensis fueron mayores que en R. prolixus, presentando diferencias significativas en el tiempo transcurrido desde huevo hasta adulto. Los promedios de huevos puestos y huevos fértiles, presentaron diferencias significativas, siendo mayores en R. prolixus que en R. colombiensis. El porcentaje total de mortalidad de R. colombiensis fue de 31,5% y de 6,5% para R. prolixus. La longevidad en las hembras fue mayor en R. prolixus. Conclusiones. Los estadios de R. prolixus tienen menor duración, las ninfas en general realizan menor número de comidas que R. colombiensis, los adultos de R. prolixus toman mayor número de comidas y ovipositan mayor número de huevos fértiles, presentando hembras con mayor longevidad. Todos estos parámetros indican que R. prolixus presenta mejor éxito reproductivo que R. colombiensis, en las condiciones experimentales utilizadas. Los datos inéditos sobre el ciclo de vida de R. colombiensis serán de utilidad para el mantenimiento de las colonias en el laboratorio.

  19. Índice de defecación y éxito reproductivo de Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera:Reduviidaeen condiciones de laboratorio

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    E Aldana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento reproductivo y de defecación de Triatoma maculata (Erichson 1848alimentando artificialmente con sangre humana.Los estadios II y III mostraron mayor frecuencia de defecaciones (ID=0.6 n=40,el estadio V no alcanzó la diferenciación sexual, la fertilidad fue 55%(n=865,fecundidad 8 huevos/hembra/semana (n=26,22 días de desarrollo embrionario (n=477,longevidad de hembras 51 días (n=26,el tiempo intermuda aumenta progresivamente desde 35 días en el estadio I hasta 46 días en el estadio IV,el porcentaje de muda varió desde 0%en el estadio V hasta 63%en el estadio III,la mortalidad varió desde 8%en el estadio III hasta 100%en el estadio V (n=40.Los resultados del presente trabajo aportan evidencias que explican la menor capacidad vectorial y la baja densidad de T.maculata en el domicilio humano.Defecation index and reproductive success of Triatoma maculata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae under laboratory conditions.The reproductive and defecating behavior of Triatoma maculata (Erichson 1848was studied on animals from an university culture in Venezuela.This species does not reach the importance of Rhodnius prolixus Stal 1859 as Chagas disease vector in Venezuela.This study addressed the role of defecating frequency,an index of how dangerous the animals are for the human population,and its relationship with why T.maculata is a less important vector than R.prolixus .Human blood was fed to the insects through an artificial feeding device.The 2nd and 3rd instar nymphs defecated more frequently (Id=0.6,n=40,and our Vth instar nymphs did not complete sexual differentiation.Fertility was 55%(n=865and fecundity 8 eggs/female/week (n=26. Egg incubation lasted 22 days (n=477.Female longevity was 51 days (n=26.Intermould time grew progressively from 35 days for 1st to 40 days for 4th instar nymphs (n=40.Mould percentage varied from 0% for Vth to 63%for 3rd instar nymphs.Mortality varied from 8% for 3rd to 100% for Vth instar nymphs

  20. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin Favret; Nathan P. Havill; Gary L. Miller; Masakazu Sano; Benjamin Victor

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of...

  1. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  2. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  3. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  4. Karyotype of Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevi, K C C; Ravazi, A; Mendonça, V J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2015-01-16

    The Triatominae subfamily comprises 6 tribes. The tribe Rhodniini comprises 2 genera and 22 nominal species. Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae) was recently described as evolutionarily related to R. robustus. Therefore, in order to contribute to karyosystematic study of the tribe Rhodniini, this report describes the number of chromosomes and compares the karyotype of R. montenegrensis to that of all other species in the tribe, in order to determine the karyotypic evolution of the tribe Rhodniini. The seminiferous tubules of adult males, after being removed and fixated on a cover slip, were processed with lacto-aceto-orcein for cytogenetic analysis. R. montenegrensis, as well as all other species of the tribe Rhodniini showed 22 chromosomes (20 autosomes + XY). Thus, we hereby describe the karyotype of the species R. montenegrensis and mainly highlight that the tribe Rhodniini displays karyotypic homogeneity, demonstrating itself as a derived group to a lesser extent when compared to the number of chromosomes of the common ancestors of the subfamily Triatominae.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Triatomini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justi, Silvia Andrade; Russo, Claudia A M; Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos Santos; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Galvão, Cleber

    2014-03-31

    The Triatomini and Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) tribes include the most diverse Chagas disease vectors; however, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribes remain obscure. This study provides the most comprehensive phylogeny of Triatomini reported to date. The relationships between all of the Triatomini genera and representatives of the three Rhodniini species groups were examined in a novel molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the following six molecular markers: the mitochondrial 16S; Cytochrome Oxidase I and II (COI and COII) and Cytochrome B (Cyt B); and the nuclear 18S and 28S. Our results show that the Rhodnius prolixus and R. pictipes groups are more closely related to each other than to the R. pallescens group. For Triatomini, we demonstrate that the large complexes within the paraphyletic Triatoma genus are closely associated with their geographical distribution. Additionally, we observe that the divergence within the spinolai and flavida complex clades are higher than in the other Triatoma complexes. We propose that the spinolai and flavida complexes should be ranked under the genera Mepraia and Nesotriatoma. Finally, we conclude that a thorough morphological investigation of the paraphyletic genera Triatoma and Panstrongylus is required to accurately assign queries to natural genera.

  6. Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

  7. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P; Miller, Gary L; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid.

  8. Catalog of the phylloxerids of the world (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favret, Colin; Blackman, Roger L; Miller, Gary L; Victor, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the phylloxerids (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, three being synonyms. Thirty-five genus-group names, of which six are subjectively valid, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. Ninety-four species-group names are listed, of which 73 are considered subjectively valid. This is the last group of Aphidomorpha to be catalogued, bringing the list of valid extant species to 5,218.

  9. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates—filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under...

  10. Revisional notes on the genus Melucha (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Coreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Brailovsky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Melucha grandicula sp. n. and M. perampla sp. n., (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Nematopodini are described from Bolivia, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru. Melucha quadrivittis Stål, 1862, stat. restit., is resurrected from synonymy under M. phyllocnemis (Burmeister, 1835. Melucha ruficornis Breddin, 1903, syn. n., is synonymized under M. lineatella (Fabricius, 1803. An identification key for the known species of Melucha Amyot & Serville, 1843 is given. New distributional records for some previously known species are added.

  11. Why are the subfamily relationships of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) important?

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Carl W.

    2005-01-01

    Why are the subfamily relationships of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) important?-This question is really two: Is Triatominae a phylogenetically valid monophyletic subfamily; and, if it is, to what other reduviid subfamilies is it most closely related? If the answer to the first question is Yes, then what one knows about one member of Triatominae may be true for other members; if the answer is No, then no such prediction can be made. Because many members of Triatominae are of medical impo...

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Xing, Lu; Zhi-Teng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yu; Yu-Zhou, Du

    2017-03-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The 16 170 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 20 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. The A. dispersus mitogenome also includes a cytb-like non-coding region and shows several variations relative to the typical insect mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using the 13 protein-coding genes of 12 related species from Hemiptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Aleyrodidae and Hemiptera.

  13. Killer stal kinozvezdoi / Mihhail Sidilin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sidilin, Mihhail

    2003-01-01

    Dokumentaalse varjundiga mängufilm "Kandahar" ("Safar e Ghandehar") : stsenarist ja režissöör Mohsen Makhmalbaf : Iraan - Prantsusmaa 2001. Pikemalt näitlejana esinevast Hassan Tantai'st, kes on olnud poliitiline palgamõrvar

  14. Host range specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samita Limbu; Katie Cassidy; Melody Keena; Patrick Tobin; Kelli Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is...

  15. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larval development and predation of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samita Limbu; Melody A. Keena; David Long; Nancy Ostiguy; Kelli. Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera:...

  16. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages...

  17. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  18. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  19. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  20. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  1. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  2. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  3. Protein Profile Analysis of Ericerus pela (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) Egg

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yanhong; Chen, Xiaoming; Yang, Pu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The transformation from embryo to first instar nymph is an essential process in the insect life cycle. In order to characterize protein expression in the Ericerus pela Chavannes (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) egg, high-throughput proteomics and bioinformatics methods were used. A total of 678 peptides were identified and assigned to 358 protein groups. The proteins exhibited a wide range of molecular weight (3.50–495.12 kDa) and isoelectric points (3.50–13.1). Gene Ontology annotation showed...

  4. Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea in sori of two fern species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2015-12-01

    Duas Espécies de Cochonilhas (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Associadas com Soros de Samambaias Resumo. A presente comunicação relata a presença de duas espécies de cochonilhas Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell e Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley (Coccoidea, Diaspididae, associadas respectivamente com Asplenium serratum L. (Aspleniaceae e Niphidium crassifolium (L. Lellinger (Polypodiaceae. É o primeiro registro de uma samambaia como planta hospedeira de Hemiberlesia palmae.  Nas duas espécies de samambaias, os diaspidídeos encontravam-se concentrados principalmente ao redor dos soros.

  5. An overview on the ecology of Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Cleber; Justi, Silvia A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, the American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) and transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Here we provide an overview on the current knowledge about Triatominae ecology, its association with human, T. cruzi infection and the immediate consequences of habitat fragmentation. We also discuss the geographic distribution of the species and the importance of predicting their distributions to control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A genitália externa dos machos de sete espécies de Triatoma Laporte, 1832 da região Neártica (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Male external genitalia in seven species of Triatoma Laporte, 1832 from neartic region (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Lent

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Sete espécies da região neártica: Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gertaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 e T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 foram analisadas comparativamente, tendo como enfoque as estruturas da genitália do macho: falosoma (Ph, suporte do falosoma (SPh, processo do endosoma (PrEn, vesica (V e aparelho articular (Apb. As estruturas fálicas se mostraram capazes de serem usadas como critério morfológico suplementar aos padrões atualmente usados, em taxonomia. Estas espécies silvestres são encontradas nos Estados Unidos e México, naturalmente infectadas pelo T. cruzi; algumas vivem no perdomicílio e outras eventualmente no domicílio, sem contudo colonizá-lo.Seven species from the neartic region, Triatoma barberi Usinger, 1939; T. rubida (Uhler, 1894; T. gerstaeckeri (Stal, 1859; T. lecticularia (Stal, 1859; T. protracta (Uhler, 1894; T. recurva (Stal, 1868 and T. sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855 were comparatively analysed with emphasis on the genital structures of the male bug: the phallosome (Ph, the phallosome struts (SPh, the endosoma process (PrEn, the vesica (V and the articulatory apparatus (Apb. The phallic structures were useful as a supplementary morphological criterion to the present taxonomical standards. These wild species are found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi in the United States and Mexico. Some of them live outside human dwellings while other are occasionally domiciliary, although they do not colonize these homes.

  7. El género Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, con redescripción de dos especies The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, with redescription of two species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia González

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, with redescription of two species. Apiococcus Hempel is a genus from Brazil composed of four gall-inducing species. The adult females of two species, Apiococcus globosus Hempel and A. singularis Hempel, from Brazil, are redescribed and illustrated. Keys to the species of the genus and their galls are given.

  8. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  9. Three new Asiatic species of Hyadaphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafría, Juan M Nieto; Hidalgo, Nicolas Pérez; Brown, Paul A

    2016-05-09

    Three new species of Hyadaphis Kirkaldy, 1904 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are established: Hyadaphis levantina sp. n. from specimens caught on Lonicera nummulariifolia from Lebanon and Israel, and Hyadaphis anethi sp. n. plus Hyadaphis parva sp. n. from specimens respectively caught on Anethum sp. and Andrachne (?) cordifolia from Pakistan. Apterous viviparous females of all three species, alate viviparae of the first two and males of H. anethi are described. Known and new species of Hyadaphis are grouped for two relevant characters: (1) size and shape of siphunculi, and (2) host plant and life cycle; and the discriminant features of apterous viviparous females of the new species are compared with the already described species of the same group and a key for the Hyadaphis species is provided.

  10. Diploid chromosome set of kissing bug Triatoma baratai (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevi, K C C; Reis, Y V; Borgueti, A O; Mendonça, V J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2015-02-06

    Triatomines are insects that are taxonomically included in the Hemiptera order and Triatominae subfamily. Based on phenotypic similarity, capacity hybridization, and genetic and ecological aspects, the triatomine species can be grouped into specific complexes and subcomplexes. However, these groupings have not been confirmed. Cytogenetic analyses are important cytotaxonomic tools for improving the taxonomic knowledge of triatomines. Thus, we examined the karyotype of Triatoma baratai and compared the results with those of other species in the Matogrossensis subcomplex in order increase the understanding of vector potential. We also examined the cytotaxonomic classification of this insect. Triatoma baratai, similarly to other species that currently compose the Matogrossensis subcomplex, contains 22 chromosomes (20A + XY). Here, we describe the diploid chromosome set of T. baratai. We confirmed their current classification in the Matogrossensis subcomplex and demonstrated that the species in this subcomplex present karyotype homogeneity.

  11. Registro de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) no Estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Leonardo Rodrigues; Santos, Franciele; Wilcken, Carlos F.; Soliman, Everton P.

    2010-01-01

    It is recorded the occurrence of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) in eucalyptus trees in the State of Parana, Brazil. The insect was observed in June at 2009, in Curitiba region.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.75

    É registrada a ocorrência de Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) em árvores de eucalipto no Estado do Paraná. Infestações foram o...

  12. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  13. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo Tematico Controle Biologico

    2008-09-15

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  14. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  15. Biology of Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Kristine Braman; Jianghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The biology of Leptoypha hospita Drake et Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a potential biological control agent from China for Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied in quarantine in the United States. Both nymphs and adults feed on Chinese privet mesophyll cells that lead to a bleached appearance of leaves and dieback of branch tips. L. hospita has five...

  16. Descriptions of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Paladini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region. Two new species of Sphenorhina Amyot & Serville, S. pseudoboliviana SP. NOV: from Bolivia and S. plata SP. NOV: from Argentina are described and illustrated.

  17. Effects of fertilizer and low rates of Imidacloprid on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. V. Joseph; James Hanula; S. K. Braman; F. J. Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Healthy hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere, and hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), populations should favor retention and population growth of adelgid predators such as Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji&McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eastern hemlock trees...

  18. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  19. Time course study of feeding damage to pin head cotton squares by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an economically important pest affecting cotton crops in California. Lygus feeding causes abscission of cotton squares, with damage severity dependent on size of the square and life stage of the insect. Fifth instar nymphs are the most damaging stage; however, ...

  20. Survival and feeding rates of four aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various sucrose concentrations in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different concentrations of sucrose were used to investigate how survival and feeding was affected on four species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Seven sucrose concentrations were evaluated in feeding chambers fitted with a parafilm membranes and infested with nymphs of Aphis glycines, Diuraphi...

  1. Distribution and Abundance of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Within Hemlock Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.V. Joseph; J.L. Hanula; S.K. Braman

    2011-01-01

    We studied the distribution of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), within hemlock trees for three summer (progrediens) and two winter (sistens) generations in northern Georgia. Eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrie` re, trees were treated with 0, 10, or 25% of 1.5 g of imidacloprid per 2.5 cm of tree diameter at breast height...

  2. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

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    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  3. Molecular and morphological identification of the mealybug pest species, Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the summer and autumn of 2016, heavy infestations of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solani Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were observed on pumpkins, Cucurbita spp. (Cucurbitaceae). This was the first record of the species in Egypt. Several populations have been collected in various pumpkin fr...

  4. Identification of a new species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) based on distinct morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphis elena Lagos-Kutz and Voegtlin, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is described from specimens collected in Illinois, USA, on the North American native plant, Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T. Dur. & B.D. Jacks. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald (Family: Lamiaceae). Both apterous and alate viviparae are desc...

  5. Stylet bundle morphology and trophically related enzymes of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly L.F. Oten; Allen C. Cohen; Fred P. Hain

    2014-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a pest of eastern and Carolina hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere and Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann, respectively) in the eastern United States and has already caused catastrophic changes to eastern forests. As one of the significant...

  6. Biology, ecology, and control of the Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an economic pest of Ficus plant species in India, Burma and China. Severe infestations result in leaf dropping or shedding and defoliation. Since its initial US report in south Florida in 2007, the whitefly has expanded its ...

  7. Life table analysis and development of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) under different constant temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants in the United States. Very little is known about its biology and life history. Here, we studied development and reproduction at 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. No immatures survived the 35°...

  8. The mitogenome of the brown pod-sucking bug Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown pod-sucking bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), causes significant damage to cultivated cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp, a staple crop in sub-Saharan Africa. C. tomentosicollis pierce and suck sap from cowpea pods, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. The compl...

  9. Gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the p...

  10. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  11. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  12. Epidaus wangi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), a new assassin bug from Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Jianyun; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-08-18

    Epidaus wangi Chen, Zhu, Wang & Cai, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) from Tibet, China, is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens. The new species is morphologically similar to E. tuberosus Yang, 1940. The new species represents the first record of Epidaus species from Tibet.

  13. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

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    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  14. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina

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    Eduardo G. Virla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  15. Bionomics of Pollinia pollini (Costa (Hemiptera: Asterolecanidae in Egypt

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    Noha Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollinia pollini (Costa (Hemiptera: Asterolecanidae is considered as one of the most important pest infesting olive trees in Egypt. The aim of this work is to study the survey of host plants, geographical distribution and natural enemies as well as the dynamic of P. pollini on olive trees in Egypt. The obtained results indicated that P. pollini infested only olive trees in two Governorates. These are Alexandria and Fayoum Governorates. No parasitoid species were collected and recorded in the present work. Three species of predators were recorded that attacked P. pollini in Egypt. These are the coccinellids, Coccinella undecimpunctata L., Scymnus seriacus Mars. and the Neuroptera species, Chrysoperlla carnae Steph. Also the present study included the dynamics of P. pollini and its predators on olive trees in Alexandria Governorate during 2010 and 2011. Statistical analysis of the effect of weather factors on the population of P. pollini during the 2 years under consideration was discussed. It was concluded that maximum, minimum temperatures and % relative humidity are significant on the population of P. pollini. The trend over both years indicated the occurrence of two generations per year for P. pollini on olive trees in Alexandria.

  16. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates.

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    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-10-06

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.

  17. Local and Landscape Constraints on Coffee Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Magdalena; Kuesel, Ryan; Gonthier, David J.; Iverson, Aaron; Ennis, Katherine K.; Perfecto, Ivette

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of agriculture drives many ecological and environmental consequences including impacts on crop pest populations and communities. These changes are manifested at multiple scales including small-scale management practices and changes to the composition of land-use types in the surrounding landscape. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of local and landscape-scale agricultural factors on a leafhopper herbivore community in Mexican coffee plantations. We sampled leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) diversity in 38 sites from 9 coffee plantations of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. While local management factors such as coffee density, branches per coffee bush, tree species, and density were not important in explaining leafhopper abundance and richness, shade management at the landscape level and elevation significantly affected leafhoppers. Specifically, the percentage of low-shade coffee in the landscape (1,000-m radius surrounding sites) increased total leafhopper abundance. In addition, Shannon’s diversity of leafhoppers was increased with coffee density. Our results show that abundance and diversity of leafhoppers are greater in simplified landscapes, thereby suggesting that these landscapes will have higher pest pressure and may be more at-risk for diseases vectored by these species in an economically important crop. PMID:28355478

  18. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. Cytogenetics and genome evolution in the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, F; Pérez, R; Panzera, Y; Ferrandis, I; Ferreiro, M J; Calleros, L

    2010-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), vectors of Chagas disease, includes over 140 species. Karyotypic information is currently available for 80 of these species. This paper summarizes the chromosomal variability of the subfamily and how it may reveal aspects of genome evolution in this group. The Triatominae present a highly conserved chromosome number. All species, except 3, present 20 autosomes. The differences in chromosome number are mainly caused by variation in the number of sex chromosomes, due to the existence of 3 sex systems in males (XY, X(1)X(2)Y and X(1)X(2)X(3)Y). However, inter- and intraspecific differences in the position, quantity and meiotic behavior of constitutive heterochromatin, in the total genome size, and in the location of ribosomal 45S rRNA clusters, have revealed considerable cytogenetic variability within the subfamily. This cytogenetic diversity offers the opportunity to perform cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies, as well as structural, evolutionary, and functional analyses of the genome. The imminent availability of the complete genome of Rhodnius prolixus also opens new perspectives for understanding the evolution and genome expression of triatomines. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization for the mapping of genes and sequences, as well as comparative analyses of genome homology by comparative genomic hybridization will be useful tools for understanding the genomic changes in relation to evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation to different environments. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentina

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    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, y Platygastridae de Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae de la Argentina, y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Se describen cuatro especies nuevas: Anagrus (Anagrus empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris Berg que se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach; Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus riverplaticus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae, parasitoide de M. bellicus Marino de Remes Lenicov & Sosa; A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (parasitoide de M. bellicus, M. scutellaris y Megamelus sp., todos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei también se encuentra en Formosa; y Parascelio sabcli Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa. Se incluyen otros parasitoides oófagos conocidos de Megamelus spp. en la Argentina, tales como Kalopolynema (Kalopolynema poema Triapitsyn & Berezovskiy (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Buenos Aires y también Cremastobaeus atratus Loiácono & Mulvani (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa.

  1. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  2. Alimentación y defecación en triatominos del género Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae alimentados con sangre humana

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    E. Aldana

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento alimenticio y de defecación de Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859, R. robustus Larrousse, 1927, R. neivai Lent, 1953 y R. pictipes Stal, 1872 alimentados artificialmente con sangre humana en condiciones de laboratorio. La ninfa I de todas las especies no defecaron en la primera media hora después de haber iniciado la ingesta. R. pictipes no se acercó a picar en el alimentador artificial aunque si lo hizo cuando el alimento se ofreció directamente sobre el cuerpo humano. Las ninfas y adultos de R. prolixus mostraron índices de defecación (ID superiores a los correspondientes de las otras especies, y la ninfa III presentó el mayor ID=1.62. La mayoría de individuos de todos los estadíos de desarrollo aceptaron el alimento en un tiempo entre 0 y 3 min y se alimentaron en menos de 15 minutos.Feeding and defecaction behavior of Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859, R. robustus Larrousse, 1927, R. neivai Lent, 1953 and R. pictipes Stal, 1872, artificially fed on human blood, were studied under laboratory conditions. In all species, first instar nymphs did not defecate in the first 30 minutes after feeding. R. pictipes did not accept artificial feeding but fed directly on humans. Nymph and adult R. prolixus had a higher defecation index (DI than other species; third instar nymphs had the highest DI=1.62. In all instars, most individuals accepted the food in £ 3 minutes and finished feeding in less than 15 minutes.

  3. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea

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    Urban Julie M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas], found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families. Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained was supported by statistical tests of

  4. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Julie M; Cryan, Jason R

    2012-06-14

    Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas) are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas]), found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA) of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families). Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies) in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained) was supported by statistical tests of codiversification. Codiversification tests also

  5. Potencial reprodutivo de Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae influenciado pelo peso do corpo da fêmea - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2081 Reproductive potential of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae affected by female body weight - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2081

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    Jose Eduardo Serrão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O potencial reprodutivo de fêmeas de Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae de duas classes de peso foi avaliado. Machos e fêmeas desse predador foram obtidos de ninfas alimentadas com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Foram analisadas fêmeas com peso inferior a 45 mg (fêmeas leves e superior a 60 mg (fêmeas pesadas. A longevidade e os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição e pós-oviposição foram semelhantes entre fêmeas das duas classes de peso, enquanto aquelas mais pesadas apresentaram maior número de posturas, ovos, ovos/postura e ninfas. Períodos entre posturas e de incubação dos ovos foram menores para fêmeas com peso superior a 60mg. Esses resultados são discutidos em relação ao uso de fêmeas mais pesadas de S. cincticeps para aumentar a produção em criação massal desse predadorThe reproductive potential of Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae females of two weight classes was evaluated with males and females of this predator obtained from nymphs fed on Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. Females of S. cincticeps weighing less than 45 mg (light females and more than 60 mg (heavy females constituted the treatments. Pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods besides adult longevity were similar between treatments while number of egg masses, eggs, eggs/egg mass and number of nymphs hatched were higher for heavier females. Periods between egg mass laying and egg incubation were shorter for insects of the last treatment. These results are discussed in relation to the use of heavier females of S. cincticeps to improve mass rearing of this predator in laboratory

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of the Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Integument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Fernández, Gustavo M; Moriconi, Débora E; Dulbecco, Andrea B; Juárez, M Patricia

    2017-11-07

    The insect integument, formed by the cuticle and the underlying epidermis, is essential for insect fitness, regulation of lipid biosynthesis and storage, insect growth and feeding, together with development progress. Its participation in insecticide resistance has also been outlined. Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is one of the major vectors of Chagas disease in South America; however, genomic data are scarce. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of the nymph integument in order to identify which genes are expressed and their putative role. Using the 454 GS-FLX sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 144,620 reads from the integument tissue. These reads were assembled into 6,495 isotigs and 8,504 singletons. Based on BLAST similarity searches, about 8,000 transcripts were annotated with known genes, conserved domains, and/or Gene Ontology terms.The most abundant transcripts corresponded to transcription factors and nucleic acid metabolism, membrane receptors, cell signaling, and proteins related to cytoskeleton, transport, and cell energy processes, among others. More than 10% of the transcripts-encoded proteins putatively involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and related components (fatty acid synthases, elongases, desaturases, fatty alcohol reductases), structural integument proteins, and the insecticide detoxification system (among them, cytochrome P450s, esterases, and glutathione transferases). Real-time qPCR assays were used to investigate their putative participation in the resistance mechanism. This preliminary study is the first transcriptome analysis of a triatomine integument, and together with prior biochemical information, will help further understandthe role of the integument in a wide array of mechanisms. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  8. Presencia de Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae sobre olivos infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. GASPARINI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se informa acerca del hallazgo de Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi (Coleptera: Coccinellidae, Scymninae en plantas de olivo infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. El material se recolectó en plantaciones de olivo de los departamentos Junín, San Martín, Rivadavia y Maipú (Mendoza, Argentina durante los monitoreos de identificación de enemigos naturales de la «mosca blanca del fresno», Siphoninus phillyreae.

  9. Novas Plantas Hospedeiras para o Percevejo Fitófago Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Pires

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae is a phytophagous bug that can be found in several crops due to availability of food and favorable conditions for the development. The aim of this research was to record the occurrence of L. zonatus colonizing plants of Malpighia emarginata Sessé & Moc (Malpighiaceae, Morus nigra Linnaeus (Moraceae, Mangifera indica Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae in Municipality of Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil. L. zonatus should be included in monitoring for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM in these plants.

  10. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product...

  11. Feeding preference of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and attractiveness of soybean genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Efrain de Santana [UNESP; Lopes Baldin, Edson Luiz [UNESP; Goncalves Franco da Silva, Jose Paulo [UNESP; Lourencao, Andre Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a cosmopolitan insect that causes economic damages to several cultures, in particular soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) Among the techniques that involve Integrated Pest Management, the resistance of plants is pointed as a tool of great value and can contribute to the reduction of populations of insects. The feeding preferences of adults of southern green stink bug (N. viridula), and the attractiveness of soybean genotypes were evaluated under...

  12. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G.; Boykin, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to de...

  13. Bacterial diversity of bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems in two cicada species (Hemiptera: Cicadidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zheng

    are informative for further studies of the interactions and co-evolution of insect-microbial symbioses in Cicadoidea.

  14. Bioefficacy of gamma radiation on Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarin, Mahtab; Zubeda; Seth, R.K.; Seth, Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can be considered as a possible alternative for treating agricultural products to overcome quarantine barriers against the Solenopsis mealy bug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Exposure of ionizing radiation is one of the quarantine treatments which penetrate commodities quickly and most commodities can tolerate irradiation at doses that kill the pest. Evaluation of various bio-characteristics (survival, metamorphosis and reproductive potential) of Phenacoccus solenopsis irradiated in various life stages was attempted to ascertain the lethal doses and sublethal doses having sterilizing potential. A dose of 40Gy administered to the first instar nymph (N 1 ) inhibited formation of adult male, whereas 100Gy checked the transformation of N 1 up to adult female. Males exhibited short life span and appeared to have no or limited role in progeny formation. Males were more radio-sensitive than the female mealy bugs. Further, in case of N 2 treatment, a dose of 100Gy completely inhibited adult male formation, and 150 Gy could completely inhibit male adult formation. The sexes were discernible only after N 2 . A dose of 500Gy given to female-N 3 totally inhibited adult formation. The developmental period of female N 3 was protracted with increase in radiation dosage. The efficacy of radiation at dose range, 5-300Gy, was evaluated on N 3 and N 4 male nymphs. Irradiation affected metamorphosis and reduced adult formation. For instance, a dose of 300Gy caused 0% male adult development from N 4 . 400Gy was almost sterilizing dose for 11-12 day old female mealy bug, and this sterilizing dose reduced oviposition by 28.1%; whereas 200Gy was found to induce sterility in 5-6 day old female mealy bug, with about 50% reduction in oviposition. The freshly emerged female adults (0-1 day old) was the most sensitive stage than the adult mealy bugs in their older phase, and it was completely sterilized by 40Gy. The data suggests a definite role of

  15. Juhan Ulfsak : "Uspehh na kinofestivale stal sjurprizom"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Näitleja Juhan Ulfsak rõõmsast üllatusest, et eesti mängufilm "Sügisball" (režissöör Veiko Õunpuu, produtsent Katrin Kissa) sai Venezia 64. filmifestivali konkursiprogrammi Orizzonti peaauhinna ning oma osatäitmisest selles filmis. Lisatud festivali põhiprogrammi tähtsamate auhindade saajate nimekiri

  16. "Mir stal grubeje, zhesttshe, tsinitshneje" / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilmid "Rünnak 13. jaoskonnale" ("Assault on Precinct 13"), režissöör Jean-Francois Richet, Ameerika Ühendriigid-Prantsusmaa 2005 ja "Peitusemäng" ("Hide and Seek"), režissöör John Polson, Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005

  17. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

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    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov

  18. Alkaline phosphatase activity in salivary gland cells of Rhodnius neglectus and R. prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, A P M; Alevi, K C C; Anhê, A C B; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-07-29

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in salivary gland cells of the Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, and R. prolixus Stal, 1859, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (etiological agent of Chagas disease) and T. rangeli Tejera, 1920 (pathogenic to insect). The Gomori technique was used to demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity. Alkaline phosphatase activity was observed throughout the entire gland, with an increased activity in the posterior region of the principal gland. In particular, phosphatase activity was found in the nucleolar corpuscles, suggesting a relationship with the rRNA transcription and ribosomal biogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase was also detected in the nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix, suggesting an association with the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins and the mechanisms of cell cycle and DNA replication, respectively. This study highlights the importance of alkaline phosphatase in the salivary gland of R. prolixus and R. neglectus and emphasizes its importance in secretory activity. Secretory activity is directly involved in hematophagy and, consequently, in development during metamorphosis. The observed presence of alkaline phosphatase suggests its involvement in the production of saliva allowing feeding of these insects that are important vectors of Chagas disease.

  19. Cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex and the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevi, Kaio C C; Rosa, João A; Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília V

    2014-07-22

    We analyzed the classical cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex (Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, T. juazeirensis Costa & Felix, T. melanica Costa, Argolo & Felix, T. melanocephala Neiva & Pinto, T. petrochiae Pinto & Barreto, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, T. sherlocki Papa, Jurberg, Carcavallo, Cerqueira & Barata, T. tibiamaculata Pinto and T. vitticeps Stal) and the T. brasiliensis complex (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma Neiva & Lent, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). The five members of the T. brasiliensis complex share the same cytogenetic characteristics. Merely T. sherlocki show differences in spermatids, which confirms the status of more differentiated member of the complex. T. lenti also presented the same cytogenetic characteristics described for the species of the T. brasiliensis complex, which supports possible grouping of the species as sixth member of the complex, although further analysis as molecular and experimental crosses are needed to corroborate this hypothesis. T. petrochiae, T. vitticeps, T. tibiamaculata and T. melanocephala presented one or more characteristics that allow questioning grouping in the proposed Brasiliensis subcomplex. Thus, we suggested that Brasiliensis subcomplex and T. brasiliensis complex should be constituted by the same triatomines (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). However, we draw attention to T. lenti and suggest that although new analyzes should be performed, possibly this species is the sixth member of the T. brasiliensis complex. 

  20. Preliminary results of random amplification of polymorphic DNA among Triatominae of the phyllosoma complex (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenière Simone F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, Triatoma longipennis (Usinger, Triatoma picturata (Usinger, and Triatoma pallidipennis (Stal, primary Chagas disease vector species of the phyllosoma complex, were analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. Sixteen decametric primers resolved individual profiles not identical, but partially discriminative between species. Analysis based on pairwise presence/absence comparisons between the three species was performed using three primers and two outgroup species Triatoma infestans (Klug and Triatoma barberi (Usinger. Fifty-three bands in total were scored, although only two bands were constant among the three phyllosoma complex species. Two other bands were constant only for T. longipennis and T. picturata together, and not present in T. pallidipennis. Neighbor Joining tree and the multiple correspondence analysis discriminated T. pallidipennis clearly from the other two species, although there was overlap between T. longipennis and T. picturata. The results indicate a close relationship between the studied species and support the hypothesis of their recent evolution. The suitability of RAPD to discern populations within the species is discussed.

  1. Morfometría geométrica del borde corial y del collar de huevos de cinco especies del género Rhodnius Stal (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

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    Ximena Páez-Colasante

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La taxonomía y sistemática de la subfamilia Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae se basan principalmente en caracteres biométricos y morfológicos de las formas adultas y, en algunos casos, de las ninfas. La Morfometría Geométrica es capaz de descomponer la forma en sus componentes tamaño isométrico y conformación. En el presente trabajo se utilizó laMorfometría Geométrica como herramienta de análisis de la configuración geométrica que resulta de la unión de los extremos del borde corial y del collar (configuración borde corial-collar de los huevos eclosionados de cinco especies del género Rhodnius Stal. Los huevos se observaron por Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido y las imágenes digitalizadas fueron analizadas morfogeométricamente. Estudiando el tamaño geométrico de la configuración borde corial-collar, se halló que no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las cinco especies deTriatominos. En cuanto a la conformación, se determinaron diferencias entre las especies al ser sometidas a un análisis discriminante. Se encontró además que la variación del tamaño contribuye a la variación en la conformación, es decir, efecto alométrico. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la conformación de la configuración geométrica “borde corial-collar” de los huevos de Rhodnius podría ser utilizada como herramienta taxonómica para este grupo. Morfometria geométrica da borda corial e colarinho de ovos de cinco espécies do Gênero Rhodnius (Heteroptera Reduviidae, Triatominae.Resumo. A taxonomia e sistemática da subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera Reduviidae esta baseada principalmente em caracteres biométricos e morfológicos das formas adultas, e em alguns casos, das ninfas. A morfometria geométrica é capaz de descompor a forma em seus componentes, tamanho isométrico e conformação. No presente trabalho utilizou-se a morfometria geométrica como ferramenta de análise da configura

  2. Do male-derived substances affect female mating receptivity and release of sex pheromone by females of the sorghum plant bug Stenotus rubrovittatus (Hemiptera: Miridae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Yamane, T.

    2014-01-01

    In insects, male-derived substances transferred during copulation often alter female physiology. Thus these substances may affect female behaviour, including mating receptivity and release of sex pheromone. In the sorghum plant bug Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Miridae), males

  3. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  4. Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive aphid on San Andres island and mainland Colombia, with notes on other adventive species

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Takumasa; Cortés, Ronald Simbaqueba

    2014-01-01

    The crape myrtle aphid Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) collected on Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae) is herein reported as a new invasive species in the city of Palmira, State of Valle del Cauca, and on San Andres island, in the State of San Andres, Old Providence and Santa Catalina, Colombia. The species is illustrated and diagnosed. A brief review of recent invasive species in Colombia, i.e., Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), Crypticerya multici...

  5. Monitoring of brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) population dynamics in corn to predict its abundance using weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the Southeastern U. S. The BSB population dynamics was monitored for 17 wks from tasseling to pre-harvest of corn plants (i.e., late May to mid-September) using pheromone ...

  6. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  7. A laboratory study of sex- and stage-related mortality and morbidity in bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24h indicated there was no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24h or 168h post-exposure. Most bed bugs classified ...

  8. Effects of fertilization of four hemlock species on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) growth and feeding preference of predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.V. Joseph; James Hanula

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how fertilization affects host resistance to hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera:Adelgidae), is important because fertilizers are often used to grow resistant selections to a suitable size for testing. We evaluated four hemlock species (Tsuga) under three different fertilizer regimes to assess whether fertility affected resistance to...

  9. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  10. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  11. Rapid Communication. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hym.: Eulophidae parasitoid of Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae is reported on Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae in northwestern Iran. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae was reared for the first time on B. tremblayi, and compared with Tamarixia tremblayi, another parasitoid of B. tremblayi. This is a new record of T. monesus from the Middle East.

  12. Mitigating trans-boundary movement of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Mentha sp. by pre-shipping treaments of biopesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of several important crops including vegetables, cereals, fruits, and ornamentals grown worldwide. One important mode of its dispersal is through the trans-boundary movement of infested plant materials. In order to prevent the sprea...

  13. Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg masses by Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, H.P.; Hemerik, L.; Hoddle, M.S.; Luck, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. Many cicadellid females in the tribe Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) cover their egg masses with specialised, usually rod-shaped, brochosomes as the eggs are being laid. The brochosomes are produced in Golgi complexes in the Malpighian tubules of Cicadellidae. In contrast to the gravid

  14. Quantifying Conservation Biological Control for Management of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervoet, Timothy F; Ellsworth, Peter C; Carrière, Yves; Naranjo, Steven E

    2018-03-13

    Conservation biological control can be an effective tactic for minimizing insect-induced damage to agricultural production. In the Arizona cotton system, a suite of generalist arthropod predators provides critical regulation of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (MEAM1) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and other pests. Arthropod predator and B. tabaci populations were manipulated with a range of broad-spectrum and selective insecticide exclusions to vary predator to prey interactions in a 2-yr field study. Predator to prey ratios associated with B. tabaci densities near the existing action threshold were estimated for six predator species found to be negatively associated with either adult and/or large nymphs of B. tabaci [Misumenops celer (Hentz) (Araneae: Thomisidae), Drapetis nr divergens (Diptera: Empididae), Geocoris pallens Stäl (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Chrysoperla carnea s.l. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Collops spp. (Coleoptera: Melyridae)] with the first three most consistently associated with declining B. tabaci densities. Ratios ranged from 1 M. celer per 100 sweeps to 1 B. tabaci adult per leaf to 44 D. nr. divergens per 100 sweeps to 1 large nymph per leaf disk. These ratios represent biological control informed thresholds that might serve as simple-to-use decision tool for reducing risk in the current B. tabaci integrated pest management strategy. The identification of key predators within the large, flexible food web of the cotton agro-ecosystem and estimation of predator to B. tabaci ratios clarifies the role of key predators in B. tabaci suppression, yielding potential decision-making advantages that could contribute to further improving economic and environmental sustainability of insect management in the cotton system.

  15. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virla, Eduardo G; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Paradell, Susana L

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28 degrees 48' to 39 degrees 17' S and 64 degrees 06' to 70 degrees 04' W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions.

  16. First Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador Infesting Urban Citrus and Orange Jasmine Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J.F.; Chica, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus ( Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine ( Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  17. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

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    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  18. Polimorfismo e ultraestrutura dos espermatozoides de Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cossolin, Jamile Fernanda Silva

    2015-01-01

    Nos insetos, os espermatozoides exibem morfologias muito variáveis, porém apresentam alguns caracteres constantes para a espécie e, em geral, somente o tipo responsável pela fertilização é produzido. Entretanto, tem sido observado em vários grupos, espécies que produzem mais de um tipo de espermatozoide, sendo mais comum a ocorrência de dois tipos (dimorfismo). Todavia, em Hemiptera são observadas espécies que produzem três ou mais tipos (polimorfismo). Neste sentido, este trabalho teve como ...

  19. Estudo morfofuncional do sistema digestivo da cigarrinha Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Hiroshi Utiyama

    2011-01-01

    Este trabalho aborda um estudo detalhado sobre o sistema digestivo da cigarrinha sugadora de xilema, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), num enfoque morfofuncional. Sob o ponto de vista anatômico, o sistema digestivo é constituído, como na maioria dos insetos, por três regiões: o intestino anterior, o intestino médio e o intestino posterior. O intestino anterior é formado por um tubo simples, o esôfago, sem qualquer diferenciação anatômica. O intestino médio tem início na câm...

  20. Cicadidae types (Hemiptera-Cicadomorpha) housed at the Museo de La Plata entomological collection (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Remes Lenicov, Ana M Marino; Maciá, Arnaldo; Pianzola, Bruno

    2015-06-23

    A catalog of the 161 type specimens of species of Hemiptera Cicadidae housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo de La Plata is presented. This collection represents 52 species grouped in 19 genera. For each species the original and current names, bibliographic references, type category, number of specimens, gender, Museo de La Plata code numbers, and transcription of data from labels (country, province, locality, date of collection, collector's name, and hosts) are given. Information about the state of preservation of the specimens in each series and photographs of each type species are also provided.

  1. Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): A New Pest on Sorghum in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Bowling, Robert D.; Brewer, Michael J.; Kerns, David L.; Gordy, John; Seiter, Nick; Elliott, Norman E.; Buntin, G. David; Way, M. O.; Royer, T. A.; Biles, Stephen; Maxson, Erin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum species in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in 4 states and 38 counties in the United States. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorghum-producing regions in Mexico. Ability to overwinter on living annual and perennial hosts in southern sorghum-producing areas and wind-aided movement of alate aphids appear to be th...

  2. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from Argentina Flora fúngica de tractos digestivos en Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en Argentina

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    G. A. Marti

    Full Text Available A survey of the fungal microbiota of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae adults was carried out. Insects captured in the field from different provinces in Argentina, as well as individuals reared in artificial colonies, were used for dissection. Axenic cultures of the fungal species were identified and were deposited with mycological collections at La Plata , Argentina. A total of 33 fungal species, with the exception of three that were mycelia sterilia, belonging to 11 genera were identified. Thirty two species belonged to Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes and one to Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, and Cladosporium (2. Among the isolated fungi, some of the species were entomopathogenic or pathogens of humans and other animals.En el presente estudio se realizó un relevamiento de la flora fúngica microbiana en tractos digestivos de adultos de Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Se disecaron insectos capturados del campo en diferentes provincias Argentinas, así como también se utilizaron individuos de una colonia artificial. Fueron realizados cultivos axénicos de las especies fúngicas aisladas, los que fueron identificados y luego depositados en las colecciones de hongos entomopatógenos del CEPAVE La Plata , Argentina. Fueron identificadas 33 especies fúngicas perteneciente a 11 géneros. Treinta y dos especies pertenecen a Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes y Sordariomycetes y una a Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, y Cladosporium (2. Entre los aislamientos fúngicos, algunas de las especies encontradas son entomopatogénicas o patógenas de humanos y otros animales.

  3. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Appearance of cicada fauna (Homoptera: Cicadoidea) by altitudes in Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Aliadi Mohd; Sulaiman, Azman

    2015-09-01

    A total of 31 cicada species in 15 genera under two families (Cicadidae, 27 species in 11 genera; Tibicinidae, four species in three genera) was recorded for Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor. This was based on 666 individuals were obtained through six sampling occasions in November 2012 until October 2013, each time using light trap set in six sampling locations (L1, L2, L3, L4a, L4b, L4c) that were selected based on altitudes. The most common and abundant species in L1 is Pomponia sp1 and recognized as new species that need to be described as new to science. Orientopsaltria saudarapadda Duffles & Zaidi appeared as the most common and abundant species in L2, represented by 21 individuals which covers 34.43 % of the total cicadas specimen in that area. In the location of L3, Dundubia vaginata (Fabricius) appeared as the most abundant species represented by 37 individuals or 26.81% while Abroma maculicollis Guerin appeared as the most common species. Shannon's Species Diversity Index (H') in L3 was the highest (H'=2.28) followed by L4b (H'=2.21), L2 (H'=1.93) L4a (H'=1.92), L4c (H'=1.84) and L1 (H'=1.58), and the evenness index in L1 was the highest (E= 0.88), followed by L4b (E= 0.79), L3 (E= 0.77), L2 (E= 0.75), L4c (E= 0.74) and L4a (E= 0.79). Margalef Species Richness Index in L3 was the highest (R'=3.65), followed by oleh L4b (R'=3.01), L4a (R'=2.97), L2 (R'=2.92), L4c (R'=2.4), and L1 (R'=2.01). Generally shows that L3 at the altitude 350 m appear as the best sampling site for cicadas species in Mount Ledang Johor with the highest value of species diversity and richness index.

  5. Presencia de Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae sobre olivos infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en Argentina On the presence of Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae on olive trees infested with Siphoninus phillyreae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Argentina

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    María L. Gasparini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se informa acerca del hallazgo de Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi (Coleptera: Coccinellidae, Scymninae en plantas de olivo infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. El material se recolectó en plantaciones de olivo de los departamentos Junín, San Martín, Rivadavia y Maipú (Mendoza, Argentina durante los monitoreos de identificación de enemigos naturales de la «mosca blanca del fresno», Siphoninus phillyreae.The presence of Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae,Scymninae on olive trees infested with Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, is reported. Specimens were collected during a survey on natural enemies of «ash whitefly», Siphoninus phillyreae, carried out in olive plantations of Junín, San Martín, Rivadavia and Maipú (Mendoza, Argentina.

  6. Ocorrência de Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae no Estado de Goiás Occurence of the Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae in Goiás State

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    Jaqueline Magalhães Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo bronzeado Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae foi encontrado no Estado de Goiás atacando plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. e E. urophylla S. T. Blake. A detecção ocorreu nos municípios de São Luiz do Norte, São Francisco de Goiás e Goiânia.The bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae was found in Goiás state attacking Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. e E. urophylla S. T. Blake. The insect was detected in the cities of São Luiz do Norte, São Francisco de Goiás and Goiânia.

  7. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  8. Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions

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    Marcio B. P. Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the methanolic fraction of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae (PALAM on individuals of the species Rhodnius nasutus Stål (Hemiptera, Triatominae. Many of the insects treated with the substance presented deformities and these may interfere in the feeding and possibly hinder the reproductive capacity. They also presented significant mortality during the molt when compared to the control group, noting a gradual increase in mortality. The treated insects also presented delayed nymphal development (5th instar and higher adult longevity.

  9. Comparative biology of the two sister species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae Biologia comparativa de duas espécies irmãs de Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Ana Laura Carbajal de la Fuente

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma pseudomaculata and T. wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae are two Brazilian vectors of Chagas disease. The first is an arboricolous species in sylvatic environment and considered a vector of T. cruzi in peridomestic structures; the second, a rupicolous species in the wild environment of no epidemiological importance. In order to test the assumption that sister species share biological traits, comparative studies of their development cycle and blood ingestion were conducted. METHODS: Eggs laid by five field females of each species were randomly selected. The nymphs were observed daily and fed on mice weekly. The time required to pass through the different stages to adulthood was recorded in days. The triatomines were weighed individually before and after feeding. The mortality rate according to each nymphal stage was calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results shows that they display only minor biological differences even though they exhibit a distinct ecology. This suggests that the biological traits are important criteria to determine the relationship between species.INTRODUÇÃO: Triatoma pseudomaculata e T. wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae são dois vetores Brasileiros da doença de Chagas. A primeira é uma espécie arborícola em ambiente silvestre e considerada vetor do T. cruzi em estruturas peridomesticas. A segunda é rupícola em ambientes silvestres e sem importância epidemiológica. Com o objetivo de testar a hipótese que espécies irmãs compartilham características semelhantes, realizamos um estudo comparativo do ciclo biológico e ingesta alimentar. MÉTODOS: Ovos pertencentes a cinco fêmeas de cada espécie provenientes do campo foram selecionados aleatoriamente. As ninfas foram observadas diariamente e alimentadas com camundongos semanalmente. O tempo requerido para passar até o estágio adulto foi registrado em dias. Os triatomíneos foram pesados

  10. Primer registro de Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae asociado a nidos de loros barranqueros (Cyanoliseus patagonus (Aves: Psittacidae

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    María L. HERNÁNDEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma infestans es el vector más importante de la enfermedad de Chagas de la Argentina. Se cita por primera vez la presencia de T. infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae asociado a nidos de loro barranquero Cyanoliseus patagonus (Psittasiformes: Psittacidae construidos en viviendas de adobe abandonadas. Se discuten las posibles implicancias de este hallazgo para la vigilancia entomológica del vector.

  11. Portanus Ball: descrição de uma espécie nova (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae

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    Adenomar Neves de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Portanus dubius sp. nov. é descrita e ilustrada a partir de espécimens que foram coletados com armadilha Malaise durante um levantamento entomológico no Estado do Paraná, Brasil (PROFAUPAR.Portanus Ball: description of a new species (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae. Portanus dubius sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected with Malaise trap during an entomological inventory in Paraná State, Brazil (PROFAUPAR.

  12. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    OpenAIRE

    Justi, Silvia A.; Galv?o, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an effici...

  13. Interactions of maize bushy stunt phytoplasma with the leafhopper vector, Dalbulus maidis (Delong and Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and associated microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Garcia Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are bacteria with a persistent propagative transmission by insect vectors that generates direct and indirect interactions among them. In order to understand these interactions for maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (MBSP) and the leafhopper vector Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), two research lines were addressed. The first one aimed to determine the indirect effects of maize infection by MBSP on some biological and behavioral parameters of the vector, whereas a second line ...

  14. First record of the subtropical leaf-footed bug, Paradasynus spinosus Hsiao (Hemiptera:Coreidae:Dasynini from the Korean Peninsula

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    Junggon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paradasynus spinosus Hsiao, 1963 (Hemiptera:Coreidae:Dasynini, with its higher taxon, the tribe Dasynini, and the genus Paradasynus, is reported from the Korean Peninsula for the first time. The morphological information such as diagnosis and description of male/female genitalia and biological note are presented with photographs and illustrations, and the possibility of its spread in Korea as an insect pest is discussed under climate change. Keywords: Coreidae, Dasynini, New record, The Korean Peninsula

  15. Populations of predators and parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) after the application of eight biorational insecticides in vegetable crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Alvin M; Shaaban, Abd-Rabou

    2011-08-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important pest of vegetables and many other crops worldwide. Eight biorational insecticides (based on oil, plant derivatives, insect growth regulator and fungus) were evaluated in the field for their influence on populations of six natural enemies of B. tabaci. Natural populations of two predators [Chrysoperla carnea Stephen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)] and two genera of parasitoids [Encarsia spp. and Eretmocerus spp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)] were evaluated in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Also, augmented field populations of three predators [C. carnea, Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus caliginosus (Wagner) (Hemiptera: Miridae)] were evaluated in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Regardless of natural enemy or crop, jojoba oil, Biovar and Neemix had the least effect on abundance of the natural enemies in comparison with the other insecticides during a 14 day evaluation period. Conversely, Admiral, KZ oil, Mesrona oil, Mesrona oil + sulfur and natural oil had a high detrimental effect on abundance of the natural enemies. These results demonstrate the differential effects of biorational insecticides for whitefly control on predators and parasitoids in the field. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Non-Preference for Oviposition Cassava Lace Bug Vatiga illudens (Hemiptera: Tingidae by Cassava Cultivars

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    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the non-preference for oviposition Vatiga illudens (Drake, 1922 (Hemiptera: Tingidae in cassava cultivars. The following cultivars were compared: Kiriris, N-25, Fécula Branca, IAC 90, M Ecu 72 and IAC 576, preference tests for oviposition were conducted, with a choice test in semi-field conditions. An adult double V. illudens was released in the leaves of cassava of their cultivars. Allowed to feeding and oviposition of these insects for 72 hours. We evaluated the number of eggs / female / leaf, the number of droppings / couple / sheet and the preference index for oviposition. The cultivar M Ecu 72 demonstrated to be highly resistant to cassava lace bug. This study showed that there are resistance mechanisms to V. illudens in cassava cultivars, which justifies the new studies on these cultivars in breeding programs, aiming to control this pest and identification of such mechanisms.

  17. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  18. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  19. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

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    Jolanta Brożek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha. The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera, together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae. The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae, (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae, (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae, Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae.

  20. Identifikasi kutukebul (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae dari beberapa tanaman inang dan perkembangan populasinya

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    Purnama Hidayat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae can cause direct and indirect damages on plants, especially vegetables. There is only limited information regarding taxonomy and population dynamic of whiteflies attacking vegetables in Indonesia. This research is conducted to identify species of whitefly collected from chili pepper, tomato, and soybean, and to study their population dynamic. The information gathered from these studies will be useful to support whitefly management in the field. Based on morphology identification of the puparium collected directly from the host plants, there were four species of whitefly identified from chili pepper, tomato, and soybean in Bogor, Cianjur, and Sukabumi, i.e. Bemisia tabaci, Aleurodicus dispersus, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and Dialeurodes sp. The presence of B. tabaci on chili pepper and tomato was associated with virus infection that causes yellowing and leaf curl disease. This population of B. tabaci tended to increase along with plant growth and generally reached the highest population when the plant was 60-70 days after planting.

  1. Madagascar Flatidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha: state-of-the-art and research challenges

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    Dariusz Swierczewski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a historical review of the research on Flatidae in Madagascar and indicates future prospects. While the first two species of Madagascar Flatidae were described by Guérin-Méneville (1844, it was Signoret (1860 who made the first real attempt to enhance our knowledge of the Hemiptera fauna of Madagascar by describing several additional species. Over the following century and a half, several investigators have turned their attention to this group of insects, with the final number of species recorded for the island reaching 79. Despite this long history of research, it is evident that much still remains to be done. Detailed taxonomic research will allow the natural history of Madagascar and changes in the biological diversity of its endemic ecosystems to be better understood. This paper should be considered as an introduction to a complex study on the systematics and phylogeny of worldwide Flatidae planthoppers.

  2. VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM GALLS INDUCED BY Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae ON LEAVES OF Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae

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    Michele Aparecida Besten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile components of the galls induced by the insect Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyflame- ionisation detection (GC-FID, and then comparison with volatile oil samples from healthy leaves collected in the vicinity. The galls produced around 3.5% of the total organic volatiles whereas healthy leaves rendered an average yield of 0.6%. The observed higher proportions of germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, limonene, and β-pinene in the galls suggest that all these compounds are important targets in the search for natural enemies of this Psyllid. Moreover, higher relative percentages of (E-nerolidol and spathulenol were found in healthy leaves.

  3. Potential of Three Trap Crops in Managing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Tomatoes in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T L; Haseeb, M; Kanga, L H B; Legaspi, J C

    2017-12-05

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (Asterales: Asteraceae) and wild game feed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (Poales: Poaceae) in both years, but different species of millet each year: browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2014 and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2015. The number of stink bug adults collected from wild game feed sorghum exceeded the number from sunflower, and none were collected from either species of millet. Sorghum attracted a significantly higher number of adults than did striped sunflower; however, both sunflower and sorghum attracted the adults of N. viridula. Adults of the pest feed on the sorghum panicle and sunflower head (inflorescence). Although fewer stink bugs were found feeding on sunflower, the sunflower was found to be a good source of other natural enemies and pollinators and also attracted significantly greater numbers of the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) (another pest of tomatoes). While this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sorghum, we recommend that sorghum be planted with another trap crop, preferably sunflower, for better preventive control of the southern green stink bug. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  5. First record of larvae of Allograpta exotica Wiedemann (Diptera, Syrphidae preying on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae in watermelon in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Soares Sturza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available First record of larvae of Allograpta exotica Wiedemann (Diptera, Syrphidae preying on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae in watermelon in Brazil. Brazil is one of the largest world producers of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thumb. Mansf. and Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae is among the most important pest on this crop. Larvae of Allograpta exotica Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera, Syrphidae were found preying on A. gossypii in watermelon crop, in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, what represents the first report of this tritrophic association in Brazil.

  6. Repellency of the Components of the Essential Oil, Citronella, to Triatoma rubida, Triatoma protracta, and Triatoma recurva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, D; Klotz, S A; Meister, E A; Schmidt, J O

    2015-07-01

    The kissing bugs--Triatoma rubida (Uhler), Triatoma protracta (Uhler), and Triatoma recurva (Stal)--are common hematophagous bugs in southeastern Arizona and responsible for severe allergic reactions in some individuals who are bitten. They also possess the potential to transmit the blood parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. We previously found the essential oil, citronella, to be an excellent deterrent of feeding of T. rubida on a restrained mouse. In this work, we tested major components--alcohols, aldehydes, and monoterpenes--of citronella oil for repellency against the three common triatome species endemic in southern Arizona. The following citronella oil components--geraniol, citronellol, limonene, and citronellal--in different concentrations and combinations were tested. All components of citronella oil demonstrated some inhibition of feeding, ranging from very weak inhibition (limonene) to significant inhibition (geraniol and citronellol). A mixture of geraniol and citronellol was found to be repellant at concentrations of .165 and .165 vol%, respectively, for all three triatome species. Citronellal and limonene had no significant repellent activity. The repellent activity of citronella oil appears to be acting through direct contact with the bugs rather than diffusion of vapors. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Efeito de extratos de plantas do Cerrado em Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Effect of Cerrado plant extracts on Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A. M. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmissão da doença de Chagas ocorre, principalmente, por meio de fezes de hemípteros hematófagos (Triatominae, os quais ingerem o Trypanosoma cruzi ao se alimentarem do sangue de pessoas ou outros mamíferos infectados. Para o controle dos triatomíneos, os piretróides são os principais inseticidas utilizados. Entretanto, algumas populações de insetos demonstraram resistência a determinados piretróides, indicando a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos inseticidas eficazes no controle desses vetores. Assim, foi avaliada a atividade inseticida de 83 extratos vegetais, pertencentes a 35 espécies diferentes, em ninfas do primeiro estádio de Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, triatomíneo encontrado no México. Para o teste tópico, foram aplicados 50 ìg de cada extrato nos tergitos abdominais de dez ninfas, em duplicata. Como controles, foram utilizados insetos tratados com etanol, acetona ou sem nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os triatomíneos foram observados durante 28 dias. Nenhum extrato apresentou atividade inseticida significativa, entretanto, o extrato hexânico do fruto e o etanólico da casca do caule de Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae inibiram a taxa de ecdise em D. maxima (40% e 25%, respectivamente. Sugere-se que estes extratos sejam quimicamente investigados e monitorados por ensaios biológicos a fim de determinar os componentes, para que estes possam ser utilizados como modelos moleculares ou como compostos biorracionais nos programas de controle de insetos.Chagas disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is chiefly transmitted by faeces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or other mammals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of

  8. Organization of the mitochondrial genomes of whiteflies, aphids, and psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Paul

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With some exceptions, mitochondria within the class Insecta have the same gene content, and generally, a similar gene order allowing the proposal of an ancestral gene order. The principal exceptions are several orders within the Hemipteroid assemblage including the order Thysanoptera, a sister group of the order Hemiptera. Within the Hemiptera, there are available a number of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes that have a gene order similar to that of the proposed ancestor. None, however, are available from the suborder Sternorryncha that includes whiteflies, psyllids and aphids. Results We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of six species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid. Two species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid have mitochondrial genomes with a gene order very similar to that of the proposed insect ancestor. The remaining four species of whiteflies had variations in the gene order. In all cases, there was the excision of a DNA fragment encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit III(COIII-tRNAgly-NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3(ND3-tRNAala-tRNAarg-tRNAasn from the ancestral position between genes for ATP synthase subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5. Based on the position in which all or part of this fragment was inserted, the mitochondria could be subdivided into four different gene arrangement types. PCR amplification spanning from COIII to genes outside the inserted region and sequence determination of the resulting fragments, indicated that different whitefly species could be placed into one of these arrangement types. A phylogenetic analysis of 19 whitefly species based on genes for mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal DNA as well as cospeciating endosymbiont 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA indicated a clustering of species that corresponded to the gene arrangement types. Conclusions In whiteflies, the region of the

  9. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  10. Establishment of papaya banker plant system for Parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Hymenoptera: Aphilidae) against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and other vegetable crops worldwide. To combat this pest, a non-crop banker plant system was evaluated that employs a parasitoid, Encarsia sophia (Girault & Dodd) ...

  11. Preliminary evaluation of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)as a predator of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The predatory lady beetle Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent against the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants. Adult D. catalinae females were starved for ...

  12. A new species in the indigenous New Zealand soft scale insect genus Kalasiris Henderson & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) on Gahnia setifolia (Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Chris J; Gunawardana, D N; Richmond, J E

    2016-03-14

    The genus Kalasiris Henderson & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) is currently only known from New Zealand. The adult female and pupa of a new species, K. martini Hodgson & Richmond are described and illustrated below and the possible taxonomic relationships of the genus to other New Zealand genera are discussed.

  13. Characterization of a recombinant Cathepsin B-Like cysteine peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A putative target control of citrus huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) spread by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Among the control strategies for H...

  14. IPM of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using trap and refuge crops within tomato fields in North Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southern Green Stink Bug (SGSB), Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious insect pest of tomatoes and numerous vegetable and fruit plants in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential to be used for IPM (Integrated Pest Manag...

  15. [Occurrence of Stethorus (Stethotrus) minutalus Gordon & Chapin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) preying Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cotton plant in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo D; Bonani, Jean P

    2008-01-01

    This report has the objective of registering, for the first time in Brazil, the predator Stethorus (Stethorus) minutalus Gordon & Chapin (Scymninae, Stethorini). Larvae and adults were observed feeding on eggs and nymphs of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on cotton plants under greenhouse condition in Piracicaba, SP. Probably, this coccinelid is an introduced species in the Country.

  16. Biostable multi-Aib analogs of tachykinin-related peptides demonstrate potent oral aphicidal activity in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs) are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). Two novel biostable TRP analogs containing multiple, sterically-hindered Aib residues were synthesized and found to exhi...

  17. PCR-based gut content analysis to detect predation of Eriococcus ironsidei (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) by Coccinellidae species in macadamia nut orchards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macadamia felted coccid, Eriococcus ironsidei (Williams) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) was first found infesting macadamia trees in the island of Hawaii in 2005. Macadamia felted coccid infests all above-ground parts of trees to feed and reproduce. Their feeding activity distorts and stunts new growth w...

  18. Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae), a natural enemy of Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Life table and intrinsic rate of population increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lins, J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Silva, D.B.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Life table data of natural enemies are often used to understand their population dynamics and estimate their potential role in the biological control of pests. Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is an important pest of several crops and its intrinsic rate of population increase

  19. Survey of resistance to four insecticides and their associated mechanisms in different genotypes of the green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of agriculture worldwide that is particularly adept at evolving insecticide resistance very frequently develop insecticide resistance. Seven mechanisms that confer resistance to many insecticide types have been des...

  20. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  1. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  2. Taxonomic revision of the genus Megoura Buckton (Hemiptera : Aphididae) from the Korean Peninsula with the description of a new species and a key to the world species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, S.; Holman, Jaroslav; Havelka, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 2 (2002), s. 447-457 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Hemiptera * Aphididae * Megoura Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.392, year: 2002

  3. A revision of the genus Macrosiphoniella del Guercio (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) from the Korean peninsula, part I: Subgenera Asterobium, Chosoniella, Papillomyzus, Phalangomyzus, Sinosiphoniella

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holman, Jaroslav; Lee, S.; Havelka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2006), s. 174-197 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5007102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Hemiptera * Aphididae * Macrosiphoniella Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2006

  4. Dinámica poblacional de planococcus ficus sign. (Hemiptera-Pseudcoccidae) en viñedos : Mendoza (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Violeta; González, Marcela; Herrera, María Eugenia; Miano, José Luis

    2006-01-01

    Planococcus ficus Signoret es un insecto perteneciente al orden Hemiptera, familia Pseudococcidae, cuya población ha aumentado en los últimos años en Mendoza. Ataca gran variedad de hospederos y está distribuido en las principales zonas vitícolas del mundo. Su acción disminuye el vigor general de las plantas, perjudica la calidad de los frutos y las características organolépticas de los vinos elaborados con racimos infestados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar estudios bioecológic...

  5. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  6. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  7. Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from China, with the first record of whitefly host association (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Three new species of Baeoentedon Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) are described from China, Baeoentedon balios Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Baeoentedon bouceki Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Baeoentedon virgatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Both female and male of Baeoentedon balios were reared from the whitefly Pealius spina (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the bodhi tree Ficus religiosa L. (Urticales: Moraceae). The male and the whitefly host association of Baeoentedon are recorded for the first time. A key is also provided to females of the world species of the genus.

  8. Estudo comparativo da espermiogenese normal e diapausica em insetos pertencentes ao complexo percevejo da soja (Hemiptera : Pentatomidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Adrienne de Paiva Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Resumo: Percevejos fitófagos (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) são as principais pragas de colheitas economicamente importantes ao redor do mundo, como por exemplo soja, arroz, coco, café, entre outras. Apesar da grande quantidade de informação sobre as espécies-praga, seu dano potencial nas plantas de importância econômica e as formas de controle usadas, fazem com que o impacto dessas pragas na produção de colheitas permaneça em níveis indesejáveis. A caracterização ultra-estrutural da espermiogênes...

  9. Hemiptera Mitochondrial Control Region: New Sights into the Structural Organization, Phylogenetic Utility, and Roles of Tandem Repetitions of the Noncoding Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As a major noncoding fragment, the control region (CR of mtDNA is responsible for the initiation of mitogenome transcription and replication. Several structural features of CR sequences have been reported in many insects. However, comprehensive analyses on the structural organization and phylogenetic utility, as well as the role of tandem replications (TRs on length variation, high A+T content, and shift of base skew of CR sequences are poorly investigated in hemipteran insects. In this study, we conducted a series of comparative analyses, using 116 samples covering all 11 infraorders of the five currently recognized monophyletic groups in the Hemiptera. Several structural elements (mononucleotide stretches containing conserved sequence blocks (CSBs, TRs, and GA-rich region were identified in the mitochondrial control region in hemipteran insects, without showing a consistent location. The presence and absence of certain specific structural elements in CR sequences show the various structural organizations of that segment among the five monophyletic groups, which indicates the diversification of the control region’s structural organization in Hemiptera. Among the many groups within Hemiptera, eight monophyletic groups and three consistent phylogenetic trees were recovered, using CSBs datasets by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, which suggests the possible utility of CR sequences for phylogenetic reconstruction in certain groups of Hemiptera. Statistical analyses showed that TRs may contribute to the length variation, high AT content, and the shift of base skewing of CR sequences toward high AT content in the Hemiptera. Our findings enrich the knowledge of structural organization, phylogenetic utility, and roles of tandem replication of hemipteran CR, and provide a possible framework for mitochondrial control region analyses in hemimetabolous insects.

  10. Biological parameters and fertility life table of Aphis forbesi Weed, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Araujo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study provides the first contribution of the biology and life table of Aphis forbesi Weed, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aphididae, an important strawberry pest throughout the world. This species lives in the crown and leaf petioles of the plant. It is difficulty to rear this species in laboratory due to protocooperation with ants observed only in the field. We studied the life cycle of A. forbesi on the leaves of the Albion strawberry cultivar at 25 ± 2 °C, 60 ± 10% relative humidity, and a 12-h photophase. The experiment was randomised with 100 replicates. The parameters of the fertility life table were calculated using TabVida. In the population studied, 25% and 46% had four and three instars, respectively. A mean of 1.43 nymphs per female per day was generated. The mean reproductive period was seven days and the mean longevity was 10 days. In every 11 days there is a generation of A. forbesi, where each female has the potential to generate between 6 to 9 individuals daily, increasing its population by 1.2 times. The average life cycle was 16.8 days. High viability observed in all instars and the resulting values of R0, rm and λ suggest that A. forbesi has the capacity to increase their numbers in a short period of time, while generating high populations in strawberry crops, requiring differential management.

  11. A laboratory and field condition comparison of life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini-Tabesh Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Life table studies are essential tools for understanding population dynamics. The life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae feeding on the host plant, Hibiscus syriacus L. were studied under laboratory (25±1°C and relative humidity of 65±5% and a photoperiod of 16L : 8D h and field conditions (23-43°C, and relative humidity of 27-95%. The data were analysed using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The life table studies were started with 50 and 40 nymphs in laboratory and field conditions, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, A. gossypii reared on H. syriacus had a higher survival rate, fecundity, and longevity than those reared under field conditions. When reared under field conditions, A. gossypii had a longer nymphal developmental time, shorter adult longevity, and lower fecundity than those reared under laboratory conditions. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0, and the finite rate of increase (λ under laboratory conditions, were higher than those obtained under field conditions. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the mean generation time T (days between field and laboratory conditions. In the present study, the results clearly showed that life table parameters of A. gossypii were significantly different under field and laboratory conditions. These results could help us to understand the A. gossypii population dynamics under field conditions. The results could also help us make better management decisions for economically important crops

  12. Filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the blood-sucking bug Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palottini, Florencia; González, Andrés; Manrique, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The filling dynamics of exocrine defensive glands is an important component of the defensive capacity of an insect in its natural environment. We studied the filling state and reloading rate of the Brindley's glands in the haematophagous Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Quantitative analyses of isobutyric acid, the main secretion component, were carried out with glands dissected from adults under different scenarios of development, number of discharging events and feeding conditions. The alarm-pheromone function of the gland secretion was also assessed in bioassays with conspecific nymphs. Although pharate adults have their glands completely developed, these were not full until imaginal ecdysis. If kept undisturbed, the adults maintained a constant gland load, and discharged about 75% of the gland contents upon one disturbance event. While the glands can be discharged several times, full replenishing was not complete after one week, unless the insect had access to food. The escape behavior of nymphs in bioassays correlated with the chemical analyses, with nymphs showing significant avoidance only toward gland discharges from undisturbed or disturbed/fed adults. The results are discussed in reference to the feeding frequency and gregarious behavior of T. infestans under natural conditions, which suggest a relevant role of the filling dynamics of the Brindley's glands in the intraspecific communication of the insect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cryptic speciation in the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) revealed by chromosomal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, Francisco; Pita, Sebastián; Nattero, Julieta; Panzera, Yanina; Galvão, Cleber; Chavez, Tamara; Rojas De Arias, Antonieta; Cardozo Téllez, Lourdes; Noireau, François

    2015-09-29

    Chagas disease vectors (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) comprise more than 140 blood-sucking insect species of the Triatominae subfamily. The largest genus is Triatoma, subdivided in several complexes and subcomplexes according to morphology, ecology and genetic features. One of them is the sordida subcomplex, involving four species: Triatoma sordida, T. guasayana, T. garciabesi and T. patagonica. Given the great morphological similarity of these species, their taxonomic identification, evolutionary relationships and population differentiation have been controversial for many years and even today remain under discussion. We simultaneously analyzed two chromosomal markers, C-heterochromatin distribution and 45S ribosomal genes chromosomal position, of 139 specimens from several sordida subcomplex populations from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, collected both in nature and from several established insectaries. Our results were compared with COI sequences deposited in GenBank. We recognized five chromosomal taxa with putative hybrids, which each differ in at least one chromosome marker. Most of them present significant differences in their mtDNA sequences. The chromosomal taxa here show a significant chromosome differentiation involving changes in the C-heterochromatin content and in the ribosomal clusters position. This paper identifies several erroneously classified populations by morphological methods, delimits the geographical distribution of each taxon and proposes the existence of a new cryptic species, widely distributed in Argentina. We also suggest that sordida sibling species involve closely related as well as evolutionary distant species. Taxonomic status of each chromosomal taxon is discussed considering phenotypic and genetic results previously published.

  14. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida species subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Fernández, Gustavo Mario; Juárez, Marta Patricia

    2013-09-01

    The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) were ana-lysed by gas chromatography and their structures identified by mass spectrometry. They comprised mostly n-alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes with one-four methyl substitutions. n-alkanes consisted of a homologous series from C21-C33 and represented 33-45% of the hydrocarbon fraction; n-C29 was the major component. Methyl-branched alkanes showed alkyl chains from C24-C43. High molecular weight dimethyl and trimethylalkanes (from C35-C39) represented most of the methyl-branched fraction. A few tetramethylalkanes were also detected, comprising mostly even-numbered chains. Several components such as odd-numbered 3-methylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes of C37 and C39 showed patterns of variation that allowed the differentiation of the species and populations studied. Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma patagonica showed the most distinct hydrocarbon patterns within the subcomplex. The T. sordida populations from Brazil and Argentina showed significantly different hydrocarbon profiles that posed concerns regarding the homogeneity of the species. Triatoma garciabesi had a more complex hydrocarbon pattern, but it shared some similarity with T. sordida. The quantitative and qualitative variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons may help to elucidate the relationships between species and populations of this insect group.

  15. Facultative symbiont Hamiltonella confers benefits to Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), an invasive agricultural pest worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qi; Oliver, Kerry M; Pan, Huipeng; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Liu, Baiming; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Xu, Baoyun; White, Jennifer A; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial symbionts infect most insect species, including important pests such as whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and often exert important effects on host ecology. The facultative symbiont Hamiltonella is found at high frequencies in the B. tabaci MED (type: Mediterranean-MED) in China. The prevalence of this symbiont in natural populations suggests beneficial effects of infection or manipulation of host reproduction. To date, however, no empirical studies on the biological role of Hamiltonella on the host B. tabaci have been reported. Here, we investigated the effects of Hamiltonella infection on the sex ratio and several fitness parameters in B. tabaci MED by comparing Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies with Hamiltonella-free ones. We found that Hamiltonella-infected whiteflies produced significantly more eggs, exhibited significantly higher nymphal survival, faster development times, and larger adult body size in comparison with Hamiltonella-free whiteflies, while no evidence of reproductive manipulation by Hamiltonella were found in B. tabaci MED. In conclusion, Hamiltonella infection substantially enhanced B. tabaci MED performance. This beneficial role may, at least partially, explain the high prevalence of Hamiltonella in B. tabaci MED populations and may also contribute to their effectiveness in spread of the plant pathogens tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

  16. Control of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Vineyards Using Toxic Baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondillo, Aline; Andzeiewski, Simone; Bello Fialho, Flávio; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a root scale that damages grapevines in southern Brazil. The effects of different formulations of toxic baits based on boric acid and hydramethylnon to control L. micans and E. brasiliensis were evaluated. Toxic baits with boric acid (1.0%) mixed in different concentrations of inverted sugar (20%, 30%, and 40%), and hydramethylnon, mixed with sardines (paste), cassava flour and peanut, brown sugar (sucrose), or sardine oil-based gel, were evaluated in a greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse experiment, the number of foraging ants was significantly reduced in the pots where the hydramethylnon in sardine paste (Solid S), sardine oil-brown sugar-based gel (GEL SAM), and peanut oil-brown-sugar gel (GEL AM) formulations were applied. The GEL SAM toxic bait effectively reduced the infestation of L. micans, and could be used for indirect control of E. brasiliensis on young grapevines. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris) species (Hemiptera: Miridae) under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Liu, Bing; Lu, Yanhui; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH). Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80%) were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH) had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproductive rate (R0) and the finite rate of increase (λ) for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  18. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  19. Dose-response relationships of clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam to Blissus occiduus (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, M D; Baxendale, F P; Heng-Moss, T M; Siegfried, B D; Blankenship, E E; Gaussoin, R E

    2011-02-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber (Hemiptera: Blissidae), has emerged as a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchlod dactyloides (Nuttall) Engelmann. In general, neonicotinoid insecticides effectively control a variety of turfgrass insects, particularly phloem-feeding pests. However, because of well documented inconsistencies in control, these compounds are generally not recommended for chinch bugs. This study was designed to document the contact and systemic toxicity of three neonicotinoid insecticides (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to B. occiduus. In contact bioassays, thiamethoxam was approximately 20-fold less toxic than clothianidin or imidacloprid to B. occiduus nymphs and three-fold more toxic to adults. In adult systemic bioassays, thiamethoxam was up to five-fold more toxic than clothianidin or imidacloprid. Interestingly, thiamethoxam was significantly more toxic to adults than to nymphs in both contact and systemic bioassays. This was not observed with clothianidin or imidacloprid. Bifenthrin, used for comparative purposes, exhibited 1844-fold and 122-fold increase in toxicity to nymphs and adults, respectively. These results provide the first documentation of the relative toxicity of these neonicotinoid insecticides to B. occiduus.

  20. Dropping Behavior in the Pea Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): How Does Environmental Context Affect Antipredator Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Katharine V; Preisser, Evan L

    2016-01-01

    The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum : Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a phloem-feeding insect whose antipredator defenses include kicking, walking away, and dropping from the plant. Aphid dropping, a risky and energetically costly antipredator behavior, can be increased by the release of aphid alarm pheromone; there is also evidence that insect density and plant health can affect the likelihood of aphids engaging in this behavior. We investigated whether interactions between alarm cues, insect density, and plant health can alter the dropping behavior of aphids in response to an artificial disturbance. The presence of the alarm pheromone E-β-farnesene resulted in a nearly 15-fold increase in aphid dropping behavior; the other two factors, however, did not affect dropping and none of the two- or three-way interactions were significant. This was surprising because aphids affected plant health: production of new plant biomass after 5 d of exposure to high aphid densities was 50% lower than in the control treatment. This research adds to our understanding of the factors affecting aphid antipredator behavior; the fact that neither aphid density nor feeding period impacted dropping may reflect the high energetic costs of this activity and an unwillingness to use it in any but the riskiest situations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  1. The transcriptional landscape of insect galls: psyllid (Hemiptera) gall formation in Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sebastian; Percy, Diana M; Hefer, Charles A; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2015-11-16

    Recent studies show that galling Hymenoptera and Diptera are able to synthesize the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (auxin) from tryptophan and that plant response to insect-produced auxin is implicated in gall formation. We examined the leaf transcriptome of galled and ungalled leaves of individuals of the Hawaiian endemic plant Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) subject to infestation by psyllid (Hemiptera) gall-makers in the genus Trioza (Triozidae). Transcript libraries were sequenced using Illumina technology and the reads assembled de novo into contigs. Functional identification of contigs followed a two-step procedure, first identifying contigs by comparison to the completely sequenced genome of the related Eucalyptus, followed by identifying the equivalent Arabidopsis gene using a pre-computed mapping between Eucalyptus and Arabidopsis genes. This allowed us to use the rich functional annotation of the Arabidopsis genome to assess the transcriptional landscape of galling in Metrosideros. Comparing galled and ungalled leaves, we find a highly significant enrichment of expressed genes with a gene ontology (GO) annotation to auxin response in the former. One gene consistently expressed in all galled trees examined but not detected in any libraries from ungalled leaves was the Metrosideros version of SMALL AUXIN UPREGULATED (SAUR) 67 which appears to be a marker for leaf-galling in Metrosideros. We conclude that an auxin response is involved in galling by Metrosideros psyllids. The possibility should therefore be considered that psyllids (like other insects examined) are able to synthesize auxin.

  2. A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

    2008-02-01

    Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed.

  3. Characterization of a newly discovered symbiont of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jiao; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex containing >28 cryptic species, some of which are important crop pests worldwide. Like many other sap-sucking insects, whiteflies harbor an obligatory symbiont, "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum," and a number of secondary symbionts. So far, six genera of secondary symbionts have been identified in B. tabaci. In this study, we report and describe the finding of an additional bacterium in the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species China 1 (formerly known as B. tabaci biotype ZHJ3). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and gltA genes showed that the bacterium belongs to the Alphaproteobacteria subdivision of the Proteobacteria and has a close relationship with human pathogens of the genus Orientia. Consequently, we temporarily named it Orientia-like organism (OLO). OLO was found in six of eight wild populations of B. tabaci China 1, with the infection rate ranging from 46.2% to 76.8%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of B. tabaci China 1 in nymphs and adults revealed that OLOs are confined to the bacteriome and co-occur with "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum." The vertical transmission of OLO was demonstrated by detection of OLO at the anterior pole end of the oocytes through FISH. Quantitative PCR analysis of population dynamics suggested a complex interaction between "Ca. Portiera aleyrodidarum" and OLO. Based on these results, we propose "Candidatus Hemipteriphilus asiaticus" for the classification of this symbiont from B. tabaci.

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14% of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83% was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  5. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2017-08-04

    Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product was the (+)-enantiomer of borneol and the optical isomer was undetectable. Although (+)-borneol showed significant sex pheromone activity against males, the antipode (-)-borneol also induced sex pheromone activity, albeit only slightly. Males may not have a strict identification mechanism based on stereochemistry. To verify the origin of this sex pheromone, we analysed the components of the essential oil of the leaves of Solidago canadensis L. (Compositae: Asteraceae), a host plant; bornyl acetate was detected to be a major component. The plant-produced bornyl acetate had different stereochemistry from the sex pheromone. The results suggested that the adults do not utilise the secondary metabolites of plants but biosynthesise this sex pheromone themselves. This is the first report on sex pheromone identification in Tingidae.

  6. Effects Of Irradiation On Mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting On Dragon Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Thi The; Nguyen Thuy Khanh; Vo Kim Lang; Cao Van Chung; Tran Thien An; Nguyen Hoang Hanh Thi

    2011-01-01

    Since 2008 APHIS/USDA approved to import dragon fruit into the United States from Vietnam if fruits are treated with the minimum absorbed dose of 400 Gy to control fruit flies and mealybugs. However, a lower dose could be accepted if released data is enough to demonstrate that it is efficient to inhibit the development and stop the reproduction of adult females for three species of mealybugs (Order: Hemiptera; Family: Pseudococcidae) infesting on dragon fruit. Four development stages including 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd instars and adult of Dymicoccus neobrevipes by isolating and rearing in the laboratory conditions were irradiated in Co-60 source gamma with dosages of 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy. The main purposes of the study are to find the most tolerant stage and to determine the most optimal dose to control D. neobrevipes. The initial obtained results showed that the adult stage is the most radiotolerant and the dose of 200 Gy could be an effective dose to inhibit development and to control reproduction of D. neobrevipes. (author)

  7. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Commercial Watermelon Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos H O; Sarmento, Renato A; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Pereira, Poliana S; Silva, Joedna; Souza, Danival J; Dos Santos, Gil R; Costa, Thiago L; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2018-04-16

    Spatiotemporal dynamics studies of crop pests enable the determination of the colonization pattern and dispersion of these insects in the landscape. Geostatistics is an efficient tool for these studies: to determine the spatial distribution pattern of the pest in the crops and to make maps that represent this situation. Analysis of these maps across the development of plants can be used as a tool in precision agriculture programs. Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), is the second most consumed fruit in the world, and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important pests of this crop. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the spatiotemporal distribution of B. tabaci in commercial watermelon crops using geostatistics. For 2 yr, we monitored adult whitefly densities in eight watermelon crops in a tropical climate region. The location of the samples and other crops in the landscape was georeferenced. Experimental data were submitted to geostatistical analysis. The colonization of B. tabaci had two patterns. In the first, the colonization started at the outermost parts of the crop. In the second, the insects occupied the whole area of the crop since the beginning of cultivation. The maximum distance between sites of watermelon crops in which spatial dependence of B. tabaci densities was observed was 19.69 m. The adult B. tabaci densities in the eight watermelon fields were positively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity, whereas wind speed negatively affected whiteflies population.

  9. Ecotope effect in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) suggests phenotypic plasticity rather than adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, V S P; Fernandes, F A; Cordeiro-Estrela, P; Sarquis, O; Lima, M M

    2013-09-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is an important vector of Chagas' disease in both sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes. Discriminating between these populations of Triatominae has been proposed as a means of investigating re-infestation rates of human dwellings. Geometric morphometrics have been widely applied in the study of Triatominae polymorphisms at species and population levels. This study characterizes morphometric differences between sylvatic and peridomestic populations, as well as between sexes in T. brasiliensis specimens from Jaguaruana, Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. No differences in either the shape or size of the cephalic capsule were apparent between sexes or ecotopes. However, the wings showed differentiation in shape and size. Sexual dimorphism was detected, with females presenting significantly higher values and conformations. Size differentiation was also evident, with sylvatic specimens being generally larger than peridomestic examples. These results indicate that differences in the wings of T. brasiliensis may be related to the existence of phenotypic plasticity, and variations in size and shape may be associated with different ecotopes, possibly as a result of conditions in each micro-habitat, such as temperature, relative humidity, food supply and density. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris species (Hemiptera: Miridae under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH. Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80% were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm, the net reproductive rate (R0 and the finite rate of increase (λ for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  11. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines.

  12. Stage-Dependent Expression of Deltamethrin Toxicity and Resistance in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) From Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Mónica D; Picollo, María I

    2018-02-20

    Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is the main vector of Chagas disease in Latin America. This insect has been controlled with pyrethroids since the 1980s, although the emergence of resistance to deltamethrin has decreased control success in some areas of the Gran Chaco ecoregion. The response of T. infestans to deltamethrin was evaluated per developmental stage. In addition, we evaluated the possible stage-dependent expression of deltamethrin resistance. The bioassays were conducted by topical application of the insecticide in acetone. The drop size, age at the time of exposure, and mortality measuring time were standardized per stage. The lethal dose of deltamethrin moderately increased with the developmental stage. The resistance to deltamethrin was expressed in every instar, and was the highest in the fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs. While increasing, weight plays a relevant role in lethal dose stage dependency, a number of contributing factors such as degradative metabolism are probably involved in the variability of insecticide effect and resistance described for different T. infestans developmental stages. Possible explanations for these differences and their implications on resistance management and chemical control are discussed.

  13. Feeding preference ofNezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and attractiveness of soybean genotypes

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    Efrain de Santana Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae is a cosmopolitan insect that causes economic damages to several cultures, in particular soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. Among the techniques that involve Integrated Pest Management, the resistance of plants is pointed as a tool of great value and can contribute to the reduction of populations of insects. The feeding preferences of adults of southern green stink bug (N. viridula, and the attractiveness of soybean genotypes were evaluated under laboratory conditions to detect the most resistant material against attack from this insect. A choice test, using mature grains and green pods of the genotypes was carried out, in which the number of individuals attracted in different periods was counted. Feeding preference was evaluated in the choice tests using green pods and the number of pricks and the average time spent feeding by pricks were evaluated. In addition, texture and trichome density in the green pods were evaluated. The mature grains of 'TMG 117RR' and 'TMG 121RR' were less attractive to the adults of N. viridula. Regarding the green pods, 'IAC 17' and PI 227687 were less attractive; 'IAC 17' and 'IAC PL1' were less consumed, indicating the feeding non-preference as a resistance mechanism. 'IAC 17', 'TMG-117RR' and PI 227687 presented high levels of trichome density, and in 'IAC 17' this morphological characteristic was considered to be the main resistance factor against N. viridula. These results may be useful for breeding programs that focus on the resistance of soybeans to insects.

  14. First record of Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini in Riohacha, La Guajira – Colombia

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    Edith Natalia Gómez-Melendro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knowledge of vector insect species, their habitat and geographical distribution is crucial for determining the risk of transmission of the etiologic agents that cause disease in humans, which allows defining strategies for prevention, surveillance and control in line with the characteristics of each area. Objective. To determine the presence and public health importance of vectors of Chagas disease in the indigenous settlements of Marbacella and El Horno of the Wayúu ethnic group in the municipality of Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia. Materials and methods. From active search, installation and inspection of biosensors and occasional catches, Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini were collected intra and in the peridomicile housing of the indigenous settlements of El Horno and Marbacella of the the Wayúu ethnic group. Indices of intra and peridomestic infestation, colonization, density, dispersion and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 were calculated. Results. 79.6% (n = 90 of the specimens were collected around the homes and 20.3% (n = 23 inside the homes, all corresponding to Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848. The natural infection indices with T. cruzi accounted for 43.5% for Marbacella and 36% for El Horno. Conclusion. This is the first reported capture of individuals of T. maculata, considered a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia, naturally infected with T. cruzi in the municipality of Riohacha expanding the geographical distribution of the species in the department of La Guajira.

  15. Spatial Distribution of Adults of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Guava Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, M C S; Barbosa, J C

    2016-04-01

    The psyllid Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest in guava, feeding primarily on new shoots. Despite its importance, there are no studies on the spatial distribution of T. limbata on guava. Such studies are needed to establish sequential sampling plans for decision making in pest control. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a 9-year-old commercial guava orchard divided into 100 sampling units or plots. Double-sided yellow sticky traps were placed on one plant per plot (sample unit) to capture and monitor T. limbata adults from April 2011 to May 2012. To determine the insect distribution in the area, we calculated the variance-to-mean ratio index (I), the Morisita index (I δ ), Green's coefficient (Cx), and the k exponent of the negative binomial distribution. Most of the samples showed that the adults had a moderate to highly aggregated distribution. Statistical models were also used to study the pest spatial distribution by fitting the number of adults captured to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution model best fitted the data of the number of adult psyllids captured by the traps, which is consistent with an aggregated distribution.

  16. Exposure to Guava Affects Citrus Olfactory Cues and Attractiveness to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

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    Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-06-01

    Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

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    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  18. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China.

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    Jiu, Min; Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  19. Preferensi dan Kecocokan Inang Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae terhadap Berbagai Varietas Pisang

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    Suparman Suparman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae is the only known vector of Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV. The objective of this research was to study the preference and suitability of banana aphid P. nigronervosa to various banana genotypes. Survey conducted at Talang Betutu, South Sumatra indicates the existence of different preferences of the P. nigronervosa toward different varieties in the field. Host suitability test was conducted using 13 banana varieties that were invested with P. nigronervosa from taro plants. Preference test was conducted using a 200 cm x 200 cm x 150 cm mesh cage that were used to house 13 banana genotypes that were invested with P. nigronerosa. The numbers of aphids on different banana genotypes were observed. Result of the study showed that “kepok” genotype was more suitable for the growth of P. nigronervosa compared to other genotypes. The suitability was shown by higher population, faster population growth, lower mortality and the higher proportion of alate adults. Banana kepok infested with 20 aphids at the beginning of the test reached 324 individuals within 24 days with population growth rate of 8.27% per day, and produced 1.9% of alate imagoes appeared 6 days after infestation. Host preference test using the same genotypes suggested that the aphid prefer banana kepok more than to any other genotypes.

  20. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  1. Biology of rice bug Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae), population change and alternative host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapun, W

    2013-01-01

    Leptocorisa oratorius (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) is a major rice pest which feeds on the sap of stems and rice seeds. Some graminaceous weed species serve as an alternative host of L. oratorius causing outbreaks throughout the rice growing season. Population changes of L. oratorius during both rice growing seasons - wet-season rice and dry-season rice - including the influence of alternative host, barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli (Graminaceae) on the development of L. oratorius was studied. Results presented that L. oratorius was the dominant pest species during the late phase of rice growth. Adults of L. oratorius started their migrations to wet-season rice at the vegetative stage of rice growth, while they migrated to dry-season rice at the repropuctive stage of rice growth. Leptocorisa oratorius breds rapidly in rice fields. Meanwhile, other adults migrated to the rice field. The population of adults and nymphs significantly increased from the reproductive stage to grain formation and ripening stage in both rice growing seasons. The population of nymphs was greater than adults but not significantly different in their number of individuals. Leptocorisa oratorius had one generation in each rice growing season. The results of the host plant study indicated that L oratorius developed completely in barnyard grass E. crus-galli as well as rice Oriza sativa (Graminaceae). However, L. oratorius preferred rice to barnyard grass for feeding and oviposition.

  2. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  3. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Vanessa Bellini; Pita, Sebastián; Vanzela, André Luis Laforga; Galvão, Cleber; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae. PMID:27759763

  4. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida species subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

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    Gustavo Mario Calderon-Fernandez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae were ana-lysed by gas chromatography and their structures identified by mass spectrometry. They comprised mostly n-alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes with one-four methyl substitutions. n-alkanes consisted of a homologous series from C21-C33 and represented 33-45% of the hydrocarbon fraction; n-C29 was the major component. Methyl-branched alkanes showed alkyl chains from C24-C43. High molecular weight dimethyl and trimethylalkanes (from C35-C39 represented most of the methyl-branched fraction. A few tetramethylalkanes were also detected, comprising mostly even-numbered chains. Several components such as odd-numbered 3-methylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes of C37 and C39 showed patterns of variation that allowed the differentiation of the species and populations studied. Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma patagonica showed the most distinct hydrocarbon patterns within the subcomplex. The T. sordida populations from Brazil and Argentina showed significantly different hydrocarbon profiles that posed concerns regarding the homogeneity of the species. Triatoma garciabesi had a more complex hydrocarbon pattern, but it shared some similarity with T. sordida. The quantitative and qualitative variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons may help to elucidate the relationships between species and populations of this insect group.

  5. Probing behaviors of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on enhanced UV-B irradiated plants

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    Hu Zu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B induced changes in plants can influence sap-feeding insects through mechanisms that have not been studied. Herein the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae, was monitored on barley plants under the treatments of control [0 kJ/ (m2.d], ambient UV-B [60 kJ/ (m2.d], and enhanced UV-B [120 kJ/ (m2.d] irradiation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG techniques were used to record aphid probing behaviors. Enhanced UV-B irradiated plants negatively affected probing behaviors of S. avenae compared with control plants. In particular, phloem factors that could diminish sieve element acceptance appeared to be involved, as reflected by smaller number of phloem phase, shorter phloem ingestion, and fewer aphids reaching the sustained phloem ingestion phase (E2>10min. On the other hand, factors from leaf surface, epidermis, and mesophyll cannot be excluded, as reflected by higher number of non-probing, longer non-probing and pathway phase, and later the time to first probe.

  6. The Spread of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae Species from its First Occurrence in Romania

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    Ioana Grozea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lately in horticultural agroecosystems from Romania joined several insect species autochthonous. Among these is a species of bugs known as southern green stink bugs or Nezara viridula L. (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. Unlike other new entrants this bug species has a diversified polifagism being present in many plants but obvious damage produce only tomato fruit. The causes are unknown. Can be found in gardens, green spaces and parks. Often is observed in vegetable gardens where populations comprise all stages (egg, larva/nymph, adult. Although it has African origins of a warm area is interesting installation and survival in temperate zones like those in Europe. Presence in Europe appears to be more random which excludes primarily spread through the neighborhood. By observations made in west of Romania, during 2010-2015 we wanted to watch the evolution of the insect from the first point of occurrence (Timișoara, 2010. Also, were monitored tomato crops and ornamentals in gardens and green spaces from 5 counties. Only in four monitored counties it was observed this species. Most adults and larvae were registered in Timis county (5-6 adults or 7-8 larvae/tomato plant and 10 -11 adults or 15-20 larvae/ornamental shrub. In our country the insect has proven to be capable of a rapid spread in a relatively short time interval including surrounding counties.

  7. Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-02-07

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200-700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165-172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m(-1). By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103-129° and SFEs above 20 mN m(-1). Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates.

  8. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    Nicoletta Faraone

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender and Thymus vulgaris (thyme and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  9. Bionomy of the laurel scale Aonidia lauri (Bouche (Hemiptera: Diaspididae in Podgorica, Montenegro

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    Graora Draga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aonidia lauri (Bouche (Hemiptera: Diaspididae is a serious pest of laurel (Laurus nobilis L. in urban parts of the City of Podgorica (Montenegro. Severe infestation causes chlorotic spots and necrotic rings around feeding spots, drying and dieback of leaves and buds. In addition, plants become physiologically weak and lose in aesthetic quality, while continuous infestation in urban areas often leads to partial or complete drying of plants. This study of the biology of A. lauri on L. nobilis was carried out at three locations in Podgorica ('Stara Varoš', 'Centar' and 'Preko Morače', Montenegro, in 2010 and 2011. A. lauri developed three generations annually and overwintered on laurel leaves and branches as the second-instar nymph-larval stage. An extended period of larval development ensures a continuous presence of all development stages on plants, which leads to overlapping of generations. Sporadic predatory ladybirds, Chilocorus bipustulatus (L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, whose larvae and adults feed on scales, were detected inside A. lauri colonies.

  10. The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov., its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae

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    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov. , its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae.The subgenus Lycoderes (Lycoderides Sakakibara, 1972 is raised to the genus category - Lycoderides stat. nov.. - : and it now includes: Lycoderides amazonicus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides brevilobus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides burmeisteri (Fairmaire, 1846, comb. nov. , Lycoderides cultratus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fernandezi (Strümpel, 1988, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fuscus (Amyot & Serville, 1843, comb. nov. , Lycoderides gradatus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides hippocampus (Fabricius, 1803, comb. nov. , Lycoderides luteus (Funkhouser, 1940, comb. nov. , Lycoderides marginalis (Walker, 1851, comb. nov. , Lycoderides nathanieli (Cryan, 1999, comb. nov. , Lycoderides obtusus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides pennyi (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides phasianus (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. (= Enchenopa minamen Buckton, 1901,SYN. NOV: , Lycoderides protensus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides serraticornis (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. , and Lycoderides strumpeli (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. The following new species are described: Lycoderides abditus, sp. nov. , Lycoderides brulei,SP. NOV. (: both from French Guiana, Lycoderides capixaba, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Espírito Santo, Lycoderides cavichiolii, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Lycoderides meloi, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Bahia, and Lycoderides oliviae, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Minas Gerais. Other nomenclatural change: Stegaspis bracteata (Fabricius, 1787 = Lycoderes capitata Buckton, 1903, syn. nov. New records of geographical distribution and a key to the species are provided.

  11. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran-Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida-Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan-Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks' lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations.

  12. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

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    Mohammadreza Lashkari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB, is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida. The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1, Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1, and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6, to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001. The body length (BL, circumanal ring length (CL, antenna length (AL, forewing length (WL and Rs vein length of forewing (RL were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1 Iran, (2 USA (Florida and (3 Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations.

  13. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Vanessa Bellini Bardella

    Full Text Available The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae.

  14. Eliminating Macchiademus diplopterus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Siculobata sicula (Acari: Oribatulidae) From Export Fruit Using Ethyl Formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grout, Tim G; Stoltz, Kim C

    2016-12-01

    South African fruit is sometimes rejected for export for the presence of live arthropods that are not considered pests of the fruit concerned. Macchiademus diplopterus (Distant) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) is a cereal pest but may aestivate on fruit of some tree crops in the Western Cape province of South Africa and occasionally results in rejections of export fruit. Ethyl formate in the form of the commercial product Vapormate (a patented combination of ethyl formate and carbon dioxide) was evaluated as a fumigant against M. diplopterus at a dosage of Vapormate 250 g/m3 or ethyl formate 1.29% and carbon dioxide 10.76% (both by volume) and when applied for 4 h gave complete control. Confirmatory trials with >35,000 M. diplopterus using the same treatment, resulted in no survivors. The arboreal mite Siculobata sicula (Berlese) (Sarcoptiformes: Oribatulidae) at times reaches high numbers on citrus in orchards if few pesticides are used and may result in export rejections. A small-scale trial using the same ethyl formate treatment also killed these mites. This treatment-time combination did not appear to have phytotoxic effects on pears or oranges, unless they had prior mechanical injuries that were accentuated. Ethyl formate therefore holds promise for disinfesting fruit before it is packed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Remote sensing and spatial statistical techniques for modelling Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae habitat and population densities

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    Khalifa M. Al-Kindi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the distribution and prevalence of Ommatissus lybicus (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae as well as analyse their current biographical patterns and predict their future spread, comprehensive and detailed information on the environmental, climatic, and agricultural practices are essential. The spatial analytical techniques such as Remote Sensing and Spatial Statistics Tools, can help detect and model spatial links and correlations between the presence, absence and density of O. lybicus in response to climatic, environmental, and human factors. The main objective of this paper is to review remote sensing and relevant analytical techniques that can be applied in mapping and modelling the habitat and population density of O. lybicus. An exhaustive search of related literature revealed that there are very limited studies linking location-based infestation levels of pests like the O. lybicus with climatic, environmental, and human practice related variables. This review also highlights the accumulated knowledge and addresses the gaps in this area of research. Furthermore, it makes recommendations for future studies, and gives suggestions on monitoring and surveillance methods in designing both local and regional level integrated pest management strategies of palm tree and other affected cultivated crops.

  16. Landscape Effects on Reproduction of Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a Mobile, Polyphagous, Multivoltine Arthropod Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Dawn M; Prescott, Kristina R; Zeilinger, Adam R; Hou, Suqin; Coffin, Alisa W; Smith, Coby M; Ruberson, John R; Andow, David A

    2018-04-04

    Landscape factors can significantly influence arthropod populations. The economically important brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a native mobile, polyphagous and multivoltine pest of many crops in southeastern United States and understanding the relative influence of local and landscape factors on their reproduction may facilitate population management. Finite rate of population increase (λ) was estimated in four major crop hosts-maize, peanut, cotton, and soybean-over 3 yr in 16 landscapes of southern Georgia. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to characterize the surrounding landscape structure. LASSO regression was used to identify the subset of local and landscape characteristics and predator densities that account for variation in λ. The percentage area of maize, peanut and woodland and pasture in the landscape and the connectivity of cropland had no influence on E. servus λ. The best model for explaining variation in λ included only four predictor variables: whether or not the sampled field was a soybean field, mean natural enemy density in the field, percentage area of cotton in the landscape and the percentage area of soybean in the landscape. Soybean was the single most important variable for determining E. servus λ, with much greater reproduction in soybean fields than in other crop species. Penalized regression and post-selection inference provide conservative estimates of the landscape-scale determinants of E. servus reproduction and indicate that a relatively simple set of in-field and landscape variables influences reproduction in this species.

  17. Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Fabio Souto; Goncalves, Lenicio

    2007-01-01

    Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree), Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae). This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 ± 1 deg C, 80 ± 3% RH and 12h photo phase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 ± 2.6 deg C, 73.3 ± 9.9 % RH), and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety IAC-22 and kept at 25 or 30 deg C. In all treatments five immature stages were observed. The increase of temperature caused reduction in the developmental time. The temperature of 15 deg C disabled nymphal eclosion and was also lethal to those nymphs ecloded at other temperatures. The lower mortality of nymphs occurred in the temperature of 25 deg C with cotton as food (24.07%). The lower threshold temperature (Tb) occurred for the first instar (11.54 deg C) and the higher for the second instar (15.33 deg C). The females of D. maurus required more degree-days (329.93 degree-days) than males (300.49 degree-days) until adult emergence. (author)

  18. Life History of the Camelthorn Gall Leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae

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    Roman Rakitov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s only member of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha known to form true galls, the leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Cicadellidae, transforms leaves of camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum Medikus, Fabaceae into pod-like chambers, up to 35 mm long, inside which individual leafhoppers develop, mate, and lay eggs. At the study site 40 km SE of Bukhara (Uzbekistan, two generations develop annually. First-instar nymphs cause young leaves to fold along the midrib. The subsequent development takes place inside the tightly closed growing gall, plugged at both ends with a mixture of leafhopper excrement, brochosomes, and crushed exuviae. These plugs act as mechanical barriers and sticky traps for intruders. The inner surface of the gall, lined with brochosomes and wax platelets, is hydrophobic. Adult males emerge from their galls and squeeze into female galls. Fertilized females insert an average of 146 eggs under the gall’s inner epidermis and remain inside, possibly protecting the brood, until they die. The walls of the galls containing eggs are approximately three times thicker than regular leaves. The galls are subject to predation by Gelechiidae caterpillars; the eggs of the leafhopper are parasitized by two species of Trichogrammatidae and one Mymaridae (Hymenoptera, and its larvae by one species of Pipunculidae (Diptera.

  19. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Polygalacturonase Genes in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae.

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    Lili Zhang

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase (PG is an enzyme in the salivary glands of piercing-sucking mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae that plays a key role in plant feeding and injury. By constructing a full-length cDNA library, we cloned and characterized 14 PG genes from the salivary glands of Apolygus lucorum, a pestiferous mirid bug in cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China. BLAST search analysis showed that the amino acid sequences deduced from transcripts of the PG genes were closely related to PGs from other mirid bugs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PGs of mirid bugs had six main branches, PG1-PG6 (Genbank accession numbers: KF881899~KF881912. We investigated the mRNA expression patterns of the A. lucorum PG genes using real-time PCR. All 14 PGs were expressed significantly higher in the salivary glands than in other tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing. For eggs and nymphs, the expression levels of these PGs were much higher in the 5th instar stage than in the egg, and 1st and 3rd instar stages. The PG expression levels in 1-day-old adults were very low, and increased in 5, 20 and 30-day-old adults. Additionally, PG expression levels were generally similar between males and females. The possible physiological functions of PGs in A. lucorum were discussed.

  20. Understanding trophic interactions of Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in lettuce crops by molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Polo, Priscila; Alomar, Oscar; Castañé, Cristina; Aznar-Fernández, Thaïs; Lundgren, Jonathan G; Piñol, Josep; Agustí, Nuria

    2016-02-01

    The aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are common pests in Mediterranean lettuce crops, where Orius spp. are common generalist predators. Predation by Orius spp. was studied in a lettuce plot by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR analyses using specific primers of both main pests. Also, high-throughput sequencing was used to have a wider approach of the diet of these predators in natural field conditions. Molecular analyses indicated a higher predation on N. ribisnigri in spring and on F. occidentalis in summer. Predation on alternative prey, like Collembola, was also found in both seasons. Real-time PCR was more sensitive than conventional PCR in showing the target trophic links, whereas high-throughput sequencing revealed predation on other natural enemies - intraguild predation (IGP), showing other trophic interactions of Orius majusculus within the studied ecosystem. This study gives important information about the trophic relationships present in Mediterranean lettuce crops in different periods of the year. The detected predation by Orius spp. on alternative prey, as well as on other natural enemies, should be further investigated to clarify whether it adds or detracts to the biological control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M.; Simons, Nadja K.; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H. O.; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2015-03-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience.

  2. Chitin deacetylase family genes in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y; Pan, P-L; Ye, Y-X; Yu, B; Zhang, C-X

    2014-12-01

    Chitin deacetylases (CDAs) are enzymes required for one of the pathways of chitin degradation, in which chitosan is produced by the deacetylation of chitin. Bioinformatic investigations with genomic and transcriptomic databases identified four genes encoding CDAs in Nilaparvata lugens (NlCDAs). Phylogenetic analysis showed that insect CDAs were clustered into five major groups. Group I, III and IV CDAs are found in all insect species, whereas the pupa-specific group II and gut-specific group V CDAs are not found in the plant-sap/blood-sucking hemimetabolous species from Hemiptera and Anoplura. The developmental and tissue-specific expression patterns of four NlCDAs revealed that NlCDA3 was a gut-specific CDA, with high expression at all developmental stages; NlCDA1, NlCDA2 and NlCDA4 were highly expressed in the integument and peaked periodically during every moulting, which suggests their roles in chitin turnover of the insect old cuticle. Lethal phenotypes of cuticle shedding failure and high mortality after the injection of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) for NlCDA1, NlCDA2 and NlCDA4 provide further evidence for their functions associated with moulting. No observable morphological and internal structural abnormality was obtained in insects treated with dsRNA for gut-specific NlCDA3. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Wang, Changlu; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2012-05-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced an extraordinary global resurgence in recent years, the reasons for which remain poorly understood. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all residential settings, with widespread infestations established in multiapartment buildings. Within such buildings, understanding the population genetic structure and patterns of dispersal may prove critical to the development of effective control strategies. Here, we describe the development of 24 high-resolution microsatellite markers through next generation 454 pyrosequencing and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by spread are evident in two buildings. Populations within single apartments in all buildings were characterized by high levels of relatedness and low levels of diversity, indicative of foundation from small, genetically depauperate propagules. Regardless of the number of unique introductions, genetic data indicate that spread within buildings is extensive, supporting both active and human-mediated dispersal within and between adjacent rooms or apartments spanning multiple floors.

  4. Estados de desarrollo y biología de tres especies de Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae Life stages and biology of three species of Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae

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    Luis Cervantes-Peredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los estados de desarrollo (huevo, ninfas y adulto de 3 especies de Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae, Anochrostomus formosus (Blanchard principalmente asociada con especies de Asteraceae y Convolvulaceae, y Lygaeus reclivatus reclivatus(Say y Oncopeltus (Oncopeltus sexmaculatus (Stål asociadas con Asclepiadaceae. Las descripciones están basadas en ejemplares colectados en los estados de Oaxaca y Guerrero (México y criados en el laboratorio. Se ilustra cada uno de los estadios y se incluyen notas acerca de su biología y plantas huéspedes.The life stages (egg, nymphs, and adult of 3 species of Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae are described. Anochrostomus formosus (Blanchard is mainly associated with species of Asteraceae and Convolvulaceae, whereas Lygaeus reclivatus reclivatus (Say and Oncopeltus (Oncopeltus sexmaculatus (Stål are associated with Asclepiadaceae. Descriptions are based on individuals collected in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero (Mexico, and reared in laboratory. Illustrations of each instar are also included, as well as notes about their biology and host plants.

  5. Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton

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    Martin D. Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton. The striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, is a widely distributed and polyphagous pest species, which naturally occurs on cotton plants in Brazil. This study evaluated the establishment and population growth as well as the within-plant distribution of F. virgata on four cotton cultivars: CNPA 7H (white fibers, BRS Verde, BRS Safira, and BRS Rubi (colored fibers. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design with four treatments (cultivars and 18 replications of each. Thus, cotton plants of each cultivar were infested with 100 newly hatched nymphs of F. virgata. The number of adult female mealybugs and the total number of mealybugs per plant were quantified, respectively, at 25 and 50 days after infestation. The developmental and pre-reproductive periods were also determined. Furthermore, we verified the distribution of F. virgata on the plant parts at 25 and 50 days after infestation. Ferrisia virgata showed similar growth of 412-fold in the four cotton cultivars studied. Also, the nymphs were spread on infested leaves; the secondgeneration nymphs were spread and established in all plant parts. Our results characterize F. virgata as having much potential as an important cotton pest in Brazil.

  6. Toxicity of three aphicides to the generalist predators Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo R R; Michaud, J P; Bain, Clint L; Torres, Jorge B

    2017-07-01

    Recent widespread infestations of the invasive sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in sorghum fields in the southern USA have created demand for insecticides that will provide effective control of sugarcane aphid, while conserving those beneficial species that contribute to biological control of the pest. We tested the susceptibility of both adult and immature stages of two aphid predators, the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), to three aphicides, flonicamid, sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone. Flonicamid was innocuous to both species regardless of life stage or route of exposure. Lacewing adults were more susceptible to sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone than were larvae, and had higher mortality when fed contaminated honey solution than when contacting residues on an inert surface. When laid in sunflower stems treated with these two materials, eggs of O. insidiosus hatched successfully, but nymphs experienced significant mortality when exposed to treated stems, likely due to phytophagous behavior that resulted in some insecticide ingestion. Despite these impacts, we conclude that both sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone are likely to be relatively innocuous in comparison to more broad-spectrum insecticides and are thus potentially compatible with biological control and overall management of M. sacchari in grain sorghum.

  7. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) on sugarcane in Colombia, with description of a new species of Tillancoccus Ben-Dov (Coccidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Alejandro; Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Kondo, Takumasa

    2017-05-02

    Herein we describe a new species, Tillancoccus koreguajae Caballero & Ramos, sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) from Colombia collected on sugarcane. Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) is also recorded on sugarcane for the first time worldwide. An updated list of seven species of Coccomorpha on sugarcane in Colombia is provided, including information on its distribution, biology, and mutualistic ants for each species. Seven species of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) have been recorded previously on sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L. (Poaceae) in Colombia: Pseudococcidae: Dysmicoccus boninsis (Kuwana), D. brevipes (Cockerell), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell); Coccidae: Pulvinaria elongata Newstead; Diaspididae: Duplachionaspis divergens (Green) and Serenaspis minima (Maskell). However, the record of S. minima in Colombia is considered doubtful as there are no voucher specimens from Colombia and because the distribution of this species is currently limited to the Australasian region. Pseudococcus calceolariae is present in Colombia but its record on sugarcane is also doubtful. A taxonomic key for the identification of scale insects on sugarcane in Colombia is provided.

  8. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae Regarding to host conditioning in citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  9. REPRODUÇÃO DE Edessa meditabunda (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE EM ALGODOEIRO

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    Rosalia Azambuja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-asa-preta-da-soja Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae no final do ciclo da soja dispersa para algodoeiro e utiliza essa planta como hospedeiro alternativo. Visando conhecer o potencial desta espécie como praga em algodoais e auxiliar na tomada decisão quanto ao manejo deste inseto, hipotetizou-se nesse trabalho que o algodoeiro é nutricionalmente adequado para a reprodução e desenvolvimento de E. meditabunda. Os tratamentos testados foram: 1 folhas e maçã de algodoeiro e 2 dieta padrão, recomendada para criação de pentatomídeos fitófagos em laboratório, utilizada como testemunha. As características biológicas avaliadas foram: período de desenvolvimento ninfal, duração de cada ínstar, porcentagem de sobrevivência, peso dos adultos na emergência, longevidade de machos e de fêmeas, período de pré-oviposição e de oviposição, número total de ovos por fêmea e fecundidade das fêmeas. Observou-se que, apesar do prolongamento do período de desenvolvimento ninfal, as ninfas alimentadas com algodoeiro sobreviveram, atingiram a fase adulta e os adultos se reproduziram, o que nos permite sugerir que o algodoeiro seja uma planta nutricionalmente adequada para o desenvolvimento e reprodução de E. meditabunda, permitindo a manutenção do inseto em campo após a colheita da soja.  RESUMO El chinche Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae al final del ciclo de la soja emigra al cultivo de algodón y utiliza esta planta como un huésped alternativo. Con el objetivo de conocer el potencial de esta especie como una plaga en los algodonales y ayudar en la toma de decisiones con respecto al manejo de este insecto, se planteó la hipótesis en este estudio que el algodón y nutritiva, adecuada para la reproducción y el desarrollo de E. meditabunda. Los tratamientos fueron:1 las hojas y el fruto del algodón 2 dieta estándar recomendada para la cría de pentatomidos fitófagos en el

  10. Regulated deficit irrigation and density of Erythroneura spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    This study looked at regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on leafhoppers in the genus Erythroneura (Erythroneura elegantula Osborn, or western grape leafhopper, and Erythroneura variabilis Beamer) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), which are serious pests of cultivated grape (Vitis vinifera L.) in California. RDI is an irrigation strategy that reduces irrigation during a critical point in the phenology of a cultivated perennial crop, to improve vegetative balance and crop quality. Erythroneura spp. are known to respond negatively to vine water stress, and the second generation ofleafhoppers begins during a potential RDI initiation period, between berry set and veraison (beginning of fruit maturation). In experiments at commercial wine grape vineyards, I imposed deficits of between 25 and 50% of crop full evapotranspiration (ET(c)) between berry set and veraison, with control treatments based on the growers' standard irrigations (typically between 0.8 and 1.0 ET(c)), and then we counted leafhopper nymphs weekly, and leafhopper eggs after the second generation. Results show a consistent reduction of second generation nymphal density with this type of RDI, with average density approximately 50% lower under deficit treatments in all three studies. Deficit irrigation reduced second generation egg density by 54% at one site and by 29.9% at another. These results confirm previous studies regarding the sensitivity of Erythroneura spp. to grapevine water stress, and, in addition, they show that a season-wide irrigation deficit is not necessary for reduction in leafhopper density. Results suggest that lower oviposition at least partly explains the lower nymphal density in the deficit treatments.

  11. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Larval Development and Predation of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Keena, Melody A; Long, David; Ostiguy, Nancy; Hoover, Kelli

    2015-02-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for A. tsugae. This beetle has been approved for removal from quarantine but has not yet been field released. We observed that temperature had significant effects on the predator's life history. The larvae tended to develop faster and consume more eggs of A. tsugae per day as rearing temperature increased. Mean egg consumption per day of A. tsugae was less at 15°C than at 20°C. However, as larvae took longer to develop at the lower temperature, the total number of eggs consumed per instar during larval development did not differ significantly between the two temperatures. The lower temperature threshold for predator larval development was estimated to be 5°C, which closely matches the developmental threshold of A. tsugae progrediens. Accumulated degree-days for 50% of the predator neonates to reach adulthood was estimated to be 424. Although temperature had a significant effect on larval development and predation, it did not impact survival, size, or sex ratio of the predator at 15 and 20°C. Furthermore, no remarkable distinctions were observed among different geographical populations of the predator. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi from Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae

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    Xiang Meng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Litchi stink-bug, Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae, is one of the most widespread and destructive pest species on Litchi chinensis Sonn and Dimocarpus longan Lour in Southern China. Inappropriate use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollution. Generating an improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM strategy for litchi stink-bug in orchard farming requires development of an effective biological control agent. Entomopathogenic fungi are regarded as a vital ecological factor in the suppression of pest populations under field conditions. With few effective fungi and pathogenic strains available to control litchi stink-bug, exploration of natural resources for promising entomopathogenic fungi is warranted. Methods & Results In this study, two pathogenic fungi were isolated from cadavers of adult T. papillosa. They were identified as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana by morphological identification and rDNA-ITS homogeneous analysis. Infection of T. papillosa with B. bassiana and P. lilacinus occurred initially from the antennae, metameres, and inter-segmental membranes. Biological tests showed that the two entomopathogenic fungi induced high mortality in 2nd and 5th instar nymphs of T. papillosa. B. bassiana was highly virulent on 2nd instar nymphs of T. papillosa, with values for cadaver rate, LC50 and LT50 of 88.89%, 1.92 × 107 conidia/mL and 4.34 days respectively. Discussion This study provides two valuable entomopathogenic fungi from T. papillosa. This finding suggests that the highly virulent P. lilacinus and B. bassiana play an important role in the biocontrol of T. papillosa in China. These pathogenic fungi had no pollution or residue risk, and could provide an alternative option for IPM of litchi stink-bug.

  13. Evidence for Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Resistance to Pyrethroid Insecticides in the Upper Midwestern United States.

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    Hanson, Anthony A; Menger-Anderson, James; Silverstein, Celia; Potter, Bruce D; MacRae, Ian V; Hodgson, Erin W; Koch, Robert L

    2017-10-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a damaging invasive pest of soybean in the upper Midwest. Threshold-based insecticide applications are the primary control method for soybean aphid, but few insecticide groups are available (i.e., pyrethroids, organophosphates, and neonicotinoids). To quantify current levels of soybean aphid susceptibility to pyrethroids in the upper Midwest and monitor for insecticide resistance, leaf-dip bioassays were performed with λ-cyhalothrin in 2013-2015, and glass-vial bioassays were performed with λ-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin in 2015 and 2016. Soybean aphids were collected from 27 population-years in Minnesota and northern Iowa, and were compared with a susceptible laboratory colony with no known insecticide exposure since discovery of soybean aphid in North America in 2000. Field-collected aphids from some locations in leaf-dip and glass-vial bioassays had significantly lower rates of insecticide-induced mortality compared with the laboratory population, although field population susceptibility varied by year. In response to sublethal concentrations of λ-cyhalothrin, adult aphids from some locations required higher concentrations of insecticide to reduce nymph production compared with the laboratory population. The most resistant field population demonstrated 39-fold decreased mortality compared with the laboratory population. The resistance documented in this study, although relatively low for most field populations, indicates that there has been repeated selection pressure for pyrethroid resistance in some soybean aphid populations. Integrated pest management and insecticide resistance management should be practiced to slow further development of soybean aphid resistance to pyrethroids. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effects of thiamethoxam seed treatments on soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding behavior.

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    Stamm, M D; Heng-Moss, T M; Baxendale, F P; Reese, J C; Siegfried, B D; Hunt, T E; Gaussoin, R E; Blankenship, E E

    2013-12-01

    Since its discovery in North America in 2000, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has rapidly become an important pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], sometimes resulting in significant yield losses. Previous research has documented the toxicity of neonicotinoid seed treatments to soybean aphids, but control under field conditions has been inconsistent. Imidacloprid, a popular neonicotinoid insecticide, has been shown to exhibit antifeedant effects on aphids. Antifeedant activity has not been demonstrated for other neonicotinoids, including thiamethoxam. This research investigated the effects of a thiamethoxam seed treatment on soybean aphid feeding behavior by using electronic penetration graphs (EPG) to visualize stylet penetration behavior. Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and untreated soybeans (V2 and V4 stages). Because results were inconclusive from initial experiments, a study was conducted to document the effects of thiamethoxam-treated soybeans on soybean aphid survival. The seed treatment was shown to negatively affect aphid survival at 4, 8, and 11 d after aphid introduction. A subsequent EPG study then was designed to document soybean aphid feeding behavior for 15 h, after an initial exposure of 9 h to thiamethoxam-treated soybeans. In this study, the exposed aphids exhibited significant differences in feeding behavior compared with those aphids feeding on untreated soybeans. Soybean aphids on thiamethoxam-treated soybeans spent significantly less time feeding in the sieve element phase, with a greater duration of nonprobing events. These studies suggest soybean aphids are unable to ingest phloem sap, which may be another important element in seed treatment protection.

  15. Characterization of Paecilomycescinnamomeus from the camellia whitefly, Aleurocanthus camelliae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting tea in Japan.

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    Saito, Tsutomu; Takatsuka, Jun; Shimazu, Mitsuaki

    2012-05-01

    The whitefly, Aleurocanthus camelliae Kanmiya and Kasai (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an invasive species in Japan that was first discovered in 2004 on tea in Kyoto. Soon after its arrival epizootics of an entomopathogenic fungus were observed in populations of the whitefly in many tea-growing regions. Here we identify this fungus as Paecilomyces cinnamomeus (Petch) Samson and W. Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) based on morphological characteristics and molecular analyses. This is the first record of P. cinnamomeus in Japan and also the first time it has been recorded from the genus Aleurocanthus. A isolate of P. cinnamomeus caused greater than 50% and 90% infection in whitefly nymphs at 1×10(6) and 1×10(7)conidia/ml respectively, while the commercial mycoinsecticides Preferd® (Isaria fumosorosea) and Mycotal® (Lecanicillium muscarium) caused <10% infection at their recommended field rates (5×10(6) and 9×10(6)conidia/ml, respectively), suggesting that P. cinnamomeus may be more useful as a control agent than the currently available mycoinsecticides. Optimum and upper limit temperatures for in vitro growth of P. cinnamomeus isolates were 22.5-25°C and 32.5°C, respectively. At field rates, the fungicide thiophanate-methyl caused some inhibition of in vitro growth of P. cinnamomeus isolates, and the bactericide copper oxychloride and the insecticides tolfenpyrad and methidathion were strongly inhibitory. The findings obtained in this study will be useful in the development of microbial control programs using P. cinnamomeus against A. camelliae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

    2011-08-01

    Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control.

  17. The Effect of Temperature Increases on an Ant-Hemiptera-Plant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagata, Katayo; Gibb, Heloise

    2016-01-01

    Global temperature increases are significantly altering species distributions and the structure of ecological communities. However, the impact of temperature increases on multi- species interactions is poorly understood. We used an ant-Hemiptera-plant interaction to examine the potential outcomes of predicted temperature increases for each partner and for the availability of honeydew, a keystone resource in many forest ecosystems. We re-created this interaction in growth cabinets using predicted mean summer temperatures for Melbourne, Australia, for the years 2011 (23°C), 2050 (25°C) and 2100 (29°C), respectively, under an unmitigated greenhouse gas emission scenario. Plant growth and ant foraging activities increased, while scale insect growth, abundance and size, honeydew standing crop per tree and harvesting by ants decreased at 29°C, relative to lower temperatures (23 and 25°C). This led to decreased scale insect infestations of plants and reduced honeydew standing crop per tree at the highest temperature. At all temperatures, honeydew standing crop was lower when ants harvested the honeydew from scale insects, but the impact of ant harvesting was particularly significant at 29°C, where combined effects of temperature and ants reduced honeydew standing crop to below detectable levels. Although temperature increases in the next 35 years will have limited effects on this system, by the end of this century, warmer temperatures may cause the availability of honeydew to decline. Decline of honeydew may have far-reaching trophic effects on honeydew and ant-mediated interactions. However, field-based studies that consider the full complexity of ecosystems may be required to elucidate these impacts.

  18. A Predictive Degree Day Model for the Development of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Infesting Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, O M; Michels, G J; Pierson, E A; Heinz, K M

    2015-08-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that vectors the bacterium that putatively causes zebra chip disease in potatoes, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum.' Zebra chip disease is managed by controlling populations of B. cockerelli in commercial potato fields. Lacking an integrated pest management strategy, growers have resorted to an intensive chemical control program that may be leading to insecticide-resistant B. cockerelli populations in south Texas and Mexico. To initiate the development of an integrated approach of controlling B. cockerelli, we used constant temperature studies, nonlinear and linear modeling, and field sampling data to determine and validate the degree day parameters for development of B. cockerelli infesting potato. Degree day model predictions for three different B. cockerelli life stages were tested against data collected from pesticide-free plots. The model was most accurate at predicting egg-to-egg and nymph-to-nymph peaks, with less accuracy in predicting adult-to-adult peaks. It is impractical to predict first occurrence of B. cockerelli in potato plantings as adults are present as soon cotyledons break through the soil. Therefore, we suggest integrating the degree day model into current B. cockerelli management practices using a two-phase method. Phase 1 occurs from potato planting through to the first peak in a B. cockerelli field population, which is managed using current practices. Phase 2 begins with the first B. cockerelli population peak and the degree day model is initiated to predict the subsequent population peaks, thus providing growers a tool to proactively manage this pest. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Blaauw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.. Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  20. Jumping performance of flea hoppers and other mirid bugs (Hemiptera, Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, M; Dorosenko, M

    2017-05-01

    The order Hemiptera includes jumping insects with the fastest take-off velocities, all generated by catapult mechanisms. It also contains the large family Miridae or plant bugs. Here, we analysed the jumping strategies and mechanisms of six mirid species from high-speed videos and from the anatomy of their propulsive legs, and conclude that they use a different mechanism in which jumps are powered by the direct contractions of muscles. Three strategies were identified. First, jumping was propelled only by movements of the middle and hind legs, which were, respectively, 140% and 190% longer than the front legs. In three species with masses ranging from 3.4 to 12.2 mg, depression of the coxo-trochanteral and extension of femoro-tibial joints accelerated the body in 8-17 ms to take-off velocities of 0.5-0.8 m s -1 The middle legs lost ground contact 5-6 ms before take-off so that the hind legs generated the final propulsion. The power requirements could be met by the direct muscle contractions so that catapult mechanisms were not implicated. Second, other species combined the same leg movements with wing beating to generate take-off during a wing downstroke. Third, up to four wingbeat cycles preceded take-off and were not assisted by leg movements. Take-off velocities were reduced and acceleration times lengthened. Other species from the same habitat did not jump. The lower take-off velocities achieved by powering jumping by direct muscle contractions may be offset by eliminating the time taken to load catapult mechanisms. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

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    Arthur da Silva Neumann

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  3. Sublethal Effects of Thiamethoxam on the Demographic Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Zhou, Li-Lin; Yang, Fan; Li, Mang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Lei, Chao-Liang; Si, Sheng-Yun

    2017-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important sap-sucking pest of many crops, including Chinese cabbage, Brassinca oleracea L. The neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam has been used as an effective insecticide to control M. persicae in cabbage fields. In this study, we assessed the effects of sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on demographic parameters of M. persicae. In leaf-dip bioassays, thiamethoxam showed a relatively high toxicity against M. persicae with an LC50 of 6.80 mg liter-1. The duration of the preadult stage was not significantly affected in the sublethal bioassay. Additionally, the longevity and adult preoviposition period were not significantly affected by sublethal thiamethoxam. However, sublethal thiamethoxam significantly increased fecundity (LC10) and prolonged the total preoviposition period (LC40). Consequently, the finite rate of increase (λ) and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of aphids exposed to the LC40 were significantly lower than those of control aphids, whereas the net reproductive rate (R0) was higher, and the generation time (T) and the population doubling time (DT) were longer in the treated group. Based on these results, hormesis was induced by sublethal thiamethoxam in M. persicae, with the population growth of M. persicae negatively affected at higher sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam. Therefore, our study indicated that the possible effects of thiamethoxam on aphids require further study to develop optimized integrated pest management strategies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Comparative mitogenomics of plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae: identifying the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine.

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    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes.

  5. Sugarcane Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): A New Pest on Sorghum in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Robert D; Brewer, Michael J; Kerns, David L; Gordy, John; Seiter, Nick; Elliott, Norman E; Buntin, G David; Way, M O; Royer, T A; Biles, Stephen; Maxson, Erin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum species in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in 4 states and 38 counties in the United States. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorghum-producing regions in Mexico. Ability to overwinter on living annual and perennial hosts in southern sorghum-producing areas and wind-aided movement of alate aphids appear to be the main factors in its impressive geographic spread in North America. Morphological characteristics of the sugarcane aphid include dark tarsi, cornicles, and antennae, allowing easy differentiation from other aphids on the crop. Sugarcane aphid damages sorghum by removing sap and covering plants with honeydew, causing general plant decline and yield loss. Honeydew and sooty mold can disrupt harvesting. The aphid's high reproductive rate on susceptible sorghum hybrids has resulted in reports of yield loss ranging from 10% to greater than 50%. In response, a combination of research-based data and field observations has supported development of state extension identification, scouting, and treatment guides that aid in initiating insecticide applications to prevent yield losses. Highly efficacious insecticides have been identified and when complemented by weekly scouting and use of thresholds, economic loss by sugarcane aphid can be minimized. Some commercial sorghum hybrids are partially resistant to the aphid, and plant breeders have identified other lines with sugarcane aphid resistance. A very diverse community of predators and parasitoids of sugarcane aphid has been identified, and their value to limit sugarcane aphid population growth is under investigation.

  6. Melt With This Kiss: Paralyzing and Liquefying Venom of The Assassin Bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Madio, Bruno; Jin, Jiayi; Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2017-04-01

    Assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are venomous insects, most of which prey on invertebrates. Assassin bug venom has features in common with venoms from other animals, such as paralyzing and lethal activity when injected, and a molecular composition that includes disulfide-rich peptide neurotoxins. Uniquely, this venom also has strong liquefying activity that has been hypothesized to facilitate feeding through the narrow channel of the proboscis-a structure inherited from sap- and phloem-feeding phytophagous hemipterans and adapted during the evolution of Heteroptera into a fang and feeding structure. However, further understanding of the function of assassin bug venom is impeded by the lack of proteomic studies detailing its molecular composition.By using a combined transcriptomic/proteomic approach, we show that the venom proteome of the harpactorine assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis includes a complex suite of >100 proteins comprising disulfide-rich peptides, CUB domain proteins, cystatins, putative cytolytic toxins, triabin-like protein, odorant-binding protein, S1 proteases, catabolic enzymes, putative nutrient-binding proteins, plus eight families of proteins without homology to characterized proteins. S1 proteases, CUB domain proteins, putative cytolytic toxins, and other novel proteins in the 10-16-kDa mass range, were the most abundant venom components. Thus, in addition to putative neurotoxins, assassin bug venom includes a high proportion of enzymatic and cytolytic venom components likely to be well suited to tissue liquefaction. Our results also provide insight into the trophic switch to blood-feeding by the kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae). Although some protein families such as triabins occur in the venoms of both predaceous and blood-feeding reduviids, the composition of venoms produced by these two groups is revealed to differ markedly. These results provide insights into the venom evolution in the insect suborder

  7. Biology and harmfulness of Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Belgrade area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is an important pest on plants of the family Cupressaceae. Its numerous populations have been present in recent years on Juniperus spp. in Belgrade. Feeding by sap-sucking on all aboveground plant organs, it causes growth stagnation, chlorosis, drying of needles and branches, and even of entire plants under heavy infestation. Additionally, the scale excretes large quantities of honeydew, on which sooty mold develops, reducing photosynthesis and causing faster plant deterioration. Throughout 2007 and 2008, P. vovae was recorded on Juniperus spp. in 12 localities in Belgrade, and on Thuja sp. in a single locality. The pest was found to develop three generations per year and overwinter on branches at the egg or second instar stages. The first generation adults were observed at the end of May, the second generation at the beginning of August, while the third generation was recorded at the beginning of October. Different overwintering modes, and variable oviposition, embryonic and larval development periods led to an overlapping of generations and continuous presence of all developmental stages on plants. In different localities the infestation of plants varied in abundance from a few individual specimens to very large colonies. The highest infestation intensity was recorded in the localities Bežanija, Dorćol and Voždovac. The predatory species Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Nephus bipunctatus (Kugelann (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae were found in the scale colonies. Regarding N. bipunctatus, this was its first record as a new species in the Serbian fauna.

  8. Gut Content Analysis of a Phloem-Feeding Insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Rodney; Horton, David R; Unruh, Thomas R; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-08-01

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the psyllid regularly occurs on numerous uncultivated annual and perennial species within the Solanaceae. A better understanding of landscape-level ecology of B. cockerelli would substantially improve our ability to predict which potato fields are most likely to be colonized by infected psyllids. We developed three PCR-based methods of gut content analysis to identify what plant species B. cockerelli had previously fed upon. These methods included-1) sequencing PCR amplicons of regions of plant-derived internal transcribed spacer (ITS) or the chloroplast trnL gene from psyllids, 2) high-resolution melting analysis of ITS or trnL real-time PCR products, and 3) restriction enzyme digestion of trnL PCR product. Each method was used to test whether we could identify psyllids that had been reared continuously on potato versus psyllids reared continuously on the perennial nightshade, Solanum dulcamara. All three methods of gut content analysis correctly identified psyllids from potato and psyllids from S. dulcamara Our study is the first to demonstrate that plant DNA can be detected in a phloem-feeding insect. Gut content analysis, in combination with other landscape ecology approaches, could help elucidate patterns in landscape-level movements and host plant associations of B. cockerelli. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  9. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae

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    Lauren A. Cirino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior. Our goal with this study was to determine if similar phenotypic changes of N. femorata occurred over time in the wild, and the extent to which these changes were concordant with phenological changes in its host plant. Further, we investigate the length of the insect mouthparts (beak over time. Ongoing work has suggested that beak length may change across cohorts of developing insects in response to feeding deep within cactus fruit where seed and pulp depth decrease as the fruit ripens. Our results revealed a drop in cactus fruit abundance between the months of July through October 2015 as cactus fruits turned red and ripened. Simultaneously, the average body size of both males and females of N. femorata declined at two sampled sites. Male hind femora (a sexually-selected weapon decreased disproportionately in size over time so that males later in the year had relatively smaller hind femora for their body size. The sex-specific patterns of morphological change led to increased sexual-size dimorphism and decreased sexual dimorphism for hind femora later in the year. Further, we found that beak length decreased across cohorts of insects as cactus fruit ripened, suggesting phenotypic plasticity in mouthpart length. Behavioral studies revealed that female readiness to mate increased as the season progressed. In sum, we found pronounced changes in the phenotypes of these insects in the field. Although this

  10. Biology of Blepyrus clavicornis (Compere (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, a parasitoid of Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Vitor Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Encyrtids (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae are the most important and diverse group of natural enemies of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Blepyrus clavicornis (Compere is the most common parasitoid associated with Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret in the Serra Gaúcha region, Brazil. We conducted laboratory studies to assess the development time, sex ratio, adult longevity, host stage selection for parasitism, and effect of food on the longevity of adult females of B. clavicornis. The experiments were conducted in a climate chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 12:12 L:D photoperiod. The solitary parasitoid B. clavicornis parasitized third-instar and adult female stages of P. viburni. The development time was more than 30 days (31.75 ± 0.38 for females and 30.02 ± 0.34 for males when B. clavicornis laid eggs in adult mealybug females, and 35 days (36.50 ± 0.50 for females and 34.24 ± 0.43 for males on third-instar mealybug nymphs. The wasps did not survive longer than four days when they were fed only water, while females survived for about 30 days when fed with honey. The lifespan of females is about 20 days longer than the lifespan of males. Although B. clavicornis can provide significant natural control, reducing the number of individuals in the next generation by parasitizing advanced mealybug instars, we consider it unpromising for use in applied biological-control programs. Furthermore, the predominance of males in the progeny observed here suggests that P. viburni may not be the most suitable or preferred host for B. clavicornis.

  11. New Records and Distribution Expansions of Aquatic Heteropterous from Colombia (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

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    Dora Nancy Padilla Gil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three species water bugs were registered; 21 semiaquatic and 12 aquatic (Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha. Expansions of the geographical range for 24 species and nine species were recorded for the first time for Colombia Cryptocricos rufus DeCarlo, 1940; Gelastocoris bolivianus De Carlo, 1954; Ranatra tuberculifrons Montandon, 1907; Neoplea borelii, Kirkaldy, 1899; Hydrometra exalla Drake y Lauck, 1959; Hebrus plaumanni Porter, 1952; Merragata hebroides White, 1877; Rheumatobates drakei, Hungerford, 1954; Microvelia hinei Drake, 1920; for each of these species were considered a diagnosis and illustration of taxonomic characters. The distribution by department and municipality and an illustrative map was given for all species.     Nuevos registros y ampliación de la distribución de heterópteros acuáticos en Colombia (Hemiptera, Heteroptera   RESUMEN Se registran 33 especies de chinches acuáticas; 21 semiacuáticas y 12 acuáticas (Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha. Se amplia el rango geográfico para 24 especies y nueve especies son registradas por primera vez para Colombia: Cryptocricos rufus DeCarlo, 1940; Gelastocoris bolivianus De Carlo, 1954; Ranatra tuberculifrons Montandon, 1907; Neoplea borelii (Kirkaldy, 1899; Hydrometra exalla Drake y Lauck, 1959; Hebrus plaumanni Porter, 1952; Merragata hebroides White, 1877; Rheumatobates drakei (Hungerford, 1954; Microvelia hinei Drake, 1920; para cada una de estas especies se considera una diagnosis e ilustración de los caracteres taxonómicos. Para todas las especies se proporcionan la distribución por departamento y municipio y un mapa ilustrativo.

  12. Cold Tolerance of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae): An Invasive Pest of Soybeans.

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    Grant, Jessica I; Lamp, William O

    2017-12-08

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), first discovered in the United States in 2009, is an invasive pest of soybeans. From 2013 to 2016, Maryland has been the northern limit of its distribution in the United States. We sought to determine the physiological cold temperature limits, timing of movement to overwintering locations, and to characterize overwintering microhabitat temperature. We measured supercooling point (SCP) on three populations from distinct USDA plant hardiness zones in Maryland and Virginia between October and December of 2015. The average SCP across all sample months and populations was -12.6°C and no consistent trend of month or population location were observed. Additionally, we assessed the lower lethal temperature to kill 50% of the population (LLT50) at the same population locations in October and November 2015. The average LLT50 over both months and all three population locations was -5.1°C. Again, no consistent trend based on population location was observed but we did find a modest depression in the LLT50 values between October and November. We observed that kudzu bug overwinters in leaf litter and begins to move into the litter in late November to early December. Leaf litter moderates day to night temperature differences and was warmer than ambient temperature by an average of 0.7°C. Evidence suggests that the cold tolerance of the kudzu bug limits its distribution north of Maryland. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Resistance of Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), to Conventional and Novel Chemistry Insecticides.

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    Ullah, Saif; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2016-02-01

    The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), is polyphagous in nature and has become one of the severe sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. O. hyalinipennis has the potential to develop resistance to a number of insecticides, and as a result, O. hyalinipennis outbreaks occur. There is no previous study from Pakistan regarding O. hyalinipennis resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the resistance of different field populations of O. hyalinipennis to conventional (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos, triazophos) and novel chemistry (emamectin benzoate, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram) insecticides. Five populations of O. hyalinipennis, collected from Multan, Khanewal, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran, and Bahawalpur, were tested for resistance to selected insecticides by the leaf dip method. For three pyrethroids, the resistance ratios were in the range of 14- to 30-fold for bifenthrin, 2.14- to 8.41-fold for deltamethrin, and 9.12- to 16-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin, compared with the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-PK). For two organophosphates, the range of resistance ratios was 12- to 14-fold for profenofos and 9.04- to 15-fold for triazophos. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 4.68- to 9.83-fold for emamectin benzoate, 6.38- to 17-fold for spinosad, 16- to 46-fold for chlorfenapyr, 11- to 22-fold for imidacloprid, and 1.32- to 11-fold for nitenpyram. Regular assessment of resistance to insecticides and integrated management plans like judicious use of insecticides and rotation of insecticides along with different modes of action are required to delay resistance development in O. hyalinipennis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mating Disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Vineyards Using Reservoir Pheromone Dispensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Arturo; Lentini, Andrea; Serra, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mating disruption field experiments to control the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in two commercial vineyards in Sardinia (Italy). The effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by testing reservoir dispensers loaded with 100 mg (62.5 g/ha) and 150 mg (93.8 g/ha) of the sex pheromone in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The number of males captured in pheromone traps, the P. ficus population density and age structure, the parasitism rate, the percentage of ovipositing females, and the crop damage were compared between disrupted and untreated plots. In both field trials, the number of males captured in mating disruption plots was significantly reduced by 86% and 95%, respectively. Mating disruption at the initial dose of 62.5 g/ha of active ingredient gave inconclusive results, whereas the dose of 93.8 g/ha significantly lowered the mealybug density and modified the age structure, which showed a lower percentage of ovipositing females and a higher proportion of preovipositing females. Mating disruption did not affect negatively the parasitism rate, which was higher in the disrupted than in the control plots (>1.5-fold). Crop damage at harvest was very low in both field trials and did not differ between treatments. Mating disruption was effective in wide plots protected with dispensers loaded with 150 mg of the sex pheromone, showing its potential to be included in the overall integrated control programs in Mediterranean wine-growing regions. PMID:25347835

  15. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF CITRUS ESSENTIAL OILS ON Dysmicoccus brevipes (HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE

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    GISELE DOS SANTOS OLIVEIRA MARTINS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The insect Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae has been reported as an important pest for several crops, especially coffee. The citrus essential oils can be obtained as by-products of the citrus-processing industry and have been tested as an alternative to control different insect groups. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the toxicity of commercial sweet orange (Citrus sinensis, bitter orange (Citrus aurantium and Sicilian lemon (Citrus limon essential oils and pure monoterpene D-limonene on D. brevipes. The essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography. Two bioassays were conducted; the first assessing the insect mortality in all oils and the second assessing the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 of the most effective oils. The main components of the oils were D-limonene (83.33% and Linalool (8.91% (sweet orange; D-limonene (78.53% and γ-terpinene (12.65% (bitter orange; D-limonene (59.78%, beta-pinene (14.71% and γ-terpinene (10.19% (Sicilian lemon and the compound D-limonene had 97% of purity. The highest mortalities were found with the use of the Sicilian lemon (98.68% and sweet orange (94.11%oils. The sweet orange oil presented lethal concentrations at 2.21% (LC50 and 3.55% (LC95, and the Sicilian lemon oil at 0.72% (LC50 and 2.91% (LC95. The main component of the sweet orange and Sicilian lemon essential oils was the D-limonene, and the Sicilian lemon oil was most effective oil to control D. brevipes.

  16. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves

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    M. Arduin

    Full Text Available The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae. The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1 A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2 A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3 A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4 A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri Masran, Siti Nor Ain; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz

    2018-02-10

    Due to the growing public health and tourism awareness, Cimex hemipterus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) has gained a great interest in increasing reported infestation cases in tropical regions of the world, including Malaysia. Since the information on the molecular ecology and population biology of this species are tremendously lacking, the isolation and development of molecular markers can be used to determine its genetic structure. In this study, novel microsatellite primers isolated from enriched genomic libraries of C. hemipterus were developed using 454 Roche shotgun sequencing. Seven validated polymorphic microsatellite primers were consistently amplified and characterized from 70 tropical bed bugs collected from seven locations throughout Malaysia. The number of alleles per locus identified ranged from 6 to 14. Comparison of loci for overall and between population were done with mean observed and expected heterozygosity were determined at 0.320 and 0.814, 0.320 and 0.727, respectively. Polymorphic information criteria (PIC) valued the markers as highly informative as PIC >0.5. Overall population, they are possibly in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with loci Ch_09ttn, Ch_01dn, and Ch_13dn showing signs of a null allele. There were no scoring errors caused by stutter peaks, no large allele dropout was detected for all loci and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. In conclusion, all seven molecular microsatellite markers identified can be beneficially used to gain more information on the population genetic structure and breeding patterns of C. hemipterus as well as the relationship of dispersal and infestation. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Temperature thresholds and thermal requirements for development of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Beatriz Maria; Muñiz, Mariano; Barrios, Laura; Fereres, Alberto

    2007-08-01

    Early detection of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on lettuce is of primary importance for its effective control. Temperature thresholds for development of this pest were estimated using developmental rates [r(T)] at different constant temperatures (8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 26, and 28 degrees C). Observed developmental rates data and temperature were fitted to two linear (Campbell and Muñiz and Gil) and a nonlinear (Lactin) models. Lower temperature threshold estimated by the Campbell model was 3.6 degrees C for apterous, 4.1 degrees C for alates, and 3.1 degrees C for both aphid adult morphs together. Similar values of the lower temperature threshold were obtained with the Muñiz and Gil model, for apterous (4.0 degrees C), alates (4.2 degrees C), and both adult morphs together (3.7 degrees C) of N. ribisnigri. Thermal requirements of N. ribisnigri to complete development were estimated by Campbell and Muñiz and Gil models for apterous in 125 and 129 DD and for both adult morphs together in 143 and 139 DD, respectively. For complete development from birth to adulthood, the alate morph needed 15-18 DD more than the apterous morph. The lower temperature threshold determined by the Lactin model was 5.3 degrees C for alates, 2.3 degrees C for apterous, and 1.9 degrees C for both adult morphs together. The optimal and upper temperature thresholds were 25.2 and 33.6 degrees C, respectively, for the alate morph, 27 and 35.9 degrees C, respectively, for the apterous morph, and 26.1 and 35.3 degrees C, respectively, for the two adult morphs together. The Campbell model provided the best fit to the observed developmental rates data of N. ribisnigri. This information could be incorporated in forecasting models of this pest.

  19. Hallazgo de Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul" Finding of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae in the Brazilian State of "Rio Grande do Sul"

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    Roberto Salvatella

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma platensis Neiva 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae, especie ornitófila, con área de dispersión conocida en Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay y Uruguay es notificada en un primer registro para Brasil. Hallada en el municipio de Uruguaiana (Río Grande do Sul en nidos de Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae donde cohabitaba con cricétidos de la especie Orizomys flavescens. Ningún ejemplar de los siete colectados se presentó infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi.Triatoma platensis, an ornitophilic species, found in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay is reported for the first time in Brazil. It was found in the county of Uruguaiana (Rio Grande do Sul in nests of Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae where it cohabited with cricetids belonging to the species Orizomys flavescens. None of the seven individuals collected were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi.

  20. Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? A agressividade da presa altera o comportamento de ataque do predador Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae?

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    Rafael Braga da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? The stink bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae is a predator found in several Brazilian regions, which possesses desirable attributes as a natural control agent and in biological control programs. The aim of this study was to test if the attack behavior and predation success of S. cincticeps were affected by prey species. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Geometridae were offered to S. cincticeps in laboratory bioassays where predatory attack and prey defensive behaviors were observed for 2-hour periods. The attack behavior of S. cincticeps changed with the prey species offered. More than 25% of T. molitor and S. frugiperda larvae were immediately attacked, but T. arnobia was not immediately attacked by S. cincticeps. Successful attack (i.e., successful insertion of the predator stylets into the prey depends on the region of the body attacked, with a greater proportion of successful attacks in the anterior than in the median or posterior regions. Larvae of T. arnobia and S. frugiperda displayed a sequence of abrupt head and body movements in response to S. cincticeps attack. Attempts of predation were more successful on T. molitor and S. frugiperda than on T. arnobia. Information about the differential attack behavior of S. cincticeps on different prey species is important for designing successful biological control programs using this hemipteran predator.A agressividade da presa altera o comportamento de ataque do predador Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? O percevejo Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae é um predador encontrado em várias regiões brasileiras, que possui atributos desejáveis como agente de controle natural ou em

  1. Type material of Cicadellinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae of the Museum für Naturkunde, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany

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    Pedro W. Lozada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, 65 type species of Cicadellinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae are reported from the collections of the Museum für Naturkunde, Universität Humboldt, Berlin, Germany, described by Signoret, Breddin, Schmidt, Jacobi, Schröder, Burmeister and Emmrich. The species of Melichar have not been included because Wilson & Takiya (2007 reported them as present in the Hungarian Natural History Museum.

  2. Triatoma boliviana sp. n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) de los valles subandinos de La Paz - Bolivia, similar a Triatoma nigromaculata Stål, 1859

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    Martinez Avandano, Eddy; Chávez Espada, Tamara; Sossa Gil, Dino; Aranda Asturizaga, Roberto; Vargas Mamani, Benigno; Vidaurre Pietro, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Triatoma bolivianasp. n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) from Sub Andean valleys of La Paz - Bolivia, related to Triatoma nigromaculata Stål, 1859. We present the description of Triatoma boliviana sp. n. based on morphological external characters of 3 males and 3 females following the keys of Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979) and Carcavallo et al. (1997). The new species are very similar to Triatoma nigromaculata and was captured in Sub Andean valleys from Muñecas Provi...

  3. Pengaruh Jenis Mangsa dan Suhu pada Perkembangan Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae dan Peranannya dalam Pengendalian Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

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    Tris Haris Ramadhan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is the vector of citrus greening (Huanglongbing bacterium and the most serious impediment to citrus culture. Classical biological control of this psyllid vector should contribute to suppress their population. This research was conducted to determine the performance of Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae when they were fed with D. citri. The larval performance index of M. sexmaculatus on D. citri compared with Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae diet was 1.3.M. sexmaculatus fed with D. citri had lower fitness than those fed with A. craccivora as shown by longer larval stadium, lower adult dry weight, less number of egg produced and lower percentage of egg hatched. M. sexmaculatus grew best at the temperature of 27oC. Employing the exclusion procedure under field condition,M. sexmaculatus could reduce the population of D. citri up to 90%. These findings showed that theM. sexmaculatus could be a potential predator in reducing D. citri, particularly when the more preferred prey A. craccivora was not present.   Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae merupakan kelompok Psyllid yang menularkan penyebab penyakit Huanglongbing yang sangat berbahaya pada tanaman jeruk. Pengendalian hayati klasik telah banyak memberikan kontribusi dalam pengendalian di lapangan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk melihat penampilan Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae dengan pakan D. citri. Indeks penampilan larva M. sexmaculatus dengan pakan D. citri dibandingkan dengan Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae adalah 1,3. M. sexmaculatus yang diberi pakan D. citri menunjukkan penurunan kebugaran dibandingkan jika diberi pakan A. craccivora seperti yang ditunjukkan dengan stadium larva lebih lama, penurunan berat kering serangga dewasa, telur yang dihasilkan lebih sedikit, dan penurunan jumlah telur yang menetas. Menggunakan metode eksklusi pada kondisi

  4. Type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea and adjacent regions deposited at Insect Collections of Chungnam National University (CNU) in Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghoon; Kim, Junggon; Oh, Sumin; Heiss, Ernst

    2015-07-06

    A list of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea (mostly by the late Dr. Michail Josifov, Sofia, Bulgaria) acquired earlier by E. Heiss, now donated to and deposited in the insect collections of Chungnam National University (CNU), Deajeon, Korea, is presented. A total of 31 holotypes and 694 paratypes of 41 species and 1 subspecies in 6 families and 9 subfamilies are presented: Miridae (Deraeocorinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, Phylinae), Tingidae (Tinginae), Piesmatidae (Piesmatinae), Berytidae (Metacanthinae), Cymidae (Cyminae), Pentatomidae (Asopinae).

  5. NUEVO REGISTRO DE Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae EN GUAYABO Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae EN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA NEW REGISTRATION OF Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae IN GUAVA Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    Rubén Darío David Giraldo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se encuentra por primera vez en el departamento de Antioquia (Colombia y asociado al guayabo (Psidium guajava L., la especie Greenidea ficicola Takahashi ( Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae colectada durante muestreos intensivos realizados durante el primer semestre de 2008 en el Valle de Aburrá y municipios aledaños. Dicha especie de áfido también fue colectada en falso laurel (Ficus benjamina. Dada la importancia que tienen los frutos de guayabo en la alimentación humana y de los animales domésticos en Colombia, es necesario registrar esta especie con el fin de tomar medidas en lo referente a programas de muestreo de sus poblaciones, estudio de su ciclo de vida y determinar los posibles controladores biológicos, que conduzcan al mejor conocimiento de este insecto y faciliten la toma de medidas de contención a su dispersión en el país.It is founded for the first time, the species of aphid Greenidea ficicola, Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae in the Antioquia Department (Colombia associated to guava plants (Psidium guajava L.. The species was collected during intensive sampling done during the first semester of 2008, in the Aburra Valley and near municipalities. The species of aphid was also collected on "false laurel" (Ficus benjamina. Due to the importance of guava as food for humans as well as wild and domestic animals, it is considered important to report this species so that contention measures can be taken specially related with more sampling, life cycle and potential biological control agents to get to know better this pest and control its spread in the country.

  6. First record of occurrence of mosca-negra-dos-citrus, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae in Roraima, Brazil = Primeiro registro da ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em Roraima

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    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is an important pest of citrus. Originated in Asia, this pest was detected in Brazil for the first time in the State of Para, Brazil in 2001. In the culture of citrus fruits the black fly carries direct and indirect damage, impeding the development and production of plants. In addition to restricting trade in local areas from its occurrence to the presence of the plague, since the A. woglumi quarantine pest is considered present (A2 of high alert in accordance with Instruction No 23, April 29, 2008, established by the Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento of the Brazil. The objective of this paper was to record the first occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi in the State of Roraima, Brazil.= A mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashb, (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae é uma importante praga dos citros. De origem asiática, esta praga foi detectada no Brasil pela primeira vez no estado do Pará no ano de 2001. Na cultura dos citros a mosca-negra acarreta danos diretos e indiretos, prejudicando o desenvolvimento e produção das plantas. Além de restringir o comércio de locais de sua ocorrência para áreas livres da presença da praga, visto que o A. woglumi é considerado praga quarentenária presente (A2 de alerta máximo de acordo com a instrução normativa No 23, de 29 de abril de 2008; estabelecida pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho registrar a primeira ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros no estado de Roraima.

  7. A genitália externa dos machos no complexo Triatoma phyllosoma (Burm. espécies mexicanas transmissoras da doença de Chagas (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Herman Lent

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as genitálias externas masculinas das cinco espécies que constituem o complexo phyllosoma: Triatoma phyllosoma (Burmeister, 1835, T. pallidipennis (Stal, 1872, T. longipennis Usinger, 1939, T. picturata Usinger, 1939 e T. mazzottii Usinger, 1941, todas encontradas naturalmente infectadas pelo Trypanosoma cruzi, e, com exceção de T. picturata, colonizando no domicílio humano. São espécies muito próximas, não só pelo aspecto externo, como pela área geográfica onde ocorrem, a região ocidental do México. As estruturas constituintes dessas genitálias foram analisadas comparativamente, com o intuito de ampliar o estudo das aludidas espécies, criando informações morfológicas adicionais à taxonomia atualmente aceita. Foram evidenciadas quatro estruturas no edeago: falosoma, suporte da falosoma, processo do endosoma e vesica; uma no aparelho articular, o processo do gonoporo; e outra no pigóforo, o processo do pigóforo. Essas estruturas apresentam pequenas variações no tamanho e na forma, acentuando a proximidade das espécies entre si e a dificuldade existente para a compreensão perfeita do status taxonômico de cada uma. O trabalho completar-se-á com a discussão dos já conhecidos aspectos morfológicos externos e os evidenciados pela morfologia das genitálias.A study was made of the male genitalia of five species which constitute the phyllosoma complex: Triatoma phyllosoma (Burmeister, 1835, T. pallidipennis (Stal, 1872, T. longipennis Usinger, 1939, T. picturata Usinger, 1939 and T. mazzottii Usinger, 1941; all of them were found naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, and, except T. picturata colonizing human houses. These species are very similar, not only by the external aspects but also by their geographical occurence in Mexico. The structures which constitute these genitalias were analysed comparatively with the intention to increase the knowledge of the mentioned species, showing some morphological

  8. Microsatellite-based analysis of the genetic structure and diversity of Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from tea plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Tian; Tao, Huan-Huan; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-04-10

    Although Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a well known insect pest of tea plants, little information is available about its genetic structure and diversity. The present study used microsatellite markers to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this species on tea plants in China. For this purpose, 193 individuals from ten natural populations were analyzed using ten microsatellite markers. Our results indicated that the average number of alleles (A) across populations was 35.6, and all observed heterozygosities (HO) were greater than 0.7, indicating an excess of heterozygosity and a relatively high level of genetic diversity among populations, and the number of private alleles per population ranged from 3 to 26. Pairwise FST analysis suggested that the number of genetic differentiation events was moderate (0.05Bottleneck test indicated that most populations had experienced a population bottleneck. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae in Brazil

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    A. L. Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae, Morus nigra L. (Moraceae, Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae, Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae, Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae, Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam. Mart. (Annonaceae, in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  10. New records of an alien aphid species Tinocallis (Sappocallis takachihoensis from countries in central and northern Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Calaphidinae

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    Mariusz Kanturski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aphid genus Tinocallis Matsumura, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Calaphidinae in central and northern Europe is reviewed; it includes four species. The first records of the Asian elm aphid Tinocallis takachihoensis Higuchi, 1972 are reported from the Czech Republic, Denmark, and Poland. The record in Denmark is the first in Scandinavia. Alate viviparous females and nymphs of T. takachihoensis were collected from Ulmus glabra “Pendula” (the Czech Republic and Poland and from U. minor (Denmark in 2017. Tinocallis takachihoensis is the fourth Tinocallis species to be recorded from Poland and together with two other species from the subgenus Sappocallis, T. nevskyi and T. saltans, is a species of alien origin. The alate viviparous females are reviewed and re-described and their affinities and distribution in central and northern Europe are discussed. A key to the European species of Tinocallis based on the characters of live and slide-mounted specimens is also given.

  11. Nuclear rDNA-based molecular clock of the evolution of triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, vectors of Chagas disease

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    Bargues MD

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history and times of divergence of triatomine bug lineages are estimated from molecular clocks inferred from nucleotide sequences of the small subunit SSU (18S and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of these reduviids. The 18S rDNA molecular clock rate in Triatominae, and Prosorrhynchan Hemiptera in general, appears to be of 1.8% per 100 million years (my. The ITS-2 molecular clock rate in Triatominae is estimated to be around 0.4-1% per 1 my, indicating that ITS-2 evolves 23-55 times faster than 18S rDNA. Inferred chronological data about the evolution of Triatominae fit well with current hypotheses on their evolutionary histories, but suggest reconsideration of the current taxonomy of North American species complexes.

  12. Blood Meal Source Characterization Using Illumina Sequencing in the Chagas Disease Vector Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Panamá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieran, Troy J; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Varian, Christina P; Saldaña, Azael; Means, Nicolas; Owens, Darlisha; Calzada, Jose E; Glenn, Travis C

    2017-11-07

    Accurate blood meal identification is critical to understand hematophagous vector-host relationships. This study describes a customizable Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach to identify blood meals from Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) triatomines using multiple barcoded primers and existing software to pick operational taxonomic units and match sequences for blood meal identification. We precisely identified all positive control samples using this method and further examined 74 wild-caught R. pallescens samples. With this novel blood meal identification method, we detected 13 vertebrate species in the blood meals, as well as single and multiple blood meals in individual bugs. Our results demonstrate the reliability and descriptive uses of our method. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Feeding behaviour of Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a predaceous Triatominae colonizing rural houses in Norte de Santander, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, C M; Ortiz, N; Jaimes, D; Lorosa, E; Galvão, C; Rodriguez, O; Scorza, J V; Gutiérrez, R

    2010-06-01

    Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was collected from houses in the localities of San Alberto and Santa Catalina in the municipality of Toledo, Department of Norte de Santander, Colombia. Precipitin tests revealed that the main hosts of B. ferroae are insects belonging to the order Blattodea, whose haemolymph serves as food (89.43%). A low rate of haematophagy was indicated on rodents, dogs and humans (7.32%) and no natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi was found by either microscopic examination or polymerase chain reaction. The finding of B. ferroae inside houses, feeding primarily on Blattodea with only a minor tendency to feed on vertebrate blood, is indicative of both the evolutionary path from predator to blood-sucker taken by Triatominae and their tendency to adapt from silvatic to domestic habitats.

  14. Study of the external female genitalia of 14 Rhodnius species (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) using scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Among the vectors of Chagas disease (Hemiptera: Reduviidae:Triatominae), there are eighteen Rhodnius species described and some are difficult to identify. The aim of this article is to contribute to the specific identification of fourteen Rhodnius spp. through morphological characters of the external female genitalia. Methods Female abdomens were cut transversely. The specimens were then prepared for examination by using scanning electron microscopy. Results The careful examination of the dorsal, posterior and ventral sides revealed characteristics that allowed the identification of each of the fourteen species. Conclusion The use of external female genitalia as characteristics are proposed as a tool for specifically identifying Rhodnius species, and an identification key for these species is presented. PMID:24405517

  15. Morphology of the European species of the aphid genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae) - A SEM comparative and integrative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanturski, Mariusz; Karcz, Jagna; Wieczorek, Karina

    2015-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods were used for the first time to elucidate the external morphology of the European species of the genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae), a representative genus of the conifer-feeding aphids tribe Eulachnini. We examined and compared the external morphology of apterous and alate viviparous females from the parthenogenetic generation as well as oviparous females and alate males belonging to the sexual generation. FE-SEM images based on HMDS and cryo-SEM preparation techniques revealed better image quality than the CPD technique in regard to surface tension and morphological signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of depressions, drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Three morphologically different species groups "agilis", "brevipilosus" and "cembrae" were proposed due to the differences in head, antennae, legs and dorsal chaetotaxy as well as dorsal sclerotization. The most characteristic features and differences of representatives of these groups are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New records of an alien aphid species Tinocallis (Sappocallis) takachihoensis from countries in central and northern Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Calaphidinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanturski, Mariusz; Lee, Yerim; Depa, Łukasz

    2018-01-01

    The aphid genus Tinocallis Matsumura, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Calaphidinae) in central and northern Europe is reviewed; it includes four species. The first records of the Asian elm aphid Tinocallis takachihoensis Higuchi, 1972 are reported from the Czech Republic, Denmark, and Poland. The record in Denmark is the first in Scandinavia. Alate viviparous females and nymphs of T. takachihoensis were collected from Ulmus glabra "Pendula" (the Czech Republic and Poland) and from U. minor (Denmark) in 2017. Tinocallis takachihoensis is the fourth Tinocallis species to be recorded from Poland and together with two other species from the subgenus Sappocallis, T. nevskyi and T. saltans , is a species of alien origin. The alate viviparous females are reviewed and re-described and their affinities and distribution in central and northern Europe are discussed. A key to the European species of Tinocallis based on the characters of live and slide-mounted specimens is also given.

  17. Toxicities of Selected Essential Oils, Silicone Oils, and Paraffin Oil against the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Li, Andrew

    2018-02-09

    The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs. In this study, we screened 18 essential oils, three silicone oils, and paraffin oil (C5-20 paraffins) for their toxicities against bed bugs. All the oils exhibited insecticidal activity in topical assays. Their toxicities varied significantly; all of the evaluated essential oils were less effective than silicone oils and paraffin oil. The LD50 values of the most effective essential oil (blood orange), paraffin oil, and the most effective silicone oil (dodecamethylpentasiloxane) are 0.184 ± 0.018, 0.069 ± 0.012, and 0.036 ± 0.005 mg per bug, respectively. Direct spray of 1% water solution of 3-[hydroxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] heptamethyltrisiloxane, the only silicone oil that mixes well with water, resulted in 92% bed bug mortality after 1 d. Results of this study indicate silicone oils and paraffin oil have the potential to be used as safer alternative bed bug control materials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Nymphal and adult performance of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), as a potential alternative host for egg parasitoids multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Wilsimar A.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Correa-Ferreira, Beatriz S. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2001-12-15

    This research aimed to evaluate the potential of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as host for multiplication of egg parasitoids, by determining the nymphal and adult performance of E. heros from laboratory and the field, comparing with Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), under mass conditions. One hundred eggs of E. heros and N. viridula were placed among the leaves of soybean plants contained in cages (50x50x70 cm) and observation were made until adult emergence. The nymphs fed on soybean pods, dry soybean and peanuts seeds. The number of nymphs that reached adulthood and the development time were calculated. The survivorship and reproduction performance of laboratory and field populations of E. heros and N. viridula were evaluated during 13 weeks in February-May 1999. The number of eggs produced by 100 pairs of stink bugs per cage containing the same diet was recorded. Nymphal development time of E. heros and N. viridula was 33.0 and 34.0 days and 65.0% and 71.3% of nymphs reached adulthood, respectively. Adults of E. heros reared under laboratory conditions produced 2.5 times more eggs (5547.0 eggs/cage) than those collected in the field (2262.7 eggs/cage). The adult field population of E. heros had reduced reproduction and longevity due to parasitism by Hexacladia smithii Ash. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The N. viridula adults collected in the field produced 1.7 times more eggs (6304.9 eggs/cage) than those reared in the laboratory (3609.2 eggs/cage). E. heros laboratory reared is a promising host for egg parasitoids multiplication when compared with N. viridula collected in the field. (author)

  19. Otrok, který se stal králem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květina, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, prosinec (2017), s. 52-58 ISSN 1213-1628 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : slavery * power strategy * style of material culture Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  20. De ID-stal als graadmeter voor een zorgvuldige veehouderij

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der P.; Borgstein, M.H.; Bos, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Wageningen UR vervult een belangrijke rol in de ontwikkeling van Integraal-Duurzame stalsystemen (ID-stallen) door het ontwerpen van innovatieve stalsystemen, technologisch onderzoek en scenariostudies. Het blijft uitdagend voor Wageningen UR om te werken aan nieuwe ontwerpen en

  1. Allatotropin modulates myostimulatory and cardioacceleratory activities in Rhodnius prolixus (Stal.

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    María José Villalobos-Sambucaro

    Full Text Available Haematophagous insects can ingest large quantities of blood in a single meal and eliminate high volumes of urine in the next few hours. This rise in diuresis is possible because the excretory activity of the Malpighian tubules is facilitated by an increase in haemolymph circulation as a result of intensification of aorta contractions combined with an increase of the anterior midgut peristaltic waves. It has been previously described that haemolymph circulation during post-prandial diuresis is stimulated by the synergistic activity of allatotropin (AT and serotonin in the kissing bug Triatoma infestans; resulting in an increase in aorta contractions. In the same species, AT stimulates anterior midgut and rectum muscle contractions to mix urine and feces and facilitate the voiding of the rectum. Furthermore, levels of AT in midgut and Malpighian tubules increased in the afternoon when insects are getting ready for nocturnal feeding. In the present study we describe the synergistic effect of AT and serotonin increasing the frequency of contractions of the aorta in Rhodnius prolixus. The basal frequency of contractions of the aorta in the afternoon is higher that the observed during the morning, suggesting the existence of a daily rhythmic activity. The AT receptor is expressed in the rectum, midgut and dorsal vessel, three critical organs involved in post-prandial diuresis. All together these findings provide evidence that AT plays a role as a myoregulatory and cardioacceleratory peptide in R. prolixus.

  2. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  3. Systematics and phylogeny of the Neotropical treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae Sistemática e filogenia das cigarrinhas neotropicais da subfamília Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of adults of the treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae Haupt, 1929 (Hemiptera, Membracidae including seven genera (Eudonica gen. nov.; Euwalkeria Goding, 1926; Holdgatiella Evans, 1962; Nicomia Stål, 1858; Nodonica Dietrich, McKamey& Deitz, 2001; Stalomia gen. nov.; and Tolania Stål, 1858 and 22 species (16 new are described and illustrated. Keys are provided for genera and for species of Euwalkeria, Holdgatiella, and Nicomia. Nomenclatural changes, based on study of the primary type material of 15 species, include three new combinations, one new synonymy, and reinstatement of one junior synonym. Eudonica has one species, Eudonica nanella sp. nov.; Euwalkeria has five species, including four new species: E. colorata sp. nov., E. distincta sp. nov., E. perdita sp. nov., E. rubrica sp. nov.; Holdgatiella has two species, one of which is described as new: Holdgatiella chiloensis sp. nov.; Nicomia has twelve species, nine of which are described as new: N. buccina sp. nov., N. harenosa sp. nov., N. inscripta sp. nov., N. jucunda sp. nov., N. monticola sp. nov., N. nigrifasciata sp. nov., N. notidana sp. nov., N. pulchella sp. nov., N. serrata sp. nov.; Nodonica has one species, Nodonica bispinigera Dietrich, McKamey & Deitz; and Stalomia has one species, Stalomia veruta sp. nov. Tolania contains eleven previously described species and nearly 60 new species, which will be treated in a later publication. Three new combinations are proposed: one species described in Nicomia is placed in the tribe Abelini (Centrotinae as Abelus retrospinosus (Lethierry comb. nov.; one species previously placed in Nicomia is transferred to the genus Tolania as T. obliqua (Walker, 1858, comb. nov.; one species described in Holdgatiella is placed in the genus Tolania as T. stria (Cryan & Deitz, 2002, comb. nov. One new synonymy is proposed: Hoplophera [sic] cicadoides Walker, 1862, syn. nov., a junior synonym of Nicomia interrupta Stål, 1858. Nicomia

  4. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  5. Phytophagy by the Mullein Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Apples: Feeding Behavior and Fruit Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, O; Cormier, D; Chouinard, G; Lucas, E

    2016-12-01

    The zoophytophagous mullein bug, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a beneficial predator of mites and aphids, but also a pest causing damage when it feeds on apples. The aim of this study was to evaluate three different parameters of phytophagy of the mullein bug both in laboratory (phytophagous behavior) and field (fruit damage) tests: 1) apple cultivar, 2) fruit size, and 3) nymphal instar. In the laboratory, nymphs were observed individually for 15 min in Petri dishes containing agar gel and an apple fruitlet to evaluate feeding punctures of four apple cultivars, four fruit sizes, and five nymphal instars. In the orchard, nymphs were caged at bloom in sleeve cages to evaluate damage on the developing fruit of seven apple cultivars and three nymphal instars on 'Red Delicious'. The feeding punctures in the laboratory were higher on 'Red Delicious' than on 'Honeycrisp'; fruit damage in the orchard did not differ among cultivars at mid-season, but was higher on 'Red Delicious' than on 'Lobo' and 'Marshall McIntosh' at harvest. The number of feeding punctures in the laboratory was higher on 7-9 mm than on 18-20 mm size fruit for 'Red Delicious', but not for 'Honeycrisp'. The number of feeding punctures in the laboratory made by the fifth nymphal instar was higher than those made by younger nymphs, but fruit damage in the orchard did not differ among nymphal instars. Our results will help to elaborate a management chart for this insect by minimizing risks and promoting its use for biocontrol.  . La punaise de la molène, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae), est un prédateur bénéfique zoophytophage des acariens et pucerons dans les vergers, mais également un ravageur causant des dommages lorsqu'il se nourrit sur les pommes. Le but de cette étude était d'évaluer trois paramètres différents sur la phytophagie de la punaise de la molène, à la fois en laboratoire (comportement phytophage) et sur le terrain

  6. Primeiro registro de ocorrência do parasitóide Brasema sp. (hymenoptera: eupelmidae em ovos de Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, 1852 (hemiptera: coreidae no Brasil First record of occurrence of the parasitoid Brasema sp. (hymenoptera: eupelmidae in eggs of Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, 1852 (hemiptera: coreidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Marchiori

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho registra a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae parasitando ovos de Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae em cultivar de milho em Itumbiara, GO. A porcentagem de parasitismo foi de 4,8%. Brasema sp. constitue-se em ectoparasitóide de larvas de coleópteros e de outros hospedeiros no interior de tecidos de plantas.This work reports, for the first time, of parasitoid Brasema sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae parasitizinf eggs of Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae in maize cultivate in Itumbiara, GO, Brazil. The percentage of parasitizing was 4,8%. Brasema sp. constitutes ectoparasitoid of beetle larvae and other hosts concealed in plant tissue.

  7. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  8. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  9. Controle químico da forma galícola da filoxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae na cultura da videira Chemical control of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 leaf form (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae on vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Botton

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A filoxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae é considerada a principal praga da videira. O inseto se alimenta da parte aérea e raízes sendo que os maiores prejuízos são observados em raízes de Vitis vinifera cultivada como pé-franco. O dano nas folhas é importante em viveiros, quando o ataque ocorre nos ramos utilizados como porta-enxertos, resistentes à forma radícola. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de selecionar inseticidas que possam ser empregados como substitutos aos fosforados e piretróides no manejo da forma galícola da filoxera. Os inseticidas imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acephate, abamectin, deltamethrin e fenitrothion, foram avaliados em condições de campo, sob infestação natural, em plantas matrizes do porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. Imidacloprid (Provado 200 SC, 40mL 100L-1 e thiamethoxam (Actara 250 WG, 30g 100L-1 reduziram as injúrias causadas pela forma galícola da filoxera nos ponteiros em nível superior a 90%, proporcionando controle superior aos inseticidas deltamethrin (Decis 25 CE, 40mL 100L-1 e fenitrothion (Sumithion 500 CE, 150 mL/100L considerados referência no controle do inseto. Os inseticidas acephate (Orthene 750 BR, 100g 100L-1 e abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE, 80mL 100L-1 não foram eficientes.Grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae is the main grape pest. Adults and nymphs feeds on leaves and roots but major damage is observed on roots of own rooted Vitis vinifera. Damage on leaves is important in root stock nurseries where chemical control is necessary. This study was conducted to evaluate insecticides to control the leaf form in a Paulsen 1103 nursery in field condictions. Imidacloprid (Provado 200 SC, 40mL 100L-1 and thiamethoxam (Actara 250 WG, 30g 100L-1 reduced foliar damage in more than 90%, providing better control than deltamethrin (Decis 25 CE, 40mL 100L-1 and fenitrothion (Sumithion 500 CE, 150mL 100L-1 current

  10. Revisión de los géneros Eurygerris y Tachygerris (Hemiptera: Tachygerrini para la región neotropical Revision of the genera Eurygerris and Tachygerris (Hemiptera: Tachygerrini from the neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina T. Morales-Castaño

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la taxonomía de la tribu Tachygerrini (Hemiptera: Gerridae: Gerrinae con 2 géneros reconocidos, Eurygerris Hungerford y Matsuda (10 especies y Tachygerris Drake (7 especies, a partir de la revisión de 19 colecciones entomológicas del Neotrópico. El material tipo de las siguientes especies fue revisado: T. opacus, T. quadrilineatus, T. adamsoni, T. dentiferus, E. fuscinervis, E. flavolineatus, E. mexicanus y E. atrekes. Se reconocieron y redescribieron 11 especies de la tribu representadas en el Neotrópico: Tachygerris opacus, T. quadrilineatus, T. celocis, T. adamsoni, T. dentiferus, Eurygerris fuscinervis, E.flavolineatus, E. mexicanus, E. beieri, E. summatis y E. atrekes. Eurygerris kahli (Drake y Harris, 1934 es sinonimizada con Eurygerris fuscinervis (Berg, 1898. Se proporcionan redescripciones, ilustraciones, información nomenclatural y datos sobre la distribución y el hábitat para cada una de las especies. Se amplían los rangos de distribución para T. adamsoni (Venezuela, E. fuscinervis (Guatemala, México y Venezuela y E. atrekes (Venezuela.The taxonomy of the tribe Tachygerrini (Hemiptera: Gerridae: Gerrinae was studied. The tribe comprises 2 genera: Eurygerris Hungerford and Matsuda (with 10 species and Tachygerris Drake (with 7 species. The revision was based on the examination of 19 entomological collections in the neotropics. The type materials of T. opacus, T. quadrilineatus, T. adamsoni, T. dentiferus, E. fuscinervis, E. flavolineatus, E. mexicanus and E. atrekes were reviewed. Eleven species from the tribe were re-described for the Neotropics, Tachygerris opacus, T. quadrilineatus, T. celocis, T. adamsoni, T. dentiferus, Eurygerris fuscinervis, E. flavolineatus, E. mexicanus, E. beieri, E. summatis, and E. atrekes. Eurygerris kahli (Drake y Harris, 1934 is synonymized with Eurygerris fuscinervis (Berg, 1898. Re-descriptions, illustrations, nomenclatural information and distribution and ecological data for

  11. Efeito da cobertura vegetal sobre a pérola-da-terra (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira = Effect of cover crops on brazilian ground pearl (Hemiptera: Margarodidae in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Botton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano, de vegetação espontânea, no verão, e de aveia preta no inverno. No segundo experimento foi avaliado o efeito da mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum cultivada no vinhedo durante o verão comparado com a vegetação espontânea. No primeiro experimento, a população da pérolada-terra nas raízes de plantas de videira foi maior em áreas mantidas sem cobertura vegetal emostrou-se semelhante em áreas onde se manteve a vegetação espontânea, ao longo do ano, e com aveia preta no inverno e vegetação espontânea no verão. A infestação das plantas de videira em áreas onde foi empregada a mucuna-preta durante o verão foi equivalente à da vegetação espontânea. S. aterrimum foi registrada pela primeira vez como hospedeira de E. brasiliensis. The use of cover crops is an important strategy to reduce erosion and improve chemical and physical soil properties. In this work, we evaluate the effect of cover crops to reduce Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae infestation in vineyards. In the first experiment, glyphosate was sprayed each three months to avoid cover crops. This treatment was compared with naturally occurring vegetation during the year and the use of Avena sativa in the winter. In a second experiment, Stizolobium aterrimum was cultivated during the summer compared with naturally occurringvegetation. Brazilian ground pearl population was higher in glyphosate sprayed areas than where cover

  12. Phytoreovirus-like sequences isolated from salivary glands of the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homolodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsar, C.S.; Hunter, W.B.; Sinisterra, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    The salivary glands of the Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis Germar 1821, (syn. H. coagulata, Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were collected and used to produce a cDNA library. Examination by BLASTX analyses identified 2 viral sequences, one a 610-base pair fragment and a second 839-base pair fragment, both of which had significant homology to viruses within the genus Phytoreovirus. Resequencing of the fragments confirmed sequence validities. These sequences were used for in silico protein translation and BLASTP analysis confirming the established homology. While the GWSS is the primary vector of Pierce's disease of grapes, this is the first report that GWSS may be a vector of a phytoreoviruses. Phylogenetic and homology comparisons with BLASTX, BLASTP, and PAUP analyses indicated that the viral sequences isolated from GWSS were closely related to the viruses in the Family Reoviridae, Genus Phytoreovirus, specifically Rice Dwarf Phytoreovirus (RDV). RDV is the only plant reovirus that is not limited to the phloem. Phytoreoviruses are transmitted in a propagative manner by cicadellid leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), which acquire and transmit them during feeding. Phytoreoviruses have been reported from Agallian, Agalliopsis, Nephotettix, and Recilia, genera of leafhoppers, with evidence for transovarial transmission. The GWSS, although considered to feed primarily from the xylem, ingests from other plant tissues, such as the phloem and mesophyll during probing similar to other leafhoppers. The feeding behavior and wide host range of the GWSS provides an overlapping condition for these two organisms, leafhopper and virus. GWSS will feed from grasses as a transitory host, and on herbaceous and woody plants as primary hosts, which may favor the acquisition and transmission of Phytoreovirus by this leafhopper. Monitoring for an increase of Phytoreovirus spread in graminaceous crops that are in proximity to vineyards or tree crop orchards, where

  13. Description of the male genitalia of Belminus rugulosus Stål and Belminus corredori Galvão & Angulo, and comments on the holotype of Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: Bolboderini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Galvão, Cleber

    2013-12-13

    The male genitalia of Belminus rugulosus Stål and Belminus corredori Galvão & Angulo are described and illustrated for the first time. Comments on the holotype of Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky are presented (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: Bolboderini). A discussion on previous data in the literature on male genitalia of species of Belminus Stål is provided.

  14. The impact of some environmental factors on the fecundity of phenacoccus solenopsis tinsley (hemiptera: pseudococcidae): a serious pest of cotton and other crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Arif, M.J.; Aslam, M.

    2010-01-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae) was first recorded on cultivated cotton from Texas, USA in 1991. Since 2005, this New World species has emerged as serious pest of cotton in Pakistan and India, and is now a serious threat to cotton in China and other cotton-growing countries worldwide. The species is polyphagous and invasive, and can attack many other economic crops. So far, it has been reported from 173 species in 54 plant families, and from 26 countries in different ecological zones. The study found that host plant species and meteorological conditions had significant effects, whereas locality had no significant effect on the fecundity of the mealybug. (author)

  15. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A.

    2010-01-01

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  16. A new species of the genus Mahanarva Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Cercopidae, with a key to the species from Central America and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Castro–Valderrama

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mahanarva Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Cercopidae currently includes two subgenera: Mahanarva Distant, 1909 with 38 species and six subspecies, and Ipiranga Fennah, 1968 with nine species. The Manaharva species are all from the Americas, and a few species are important pests in pasture grasses and sugarcane. There are no reports of any Manaharva species from North America, including Mexico and areas to the north. Here, a new species is described from Mexico and a key to the species of Mahanarva from Central America and Mexico is proposed.

  17. Population growth parameters of three Neotropical mirid predators (Hemiptera: Miridae) at five temperatures on tobacco with Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs as food

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, V.H.P.; Calixto, A.M.; Montes, F.C.; van Lenteren, J.C.

    2018-01-01

    Three Neotropical predators Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho), En­gy­ta­tus varians (Distant) and Macrolophus basicornis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Miri­dae) are considered in Brazil as potential biological control agents of Tuta abso­luta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and other tomato pests. This study eva­lu­ated the effect of five constant temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28 and 32°C, all ±1°C) on the reproduction, population growth and longevity of these pre­datory mirids. Adults freshly emerge...

  18. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. ANDORNO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.

  19. Aportes al conocimiento de los cromosomas holocíneticos de Hemiptera: estudios citogenéticos y evolutivos en especies de Cimicomorpha

    OpenAIRE

    Poggio, María Georgina

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo de Tesis Doctoral se basa en el estudio citogenético clásico, molecular y evolutivo de especies de insectos hematófagos y predadores pertenecientes a las familias Cimicidae y Reduviidae del infraorden Cimicomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), que se caracterizan por presentar cromosomas holocinéticos. Se analizó el complemento cromosómico, el desarrollo meiótico masculino, el contenido, distribución y composición de la heterocromatina y el número y la localización de los gene...

  20. Use of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) pigments in the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goche, D; Vigueras, A L; Portillo, L; Llanderal, C

    2012-06-01

    Carmines obtained from the dye of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were used for the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in broccoli inflorescences. Larvae were dyed with carmine II and red cochineal, while the majority of the dyes, with the exception of carmine III and the aqueous extract, were suitable to dye pupae. In the broccoli lumps exposed to the dyes, only the verge of the stems were actually dyed, right in the position where the incision took place, an appropriate characteristic for implementing this technique for commercial use.

  1. Control biológico del piojo rojo de California, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) y estrategias reproductivas de su principal enemigo natural Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pina Desfilis, Mª Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    Esta tesis describe la situación del control biológico del piojo rojo de California, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), por parasitoides en la Comunidad ValencianaEl piojo rojo de California es una de las plagas más importantes de cítricos en España. Esta plaga, a pesar de todos los tratamientos químicos que se realizan para su control, se encuentra por encima del umbral económico de daños.En este trabajo se constata, tras un muestreo realizado a lo largo de un año, que A...

  2. Identification guide to Nordic aphids associated with mosses, horsetails and ferns (Bryophyta, Equisetophyta, Polypodiophyta (Insecta, Hemiptera, Aphidoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Christian Albrecht

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Keys and diagnoses of North European aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea associated with mosses, horsetails and ferns are given, based on fresh and freeze-dried material. Numerous externally visible and thus informative characters, that are absent in cleared, slide-mounted specimens, such as body shape colours, wax coating and pattern etc., are utilized. Most of the species are illustrated by photographs of live specimens and drawings. Root-feeding species living in the moss layer or otherwise often present in moss samples are also included, even if their hosts were spermatophytes. The combination of colour images and diagnoses, utilizing easily observed characters, allows the identification of a large number of species already in the field, and many more at home with the aid of a stereo microscope. Host plant relationships and association with ants are summarised, including new records. Brief accounts on aphid life cycles, freeze-drying preparation techniques, etc. are also given to support the use of the keys.

  3. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae.

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    Glenda L Torres

    Full Text Available "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Proteobacteria is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae. While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention.

  4. The effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Dori E; Gomez-Torres, Mariuxi L; Rodrigues, Marjorie D; Bento, José M S; Haddad, Marinéia L; Parra, José R P

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. We examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of D. citri. The insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14 h photophase. Host plants for D. citri included orange (Citrus sinensis [Rutaceae]) varieties Pêra and Natal, the rootstock, Rungpur lime (C. limonia [Rutaceae]) and the natural host, Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata [Rutaceae]). To study the influence of geographic origin on thermal requirements, we studied D. citri populations from Piracicaba, SP (warmer region) and Itapetininga, SP (cooler region). The duration and survival of the development stages and the duration of the total development (egg-adult) did not differ significantly on the different hosts, but it did vary with temperature. Nymphs of D. citri created on the different hosts have the same thermal requirements. The thermal requirements for this species collected from the two climate regions were identical; males and females also had the same thermal requirements.

  5. In field damage of high and low cyanogenic cassava due to a generalist insect herbivore Cyrtomenus bergi (Hemiptera: Cydnidae).

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    Riis, Lisbeth; Bellotti, Anthony Charles; Castaño, Oscar

    2003-12-01

    The hypothesis that cyanogenic potential in cassava roots deters polyphagous insects in the field is relevant to current efforts to reduce or eliminate the cyanogenic potential in cassava. To test this hypothesis, experiments were conducted in the field under natural selection pressure of the polyphagous root feeder Cyrtomenus bergi Froeschner (Hemiptera: Cydnidae). A number of cassava varieties (33) as well as 13 cassava siblings and their parental clone, each representing a determined level of cyanogenic potential (CNP), were scored for damage caused by C. bergi and related to CNP and nonglycosidic cyanogens, measured as hydrogen cyanide. Additionally, 161 low-CNP varieties (Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) were screened for resistance/tolerance to C. bergi. Low root damage scores were registered at all levels of CNP. Nevertheless, CNP and yield (or root size) partly explained the damage in cassava siblings (r2 = 0.82) and different cassava varieties (r2 = 0.42), but only when mean values of damage scores were used. This relation was only significant in one of two crop cycles. A logistic model describes the underlying negative relation between CNP and damage. An exponential model describes the underlying negative relation between root size and damage. Damage, caused by C. bergi feeding, released nonglycosidic cyanogens, and an exponential model fits the underlying positive relation. Fifteen low-CNP clones were selected for potential resistance/tolerance against C. bergi.

  6. A case of ecological specialization in ladybirds: Iberorhyzobius rondensis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), potential biocontrol agent of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae).

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    Tavares, C; Jactel, H; van Halder, I; Mendel, Z; Branco, M

    2014-06-01

    Specialization is an important attribute of a biological control agent. The maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera Matsucoccidae), is an invasive species in Southeast France and the North of Italy. Iberorhyzobius rondensis Eizaguirre (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is a recently described ladybird species. Both adults and larvae are predaceous, feeding on egg masses of M. feytaudi, and are strongly attracted to M. feytaudi's sex pheromone. To evaluate the potential of I. rondensis as a biocontrol agent of the scale, we studied its niche breadth and prey range with emphasis on pine forests and hemipterans as tested prey. In this study, I. rondensis was found to achieve complete development only when fed on M. feytaudi egg masses (92.9% survival) and an artificial prey: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (27.6% survival). From the 2nd instar onwards, complete development could be achieved using other prey species, although larvae had significantly higher mortality and slower development. In choice tests, M. feytaudi was the preferred prey. Surveys of the ladybird populations in the Iberian Peninsula revealed that it was found exclusively on Pinus pinaster Aiton, the sole host of M. feytaudi. The unusual specialization of I. rondensis, among other predaceous ladybirds, makes it an appropriate candidate for classical biological control of M. feytaudi.

  7. The Endosymbiont Arsenophonus Provides a General Benefit to Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Regardless of Host Plant Resistance (Rag).

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    Wulff, Jason A; White, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), invokes substantial chemical treatment and economic cost in North America. Resistant soybean genotypes hold promise as a low-impact control methodology, but soybean aphid "biotypes" capable of development on resistant soy cast doubt on the durability of soy resistance. We hypothesized that variation in soybean aphid ability to colonize resistant soy is partially attributable to a bacterial symbiont of soybean aphid, Arsenophonus. We used microinjection to manipulate Arsenophonus infection in both virulent and avirulent aphid biotypes, resulting in five pairs of infected versus uninfected isolines. These isolines were subjected to various population growth rate assays on resistant Rag versus susceptible soybean. We found that aphid virulence on Rag soybean was not dependent on Arsenophonus: virulent aphid biotypes performed well on Rag soybean, and avirulent aphid biotypes performed poorly on Rag soybean, regardless of whether Arsenophonus was present or not. However, we did find that Arsenophonus-infected clones on average performed significantly better than their paired uninfected isolines. This pattern was not consistently evident on every date for every clone, either in the population assays nor when we compared lifetime fecundity of individual aphids in a separate experiment. Nevertheless, this overall benefit for infected aphids may be sufficient to explain the high frequency of Arsenophonus infection in soybean aphids. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Feeding behavior of Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotype 2 in response to wheat genotypes exhibiting antibiosis and tolerance resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Sonia; Starkey, Sharon; Reese, John; Ray-Chandler, Andrea; McCubrey, Raymond; Smith, C Michael

    2009-06-01

    In this study, wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (em Thell), genotypes containing the Dnx, Dn7, Dn6, and Dn4 genes for resistance to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), along with Dn0, a susceptible control, were assessed to determine the categories of D. noxia biotype 2 (RWA2) resistance in each genotype and RWA2 feeding behaviors on Dnx and Dn0 plants by using the electronic penetration graph technique. At 14 d postinfestation, Dn0 plants exhibited intense chlorosis and leaf rolling, and all test genotypes expressed some degree of chlorosis and leaf rolling, except Dn7, which was not damaged. Both Dn7 and Dnx expressed antibiosis effects, significantly reducing the numbers of aphids on plants and the intrinsic rate of aphid increase. Dn6 plants seemed to contain tolerance, exhibiting tolerance index measurements for leaf and root dry weight and plant height that were significantly lower than those of the susceptible Dn0 plants. Principal component analyses indicated that antibiosis and leaf rolling data explained 80% of the variance among genotypes. Electronic penetration graph analysis demonstrated contrasting results between RWA1 and RWA2 phloem sieve element phase feeding events, but results indicated that Dnx resistance factors are present in the sieve element cells or phloem sap. Plants containing Dnx exhibit antibiosis resistance to D. noxia RWA2 similar to that in plants containing the Secale cereale L. (rye)-based Dn7 gene without the negative baking quality traits associated with Dn7.

  9. Cassava whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in East African farming landscapes: a review of the factors determining abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfadyen, S; Paull, C; Boykin, L M; De Barro, P; Maruthi, M N; Otim, M; Kalyebi, A; Vassão, D G; Sseruwagi, P; Tay, W T; Delatte, H; Seguni, Z; Colvin, J; Omongo, C A

    2018-02-13

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest species complex that causes widespread damage to cassava, a staple food crop for millions of households in East Africa. Species in the complex cause direct feeding damage to cassava and are the vectors of multiple plant viruses. Whilst significant work has gone into developing virus-resistant cassava cultivars, there has been little research effort aimed at understanding the ecology of these insect vectors. Here we assess critically the knowledge base relating to factors that may lead to high population densities of sub-Saharan African (SSA) B. tabaci species in cassava production landscapes of East Africa. We focus first on empirical studies that have examined biotic or abiotic factors that may lead to high populations. We then identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled to deliver sustainable management solutions. We found that whilst many hypotheses have been put forward to explain the increases in abundance witnessed since the early 1990s, there are little published data and these tend to have been collected in a piecemeal manner. The most critical knowledge gaps identified were: (i) understanding how cassava cultivars and alternative host plants impact population dynamics and natural enemies; (ii) the impact of natural enemies in terms of reducing the frequency of outbreaks and (iii) the use and management of insecticides to delay the development of resistance. In addition, there are several fundamental methodologies that need to be developed and deployed in East Africa to address some of the more challenging knowledge gaps.

  10. Non-invasive delivery of dsGST is lethal to the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (G.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, R; Rebijith, K B; Roopa, H K; Kumar, N K Krishna

    2015-02-01

    The sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (G.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most economically important pest, by being a dreaded vector of Geminiviruses, and also causes direct damage to the crops by sucking phloem sap. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a large family of multifunctional enzymes that play pivotal roles in the detoxification of secondary allelochemical produced by the host plants and in insecticide resistance, thus regulates insect growth and development. The objective of this study is to show the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) in the management of B. tabaci. RNAi is a sequence-specific gene silencing mechanism induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) which holds tremendous potential in pest management. In this regard, we sequenced the GST from B. tabaci and synthesized approximately 500-bp dsRNA from the above and delivered through diet to B. tabaci. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that continuous application of dsGST at 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25 μg/μl reduced mRNA expression levels for BtGST by 77.43, 64.86, and 52.95 % which resulted in mortality by 77, 59, and 40 %, respectively, after 72 h of application. Disruption of BtGST expression will enable the development of novel strategies in pest management and functional analysis of vital genes in B. tabaci.

  11. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  12. Diversity and localization of bacterial symbionts in three whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from the east coast of the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaljac, M; Zanić, K; Hrnčić, S; Radonjić, S; Perović, T; Ghanim, M

    2013-02-01

    Several whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are cosmopolitan phloem-feeders that cause serious damage in numerous agricultural crops. All whitefly species harbor a primary bacterial symbiont and a diverse array of secondary symbionts which may influence several aspects of the insect's biology. We surveyed infections by secondary symbionts in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) from areas in the east cost of the Adriatic Sea. Both the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) B. tabaci genetic groups were detected in Montenegro, whereas only the MED was confirmed in Croatia. Trialeurodes vaporariorum and S. phillyreae were found in all areas surveyed. MEAM1 and MED exhibited similarity to previously reported infections, while populations of T. vaporariorum from Montenegro harbored Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium in addition to previously reported Hamiltonella and Arsenopnohus. Siphoninus phillyreae harbored Hamiltonella, Wolbachia, Cardinium and Arsenophonus, with the latter appearing in two alleles. Multiple infections of all symbionts were common in the three insect species tested, with some reaching near fixation. Florescent in situ hybridization showed new localization patterns for Hamiltonella in S. phillyreae, and the morphology of the bacteriosome differed from that observed in other whitefly species. Our results show new infections with bacterial symbionts in the whitefly species studied. Infections with the same symbionts in reproductively isolated whitefly species confirm complex relationships between whiteflies and bacterial symbionts, and suggest possible horizontal transfer of some of these bacteria.

  13. Reproduction of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) B biotype in maize fields (Zea mays L.) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, Eliane D; Abreu, Aluana G; Lima, Julyana F Dos S; Mascarin, Gabriel M; Santos, Jardel B Dos; Brown, Judith K

    2016-11-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was observed to have completed its reproductive cycle from the egg to the adult on maize (Zea mays L.). Field and screenhouse studies were carried out to investigate the durability of this putative and unprecedented adaptation to a grass host. Analysis of the mitochondrial COI gene sequence identified the maize-associated B. tabaci as the exotic B biotype (major clade North Africa-Mediterranean-Middle East). Results showed that whiteflies migrated from soybean crops and successfully established in maize plants. Females exhibited a preference for oviposition primarily on the first and second leaves of maize, but were also able to colonise developing leaves. A high, natural infestation on maize (193.3 individuals, all developmental stages) was observed within a 7.1 cm 2 designated 'observation area'. Whiteflies collected from naturally infested maize leaves and allowed to oviposit on maize seedlings grown in a screenhouse developed from egg to adulthood in 28.6 ± 0.2 days. This is the first report of the B biotype completing its development on maize plants. This surprising anomaly indicates that the B biotype is capable of adapting to monocotyledonous host plants, and importantly, broadens the host range to include at least one species in the Poaceae. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of high-gossypol cotton on the development and reproduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1 cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Ying; Wu, Gang; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2013-06-01

    Use of plant secondary metabolic compounds is an important method for insect pest control. In this study, the survival, development, and reproduction of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1 cryptic species were compared over two consecutive generations on three cotton cultivars of different gossypol levels. Both cotton cultivar and generation significantly affected the fitness of the whitefly. In both generations, the immature development times on the low-gossypol cultivar ZMS13 were significantly longer than those on the high-gossypol cultivar M9101 or medium-gossypol cultivar HZ401. The female fecundity and rate of population increase of the whitefly ranked in the following order: ZMS13 > HZ401 > M9101. On each cultivar, the immature development time was shorter and the immature survival rate was higher in the second generation than those in the first generation. Rate of increase was also higher in the second generation. These results demonstrated that the fitness of B. tabaci MEAM1 cryptic species on the low-gossypol cotton cultivar ZMS13 was higher than that on the medium- or high-gossypol cultivar. The comparison of the life histories of B. tabaci MEAM1 cryptic species on different cotton varieties is important for the development of an integrated pest management program of the whitefly by using plant secondary metabolic compounds.

  15. Distribution and infestation levels of Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae on San Andrés island

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    Takumasa Kondo Kondo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluted scale Crypticerya multicicatrices (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae is an invasive insect that became a major pest on the island of San Andrés. To generate control strategies for this insect, its distribution and infestation levels on palm species, fruit trees, leguminous trees and other plant species were determined during January 14–18, 2013. A total of 96 points were sampled in order to determine the distribution of the insect on the island. During the study, the fluted scale was found distributed throughout the island of San Andrés, including Haynes Cay and Johnny Cay. The palms were the plants with the highest levels of infestation, 70.8% had some degree of infestation (37.5% high infestation levels; followed by fruit trees which had 65.6% with some degree of infestation (30.2% high infestation levels; followed by leguminous trees which had 59.6% with some degree of infestation (13.5% high infestation levels and finally “other hosts” which had 51.1% with some level of infestation (11.5% high infestation levels. This study is the first detailed mapping of C. multicicatrices on the island of San Andrés which will become the basis for future work on the population dynamics of the fluted scale and its distribution on the island.

  16. Induction of resistance by silicon in wheat plants to alate and apterous morphs of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P A S; Sampaio, M V; Rodrigues, M P; Korndörfer, A P; Oliveira, R S; Ferreira, S E; Korndörfer, G H

    2014-08-01

    Despite the knowledge about the effects of silicon augmenting antibiosis and nonpreference of plants by apterous aphids, few studies exist on such effects with alate aphids. This study evaluated the effects of silicon fertilization on the biology of alate and apterous morphs of Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the effect on nonpreference by S. avenae alates for wheat plants with or without silicon fertilization. A method for rearing aphids on detached leaves was evaluated comparing the biology of apterous aphids reared on wheat leaf sections and on whole plants with and without silicon fertilization. Because the use of detached leaves was a reliable method, the effect of silicon fertilization on the biology of apterous and alate S. avenae was assessed using wheat leaf sections. Biological data of aphids were used to calculate a fertility life table. Finally, the effect of silicon fertilization on the nonpreference of alate aphids was carried out for both vegetative and reproductive phases of wheat. Thirty alate aphids were released in the center of a cage, and the number of aphids per whole plant with or without silicon fertilization was observed. Silicon fertilization induced antibiosis resistance in wheat plants to apterous morphs as shown by reduced fecundity, reproductive period, longevity, intrinsic rate of increase, and net reproductive rate; however, alates were unaffected. Plants that received silicon fertilization had fewer alate aphids in both the vegetative and reproductive phases. Thus, silicon fertilization can reduce colonization by alates, enhancing nonpreference resistance, and population growth of apterous S. avenae in wheat plants.

  17. KEBERADAAN DYSMICOCCUS BREVIPES (COCKERELL (HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE SEBAGAI VEKTOR PINEAPPLE MEALYBUG WILT-ASSOCIATED VIRUS (PMWAV PADA TANAMAN NANAS

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    Dewi Sartiami

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mealybug can almost be found in all pineapple fields (Ananas comosus (Linnaeus. The insect is known to be a vector of Pineapple Mealybug wilt-associated Virus (PMWaV. The insect samples taken from pineapple in Bunihayu, Jalancagak, Subang, West Java, were identified in laboratory. Mealybug-ant symbionts were also taken. The ability of this ant to carry the mealybugs from colony reared on kabocha (Cucurbita maxima to pineapple was also tested at green house level. Only one spesies of mealybug was found on pineapple, i.e. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. The mealybugs were found to colonize root, basal of stem and the leaf. Eight ant species were found to be associated with mealybug. There are four species belongs to Pseudolasius genera, two species Cardiocondyla genera, Paratrechina sp. and Dorylus sp. Paratrechina sp. showed the ability to carry D. brevipes from kabocha population to pineapple. Therefore the ants should also be controlled in the total management of PMWav.

  18. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae, a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper.

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    Yanan Hao

    Full Text Available Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera.

  19. Parasitoids associated with the black scale Saissetia oleae(Olivier (Hemiptera: Coccidae in olive trees in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Ernesto Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier (Hemiptera: Coccidae is an important pest of olive trees (Olea europaea L. that requires the use insecticides for its control. Parasitoids are important regulating agents of this pest, but currently, no information on its complex of natural enemies and their impact on black scale in Brazilian conditions exists. This study focused on identifying parasitoid wasps that were associated with the black scale on olive trees to establish their relative abundance and rate of parasitism. Samplings were maintained in an olive orchard located in Maria da Fe, south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and infested branches were stored in emergence containers to recover parasitoids. Another group was kept in Flanders batteries to evaluate the rate of parasitism in approximately 100 scales. Sixteen parasitoid species were collected during the sampling period, and the most common species were Coccophagus caridei (Brèthes (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Diversinervus elegans Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, and Mesopeltita truncatipennis (Waterston (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, the latter of which was most abundant and frequent. Parasitism ranged from 3 to 31% with peaks in summer and autumn. This level could be considered insufficient to hold the black scale under the economic injury level; however, these parasitoids should be preserved for contributions to population regulation.

  20. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON EUBLEMMA SP. (EUBLEMMINAE: A LEPIDOPTERAN PREDATOR OF COCCUS VIRIDIS (HEMIPTERA: COCCIDAE ON COFFEE PLANTS IN BANDARLAMPUNG, INDONESIA

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    Indriyati .

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study on Eublemma sp. (Eublemminae: a Lepidopteran predator of Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae on coffee plants in Bandarlampung, Indonesia. The objectives of this study were 1 to identify a Lepidopteran predator of the soft green scale Coccus viridis and 2 to present preliminary data on the predator’s feeding rate. Some coffee leaves where eggs of the Lepidopteran predator have been laid in C. viridis colonies were taken from the field and observed in the laboratory. The predator’s growth and development was noted and the specimens were identified up to generic level based on the caterpillar morphology. Ten coffee leaves each with certain number of C. viridis were also collected from the field, transferred to the laboratory, and each was inoculated with one starved caterpillar that had just formed its protective casing. The number of surviving C. viridis was counted daily. This study reveals that the caterpillar, identified as Eublemma sp. Is found to feed obligately on C. viridis. The predation rate of Eublemma sp. in laboratory is 97 + 11 scales / caterpillar.

  1. Identification of the Population Structure of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Peach Trees in China Using Microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Cao, Jinjun; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the genetic structure of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations in China using microsatellites. We expected that these data will reveal the genetic relationships among various populations of M. persicae and will be of value in the development of better methods for pest control. Four hundred sixty individuals from 23 areas over 13 provinces were collected in the early spring of 2010, all from their primary host, Prunus persicae. The markers analyzed were highly polymorphic, as demonstrated by the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.861) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.847), which indicated that M. persicae maintains a high level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance revealed an intermediate level of population differentiation among M. persicae populations (F(ST) = 0.1215). Geographic isolation existed among these populations, and, consequently, the genetic structure of the populations was split into a southern group and a northern group divided by the Yangtse River. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  2. Induced senescence promotes the feeding activities and nymph development of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Assefh, Cristina R; Lucatti, Alejandro F; Alvarez, Adriana E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of dark-induced senescence on Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants was assessed on the feeding behavior and performance of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Senescence was induced by covering the basal part of the plant with a black cloth for 5 d, avoiding the light passage, but keeping the apical buds uncovered. The basal part of control plants was covered with a white nonwoven cloth. The degree of senescence was determined by measuring the chlorophyll content of the covered leaves. The performance and feeding behavior of M. persicae were studied on the uncovered nonsenescent apical leaves. The aphid's performance was evaluated by measuring nymphal mortality and prereproductive time. Aphid feeding behavior was monitored by the electrical penetration graph technique. In plants with dark-induced senescence, the aphids showed a reduction in their prereproductive time. Aphids also spent more time ingesting sap from the phloem than in control plants and performed more test probes after the first sustained ingestion of phloem sap. These data suggest that M. persicae's phloem activities and nymph development benefit from the nutritional enrichment of phloem sap, derived from dark-induced senescence on potato plants. The induced senescence improved plant acceptance by M. persicae through an increase in sap ingestion that likely resulted in a reduction in developmental time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DE Euborellia annulipes (DERMAPTERA: ANISOLABIDIDAE ALIMENTADA COM O PULGÃO Hyadaphis foeniculi (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE

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    ALDENI BARBOSA DA SILVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sweet herb of great economic importance for small farmers in the micro and Agrest Swamp of Paraíba and also in the state of Pernambuco. Among the natural enemies, the scissors Euborellia annulipes proves to be a voracious predator, that is, with high ability to attack and feed on different prey, particularly of eggs and immature stages of insects of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Diptera. The objective of this research was to study the biological aspects of E. annulipes on H. foeniculi laboratory. The study was conducted at the Entomology Laboratory, Department of Plant Protection at the UFPB in a climatic chamber, at 25 ± 1 ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 10% RH and 12 hours. Scissors were selected in adulthood from rearing on artificial diet in the laboratory. From these insects have made observations of posture, viability and morphology of eggs of E. annulipes. Fifty nymphs were selected for each stage of development (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of the scissors and fed separately with aphids (1st-2nd, 3rd and 4th instar. There has been evaluation regarding the number and duration of instars. There are five instars to the nymphal stage of E. annulipes, the average incubation period was 12.9 days, pre-oviposition period of 18.2 days and 46.75 eggs per clutch, there was an increase of nymphal E. annulipes in that it offered up more aphids developed.

  4. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

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    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  5. Phenology of the Pine Bark Adelgid, Pineus strobi (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in White Pine Forests of Southwestern Virginia.

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    Wantuch, Holly A; Kuhar, Thomas P; Salom, Scott M

    2017-12-08

    The pine bark adelgid, Pineus strobi Hartig (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a native herbivore of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L. (Pinales: Pinaceae), in eastern North America. P. strobi does not appear to have any dominant overwintering lifestage in southwest Virginia, as it does in its northern range. Eggs can be found consistently from late March through early December and may be produced sporadically later throughout the winter during warm periods. Two distinct generations were observed in the spring, after which life stage frequencies overlapped. Adult body size varied seasonally and was greatest in the spring. The present study constitutes the first recording of phenological details of the P. strobi in its southern range, informing biological control efforts aimed at closely related invasive pests. The phenological plasticity observed between northern and southern P. strobi populations provides insight into the potential effects of climate on the population dymanics of this and related species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Assessment of fennel aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and their predators in fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers.

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    Ramalho, F S; Fernandes, F S; Nascimento, A R B; Nascimento Júnior, J L; Malaquias, J B; Silva, C A D

    2012-02-01

    The fennel aphid, Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare Miller in northeast region of Brazil. We hypothesize that intercropping can be used as an alternative pest management strategy to reduce aphid yield loss in fennel. Thus, we investigated the severity of fennel plant damage in relation to infestation by the fennel aphid and predation by Cycloneda sanguinea (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (spotless lady beetle), green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in sole fennel plots and plots of fennel intercropped with cotton with colored fibers. The fennel aphid populations in nontreated plots were significantly larger in sole fennel plots than in intercropped plots. The highest densities of C. sanguinea, green lacewings and Scymnus spp., associated with the suppression of fennel aphid populations was found in fennel in the intercropping systems. Fennel aphids reduced the fennel seed yield by 80% in the sole fennel plots compared with approximately 30% for all intercropping systems. The results obtained in this research are of practical significance for designing appropriate strategies for fennel aphid control in fennel-cotton intercropping systems. In summary, intercropping fennel with cotton with colored fibers apparently promoted biocontrol of fennel aphid in fennel.

  7. Optical illusions in scanning electron micrographs: the case of the eggshell of Acrosternum (Chinavia) marginatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Klaus W; Reid, Walton; Schrauf, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy revealed that-as is common in this family of the Hemiptera-the eggs of the green stink bug Acrosternum (Chinavia) marginatum are roughly barrel-shaped and possess at their apical pole a row of slender extensions, the aero-micropylar processes. The outer surface of the eggshell carries hexagonally arranged pits. The analysis of cross-fractured eggshells showed that the pits have slender basal extensions with transverse diaphragms. When scanning electron micrographs of the egg surface of A. marginatum are viewed upside down, the perception flips and the pits appear as elevations to all observers addressed. Thus, we are dealing with an optical illusion, which is known as the 'shape-from-shading effect'. The perceived dents remain robust to changes in the angle of recording (zero to ca. 60 degrees tilt), the magnification (ca. x100 to x1400), and the number of pits included in the micrograph (one to several hundred). When through appropriate positioning of the specimen under the electron beam, contrast is significantly reduced and the distinct shadows at the slope of the pits are eliminated, the optical illusion does not appear. It is inferred that shades provide the decisive clue that determines whether bumps or dents will be perceived. Owing to the low resolution of their compound eyes, the shape-from-shading effect on the eggshell of the bug is in all likelihood not perceived by insects.

  8. Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles

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    Lucia Maria Paleari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles. Stiretrus decemguttatus is an important predator of two species of cassidine beetles, Botanochara sedecimpustulata (Fabricius, 1781 and Zatrephina lineata (Fabricius, 1787 (Coleoptera, Cassidinae, on the Marajó Island, Brazil. It attacks individuals in all development stages, but preys preferentially on late-instar larvae. Its life cycle in the laboratory was 43.70 ± 1.09 days, with an egg incubation period of six days and duration from nymph and adult stages of 16.31 ± 0.11 and 22.10 ± 1.67 days, respectively. The duration of one generation (T was 12.65 days and the intrinsic population growth rate (r 0.25. These data reveal the adjustment of the life cycle of S. decemgutattus with those of the two preys, but suggest greater impact on Z. lineata. However, no preference over cassidine species was shown in the laboratory. Up to 17 different color patterns can be found in adults of S. decemguttatus, based on combinations of three basic sets of color markings. Some of them resemble the markings of chrysomelids associated with Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae and are possibly a mimetic ring. Three color patterns were identified in nymphs, none of which was associated with any specific adult color pattern.

  9. Laju enkapsulasi parasitoid Anagyrus lopezi (De Santis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae oleh kutu putih singkong Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Evie Adriani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitoid Anagyrus lopezi (De Santis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae was introduced into Indonesia in early 2014 to control the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. The objective of study was to determine encapsulation rate of parasitoid A. lopezi by various host instars of P. manihoti. Observation of encapsulation rate was made  by exposing a single mated female of parasitoid on mealybug nymph-1, -2, -3, and adult in a plastic cage for 24 h. Mealybugs then were dissected and number of parasitoid eggs laid and those encapsulated were counted. Study revealed that rate of aggregate encapsulation was highest (8.4% by adults, followed by nymph-3 (5.8%, nymph-2 (3.1%, and nymph-1 (1.1%. Rate of effective encapsulation by adults was 2.0%, whereas by nymphs about  1.0%. The low rate of encapsulation is believed not to reduce the effectiveness of parasitoid A. lopezi in the biological control of cassava mealybug P. manihoti in Indonesia.

  10. Bacterial associates of Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae), the insect vector of bois noir disease, with a focus on cultivable bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Naor, Vered; Zahavi, Tirtza; Ballinger, Matthew J; Sharon, Rakefet; Robinson, Wyatt E; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2017-01-01

    The planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) is an important vector of phytoplasma diseases in grapevine. In the current study, the bacterial community compositions of symbionts of this insect were examined. Two dominant bacterial lineages were identified by mass sequencing: the obligate symbiont Candidatus Sulcia, and a facultative symbiont that is closely related to Pectobacterium sp. and to BEV, a cultivable symbiont of another phytoplasma vector, the leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus. In addition, one bacterium was successfully isolated in this study - a member of the family Xanthomonadaceae that is most closely related to the genus Dyella. This Dyella-like bacterium (DLB) was detected by FISH analysis in H. obsoletus guts but not ovaries, and its prevalence in H. obsoletus increased during the fall, suggesting that it was acquired by the host through feeding. We found that DLB inhibits Spiroplasma melliferum, a cultivable relative of phytoplasma, suggesting that it is a potential candidate for biological control against phytoplasma in grapevines. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of 12 Novel Microsatellite Markers of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Identified From Next-Generation Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hwa Yeun; Coates, Brad; Kim, Kyung Seok; Park, Marana; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major pest of rice and has long-range migratory behavior in Asia. Microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats) have been widely used to determine the origins and genetic diversity of insect pests. We identified novel microsatellite loci for S. furcifera samples collected from Laos, Vietnam, and three localities in Bangladesh from next-generation Roche 454 pyrosequencing data. Size polymorphism at 12 microsatellite loci was verified for 40 adult individuals collected from Shinan, South Korea. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.92. The mean values of observed (H(o)) and expected heterozygosities (H(E)) were 0.615 and 0.757, respectively. These new microsatellite markers will be a resource for future ecological genetic studies of S. furcifera samples across more broad geographic regions in Asia and may assist in estimations of genetic differentiation and gene flow among populations for implementation of more effective management strategies to control this serious rice pest. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  12. Ontogenetic trajectory and allometry of Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius), an Oriental aquatic bug (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Dnyaneshwar; Morey, Rashmi; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Padhye, Sameer M; Paripatyadar, Shruti V

    2017-03-01

    Despite being one of the dominant groups in freshwater ecosystems, morphological and ontogenetic studies on aquatic Hemiptera have received little attention in the Oriental region. We present the ontogenetic trajectory and allometry of the widespread Oriental belostomatid species, Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius) for the first time. We have measured nine different morphological variables throughout the growth of the bug using both field captured and laboratory reared specimens. Our results suggest that the developmental instars can be distinguished by the size variables, as seen in the Principal Component Analysis. On the basis of a CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) based regression tree, we also show that the characters - total length without head and maximum width - prove to be adequate for effective instar identification. The multivariate allometric growth pattern shows that different body parts exhibit different types of allometry. This is apparent in the allometry exhibited by forelegs and mid and hind legs, which show allometry of opposite polarities. This may be due to the different functions attributed to these body parts. Our results show that the growth pattern in D. rusticus is comparable with the New World genus Belostoma, suggesting a conserved growth pattern in the family Belostomatidae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Glenda L; Cooper, W Rodney; Horton, David R; Swisher, Kylie D; Garczynski, Stephen F; Munyaneza, Joseph E; Barcenas, Nina M

    2015-01-01

    "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Proteobacteria) is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae) in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae). While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales) are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention.

  14. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

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    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  15. Pengaruh cendawan endofit terhadap biologi dan statistik demografi wereng batang cokelat Nilaparvata lugens Stál (Hemiptera: Delphacidae

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    Amanda Mawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is an endosymbiont that lives within host plant tissues and does not necessary cause any harm to plants. This type of fungus are important as mediators in plant-herbivore interactions. One of the endophytic fungi in rice is Nigrospora sp. The effects of Nigrospora sp. on the biology and demographic statistic of Nilaparvata lugens Stál (Hemiptera: Delphacidae were studied in the laboratory. We used Nigrospora sp. culture powder was used to inoculate the fungi to rice seeds by mixing 10 g of flour endophytic per 1 kg rice seeds. The mixture was then stored in damp and dark storage. Results showed that the rice seeds treated with endophytic fungi showed some resistance to N. lugens. Eggs and early stages of nymph mortality was increased, higher than the control. Endophytic fungi also affect the nymphs growth rates by slowing it down, prolonging N. lugens life cycle, preoviposition period as well as delayed the age at first reproduction. N. lugens population growth is effected by Nigrospora sp. in laboratory scale. Thus, it has the potential as an alternative way to control N. lugens population. In addition, inoculation of endophytic fungi could be a useful method for protecting rice plants from N. lugens.

  16. Bioesai bioinsektisida Beauveria bassiana dari Sumatera Selatan terhadap kutu putih pepaya, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara De Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Siti Herlinda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In fresh swamp areas of South Sumatra, papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae could cause severe damage to young papaya trees and decreased the fruit quality. The objective of this research was to bioassay test of the bioinsecticide Beauveria bassiana againts nymphs of P. marginatus. B. bassiana was conducted on rice medium. The bioinsecticide was formulated using dried compost, compost gram, paddy ash, paddy bran, woody powder, paddy bran mixed with woody powder, compost enriched with Trichoderma virens. Controls used were sterile water (control 1 and isolate of B. bassiana (control 2. Results showed that conidial viability of B. bassiana on control 2 was the highest (46.33%. The viability of control 2 was not significantly different from the formulations with carrier of the paddy bran, the paddy bran mixed with woody powder, and the compost enriched with T. virens. The highest nymph mortality (82.86% was found on formulation of compost enriched with T. virens and was significantly different from other treatments. The lowest visibly (73.48% occured on formulation of paddy ash, and was significantly different from other treatments. Mortality on control 1 on average was 29.52%, whereas control 2 averaged of 75.71%. The shortest median lethal time (LT50 (3.55 days was found on formulation of compost enriched with T. virens but the longest one (3.73 days occured on the formulation of paddy ash. Overall, the most effective bioinsecticide was the formulation of compost enriched with T. virens.

  17. Performance of the Natural Mortality Factors of Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a Function of Cotton Plant Variety and Phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamuene, António; Araújo, Tamíris Alves; Silva, Gerson; Costa, Thiago Leandro; Berger, Paulo Geraldo; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2018-02-07

    Natural mortality factors are responsible for regulating pest populations in the field. However, plant attributes such as the variety and phenological stage can influence the performance of these factors. Therefore, we investigated the performance of the natural mortality factors of Aphis gossypii (Glover; Hemiptera: Aphididae) as a function of the plant variety and phenology. To investigate the performance of these factors, we evaluated the mortality of A. gossypii caused by natural mortality factors for 2 yr in field conditions in transgenic (Bacillus thuringiensis/Roundup Ready) and non-transgenic cotton crops during vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages. The natural mortality factors were affected similarly between the transgenic and non-transgenic plants; however, differences were observed in their performance, depending on the phenological stage of the cotton plant. Compared with other stages, predation was higher in the flowering stage, whereas the mortality caused by rainfall was higher in the vegetative stage. Coccinellid beetles were primarily responsible for the predation on A. gossypii. These findings highlight that the performance of the natural mortality factors of A. gossypii varied more as a function of the phenological stage of cotton than of the variety. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Within-plant distribution of Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on various greenhouse plants with implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandricic, S E; Mattson, N S; Wraight, S P; Sanderson, J P

    2014-04-01

    Foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has recently undergone a status change from an occasional pest to a serious pest in greenhouses of North America and the United Kingdom. Little nonanecdotal information exists on the ecology of this insect in greenhouse crops. To help improve integrated pest management decisions for A. solani, the within-plant distribution of this pest was explored on a variety of common greenhouse plants in both the vegetative and flowering stage. This aphid generally was found on lower leaves of vegetative plants, but was found higher in the canopy on reproductive plants (on flowers, flower buds, or upper leaves). Aphid numbers were not consistently positively correlated with total leaf surface areas within plant strata across plant species. Thus, the observed differences in preferred feeding sites on vegetative versus flowering plants are possibly a response to differences in nutritional quality of the various host-plant tissues. Despite being anecdotally described as a "stem-feeding aphid," A. solani was rarely found feeding on stems at the population densities established in our tests, with the exception of racemes of scarlet sage (Salvia splendans). Although some previous reports suggested that A. solani prefers to feed on new growth of plants, our results indicate that mature leaves are preferred over growing tips and young leaves. The implications of the within-plant feeding preferences of A. solani populations with respect to both biological and chemical control are discussed.

  19. OCORRÊNCIA ESPONTÂNEA DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Criv. Vuill. 1912 (ASCOMYCETES: CLAVICIPITACEAE SOBRE Thaumastocoris peregrinus (HEMIPTERA: THAUMASTOCORIDAE

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    Grasielle Adriane Toscan Lorencetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exemplars of Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae, insect pest of the genus Eucalyptus , were found dead in the Eucalyptus grandis plantation in the city of Realeza, the southwest region of the state of Paraná, Brazil, with white mycelial growth on the surface of the body. Isolation procedures were performed (in Potato-Dextrose-Agar culture and identification of the pathogen, whereas the ratio between the microorganism and the insect has been established by Koch’s postulate. The fungus through standard procedures, was identified as Beauveria bassiana. In the laboratory testing pathogenicity were performed and caused mortality confirmed in 72.2% of the insects at the concentration of 1.0 x 10 8 conidia.mL -1 after six days inoculation. Studies on the selection of isolates should be performed and justified by the growing demand of the forest sector in search of control strategies for this insect pest. Thus, was verified that Beauveria bassiana naturally infects Thaumastocoris peregrinus, occurring spontaneously in the Paraná state.

  20. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae), a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanan; Dietrich, Christopher H; Dai, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae) is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments) and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera.

  1. Chilocorus cacti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a Biological Control Agent of the Wild Cochineal (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) of Prickly Pear Cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, I A; Cruz-Rodríguez, J A

    2018-04-05

    The wild cochineal (Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) is considered to be the most important pest in cactus pear plantations. In Mexico, there are seven natural enemies that provide natural biological control of D. opuntiae. However, their role and impact have not been evaluated. In this article, we report on aspects of the population biology of Chilocorus cacti L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), which is considered one of the main natural enemies of D. opuntiae. We also conducted experiments to evaluate the consumption of C. cacti by this predator when fed nymphs and adult females of D. opuntiae. Changes in the survival function of D. opuntiae in the presence or absence C. cacti were also identified. Both larvae and adults of C. cacti prefer to consume D. opuntiae nymphs because the wax produced by adult females presents a significant obstacle. The survival analysis showed that the presence of C. cacti had significant negative effects on D. opuntiae survival. C. cacti significantly increased its abundance while reducing the density of adult female D. opuntiae, but this impact occurred only after they had consumed the more preferred nymphs. For this reason, natural enemies other than C. cacti may be required to achieve adequate levels of biological control.

  2. Nitrogen in Hydroponic Growing Medium of Tomato Affects the Demographic Parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, R S; Madadi, H; Hosseini, M; Delshad, M; Dashti, F

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of different nitrogen levels (380, 310, 240, and 174 ppm) on the life history parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on hydroponically cultured tomato plants. Our data show that there is a positive correlation between the nitrogen content and the demographic parameters, as the intrinsic rate of increase of T. vaporariorum was the lowest (0.059 ± 0.007 day(-1)) at 174 ppm and the highest (0.088 ± 0.005 day(-1)) at 380 ppm of nitrogen. The net reproduction rate (R 0), finite rate of increase (λ), and mean developmental time (T) were significantly influenced by the nitrogen levels. The mean longevity of males and females showed a positive relationship with the nitrogen level, ranging from 64.8 ± 3.96 to 76.3 ± 2.44 for males and 61.6 ± 5.35 to 71.2 ± 2.44 for females, observed in the lowest and highest nitrogen levels, respectively. The relationship between nitrogen fertilization and T. vaporariorum management on tomato crops is discussed.

  3. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-02-24

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed.

  4. Nano-formulation enhances insecticidal activity of natural pyrethrins against Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and retains their harmless effect to non-target predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Nikos E; Kalaitzaki, Argyro; Karamaouna, Filitsa; Michaelakis, Antonios; Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Dourtoglou, Vassilis; Papachristos, Dimitrios P

    2018-04-01

    The insecticidal activity of a new nano-formulated natural pyrethrin was examined on the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the predators Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Hemiptera: Miridae), in respect with the nano-scale potential to create more effective and environmentally responsible pesticides. Pyrethrin was nano-formulated in two water-in-oil micro-emulsions based on safe biocompatible materials, i.e., lemon oil terpenes as dispersant, polysorbates as stabilizers, and mixtures of water with glycerol as the dispersed aqueous phase. Laboratory bioassays showed a superior insecticidal effect of the pyrethrin micro-emulsions compared to two commercial suspension concentrates of natural pyrethrins against the aphid. The nano-formulated pyrethrins were harmless, in terms of caused mortality and survival time, to L3 larvae and four-instar nymphs of the predators C. septempunctata and M. pygmaeus, respectively. We expect that these results can contribute to the application of nano-technology in optimization of pesticide formulation, with further opportunities in the development of effective plant protection products compatible with integrated pest management practices.

  5. Biological aspects of crosses between Triatoma recurva (Stål), 1868 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) and other members of the Phyllosoma complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Licón-Trillo, Ángel; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Vences-Blanco, Mauro Omar

    2015-06-01

    The degree of reproductive isolation between Triatoma recurva (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) and the six species of the genus Meccus plus T. mexicana (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was examined. Fertility and the segregation of morphological characteristics were examined in two generations of hybrids from crosses between these species. The percentage of couples with offspring (fertile) was low in the vast majority of sets of crosses, with the exception of that between T. recurva female and M. phyllosomus male. In all studied sets of crosses, no first- (F1) or second- (F2) generation individuals were morphologically similar to T. recurva but instead shared the morphology of the other parental species. A similar phenomenon was observed in the three successful sets of backcrosses. These results indicated that different recorded levels of reproductive fitness among T. recurva and the species of Meccus involved in this study, plus T. mexicana, are present and that they were apparently influenced by differing mechanisms of isolation. The presence of some degree of reproductive compatibility between studied triatomines of distinct genera (Meccus spp. and Triatoma spp.) reinforces the need for generic revision of the tribe Triatomini. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. Sitobion graminis Takahashi, 1950 (Hemiptera, Aphididae: first record in Brazil, biological and morphometric parameters Sitobion graminis Takahashi, 1950 (Hemiptera, Aphididae: primeiro registro para o Brasil, parâmetros biológicos e morfométricos

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    Josiane Teresinha Cardoso

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The species Sitobion graminis Takahashi, 1950 (Hemiptera, Aphididae was first detected in Brazil in 1998, in Curitiba, Paraná state, associated with the grass species Erianthus sp., Calamagrotis sp. and Paspalum urvilei. Both the field-collected and laboratory-reared specimens presented a noticeable intrapopulational variation in body and appendix length and in dorso-abdominal sclerotization. This species has been recorded in Malaysia, New Guinea, India, Philippines and Africa, where it colonizes several species of Poaceae. S. graminis differs from other Sitobion species from Brazil associated with grasses, as it presents black cauda and siphunculi and exhibits a constriction in the base of the last rostral segment. Biological data were obtained in the laboratory by rearing newborn nymphs on the inflorescence of the host plants. They passed through four nymphal instars. The mean duration of the nymphal stage was of 11.4 days, with a mortality ratio of 36.5%. The mean pre-larviposition period was of 1.8 days; mean longevity of the females was 25.2 days; and mean fecundity was 18.7 nymphs/female, ranging from 2 to 41 nymphs/female.A espécie Sitobion graminis Takahashi, 1950 (Hemiptera, Aphididae foi detectada no Brasil pela primeira vez em 1998, em Curitiba, PR, associada às gramíneas Erianthus sp., Calamagrotis sp. e Paspalum urvilei. Os espécimes coletados e criados apresentavam uma notável variação intrapopulacional no comprimento do corpo e apêndices e na esclerotinização dorso-abdominal. Esta espécie é reconhecida na Malásia, Nova Guiné, Índia, Filipinas e África, colonizando várias espécies de Poaceae. S. graminis diferencia-se das demais espécies do gênero Sitobion associadas a gramíneas no Brasil, por apresentar a cauda e sifúnculos negros e o último segmento rostral constrito na base. Dados de biologia foram obtidos em laboratório, onde ninfas recém-nascidas criadas sobre as inflorescências das gram

  7. Diversidade de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no sul de Santa Catarina Diversity of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in southern Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Luiz A. Campos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A composição e a variação sazonal da fauna de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera foi avaliada entre setembro de 2005 e agosto de 2006 em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica na região sul de Santa Catarina (Brasil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W e Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W. Foram realizadas coletas mensais ao longo de trilhas nas três áreas, utilizando guarda-chuva entomológico e rede de varredura para amostrar nas bordas de mata. Para um esforço amostral de 108 horas foram coletados 595 indivíduos, distribuídos em 4 famílias, 29 gêneros e 49 espécies. Pentatomidae foi a família mais abundante (82,69% seguida de Cydnidae (15,97%, Scutelleridae (0,84% e Tessaratomidae (0,50%. Pentatomidae também apresentou a maior riqueza com 37 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes foram Mormidea notulifera Stål, 1860, Oebalus ypsilongriseus (De Geer, 1773, Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer, 1773, Edessa subrastrata Bergroth, 1891, Galgupha schulzii (Fabricius, 1781 e Agroecus scabricornis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1844. O período de maior captura foi entre o final da primavera e início do outono, representando 71,76% do total coletado. O Parque do Maracajá apresentou abundância e riqueza sgnificativamente maiores do que as demais áreas. Este estudo representa o primeiro inventário da diversidade de Pentatomoidea em habitats naturais no estado de Santa Catarina.The composition and the seasonal variation of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera were evaluated between September 2005 and August 2006 in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in the southern region of the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W and Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W

  8. Phytophagy on eucalyptus plants increases the development and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae = Fitofagia em plantas de eucaliptos aumenta o desenvolvimento e a reprodução do predador Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

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    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant feeding on biological aspects of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae was evaluated. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae on Eucalyptus urophylla plants inthe field or only with pupae of this prey in the laboratory. The development and nymphal survival, as well as the pre-oviposition period, number of egg masses, number, fertility and viability of eggs and the longevity of females of this predator were evaluated. The eucalyptus plants improved the development of P. nigrispinus. This demonstrates that this predator can present higher population growth with eucalyptus plants and T. molitor pupae than in the laboratory (controlled conditions only with this prey. These plants can supply nutrients that can the population growth and efficiency of P. nigrispinus for biological control in eucalyptus plantations.O efeito da alimentação em plantas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae foi avaliado. Ninfas e adultos desse predador foram alimentados com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleotpera: Tenebrionidae em plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla no campo ou, apenas, em laboratório. O desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência ninfal desse predador, além do período de pré-oviposição, número de posturas, viabilidade dos ovos e afertilidade e longevidade de fêmeas foram avaliados. A planta de eucalipto proporcionou um incremento no desenvolvimento de P. nigrispinus. Isto demonstra que esse predador pode apresentar maior crescimento populacional com plantas de eucalipto e pupas de T. molitor alimentado com apenas a presa (condições controladas. A planta pode fornecer nutrientes que aumentam o crescimento populacional e a eficiência de P. nigrispinus para o controle biológico em plantios de eucalipto.

  9. Spatial Distribution and Coexisting Patterns of Adults and Nymphs of Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Paddy Rice Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs M; Maia, Aline H N; Barrigossi, José A F

    2016-12-01

    The rice stem stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a primary insect pest of paddy rice in South America. Knowledge of its spatial distribution can support sampling plans needed for timely decisions about pest control. This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults and nymphs of T. limbativentris and determine the spatial coexistence of these stages of development. Fifteen paddy rice fields were scouted once each season to estimate insect densities. Scouting was performed on regular grids with sampling points separated by ∼50 m. Moran's I and semivariograms were used to determine spatial distribution patterns. Spatial coexistence of nymphs and adults was explored via spatial point process. Here, adults and nymphs had typically contrasting spatial distribution patterns within the same field; however, the frequency of aggregation was not different between these developmental stages. Adults and nymphs were aggregated in seven fields and randomly distributed in the other eight fields. Uniform distribution of adults or nymphs was not observed. The study-wide semivariogram ranges were ∼40 m for adults and ∼55 m for nymphs. Nymphs and adults spatially coexisted on 67% of the fields. Coexisting patterns were classified using one of the following processes: stage-independent, bidirectional attractive, unidirectional attractive, bidirectional inhibiting, or unidirectional inhibiting. The information presented herein can be important for developing sampling plans for decision-making, implementing tactics for site-specific management, and monitoring areas free of T. limbativentrisResumoO percevejo-do-colmo Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) é uma praga primária na cultura do arroz irrigado na América do Sul. O conhecimento de sua distribuição espacial é essencial para desenvolver planos de amostragem e para o controle desta praga. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a distribuição espacial de

  10. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  11. Laboratory bioassays to estimate the lethal and sublethal effects of various insecticides and fungicides on Deraeocoris brevis (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, K G; Shearer, P W

    2013-04-01

    This laboratory bioassay focused on lethal and sublethal effects of five insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, spinetoram, novaluron, and lambda-cyhalothrin) and two fungicide treatments (sulfur and a mixture of copper hydroxide and mancozeb) on the predatory mired bug, Deraeocoris brevis (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Miridae) using second instars and adult males and females. Formulated pesticides were tested using concentrations that were equivalent to the high label rate (1x) (high rate) and 1/10th of that amount (0.1x) (low rate) dissolved in 378.5 liters of water. Lambda-cyhalothrin was highly toxic to D. brevis nymphs and adults at both rates, whereas both rates of novaluron were highly toxic to nymphs. Cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, and novaluron were less toxic to adults, and chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram were less toxic to nymphs. Both rates of spinetoram caused significant mortality to adults. Fecundity of adult females was affected negatively by the high rates of either novaluron or spinetoram, whereas the fertility was affected only by the high rate of novaluron. The high rate of spinetoram reduced survival of nymphs. Adults treated with spinetoram had reduced longevity. Cyantraniliprole caused some mortality to nymphs and affected their survival. Both rates of sulfur were toxic to nymphs and affected emergence to adults. The mixture of copper hydroxide and mancozeb was less toxic to D. brevis. Neither adult longevity nor sex ratio was affected by the fungicides. The r values for D. brecis treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, novaluron, spinetoram, and sulfur were low, indicating that these products may have negative impact on population growth.

  12. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justi, Silvia A.; Galvão, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an efficient treatment and vaccine for Chagas disease, it is more common to find evolutionary studies focusing on the most relevant vectors than it is to find studies aiming to understand the evolution of the group as a whole. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study aiming to understand the events that led to the diversification of the Triatominae. Methodology/Principal Findings We gathered the most diverse samples of Reduviidae and Triatominae (a total of 229 Reduviidae samples, including 70 Triatominae species) and reconstructed a robust dated phylogeny with several fossil (Reduviidae and Triatominae) calibrations. Based on this information, the possible role of geological events in several of the major cladogenetic events within Triatominae was tested for the first time. We were able to not only correlate the geological changes in the Neotropics with Triatominae evolution but also add to an old discussion: Triatominae monophyly vs. paraphyly. Conclusions/Significance We found that most of the diversification events observed within the Rhodniini and Triatomini tribes are closely linked to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America and that variations in sea levels in North America also played a role in the diversification of the species of Triatoma in that region. PMID:27058599

  13. Efficacy and timing of some new products against pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae: I. Spirotetramat

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    V. Arnaudov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pear psylla (Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is one of the key insect pests in pear orchards of Bulgaria. Field trials to evaluate the efficacy and timing of spirotetramat (Movento 100 SC ® against C. pyri were carried out in a commercial pear orchard in the village Dink near Plovdiv (Bulgaria in 2014 and 2015. Three periods of application were tested against the second summer generation of C. pyri: (А in the presence of predominantly "white" eggs, (B in the presence of predominantly "yellow" eggs and the first hatched larvae, and (C in the presence of about 15 – 30% hatched larvae and nymphs. In all three periods of application spirotetramat (Movento 100 SC applied at a dose of 150 ml/hl effectively reduced the population of pear psylla after only once application. Movento 100 SC applied in the presence of predominantly "white" eggs (A and in the presence of predominantly "yellow" eggs and the first hatched larvae (B demonstrated better efficacy than in the presence of about 15 – 30% hatched larvae and nymphs (C. The efficacy of spirotetramat (Movento100 SC in the first two periods of application (A and (B was similar and insignificantly different from that of the reference insecticide abamectin (Vertimec 18 EC, applied at a dose of 150 ml/hl, but significantly higher than the efficacy of spirotetramat, applied in period (C. The total reduction of larvae at three week post-treatment was at the level of 94.6 - 98.7% for the period (A and (B, 89.7 – 93.3% for the period (C and 94.0 – 98.7% for the reference insecticide - abamectin. The high efficacy observed in different terms of application and long persistence makes this product extremely valuable in controlling populations of C. pyri.

  14. Biological Data on Anovia punica Gordon (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Predator of Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo & Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchao, E C; Sotelo, P; González, G; Kondo, T

    2017-10-12

    The coccinellid beetle Anovia punica Gordon (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Noviini) is an important predator of the Colombian fluted scale, Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo & Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae). In order to gather information on the biological traits of A. punica, we conducted a series of studies, including of the developmental time of each life history stage, estimation of life table parameters, and predation rates under laboratory conditions [25.1 ± 1.6°C, with 70.5 ± 7.3% RH, and natural light regime, approx. 12:12 (L:D) h]. Developmental stages of A. punica were categorized as follows: egg stage, four larval instars, prepupal instar, pupal instar, and adult. Developmental time from egg to adult emergence averaged 29.41 ± 1.85 days, and 47.6% of the eggs developed to adulthood. Female and male survival was 94.42 and 90 days, respectively. Life table parameters show that one female of A. punica is replaced by 86 females (R 0 ), the intrinsic growth rate (r m ) was 0.1115, the average generation time (T) was 40 days, and the doubling time (D t ) was 6.2 days. The life table parameters suggest that A. punica can be used as a potential predator of C. multicicatrices and, more importantly, provided baseline information for a mass-rearing protocol. This is the first detailed study on the biology of A. punica that reports the potential of this predator as a biological control agent for scale insects of the tribe Iceryini.

  15. Cucumber Plants Baited with Methyl Salicylate Accelerates Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Visiting to Reduce Cotton Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y J; Hwang, S Y

    2017-10-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of many crops worldwide and a major cucumber plant pest in Taiwan. Because cotton aphids rapidly develop insecticide resistance and because of the insecticide residue problem, a safe and sustainable method is required to replace conventional chemical control methods. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), a herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to affect aphids' behavior and attract the natural enemies of aphids for reducing their population. Therefore, this study examined the direct effects of MeSA on cotton aphids' settling preference, population development, and attractiveness to natural enemies. The efficiency of using MeSA and the commercial insecticide pymetrozine for reducing the cotton aphid population in laboratory and outdoor cucumber plant pot was also examined. The results showed no difference in winged aphids' settling preference and population development between the MeSA and blank treatments. Cucumber plants infested with cotton aphids and baited with 0.1% or 10% MeSA contained significantly higher numbers of the natural enemy of cotton aphids, namely Scymnus (Pullus) sodalis (Weise) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and MeSA-treated cucumber plants contained a lower number of aphids. Significantly lower cotton aphid numbers were found on cucumber plants within a 10-m range of MeSA application. In addition, fruit yield showed no difference between the MeSA and pymetrozine treatments. According to our findings, 0.1% MeSA application can replace insecticides as a cotton aphid control tool. However, large-scale experiments are necessary to confirm its efficiency and related conservation biological control strategies before further use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Population Fluctuation and Altitudinal Distribution of Tetraleurodes perseae (Nakahara) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Avocado (Lauraceae) in Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Daniel; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Lagunes-Tejeda, Ángel; Carrillo-Sánchez, José Luis; Nieto-Ángel, Daniel; García-Gutiérrez, Cipriano

    2016-01-01

    Although whiteflies Tetraleurodes perseae (Nakahara) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are considered a secondary pest of avocado crops, their presence and the damages that they cause can decrease crop vigor and affect production. The objective of the present work was to determine the population fluctuation and altitudinal distribution of the T. perseae Nakahara whitefly in avocado trees, as well as to determine the number of possible generations in one year. The study was done in three orchards in Morelos state, located at different altitudes, from February 2014 to April 2015. Samplings were done every 21 days from 10 randomly chosen trees in each orchard. The samples were taken randomly from the middle stratus (1.6 m in height) of each tree; in buds or young leaves for the number of adults and leaves only for nymphs. Additionally, two yellow traps (7 × 14 cm) with glue were placed in each tree for adult samplings. Data were collected regarding vegetative budding, rainfall, relative humidity, and temperature. T. perseae was present in all three sampled orchards, with a greater presence in the lowest orchard, during the whole study period. In the orchard with the lowest altitudinal gradient (1,736 masl), 11 whitefly generations developed; 10 generations developed in the medium gradient orchard (1,934 masl); and 8 generations developed in the highest orchard (2,230 masl). The adults showed a positive relationship with regard to vegetative buds, while the nymphs had a negative relationship with regard to relative humidity. The rest of the parameters showed diverse effects on the species depending on the altitude of the orchard. PMID:27658809

  17. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-03-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm(2)); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm(2) on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest.

  18. Analysis of Species, Subgroups, and Endosymbionts of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) From Southwestern Cotton Fields in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karut, Kamil; Mete Karaca, M; Döker, Ismail; Kazak, Cengiz

    2017-08-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most important insect pests worldwide including Turkey. Although there are substantial data regarding species composition of Turkish B. tabaci populations, the situation is still not clear and further investigations are needed. Therefore, in this study, species and subgroups of B. tabaci collected from cotton fields in southwestern part of Turkey (Antalya, Aydın, Denizli, and Muğla) were determined using microsatellite analysis, AluI-based mtCOI polymerase chain reaction-random length polymorphism, and sequencing. Secondary endosymbionts were also determined using diagnostic species-specific PCR. Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), Mediterranean (MED) Q1, and MED Q2 were the species and subgroups found in this study. The MED species (85.3%) were found to be more dominant than MEAM1. Species status of B. tabaci varied depending on the location. Although all samples collected from Aydın were found to be Q1, three species and subgroups were found in Muğla. Secondary endosymbionts varied according to species and subgroups. Arsenophonus was found only from Q2, while Hamiltonella was detected in MEAM1 and Q1. In addition, high Rickettsia and low Wolbachia infections were detected in MEAM1 and Q1 populations, respectively. In conclusion, for the first time, we report the presence and symbiotic communities of Q1 from Turkey. We also found that the symbiont complement of the Q1 is more congruent with Q1 from Greece than other regions of the world, which may have some interesting implications for movement of this invasive subgroup. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Transgenic Cotton-Fed Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Affects the Parasitoid Encarsia desantisi Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, R; Rossi, G D; Busoli, A C

    2016-02-01

    Cotton cultivars expressing Cry proteins are widely used to control lepidopteran pests. The effects of transgenic plants containing insecticidal Cry proteins on non-target species must be comprehended for a better and rational use of this technology for pest management. We investigated the influence of the Bt cotton cultivars NuOPAL and FM 975 on biological parameters of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a non-target pest of Bt cotton cultivars and on its parasitoid Encarsia desantisi Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). The experiments were conducted in a climatized room, and the non-transgenic near isolines were used for rearing whiteflies as control hosts. The effects of the Bt cotton cultivars on the period of embryonic and larval development and the percentage of adult emergence of B. tabaci were assessed. The period required for embryonic, larval, and pupal development and the percentage of emergence and longevity of E. desantisi females were determined using Bt cotton-fed and non-Bt cotton-fed B. tabaci as hosts. Both Bt cotton cultivars resulted in a decrease of approximately 20% of adult emergence of B. tabaci. Differently, an increase of approximately 10% of adult emergence of E. desantisi was observed for parasitoids that used hosts fed with both Bt cotton cultivars. However, female parasitoid longevity decreased when their hosts were fed on Bt cotton cultivars. Our data suggest that the use of Bt cotton cultivars in association with the biological control agent E. desantisi could be functional for the management of B. tabaci in Bt cotton crops.

  20. Geographic Variation of Diapause and Sensitive Stages of Photoperiodic Response in Laodelphax striatellus Fallén (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yang-Yang; Xu, Lan-Zhen; Wu, Yan; Wang, Peng; Shi, Jin-Jian; Zhai, Bao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Large numbers of the small brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) occur in temperate regions, causing severe losses in rice, wheat, and other economically important crops. The planthoppers enter diapause in the third- or fourth-instar nymph stage, induced by short photoperiods and low temperatures. To investigate the geographic variation in L. striatellus diapause, we compared the incidence of nymphal diapause under various constant temperature (20 and 27 °C) and a photoperiod of 4:20, 8:16, 10:14, 12:12, 14:10, and 16:8 (L:D) h regimes among three populations collected from Hanoi (21.02° N, 105.85° E, northern Vietnam), Jiangyan (32.51° N, 120.15° E, eastern China), and Changchun (43.89° N, 125.32° E, north-eastern China). Our results indicated that there were significant geographic variations in the diapause of L. striatellus. When the original latitude of the populations increased, higher diapause incidence and longer critical photoperiod (CP) were exhibited. The CPs of the Jiangyan and Changchun populations were ∼ 12 hr 30 min and 13 hr at 20 °C, and 11 hr and 11 hr 20 min at 27 °C, respectively. The second- and third-instar nymphs were at the stage most sensitive to the photoperiod. However, when the fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs were transferred to a long photoperiod, the diapause-inducing effect of the short photoperiod on young instars was almost reversed. The considerable geographic variations in the nymphal diapause of L. striatellus reflect their adaptation in response to a variable environment and provide insights to develop effective pest management strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Modeling the Phenology of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Urban Southern California: Effects of Environment, Habitat, and Natural Enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Ivan; Amrich, Ruth; Strode, Vincent; Hoddle, Mark S; Heinz, Kevin

    2018-01-24

    Modeling can be used to characterize the effects of environmental drivers and biotic factors on the phenology of arthropod pests. From a biological control perspective, population dynamics models may provide insights as to when the most vulnerable pest life stages are available for natural enemies to attack. Analyses presented here used temperature and habitat dependent, instar-specific, discrete models to investigate the population dynamics of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae). This pest is the target of a classical biological control program with the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). The population trends of D. citri eggs, nymphs, and adults, citrus flush growth patterns, and T. radiata activity were monitored monthly on orange and lemon trees at 10 urban sites in southern California for a 2-yr period. Cumulative D. citri egg, nymph, and adult days recorded at each site, were regressed against accumulated degree-days (DDs) to model the population dynamics of each development stage in relation to temperature. Using a biofix point of 1 January, the model predicted that 10% and 90% of eggs were laid by 198 and 2,255 DD, respectively. Populations of small and large D. citri nymphs increased slowly with 90% of the population recorded by 2,389 and 2,436 DD, respectively. D. citri adults were present year round with 10 and 90% of the population recorded by 95 and 2,687 DD, respectively. The potential implications of using DD models for optimizing inoculative releases of natural enemies, such as T. radiata into citrus habitat infested with D. citri, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Density, Demography, and Influential Environmental Factors on Overwintering Populations of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Southern Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Fu, Da-Ying; Han, Zhong-Liang; Ye, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is the most serious pest on rice in southwestern China. Yunnan province is within this region and is a major overwintering area for S. furcifera in China. This field study was carried out over 4 yr (2010-2013) and focused on S. furcifera distribution, population density, and demography, as well as the relationship between various environmental factors and the distribution and density of overwintering S. furcifera in Yunnan. Our study demonstrated that overwintering populations of S. furcifera mainly occurred in valleys and lowlands below 25.02°N and 1,608 m above sea level (a.s.l.), where ratooning rice was present [corrected]. The overwintering range of S. furcifera has expanded in Yunnan compared with 20 yr ago, and regional climate change is believed to be the main contributing cause for this expansion. Environmental factor analysis showed that the mean air temperature of the coldest quarter and precipitation of the coldest quarter were two key factors that were strongly linked to the overwintering distribution and density of S. furcifera in Yunnan. Wintertime temperature was the principal influencing factor to determine the distribution and density of S. furcifera, while the effect of precipitation was indirect in that it influenced the insect's distribution via its host. This study documented the major overwintering areas of S. furcifera in Yunnan, which can be used to predict outbreak potential in the following spring. Hence, key climatic factors, overwintering distribution, and density of S. furcifera should be used when forecasting outbreaks in spring. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Association between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the vine mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in table-grape vineyards in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrà, Aleixandre; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Calabuig, Altea; Estopà, Luis; Wäckers, Felix L; Pekas, Apostolos; Soto, Antonia

    2017-12-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a key pest of grapevine in the Mediterranean Basin. Some honeydew collecting ant species are known to increase mealybug populations in other grape-growing regions. However, there is scarce information on either the ant species present in Mediterranean vineyards or their impact on mealybugs. We conducted a study in four commercial vineyards in Eastern Spain in order to i) identify the ant species foraging on the vine canopies, ii) study the association among ant activity, vine mealybug abundance and fruit damage, and iii) test a novel method for ant management, distracting ants from guarding vine mealybugs by providing sugar dispensers. We recorded three ant species native to the Mediterranean foraging on the vine canopies: Lasius grandis (Forel), Pheidole pallidula (Nylander) and Plagiolepis schmitzii (Forel). The mean percentage of damaged fruits per vine was positively correlated with the number of vine mealybugs captured in traps placed at the trunk. We detected a positive but weak relationship between ant activity, vine mealybug abundance and fruit damage. The provisioning of sugar dispensers reduced the number of ants foraging on the vines by 23.4% although this reduction was not statistically significant. Vine mealybug abundance was significantly reduced (72%) after sugar provisioning. Our results suggest that the ant species native to vineyards in eastern Spain induce population increases of the vine mealybug. Moreover, the provisioning of sugars can be a valuable tool for ant management and mealybug control. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Compatibility and Efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea with Horticultural Oils for Mitigation of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Horticultural oils are an important component of integrated management programs of several phytophagous arthropods and pathogens affecting fruit, ornamentals and vegetables in greenhouse and field production systems. Although effective against the target pest, their incompatibility with biological control agents can compromise efforts to develop eco-friendly management programs for important agricultural pests. In this study, we assessed the in vitro effect of selected refined petroleum oils used in citrus and other horticultural crops with a biopesticide containing the entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea (PFR-97 under laboratory conditions. Further, we used leaf disk bioassays to evaluate the combined efficacy of petroleum oils and I. fumosorosea against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae, a major pest of citrus in the United States. All five petroleum oil treatments (Orchex, Sun Pure, Conoco Blend -1, Conoco Blend -2, and JMS were compatible with I. fumosorosea blastospores, as none of them were found to affect I. fumosorosea colony-forming units and radial fungal growth measured at 3, 6, 9, and 12 days post-inoculation. All mixed treatments performed better than I. fumosorosea alone against D. citri, where the highest mean survival time of D. citri was 12.5 ± 0.7 days. No significant differences in D. citri survival time and I. fumosorosea growth (fungal development index on dead cadavers, which is important for determining their horizontal transmission, were observed when mixed with Orchex, Sun Pure, Conoco Blend -2, and JMS. Results indicated that horticultural oils in combination with I. fumosorosea could offer citrus growers an alternative treatment for integrating into their current management programs while battling against D. citri in citrus production systems. Due to their eco-friendly, broad-spectrum effect, it could provide control against various citrus pests, while also encouraging the

  5. Sublethal Effects of Cyantraniliprole and Imidacloprid on Feeding Behavior and Life Table Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianyi; He, Yingqin; Wu, Jiaxing; Tang, Yuanman; Gu, Jitao; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yongqiang

    2016-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an agricultural pest that seriously infests many crops worldwide. This study used electrical penetration graphs (EPGs) and life table parameters to estimate the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid on the feeding behavior and hormesis of M. persicae The sublethal concentrations (LC30) of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid against adult M. persicae were 4.933 and 0.541 mg L(-1), respectively. The feeding data obtained from EPG analysis indicated that the count probes and number of short probes (<3 min) were significantly increased when aphids were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid-treated plants. In addition, the phloem-feeding behavior of M persicae was significantly impaired on fed tobacco plants treated with cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid at LC30 Analysis of life table parameters indicated that the growth and reproduction of F1 generation aphids were significantly affected when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid. The nymphal period, female longevity, total preoviposition period, and mean generation time were significantly prolonged when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid. By comparison, these parameters were prolonged but not significantly in the cyantraniliprole treatment. The fecundity and gross reproductive rate were significantly increased in the treated groups. Similarly, the net reproductive rate was greater in the treated group than the control group. Our results indicate that treatment with LC30 of imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole would lead to a hormetic response of M. persicae, with higher likelihood of occurrence when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Economic Injury Levels for Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on the Soybean Aphid Tolerant KS4202 Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi-Werle, Lia; Baldin, Edson L L; Fischer, Hillary D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Hunt, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an invasive species from Asia that has been the major economic insect pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, since 2000. While use of soybeans expressing antibiosis and antixenosis is a well-studied strategy to manage this pest, aphid-tolerant soybeans remain underexplored. This study examined the relationship between cumulative aphid-days (CAD) and yield loss in the tolerant soybean KS4202 during two growing seasons to determine the economic injury levels (EILs) for soybean aphids on KS4202. Soybean aphid infestations were initiated during the soybean reproductive stages. A range of CAD treatments (3,000-45,000 CADs) were applied during the growing seasons. Aphid populations reached 45,000 CAD in 2011 and 38,000 CAD in 2013 in plots that were not treated with insecticides. It was estimated that the population doubling time was 9.4 d. In infested plots, soybean yield was reduced by 1.4-13.3%, equivalent to a 3.1% yield loss for every 10,000 CAD. Overall, most CAD treatments did not affect yield parameters, although CAD > 39,000 caused a significant reduction in most yield parameters. The EILs calculated for KS4202 ranged from 526 to 2,050 aphids/plant, which were approximately 2.5-fold higher when compared to EILs previously calculated for susceptible soybean. The adoption of soybean aphid tolerant soybean with higher EILs may help mitigate treatment delay problems by lengthening the treatment lead-time and possibly reduce the number of insecticide applications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Density, Demography, and Influential Environmental Factors on Overwintering Populations of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Southern Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Fu, Da-Ying; Han, Zhong-Liang; Ye, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is the most serious pest on rice in southwestern China. Yunnan province is within this region and is a major overwintering area for S. furcifera in China. This field study was carried out over 4 yr (2010–2013) and focused on S. furcifera distribution, population density, and demography, as well as the relationship between various environmental factors and the distribution and density of overwintering S. furcifera in Yunnan. Our study demonstrated that overwintering populations of S. furcifera mainly occurred in valleys and lowlands below 25.02°N and 1,680 m above sea level (a.s.l.), where ratooning rice was present. The overwintering range of S. furcifera has expanded in Yunnan compared with 20 yr ago, and regional climate change is believed to be the main contributing cause for this expansion. Environmental factor analysis showed that the mean air temperature of the coldest quarter and precipitation of the coldest quarter were two key factors that were strongly linked to the overwintering distribution and density of S. furcifera in Yunnan. Wintertime temperature was the principal influencing factor to determine the distribution and density of S. furcifera, while the effect of precipitation was indirect in that it influenced the insect’s distribution via its host. This study documented the major overwintering areas of S. furcifera in Yunnan, which can be used to predict outbreak potential in the following spring. Hence, key climatic factors, overwintering distribution, and density of S. furcifera should be used when forecasting outbreaks in spring. PMID:25978998

  8. The Effect of an Interspersed Refuge on Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Their Natural Enemies, and Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, A J; O'Neal, M E

    2016-02-01

    Soybean production in the north central United States has relied heavily on the use of foliar and seed applied insecticides to manage Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae). An additional management strategy is the use soybean cultivars containing A. glycines resistance genes (Rag). Previous research has demonstrated that Rag cultivars are capable of preventing yield loss equivalent to the use of foliar and seed-applied insecticides.However, the presence of virulent biotypes in North America has raised concern for the durability of Rag genes. A resistance management program that includes a refuge for avirulent biotypes could limit the frequency at which virulent biotypes increase within North America. To what extent such a refuge reduces the effectiveness of aphid-resistant soybean is not clear. We conducted an experiment to determine whether a susceptible refuge mixed into resistant soybean (i.e., interspersed refuge or refuge-in-a-bag) affects the seasonal exposure of aphids, their natural enemies, biological control, and yield protection provided by aphid resistance. We compared three ratios of interspersed refuges (resistant: susceptible; 95:5, 90:10, 75:25) to plots grown with 100%susceptible or resistant soybean. We determined that an interspersed refuge of at least 25% susceptible seed would be necessary to effectively produce avirulent individuals. Interspersed refuges had negligible effects onyield and the natural enemy community. However, there was evidence that they increased the amount of biological control that occurred within a plot. We discuss the compatibility of interspersed refuges for A. glycines management and whether resistance management can prolong the durability of Rag genes.

  9. Community-based sampling methods for surveillance of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, E N I; Davies, C; Rosales, C Cordón; Yeo, M; Gezan, S A; Parra-Henao, G; Cameron, M M

    2014-09-01

    In Guatemala, the most widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). T. dimidiata is native to Guatemala and is present in both domestic and sylvatic habitats. Consequently, control of T. dimidiata is difficult because after successful elimination from homes, individual insects can recolonize homes from the surrounding environment. Therefore, intensive long-term surveillance of this species is essential to ensure adequate control is achieved. Manual inspection for signs of infestation, the current method used to monitor Triatominae throughout Central and South America, is labor and time-consuming, so cost-effective alternatives are needed. The current study compared the effectiveness of the current method of surveillance of T. dimidiata with community-based techniques of G6mez-Nuñez sensor boxes, collection and observation of bugs by householders, and presence of triatomine-like feces on walls. Although manual inspection was the most sensitive method when used alone, collection by householders also was sensitive and specific and involved less effort. Sensor boxes were not sensitive indicators of T. dimidiata infestation when used alone. Two recorded variables, visual inspection for feces and the sighting of bugs by householders, were sensitive and specific indicators of infestation, and in combination with collection by householders and sensor boxes these methods were significantly more likely to detect infestations than manual inspection alone. A surveillance program that combines multiple community-based techniques should have low cost and involve minimal effort from the government and at the same time promote sustainable community involvement in disease prevention.

  10. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justi, Silvia A; Galvão, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G

    2016-04-01

    The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an efficient treatment and vaccine for Chagas disease, it is more common to find evolutionary studies focusing on the most relevant vectors than it is to find studies aiming to understand the evolution of the group as a whole. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study aiming to understand the events that led to the diversification of the Triatominae. We gathered the most diverse samples of Reduviidae and Triatominae (a total of 229 Reduviidae samples, including 70 Triatominae species) and reconstructed a robust dated phylogeny with several fossil (Reduviidae and Triatominae) calibrations. Based on this information, the possible role of geological events in several of the major cladogenetic events within Triatominae was tested for the first time. We were able to not only correlate the geological changes in the Neotropics with Triatominae evolution but also add to an old discussion: Triatominae monophyly vs. paraphyly. We found that most of the diversification events observed within the Rhodniini and Triatomini tribes are closely linked to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America and that variations in sea levels in North America also played a role in the diversification of the species of Triatoma in that region.

  11. A Survey of the Species of Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) Egg Parasitoids in Virginia and Their Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James M; Kuhar, Thomas P

    2017-12-05

    Squash bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of squash and pumpkins in the United States. In order to better understand the importance of natural egg parasitism of this species in Virginia, we conducted a 2-yr statewide survey. In total, 1,127 squash bug egg masses (~20,000 total eggs) were sampled from squash and pumpkins from 43 counties in Virginia from 2014 to 2015. Egg masses were brought back to the lab to record levels of squash bug nymphal emergence or adult parasitoid eclosion and identification. Over 50% of the total squash bug eggs collected statewide were parasitized. Gryon pennsylvanicum Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) was the predominant egg parasitoid accounting for over 98% of all parasitoid adults recovered. The only other species emerging from squash bug eggs was Anastatus reduvii Howard (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), which is a generalist parasitoid. G. pennsylvanicum was found in 75% of the counties surveyed with the highest levels of parasitism occurring in the Northern, Southwestern Mountain, and Western Piedmont regions of the state and the lowest levels of parasitism occurring in the Tidewater region in the southeastern portion of the state. Based on this 2-yr survey, G. pennsylvanicum was determined to be a major natural enemy of squash bug, significantly reducing the number of nymphs that emerge from deposited eggs. Conservation of this natural enemy should therefore be a priority for integrated pest management programs in cucurbits. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A Microsatellite-Based Analysis of House Infestation With Triatoma Infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) After Insecticide Spraying in the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinali, Romina V; Gaunt, Michael W; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2018-01-27

    Prevention of vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease mainly relies on residual insecticide spraying. Despite significant success at a regional scale, house infestation with Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) still persists in the Gran Chaco ecoregion. One key aspect is the identification of the sources of reinfestant triatomines. After detecting fine-scale genetic structure in two rural villages of Pampa del Indio, Argentine Chaco, we tested hypotheses on the putative origins of the triatomines collected at 4, 8, and 12 mo after insecticide house spraying. We genotyped 10 microsatellite loci in 262 baseline and 83 postspraying triatomines from different houses. Genetic variability was similar between baseline and postspraying populations, but 13 low-frequency alleles were not detected at postspraying. FSTs were not significant between insects collected before and after insecticide spraying at the same house in all but one case, and they clustered together in a neighbor-joining tree. A clustering algorithm detected seven genetic groups, four of them mainly composed of baseline and postspraying insects from the same house. Assignment tests suggested multiple putative sources (including the house of collection) for most postspraying insects but excluded a house located more than 9 km from the study area. The origin of three triatomines was attributed to immigration from other unaccounted sources. Our study is compatible with the hypothesis that house reinfestations in the Argentine Chaco are mostly related to residual foci (i.e., survival of insects within the same community), in agreement with field observations, spatial analysis, and morphometric studies previously published. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Spatial Distribution of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) Adults, Eggs and Parasitism by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ian A; Roberts, Phillip M; Gardner, Wayne A; Oliver, Kerry M; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Reisig, Dominic D; Toews, Michael D

    2017-12-08

    Since 2014, populations of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), have declined in the southeastern United States and seldom require treatment. This decline follows the discovery of Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd; Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), a non-native egg parasitoid. The objective of this project was to observe the temporal and spatial dynamics of P. saccharalis parasitism of kudzu bug egg masses in commercial soybean fields. Four fields were sampled weekly for kudzu bugs and egg masses at a density of one sample per 0.6 ha. Sampling commenced when soybean reached the R2 maturity stage and continued until no more egg masses were present. Responses including kudzu bugs, egg masses, and parasitism rates were analyzed using ANOVA, Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices (SADIE), and SaTScan spatial analysis software. Egg masses were collected from the field, held in the lab and monitored for emergence of kudzu bug nymphs or P. saccharalis. Kudzu bug populations were generally lower than previously reported in the literature and spatial aggregation was not consistently observed. Egg parasitism was first detected in early July and increased to nearly 40% in mid-August. Significant spatial patterns in parasitism were observed with spatio-temporal clusters being loosely associated with clusters of egg masses. There were no significant differences in parasitism rates between field margins and interiors, suggesting that P. saccharalis is an effective parasitoid of kudzu bug egg masses on a whole-field scale. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Modeling Environmental Influences in the Psyllaephagus bliteus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)-Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) Parasitoid-Host System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiotta, M; Bella, S; Buffa, F; Caleca, V; Floris, I; Giorno, V; Lo Verde, G; Rapisarda, C; Sasso, R; Suma, P; Tortorici, F; Laudonia, S

    2017-04-01

    Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) is an invasive psyllid introduced into the Mediterranean area, where it affects several species of Eucalyptus. Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a specialized parasitoid of this psyllid that was accidentally introduced into Italy in 2011. We developed a model of this host-parasitoid system that accounts for the influence of environmental conditions on the G. brimblecombei population dynamics and P. bliteus parasitism rates in the natural ecosystem. The Lotka-Volterra-based model predicts non-constant host growth and parasitoid mortality rates in association with variation in environmental conditions. The model was tested by analyzing sampling data collected in Naples in 2011 (before the parasitoid was present) and defining several environmental patterns, termed Temperature-Rain or T-R patterns, which correspond to the host growth rate. A mean value of the host growth rate was assigned to each T-R pattern, as well as a variation of the parasitoid mortality rate based on temperature thresholds. The proposed model was applied in simulation tests related to T-R patterns carried out with a data series sampled between June 2014 and July 2015 in five Italian sites located in Campania, Lazio, Sicily, and Sardinia regions. The simulation results showed that the proposed model provides an accurate approximation of population trends, although oscillation details may not be apparent. Results predict a 64% reduction in G. brimblecombei population density owing to P. bliteus parasitoid activity. Our results are discussed with respect to features of the host-parasitoid interaction that could be exploited in future biological control programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides Against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Cruz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Ortega-Arenas, Laura D; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Pineda, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is one of the most economically important pests of potato, tomato, and peppers in Central America, Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. Its control is based on the use of insecticides; however, recently, the potential of the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for population regulation has been studied. Because T. triozae is likely to be exposed to insecticides on crops, the objective of this study was to explore the compatibility of eight insecticides with this parasitoid. The toxicity and residual activity (persistence) of spirotetramat, spiromesifen, beta-cyfluthrin, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, abamectin, and spinosad against T. triozae adults were assessed using a method based on the residual contact activity of each insecticide on tomato leaf discs collected from treated plants growing under greenhouse conditions. All eight insecticides were toxic to T. triozae. Following the classification of the International Organization of Biological Control, the most toxic were abamectin and spinosad, which could be placed in toxicity categories 3 and 4, respectively. The least toxic were azadirachtin, pymetrozine, spirotetramat, spiromesifen, imidacloprid, and beta-cyfluthrin, which could be placed in toxicity category 2. In terms of persistence, by day 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 24, and 41 after application, spirotetramat, azadirachtin, spiromesifen, pymetrozine, imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin, abamectin, and spinosad could be considered harmless, that is, placed in toxicity category 1 (insecticides allow them to be considered within integrated pest management programs that include T. triozae. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Morphological differences among egg nests and adult individuals of Cicadatra persica (Hemiptera, Cicadidae, distributed in Erneh, Syria

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    Marah Dardar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determining the different patterns of egg nests and the morphological differences between the specimens of Cicadatra persica Kirkalidy, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae distributed in fruit orchards in Erneh located on AL-Sheikh mountain southwest of Syria. The appearance of 80 egg nests was studied, and the results showed that there were two basic patterns of egg nests laid by C. persica, 90% of the egg nests were of the first pattern (consists of several adjacent slits, while 10% of them were of the second pattern (consists of several divergent slits. A random sample consisting of 300 specimens (150 males and 150 females were also studied concentrating on the differences in the color of the supra-antennal plate and in the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. The results showed that there were two basic patterns of individuals based on the differences in the color of supra-antennal plate. The first pattern (individuals with yellow supra-antennal plates, constituted more than 90%, and the second one (individuals with black supra-antennal plates constituted less than 10%. The results also showed that there were 27 different patterns based on the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. One of them was a common pattern (2, 3 whose individuals have 2 spurs on the upper side of the tibia of the hind legs and 3 spurs on the lateral side of the tibia of the hind legs. The total percent of this common pattern was 76%. The other 26 patterns were different from each other, and the total percent of all these different patterns was 24%.

  17. Effects of Pesticides on the Survival of Rove Beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and Insidious Flower Bug (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Herrick, Nathan J

    2018-02-09

    This study determined the direct, indirect, or both effects of pesticides on the rove beetle, Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The pesticides evaluated were Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, and soybean oil; cyantraniliprole; flupyradifurone; GS-omega/kappa-Hxtx-Hv1; Isaria fumosorosea; tolfenpyrad; pyrethrins; and spinosad. One experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with rove beetle adults exposed to growing medium applications of cyantraniliprole. The number of live and dead rove beetle adults was determined after 10 d. Four additional experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle or insidious flower bug adults were individually placed into Petri dishes with filter paper treated with the pesticides. After 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, the number of live and dead adults of both natural enemies was recorded. GS-omega/kappa-Hxtx-Hv1 (VST-006340LC); tolfenpyrad; Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, and soybean oil (Captiva); and Isaria fumosorosea were not directly harmful to O. insidiosus (80-100% adult survival). Likewise, the pesticides such as tolfenpyrad, Captiva, and I. fumosoroea were not directly harmful to D. coriaria (80-100% adult survival). D. coriaria was more sensitive to VST-006340LC (40% survival) than O. insidiosus (100% survival), whereas O. insidiosus was more sensitive to flupyradifurone (0% survival) than D. coriaria (80% and 40% survival for both rates tested, respectively). The pesticides pyrethrins, spinosad, flupyradifurone, and combinations of tolfenpyrad and Captiva were directly harmful (<50% adult survival) to both natural enemies. However, none of the pesticides tested affected the ability of O. insidiosus adults to feed on western flower thrips adults. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  18. Antifeedant activity and high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae) induced by biostable insect kinin analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagghe, Guy; Mahdian, Kamran; Zubrzak, Pawel; Nachman, Ronald J

    2010-03-01

    The insect kinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable insect kinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet to the pea aphid over a period of 3 days and evaluated for antifeedant and aphicidal activity. The analogs contained either alpha,alpha-disubstituted or beta-amino acids in key positions to enhance resistance to tissue-bound peptidases and retain activity in a number of insect kinin bioassays and/or on expressed receptors. Three of the biostable analogs demonstrated antifeedant activity, with a marked reduction in honeydew formation observed after 1 day, and very high mortality. In contrast, an unmodified, parent insect kinin and two other analogs containing some of the same structural components that promote biostability are inactive. The most active analog, double Aib analog K-Aib-1 ([Aib]FF[Aib]WGa), featured aphicidal activity calculated at an LC(50) of 0.063 nmol/microl (0.048 microg/microl) and an LT(50) of 1.68 days, matching the potency of some commercially available aphicides. The mechanism of this activity has yet to be established. The aphicidal activity of the biostable insect kinin analogs may result from different potential mechanisms as disruption of digestive processes by interfering with gut motility patterns, digestive enzyme release, and/or with fluid cycling in the gut, and also nutrient transport across the gut itself; all processes shown to be regulated by the insect kinins in other insects. However the mechanism(s) is(are) not yet known. The active insect kinin analogs represent potential leads in the development of selective, environmentally friendly pest aphid control agents. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and

  20. Levantamento da fauna de Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae em ambiente domiciliar e infecção natural por Trypanosomatidae no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul Survey of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae fauna in domestic environments and natural infection by Trypanosomatidae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre 2000 a 2004, foi realizado levantamento da fauna de Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae e exame de infecção natural por Trypanosomatidae, no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Um total de 13.671 espécimes foram capturados. Na análise faunística das espécies capturadas, Triatoma sordida foi caracterizada como muito abundante, muito freqüente, constante e dominante. Os índices de infecção natural para Trypanosoma cruzi apresentaram os valores de 3,2% para Panstrongylus geniculatus, 0,6% para Rhodnius neglectus e 0,1% para Triatoma sordida, apesar do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul apresentar-se livre da transmissão vetorial endêmica.Between 2000 and 2004, a survey of Triatominae fauna (Hemiptera: Reduviidae and examination of natural infection caused by Trypanosomatidae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, was conducted. A total of 13,671 specimens were collected. Through fauna analysis on the insects that were caught, Triatoma sordida was characterized as very abundant, very frequent, constant and dominant. The rates of natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi were 3.2% for Panstrongylus geniculatus, 0.6% for Rhodnius neglectus and 0.1% for Triatoma sordida. Nevertheless, the State of Mato Grosso do Sul is free from endemic vector transmission.

  1. Primer registro de Conidiobolus coronatus (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales en crías experimentales de dos especies plaga del maíz: Delphacodes kuscheli y D. haywardi (Hemiptera: Delphacidae en la Argentina First record of Conidiobolus coronatus (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales in experimental breeding of two pest species of corn: Delphacodes kuscheli and D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentine

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    A. V. Toledo

    Full Text Available Se investigó la ocurrencia natural del hongo entomopatógeno Conidiobolus coronatus (Costantin Batko (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales en adultos de Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah y D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, criados sobre Hordeum vulgare L. bajo condiciones de invernadero. Los insectos muertos, por una sospechada infección fúngica, fueron recolectados, esterilizados superficialmente, y examinados en el laboratorio. Conidiobolus coronatus fue aislado en cultivos puros, descrito morfológicamente y depositado en colecciones micológicas. Este trabajo presenta el primer registro de C. coronatus contra insectos perjudiciales en la Argentina.The natural occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Costantin Batko (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales in adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah and D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, reared on Hordeum vulgare L. under greenhouse conditions, was investigated. Dead insects, suspected of fungal infection, were collected, surface sterilized, and examined in the laboratory. Conidiobolus coronatus was isolated in pure cultures, described morphologically, and deposited in mycological collections. This paper presents the first record of C. coronatus against harmful insects in Argentina.

  2. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina Aphid-parasitoid associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops in Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Andorno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.Ten aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae were found parasitized by seven aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops. Myzus persicae (Sulzer was the most frequent aphid found on a wide variety of crops, with the largest parasitoid diversity associated. Aphidius colemani Viereck was the most frequent aphidiine attacking several species of aphids. Eight tritrophic associations involving Aphidius matricariae Haliday are reported for the first time for Argentina.

  3. Facilitation of a native pest of rice, Stenotus rubrovittatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), by the non-native Lolium multiflorum (Cyperales: Poaceae) in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Akira; Takada, Mayura; Washitani, Izumi

    2011-10-01

    Source populations of polyphagous pests often occur on host plants other than the economically damaged crop. We evaluated the contribution of patches of a non-native meadow grass, Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Poaceae), and other weeds growing in fallow fields or meadows as source hosts of an important native pest of rice, Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Miridae), in an agricultural landscape of northern Japan. Periodical censuses of this mirid bug by using the sweeping method, vegetation surveys, and statistical analysis revealed that L. multiflorum was the only plant species that was positively correlated with the density of adult S. rubrovittatus through two generations and thus may be the most stable and important host of the mirid bug early in the season before the colonization of rice paddies. The risk and cost of such an indirect negative effect on a crop plant through facilitation of a native pest by a non-native plant in the agricultural landscape should not be overlooked.

  4. Prevalensi cendawan entomopatogenik, Neozygites fumosa (Speare Remaudie’re & Keller (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales pada populasi kutu putih, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara De Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae di wilayah Bogor

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    Anik Nurhayati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of entomopathogenic fungus, Neozygites fumosa (Zygomycetes: Entomo-phthorales on the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, was studied in Bogor in two districts: Bubulak and Rancabungur in 2011. Thirty plants of either papaya or cassavas were sampled 8 times, once a week for insect population and biweekly for the fungus infection sampling. The results showed that the cassava mealybug was not found on both plants and all locations. The populations of papaya mealybug in Bubulak were higher than in Rancabungur. The populations of papaya mealybug on papaya were higher than those of cassava. However, N. fumosa infection levels on both plants and both locations were not significantly different.

  5. Tip of the clade on the top of the World—the first fossil Lophopidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) from the Palaeocene of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, Jacek; Stroiński, Adam; Lin, Qibin

    2015-06-01

    Lophopidae is a family of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) present today in tropical and subtropical zones of the Old World. The most recent taxonomic studies and phylogeny of these insects do not include the extinct representatives. Therefore, each new discovery of a fossil lophopid is of high interest, giving new insights to their evolutionary history and enabling to test the proposed relationships. The recent findings of extinct Lophopidae in Europe, in various Palaeogene deposits, put in doubts their proposed evolutionary and biogeographic scenario. The new fossil from the Palaeocene of Northern Tibet is related to one of the Lophopidae clades, Apia+ group, believed to be the most advanced one, and recently distributed in the recent Sundaland-New Guinea-Queensland area. A new genus and species Gesaris gnapo gen. et sp. n. provide information on early lophopids diversity and relationships and demonstrates the necessity for a revision of the existing hypotheses for the initial diversification and distributional pattern of the Lophopidae.

  6. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus(Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, in Brazil

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    AL Marsaro Júnior

    Full Text Available The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae, Glycine max (L. Merr. (Fabaceae, Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae, Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae, Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck (Rutaceae and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae, in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  7. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  8. Effects of different varieties of pepper (Capsicum annum L. on the biological parameters of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera, Aphididae in Tunisia

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    Lassaad Mdellel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera, Aphididae is an important pest of pepper, Capsicum annum (Solanaceae, with infestations by this aphid resulting in serious economic damage. Commonly, biological parameters are used to compare insect fitness on different varieties of pepper. Effect of rearing M. persicae on nine varieties of pepper (Anamex, Balconi, Bami, Chargui, Garn ghzel, Italico, J27, Starter and Torero on the population density and percentage infestation it achieves, and its mean relative growth rate (MRGR and generation time were studied under laboratory conditions. The highest population density, maximum percentage infestation (92.93%, minimum generation time (10.95 days and highest MRGR (0.063 were recorded on the variety Chergui and the lowest population density, minimum percentage infestation (51.4%, minimum MRGR (0.043 and maximum generation time on the variety Anamex.

  9. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

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    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  10. Milkweed (Gentianales: Apocynaceae): a farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Carpenter, J E

    2014-04-01

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, the stink bugs Nezara viridula (L.) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.) (Hemiptera: Coreidae), disperse at crop-to-crop interfaces to feed on bolls in cotton. The main objective of this study was to determine whether insecticide-free tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica L.), a nectar-producing plant, can increase parasitism of these bugs by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) and provide nectar to monarch butterflies and insect pollinators in these farmscapes. Peanut-cotton plots with and without flowering milkweed plants were established in 2009 and 2010. Adult T. pennipes, monarch butterflies, honey bees, and native insect pollinators readily fed on floral nectar of milkweed. Monarch larvae feeding on milkweed vegetation successfully developed into pupae. In 2009, N. viridula was the primary host of T. pennipes in cotton, and parasitism of this pest by the parasitoid was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (61.6%) than in control cotton (13.3%). In 2010, parasitism of N. viridula, C. hilaris, and L. phyllopus by T. pennipes was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (24.0%) than in control cotton (1.1%). For both years of the study, these treatment differences were not owing to a response by the parasitoid to differences in host density, because density of hosts was not significantly different between treatments. In conclusion, incorporation of milkweed in peanut-cotton plots increased stink bug parasitism in cotton and provided nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

  11. DAMPAK APLIKASI INSEKTISIDA PERMETRIN TERHADAP HAMA PENGISAP BIJAIJ HELOPELTIS SPP. (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE DAN ARTROPODA NON-TARGET PADA PERTANAMAN KAKAO (THEOBROMA CACAO L.

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    Rosma Hasibuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Permethrin-Insecticide Application on Mirid Pest of Cocoa Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae and on Non-target  Arthropods in Cocoa Plantations (Theobroma cacao L.. Cocoa mirid bugs, Helopeltis spp., (Hemiptera: Miridae are the most important pest of cocoa in Indonesia. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of permethrin on cocoa mirids and non-target arthropods at a cocoa plantation in specific place. A randomized complete block design was used in which each of four blocks consisted of 5 treatments (4 concentrations of permethrin; 50; 100; 200; and 250 ppm and control. The results indicated that the application of permethrin significantly increased the cocoa mirids mortaliiy throughout all sprayed cocoa trees (up to 100% 72 h after application. Even at 1 h after application, the percentage of Cocoa mirids mortality 29.2% - 53.9% on cocoa trees sprayed with permethrin at concentrations of 50 - 250 ppm was significantly higher than that on control plant (3.6%. At 72 h after treatments, application of permethrin at concentrations of 200 and 250 ppm caused a complete kill (mortalty of 100% in the test mirids. Meanwhile, ground cloths caught at least 22 fanilies of abore-ground arthropods that were found killed by permethrin applications. Moreover, the number of non-target arthropods killed by permethrin at concentrations of 100 - 250 ppm (27.3 - 85.3 individuals/ground cloth were signifcantly higher than that on control trees. These results demonstrated that despite high efficacy of permethrin in controlling of cocoa mirids (Hetopeltis spp., its application also had adverse effects on non-target arthropods incocoa plantations.

  12. Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae?

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    Rafael Braga da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? The stink bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae is a predator found in several Brazilian regions, which possesses desirable attributes as a natural control agent and in biological control programs. The aim of this study was to test if the attack behavior and predation success of S. cincticeps were affected by prey species. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Geometridae were offered to S. cincticeps in laboratory bioassays where predatory attack and prey defensive behaviors were observed for 2-hour periods. The attack behavior of S. cincticeps changed with the prey species offered. More than 25% of T. molitor and S. frugiperda larvae were immediately attacked, but T. arnobia was not immediately attacked by S. cincticeps. Successful attack (i.e., successful insertion of the predator stylets into the prey depends on the region of the body attacked, with a greater proportion of successful attacks in the anterior than in the median or posterior regions. Larvae of T. arnobia and S. frugiperda displayed a sequence of abrupt head and body movements in response to S. cincticeps attack. Attempts of predation were more successful on T. molitor and S. frugiperda than on T. arnobia. Information about the differential attack behavior of S. cincticeps on different prey species is important for designing successful biological control programs using this hemipteran predator.

  13. Quantifying dispersal of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) by immunomarking and potential impact of unmanaged groves on commercial citrus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Meyer, Wendy L; Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2009-08-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of citrus. It is an efficient vector of three bacterial pathogens that are the presumptive causal agents of huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease. The movement patterns and dispersal capabilities of D. citri require study to better understand the spread of HLB and to improve management strategies for D. citri. A recently developed immunomarking technique that uses crude food proteins (chicken egg albumin, bovine casein, and soy protein) was evaluated for marking and tracking movement of D. citri in Florida citrus groves. In general, both egg and milk protein markers exhibited longer residual activity (35 d) than the soy protein marker (20 d) when applied to citrus leaves with a residual activity order of egg > milk > soy protein. However, residues of all three protein markers decreased with a simulated rain; this was more pronounced for soy protein than for egg and milk proteins. Temperature did not significantly affect acquisition of markers by adult D. citri. Egg, milk, and soy protein markers were detected on >90% of adult D. citri for up to 10, 10, and 5 d, respectively, after field application. Addition of tetrasodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (water softener) and/or Silwet L-77 (wetting agent) to marker solutions did not affect longevity of detection. Each of the protein markers was detected on > or =80% of exposed D. citri for up to 30 d after direct application to adults. A field study was conducted to measure movement of D. citri between replicated pairs of 0.4 ha managed and unmanaged citrus plots separated by 60-100 m. Approximately 70% of captured D. citri were found marked 3 d after application of proteins in the field. Using two marker proteins, it was determined that D. citri moved bi-directionally between managed and unmanaged (abandoned) groves within 3 d with a greater number of D. citri adults moving from unmanaged into managed plots than from managed into

  14. Development and consumption capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae fed with Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae under three temperatures

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    Josiane T. Cardoso

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919 and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae are pests on Pinus spp. (Pinaceae in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae were observed feeding voraciously on these aphid colonies. In order to evaluate their potential as biological control agents, some biological parameters and their consumption capacity were studied in laboratory. Ten larvae were isolated in plastic vials and fed with aphids of small size (nymphs of 1st and 2nd instars and 10 with aphids of medium size (nymphs of 3rd and 4th instars, maintained at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, under 12:12 h photoperiod and 70 ± 10% RH, and observed daily. The egg incubation period was nine days at 20ºC and four days at 25ºC. The mean larval development period for C. externa was 59.5 days; 22.3 days and 10.9 days, respectively at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC. The pupal stage last 23.2 at 20ºC and 11.1 days at 25ºC. Unfortunately, data of egg and pupal development at 15ºC are not available because the rearing chamber overheated. The mortality rate from egg to adult was 46.2% 46.6% and 20.2% at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. The average aphid consumption of each C. externa larva to complete its development was 499.1; 341.7 and 215.1 small aphids, and 126.4; 105.6 and 67.0 medium aphids, at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. About 80% of the total food consumption was by the 3rd instar larvae. Although the development was faster and viability higher at 25ºC than at the other two temperatures, the consumption was the highest at 15ºC because the larval period was much longer. Therefore, the larvae of C. externa can be regarded as potential biological control agents of Cinara spp. throughout the year and even in cool areas of Southern Brazil during some periods o the year.

  15. Longevidade e parâmetros reprodutivos de Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae sobre berinjela em diferentes temperaturas

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    Michelotto Marcos Doniseti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O afídeo Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae é uma das principais pragas de diversas culturas em condições de campo ou em cultivo protegido. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas na longevidade e nos aspectos reprodutivos de M. persicae sobre berinjela (Solanum melongena L.. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições controladas de temperatura (15, 20, 25 e 30degreesC, umidade relativa do ar (70 ? 10% e fotofase (12 horas. As unidades experimentais consistiram de placas de Petri contendo ágar-água solidificado (1%. Nestas placas, os afídeos foram mantidos individualmente sobre os discos foliares de berinjela (3 cm de diâmetro em uma das temperaturas (tratamentos, com 25 repetições. Foram determinadas as curvas mais ajustadas aos parâmetros biológicos de M. persicae, suas equações de regressão e os respectivos coeficientes de determinação (R². A temperatura influenciou todos os parâmetros avaliados. As durações dos períodos pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo de M. persicae variaram de 0,46 dia (25degreesC a 1,12 dia (15degreesC e de 3,89 dias (25degreesC a 19,11 dias (15degreesC, respectivamente. A fecundidade total e diária foi de 17,63 ninfas/fêmea e 4,38 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 25degreesC; 43,63 ninfas/fêmea e 4,34 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 20degreesC; 60,65 ninfas/fêmea e 3,15 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 15degreesC. A 30degreesC, não houve reprodução. A duração do período pós-reprodutivo variou de 0,89 dia (25degreesC a 3,72 dias (15degreesC. A longevidade do afídeo diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura, de 23,95 dias (15degreesC para 5,06 dias (25degreesC. Temperaturas entre 15 e 20degreesC são mais favoráveis a M. persicae.

  16. Logrank Test and Interval Overlap Test for Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Under Different Fertilization Treatments for 7705 Tomato Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Madríz, Haidel; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Vera-Graziano, Jorge; Sánchez-García, Prometeo; García-Gutiérrez, Cipriano; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl; de Jesús García-Avila, Clemente

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It is known that some nutrients can have both negative and positive effects on some populations of insects. To test this, the Logrank test and the Interval Overlap Test were evaluated for two crop cycles (February–May and May–August) of the 7705 tomato hybrid, and the effect on the psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc.) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), was examined under greenhouse conditions. Tomato plants were in polythene bags and irrigated with the following solutions: T1—Steiner solution, T2—Steiner solution with nitrogen reduced to 25%, T3—Steiner solution with potassium reduced to 25%, and T4—Steiner solution with calcium reduced to 25%. In the Logrank test, a significant difference was found when comparing the survival parameters of B. cockerelli generated from the treatment cohorts: T1–T2; T1–T3; T1–T4; T2–T3; and T3–T4, while no significant differences were found in the T2–T4 comparison in the February–May cycle. In the May–August cycle, significant differences were found when comparing the survival parameters generated from the treatment cohorts: T1–T2; T1–T3; and T1–T4, while no significant differences were found in the T2–T3; T2–T4; and T3–T4 comparisons of survival parameters of B. cockerelli fed with the 7705 tomato hybrid. Also, the Interval Overlap Test was done on the treatment cohorts (T1, T2, T3, and T4) in the February–May and May–August cycles. T1 and T2 compare similarly in both cycles when feeding on the treatments up to 36 d. Similarly, in T1 and T3, the behavior of the insect is similar when feeding on the treatments up to 40 and 73 d, respectively. Comparisons T2–T3 and T2–T4 are similar when feeding on both treatments up to 42, 38 and 37, 63 d, respectively. Finally, the T3–T4 comparison was similar when feeding in both treatments up to 20 and 46 d, respectively. RESUMEN. Se sabe que algunos nutrientes pueden tener efectos tanto negativos como positivos en algunas poblaciones de

  17. Analysis of the genetic diversity in Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker (Hemiptera, Aphididae by RAPD markers Análise da diversidade genética de Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker (Hemiptera, Aphididae por meio de marcadores RAPD

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    Marcelo Lopes-da-Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of host-races within aphids may constitute an obstacle to pest management by means of plant resistance. There are examples of host-races within cereals aphids, but their occurrence in Rose Grain Aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker, 1849, has not been reported yet. In this work, RAPD markers were used to assess effects of the hosts and geographic distance on the genetic diversity of M. dirhodum lineages. Twenty-three clones were collected on oats and wheat in twelve localitites of southern Brazil. From twenty-seven primers tested, only four primers showed polymorphisms. Fourteen different genotypes were revealed by cluster analysis. Five genotypes were collected only on wheat; seven only on oats and two were collected in both hosts. Genetic and geographical distances among all clonal lineages were not correlated. Analysis of molecular variance showed that some molecular markers are not randomly distributed among clonal lineages collected on oats and on wheat. These results suggest the existence of host-races within M. dirhodum, which should be further investigated using a combination of ecological and genetic data.A emergência de raças hospedeiro-especialistas em afídeos pode constituir um obstáculo ao manejo de pragas por meio de plantas resistentes. Existem exemplos de raças hospedeiro-especialistas em afídeos de cereais, embora a ocorrência de raça hospedeiro-especialista no pulgão-verde-pálido-do-trigo Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker, 1849 (Hemiptera, Aphididae não tenha sido relatada ainda. Marcadores RAPD foram utilizados para avaliar os efeitos da distância geográfica e do hospedeiro sobre a diversidade genética de linhas clonais de M. dirhodum. Vinte e três clones foram coletados em aveia e trigo em doze localidades do sul do Brasil. De vinte e sete iniciadores usados para a análise, apenas quatro iniciadores mostraram polimorfismos. A análise de agrupamento por similaridade genética revelou haver quatorze

  18. Perfil electroforético de proteínas presentes en la saliva de Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae:Triatominae Electrophoretic profile of salivary proteins of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae:Triatominae

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    Mónica Flórez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los triatominos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae:Triatominae son insectos hematófagos que secretan una saliva rica en proteínas con propiedades anticoagulantes, antihistamínicas, vasodilatadoras y antiplaquetarias que facilitan su proceso de alimentación en el huésped vertebrado y favorecen la transmisión a éste de los protozoarios que se desarrollan en sus glándulas salivales. Estas proteínas son características de cada especie de triatomino y pueden ayudar a diferenciar especies, incluso aquellas fenotípicamente similares. Objetivo: Describir los perfiles electroforéticos de las proteínas salivales de Triatoma dimidiata encontrados en el intradomicilio, peridomicilio y extradomicilio en un área endémica en Santander. Materiales y métodos: Se disectaron las glándulas salivales de insectos adultos de T. dimidiata de tres municipios de Santander procedentes de colonias de laboratorio y de campo. Los perfiles de proteínas se visualizaron realizando una electroforesis de una dimensión en geles de poliacrilamida tenidos con azul de Coomassie. Resultados: Los perfiles electroforéticos de las proteínas presentes en la saliva de T. dimidiata muestran hasta 33 bandas en el rango de 23,7 a 228,8 kDa, con una alta concentración en la región 41 a 99,7 kDa. El índice de polimorfismo para T. dimidiata fue de 0,9646. Conclusión: El perfil electroforético de las proteínas salivares de T. dimidiata mostró una composición proteica compleja, donde las bandas más prominentes tienen pesos moleculares menores de 45 KDa. No se pudieron establecer agrupamientos basados en las regiones geográficas y lugares de captura, a pesar de la gran variabilidad intraespecífica observada. Sin embargo, se pudieron establecer diferencias claras a nivel de especie entre T. dimidiata y el grupo externo utilizado, P. geniculatus. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 121-127.Introduction: The triatomines (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae are hematophagous insects

  19. Cysteine proteases from bloodfeeding arthropod ectoparasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Calvo, E.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 712, - (2011), s. 177-191 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA AV ČR KJB600960911; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : TICK HAEMAPHYSALIS-LONGICORNIS * PROLIXUS STAL HEMIPTERA * YELLOW-FEVER MOSQUITO * BLOOD-MEAL DIGESTION * L-LIKE ENZYME * BOOPHILUS-MICROPLUS * RHODNIUS-PROLIXUS * CATHEPSIN-B * ASPARAGINYL ENDOPEPTIDASES/LEGUMAINS * PROTEOLYTIC ACTIVATION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2011

  20. A taxonomic monograph of the assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): 71 species based on 10,000 specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Elwood R; Weirauch, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The New World assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius, 1803 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Harpactorini) is revised based on more than 10,000 specimens. Seventy-one species are recognized and twenty-four described as new: Zelus aithaleos sp. n., Zelus amblycephalus sp. n., Zelus antiguensis sp. n., Zelus auralanus sp. n., Zelus bahiaensis sp. n., Zelus banksi sp. n., Zelus casii sp. n., Zelus championi sp. n., Zelus cordazulus sp. n., Zelus fuliginatus sp. n., Zelus gilboventris sp. n., Zelus gracilipes sp. n., Zelus grandoculus sp. n., Zelus kartaboides sp. n., Zelus lewisi sp. n., Zelus panamensis sp. n., Zelus paracephalus sp. n., Zelus rosulentus sp. n., Zelus russulumus sp. n., Zelus spatulosus sp. n., Zelus truxali sp. n., Zelus umbraculoides sp. n., Zelus umbraculus sp. n., and Zelus xouthos sp. n. Five species, Zelus araneiformis Haviland, 1931, Zelus gradarius Bergroth, 1905, Zelus modestus (Stål, 1862), Zelus subfasciatus Stål, 1860 and Zelus vittaticeps Stål, 1866, are removed from Zelus and placed incertae sedis within Harpactorini. Nine new synonyms are recognized (senior synonym in parentheses): Zelus atripes Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus conjungens [Stål, 1860]), Zelus dispar Fabricius, 1803 syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris Fabricius, 1803), Zelus formosus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis Herrich-Schaeffer, 1853), Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål, 1860) syn. nov. (=Zelus pedestris), Zelus pallidinervus Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus kartabensis Haviland, 1931), Zelus personatus Berg, 1879 syn. nov. (=Zelus versicolor Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848), Zelus trimaculatus Champion, 1898 syn. nov. (=Zelus means Fabricius, 1803), Zelus trimaculicollis (Stål, 1855) syn. nov. (=Zelus means), and Zelus tristis Haviland, 1931 syn. nov. (=Zelus laticornis). Zelus conjungens (Stål, 1860) stat. rev. Is resurrected from junior synonymy with zealous armillatus (Lepeletier & Seville, 1825). Zelus ambulans Stål, 1862 stat. rev

  1. Duração do período ninfal e sobrevivência do predador Podisus connexivus Bergroth (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, em três presas alternativas Ninfal period duration and survival of the predator Podisus connexivus Bergroth (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, in three alternative preys

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    José Cola Zanuncio

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity and survival of the predator Podisus connexivus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae were studied in three alternative preys: T1 - Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera, Bombycidae catterpilars; T2 - Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae larva and T3 - Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae larva. Longevity and survival were: 22,1±0,6 days and 54,3±5,3%; 25,2±1,3 days and 56,0±4,9% and 22,0±0,8 days and 34,6±8,6%, for treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Comparing to other researches, a lower survival was found. This is probably because a F2 generation from field material, was used. Since the insect was not well adapted to the laboratory conditions this could have led to lower survival.

  2. Embryology of Triatoma infestans (KLUG, (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, a Chagas' disease vector Embriología del Triatoma infestans, vector de la enfermedad de Chagas

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    Laura E. Fichera

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the embryogenesis of T. infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae. Morphological parameters of growth sequences from oviposition until hatching (12-14 d 28ºC were established. Five periods, as percent of time of development (TD, were characterized from oviposition until hatching. The most important morphological features were: 1 formation of blastoderm within 7% of TD; 2 germ band and gastrulation within 30% of TD; 3 nerve cord, limb budding, thoracic and abdominal segmentation and formation of body cavity within 50% of TD; 4 nervous system and blastokinesis end, and development of embryonic cuticle within 65% of TD; 5 differentiation of the mouth parts, fat body, and Malphigian tubules during final stage and completion of embryo at day 12 to day 14 around hatching. These signals were chosen as appropriate morphological parameters which should enable the evaluation of embryologic modifications due to the action/s of different insecticidesEn este estudio se caracterizó el desarrollo embrionario del T. infestans (Hemiptera Reduviidae. Se establecieron parámetros morfológicos secuenciales de crecimiento desde la oviposición hasta la eclosión, (12-14 d 28ºC. Cinco períodos de crecimiento fueron determinados y expresados como fracciones porcentuales del tiempo total del desarrollo (TD hasta la eclosión. Los eventos morfológicos mas importantes fueron: 1 La formación del blastodermo hasta el 7% del TD; 2 La aparición de la banda germinativa y su gastrulación transcurridos un 30% del TD; 3 El comienzo de la formación del cordón nervioso, de las extremidades, la segmentación torácica y abdominal y la formación del mixocele cuando la embriogénesis alcanzó el 50% del TD; 4 La terminación de la blastoquinesis, el desarrollo completo del sistema nervioso y la aparición de la cutícula embrionaria hasta el 65% del TD; 5 En la etapa final de la embriogenesis se observó la diferenciación del aparato mandibular, el cuerpo graso

  3. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar A; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93-100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  4. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae

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    Xin Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid’s immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B

  5. An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae

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    Karla N. Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei is one the greatest threats to eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. The effects of rainfall to reduce the abundance of lerp of Glycaspis brimblecombei on experimentally infested seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were assessed. The number of lerps on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of every leaf of 60 seedlings was recorded, before and after submission to the following treatments: "artificial rain", "leaf wetting" and control. A drastic reduction in lerp abundance per plant was observed after the treatments "leaf wetting" and artificial rain (F = 53.630; p Teste experimental da chuva como agente de controle de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei é uma das maiores ameaças das plantações de eucalipto do Brasil. Foram avaliados os efeitos da água na redução da abundância de conchas desse inseto em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis infestadas experimentalmente. Foi quantificado o número de conchas nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de todas as folhas de 60 mudas, antes e após a aplicação dos seguintes tratamentos: "chuva artificial", "molhamento das folhas" e controle. Foi observada uma drástica redução na abundância de conchas nos tratamentos "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" (F = 53,630; p < 0,001, o que não ocorreu para o tratamento controle ao longo do experimento (F = 1,450; p = 0,232. Ao final do experimento, a abundância de conchas foi significativamente menor no tratamento "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" do que no tratamento controle. Dessa forma, dois dias de chuva mostraram ser eficientes para diminuir mais que 50% da população de conchas, com quase 100% de eficiência após 5 dias de experimento. Nossos resultados

  6. Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae, a parasite of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter(Hemiptera: Saldidae on the Oregon coast

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    Poinar George O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is rare to find terrestrial nematode lineages parasitizing arthropods inhabiting the intertidal or littoral zone of the oceans. During an ecological study along the Oregon dunes, an allantonematid nematode (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae was discovered parasitizing the intertidal shore bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter(Hemiptera: Saldidae. This shore bug is adapted to an intertidal environment and can survive short periods of submergence during high tides. The present study describes the nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development, ecology and evolution. Methods Adults and last instar nymphs of S. laticollis (Hemiptera: Saldidae were collected from the high intertidal zone among clumps of Juncus L. (Juncaceae plants at Waldport, Oregon on October 3, 2011. The bugs were dissected in 1% saline solution and the nematodes killed in 1% Ringers solution and immediately fixed in 5% formalin (at 20°C. Third stage juveniles removed from infected hosts were maintained in 1% saline solution until they matured to the adult stage, molted and mated. Results Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae is described from last instar nymphs and adults of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis on the Oregon coast. The new genus can be distinguished from other genera in the Allantonematidae by a stylet lacking basal knobs in both sexes, an excretory pore located behind the nerve ring, ribbed spicules, a gubernaculum, the absence of a bursa and the elongate-tubular shape of the ovoviviparous parasitic females. Studies of the organogenesis of Halophilanema showed development to third stage juveniles in the uterus of parasitic females. Maturation to the free-living adults and mating occurred in the environment. The incidence of infection of S. laticollis ranged from 0% to 85% depending on the microhabitat in the intertidal zone. Conclusions Based on the habitat and morphological characters, it is proposed

  7. Silencing of ACO decreases reproduction and energy metabolism in triazophos-treated female brown plant hoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

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    Liu, Zong-Yu; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Li, Lei; You, Lin-Lin; Wu, You; Xu, Bin; Ge, Lin-Quan; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2016-03-01

    The brown plant hopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a major pest affecting rice in Asia, and outbreaks of this pest are closely linked to pesticide-induced stimulation of reproduction. Therefore, the BPH is a classic example of a resurgent pest. However, the effects of different genes on the regulation of pesticide-induced reproductive stimulation in the BPH are unclear. In this study, the regulatory effects of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACO) on the reproduction and biochemistry of the BPH were investigated with gene silencing. The number of eggs laid per female by triazophos (TZP)+dsACO BPH females was significantly lower than those of TZP-treated (without ACO silencing) or TZP+GFP females (negative control), with the number of eggs decreasing by 30.8% (from 529.5 to 366.3) and 32.0% (from 540.5 to 366.3), respectively. The preoviposition period, oviposition period, and longevity of the TZP-treated females were also influenced by dsACO treatment. Additionally, the amounts of crude fat, protein, and some fatty acids (oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid, and myristoleic acid) in TZP+dsACO females were significantly lower than in TZP-treated females. Thus, ACO is one of the key genes regulating the TZP-induced stimulation of reproduction in BPH females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females.

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    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of 'naturally waxed' and 'dewaxed' nymphs (cleaned from wax revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

  9. Foraging activity and seasonal food preference of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a species associated with the spread of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondillo, Aline; Ferrari, Leonardo; Lerin, Sabrina; Bueno, Odair Correa; Bottona, Marcos

    2014-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for the spread of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a soil scale that damages vine plants in southern Brazil. The daily foraging activity of L. micans and its seasonal preference for protein- and carbohydrate-based foods were evaluated. The study was carried out in a greenhouse using seedlings of the Paulsen 1103 rootstock (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris) planted individually in pots and infested with colonies of L. micans. To determine the daily foraging activity and seasonal preference, a cricket (Gryllus sp.) and a 70% solution of inverted sugar and water were offered once a month for 12 mo. The ants foraging on each food source were counted hourly for 24 h. L. micans foraged from dusk until the end of the next morning, with higher intensity in the spring and summer. Workers of L. micans showed changes in food preference during the year, with a predominance of protein-based food during winter and spring and carbohydrate-based food during autumn. The implications of this behavior for control of the species with the use of toxic baits are discussed.

  10. PCR-Based Gut Content Analysis to Detect Predation of Eriococcus ironsidei (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) by Coccinellidae Species in Macadamia Nut Orchards in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Coarite, Rosemary; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Pulakkatu-Thodi, Ishakh; Mollinedo, Javier; Calla, Bernarda; Wright, Mark G; Geib, Scott M

    2018-02-21

    Macadamia felted coccid, Eriococcus ironsidei (Williams) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) was first found infesting macadamia trees in the island of Hawaii in 2005. Macadamia felted coccid infests all above-ground parts of trees to feed and reproduce. Their feeding activity distorts and stunts new growth which causes yellow spotting on older leaves, and when population densities become high, branch dieback occurs. Different predatory beetles have been observed in macadamia nut trees infested by E. ironsidei, the most abundant were Halmus chalybeus, Curinus coeruleus, Scymnodes lividigaster, Rhyzobius forestieri, and Sticholotis ruficeps. To verify predation of E. ironsidei by these beetles, a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers to determine presence in gut content of predators. Using these primers for PCR analysis, wild predator beetles were screened for the presence of E. ironsidei DNA. Analysis of beetles collected from macadamia orchards revealed predation by H. chalybeus, C. coeruleus, S. lividigaster, R. forestieri, and S. ruficeps on E. ironsidei. This study demonstrates that these beetles may play an important role in controlling the population of E. ironsidei, and these predators may be useful as biocontrol agents for E. ironsidei.

  11. An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla N. Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei is one the greatest threats to eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. The effects of rainfall to reduce the abundance of lerp of Glycaspis brimblecombei on experimentally infested seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were assessed. The number of lerps on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of every leaf of 60 seedlings was recorded, before and after submission to the following treatments: "artificial rain", "leaf wetting" and control. A drastic reduction in lerp abundance per plant was observed after the treatments "leaf wetting" and artificial rain (F = 53.630; p < 0.001, whereas lerp abundance remained roughly constant in the control treatment along the experiment (F = 1.450; p = 0.232. At the end of the experiment, lerp abundance was significantly lower in both the "artificial rain" and "leaf wetting" than in the control treatment. Two days of rainfall simulation were sufficient to decrease more than 50% of the lerp population, with almost 100% of effectiveness after 5 days of experiment. Our results indicate that lerp solubilization and mechanical removal by water are potential tools to the population regulation of G. brimblecombei on E. camaldulensis seedlings.

  12. Performance consequences of food mixing in two passion vine leaf-footed bugs, Holymenia clavigera (Herbst, 1784) and Anisoscelis foliacea marginella (Dallas, 1852) (Hemiptera; Coreidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, D; Duarte, L S; Moreira, G R P

    2007-02-01

    Holymenia clavigera (Herbst) and Anisoscelis foliacea marginella (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Coreidae: Anisoscelini) are distributed in southern Brazil and use various passion vine species (Passifloraceae) as host-plants. Preliminary observations indicate a high coexistence of these species in terms of host-plant use; in addition, there is a strong similarity regarding egg and nymph morphology. In this study, the most suitable feeding sites for nymph performance on wild (Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus and Passiflora misera Humbold, Bonpland et Kunth) and cultivated (Passiflora edulis Sims) hosts were determined by rearing them on each host and on the combination of hosts. Performance was determined by evaluating nymph development and survivorship, and adult size at emergence. Plant parts used were also recorded. For both species, P. suberosa was the most suitable host plant. First instar nymphs of both species fed on terminal buds more frequently when compared to other plant parts. Second instar nymphs switched to green fruits, whose behavior was more pronounced for H. clavigera. Thus, H. clavigera and A. foliacea marginella immatures are extremely similar in terms of host-plant use and consequences for performance, in addition to their morphological similarity. We suggest that these coreids may have evolved through several processes, including parsimony between the immature stages after speciation, evolutionary convergence, mimicry or genetic drift.

  13. Infection rates and comparative population dynamics of Peregrinus maidis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) on corn plants with and without symptoms of maize mosaic virus (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, C H V; Bressan, A

    2013-10-01

    We examined the population dynamics of the corn planthopper Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) throughout a cycle of corn (Zea mays L.) production on plants with or without symptoms of maize mosaic virus (MMV) (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus) infection. Our results indicate that the timing of MMV plant infection greatly influenced the planthopper's host plant colonization patterns. Corn plants that expressed symptoms of MMV infection early in the crop cycle (28 d after planting) harbored, on average, 40 and 48% fewer planthoppers than plants that expressed symptoms of MMV infection later in the crop cycle (49 d after planting) and asymptomatic plants, respectively. We also observed a change in the number of brachypterous (short-wing type) and macropterous (long-wing type) winged forms produced; plants expressing early symptoms of MMV infection harbored, on average, 41 and 47% more of the brachypterous form than plants with late infections of MMV and plants with no symptoms of MMV, respectively. Furthermore, we determined the rates of MMV-infected planthoppers relative to their wing morphology (macropterous or brachypterous) and gender. MMV infection was 5 and 12% higher in females than in males in field and greenhouse experiments, respectively; however, these differences were not significantly different. This research provides evidence that MMV similarly infects P. maidis planthoppers regardless of the gender and wing morphotype. These results also suggest that the timing of symptom development greatly affects the population dynamics of the planthopper vector, and likely has important consequences for the dynamics of the disease in the field.

  14. Dinâmica Populacional de Mosca-Branca Bemisia tabaci (Genn. Biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae em Feijoeiro

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    Anderson Silva

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of abiotic factors on the population dynamics of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn., (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in three sowing seasons on bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The assays were set up from June 2010 to April 2012 and conducted in the Departamento de Fitossanidade at FCAV/UNESP – Campus of Jaboticabal, SP. The studies of the population dynamics of B. tabaci biotype B were performed weekly through infestation assessments of eggs, nymphs and adults of the whitefly on 18 samplings, six for each sowing season: “winter”, “water” and “dry”, in addition to the influence of the abiotic factors weekly temperature and relative humidity (minimum, average and maximum and accumulated rainfall. These variables were correlated to the total number of eggs, nymphs and adults of the whitefly through Pearson’s linear correlation analysis. Among the obtained results, the population peaks of B. tabaci biotype B occurred at the “water” season, followed by “winter” and “dry” seasons, and the abiotic factors temperature and relative humidity influenced negatively the population dynamics of the whitefly.

  15. Seasonal population dynamics of the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and its associated pathogen "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" in potatoes in the southern great plains of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, J A; Adamczyk, J J; Crosslin, J M; Troxclair, N N; Anciso, J R; Bester, G G; Bradshaw, J D; Bynum, E D; Carpio, L A; Henne, D C; Joshi, A; Munyaneza, J E; Porter, P; Sloderbeck, P E; Supak, J R; Rush, C M; Willett, F J; Zechmann, B J; Zens, B A

    2012-08-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), and its associated pathogen "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Ca. L. solanacearum), the putative causal agent of zebra chip (ZC) disease in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), were sampled in commercial potato fields and untreated control plots for 3 yr in multiple locations in Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. Populations of the potato psyllid varied across years and across potato growing regions. However, the percentage of potato psyllids infected with Ca. L. solanacearum although variable across years, was consistently highest in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (LRGV), the reported overwintering location for this pest. The numbers of Ca. L. solanacearum-infected psyllids collected on field traps and large nymphs counted on leaf samples were both positively correlated with the final percentage of ZC in tubers. In the LRGV, where vector and disease pressure is the highest, population levels of immature life stages of the psyllid and percentage of ZC differed greatly between commercial and untreated fields. These results show that the pest management program that was used can be effective at controlling development of the psyllid and ultimately reducing the incidence of ZC.

  16. Atração e desenvolvimento de Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabr. (Hemiptera: Coreidae em cultivares de abóbora e moranga

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    Baldin Edson Luiz Lopes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são seriamente prejudicadas pelo ataque de insetos, sendo que os danos ocorrem desde a germinação até a colheita e podem ser observados em todas as partes da planta. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abóbora (Cucurbita moschata e a moranga (C. maxima, as formas jovens e adultas do percevejo Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabr. (Hemiptera: Coreidae merecem destaque por sugarem a seiva das folhas, ramos e frutos novos, nos quais causam necroses, reduzindo a produção. Visando comparar a atratividade de plântulas de cultivares de abóbora e moranga a adultos deste percevejo e os efeitos desses materiais sobre a biologia de ninfas dessa espécie, realizaram-se ensaios sob condições de laboratório. Em teste de atratividade, o cultivar de abóbora BRA015113 destacou-se como o menos atrativo em relação ao cultivar de moranga Exposição, enquanto que o cultivar de abóbora BRA003531 foi o mais atrativo. Todos os cultivares provocaram 100% de mortalidade das ninfas, indicando a presença de componentes antibióticos, adversos ao desenvolvimento de L. gonagra.

  17. Eficiência da Armadilha “R. Bianco” para Captura do Percevejo Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae, na Cultura do Milho

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    Marliton Barreto

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. Maize is the cereal with the highest consumption in both industrialized as fresh nowadays. It is the grain with higher volume production, Brazil is the third largest producer, need special attention focused on the monitoring and control of invaders who risk their productivity. Among the pests that can affect the productivity highlight the insects (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, more specifically the bedbugs corn (Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, which has been an important pest for corn crops. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homemade traps R. Bianco in control of this insect. The experiments were conducted in Sitio Nossa Senhora Aparecida, in the municipality of Sinop, MT. Traps were divided into 10 open and 10 closed which were evaluated with and without baits by 20 days. The design was completely randomized (DIC in a 2x2x2 factorial with eight treatments and five repetitions. Traps without baits showed greater efficiency, with an average higher in catching the bugs regarding the traps with bait. The trap closed as compared with the open, demonstrated greater efficacy in retaining the insect. The effect of edge was little representative in this experiment. Therefore, the presence of bait did not influence the insect attraction and treatments submitted to the bait without test showed higher quantities and more efficient insect capture. Leading us to believe the attraction effect of salt by bedbug and the location of each trap had little influence in the capture of insects.

  18. Comparative study of enzymes in testes and ovaries from adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler and Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Correlation with fine structural organization

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    PY Scaraffia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Activities of hexokinase (HK, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, fructose-6-phosphate kinase (F6PK, glutamate dehydrogenase (GlutDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, malate dehydrogenase (MDH and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH were determined in tissue extracts of testes and ovaries of adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler and Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, insect vectors of Chagas disease. The fine structure organization of the same organs were studied by electron microscopy. Results allow the following inferences: in testes from both species, most of the glucose would be utilized through the glycolytic pathway. Amino acid catabolism for energy purposes appears to be unimportant. The number of mitochondria and the development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in cells of the spermatogenic line indicate the occurrence of active oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis; in ovaries, levels of G6PDH indicate the existence of an active pentose pathway which would supply the NADPH required for fat and ecdysteroid synthesis. Amino acid catabolism appears to be relatively more important in ovary than in testis. Fat and glycogen are stored in follicular cells of D. maximus; oocytes of both species contain numerous fat droplets. Abundant mitocondria are present in follicular cells and oocytes. A well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes are also conspicuous in these cells. The malate/aspartate H-transfer system seemed to be relatively more important than the glycerophosphate shuttle in ovaries as well in testes.

  19. De novo transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of midgut tissues of four non-model insects pertaining to Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazara, Rajesh K; Cardoso, Christiane; Bellieny-Rabelo, Daniel; Ferreira, Clélia; Terra, Walter R; Venancio, Thiago M

    2017-09-05

    Despite the great morphological diversity of insects, there is a regularity in their digestive functions, which is apparently related to their physiology. In the present work we report the de novo midgut transcriptomes of four non-model insects from four distinct orders: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera), Musca domestica (Diptera), Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) and Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera). We employed a computational strategy to merge assemblies obtained with two different algorithms, which substantially increased the quality of the final transcriptomes. Unigenes were annotated and analyzed using the eggNOG database, which allowed us to assign some level of functional and evolutionary information to 79.7% to 93.1% of the transcriptomes. We found interesting transcriptional patterns, such as: i) the intense use of lysozymes in digestive functions of M. domestica larvae, which are streamlined and adapted to feed on bacteria; ii) the up-regulation of orthologous UDP-glycosyl transferase and cytochrome P450 genes in the whole midguts different species, supporting the existence of an ancient defense frontline to counter xenobiotics; iii) evidence supporting roles for juvenile hormone binding proteins in the midgut physiology, probably as a way to activate genes that help fight anti-nutritional substances (e.g. protease inhibitors). The results presented here shed light on the digestive and structural properties of the digestive systems of these distantly related species. Furthermore, the produced datasets will also be useful for scientists studying these insects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Using Calendula officinalis as a floral resource to enhance aphid and thrips suppression by the flower bug Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Guo, Xiaojun; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Zappala, Lucia; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Su

    2017-03-01

    The flower bug Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is widely used as a biocontrol agent against thrips and aphids infesting greenhouse vegetables in Asia. The survival and oviposition of such predators, as well as the biocontrol services they provide, may be enhanced by adding extra floral resources to the crops. In the present study we investigated the effects of the plant Calendula officinalis L., used as a floral resource, for promoting the control of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) by O. sauteri under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Results showed that the presence of C. officinalis enhanced aphid and thrips suppression via an increased O. sauteri population growth. The predator populations responded positively to the addition of C. officinalis in the system, and they also varied as a function of the temperatures tested under laboratory conditions. In a similar way, predator populations varied among seasons, with the highest densities recorded in May in the greenhouse. C. officinalis can be used to increase available resources for natural enemies used in agricultural crops, notably in greenhouses. This study also provides evidence that increasing floral resources can enhance pest suppression provided by O. sauteri. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.

  2. Interactions between the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R J; Alencar, J R D C C; Silva, K P; Cividanes, F J; Duarte, R T; Agostini, L T; Polanczyk, R A

    2014-06-01

    The interactions between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae McIntoch (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Nymphs of Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were first exposed to parasitoid females for 24 h and then 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards sprayed with a solution of B. bassiana. Likewise, aphids were also sprayed with B. bassiana and then exposed to parasitoids at 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards. Parasitism rate varied from 13 to 66.5%, and were significantly lower in treatments where the two agents were exposed within a 0-24 h time interval compared with the control (without B. bassiana). Parasitoid emergence was negatively affected in treatments with B. bassiana spraying and subsequent exposure to D. rapae. Decreases in longevity of adult females of the D. rapae F1 generation were observed in treatments with B. bassiana spraying. The application of these two biological control agents can be used in combination on the control of M. persicae, wherein this use requires effective time management to avoid antagonistic interactions.

  3. The fern-feeder aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from China: a generic account, descriptions of one new genus, one new species, one new subspecies, and keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Mei; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2014-02-11

    Fern-feeder aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in China are represented by 13 species in 10 genera, including a new genus, Vietaphis gen nov., a new species, Vietaphis aliquantus sp nov., from Guizhou and Tibet on Plagiogyria japonicum, and a new subspecies, Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp nov., from Guizhou on Pentarhizidium intermedium. Two genera, Amphorophora Buckton and Idiopterus Davis, and four species or subspecies, Amphorophora ampullate ben-galensis Hille Ris Lambers and Basu, Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, Micromyzodium polypodii Takahashi, and Myzus filicis Basu, are reported for the first time in China. Apterae and alatae of Myzus filicis are redescribed herein, and with host plant notes. The fern-feeder aphid genus Ne-omacromyzus Lee is considered a junior synonym of Idiopterus. Furthermore, Neomacromyzus cyrtomicola Lee is transferred to the genus Idiopterus, as Idiopterus cyrtomicola (Lee), comb nov., which is herein considered a junior synonym of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis. Keys to Chinese fern-feeder species are provided. Morphological figures and biometrical data of Vietaphis aliquantus sp nov., Amphorophora scabripes galba ssp nov., and Myzus filicis are presented. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  4. Up-regulation of carbon metabolism-related glyoxylate cycle and toxin production in Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 during infection of bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ting; Lee, Se Jin; Nai, Yu-Shin; Kim, Sihyeon; Kim, Jae Su

    2016-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana (Bb) is used as an environment-friendly biopesticide. However, the molecular mechanisms of Bb-host interactions are not well understood. Herein, RNA isolated from B. bassiana (Bb JEF-007) and Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) infected with this strain were firstly subjected to high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare transcriptomes. Due to lack of fungal and host genome information, fungal transcriptome was processed to partially exclude non-infection specific genes and host-flora. Differentially Expressed Gene (DEG) analysis showed that 2381 genes were up-regulated and 2303 genes were down-regulated upon infection. Most DEGs were classified into the categories of single-organism, cellular and metabolism processes by Gene Ontology analysis. Most DEGs were involved in metabolic pathways based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway mapping. Carbon metabolism-related enzymes in the glyoxylate cycle were significantly up-regulated, suggesting a possible role for them in Bb growth in the host. Additionally, transcript levels of several fungal genes were dramatically increased after infection, such as cytotoxic lectin-like protein, bacterial-like toxin, proteins related to cell wall formation, hyphal growth, nutrient uptake, and halogenated compound synthesis. This work provides insight into how entomopathogenic B. bassiana grows in agriculturally harmful bean bug at 6 d post infection. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Defensive secretion of rice bug,Leptocorisa oratorius fabricius, (Hemiptera: Coreidae): A unique chemical combination and its toxic, repellent, and alarm properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, N E; Bandumathie, M K

    1993-04-01

    Defensive secretion produced by adult males and females ofLeptocorisa oratorius, Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) living on the host plant,Oriza sativa, was analyzed by a combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. Both male and female secretions consisted of two major components: (E)-2-octenal andn-octyl acetate, 76% and 16% (w/w), respectively. The remaining 8% were trace compounds, some of which were identified as hexyl acetate, 3-octenal, 1-octanol, and (Z)-3-octenyl acetate. In a survey among 38 coreid defensive secretions, (E)-2-octenal andn-octyl acetate were found to occur rarely in addition to coreid-specific compounds, while their combination as primary constituents was found to be unique. Toxicity and repellency of this secretion were evaluated using two household pests,Anoplolepis longipes andSitotroga cerealella, as test insects, and lethal concentration (LC50) values of 0.24 ppm and 0.14 ppm, respectively, and repellencies of 63% and 58%, respectively, were obtained. Comparing the above values with those of a pentatomid bug,Coridius janus, evaluated under the same conditions, it was apparent that this secretion has potential as a repellent to enemies ofL. oratorius but not as a toxicant to attack them. Bioassay on the alarm activity of this secretion revealed that it elicits alarm responses, alerting and dispersing aggregated male and femaleL. oratorius: this is followed by "self-coating" activities. In addition, some unique behaviors were also noted among alarmedL. oratorius.

  6. Registros de ocorrência e novos hospedeiros de Gargaphia lunulata (Mayr (Hemiptera: Tingidae nos estados do Acre e Paraná

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    Rodrigo Santos

    2017-12-01

    Abstract. The occurrence of Gargaphia lunulata (Mayr (Hemiptera: Tingidae was observed in leaves of four host plants: rue (Ruta graveolens L. and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC in an urban residential garden, in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil and Crotalaria spectabilis (L., jack bean and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench in a greenhouse, in the municipality of Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. The colonies were found exclusively on the abaxial face of the leaves, causing chlorosis, wilting and early senescence of the same. Because G. lunulata is considered to be an important passion fruit pest in Brazil, the planting of the mentioned plant species, in intercropping or near to passion fruit crops, would not be recommended, since they could serve as plant species inoculum to passion fruit cultivation. Therefore, the occurrence of G. lunulata associated to R. graveolens and jack bean in Acre State; and C. spectabilis, jack bean, and okra, in Paraná State is record for the first time. In addition, the present work reports the first occurrence of this tingid to the States of Acre and Paraná and reports two new hosts for this insect, R. graveolens and C. spectabillis in Brazil.

  7. Postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and California red scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) with ethyl formate and its impact on citrus fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupin, Francine; Bikoba, Veronique; Biasi, William B; Pedroso, Gabriel M; Ouyang, Yuling; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    The postharvest control of arthropod pests is a challenge that the California citrus industry must overcome when exporting fruit overseas. Currently, methyl bromide fumigation is used to control postharvest pests on exported citrus, but it may soon be unavailable because of use restrictions and cost of this health-hazard ozone-depleting chemical. Ethyl formate is a natural plant volatile and possible alternative to methyl bromide in postharvest insect control. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the mortality of third instar California red scale [Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)] (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and adult western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) under a wide range of ethyl formate concentrations, 2) to determine the ethyl formate concentration required to reach a Probit 9 level of control for both pests, and 3) to test the effects of ethyl formate fumigation on the quality of navel oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and lemons [Citrus limon (L.) Burman f.] at 24 h after fumigation, and at different time periods to simulate shipping plus storage (5 wk at 5 degrees C), and shipping, storage, handling, and shelf-life (5 wk at 5 degrees C, plus 5 d at 15 degrees C, and 2 d at 20 degrees C). The results indicate that ethyl formate is a promising alternative to methyl bromide for the California citrus industry, because of successful control of adult western flower thips and third instar California red scale and no deleterious effect on fruit quality at any of the evaluated periods and quality parameters.

  8. How to Start with a Clean Crop: Biopesticide Dips Reduce Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on Greenhouse Poinsettia Propagative Cuttings

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    Rosemarije Buitenhuis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers’ options to control this pest; (2 This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips to control B. tabaci on poinsettia cuttings. In addition, phytotoxicity risks of these treatments on poinsettia cuttings, and effects of treatment residues on mortality of commercial whitefly parasitoids (Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa were determined; (3 Mineral oil (0.1% v/v and insecticidal soap (0.5% + B. bassiana (1.25 g/L were the most effective treatments; only 31% and 29%, respectively, of the treated B. tabaci survived on infested poinsettia cuttings and B. tabaci populations were lowest in these treatments after eight weeks. Phytotoxicity risks of these treatments were acceptable, and dip residues had little effect on survival of either parasitoid, and are considered highly compatible; (4 Use of poinsettia cutting dips will allow growers to knock-down B. tabaci populations to a point where they can be managed successfully thereafter with existing biocontrol strategies.

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Allium tuberosum Leaves and Its Selected Major Constituents Against Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jizhe; Liu, Xinchao; Li, Zhen; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate acute toxicity of the essential oil of leaves of Chinese chives, Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (Asparagales: Alliaceae) and its major constituents against Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae). The essential oil of A. tuberosum leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl methyl trisulfide (36.24%), diallyl disulfide (27.26%), diallyl trisulfide (18.68%), and dimethyl trisulfide (9.23%). The essential oil of A. tuberosum leaves exhibited acute toxicity against Ap. lucorum with an LD50 value of 20.03 μg per adult. Among the main compounds, diallyl trisulfide (LD50 = 10.13 μg per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than allyl methyl trisulfide (LD50 = 21.10 μg per adult) and dimethyl trisulfide (LD50 = 21.65 μg per adult). The LD50 value of diallyl disulfide against Ap. lucorum was 28.10 μg per adult. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. tuberosum and its major constituents may have a potential to be developed as botanical insecticides against Ap. lucorum. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  10. Building-up of a DNA barcode library for true bugs (insecta: hemiptera: heteroptera) of Germany reveals taxonomic uncertainties and surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)).

  11. Building-up of a DNA barcode library for true bugs (insecta: hemiptera: heteroptera of Germany reveals taxonomic uncertainties and surprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Raupach

    Full Text Available During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae, Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae, Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833 (Aradidae or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811 (Anthocoridae.

  12. High-resolution melt and morphological analyses of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from cacao: tools for the control of Cacao swollen shoot virus spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetten, Andy; Campbell, Colin; Allainguillaume, Joël

    2016-03-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are key vectors of badnaviruses, including Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV), the most damaging virus affecting cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). The effectiveness of mealybugs as virus vectors is species dependent, and it is therefore vital that CSSV resistance breeding programmes in cacao incorporate accurate mealybug identification. In this work, the efficacy of a CO1-based DNA barcoding approach to species identification was evaluated by screening a range of mealybugs collected from cacao in seven countries. Morphologically similar adult females were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, and then, following DNA extraction, were screened with CO1 barcoding markers. A high degree of CO1 sequence homology was observed for all 11 individual haplotypes, including those accessions from distinct geographical regions. This has allowed the design of a high-resolution melt (HRM) assay capable of rapid identification of the commonly encountered mealybug pests of cacao. HRM analysis readily differentiated between mealybug pests of cacao that cannot necessarily be identified by conventional morphological analysis. This new approach, therefore, has potential to facilitate breeding for resistance to CSSV and other mealybug-transmitted diseases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Tempo de busca e de manuseio de larvas de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae alimentadas com Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Alexander M. Auad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching and handling time of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae larvae fed on Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The objective of this research was to determine the searching and handling times of three larval instars of C. externa fed on U. ambrosiae at densities of 30, 40 and 50 per vial, with the feeding of the larvae at the preceding instars being U. ambrosiae nymphs or Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, 1819 eggs. The larvae were maintained at 25 ± 2 ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14-h photophase. A completely randomized design in a 6 x 3 factorial scheme with 12 replicates was adopted. The shortest searching time was found for the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of C. externa, and this parameter was variable depending on the feeding given to the larvae previously. The handling time was similar for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae. The longest searching time was found at an aphid density of 30, as compared to densities of 40 and 50 prey, with which there were no significant differences. Prey density did not have any influence on handling time.

  14. Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Musuh Alami Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae pada Pertanaman Cabai Merah di Kecamatan Pakem, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

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    Hendrival Hendrival

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci was conducted in the chili pepper fields in Sub-district of Pakem, District of Sleman, The Special Province of Yogyakarta during the dry season of May-October 2009. The aims of this research were to study the diversity and abundance of parasitoid and predator species associated with B. tabaci. Samplings of insect species were done using yellow pan trap, sweep net, direct observation of insects colonized young leaves, and collection of nymphs for B. tabaci. Measurement of insect diversity was calculated using Shannon’s index diversity and Evenness index. Nine species of insect predator were identified, i.e. Harmonia octomaculata (Fabricius, Menochilus sexmaculata (Fabricius, Scymnus sp., Micraspis inops Mulsant, Coccinella sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae, Paederus fuscipes Curtis (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Orius sp. (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae, Linyphiidae sp.1 (Araneae, and Syrphidae sp.1 (Diptera. Eretmocerus sp. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae was the only parasitoid found in the nymphs B. tabaci collected and has the potential to control B. tabaci in the red pepper fields.

  15. Populations of Rice Grain Bug, Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis, (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in Weed-free Paddy Field, Weedy Paddy Field and Paddy Dykes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Nasruddin, Andi; Agus, Nurariaty

    2017-07-01

    Research on the populations of rice grain bug Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis Dallas (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in paddy field ecosystems was performed with the aim to determine the populations of rice grain bug in weed-free paddy field, weedy paddy field, and paddy dykes. Experiment was carried out in the village of Paccellekang in the district of Patallasang of Gowa Regency in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Observations were performed during the milky grain stage (85 days after planting), the mature grain stage (105 days after planting), and one day after harvest (115 days after transplanting). Results showed that 85 days after the transplanting, the populations of rice grain bug was significantly higher in the weedy paddy field compared to weed-free field and paddy dykes with total numbers of 1.75, 3.53, and 0.31 insects per 2 hills, respectively. Similarly, 105 days after the transplanting, 2.53, 5.53, and 0.11 insects per hill, respectively. However, one day after the harvest (115 days after transplanting) the number of insects in weed-free field decreased, while in the dykes increased, and the weedy plot still had the highest number of insects per 2 hills. Our results suggested that weeds played an important role in regulating the bug population by providing alternative shelter and foods for the insect.

  16. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.Efeito do silício e do acibenzolar-s-methyl em plantas de algodão colorido infestadas ou não com Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. O pulgão Aphis gossypii é um inseto-praga que causa danos principalmente no início do ciclo do algodoeiro. Foram pesquisados os efeitos dos indutores silício e acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM no desenvolvimento de plantas de algodão colorido, na presença e ausência de A. gossypii. Três cultivares de algodão colorido foram semeadas em vasos e individualmente infestadas com 25 pulgões ápteros, 13 dias após a aplicação dos indutores. Quinze dias após emergência das plantas o silício foi aplicado na dosagem equivalente a 3 t/ha e o acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM na solução 0,2% do produto BION 500®. Após 21 dias da infestação foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule

  17. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae.

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    Tariq Mustafa

    Full Text Available The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc (Hemiptera: Triozidae, is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso, the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used electrical penetration graph (EPG technology to compare stylet probing behaviors and efficiency of Lso transmission of three haplotypes of potato psyllid (Central, Western, Northwestern. All haplotypes exhibited the full suite of stylet behaviors identified in previous studies with this psyllid, including intercellular penetration and secretion of the stylet pathway, xylem ingestion, and phloem activities, the latter comprising salivation and ingestion. The three haplotypes exhibited similar frequency and duration of probing behaviors, with the exception of salivation into phloem, which was of higher duration by psyllids of the Western haplotype. We manipulated how long psyllids were allowed access to potato ("inoculation access period", or IAP to examine the relationship between phloem activities and Lso transmission. Between 25 and 30% of psyllids reached and salivated into phloem at an IAP of 1 hr, increasing to almost 80% of psyllids as IAP was increased to 24 h. Probability of Lso-transmission was lower across all IAP levels than probability of phloem salivation, indicating that a percentage of infected psyllids which salivated into the phloem failed to transmit Lso. Logistic regression showed that probability of transmission increased as a function of time spent salivating into the phloem; transmission occurred as quickly as 5 min following onset of salivation. A small percentage of infected psyllids showed extremely long salivation events but nonetheless failed to transmit Lso, for unknown reasons. Information from these studies increases our understanding of Lso transmission by potato psyllid, and demonstrates the value of EPG technology in

  18. Préférences alimentaires de Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae vis-à-vis de quelques clones de cacaoyers (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Amang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding Preferences of Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae to some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones. The selection of cocoa clones, resistant to Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. was done in the laboratory according to the standardized method of indoor microtests based on the study of mirid feeding preferences. Fourteen cocoa clones were involved. The Sca6 clone was the control. An index (i which expresses the ratio of the number of stings on the clone to that obtained on the control was calculated for each cultivar. Which has enabled to quantify the levels of attractiveness of cocoa clones to S. singularis and to classify these clones in three groups: less attractive clones (i< 1, non different (i= 1 and more attractive (i> 1. The results obtained showed that the mean numbers of feeding stings on the control (tr ranged from 5.49 to 5.62 (5.49≤ tr≤ 5.62 and that obtained on the other clones (tc from 5.29 to 6.18 (5.29≤ tc ≤ 6.18. The Na33 clone had the highest stings mean number (6.18 and IFC 100 the lowest one (5.29. The High Amazonian clone Na33 was the most attractive and the clones ICS100, IFC100, (exotic trinitario, Sca12 (catongo and Na32 (High Amazonian were less attractive. On the other hand the clones IFC1363, IFC1362, IFC1374 (catongo, UPA337, T60/887, ICS1 and IMC60 (High Amazonians and ICS95 (exotic trinitario were non different. The reactivity seemed not depending on the origin of the clone. Save the High Amazonian clone Na33 which was the most attractive there were among non different and less attractive clones as well exotic trinitario, catongo as High Amazonians.

  19. Toxicological, Enzymatic, and Molecular Assessment of the Insecticide Susceptibility Profile of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae) Populations From Rural Communities of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L; Vassena, Claudia V; Carvajal, Guillermo; Clark, Eva; Menacho, Silvio; Bozo, Ricardo; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Marcet, Paula L

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instar nymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was measured in individual insects to evaluate the possible mechanism of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids. In addition, the DNA sequence of sodium channel gene (kdr) was screened for two point mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance previously reported in T. infestans.All populations showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and α-cypermethrin, albeit the RR50 values varied significantly among them. Increased P450 monooxygenases and permethrate esterases suggest the contribution, as detoxifying mechanisms, to the observed resistance to deltamethrin in all studied populations. No individuals presented either mutation associated to resistance in the kdr gene. The level of susceptibility to α-cypermethrin, the insecticide used by the local vector control program, falls within an acceptable range to continue its use in these populations. However, the observed RR50 values evidence the possibility of selection for resistance to pyrethroids, especially to deltamethrin. Consequently, the use of pyrethroid insecticides should be closely monitored in these communities, which should be kept under entomological surveillance and sustained interventions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  20. Seasonality and Temperature-Dependent Flight Dispersal of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and Other Vectors of Chagas Disease in Western Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Osvaldo; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2017-09-01

    Flight dispersal of Triatominae is affected by climatic conditions and determines the spatiotemporal patterns of house invasion and transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). We investigated the detailed time structure and temperature dependencies of flight occurrence of Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and other triatomine species in a rural village of western Argentina by taking advantage of the attraction of adult triatomines to artificial light sources. Most of the village's streetlight posts were systematically inspected for triatomines twice between sunset and midnight over 425 nights in the spring-summer seasons of 1999-2002, an unprecedented light-trap sampling effort for any triatomine species. In total, 288 adults were captured, including 122 Triatoma guasayana Wygodzinsky and Abalos, 89 T. infestans, 72 Triatoma eratyrusiformis Del Ponte, and 5 Triatoma garciabesi Carcavallo et al. Adult sex ratios were balanced in T. infestans and strongly male-biased in other species. Nearly all flight-dispersing triatomines were caught when temperatures at sunset were >20 °C (range, 16.6-31.7 °C), suggesting a putative threshold around 17-18 °C. Triatomine catches were rare on rainy days. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the proportion of nights in which at least an adult T. infestans was caught increased highly significantly with increasing temperature at sunset and was modified by collection month, with greater catches in early spring and no sex differential. This study confirms that spring represents a previously overlooked, important dispersal period of T. infestans, and shows large variations among and within Triatominae in their temporal patterns of flight occurrence, abundance, and sex ratio. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Susceptibility of MED-Q1 and MED-Q3 Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Populations to Essential and Seed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Fogné, Drabo; Olivier, Gnankine; Bassolé, Imael H N; Nébié, Roger Charles; Laurence, Mouton

    2017-06-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major pest of many agricultural and ornamental crops in tropical and subtropical regions causing damages that result in important economic losses. Insecticides are commonly used in greenhouses or fields to control B. tabaci populations leading to rapid evolution of resistance that render treatments inefficient. Therefore, and for environmental and human health concerns, other approaches must be developed for this pest management. In the present study, we compare, using the leaf dip method, the toxicity of three essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum, and Hyptis spicigera) and three seed oils (Lannea microcarpa, Lannea acida, and Carapa procera) with three chemical insecticides (acetamiprid, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) on adults. Two B. tabaci biotypes (MED-Q1 and MED-Q3) belonging to the Mediterranean species and collected in Burkina Faso were used. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. We showed that these two biotypes have different levels of resistance to the three insecticides, MED-Q3 being more sensitive than MED-Q1. Moreover, they differ in the frequency of resistance alleles to insecticides, especially for organophosphates, as these alleles are almost fixed in MED-Q1. On the other hand, the two biotypes prove to be more susceptible to the plant extracts than to insecticides except for chlorpyrifos-ethyl, with essential oils that showed the highest insecticidal activities. Monoterpenes content were the most abundant and showed the highest insecticidal activities. Our results indicated that essential oils, but also seed oils, have the potential to constitute an alternative strategy of pest management. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Fecundidade e longevidade de Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae em diferentes temperaturas e cultivares comerciais de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev

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    Soglia Maria C. de M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecundity and longevity of Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877 (Hemiptera, Aphididae at different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. The aphid A. gossypii is one of the main pests in a number of crops both under field and protected conditions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fecundity and longevity of A. gossypii under different temperatures and commercial chrysanthemum cultivars (Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark Splendid Reagan with different trichomes densities (11.3; 16.6 and 21.6 trichome/mm² of the leaf, respectively The trials were carried out in climatic chambers, at four temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 ±1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase 10h. The reproductive period significantly decreased with increase of temperature in the three cultivars. In Yellow Snowdon cultivar average duration of the reproductive period was 14.3 days at 25 °C. The maximum fecundity was obtained at the temperature of 25 ºC with 3,1; 2,8 and 3,6 nymphs/female/day in the Yellow Snowdon, White Reagan and Dark S. Reagan cultivars, respectively. The total fecundity was reduced by extreme temperatures (15 and 30 °C, and was obtained at 25 °C with 35,9 nymphs/female. Females maintained in Yellow Snowdon cultivar significantly showed superiority (30,7 nymphs/female in total fecundity in relation to White Reagan (22,1 nymphs/female and Dark S. Reagan (22,9 nymphs/female. The Yellow Snowdon cultivar (with a lower trichome density had a significant influence in daily and total capacity of nymphs production, showing a higher fecundity of A. gossypii females. The aphid's longevity was affected by cultivars and temperature, and this longevity decreased whit increase of temperature. The results showed that there was an interaction between the temperature and host plant on reproductive parameters of A. gossypii.

  3. Comparative biology of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae focusing on the control of Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae

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    Josiane Teresinha Cardoso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919 and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae have been observed attacking Pinus spp. in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The coccinellids, on the other hand, were found feeding on these aphids in the field, which can be regarded as potential biological control agents. The biological cycle and mortality rate of larvae of Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus, 1763 and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, 1842 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae were evaluated using twenty larvae of each predator species fed with nymphs of Cinara. The vials with the insects were kept under 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC, with 12h photophase and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. The consumption was evaluated every 24 hours and the nymphs replaced. For C. sanguinea, the egg incubation time was 10.5, 5.0 and 4.0 days; the average larval development period was 33.3, 15.8 and 8.6 days and the larval mortality rate 20%,0% and 15%, respectively at 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC. For H. convergens, the larval development time was 41.9, 19.3 and 10.9 days at 15 ºC, 20 ºC and 25 ºC, respectively. The larval mortality rate was 35%, 15% and 0% under the three temperatures. Both species developed adequately when fed nymphs of Cinara, however, C. sanguinea performed better than H. convergens, even at 15 ºC, at which temperature the biological cycles of the coccinellids are prolonged, but the temperature is favorable for the development of Cinara populations in the field.

  4. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties.

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    Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Islam, Md Nazrul; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction.

  5. Sensitivity of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to several new insecticides in China: effects of insecticide type and whitefly species, strain, and stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. The Effects of Some Botanical Insecticides and Pymetrozine on Life Table Parameters of Silver Leaf Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Reihaneh Barati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the effects of extracts of two medicinalplant species: Allium sativum (Linn and Calotropis procera (Aiton, and a formulation containingazadirachtin on life table parameters of silver leaf whitefly (SLW, Bemisia tabaci biotypeB (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, grown on greenhouse tomato plants. Theeffects were compared to that of pymetrozine, a synthetic insecticide. Bioassays were carriedout in a greenhouse under controlled conditions of 27 ± 2°C, R.H. of 55 ± 5% and 16:8h (L:D photo period.All treatments significantly affected the survivorship and fertility of SLW female adults,reducing the net reproduction rate, mean generation time and intrinsic rate of increase ofthis insect.The net reproductive rate [R0] values for the populations treated with garlic extract,milkweed extract, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, control for extracts (ethanol + distilled waterand control for pesticides (distilled water were 23.58, 19.32, 10.78, 8.23, 49.66, 57.55; theintrinsic rate of increases [rm] were 0.134, 0.139, 0.110, 0.090, 0.177, 0.178; the mean generationtimes [T] were 23.49, 21.23, 21.66, 23.50, 22.06, 22.69; the doubling times [DT] were 5.14,4.95, 6.27, 7.56, 3.91, 3.87, and the finite rates of increase [λ] were 1.144, 1.149, 1.116, 1.094, 1.193,1.195, respectively. Azadirachtin had the highest effect on the life table parameters of SLW.Our findings indicated that, although herbal extracts were not effective as much asthe chemical insecticides, they can be effective in pest control. Therefore, they are suitablechoices for replacing chemical insecticides and for alternative use with azadirachtin inSLW IPM program.

  7. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial, nuclear, and endosymbiont markers for the evolution of host plant associated species in the aphid genus Hyalopterus (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Jeffrey D; Roderick, George K; Mills, Nicholas J

    2007-06-01

    Over the past several decades biologists' fascination with plant-herbivore interactions has generated intensive research into the implications of these interactions for insect diversification. The study of closely related phytophagous insect species or populations from an evolutionary perspective can help illuminate ecological and selective forces that drive these interactions. Here we present such an analysis for aphids in the genus Hyalopterus (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a cosmopolitan group that feeds on plants in the genus Prunus (Rosaceae). Hyalopterus currently contains two recognized species associated with different Prunus species, although the taxonomy and evolutionary history of the group is poorly understood. Using mitochondrial COI sequences, 16S rDNA sequences from the aphid endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, and nine microsatellite loci we investigated population structure in Hyalopterus from the most commonly used Prunus host species throughout the Mediterranean as well as in California, where the species H. pruni is an invasive pest. We found three deeply divergent lineages structured in large part by specific associations with plum, almond, and peach trees. There was no evidence that geographic or temporal barriers could explain the overall diversity in the genus. Levels of genetic differentiation are consistent with that typically attributed to aphid species and indicate divergence times older than the domestication of Prunus for agriculture. Interestingly, in addition to their typical hosts, aphids from each of the three lineages were frequently found on apricot trees. Apricot also appears to act as a resource mediated hybrid zone for plum and almond associated lineages. Together, results suggest that host plants have played a role in maintaining host-associated differentiation in Hyalopterus for as long as several million years, despite worldwide movement of host plants and the potential for ongoing hybridization.

  8. No impact of Bt soybean that express Cry1Ac protein on biological traits of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae and its egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae

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    Gabriela Vieira Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No impact of Bt soybean that express Cry1Ac protein on biological traits of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae and its egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae. Biological traits of the stink bug Euschistus heros and its main biological control agent Telenomus podisi were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions (25 ± 2ºC; 60 ± 10% RH; and 14/10 h photoperiod by placing first instar nymphs into Petri dishes with pods originating from two soybean isolines (Bt-soybean MON 87701 × MON 89788, which expresses the Cry1Ac protein, and its near non-Bt isoline A5547 where they remained until the adult stage. Due to gregarious behavior exhibited by first instar nymphs, they were individualized only when at the second instar. Adults were separated by sex and weighed, and pronotum width of each individual was subsequently measured. They were placed into plastic boxes containing soybean grains of the same soybean isoline as food source. Egg viability and female fecundity were assessed in adult individuals. Adult females of T. podisi (up to 24h old were placed with eggs of E. heros from mothers reared on both soybean isolines. Nymphal development time, insect weight, pronotum width, sex ratio, female fecundity, and egg viability (% emergence of Euschistus heros did not differ between treatments. Eggto-adult development time, female longevity, sex ratio, and percentage of parasitized eggs were not impacted by the Bt-soybean (expressing Cry1Ac protein. Results indicate that the Bt-soybean, MON 87701 × MON 89788, has no direct significant impact on the two studied species.

  9. Mapeo estacional de Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae parasitoides de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae en las principales zonas productoras de pimiento de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina

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    Andrea V. ANDORNO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El pimiento ( Capsicum annuum L. es una de las hortalizas de fruto más importantes producidas bajo invernadero en la provincia de Corrientes. Entre las plagas que afectan a este cultivo se encuentran los áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae, los cuales provocan daños directos debidos a la succión de fotosintatos e indirectos por la transmisión de virosis. Los himenópteros parasitoides de la subfamilia Aphidiinae (Braconidae y de la familia Aphelinidae se destacan como los enemigos naturales más eficientes de esta plaga. El objetivo general del presente trabajo es analizar comparativamente la riqueza y abundancia de áfidos y la composición faunística de parasitoides asociados en cultivos de pimiento en invernadero de la provincia de Corrientes. Para ello, se llevaron a cabo muestreos en cultivos bajo cubierta, ubicados en los departamentos Bella Vista y Lavalle, provincia de Corrientes. Se designaron 14 sitios de muestreo, 11 correspondientes al departamento de Bella Vista y tres al departamento de Lavalle. De mayo a noviembre de 2013 se realizaron colectas mensuales de áfidos vivos y parasitoidizados, tomándose cinco estaciones de muestreo por sitio. La única especie de áfido hallada fue Myzus persicae (Sulzer. Sobre la asociación pimiento- M. persicae se registraron cuatro especies de parasitoides primarios y cuatro especies de hiperparasitoides. Aphidius colemani (Viereck y Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh fueron los parasitoides primarios dominantes en los departamentos de Lavalle y Bella Vista, respectivamente. Se discuten aspectos de consideración útil para el control de áfidos plaga del cultivo de pimiento.

  10. Pleistocene sea level fluctuation and host plant habitat requirement influenced the historical phylogeography of the invasive species Amphiareus obscuriceps (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danli; Ye, Zhen; Yamada, Kazutaka; Zhen, Yahui; Zheng, Chenguang; Bu, Wenjun

    2016-08-31

    On account of repeated exposure and submergence of the East China Sea (ECS) land bridge, sea level fluctuation played an important role in shaping the population structure of many temperate species across the ECS during the glacial period. The flower bug Amphiareus obscuriceps (Poppius, 1909) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an invasive species native to the Sino-Japanese Region (SJR) of East Asia. We tested the hypothesis of the ECS land bridge acting as a dispersal corridor or filter for A. obscuriceps during the glacial period. Specifically, we tested whether and the extent to which dispersal ability and host plant habitat requirement influenced the genetic structure of A. obscuriceps during the exposure of the ECS land bridge. Phylogenetic and network analyses indicated that A. obscuriceps is composed of two major lineages, i.e., China and Japan. Divergence time on both sides of the ECS was estimated to be approximately 1.07 (0.79-1.32) Ma, which was about the same period that the sea level increased. No significant Isolation by Distance (IBD) relationship was found between Фst and Euclidean distances in the Mantel tests, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this species has a good dispersal ability. Our Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) niche modeling of plants that constitute preferred habitats for A. obscuriceps exhibited a similar habitat gap on the exposed ECS continental shelf between China and Japan, but showed a continuous distribution across the Taiwan Strait. Our results suggest that ecological properties (habitat requirement and dispersal ability), together with sea level fluctuation during the Pleistocene across the ECS, have shaped the genetic structure and demographic history of A. obscuriceps in its native area. The host plant habitat requirement could also be a key to the colonization of the A. obscuriceps species during the exposure of the ECS land bridge. Our findings will shed light on the potential role of habitat requirement in the process of

  11. Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstone, M H; Tillman, P G; Hu, J S

    2014-06-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae),is a newly invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean, and to detect remains of crop-specific alternative prey in predators' guts as markers of predator migration between soybean and adjacent cotton. M. cribraria was found exclusively on soybean. Eight native generalist predators over both crops screened positive by specific PCR for DNA of the pest: Geocoris punctipes (Say), Geocoris uliginosus (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), Podisus maculicentris (Say), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Zelus renardii (Kolenati), Oxyopes salticus Hentz, and Peucetia viridans (Hentz); a ninth predator, the exotic Solenopsis invicta Buren, also screened positive for M. cribraria DNA. P. viridans was the only arthropod that tested positive for DNA of this invasive pest in only one crop, cotton. Two plant-feeding pentatomid species, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) and Thyanta custator (F.), were found exclusively on soybean, and another, Euschistus tristigmus (Say), was specific to cotton in the context of this study. Detection of predation on a combination of M. cribraria and P. guildinii and T. custator in cotton and M. cribraria and E. tristigmus in soybean demonstrated that these predators dispersed between crops. These results strongly support the use of soybean habitats adjacent to cotton as part of a conservation biological control strategy against M. cribraria. This is the first report documenting predation on this exotic pest in the field via molecular gut-content analysis.

  12. Parâmetros biológicos e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Neopamera bilobata (Hemiptera: Rhyparochromidae em morangueiro

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    Taciana Melissa de Azevedo Kuhn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os parâmetros biológicos e determinar a tabela de vida de fertilidade de Neopamera bilobata (Hemiptera: Rhyparochromidae em morangueiro. O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Entomologia da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Bento Gonçalves, RS, em câmara climatizada (a 23±1°C, 70±10% UR e fotófase de 12 horas. Utilizaram-se folíolos, flores, frutos verdes e maduros de morangueiro 'Aromas' como alimento para os percevejos. O desenvolvimento das fases imaturas e os parâmetros biológicos dos adultos foram monitorados diariamente. O percevejo N. bilobata não completou o ciclo biológico em folíolos e flores de morangueiro. Em frutos maduros e verdes, o tempo de desenvolvimento da ninfa ao adulto foi de 32,8±9,12 e 36,7±6,80 dias, com viabilidade de 27,3 e 51%, respectivamente. O período de oviposição foi de 34,7±21,2 dias, com 319,1±262,7 ovos em frutos maduros, e de 43,9±18,3 dias, com 318,2±144,7 ovos em frutos verdes. Neopamera bilobata completa seu ciclo biológico na cultura do morangueiro. Frutos verdes de morangueiro são mais adequados ao desenvolvimento deste inseto do que frutos maduros.

  13. Host plant, distribution and natural enemies of the red date scale insect, Phoenicococcus marlatti (Hemiptera: Phoenicococcidae and its infestation status in Egypt

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    Mona Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the red date scale insect, Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell (Hemiptera: Phoenicococcidae was recorded as an economic pest of date palm in Egypt. The present work dealt with a survey of host plants, distribution, natural enemies and its infestation status with P. marlatti. The results of the present work indicated that P. marlatti infested Phoenix dactylifera and Washingtonia filifera were found only in 5 governorates in Egypt; Alexandria, Daqahilyia, North Sinai (El-Arish, Giza and Ismailyia. Also, the results indicated that two species of predators were recorded that attacked P. marlatti. These species belong to the Order: Coleoptera, Family Coccinellidae, Pharoscymnus varius (Kirsch and Scymnus punetillum Weise. The results of P. marlatti population dynamics on date palm trees in the first year 2009–2010, indicated that egg density reached its maximum on May 1st, 2010, and its minimum on February 15th, 2010. Preadult density reached its maximum and minimum on May 15th, 2010, and January 15th, respectively, while the highest and lowest adult density were recorded on May 15th, 2010 and January 15th, 2010, respectively. In the second year (2010–2011 egg density reached its maximum and minimum levels on May 1st, 2011 and September 1st, 2010, respectively. Preadult density reached its maximum and minimum on May 15th, 2011 and October 15th, 2010, respectively. Adult density was highest and lowest on May 1st and January 1st, 2011, respectively. The predator recorded in this work in El-Arish region was P. varius. During the first year (2009–2010 no occurrence of predators was noticed from October 15th, 2009 to February 15th, 2010 and the individual population reached its maximum number of 62 individuals per sample. During the second year (2010–2011 no predators were noticed from November 1st, 2010 to February 15th, 2011 and the population reached its maximum number of 58 individuals per sample.

  14. Functional Response of the Predators Alloeocranum biannulipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and Teretrius nigrescens (Coleoptera: Histeridae) Feeding on Dinoderus porcellus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Infesting Yam Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loko, Y L; Djagoun, A D; Dannon, E A; Datinon, B; Dansi, A; Thomas-Odjo, A A; Tamo, M

    2017-02-01

    The functional response and some predation parameters of the predators Alloeocranum biannulipes Montrouzier & Signoret (Hemiptera: Reduviidea) and Teretrius nigrescens Lewis (Coleoptera: Histeridae) were evaluated at five different densities of larvae and pupae of Dinoderus porcellus Lesne (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) with the aim to understand their roles in the biological control of this major pest of stored yam chips. Experiments were performed in petri dishes at 25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h in a controlled temperature room. Both predators showed Type II of functional response with respect to larvae, determined by a logistic regression model. However, T. nigrescens significantly killed more larvae of D. porcellus compared with A. biannulipes. This behavior, however, changed to a linear functional response (Type I), when pupae of D. porcellus were offered to both predators, possibly because of their immobility. In addition, there was no significant difference between T. nigrescens and A. biannulipes in terms of the killed pupae. Parameters of the Holling disc equation for both predators were estimated. Estimated handling time on larvae of D. porcellus for T. nigrescens and A. biannulipes was 0.254 and 0.677 h and the rate of searching efficiency was 0.289 and 0.348 h-1, respectively. Results indicated that T. nigrescens was a more suitable candidate for augmentative release for D. porcellus control than A. biannulipes. However, semifield studies are required to draw firm conclusions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Demography and Mass-Rearing Harmonia dimidiata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Using Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Eggs of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jih-Zu; Chen, Bing Huei; Güncan, Ali; Atlihan, Remzi; Gökçe, Ayhan; Smith, Cecil L; Gümüs, Ebru; Chi, Hsin

    2018-04-02

    We compared rearing Harmonia dimidiata (F.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on four combinations of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and eggs of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the age-stage, two-sex life table. The four combinations were: both larvae and adults were reared on aphids; larvae were reared on aphids and adults were reared on fresh fruit fly eggs; larvae were reared on lyophilized fruit fly eggs and adults were reared on aphids; and larvae were reared on lyophilized eggs and adults were reared on fresh eggs. The highest intrinsic rate of increase (r = 0.1125 d-1) and net reproductive rate (R0 = 260.7 offspring) were observed when both larval and adult stages of H. dimidiata were reared on A. gossypii. When B. dorsalis eggs were used as rearing media for larvae, adults, or both, the values of r and R0 were significantly decreased. The lowest values (r = 0.0615 d-1 and R0 = 38.6 offspring) were observed when both larvae and adults were reared entirely on B. dorsalis eggs. Despite the lower r and R0 values, our results showed that B. dorsalis eggs could be considered as an adequate, less expensive alternative diet for rearing H. dimidiata because of the time and labor savings resulting from the ease of preparation and the ability to store the eggs for timely usage. The mass-rearing analysis showed that the most economical rearing system was to rear larvae on A. gossypii and adults on B. dorsalis eggs.

  16. Characterization of a Recombinant Cathepsin B-Like Cysteine Peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae: A Putative Target for Control of Citrus Huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taíse Fernanda da Silva Ferrara

    Full Text Available Huanglonbing (HLB is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas and the psyllid Diaphorina citri, vector of disease, that transmits the bacterium associated with HLB. The control of disease can be achieved by suppressing either the bacterium or the vector. Among the control strategies for HLB disease, one of the widely used consists in controlling the enzymes of the disease vector, Diaphorina citri. The insect Diaphorina citri belongs to the order Hemiptera, which frequently have cysteine peptidases in the gut. The importance of this class of enzymes led us to search for enzymes in the D. citri transcriptome for the establishment of alternatives strategies for HLB control. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a cathepsin B-like cysteine peptidase from D. citri (DCcathB. DCcathB was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris, presenting a molecular mass of approximately 50 kDa. The enzyme hydrolyzed the fluorogenic substrate Z-F-R-AMC (Km = 23.5 μM and the selective substrate for cathepsin B, Z-R-R-AMC (Km = 6.13 μM. The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitors E64 (IC50 = 0.014 μM and CaneCPI-4 (Ki = 0.05 nM and by the selective cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 (IC50 = 0.095 nM. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that the expression of the DCcathB in nymph and adult was approximately 9-fold greater than in egg. Moreover, the expression of this enzyme in the gut was 175-fold and 3333-fold higher than in the remaining tissues and in the head, respectively, suggesting that DCcathB can be a target for HLB control.

  17. Plant water stress effects on stylet probing behaviors of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) associated with acquisition and inoculation of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugner, Rodrigo; Backus, Elaine A

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT The glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylem fluid-ingesting leafhopper that transmits Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al., a plant-infecting bacterium that causes several plant diseases in the Americas. Although the role of plant water stress on the population density and dispersal ofH. vitripennis has been studied, nothing is known about the effects of plant water stress on the transmission of X. fastidiosa by H. vitripennis. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the influence of plant water stress on the sharpshooter stylet probing behaviors associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa. Electrical penetration graph was used to monitor H. vitripennis feeding behaviors for 20-h periods on citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and almond [Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb] plants subjected to levels of water stress. Adult H. vitripennis successfully located xylem vessels, then performed behaviors related to the evaluation of the xylem cell and fluid, and finally ingested xylem fluid from citrus and almond plants under the tested fluid tensions ranging from -5.5 to -33.0 bars and -6.0 to -24.5 bars, respectively. In general, long and frequent feeding events associated with the acquisition and inoculation of X. fastidiosa were observed only in fully irrigated plants (i.e., >-10 bars), which suggests that even low levels of plant water stress may reduce the spread of X. fastidiosa. Results provided insights to disease epidemiology and support the hypothesis that application of regulated deficit irrigation has the potential to reduce the incidence of diseases caused by X.fastidiosa by reducing the number of vectors and by decreasing pathogen transmission efficiency.

  18. Climate Change Impacts on the Potential Distribution and Abundance of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) With Special Reference to North America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Erica Jean

    2017-12-08

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål; Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), has recently emerged as a harmful pest of horticultural crops in North America and Europe. Native to East Asia, this highly polyphagous insect is spreading rapidly worldwide. Climate change will add further complications to managing this species in terms of both geographic distribution and population growth. This study used CLIMEX to compare potential H. halys distribution under recent and future climate models using one emission scenario (A2) with two different global circulation models, CSIRO Mk3.0 and MIROC-H. Simulated changes in seasonal phenology and voltinism were examined. Under the possible future climate scenarios, suitable range in Europe expands northward. In North America, the suitable H. halys range shifts northward into Canada and contracts from its southern temperature range limits in the United States due to increased heat stress. Prolonged periods of warm temperatures resulted in longer H. halys growing seasons. However, future climate scenarios indicated that rising summer temperatures decrease H. halys growth potential compared to recent climatic conditions, which in turn, may reduce mid-summer crop damage. Climate change may increase the number of H. halys generations produced annually, thereby enabling the invasive insect to become multivoltine in the northern latitudes of North America and Europe where it is currently reported to be univoltine. These results indicate prime horticultural production areas in Europe, the northeastern United States, and southeastern Canada are at greatest risk from H. halys under both current and possible future climates. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: jma_junior@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: emar@depa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: vargasoliveira@uol.com.br

    2009-07-15

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto{sup R}). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  20. Seletividade de inseticidas a Podisus rostralis (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae predador de lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonring Alfredo Henrique Rocha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a seletividade fisiológica dos inseticidas deltametrina, fenitrotiom, malatiom e permetrina em favor de ninfas (3º e 5º instares e adultos (fêmeas e machos do predador Podisus rostralis, empregando-se 50 (subconcentração e 100% da concentração usada no controle de lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto. Deltametrina foi seletivo em favor de ninfas de 3º e 5º instares e adultos (1,94, 0,00 e 7,87% de mortalidade, respectivamente do predador. Permetrina foi seletivo em favor de ninfas de 5º instar (3,55% de mortalidade e medianamente seletivo em favor de ninfas de 3º instar e adultos (28,22 e 32,08% de mortalidade, respectivamente do predador. Malatiom foi medianamente seletivo em favor de ninfas de 5º instar (49,38% de mortalidade e não-seletivo em favor de ninfas 3º instar e adultos (95,34 e 88,99% de mortalidade, respectivamente do predador. Fenitrotiom não foi seletivo em favor de nenhum dos instares do predador (100% de mortalidade. A alta toxicidade do fenitrotiom a P. rostralis não foi reduzida quando o predador foi exposto a 50% da concentração recomendada deste inseticida. O impacto do malatiom (a ninfas de 3º instar e adultos e permetrina (a fêmeas sobre P. rostralis diminuiu quando estas fases do predador foram expostas à metade das concentrações desses inseticidas. O impacto do deltametrina não foi afetado por sua concentração. Ninfas de 3º instar e adultos foram menos tolerantes do que ninfas de 5º instar ao malatiom e permetrina. As fêmeas de P. rostralis foram mais tolerantes que os machos à concentração do malatiom e à subconcentração de permetrina.

  1. Innovatieve huisvesting voor vleeskuikenouderdieren: "Quality Time" stal = Innovative broiler breeder housing system: 'Quality Time' house

    OpenAIRE

    Emous, van, R.A.; Gunnink, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study results are presented of the research of implementing the innovative housing system "Quality Time" concept in a practical poultry house for broiler breeders. The "Quality Time" concept can improve the sexual behaviour and fertility of the eggs.

  2. Onderzoek naar de ammoniak- en geuremissie van stallen LX : stal voor voedsters en vleeskonijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.M.G.; Scheer, A.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia emission from animal husbandry has to be reduced in the Netherlands by 70% in the year 2005, compared with the emission level in 1980. Moreover, new odour legislation requires measurements of the odour emissions of the main conventional and newly developed housing systems. Research was

  3. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina: Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae), their inquiline birds and mammals, new hosts for Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turienzo, Paola; Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-06-03

    The insect fauna in nests of Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae) were studied in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Córdoba, and La Pampa in Argentina. A total of 7364 insect specimens comprising 77 taxa in a total of 29 families and 7 orders was found in their nests: 40 identified to species, 23 identified to genus, and 14 identified to family. Coryphistera alaudina and some of their vertebrate inquilines are new host records for the triatomine bugs Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and/or Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The insects in the nests of C. alaudina are separated by functional guilds, and their permanence time inside the nests are presented in a new manner and discussed.

  4. Alguns aspectos da biologia de Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola, 1964, em condições de laboratório (Hemiptera:Reduviidae:Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina M Gonçalves

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Biology of Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa & Espínola, 1964, under Laboratory Conditions (Hemiptera:Reduviidae:Triatominae - Observations were made on the evolutive cycle of Triatoma pseudomaculata, held under laboratory conditions, fed weekly on bird (pigeon. Of 60 eggs obtained, only 34 nymphs reached the adult stage in a period of X(S=398±76 days. The following parameters were observed: the time immature stages took to develop from egg to adult emergence; the occurrence of the first meal; the time-lapse between the presenting of the blood-meal and the begining of feeding; time of feeding; amount of blood ingested; variation of weight 24 hr after the blood-meal and until the next blood-meal; and the defecation pattern. The experiment was carried out for 20 months, held in BOD incubator with the average of temperature and humidity of 28±1ºC and 80±5% RU, respectively

  5. A review of the Geocoridae of Mexico (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea), with descriptions of four new species, new distributional records, and a key to the known subfamilies, tribes, genera and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2016-10-06

    The family Geocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) from Mexico is revised. Two subfamilies, one tribe, four genera, and fifteen species are treated in detail and descriptions or redescriptions are provided for all. Four new species of Geocoris are described: G. cervantesi (from Baja California), G. coahuilensis (from Coahuila), G. nuevoleonensis (from Nuevo Leon), and G. signoretae (from Aguascalientes, Hidalgo, and Puebla). The subspecies Geocoris thoracicus wickhami (Montandon) is considered a junior synonym of the nominal species G. thoracicus (Fieber). Key to subfamilies, tribes, genera and species recorded from Mexico are included. New distributional records for all of the previously known species are added. Isthmocoris slevini (Van Duzee) and I. tristis (Stål) are recorded for the first time from Mexico. Notes on the biology of most of the species are included. Color dorsal habitus photos, as well as drawings of the paramere, are included to aid in the identification of the species.

  6. Effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs on twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), hop aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and their natural enemies in hop yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, D H; James, D G; Wright, L C; Brooks, D J; Barbour, J D; Dreves, A J; Fisher, G C; Walton, V M

    2009-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological control strategies for spider mites and hop aphid is the extensive use of fungicides for management of hop powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis (Wallr.:Fr.) U. Braun & S. Takamatsu. Field studies conducted in experimental plots in Oregon and Washington in 2005 and 2006 quantified the effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs (i.e., sulfur, paraffinic oil, and synthetic fungicides) on arthropod pests and natural enemies on hop. Fungicide treatment significantly affected spider mite populations in all four studies. Multiple applications of sulfur fungicides applied before burr development resulted in 1.4-3.3-fold greater spider mite populations during summer. Near the cessation of the sulfur applications, or after a lag of 20-30 d, spider mite populations increased significantly faster on sulfur treated plants compared with water-treated plants in three of four experiments. The effect of paraffinic oil on spider mites was varied, leading to exacerbation of spider mites in Oregon and Washington in 2005, suppression of mites in Oregon in 2006, and no significant effect compared with water in Washington in 2006. Significant relative treatment effects for cone damage due to spider mite feeding were detected in Oregon in 2005 in plots treated with sulfur and paraffinic oil compared with water and synthetic fungicides. Mean populations of hop aphids were similar among treatments in Oregon, although sulfur treatment suppressed hop aphid populations in Washington in 2005 and 2006. Populations of individual predacious insect species and cumulative abundance of macropredators were not consistently suppressed or stimulated by treatments in all trials. However, predatory mite

  7. Medición indirecta de la tasa de consumo de adultos e inmaduros de Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae sobre fríjol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Suarez Gonzalez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La biología y ecología de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyroridae, se encuentra ampliamente documentada. Sin embargo, hasta el momento no hay reportes acerca de la tasa de consumo de alimento por este fitófago, un parámetro necesario para modelos de simulación. Por tal motivo, el objetivo de esta investigación fue la medición indirecta del consumo de alimento por el adulto e instares inmaduros de T. vaporariorum basado en metodologías encontradas en la literatura científica. La estimación de la tasa de consumo de alimento por adultos se realizó bajo condiciones de laboratorio, utilizando como unidad experimental una planta de fríjol de dos semanas de edad. El experimento consistió de dos tratamientos: (T1 plantas libres de cualquier fitófago y (T2 plantas sometidas a infestaciones con T. vaporariorum, cada tratamiento con 20 repeticiones y una réplica en el tiempo de todo el experimento. Se registró el peso fresco diariamente en ambos tratamientos. Para el caso de los inmaduros, la unidad experimental consistió en una hoja cotiledónea de fríjol, infestada con una población determinada de inmaduros de cada instar de mosca blanca teniendo así cinco tratamientos (Instar I, II, III, IV y Control cada uno con 17 repeticiones. Se registró diariamente el peso fresco de las hojas. Se obtuvo un consumo promedio de alimento por el adulto de 0,277 ± 0,0042 mg.dia-1. Para los dos primeros instares ninfales se estimó una tasa de consumo de 0,052 mg.dia-1, en el tercer instar de 0,14 mg.dia-1, y para el cuarto instar de 0,19 mg.dia-1. Un adulto de mosca blanca puede consumir en un día seis veces su peso y un inmaduro ocho veces, gracias a su rápido metabolismo y la constante excreción de mielecilla.

  8. Efeito inseticida sistêmico de nanoformulações à base de nim sobre Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae biótipo B em tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Salles de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a ação inseticida sistêmica e o efeito residual de nanoformulações à base de derivados de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae sobre ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, espécie-praga de diversas culturas de importância econômica. Suspensões coloidais contendo nanocápsulas carregadas com produtos derivados de A. indica foram preparadas utilizando polímeros biodegradáveis como poli-ε-caprolactona (PCL e poli-β-hidroxibutirato (PHB. A matriz encapsulada era composta por uma formulação comercial contendo uma quantidade enriquecida e conhecida dos limonoides azadiractina e 3-tigloilazadiractol (Azamax® 1,2 CE. Inicialmente foi estimada a CL50, para ninfas de B. tabaci, de soluções contendo óleo de nim, que foram aplicadas via água de irrigação (solo em tomateiro. Posteriormente, dois lotes de nanoformulações, com variação no tipo e quantidade dos polímeros e na quantidade do óleo comercial, foram testados quanto à ação sistêmica. As nanoformulações NC L5-2 (com nanocápsulas de PCL e NC L6-1 (com nanocápsulas de PHB, as mais eficazes entre as testadas, foram avaliadas quanto ao efeito residual. A CL50 estimada foi de 180,67 mg L–1 de azadiractina. Constatou-se também que a ação sistêmica de óleos e nanoformulações contendo compostos de nim dependem das condições ambientais em que são aplicados. O Azamax® não apresenta efeito deterrente sobre a oviposição, nem age sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário da mosca-branca quando aplicado via água de irrigação no solo no momento da infestação. As nanoformulações selecionadas são bioativas mesmo cerca de 30 dias após a aplicação, não diferindo do produto comercial.

  9. Influence of the corn resistance gene Mv on the fitness of Peregrinus maidis (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) and on the transmission of maize mosaic virus (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, C H V; Brewbaker, J L; Bressan, A

    2013-08-01

    Crops that are resistant to pests and pathogens are cost-effective for the management of pests and diseases. A corn (Zea mays L.) breeding program conducted in Hawaii has identified a source of heritable resistance to maize mosaic virus (MMV) (Rhabdoviridae: Nucleorhabdovirus). This resistance is controlled by the gene Mv, which has been shown to have a codominant action. To date, no studies have examined whether the resistance associated with this gene affects only MMV or whether it also affects the insect vector, the corn planthopper Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Here, we examined the life history of the corn planthopper and its ability to transmit MMV on near isogenic lines that were homozygous dominant (Mv/Mv), homozygous recessive (mv/mv), or heterozygous (Mv/mv) for the gene. A field trial was also conducted to study the colonization of the corn plants with different genotypes by the planthopper. Although field observations revealed slightly lower densities ofplanthoppers on corn with the genotype Mv/Mv than on the inbreds with the genotype mv/mv and their hybrids with the genotype Mv/mv, laboratory assays showed no effects of the gene on planthopper development, longevity, or fecundity. In the field, the corn lines Mv/Mv had a lower incidence of MMV-infected plants. However, in the greenhouse, the transmission of MMV to corn seedlings did not differ across the near isogenic lines, although the corn lines Mv/Mv showed a delayed onset of symptoms compared with the corn lines mv/mv and Mv/mv. The acquisition of MMV by corn planthoppers on the corn genotypes Mv/Mv and Mv/mv averaged 0.2, whereas the acquisition on the corn genotypes mv/mv averaged > 0.3. Our results show that the Mv gene does not influence the fitness of the planthopper vector, suggesting that it may confer resistance by other means, possibly by limiting virus replication or movement within the host plant.

  10. Genetic variation of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), among populations from Serbia and neighbouring countries, as inferred from COI sequence variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prijović, M; Skaljac, M; Drobnjaković, T; Zanić, K; Perić, P; Marčić, D; Puizina, J

    2014-06-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an invasive and highly polyphagous phloem-feeding pest of vegetables and ornamentals. Trialeurodes vaporariorum causes serious damage due to direct feeding and transmits several important plant viruses. Excessive use of insecticides has resulted in significantly reduced levels of susceptibility of various T. vaporariorum populations. To determine the genetic variability within and among populations of T. vaporariorum from Serbia and to explore their genetic relatedness with other T. vaporariorum populations, we analysed the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of 16 populations from Serbia and six neighbouring countries: Montenegro (three populations), Macedonia (one population) and Croatia (two populations), for a total of 198 analysed specimens. A low overall level of sequence divergence and only five variable nucleotides and six haplotypes were found. The most frequent haplotype, H1, was identified in all Serbian populations and in all specimens from distant localities in Croatia and Macedonia. The COI sequence data that was retrieved from GenBank and the data from our study indicated that H1 is the most globally widespread T. vaporariorum haplotype. A lack of spatial genetic structure among the studied T. vaporariorum populations, as well as two demographic tests that we performed (Tajima's D value and Fu's Fs statistics), indicate a recent colonisation event and population growth. Phylogenetic analyses of the COI haplotypes in this study and other T. vaporariorum haplotypes that were retrieved from GenBank were performed using Bayesian inference and median-joining (MJ) network analysis. Two major haplogroups with only a single unique nucleotide difference were found: haplogroup 1 (containing the five Serbian haplotypes and those previously identified in India, China, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Morocco, Reunion and the USA) and haplogroup 3

  11. Deep Characterization of the Microbiomes of Calophya spp. (Hemiptera: Calophyidae Gall-Inducing Psyllids Reveals the Absence of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Three Dominant Endosymbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will A Overholt

    Full Text Available Bacteria associated with sap-feeding insect herbivores include not only symbionts that may increase their hosts' fitness but also harmful plant pathogens. Calophya spp. gall-inducing psyllids (Hemiptera: Calophyidae are being investigated for their potential as biological control agents of the noxious weed, Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia, in Florida. Although there are no examples of plant pathogen transmission by members of the family Calophyidae, several insects in the superfamily Psylloidea are known to transmit pathogenic bacteria in the genera Candidatus Liberibacter and Candidatus Phytoplasma. To determine whether Calophya spp. harbor potentially harmful plant pathogenic bacteria, we sequenced small subunit (SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene amplicons generated from individuals from four Calophya spp. populations: All microbial SSU gene sequences fell into the bacterial domain, with 98-99% belonging to the Proteobacteria. The Calophya microbiomes contained a relatively simple community, with 49-79 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% detected, and only 5-8 OTUs with greater than 1% abundance. Candidatus Carsonella showed the highest relative abundance, with OTUs from this candidate genus representing between 51-65% of all recovered sequences. The next most abundant clade observed was an unclassified Enterobacteriacae group closely related to bacteria from the genera Buchnera and Blochmannia that ranged from 20-31% in relative abundance. Wolbachia populations were the third most abundant group and represented 7-27% of the diversity in microbial OTUs. No SSU rRNA gene sequences from putative pathogenic bacteria from the genera Ca. Liberibacter or Ca. Phytoplasma were detected in the microbiomes of the four Calophya populations. The probability that infected psyllids were present in our colonies, but were not sampled, was extremley low (1.39 x 10(-10. As far as we are aware, our study is the first to characterize the microbiome of

  12. Temperature-dependent models of development and survival of an insect pest of African tropical highlands, the coffee antestia bug Antestiopsis thunbergii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrag, Abdelmutalab G A; Murungi, Lucy K; Tonnang, Henri E Z; Mwenda, Dickson; Babin, Régis

    2017-12-01

    The antestia bug Antestiopsis thunbergii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a major pest of Arabica coffee in African tropical highlands. It feeds on coffee plant vegetative parts and berries leading to a direct reduction in coffee yield and quality. This study aimed to determine A. thunbergii thermal requirements, and to obtain new information on the pest demography as influenced by temperature. Temperature-dependent models were developed using the Insect Life Cycle Modelling software (ILCYM) through a complete life table study at seven constant temperatures in the range 18-32°C. Non-linear functions were fitted to A. thunbergii development, mortality, fecundity and senescence. Model parameters and demographic variables obtained from the models were given for each temperature and development stage. Life table parameters were estimated for nine constant temperatures, from 18°C to 26°C, using stochastic simulations. The minimum temperature threshold (T min ) and the thermal constant (k) for the development from egg to adult were estimated from a linear function at 12.1°C and 666.67° days, respectively. The maximum temperature threshold (T max ) was estimated at 33.9°C from a Logan model. The optimum temperature for immature stages' survival was estimated to be between 22.4 and 24.7°C. The maximum fecundity was 147.7 eggs female -1 at 21.2°C. Simulated A. thunbergii life table parameters were affected by temperature, and the maximum value of intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) was 0.029 at 22°C and 23°C. In general, the life cycle data, models and demographic parameters we obtained were in line with previous reports for antestia bugs or other stink bug species. The relationships between the pest thermal requirements and ecological preferences in highland coffee were discussed. Our results will contribute to risk prediction under climate change for this important coffee pest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Feeding History and Time Elapsed From Field Collection on the Movement Behavior and Response to Stimulation in Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Desen; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Eiden, Amanda L; Cooper, Richard; Zha, Chen

    2017-08-01

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is an obligate blood-sucking insect that has been resurging in many countries. Researching this pest's behavior will help design more effective control methods. In this study, we evaluated the effect of feeding history and time elapsed from field collection on bed bug movement behavior and response to chemical lure or carbon dioxide stimulation in the laboratory. After CO2 was released, bed bugs unfed for 3 d began to return to harborages; in contrast, the ones unfed for 2 and 4 wk spent significantly more time outside their harborages during the first 1 h after than the 1 h before CO2 release. After CO2 release, there was an increase in activity (time spent moving outside harborage) in all bed bugs with different feeding history or time elapsed from field collection. During the 8-h observation period when CO2 was present, bed bug males unfed for 4 wk spent significantly more time exploring outside harborages than the ones unfed for 3 d, 1 wk, and 2 wk. Nymphs collected 1-2 wk and 1 yr ago spent significantly more time exploring outside harborages than the ones collected 43 yr ago. Bed bug's exploratory activity (the total percentage of bed bugs trapped in both baited and unbaited interceptors) was significantly affected by their time elapsed from field collection and their exploratory activity level was 1-2 wk > 6 mo > 5 and 43 yr. Both feeding history and time elapsed from field collection significantly affected bed bug movement, whereas bed bug's response to chemical lure or CO2 (the percentage of bed bugs trapped in the baited interceptor, summarized as the number of bed bugs trapped in the baited interceptor divided by the total number of trapped bed bugs in both baited and unbaited interceptors) was unaffected by the time elapsed from field collection. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved

  14. Distribution of Zelus longipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in south Florida corn fields and its functional response to corn-infesting picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, M; Seal, D R; Nuessly, G S; Capinera, J L; Martin, C G

    2014-10-01

    The milkweed assassin bug, Zelus longipes (L.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), is a generalist predator and a potential biological control agent of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae), which cause considerable economic damage to sweet corn yields in Florida. We studied the potential of Z. longipes as a biocontrol agent of four ulidiid pests in corn fields: Euxesta stigmatias Loew, Euxesta eluta Loew, Euxesta annonae F., and Chaetopsis massyla Walker. Within-plant and within-field distributions of Z. longipes and ulidiids and functional responses of Z. longipes to ulidiid prey were determined. Highest numbers of Z. longipes and ulidiids in the R1, R2, and R3 corn stages were generally in the basal or middle leaves at 09:00 h EST, ears at 13:00 h EST, and top and tassel at 17:00 h EST. Hence, there seemed to be a coordinated migration of Z. longipes and ulidiids from the lowest to the highest parts of the corn plant during the day. Within the corn field, aggregated (clumped) distributions were most common for Z. longipes and ulidiids especially in the later R2 and R3 stages based on Taylor's power law, Iwao's patchiness regression, index of dispersion, and Lloyd's patchiness indices of dispersion. However, predator and prey populations were lower in the R1 stage, and there were inconsistent results for dispersion indices among times of day and between predators and prey. Ulidiid distributions in R1 were mostly regular (uniform) at 13:00 h EST, but aggregated at 09:00 h and 17:00 h. However, Z. longipes R1 distributions were mostly aggregated at 13:00 h, but random or regular at 09:00 h and 17:00 h EST. Handling times for male and female Z. longipes were 1.0-1.39 h and 0.67-0.97 h, respectively, and each had a type II functional response to E. stigmatias, E. eluta, and E. annonae and consumed about five flies per day. Although the population abundance of Z. longipes can vary between seasons, it appears to be a promising biocontrol agent of ulidiid flies in corn.

  15. Factors affecting colonization and abundance of Aphis gossypii glover (hemiptera: aphididae on okra plantations Fatores que afetam a colonização e abundância de Aphis gossypii glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em plantações de quiabeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The control of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae on okra Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consist primarily in the use of insecticides, due to the lack of information on other mortality factors. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of predators and parasitoids, height of canopy, plant age, leaf areas, organic compounds leaves, levels of leaf nitrogen and potassium, density of leaf trichomes, total rainfall and median temperature on attack intensity of A. gossypii on two successive A. esculentus var. Santa Cruz plantations. Monthly number estimates of A. gossypii and natural enemies (visual inspection occurred on bottom, middle and apical parts of 30 plants/plantation (one leaf/plant. Plants senescence, leaf areas and natural enemies, mainly Adialytus spp., spiders and Coccinellidae, were some of the factors that most contributed to aphid reduction. A higher number of aphids was found on the bottom part than medium and apical parts of okra plants. Total rainfall can reduce the aphid population. Trichomes non-glandular or low density, organic compounds leaves and levels of N and K were not important for reducing aphid population.O controle de Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em quiabeiro Abelmoschus esculentus (L. (Malvaceae consiste principalmente no uso de inseticidas, em virtude da falta de informação sobre outros fatores de mortalidade. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar os efeitos de predadores e parasitóides, altura de dossel, idade da planta, área foliar, compostos orgânicos foliares, níveis de nitrogênio e potássio, densidade de tricomas, pluviosidade e temperatura na intensidade de ataque de A. gossypii em dois cultivos sucessivos de Abelmoschus esculentus var. Santa Cruz. Estimou-se, mensalmente, o número de A. gossypii e de inimigos naturais (inspeção visual ocorridos nas folhas (uma folha/planta localizadas nas partes basal, mediana e apical de 30 plantas/plantação. Os

  16. Fluctuación y distribución espacio-temporal de Tuthillia cognata (Hemiptera, Psyllidae y de Ocyptamus persimilis (Diptera, Syrphidae en el cultivo de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae en Ucayali, Perú Fluctuation and temporal-spatial distribution of Tuthillia cognata (Hemiptera, Psyllidae and Ocyptamus persimilis (Diptera, Syrphidae on camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae in Ucayali, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae es una plaga importante en el cultivo de camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh (Myrtaceae en la Amazonía Peruana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la fluctuación y la distribución espacio-temporal de T. cognata y de su controlador biológico Ocyptamus persimilis (Curran, 1930 (Diptera, Syrphidae, entre enero a noviembre del 2004 en los caseríos San Juan y Padre Bernardo, Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. El número de ninfas y adultos de T. cognata fue mayor en la época lluviosa que en la seca, pero no en el número de huevos, ni en el número de colonias. Los huevos, ninfas y adultos prefirieron el tercio superior de la planta en comparación con el tercio medio e inferior en ambos caseríos. La excepción fue la presencia de huevos en el caserío San Juan que no mostró preferencias por ninguno de los tercios. No se observaron diferencias en el porcentaje de infestación por T. cognata entre ambos caseríos y entre la época seca y lluviosa. En O. persimilis, no se encontró diferencias en el número de huevos, larvas y pupas entre la época seca y lluviosa. Se observó que los huevos, larvas y pupas prefirieron el tercio superior de la planta en comparación con el tercio medio e inferior en ambos caseríos. Ambas especies, T. cognata y O. persimilis presentaron un patrón de distribución espacial - temporal agregado. Se encontró una relación directa entre el número de colonias de T. cognata y O. persimilis. Sin embargo, el número de huevos, ninfas y adultos de T. cognata no se encontraron correlacionados con el número de huevos, larvas y pupas de O. persimilis.Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae, is a main pest on camu-camu culture Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh (Myrtaceae in the Peruvian Amazon. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the fluctuation and spatial and temporal distribution of T

  17. Bioactivity of aqueous extracts of Clibadium sylvestre (Aubl. Baill. and Derris amazonica Killip on the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae Bioatividade de extratos aquosos de Clibadium sylvestre (Aubl. Baill. e Derris amazonica Killip no controle do pulgão Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Cramer Filgueiras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies with botanical insecticides have become more popular as an alternative to Integrated Pest Management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of leaf and fruit aqueous extracts, from the species Clibadium sylvestre, and leaves and root of Derris amazonica species at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8%, in the control of the aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae. Four experiments were conducted; two tests with choice preference and two tests with no choice preference, giving nine treatments and five repetitions. Phytochemical screening was carried out from the leaves and fruit of the species C. sylvestre and leaves and root of D. amazonica. Evaluations of mortality, number of nymphs, and deterrence index of the insects were conducted 24, 48 and 72 h after the application of the extracts. The aqueous extracts tested from C. sylvestre fruit concentrations had the highest mortality compared to the control; in the analysis of the number of the nymphs, the aqueous extract from fruit at 8% concentration had a higher efficiency than the other treatments. The D. amazonica leaves extract at 1% concentration showed the highest mortality and the lowest number of nymphs. The D. amazonica root extracts increased mortality at all concentrations tested, and the 8% concentration had the fewest nymphs. All treatments showed a deterrent effect. The 72 h period showed the greatest effect of the extracts, on two species of insects.Estudos com inseticidas botânicos vêm ganhando espaço como alternativa no Manejo Integrado de Pragas. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de extratos aquosos de folhas e frutos da espécie Clibadium sylvestre, e folhas e raízes da espécie Derris amazonica nas concentrações 0, 1, 2, 4 e 8%, no controle do pulgão Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae. Foram conduzidos quatro ensaios, dois testes de preferência sem chance de escolha e dois testes de preferência com chance de escolha

  18. Locais e período de alimentação da cigarrinha vetora de Xylella fastidiosa, Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, em mudas cítricas Feeding sites and food intake of Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, a sharpshooter vector of Xylella fastidiosa, on citrus plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Pedreira de Miranda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A cigarrinha Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae é um importante vetor da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa, agente causal da clorose variegada dos citros. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar o local preferido de alimentação e o período de maior atividade alimentar desta cigarrinha em citros, no sentido de elucidar o comportamento alimentar relacionado à transmissão da bactéria. O local de alimentação foi estudado em ensaio de escolha, no qual 30 insetos adultos foram liberados em gaiolas de observação (n = 10 contendo uma muda de laranja-doce [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck]. Após 1; 15; 21; 25; 39; 45 e 49 h da liberação, contaram-se os insetos na parte superior (ramos com brotações e inferior (haste principal, até H"40 cm de altura da muda. Nos ramos da parte superior, avaliou-se a preferência entre a haste, o pecíolo e o limbo foliar. Em um segundo ensaio, 20 machos e 20 fêmeas de B. xanthophis foram confinados individualmente sobre a haste de 'seedlings' de laranja-doce para determinar os períodos de alimentação, quantificando-se a excreção de 'honeydew' (medida indireta da ingestão em períodos sucessivos de dia e noite, durante 48 h. A maioria dos indivíduos de B. xanthophis preferiu a haste dos ramos novos (62%, na parte superior da muda cítrica (91%. Nos 'seedlings', observou-se maior volume de excreção e proporção de indivídu