WorldWideScience

Sample records for stakes health threat

  1. [African towns and health: references and stakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, G; Fournet, F

    2003-08-01

    Urbanization is a fairly recent phenomenon. Thus during the 19th century, only 5% of the population was living in town. However it is more and more important as urban population has been multiplied by 15 since 1900. In Africa, this evolution is still more recent and the continent remains poorly urbanized. But the rate of urbanization is the fastest in the world and demographic forecasts indicate that by 2025, more than 50% of the African population will live in towns. Consequences of urbanization on human development are not well known. Concepts of demographic and epidemiological transitions were widely used for health. Health transition is another concept, including cultural, social and behavioural determining factors as well as ways of caring and being cared for. These processes account for the reduction of infectious diseases through a fall of mortality and birth rates and the emergence of non-transmissible diseases like cardiovascular diseases, cancers, mental diseases.... Although health situation is depicted as better in towns (better immunization, health care offer, better access to health care...), mortality and morbidity patterns seem to change more quickly in towns than in rural areas. However this is not true everywhere in urban areas where several towns are to be found within the same town and for example, health of populations living on margins may be worse than that of rural populations. Urban people resort to modern health care together with traditional healers, even informal, sometimes illegal health care, involving heavy costs but offering no guarantee as regards their quality and their efficiency for patients and society. It appears that developing countries have to face a new health care demand quite different from the one they used to face before, when they have simultaneously to cope with uncontrolled town growth. Under these conditions, urban health should become a priority.

  2. [Testing doses? Environmental health stakes associated with nanotechnologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouzel, Jean-Noël

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we analyse how nanoscience and nanotechnology have given birth to an important environmental health controversy regarding the potential sanitary dangers of engineered nanomaterials. We show how this controversy is part of a larger picture, made of a series of social and scientific disputes about the effects of man made chemicals on the human body. We show how these disputes have contributed throughout the 20th century to the emergence and the transformation of toxicology as a scientific field, and to test the robustness of the dose paradigm that constitues the cornerstone of this discipline. We suggest that the contemporary emergence of a new scientific field known as "nanotoxicolgy" must be interpreted as a successful adaptation of this paradigm to the specific toxicological questions raised by engineered nanomaterials.

  3. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-30

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke.  Created: 9/30/2013 by Division of Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 9/30/2013.

  4. One Health Perspectives on Emerging Public Health Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyun Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative. Herein, we presented the history of One Health, reviewed current public health threats, and suggested opportunities for the field of public health through better understanding of the One Health paradigm.

  5. Climate change: Bio-technologies are facing a huge challenge. Why is climate changing? Control and measurement of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Soils at the heart of climate change. Between pollution and climate change, the survival of soil organisms. Modelling microbial degradation in soils to analyse greenhouse gas releases. A threat against plant health. The opinion of the seed industry. Truly living clouds. Language, the other stake of the struggle against climate changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas y Melia, David; Delmotte, Marc; Chenu, Claire; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Mougin, Christian; Lamy, Isabelle; Caquet, Thierry; Garnier, Patricia; Sache, Ivan; Pagesse, Pierre; Amato, Pierre; Desprez, Basile; Vernet, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    As the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 decided to react to limit the irrecoverable global warming, this publication, through several articles, outlines that this issue has not progressed at all after 23 years on a political point of view, and has even regressed with respect to initially defined objectives, but has progressed in terms of understanding of climate change under the influence of our production modes, notably in the agriculture sector. Thus, the articles discuss or recall the origin and process of climate change, how greenhouse gas emissions are controlled and measured, how soil are impacted or play a role in climate change as the survival of soil organisms is at stake under the pressure of pollution and climate change, how climate change can be a threat for plants, how the seed industry perceives these issues, how micro-organisms present in the air and clouds are now a topic in atmosphere sciences. The last article discusses the importance of intelligibility of scientific publications on these issues

  6. Resilience and renewal of public policies for flood risk management. Between globalized approach and localized stakes. Is there still a place for threat ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldet, Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    The incertainties due to climate changes are often evocated in order to explain the increase of natural threats. This study aims to explore the dynamics that are at work within the systems of actors dealing with policies for flood risk management and to introduce the evolutions of public action in this field. We will be showing that there are two different levels of changes. The first mutation is based on the integration of (…). This evolution, albeit it isn' t specific with policies for flood risk management, contributes nevertheless to a renewal recognition of the threat. Secondly, we will indicate that the approach of flood risk changed by itself, it is more « including ». In nowadays, to be able to understand natural risk one needs a positioning all-embracing wich is not confined to the hydraulic dimension. To be able to manage the threat one needs to reconsider all the activities of the valley and to put forward a new approach of the natural environment. In order to explain that changes, we will use the resilience concept. In outline, resilience is defined "as the measure of a part of system's capacity to absorb and recover from occurrence of a hazardous event" (Timmerman). This concept allows to describe the system stability and the capacity to confront change and to manage incertainty. The incertainties due to climate change, the troubles to identify the hazards, the multiplicity of representations about the stakes that have to be protected are a lot of factors wich make the flood risk management more complex and lead the system of actors to regular adaptations. This analysis is based on a ethnographic study, we met local government actors, ecological associations, riverside residents associations, experts…. These actors have to manage the floods of the « Touch ». This river is located in south of France, it crosses his valley (…) before to reach the Garonne near to Toulouse. An historic (view) of the management of the river will lead us to

  7. Zika Virus: An Emerging Global Health Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rahul; Nguyen, Desiree; Debs, Luca H.; Patel, Amit P.; Liu, George; Jhaveri, Vasanti M.; S. Kay, Sae-In; Mittal, Jeenu; Bandstra, Emmalee S.; Younis, Ramzi T.; Chapagain, Prem; Jayaweera, Dushyantha T.; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging healthcare threat. The presence of the mosquito Aedes species across South and Central America in combination with complementary climates have incited an epidemic of locally transmitted cases of ZIKV infection in Brazil. As one of the most significant current public health concerns in the Americas, ZIKV epidemic has been a cause of alarm due to its known and unknown complications. At this point, there has been a clear association between ZIKV infection and severe clinical manifestations in both adults and neonates, including but not limited to neurological deficits such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly, respectively. The gravity of the fetal anomalies linked to ZIKV vertical transmission from the mother has prompted a discussion on whether to include ZIKV as a formal member of the TORCH [Toxoplasma gondii, other, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes] family of pathogens known to breach placental barriers and cause congenital disease in the fetus. The mechanisms of these complex phenotypes have yet to be fully described. As such, diagnostic tools are limited and no effective modalities are available to treat ZIKV. This article will review the recent advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of ZIKV infection as well as diagnostic tests available to detect the infection. Due to the increase in incidence of ZIKV infections, there is an immediate need to develop new diagnostic tools and novel preventive as well as therapeutic modalities based on understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease. PMID:29276699

  8. Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.

  9. Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smolinski, Mark S; Hamburg, Margaret A; Lederberg, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    .... The recent SARS outbreak is a prime example. Knowing neither geographic nor political borders, often arriving silently and lethally, microbial pathogens constitute a grave threat to the health of humans...

  10. Emerging infections: microbial threats to health in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lederberg, Joshua; Shope, Robert E; Oaks, S. C

    1992-01-01

    ... on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health Division of Health Sciences Policy Division of International Health INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication fi...

  11. Men's Health: Prevent the Top Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can significantly lower your risk of these common killers. Take charge of your health by making better ... other substances, and don't drive while sleepy. Suicide is another leading men's health risk. An important ...

  12. Climate Change: A Threat to Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Vipin Chandran, K.P; Sandhya, P

    2010-01-01

    Climate change will have a wide range of implications to human health. These include thermal-related morbidity and mortality due to extreme temperatures, effects associated with air pollution, impacts of extreme weather events, malnutrition, water-borne (e.g. diarrhea, cholera, typhoid) and vector-borne diseases (e.g. malaria, dengue). Much of the health risk posed by climate change is preventable or curable through the scale-up of existing health programmes and interventions. Intensive actio...

  13. Ebola virus – new threat to global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina K. Kusumaratna

    2015-12-01

        The Ebola virus outbreak constitutes a serious warning that epidemics may occur anywhere and places every afflicted nation at risk. Therefore it is essential to institute measures to stop its spread and its future threat, which is a moral obligation of members of the health profession, whether academicians, researchers, or health ministry officials.

  14. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  15. Health and safety standards under deregulation threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In the quarterly CLR-News (2-2015), titled ‘The future of the EU health and safety legislation’ (www.clr-news.org under Publications), editor Jan Cremers (Law School UvT and AIAS) questions whether the OHS-policy developed is internal market proof and resistant enough to the reigning dogma of

  16. One Health Economics to confront disease threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalaba, Catherine; Smith, Kristine M; Awada, Lina; Berry, Kevin; Berthe, Franck; Bouley, Timothy A; Bruce, Mieghan; Cortiñas Abrahantes, Jose; El Turabi, Anas; Feferholtz, Yasha; Flynn, Louise; Fournié, Giullaume; Andre, Amanda; Grace, Delia; Jonas, Olga; Kimani, Tabitha; Le Gall, François; Miranda, Juan Jose; Peyre, Marisa; Pinto, Julio; Ross, Noam; Rüegg, Simon R; Salerno, Robert H; Seifman, Richard; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Karesh, William B

    2017-06-01

    Global economic impacts of epidemics suggest high return on investment in prevention and One Health capacity. However, such investments remain limited, contributing to persistent endemic diseases and vulnerability to emerging ones. An interdisciplinary workshop explored methods for country-level analysis of added value of One Health approaches to disease control. Key recommendations include: 1. systems thinking to identify risks and mitigation options for decision-making under uncertainty; 2. multisectoral economic impact assessment to identify wider relevance and possible resource-sharing, and 3. consistent integration of environmental considerations. Economic analysis offers a congruent measure of value complementing diverse impact metrics among sectors and contexts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Personal View Climate change as the biggest threat to public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Against this background, this essay presents climate change as the biggest threat to public health in the region. Potential options to mitigate the effects of this threat are also presented in the article. Identifying the biggest threat to public health in southern Africa. Public health threats are events with potential to adversely.

  18. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system. [Chandy S, Abraham P and ..... distribution of the hosts through international shipping routes. The majority of SEOV-related .... Dalrymple J M 1994 Serological relationships among viruses in the Hantavirus genus, ...

  19. AIDS update: the threat to women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Biologic, cultural, economic, and political factors render women more vulnerable than men to HIV infection and AIDS, and a recent report prepared for the XIV Congress of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics notes that trends indicate that HIV prevalence may soon be found in equal numbers of women and men. HIV infection has followed different epidemiological routes in different parts of the world, and women's vulnerability depends largely upon their culturally conscribed ability to control their sexuality and to request condom use. The ability to use condoms is also tied to the ability to read promotional literature, to access them, and to pay for them. A lack of autonomy also forces many women into prostitution and, therefore, greater risk. Because women are the primary care-givers in most situations, the burden of HIV care falls on them. HIV-infected women bear additional concerns about their children's health. In the US, data on women of all ages indicate that about 50% acquired HIV through intravenous drug use, and a third became infected through heterosexual contact. Among US females aged 13-24, about half of infections were due to heterosexual transmission versus only 2-3% of young men. Worldwide patterns of spread vary, and the US was 21st in the rate of new AIDS cases in 1992. Some countries (such as South Africa) are experiencing rapid growth in new cases, while others are showing a decline due to improved screening of blood products. Intense spread is expected in Asia, Eastern Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. Experts warn that HIV presents an epidemic situation not seen since the emergence of syphilis in Europe. Rather than subsiding when the population at risk has been killed by the disease, HIV will continue to resist being confined to specific risk groups and will require effective intervention to be controlled.

  20. Sugary beverages represent a threat to global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M

    2012-12-01

    Sugary beverages represent a major global threat to the health of all populations. The shifts in distribution, marketing, and sales have made them the plague of the globe in terms of obesity, diabetes, and a host of other chronic health problems. The fructose-laden beverages have unique properties that lead to lack of dietary compensation and direct adverse effects on our health. Global efforts to limit marketing and sales are necessary to protect the health of the planet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyber threats to health information systems: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Raul; Rhine, Emily; Myhra, Matthew; Sullivan, Ross; Kruse, Clemens Scott

    2016-01-01

    Recent legislation empowering providers to embrace the electronic exchange of health information leaves the healthcare industry increasingly vulnerable to cybercrime. The objective of this systematic review is to identify the biggest threats to healthcare via cybercrime. The rationale behind this systematic review is to provide a framework for future research by identifying themes and trends of cybercrime in the healthcare industry. The authors conducted a systematic search through the CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases to gather literature relative to cyber threats in healthcare. All authors reviewed the articles collected and excluded literature that did not focus on the objective. Researchers selected and examined 19 articles for common themes. The most prevalent cyber-criminal activity in healthcare is identity theft through data breach. Other concepts identified are internal threats, external threats, cyber-squatting, and cyberterrorism. The industry has now come to rely heavily on digital technologies, which increase risks such as denial of service and data breaches. Current healthcare cyber-security systems do not rival the capabilities of cyber criminals. Security of information is a costly resource and therefore many HCOs may hesitate to invest what is required to protect sensitive information.

  2. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  3. 24 CFR 5.327 - Nuisance or threat to health or safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Persons With Disabilities General Requirements § 5.327 Nuisance or threat to health or safety. Nothing in..., under the provisions of State or local law, a nuisance or a threat to the health or safety of other... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuisance or threat to health or...

  4. [Principles and stakes of external communication of healthcare networks: the case of heathcare networks for health services accessibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plu, Isabelle; Gignon, Maxime; Emery, Sophie; Purssell-François, Irène; Moutel, Grégoire; Hervé, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare networks which purpose is to manage patients through better coordination of the care, need to develop a communication strategy to be recognized by the public and by healthcare professionals and to be inserted in the healthcare landscape. We firstly will present legal requirements related to external communication of healthcare networks. Then, we will describe the different tools which can be used to communicate about healthcare networks in its area, with the example from a healthcare network for health services accessibility. In the French Public health code, the legal status and the ethical charter of the healthcare network have to be delivered to the healthcare professionals in its area and to the patients. Moreover, the example healthcare network informed collectively and individually the healthcare professionals of its area about its activities. It made it known to the public by the way of departmental prevention manifestations and health education sessions in community social associations. From these examples, we will conduct an ethical reflection on the modalities and stakes of the external communication of healthcare networks.

  5. [Health care research within international normative frameworks and the literature : assessment, stakes and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogognon, Patrick; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-05-22

    Research in health occupies a central place in the elaboration of public policies and the interventions that aim to reduce inequality and make the right to health effective. However, research in health remains marked by inequalities which particularly affect developing countries. The objective of this critical recension of the international normative frameworks and the scientific literature is to present a summary of the assessment, underline the challenges and identify the main recommendations as well as the ethical principles that aim to reduce inequalities in the field of health research. The normative frameworks included in this recension have been adopted by the United Nations Organisation through its agencies specialised in the field of health and scientific research. Particular attention has also been given to the scientific literature concerned with the inequalities in health research. The results of this recension show us that inequalities in health research can be an impediment to the equitable distribution of healthcare services and to human development. With regard to this, these inequalities raise concerns about justice and equity for research institutions, researchers and communities in developing countries. The recommendations and ethical principles analysed here are therefore designed to reduce them and to promote access for developing countries to research and the consequent benefits. Finally, this recension emphasises the need to undertake research to understand the role of research practices in countries of the South in the emergence and persistence of these inequalities.

  6. NOISE IN THE INDUSTRY – THREAT FOR HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin IRIMIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The success of certain industrial activities bring both benefits and negative effects such as pollution, occupational diseas-es, exposure of workers and residents of neighboring areas and high risk in case of technological failure. An undesirable effect of industrial activity which may be considered a threat to workers and residents in the immediate vicinity of industrial sites is the noise. Due to the presence of technology in all activities, is a major problem considering its nature and harmful repercussions on health. Hearing loss and deafness caused by occupational exposure to noise at work are the most common occupational diseases that occur in the European Union. The development of modern technology by increasing the power and speed of the technical equipment, contributed to diversify and increase the number of sources of noise and vibration, and thus to increase the number of people exposed. This paper analyzes the effect of noise from industrial equipment and health risks.

  7. Army Guide to Deployment Health: Health Threat Information and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    cream, and lotion (for relief of athlete’s foot and jock itch). ` Toothbrushes (2) with vented cover, fluoridated toothpaste, dental floss . ` Yeast...insects. ` Trim your fingernails and toenails regularly. ` Brush your teeth twice a day and floss once a day. D U R IN G D EPLO YM EN T 6 / army...High amounts of starch and sugar in rations and limited opportunity to brush make it difficult to maintain good oral health. ` Floss once a day

  8. [The stakes of online gambling in Canada: a public health analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineau, Elisabeth; Leblond, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Available data show that online gamblers spend more money and dedicate more time to playing compared to gamblers who do not play online, and are more likely to experience gambling problems. Among online players, young people and poker players show higher rates of gambling problems. These observations can be explained in part by such dangerous aspects of online gambling (and also electronic gaming machines) as: immediate and convenient accessibility; ability to pay electronically and to play on credit; anonymity; and the possibility for players to consume alcohol or other drugs while playing. These are elements that could facilitate the development or the intensification of problem gambling. This being said, the public discourse about the inevitability of legalized online gambling is quite unanimous and built upon such arguments as: the imperative duty of the state to protect the population against the dangers of the online gambling black market; and the fact that the medium in itself provides excellent consumer safeguards. A growing number of legislators are following the trend and choosing to establish state control over online gambling. We present some epidemiological and analytical data that challenge some of these assertions and decisions. We recommend a better integration of public health arguments into the commercialization and marketing of online gambling.

  9. The health information system security threat lifecycle: an informatics theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Juanita I; Dawson, Linda L

    2009-12-01

    This manuscript describes the health information system security threat lifecycle (HISSTL) theory. The theory is grounded in case study data analyzing clinicians' health information system (HIS) privacy and security (P&S) experiences in the practice context. The 'questerview' technique was applied to this study of 26 clinicians situated in 3 large Australian (across Victoria) teaching hospitals. Questerviews rely on data collection that apply standardized questions and questionnaires during recorded interviews. Analysis (using Nvivo) involved the iterative scrutiny of interview transcripts to identify emergent themes. Issues including poor training, ambiguous legal frameworks containing punitive threats, productivity challenges, usability errors and the limitations of the natural hospital environment emerged from empirical data about the clinicians' HIS P&S practices. The natural hospital environment is defined by the permanence of electronic HISs (e-HISs), shared workspaces, outdated HIT infrastructure, constant interruption, a P&S regulatory environment that is not conducive to optimal training outcomes and budgetary constraints. The evidence also indicated the obtrusiveness, timeliness, and reliability of P&S implementations for clinical work affected participant attitudes to, and use of, e-HISs. The HISSTL emerged from the analysis of study evidence. The theory embodies elements such as the fiscal, regulatory and natural hospital environments which impede P&S implementations in practice settings. These elements conflict with improved patient care outcomes. Efforts by clinicians to avoid conflict and emphasize patient care above P&S tended to manifest as security breaches. These breaches entrench factors beyond clinician control and perpetuate those within clinician control. Security breaches of health information can progress through the HISSTL. Some preliminary suggestions for addressing these issues are proposed. Legislative frameworks that are not related to

  10. Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Borba, Renata S.; Wilson, Michael; Spivak, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees’ natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in honey bee colonies is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and their use in the nest architecture as propolis. We review research on the constitutive benefits of propolis on the honey bee immune system, and its known therapeutic, colony-level effects against the pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis. We also review the limited research on the effects of propolis against other pathogens, parasites and pests (Nosema, viruses, Varroa destructor, and hive beetles) and how propolis may enhance bee products such as royal jelly and honey. Although propolis may be a source of pesticide contamination, it also has the potential to be a detoxifying agent or primer of detoxification pathways, as well as increasing bee longevity via antioxidant-related pathways. Throughout this paper, we discuss opportunities for future research goals and present ways in which the beekeeping community can promote propolis use in standard colonies, as one way to improve and maintain colony health and resiliency. PMID:28468244

  11. Piracy on the high seas-threats to travelers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Nebojša; Missoni, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Piracy has been threatening international sea trade and creating risk for crews and passengers worldwide. The problem is largely confined to the Somalia coast, West Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. The targets are merchant ships, cruising yachts, and passenger ships with several thousand people on board. Such attacks can result in loss of lives, short- and long-term health problems, and can further be complicated by the consequences of hostage situations on shore. The purpose of this article is to present the problem of piracy, its relevance to the field of travel medicine, and help travel medicine practitioners to deal with its specifics before, during, and after attack. Comprehensive literature research was done and published data from 2002 until 2012 from the International Chamber of Commerce specialized division-International Maritime Bureau (IMB)-on 3,806 attacks and 7,635 incidents involving human victims are analyzed. Available occupational health data in merchant marine and epidemiological data acquired on board cruise ships were used to estimate the health risks. From 2002 until 2012, 3,806 ships were attacked including 82 yachts and 13 passenger ships. A number of reported piracy attacks worldwide continued to threaten security and lives on sea. In 2012, 297 incidents of piracy and armed robbery were reported, a total of 585 crew members were taken hostage, 26 kidnapped, and 6 killed as a direct result of the incident.(1) CONCLUSION: The risk of being injured or killed by pirates on board cruise ships is actually very low. Piracy on the world's seas is in decline and remains a reasonably localized issue. While this improvement is a result of continued efforts of international naval forces, that protection is only partial and fails to suppress piracy completely. Piracy still presents significant threat to international travel, and future involvement of travel medicine practitioners in providing advice to travelers to piracy regions or victims of

  12. EMERGING ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN HOSPITAL A THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vichal Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance(AMR threatens the health of many throughout the world, since both old and new infectious diseases remain a formidable public health threat. When pathogenic microorganisms can multiply beyond some critical mass in the face of invading antimicrobials, treatment outcome is compromised. This phenomenon is referred as antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Objective: This retrospective study was conducted to assess the overall antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from tertiary care hospitals as majority of patients here receive empirical antibiotics therapy. Method: This retrospective study was carried out in teaching hospital, Greater Noida to determine prevalence of multidrug resistance in patients in relation to empirical antibiotic therapy in hospital. Various samples (pus,urine,blood were collected for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: Total 500 bacterial strains isolated from ICU, surgery, obstetrics & gynaecology and orthopaedics and their sensitivity pattern was compared in this study. The highest number of resistant bacterias were of pseudomonas sp. i.e. 21(33.87% followed by 16(25.80% of staphylococcus aureus, 12(19.35% of Escherichia coli, Klebseilla sp & Proteus vulgaris were 05(8.06% each & Citrobacter sp. 03(4.83%. Total 62(12.4% bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to multiple drugs. The 31 (50% of these resistant bacteria were prevalent in ICU, 12(19.35% in Surgery, 11(17.74% in Gynaecology, 08(12.90% in Orthopaedics.. All the bacterial strains were resistant to common antibiotics like Penicillin, Amoxicillin, Doxycycline & Cotrimoxazole and some were even resistant to Imipenem. Conclusion: Therefore we have outlined the nature of the antimicrobial resistance problem as an important health issue for national and international community. It is advised to avoid use of empirical antibiotics therapy.

  13. Phytophthora species, new threats to the plant health in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Choi, Woobong

    2014-12-01

    Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries into Korea from 1900 to 2010. The genus Phytophthora, classified in oomycetes, includes more than 120 species that are mostly recognized worldwide as highly invasive plant pathogens. After 2000, over 50 new species of Phytophthora were identified internationally as plant pathogens occurring in crops and forest trees. In Korea, Phytophthora is also one of the most serious plant pathogens. To date, 22 species (about one-fifth of known species) of the genus have been identified and reported as plant pathogens in the country. The likelihood of new exotic Phytophthora species being introduced into Korea continues to increase, thus necessitating intensive plant quarantine inspections. As new potential threats to plant health in Korea, six Phytophthora species, namely, P. alni, P. inundata, P. kernoviae, P. pinifolia, P. quercina, and P. ramorum, are discussed in this review with focus on history, disease, biology, management, and plant quarantine issues.

  14. Phytophthora Species, New Threats to the Plant Health in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Hwa Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries into Korea from 1900 to 2010. The genus Phytophthora, classified in oomycetes, includes more than 120 species that are mostly recognized worldwide as highly invasive plant pathogens. After 2000, over 50 new species of Phytophthora were identified internationally as plant pathogens occurring in crops and forest trees. In Korea, Phytophthora is also one of the most serious plant pathogens. To date, 22 species (about one-fifth of known species of the genus have been identified and reported as plant pathogens in the country. The likelihood of new exotic Phytophthora species being introduced into Korea continues to increase, thus necessitating intensive plant quarantine inspections. As new potential threats to plant health in Korea, six Phytophthora species, namely, P. alni, P. inundata, P. kernoviae, P. pinifolia, P. quercina, and P. ramorum, are discussed in this review with focus on history, disease, biology, management, and plant quarantine issues.

  15. Tetanus: A Potential Public Health Threat in Times of Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Paige; Teisch, Laura; Allen, Casey J; Ruiz, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    for trauma and critical patients to become familiar with the protocols for treatment and immunization of patients that have tetanus-prone wounds, as well as recognize the potential for outbreaks in the settings of major natural disasters. Finkelstein P , Teisch L , Allen CJ , Ruiz G . Tetanus: a potential public health threat in times of disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):339-342.

  16. Healthcare Stereotype Threat in Older Adults in the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W; Jackson, James S; Wheaton, Felicia

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare stereotype threat is the threat of being personally reduced to group stereotypes that commonly operate within the healthcare domain, including stereotypes regarding unhealthy lifestyles and inferior intelligence. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which people fear being judged in healthcare contexts on several characteristics, including race/ethnicity and age, and to test predictions that experience of such threats would be connected with poorer health and negative perceptions of health care. Data were collected as part of the 2012 Health and Retirement Study (HRS). A module on healthcare stereotype threat, designed by the research team, was administered to a random subset (n=2,048 of the total 20,555) of HRS participants. The final sample for the present healthcare stereotype threat experiment consists of 1,479 individuals. Logistic regression was used to test whether healthcare stereotype threat was associated with self-rated health, reported hypertension, and depressive symptoms, as well as with healthcare-related outcomes, including physician distrust, dissatisfaction with health care, and preventative care use. Seventeen percent of respondents reported healthcare stereotype threat with respect to one or more aspects of their identities. As predicted, healthcare stereotype threat was associated with higher physician distrust and dissatisfaction with health care, poorer mental and physical health (i.e., self-rated health, hypertension, and depressive symptoms), and lower odds of receiving the influenza vaccine. The first of its kind, this study demonstrates that people can experience healthcare stereotype threat on the basis of various stigmatized aspects of social identity, and that these experiences can be linked with larger health and healthcare-related outcomes, thereby contributing to disparities among minority groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Stereotype Threat Among Black and White Women in Health Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Fingerhut, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat—the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes—to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one’s ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944

  18. More on Inoculating Against Reactance to Persuasive Health Messages: The Paradox of Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Adam S; Banas, John A; Magid, Yoav

    2017-07-01

    This research examined the efficacy of inoculation as a strategy to mitigate psychological reactance based on the level of threat communicated in the forewarning and subsequent persuasive health appeal. Two 2 (inoculation) × 2 (freedom-threatening language) experiments were conducted. The first (N = 181) used elaborated inoculation designed to enhance the threat of impending reactance to a message advocating for responsible alcohol consumption. The second (N = 159) used limited inoculation designed to minimize the threat of impending reactance to a message advocating for responsible soft drink consumption. Results showed that elaborated inoculation increased reactance, whereas limited inoculation decreased reactance but only when the subsequent appeal used less freedom-threatening language. These findings suggest that inoculation has the potential to facilitate or buffer reactance depending on the level of threat communicated in inoculation forewarnings and in subsequent persuasive health appeals.

  19. Qualia: A Prescription for Developing a Quality Health Threat Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritchett, Beverly A

    2008-01-01

    .... Although the need for inclusion of health and medical information in fusion centers has been documented, relatively few have done so, and a product designed specifically toward health and medical...

  20. Climate change. A global threat to cardiopulmonary health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mary B; Thurston, George D; Balmes, John R; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2014-03-01

    Recent changes in the global climate system have resulted in excess mortality and morbidity, particularly among susceptible individuals with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease. These weather patterns are projected to continue and intensify as a result of rising CO2 levels, according to the most recent projections by climate scientists. In this Pulmonary Perspective, motivated by the American Thoracic Society Committees on Environmental Health Policy and International Health, we review the global human health consequences of projected changes in climate for which there is a high level of confidence and scientific evidence of health effects, with a focus on cardiopulmonary health. We discuss how many of the climate-related health effects will disproportionally affect people from economically disadvantaged parts of the world, who contribute relatively little to CO2 emissions. Last, we discuss the financial implications of climate change solutions from a public health perspective and argue for a harmonized approach to clean air and climate change policies.

  1. Health Education in India: A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of the health education profession and discipline in India. Materials from CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, and Internet were collected to conduct the open coding of the SWOT analysis. Strengths of health education in India include an elaborate…

  2. Moving towards global health equity: Opportunities and threats: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The theme of the 13th World Congress on Public Health, “Moving Towards Global Health Equity: Opportunities and Threats”, strikes an optimistic note as the gaps within and between countries are greater than at any time in recent history. There is no consensus on what globalization is, but most agree that it will ...

  3. Propolis counteracts some threats to honey bee health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations in North America and Europe are currently experiencing high and unsustainable annual losses. It is critically important to understand the impact of individual stressors and the interactions among stressors in order to develop solutions to increase colony health...

  4. The suffering gene: environmental threats to our health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burdon, R. H. (Roy Hunter)

    2003-01-01

    ... How does ionizing radiation damage genes? Clinical uses of ionizing radiation 48 46 4 A phoney war? Electromagnetic radiation 50 Possible effects of mobile phone technology on and human health 52 Power lines and pylons 55 DNA 50 5 Chemical attack Some synthetic chemicals can modify DNA Cytochrome P450s 65 Bad air 65 Oxygen can be bad for us 66 B...

  5. Air pollution: A threat to the health of our children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moshammer, H.; Bartoňová, A.; Hanke, W.; Van den Hazel, P.; Koppe, J.G.; Kramer, U.; Ronchetti, R.; Šrám, Radim; Wallis, M.; Wallner, P.; Zuurbier, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 95, - (2006), s. 93-105 ISSN 0803-5253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Air pollution * children Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2006

  6. Inequalities in health--future threats to equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunning-Schepers, L. J.; Stronks, K.

    1999-01-01

    In discussions about equity there is a tendency to focus on the inequalities in health status that appear to be the result of the material and immaterial consequences of a lower income, professional or social status in society. If we look at publications such as the Black Report in the UK or

  7. SOIL CADMIUM AS A THREAT TO HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cd contamination of soils has been a public concern since the demonstration that soil Cd from Zn mine wastes which contaminated rice paddies had caused excessive Cd absorption and adverse health effects in members of subsistence farm families who consumed rice grown on the contam...

  8. Evaluating Strategies for Achieving Global Collective Action on Transnational Health Threats and Social Inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Steven Justin

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents three studies that evaluate different strategies for addressing transnational health threats and social inequalities that depend upon or would benefit from global collective action. Each draws upon different academic disciplines, methods and epistemological traditions. Chapter 1 assesses the role of international law in addressing global health challenges, specifically examining when, how and why global health treaties may be helpful. Evidence from 90 quantitati...

  9. Qualia : a prescription for developing a quality health threat assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchett, Beverly A.

    2008-01-01

    CHDS State/Local The 9/11 Commission Report called for consolidation of intelligence assets in order to unify the knowledge base of the intelligence community agencies. This concept gave rise to the fusion center as a place for the fusion of multiple information sources from local, state, and federal levels of government. Although the need for inclusion of health and medical information in fusion centers has been documented, relatively few have done so, and a product designed specific...

  10. Zika virus: Global health challenge, threat and current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hafsa; Zia, Aadarash; Anwer, Amania; Aziz, Muneeba; Fatima, Shazia; Faheem, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    ZIKV has emerged as grave global health issue in the past few years. ZIKV was firstly isolated in 1947 from a rhesus sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda. It is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes and infects skin fibroblasts, skin keratinocytes, etc. ZIKV until now was under reported because of its clinical similarity with the dengue and chikungunya. It is usually spread through the course of the sylvatic cycle. In this cycle, the virus or pathogen lifespan is spent between the wild animal and vectors. The intrinsic incubation period is not yet fully known but it is observed that the very first symptoms of ZIKV infection can appear or develop within 3-12 days of time period and usually subside within 7 days of time. There is a strong relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly; other serious brain anomalies to the infant or newborn are Guillain-Barré syndrome. To date no vaccines are available for ZIKV prevention hence only symptomatic treatment is recommended in infected patients. Usually ZIKV is detected by serologic (IgM ELISA), plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) along with in-house" molecular techniques (RT-PCR). ZIKV infection being imminent global health issue warrants strong protective measures to prevent it from becoming an epidemic. Early detection and prevention is the key to tackle this grave potential health hazard. J. Med. Virol. 89:943-951, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... public health or welfare of the United States. 300.322 Section 300.322 Protection of Environment... Removal § 300.322 Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States. (a) As... in a substantial threat to public health or welfare of the United States (including, but not limited...

  12. Inequalities in health--future threats to equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning-Schepers, L J; Stronks, K

    1999-01-01

    In discussions about equity there is a tendency to focus on the inequalities in health status that appear to be the result of the material and immaterial consequences of a lower income, professional or social status in society. If we look at publications such as the Black Report in the UK or Ongelijke gezondheid in The Netherlands, we have to accept that despite our universal access to healthcare and the existence in many Western countries of social security measures that preclude 'real' poverty, considerable differences in health continue to exist between socioeconomic groups. This is corroborated for many other European countries in the research carried out by a concerted action led by Mackenbach. These inequalities in health have been referred to in many countries as inequities, meaning that society finds them unjust and expects them to be 'avoidable' or amenable to policy interventions. However, the research on the causal networks underlying the occurrence and the avoidability of inequalities in health remains sparse and intervention studies seem to focus on policy measures that can be evaluated, but which will most likely have a limited impact on the inequalities measured at the population level. Thus the research community leaves policymakers with very little evidence on which to build policy initiatives that are nevertheless requested by many governments. The third element, which needs to be addressed in this context, is the ominous inequality in access to healthcare. Since the debate on equity in health has rightly been initiated in the context of a broader, more intersectoral approach to health policy, very little attention has been paid, so far, to the issue of universal access to quality healthcare services. This is because in the second half of this century most Western (European) countries have created a healthcare system with universal access, financed either through taxation or through social insurance schemes. It is these financing systems that will

  13. Tuberculosis epidemic poses international threat. World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One-third of the world's population is infected with the tuberculosis (TB) bacillus. Like the common cold, TB is spread through the air and by relatively casual contact. Migration, international travel, and tourism are therefore increasingly allowing TB to penetrate borders. An untreated person with active TB will typically infect 10-15 other people over the course of one year. Only 5-10% of people infected with TB, however, actually become sick or infectious themselves. Nonetheless, among infectious diseases, TB is the leading killer of adults in the world today, currently killing more adults annually than AIDS, malaria, and tropical diseases combined, and almost 300,000 children. The disease accounts for more than 25% of all preventable adult deaths in developing countries. An estimated 300 million people will be infected during the next decade, 90 million people will develop the disease, and 30 million people will die from it. The global resurgence of TB is being accelerated by the spread of HIV, with TB already the leading cause of death among HIV-seropositive individuals. TB, together with AIDS, has overwhelmed health services and devastated urban populations in parts of Africa. The emergence of drug-resistant strains of TB is of particular concern to the World Health Organization (WHO), surely a factor in WHO's April 1993 declaration of TB to be a global emergency, the first declaration of its kind in WHO history. There is no cure for some multidrug-resistant strains of TB, and there is concern that they may spread rapidly around the world. Curing TB cases is the most cost-effective way to check the spread of TB in communities with high incidence of the infection, and the best curative method for TB is the Directly Observed Treatment approach in which health workers watch patients take each dose of medication throughout the full course of the treatment regimen.

  14. The puzzle of nuclear wastes. Radioactive threat to your health..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on what is radioactivity, the radioactive materials as a risk for living organisms, nuclear wastes all over France (list and map of the storage sites, power plants and fuel cycle centers), nuclear wastes at every step of the nuclear connection, the insolvable problem of high activity wastes, burying nuclear wastes in order to better forget them, radioactivity as a time bomb for our health, radioactive effluents as an under-estimated risk, artificial radioactivity already responsible for the death of 61 million people in the world, and so on

  15. Emerging fungal threats to animal, plant and ecosystem health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew C; Henk, Daniel A; Briggs, Cheryl J; Brownstein, John S; Madoff, Lawrence C; McCraw, Sarah L; Gurr, Sarah J

    2012-04-11

    The past two decades have seen an increasing number of virulent infectious diseases in natural populations and managed landscapes. In both animals and plants, an unprecedented number of fungal and fungal-like diseases have recently caused some of the most severe die-offs and extinctions ever witnessed in wild species, and are jeopardizing food security. Human activity is intensifying fungal disease dispersal by modifying natural environments and thus creating new opportunities for evolution. We argue that nascent fungal infections will cause increasing attrition of biodiversity, with wider implications for human and ecosystem health, unless steps are taken to tighten biosecurity worldwide.

  16. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    envineer lix inc in at Chicaoo suburb. Shortly after his return front Niecria. hie walked into a health clinic complaining of tever and( sore throat...TSP! HAM. becfins wvith difficulties in walking and \\AeaknesN and spasticitv in the lees: it carl also include back pain, sensory disturbances...dis’ease has. eme rged (Recex e et at.. I 989ý Fplidemiol01!-ical stu~die’. has sissi that IIPV infection t(\\kitl] IPV t\\pCes 10 aind I8 X)i, thle

  17. Campylobacter in the environment: A major threat to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hasan Abulreesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data suggest that Campylobacter remains a worldwide leading cause of gastrointestinal infections. Improperly prepared meat products, unpasteurized milk as well as non chlorinated drinking water were shown to be the main sources of campylobacteriosis. The Campylobacter survival mechanism in various environments facilitated the transmission of Campylobacter-associated infections; however the exact mode of transmission remains to be elucidated. This review aims to summarize recent insights on the incidence and survival of Campylobacter in the environment. Besides, methods of detection and risk assessment for public health safety are also addressed.

  18. Infectious diseases -- new and ancient threats to world health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, S J; Carnes, B; Rogers, R G; Smith, L

    1997-07-01

    Infectious and parasitic diseases remain a leading cause of death and disability in developing countries and are re-emerging as a serious health problem in developed countries. Outbreaks of Ebola, dengue hemorrhagic fever, cholera, and bubonic plague have occurred in low-income countries and multidrug-resistant organisms have surfaced throughout the world. Since 1973, over 28 new disease-causing microbes have been identified. This issue of "Population Bulletin" analyzes the impact of factors such as population growth, urbanization, migration, poverty, travel, agricultural practices, climate changes, natural disasters, and medical technology on the resurgence of infectious and parasitic diseases as well as the influence of diseases such as AIDS on population dynamics and socioeconomic development. Most of these diseases could be prevented, cured, or eradicated with known public health measures. National governments can help reduce poverty, step up immunization programs, and lessen the chances of introducing new diseases. Nongovernmental organizations can disseminate preventive knowledge and monitor disease outbreaks. The medical profession can strengthen infection control precautions and institute surveillance of the use of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Since the geographic isolation that used to contain disease outbreaks has been replaced by permeable international borders, the campaign against infectious and parasitic diseases must be global.

  19. Health benefits, ecological threats of low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Thomas; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Arvesen, Anders; Singh, Bhawna; Verones, Francesca

    2017-03-01

    Stabilizing global temperature will require a shift to renewable or nuclear power from fossil power and the large-scale deployment of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) for remaining fossil fuel use. Non-climate co-benefits of low-carbon energy technologies, especially reduced mortalities from air pollution and decreased ecosystem damage, have been important arguments for policies to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking into account a wide range of environmental mechanisms and the complex interactions of the supply chains of different technologies, we conducted the first life cycle assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts of a global low-carbon electricity scenario. Our assessment indicates strong human health benefits of low-carbon electricity. For ecosystem quality, there is a significant trade-off between reduced pollution and climate impacts and potentially significant ecological impacts from land use associated with increased biopower utilization. Other renewables, nuclear power and CCS show clear ecological benefits, so that the climate mitigation scenario with a relatively low share of biopower has lower ecosystem impacts than the baseline scenario. Energy policy can maximize co-benefits by supporting other renewable and nuclear power and developing biomass supply from sources with low biodiversity impact.

  20. A new threat to public health: organochlorines and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R H

    1992-01-01

    Ambient levels of persistent toxic chemicals, chemicals that persist for decades in the environment, have reached levels high enough to affect the health of children. The organochlorines (PCBs, DDT and the dioxin family) accumulate in human adipose tissue. Pregnant women pass the contamination to their fetuses. The developing nervous system is the most vulnerable. Neurobehavioral deficits, including short-term memory loss, are detected in children born to mothers at the high end of the distribution curve of organochlorines. Humans are not alone in their susceptibility to these subtle effects. Wildlife exposed to the same spectrum of organochlorines as humans suffer a variety of behavioral changes. Rats and Rhesus monkeys fed diets containing the organochlorines under laboratory conditions exhibit behavioral changes that persist into adulthood. For humans, food provides 80 percent of organochlorine contamination. Meat, fish, dairy and commercial fruit are the main sources. A vegetarian diet including unsprayed fruit minimizes contamination. The ultimate solution to this public health problem is elimination of the organochlorines from the environment.

  1. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Halperin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise.

  2. The City at Stake:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Esmann Andersen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the city have been addressed from many different approaches such as law, political science, art history and public administration, in which the eco-nomic, political and legal status of the city have played a major role. However, a new agenda for conceptualizing the city has emerged, in which the city assumes new roles. By using stakeholder theory as a framework for conceptualizing the city, we argue that the city assumes a political-economic agenda-setting role as well as providing a stage for identity constructions and relational performances for consumers, organizations, the media, politicians and other stakeholders. Stakeholder theory allows us to conceptualize the city as being constituted by stakes and relationships between stakeholders which are approached from three analytical positions (modern, postmodern and hypermodern, respectively, thereby allowing us to grasp different stakes and types of relationships, ranging from functional and contractual relationships to individualized and emotionally driven or more non-committal and fluid forms of relationships. In order to support and illustrate the analytical potentials of our framework for conceptualizing urban living, we introduce a project which aims to turn the city of Aarhus into a CO2-neutral city by the year 2030, entitled Aarhus CO2030. We conclude that applying stakeholder theory to a hyper-complex organization such as a city opens up for a reconceptualization of the city as a web of stakes and stakeholder relations. Stakeholder theory contributes to a nuanced and elaborate understanding of the urban complexity and web of both enforced and voluntary relationships as well as the different types of relationships that characterize urban life.

  3. Threat of Deportation as Proximal Social Determinant of Mental Health Amongst Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Nicholas M; Koh, Chiu Yee; Amirrudin, Amirah

    2017-06-01

    While migration health studies traditionally focused on socioeconomic determinants of health, an emerging body of literature is exploring migration status as a proximate cause of health outcomes. Study 1 is a path analysis of the predictors of mental health amongst 582 documented migrant workers in Singapore, and shows that threat of deportation is one of the most important proximate social determinants of predicted mental illness, and a mediator of the impact of workplace conflict on mental health. Study 2 is a qualitative study of the narratives of 149 migrant workers who were in workplace conflict with their employers, and demonstrates that workers believed threats were used as a negotiating strategy during workplace conflicts. Findings suggest that migration status places workers who come into workplace conflict with their employers at heightened risk of mental illness because migration status can be used as a tool by employers in workplace negotiations.

  4. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M. P.; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation. PMID:29494705

  5. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation.

  6. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Barcellos, Christovam; Feitosa, Patrícia; Damacena, Giseli N; Andreazzi, Marco A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria ...

  7. Task shifting-perception of stake holders about adequacy of training and supervision for community mental health workers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Osei, Akwasi; Mcloughlin, Declan M; McAuliffe, Eilish

    2016-06-01

    There is growing interest in the effectiveness of task shifting as a strategy for addressing expanding health care challenges in settings with shortages of qualified health personnel. The aim of this study is to examine the perception of stakeholders about the adequacy of training, supervision and support offered to community mental health workers (CMHWs) in Ghana. To address this aim we designed and administered self-completed, semi-structured questionnaires adapted to three specific stakeholder groups in Ghana. The questionnaires were administered to 11 psychiatrists, 29 health policy implementers/coordinators and 164 CMHWs, across Ghana, including 71 (43.3%) Community Psychiatric Nurses (CPNs), 19 (11.6%) Clinical Psychiatric Officers (CPOs) and 74 (45.1%) Community Mental Health Officers (CMHOs). Almost all the stakeholders believed CMHWs in Ghana receive adequate training for the role they are expected to play although many identify some gaps in the training of these mental health workers for the expanded roles they actually play. There were statistically significant differences between the different CMHW groups and the types of in-service training they said they had attended, the frequency with which their work was supervised, and the frequency with which they received feedback from supervisors. CPOs were more likely to attend all the different kinds of in-service training than CMHOs and CPNs, while CMHOs were more likely than CPOs and CPNs to report that their work is never supervised or that they rarely or never receive feedback from supervisors. There was disparity between what CMHWs said were their experiences and the perception of policy makers with respect to the types of in-service training that is available to CMHWs. There is a need to review the task shifting arrangements, perhaps with a view to expanding it to include more responsibilities, and therefore review the curriculum of the training institution for CMHWs and also to offer them regular in

  8. Health and environmental threats associated with the destruction of chemical weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, Jirí

    2006-09-01

    Still existing arsenals of chemical weapons (CW) pose not only security threats for possible use in hostilities by state actors or misuse by terrorists but also safety threats to humans and biota due to leakages and possible accidents. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) commits the States Parties (SPs) to destroy CW using technologies taking into consideration human health and environmental protection. It does not allow methods, routinely used up to the 1970s, such as earth burial, open-pit burning, and sea dumping. Long-term health and environmental threats and some accidents that have already occurred in the known localities of the sea-dumped and earth-buried arsenals of Nazi-German armed forces in the Baltic Region and of Imperial Japanese forces in the Far East Region are analyzed according to the impact of major CW and ammunition types (i.e., sulfur mustard--HD, tabun--GA, arsenicals--DA, DC, DM, arsine oil, and chloroacetophenone--CN). Any possible operations and handling with CW envisaged by the CWC as well as their verification are summarized taking into account the health threat they pose. CW and toxic armament waste to be destroyed and applied technologies (both developed and under current use in operational CW destruction facilities [CWDF]) are reviewed as are systems of health safety and environmental protection of the destruction/demilitarization stems from the extraordinary high toxicity of supertoxic lethal agents in man and biota. Problems of currently used Russian and U.S. standards for maximum allowable workplace concentrations and general population limits and possibilities of their determination by available analytical instrumentation are discussed.

  9. Health effects of technologies for power generation: Contributions from normal operation, severe accidents and terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, Stefan; Bauer, Christian; Burgherr, Peter; Cazzoli, Eric; Heck, Thomas; Spada, Matteo; Treyer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    As a part of comprehensive analysis of current and future energy systems we carried out numerous analyses of health effects of a wide spectrum of electricity supply technologies including advanced ones, operating in various countries under different conditions. The scope of the analysis covers full energy chains, i.e. fossil, nuclear and renewable power plants and the various stages of fuel cycles. State-of-the-art methods are used for the estimation of health effects. This paper addresses health effects in terms of reduced life expectancy in the context of normal operation as well as fatalities resulting from severe accidents and potential terrorist attacks. Based on the numerical results and identified patterns a comparative perspective on health effects associated with various electricity generation technologies and fuel cycles is provided. In particular the estimates of health risks from normal operation can be compared with those resulting from severe accidents and hypothetical terrorist attacks. A novel approach to the analysis of terrorist threat against energy infrastructure was developed, implemented and applied to selected energy facilities in various locations. Finally, major limitations of the current approach are identified and recommendations for further work are given. - Highlights: • We provide state-of-the-art comparative assessment of energy health risks. • The scope of the analysis should to the extent possible cover full energy chains. • Health impacts from normal operation dominate the risks. • We present novel approach to analysis of terrorist threat. • Limitations include technology choices, geographical coverage and terrorist issues.

  10. Risk perception and environmental health concerns in conditions of social security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarova, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: this study explores the connection between the perception of different societal risk, health concerns and behavioral attitudes of people in condition of social security threat. Two small and two big industrial towns were chosen in order to observe the social and psychological price of the structural changes in the industry such as unemployment and its reflection on the households and the individuals' social attitudes. Key stakeholders were interviewed and questionnaire survey was carried out. The results showed high level of risk sensitivity and health concerns when people felt threatened by lack of social and economic security. The pollution was found to be important problem when it caused direct and obvious risk to human health and the environment. In the same time reverse environmental behavior like insensitiveness and neglectful attitude was observed in cases when the health consequences of the pollution were perceived to be unclear and with delayed effect. In situation of a great socio-economic threat noninvolvement helped the individuals to adapt. The research proved the influence of several risk characteristics on risk perception. It was found a connection between the risk perception and risk controllability, voluntariness of exposure and cost/benefits distribution. In the study areas respondents' judgments on these characteristics reflected directly their social status and material state. The study presented here is in progress - it i's supported by research grant from Open Society Foundation. (author)

  11. Global Climate Change and Children’s Health: Threats and Strategies for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Perry E.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Global climate change will have multiple effects on human health. Vulnerable populations—children, the elderly, and the poor—will be disproportionately affected. Objective We reviewed projected impacts of climate change on children’s health, the pathways involved in these effects, and prevention strategies. Data sources We assessed primary studies, review articles, and organizational reports. Data synthesis Climate change is increasing the global burden of disease and in the year 2000 was responsible for > 150,000 deaths worldwide. Of this disease burden, 88% fell upon children. Documented health effects include changing ranges of vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue; increased diarrheal and respiratory disease; increased morbidity and mortality from extreme weather; changed exposures to toxic chemicals; worsened poverty; food and physical insecurity; and threats to human habitation. Heat-related health effects for which research is emerging include diminished school performance, increased rates of pregnancy complications, and renal effects. Stark variation in these outcomes is evident by geographic region and socioeconomic status, and these impacts will exacerbate health disparities. Prevention strategies to reduce health impacts of climate change include reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation through multiple public health interventions. Conclusions Further quantification of the effects of climate change on children’s health is needed globally and also at regional and local levels through enhanced monitoring of children’s environmental health and by tracking selected indicators. Climate change preparedness strategies need to be incorporated into public health programs. PMID:20947468

  12. Global climate change and children's health: threats and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Perry E; Landrigan, Philip J

    2011-03-01

    Global climate change will have multiple effects on human health. Vulnerable populations-children, the elderly, and the poor-will be disproportionately affected. We reviewed projected impacts of climate change on children's health, the pathways involved in these effects, and prevention strategies. We assessed primary studies, review articles, and organizational reports. Climate change is increasing the global burden of disease and in the year 2000 was responsible for > 150,000 deaths worldwide. Of this disease burden, 88% fell upon children. Documented health effects include changing ranges of vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue; increased diarrheal and respiratory disease; increased morbidity and mortality from extreme weather; changed exposures to toxic chemicals; worsened poverty; food and physical insecurity; and threats to human habitation. Heat-related health effects for which research is emerging include diminished school performance, increased rates of pregnancy complications, and renal effects. Stark variation in these outcomes is evident by geographic region and socioeconomic status, and these impacts will exacerbate health disparities. Prevention strategies to reduce health impacts of climate change include reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation through multiple public health interventions. Further quantification of the effects of climate change on children's health is needed globally and also at regional and local levels through enhanced monitoring of children's environmental health and by tracking selected indicators. Climate change preparedness strategies need to be incorporated into public health programs.

  13. [Tuberculosis and refusal of treatment: resorting to legislation on serious health threats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, R; Le Gueut, M

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians are regularly confronted with the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. For several years, the French public health authorities have been studying the possibility of compelling treatment or isolation, but no plan has been implemented even though European and American experiences have shown the effectiveness of restrictive measures. Neither the statutory exceptions to the principle of consent to medical treatment nor the conditions of implementation of "required care" allow legally binding measures against patients refusing care or isolation. The legislation on serious health threats has recently been applied to the situation of a refusal of treatment in the context of tuberculosis. It allowed the patient to be ordered to observe prescribed care and the possibility of forced isolation in the event of breach of this order. The legislation on serious health threats is a response to the question of refusal of treatment from patients with tuberculosis. However the opinion of the legal authority as to its necessity and proportionality to the risk remains unknown. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. EU alerting and reporting systems for potential chemical public health threats and hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, R; Crabbe, H; Hague, C; Schaper, A; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2014-11-01

    A number of European and international IT platforms are used to notify competent authorities of new potential chemical exposures. Recently the European Parliament and the Council of European Union adopted new legislation that aims to improve the co-ordinated response to cross border health threats (Decision 1082/2013/EU). The Decision, inter alia, sets provisions on notification, ad hoc monitoring and coordination of public health measures following serious cross border threats to health from biological, chemical and environmental events as well as events that have an unknown origin. The legal instrument applies to all European Union Member States and is comparable to the International Health Regulations in its content, requirements and adoption of a multiple hazards approach. An inter-sectoral and multidisciplinary response to events with potentially dangerous cross border exposure pathways is often required. For example, European Poisons Centres may be aware of cases of toxic exposure to a product and, in parallel, trading standards may be aware of the same product due to a breach of consumer product standards. Whilst both cases would have been recorded for separate purposes in different alerting systems, they relate to the same exposure pathway; therefore a process for linking these records would allow a more robust approach to risk assessment and risk mitigation. The Decision seeks to reconcile this issue for serious threats by linking relevant platforms into one overarching higher level risk management IT platform called the Early Warning Response System (EWRS). This system will serve to link other sectors within the European Commission (EC) to public health (e.g. medicines), as well as other EU agencies and international bodies via co-notification features. Other European alert systems will be linked to EWRS to facilitate information sharing at both the assessment and management levels. This paper provides a timely overview of the main systems run by the EC

  15. Karm betoon, roheline kanjon : STAKES-i ja Senati kinnisvara büroo, Lintulahdenkuja 4, Sörnäinen, Helsingi = Office Facilities for the National Research and Development Centre for Welfare an Health (STAKES) and Senate Properties / Mikko Heikkinen,

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heikkinen, Mikko

    2004-01-01

    Senati kinnisvarafirma valis oma peakorteri asukohaks endise lao. Samas ehitati STAKES-i uus hoone. Projekteerija: Heikkinen-Komonen OY. Autorid Mikko Heikkinen, Markku Komonen. Sisekujundus: Suunnittelupalvelut (STAKES), Heikkinen-Komonen (Senat). Maastikukujundus: Byman & Ruokonen. Valmis 2002. I korruse plaan, välis- ja sisevaated

  16. Universal health coverage: a quest for all countries but under threat in some.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Martin; Balabanova, Dina; Basu, Sanjay; Ricciardi, Walter; Stuckler, David

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, health care has been making a growing contribution to population health in many countries. Yet its benefits are still denied to many people worldwide. This article describes how many countries, both developed and developing, have pursued the quest to achieve universal health care. This has been an explicitly political process. In Europe, it emerged from a belief in solidarity, a fear of revolution, and a changing view of the role of the state. In developing countries, progress was more erratic, characterized by debates about the affordability of universal health care, until it was realized that functioning health systems were essential to deliver development goals. Throughout, the United States has been an exception. An analysis of progress toward universal health care, combining a review of existing theories and new empirical analysis, identifies five factors as important: the strength of organized labor and left-wing parties, adequate economic resources, absence of societal divisions, weakness of institutions that might oppose it (such as organized medicine), and windows of opportunity. Having noted the substantial benefits accruing from universal health care, the article concludes with an analysis of how universal health care is under threat in some European countries and a warning about the risks posed by current radical austerity policies. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Staking out the successful student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Brown

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available With the performance of students, teachers, and schools defining success under current standards-based accountability policies (e.g. Chicago Public Schools (Note 1; No Child Left Behind Act, (United States Department of Education, 2002, school districts are implementing various forms of intervention programs as a means to improve student performance. By examining a pilot summer school program that is transitioning from a ‘low-stakes' to a ‘high-stakes' intervention program, this article examines the possibilities that exist for students to author themselves as learners, and it questions whether opportunities for students to identify themselves as successful learners are lost when an intervention program, such as summer school, becomes mandatory. The implications of this analysis highlight questions and concerns that policymakers and school personnel need to address when formulating high-stakes standards-based accountability policies and intervention programs.

  18. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Christovam; Feitosa, Patrícia; Damacena, Giseli N; Andreazzi, Marco A

    2010-06-17

    Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic growth increases the risk of AIDS

  19. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  20. Stakes Matter in Ultimatum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Ertaç, Seda; Gneezy, Uri

    2011-01-01

    One of the most robust findings in experimental economics is that individuals in one-shot ultimatum games reject unfair offers. Puzzlingly, rejections have been found robust to substantial increases in stakes. By using a novel experimental design that elicits frequent low offers and uses much lar...

  1. Cultivating the Myopic Learner: The Shared Project of High-Stakes and Low-Stakes Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that, despite the obvious and important differences between high-stakes and low-stakes assessment, there remain important points in common. These manifest themselves at a sociological level, where each tradition of assessment shares a similar disposition towards power. It is argued that both high-stakes and low-stakes assessment,…

  2. Envirhom: stakes and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After a recall of the evolution of the international system for the protection against ionizing radiations, this report discusses the evolution of a new societal context (evolution of risk perception, concern about accidental situations). It also discusses the emerging scientific issues and challenges regarding the knowledge about biological and health effects of ionizing radiations, which requires investigations on the ecosystems, the effects of chronic low level exposures, and the propagation of effects at different biological levels (cells, tissue, individual, population, communities, and ecosystems). Then, it presents the IRSN environment-health research program, ENVIRHOM, its objectives, and its results concerning the environment on the one side, and health on the other side. The 'environment' side and the 'health' side of this program are then more precisely presented as well as their results

  3. Multiple Threats to Child Health from Fossil Fuel Combustion: Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica P

    2017-02-01

    Approaches to estimating and addressing the risk to children from fossil fuel combustion have been fragmented, tending to focus either on the toxic air emissions or on climate change. Yet developing children, and especially poor children, now bear a disproportionate burden of disease from both environmental pollution and climate change due to fossil fuel combustion. This commentary summarizes the robust scientific evidence regarding the multiple current and projected health impacts of fossil fuel combustion on the young to make the case for a holistic, child-centered energy and climate policy that addresses the full array of physical and psychosocial stressors resulting from fossil fuel pollution. The data summarized here show that by sharply reducing our dependence on fossil fuels we would achieve highly significant health and economic benefits for our children and their future. These benefits would occur immediately and also play out over the life course and potentially across generations. Going beyond the powerful scientific and economic arguments for urgent action to reduce the burning of fossil fuels is the strong moral imperative to protect our most vulnerable populations. Citation: Perera FP. 2017. Multiple threats to child health from fossil fuel combustion: impacts of air pollution and climate change. Environ Health Perspect 125:141-148; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP299.

  4. Technical solutions for mitigating security threats caused by health professionals in clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Aleman, Jose Luis; Belen Sanchez Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Mateos, Gines; Toval, Ambrosio

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a brief description of technical solutions for health information system security threats caused by inadequate security and privacy practices in healthcare professionals. A literature search was carried out in ScienceDirect, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Digital Library to find papers reporting technical solutions for certain security problems in information systems used in clinical settings. A total of 17 technical solutions were identified: measures for password security, the secure use of e-mail, the Internet, portable storage devices, printers and screens. Although technical safeguards are essential to the security of healthcare organization's information systems, good training, awareness programs and adopting a proper information security policy are particularly important to prevent insiders from causing security incidents.

  5. Assessing barriers to health insurance and threats to equity in comparative perspective: The Health Insurance Access Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quesnel-Vallée Amélie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typologies traditionally used for international comparisons of health systems often conflate many system characteristics. To capture policy changes over time and by service in health systems regulation of public and private insurance, we propose a database containing explicit, standardized indicators of policy instruments. Methods The Health Insurance Access Database (HIAD will collect policy information for ten OECD countries, over a range of eight health services, from 1990–2010. Policy indicators were selected through a comprehensive literature review which identified policy instruments most likely to constitute barriers to health insurance, thus potentially posing a threat to equity. As data collection is still underway, we present here the theoretical bases and methodology adopted, with a focus on the rationale underpinning the study instruments. Results These harmonized data will allow the capture of policy changes in health systems regulation of public and private insurance over time and by service. The standardization process will permit international comparisons of systems’ performance with regards to health insurance access and equity. Conclusion This research will inform and feed the current debate on the future of health care in developed countries and on the role of the private sector in these changes.

  6. Threat appeals in health communication: messages that elicit fear and enhance perceived efficacy positively impact on young male drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Carey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health communications often present graphic, threat-based representations of the potential consequences of health-risk behaviours. These ‘threat appeals’ feature prominently in public health campaigns, but their use is controversial, with studies investigating their efficacy reporting inconsistent, and often negative, findings. This research examined the impact of a threat-based road safety advertisement on the driving behaviour of young male drivers. Methods To address limitations of previous research, we first identified a road safety advertisement that objectively and subjectively elicited fear using physiological and subjective measures. Study 1 (n = 62 examined the effect of this advertisement, combined with a manipulation designed to increase perceived efficacy, on speed choice. Study 2 (n = 81 investigated whether a state emotion, anger, impacts on the effectiveness of the advertisement in changing four distinct driving behaviours. Both studies examined short-term effects only. Results Study 1 findings indicated that a high threat message, when combined with high perceived efficacy, can lead to a decrease in speed choice. Study 2 results suggested that increased levels of state anger may counteract the potential value of combining fear-arousing threats and efficacy-building messages. Conclusions Findings suggest that threat-based road safety communications that target affective (fear and cognitive (perceived efficacy mechanisms can positively affect driving behaviours. State emotions, such as anger, may negatively impact on the effectiveness of the message. Taken together, these findings provide additional support for the use of efficacy-building messages in threat-based communications, but highlight the need for further research into the complex array of affective influences on driving.

  7. Sexual orientation and self-rated health: the role of social capital, offence, threat of violence, and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jakob; Modén, Birgit; Rosvall, Maria; Lindström, Martin

    2013-07-01

    To study the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health, including trust, offence, threat of violence, and violence. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MEASUREMENT: The 2008 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. A total of 28,198 persons aged 18-80 years responded (55%). Logistic regressions analysed the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health. 27.4% of all men and 30.0% of all women rated their health as poor. Poor self-rated health was significantly more prevalent in higher age, among immigrants, people with lower education, low social support, low trust, experience of being offended, experience of threat of violence and violence, and bisexual and other orientation. Homosexual and bisexual men and women had higher age-adjusted odds ratios of having felt offended compared to heterosexual respondents. The odds ratios of low trust, threat of violence (men), and experience of violence (women) were significant for respondents with bisexual orientation but not for respondents with homosexual orientation. In the age-adjusted model, no significant association was observed between homosexual orientation and poor self-rated health among women. All other associations between sexual orientation and health were significant in the age-adjusted model but non-significant in the multiple models. Associations between sexual orientation and health disappear after multiple adjustments including trust and experience of offence, threat of violence, and violence. The study suggests that the group with bisexual orientation seems to be more exposed to low social capital (trust), threat of violence, and violence than the group with homosexual orientation.

  8. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C.; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Smith, Tyler B.; Castillo, Bernard F.; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A.; Olsen, David A.; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I.; Jester, Edward L. E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  9. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans: A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Robertson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas.

  10. Legal access to medications: a threat to Brazil's public health system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffi, Ana Luiza; Barradas, Rita De Cassia Barata; Golbaum, Moisés

    2017-07-19

    lawyers and physicians in filing lawsuits. The judicialization of health in the State of São Paulo with the characteristics presented herein is a threat to the SUS.

  11. The threat of home eviction and its effects on health through the equity lens: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Vera, Hugo; Palència, Laia; Magna, Ingrid; Mena, Carlos; Neira, Jaime; Borrell, Carme

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this review are to gather and systematize the currently available evidence on the effect of the threat of eviction on health and its eventual spillover effects, to assess the quality of the selected studies, and to describe how these findings vary with respect to dimensions of social inequity. We conducted a literature search in March 2016, which yielded 2208 unduplicated articles. The title, abstract and full text of these articles were reviewed by three independent pairs of researchers. We performed a quality assessment of each article, and evaluated whether health inequities had been considered. We selected 47 articles for this review, of which 86% were from Anglo-Saxon countries (mainly the US), and 75% were published after 2009. Most studies used either a cross-sectional (32%), cohort (28%), or qualitative (17%) design. The majority (55%) assessed mental health as a key health indicator, and a notable proportion assessed physical health (38%) and health-related behaviours (19%). Many of the studies evaluated more than one of these health indicators. The average quality score was 7.4 (SD = 1.5). Evidence from these selected articles revealed a general consensus that individuals under threat of eviction present negative health outcomes, both mental (e.g. depression, anxiety, psychological distress, and suicides) and physical (poor self-reported health, high blood pressure and child maltreatment). However, the distribution and extent of these outcomes depend on inequity dimensions such as gender, age, ethnicity and territory. Furthermore, qualitative studies highlighted some of the pathways that may connect the threat of eviction with its health outcomes. The threat of eviction will likely continue to be a major issue in the coming years, so it is important to conduct further research to create effective interventions and courageous policies to tackle this problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genomic analysis of diversity, population structure, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae, an urgent threat to public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Holt (Kathryn E.); H.F.L. Wertheim (Heiman); R.N. Zadoks (Ruth N.); S. Baker (Stephen); C.A. Whitehouse (Chris A.); D. Dance (David); A. Jenney (Adam); T.R. Connor (Thomas R.); L.Y. Hsu (Li Yang); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); S. Brisse; H. Cao (Hanwei); J. Wilksch (Jonathan); C. Gorrie (Claire); M.B. Schultz (Mark B.); D.J. Edwards (David J.); K. Van Nguyen (Kinh); T.V. Nguyen (Trung Vu); T.T. Dao (Trinh Tuyet); M. Mensink (Martijn); V. Le Minh (Vien); N.T.K. Nhu (Nguyen Thi Khanh); C. Schultsz (Constance); K. Kuntaman (Kuntaman); P.N. Newton (Paul N.); C.E. Moore (Catrin E.); R.A. Strugnell (Richard A.); N.R. Thomson (Nicholas R.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractKlebsiella pneumoniae is nowrecognized as an urgent threat to human health because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains associated with hospital outbreaks and hypervirulent strains associated with severe community-acquired infections. K. pneumoniae is ubiquitous in the

  13. Special COP 21 - Stakes and actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, Loic; Dupain, Julien; Descamps, Olivier; Blosseville, Thomas; Connors, Anne; Canto, Albane; Robischon, Christian; Boedec, Morgan; Tubiana, Fabian; Bomstein, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    A first set of article comments and discusses the various stakes and challenges of the 21. Conference of Parties (COP 21): the negotiation process which resulted in a synthesis which is to be signed by 95 States in Paris, the elaboration of an Agenda of solutions with the commitment of enterprises and local authorities, the issue of international financing as some promises remained not kept for the support to adaptation of developing countries. A second set of articles addresses the involved actors and their technological or economic challenges: the needed evolution of energy (electricity, heat, gas, fuel) producers away from fossil energies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the strategy of the French company Engie in the field of photovoltaic, wind and more generally renewable energies, innovating trends of decentralisation of energy production (offshore wind energy, hydrogen, plasma torch, flexible photovoltaic arrays, the wind tree, the floating wind turbine, new technologies for solar arrays), the perspectives for industrial sectors concerned by energy transition (with the example of Schneider Electric), emerging technologies (oil lamp, new boilers, desalination equipment, storage of wind energy, co-generation), developments and perspectives in the transport sector (example of Renault, new technologies for hybrid propulsion, bio-refineries, reduction of fuel consumption, hybrid aircraft, and heat management in railways) and in the building sector (new standards and applications, new building materials). A last article outlines the threat that climate can be for profitability and the taking of the carbon risk into account by the insurance and financial sectors

  14. Local Public Health System Response to the Tsunami Threat in Coastal California following the Tōhoku Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer C; Crawley, Adam W; Petrie, Michael; Yang, Jane E; Aragón, Tomás J

    2012-07-16

    Background On Friday March 11, 2011 a 9.0 magnitude earthquake triggered a tsunami off the eastern coast of Japan, resulting in thousands of lives lost and billions of dollars in damage around the Pacific Rim. The tsunami first reached the California coast on Friday, March 11th, causing more than $70 million in damage and at least one death. While the tsunami's impact on California pales in comparison to the destruction caused in Japan and other areas of the Pacific, the event tested emergency responders' ability to rapidly communicate and coordinate a response to a potential threat. Methods To evaluate the local public health system emergency response to the tsunami threat in California, we surveyed all local public health, emergency medical services (EMS), and emergency management agencies in coastal or floodplain counties about several domains related to the tsunami threat in California, including: (1) the extent to which their community was affected by the tsunami, (2) when and how they received notification of the event, (3) which public health response activities were carried out to address the tsunami threat in their community, and (4) which organizations contributed to the response. Public health activities were characterized using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Public Health Preparedness Capabilities (PHEP) framework. Findings The tsunami's impact on coastal communities in California ranged widely, both in terms of the economic consequences and the response activities. Based on estimates from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), ten jurisdictions in California reported tsunami-related damage, which ranged from $15,000 to $35 million. Respondents first became aware of the tsunami threat in California between the hours of 10:00pm Pacific Standard Time (PST) on Thursday March 10th and 2:00pm PST on Friday March 11th, a range of 16 hours, with notification occurring through both formal and informal channels. In

  15. Microplastic pollution, a threat to marine ecosystem and human health: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shivika; Chatterjee, Subhankar

    2017-09-01

    Human populations are using oceans as their household dustbins, and microplastic is one of the components which are not only polluting shorelines but also freshwater bodies globally. Microplastics are generally referred to particles with a size lower than 5 mm. These microplastics are tiny plastic granules and used as scrubbers in cosmetics, hand cleansers, air-blasting. These contaminants are omnipresent within almost all marine environments at present. The durability of plastics makes it highly resistant to degradation and through indiscriminate disposal they enter in the aquatic environment. Today, it is an issue of increasing scientific concern because these microparticles due to their small size are easily accessible to a wide range of aquatic organisms and ultimately transferred along food web. The chronic biological effects in marine organisms results due to accumulation of microplastics in their cells and tissues. The potential hazardous effects on humans by alternate ingestion of microparticles can cause alteration in chromosomes which lead to infertility, obesity, and cancer. Because of the recent threat of microplastics to marine biota as well as on human health, it is important to control excessive use of plastic additives and to introduce certain legislations and policies to regulate the sources of plastic litter. By setup various plastic recycling process or promoting plastic awareness programmes through different social and information media, we will be able to clean our sea dustbin in future.

  16. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels

  17. Adapting to the Changing Climate: An Assessment of Local Health Department Preparations for Climate Change-Related Health Threats, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser-Renouf, Connie; Maibach, Edward W.; Li, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Climate change poses a major public health threat. A survey of U.S. local health department directors in 2008 found widespread recognition of the threat, but limited adaptive capacity, due to perceived lack of expertise and other resources. Methods We assessed changes between 2008 and 2012 in local public health departments' preparedness for the public health threats of climate change, in light of increasing national polarization on the issue, and widespread funding cutbacks for public health. A geographically representative online survey of directors of local public health departments was conducted in 2011–2012 (N = 174; response rate = 50%), and compared to the 2008 telephone survey results (N = 133; response rate = 61%). Results Significant polarization had occurred: more respondents in 2012 were certain that the threat of local climate change impacts does/does not exist, and fewer were unsure. Roughly 10% said it is not a threat, compared to 1% in 2008. Adaptation capacity decreased in several areas: perceived departmental expertise in climate change risk assessment; departmental prioritization of adaptation; and the number of adaptation-related programs and services departments provided. In 2008, directors' perceptions of local impacts predicted the number of adaptation-related programs and services their departments offered, but in 2012, funding predicted programming and directors' impact perceptions did not. This suggests that budgets were constraining directors' ability to respond to local climate change-related health threats. Results also suggest that departmental expertise may mitigate funding constraints. Strategies for overcoming these obstacles to local public health departments' preparations for climate change are discussed. PMID:26991658

  18. Adapting to the Changing Climate: An Assessment of Local Health Department Preparations for Climate Change-Related Health Threats, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser-Renouf, Connie; Maibach, Edward W; Li, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Climate change poses a major public health threat. A survey of U.S. local health department directors in 2008 found widespread recognition of the threat, but limited adaptive capacity, due to perceived lack of expertise and other resources. We assessed changes between 2008 and 2012 in local public health departments' preparedness for the public health threats of climate change, in light of increasing national polarization on the issue, and widespread funding cutbacks for public health. A geographically representative online survey of directors of local public health departments was conducted in 2011-2012 (N = 174; response rate = 50%), and compared to the 2008 telephone survey results (N = 133; response rate = 61%). Significant polarization had occurred: more respondents in 2012 were certain that the threat of local climate change impacts does/does not exist, and fewer were unsure. Roughly 10% said it is not a threat, compared to 1% in 2008. Adaptation capacity decreased in several areas: perceived departmental expertise in climate change risk assessment; departmental prioritization of adaptation; and the number of adaptation-related programs and services departments provided. In 2008, directors' perceptions of local impacts predicted the number of adaptation-related programs and services their departments offered, but in 2012, funding predicted programming and directors' impact perceptions did not. This suggests that budgets were constraining directors' ability to respond to local climate change-related health threats. Results also suggest that departmental expertise may mitigate funding constraints. Strategies for overcoming these obstacles to local public health departments' preparations for climate change are discussed.

  19. Actions for prevention and control of health threats related to maritime transport in European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Guglielmetti, Paolo; Lemos, Cinthia Menel; Nichols, Gordon; Paux, Thierry; Schlaich, Clara; Cornejo, Miguel Davila; Martinez, Carmen Varela; Dionisio, Mauro; Rehmet, Sybille; Jaremin, Bogdan; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Actions at European Union level for International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005 implementation and maritime transport were focused on two European projects implemented between 2006 and 2011. Situation analysis and needs assessment were conducted, a Manual including European standards and best practice and training material was developed and training courses were delivered. Ship-to-port and port-to-port communication web-based network and database for recording IHR Ship Sanitation Certificates (SSC) were established. Fifty pilot inspections based on the Manual were conducted on passenger ships. A total of 393 corrective actions were implemented according to recommendations given to Captains during pilot inspections. The web-based communication network of competent authorities at ports in EU Member States was used to manage 13 events/outbreaks (dengue fever, Legionnaires' disease, gastroenteritis, meningitis, varicella and measles). The European information database system was used for producing and recording 1018 IHR SSC by 156 inspectors in 6 countries in accordance with the WHO Handbook for inspection of ships and issuance of SSC. Implementation of corrective actions after pilot inspections increased the level of compliance with the hygiene standards in passenger ships sailing within the EU waters and improved hygiene conditions. The communication tool contributed to improvement of outbreak identification and better management through rapid sharing of public health information, allowing a more timely and coordinated response. After the implementation of actions on passenger ships, the European Commission co-funded a Joint action that will expand the activities to all types of ships and chemical, biological and radio-nuclear threats (deliberate acts/accidental). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunel, S.; Touchard, P.; Ferrandery, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Second chapter of the book on the geopolitics of the sustainable development, this chapter deals with the threats of the climatic change on the earth and the humans. the authors analyze the consequences of the climatic change on the developing countries of the South and the necessity of a sustainable development implementation in the North. They inform on the resources depletion, the water problem, the nuclear activities and the public health and the french government policy facing the sustainable management of the territory. (A.L.B.)

  1. The influence of health threat communication and personality traits on personal models of diabetes in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, V L; Bundy, C; Harvey, J N

    2007-08-01

    Personal models of diabetes, i.e. patients' beliefs about symptoms, treatment effectiveness, consequences (impact on life, seriousness) and emotional response to possible short- and long-term complications, have been associated with diabetes self-care behaviours. Little work has examined potential determinants of personal models. To examine the influence of health threat communication and personality traits on personal models in newly diagnosed patients. Newly diagnosed patients (n = 158; 32 Type 1 and 126 Type 2) completed the Big Five Personality Inventory, Diabetes Health Threat Communication Questionnaire (DHTCQ), Personal Models of Diabetes Interview-Adapted (PMDI) and Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R). Emotional responses to diabetes (PMDI) were associated with perceptions of a more threatening health message (22% explained variance), less emotional stability (5%) and the presence of dependent children (3%). Emotional representations (IPQ-R) were associated with a threatening health message (6%) and less emotional stability (15%). An adverse view of consequences (PMDI) was predicted by a more threatening/less reassuring health message (15%), less emotional stability (6%) and Type 1 diabetes (4%). Consequences (IPQ-R) were predicted by perceptions of a more threatening health message (20%), being less agreeable/cooperative (7%) and having dependent children (4%). Treatment effectiveness beliefs (PMDI) were associated with perceptions of a more reassuring health message (31%), younger age (3%) and more openness/intellect (2%). Personal models of diabetes are influenced by health threat communication, demographic and personality factors. These findings support the concept of tailoring health messages to the needs of individual patients and provide information on factors to be taken into account in the education process.

  2. Negative Impacts of High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarechová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    High-stakes testing is not a new phenomenon in education. It has become part of the education system in many countries. These tests affect the school systems, teachers, students, politicians and parents, whether that is in a positive or negative sense. High-stakes testing is associated with concepts such as a school's accountability, funding and…

  3. Migrants and emerging public health issues in a globalized world: threats, risks and challenges, an evidence-based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushulak, Bd; Weekers, J; Macpherson, Dw

    2009-01-01

    International population mobility is an underlying factor in the emergence of public health threats and risks that must be managed globally. These risks are often related, but not limited, to transmissible pathogens. Mobile populations can link zones of disease emergence to lowprevalence or nonendemic areas through rapid or high-volume international movements, or both. Against this background of human movement, other global processes such as economics, trade, transportation, environment and climate change, as well as civil security influence the health impacts of disease emergence. Concurrently, global information systems, together with regulatory frameworks for disease surveillance and reporting, affect organizational and public awareness of events of potential public health significance. International regulations directed at disease mitigation and control have not kept pace with the growing challenges associated with the volume, speed, diversity, and disparity of modern patterns of human movement. The thesis that human population mobility is itself a major determinant of global public health is supported in this article by review of the published literature from the perspective of determinants of health (such as genetics/biology, behavior, environment, and socioeconomics), population-based disease prevalence differences, existing national and international health policies and regulations, as well as inter-regional shifts in population demographics and health outcomes. This paper highlights some of the emerging threats and risks to public health, identifies gaps in existing frameworks to manage health issues associated with migration, and suggests changes in approach to population mobility, globalization, and public health. The proposed integrated approach includes a broad spectrum of stakeholders ranging from individual health-care providers to policy makers and international organizations that are primarily involved in global health management, or are influenced

  4. Diplomatic advantages and threats in global health program selection, design, delivery and implementation: development and application of the Kevany Riposte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian

    2015-05-27

    Global health programs, as supported by organizations such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), stand to make significant contributions to international medical outcomes. Traditional systems of monitoring and evaluation, however, fail to capture downstream, indirect, or collateral advantages (and threats) of intervention selection, design, and implementation from broader donor perspectives, including those of the diplomatic and foreign policy communities, which these programs also generate. This paper describes the development a new métier under which assessment systems designed to consider the diplomatic value of global health initiatives are described and applied based on previously-identified "Top Ten" criteria. The "Kevany Riposte" and the "K-Score" were conceptualized based on a retrospective and collective assessment of the author's participation in the design, implementation and delivery of a range of global health interventions related to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Responses and associated scores reframe intervention worth or value in terms of global health diplomacy criteria such as "adaptability", "interdependence", "training," and "neutrality". Response options ranged from "highly advantageous" to "significant potential threat". Global health initiatives under review were found to generate significant advantages from the diplomatic perspective. These included (1) intervention visibility and associations with donor altruism and prestige, (2) development of international non-health collaborations and partnerships, (3) adaptability and responsiveness of service delivery to local needs, and (4) advancement of broader strategic goals of the international community. Corresponding threats included (1) an absence of formal training of project staff on broader political and international relations roles and responsibilities, (2) challenges to recipient cultural and religious practices

  5. Thinking about the threat of nuclear war: relevance to mental health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, S.; LaCombe, S.; Levinson, D.; Parker, K.R.; Ross, C.; Sommers, F.

    1985-01-01

    Ontario students in grades 7-13 responded to open-ended and multiple-choice questions about future concerns, particularly unemployment, job/career plans, and the nuclear threat. Although worries about nuclear war were more frequent than those in other areas, their expression was associated with a sense of social efficacy rather than with feelings of helplessness

  6. Are insecure jobs as bad for mental health and occupational commitment as unemployment? Equal threat or downward spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Otto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of unemployment and job insecurity for mental health (self-esteem; life satisfaction and occupational commitment (occupational self-efficacy; affective occupational commitment comparing the "equal threat" assumption with the "downward spiral" assumption. Whereas the equal threat model suggests that unemployment and (perceived insecure employment are similarly threatening phenomena, the downward spiral model assumes that there might be a spectrum of employment insecurity, ranging from secure employment to long-term unemployment, that is associated with decreasing mental health and occupational commitment. Controlling for socio-demographic background variables and personality traits, results of ANCOVAs, in which we distinguished between workers who were (more or less securely employed and those who were either insecurely employed or short- or long-term unemployed revealed that the insecurely employed workers were no better off than those who were (short-term unemployed - in line with the equal threat hypothesis. Only for occupational self-efficacy did we find some support for the downward spiral model.

  7. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Ross, Don

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in standard statements of this calibration puzzle is that individuals define utility over terminal wealth...... all levels of wealth, or over a “sufficiently large” range of wealth. Although this second assumption if often viewed as self-evident from the vast experimental literature showing risk aversion over laboratory stakes, it actually requires that lab wealth be varied for a given subject as one takes...

  8. Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: Assessment of threat scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goix, Sylvaine [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Lévêque, Thibaut [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management), 20 Avenue du Grésillé, BP 90406, 49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Xiong, Tian-Tian [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Schreck, Eva [Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); and others

    2014-08-15

    This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO{sub 4}, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improve risk management. - Highlights: • Seven micro- and nano- monometallic characterized particles were studied as references. • Bioaccessibility, eco and cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential assays were performed. • According to calculated threat scores: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  9. The effect of job insecurity on employee health complaints: A within-person analysis of the explanatory role of threats to the manifest and latent benefits of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Elst, Tinne; Näswall, Katharina; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; De Witte, Hans; Sverke, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The current study contributes to the literature on job insecurity by highlighting threat to the benefits of work as an explanation of the effect of job insecurity on health complaints. Building on the latent deprivation model, we predicted that threats to both manifest (i.e., financial income) and latent benefits of work (i.e., collective purpose, social contacts, status, time structure, activity) mediate the relationships from job insecurity to subsequent mental and physical health complaints. In addition, in line with the conservation of resources theory, we proposed that financial resources buffer the indirect effect of job insecurity on health complaints through threat to the manifest benefit. Hypotheses were tested using a multilevel design, in which 3 measurements (time lag of 6 months between subsequent measurements) were clustered within 1,994 employees (in Flanders, Belgium). This allowed for the investigation of within-person processes, while controlling for variance at the between-person level. The results demonstrate that job insecurity was related to subsequent threats to both manifest and latent benefits, and that these threats in turn were related to subsequent health complaints (with an exception for threat to the manifest benefit that did not predict mental health complaints). Three significant indirect effects were found: threat to the latent benefits mediated the relationships between job insecurity and both mental and physical health complaints, and threat to the manifest benefit mediated the relationship between job insecurity and physical health complaints. Unexpectedly, the latter indirect effect was exacerbated by financial resources. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. What's at Stake in U.S. Health Reform: A Guide to the Affordable Care Act and Value-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambur, Betty A

    2017-05-01

    The U.S. presidential election of 2016 accentuated the divided perspectives on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as Obamacare. The perspectives included a pledge from then candidate Donald J. Trump to "repeal and replace on day one"; Republican congressional leaders' more temperate suggestions in the first weeks of the Trump administration to "repair" the Affordable Care Act (ACA); and President Trump's February 5, 2017 statement-16 days after inauguration-that a Republican replacement for the ACA may not be ready until late 2017 or 2018. The swirling rhetoric, media attention, and the dizzying rate of U.S. health and payment reforms both within and outside of the ACA makes it difficult for nurses, both United States and globally, to discern which health policy issues are grounded in the ACA and which aspects reflect payer-driven "volume to value" reimbursement changes. Moreover, popular and controversial elements of the ACA-for example, the clause that prohibits insurance carriers to deny coverage to those with preexisting health conditions and the more controversial individual mandate that bears Supreme Court support as a constitutional provision-are paired in ways that might be unclear to those unfamiliar with nuances of insurance rate determination. To support nurses' capacity to maximize their impact on health policy, this overview distills the 906-page ACA into major themes and describes payment reform legislation and initiatives that are external to the ACA. Understanding the political and societal forces that affect health care policy and delivery is necessary for nurses to effectively lead and advocate for the best interests of their patients.

  11. COST action TD1407: network on technology-critical elements (NOTICE)--from environmental processes to human health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobelo-García, A; Filella, M; Croot, P; Frazzoli, C; Du Laing, G; Ospina-Alvarez, N; Rauch, S; Salaun, P; Schäfer, J; Zimmermann, S

    2015-10-01

    The current socio-economic, environmental and public health challenges that countries are facing clearly need common-defined strategies to inform and support our transition to a sustainable economy. Here, the technology-critical elements (which includes Ga, Ge, In, Te, Nb, Ta, Tl, the Platinum Group Elements and most of the rare-earth elements) are of great relevance in the development of emerging key technologies-including renewable energy, energy efficiency, electronics or the aerospace industry. In this context, the increasing use of technology-critical elements (TCEs) and associated environmental impacts (from mining to end-of-life waste products) is not restricted to a national level but covers most likely a global scale. Accordingly, the European COST Action TD1407: Network on Technology-Critical Elements (NOTICE)-from environmental processes to human health threats, has an overall objective for creating a network of scientists and practitioners interested in TCEs, from the evaluation of their environmental processes to understanding potential human health threats, with the aim of defining the current state of knowledge and gaps, proposing priority research lines/activities and acting as a platform for new collaborations and joint research projects. The Action is focused on three major scientific areas: (i) analytical chemistry, (ii) environmental biogeochemistry and (iii) human exposure and (eco)-toxicology.

  12. Risk communication: climate change as a human-health threat, a survey of public perceptions in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBono, Roberto; Vincenti, Karen; Calleja, Neville

    2012-02-01

    Scientific evidence shows that climate change is very likely the product of human behaviour and lifestyle. The effects of climate change on human health are diverse in nature and range from direct effects due to extreme weather events such as heat waves, floods and storms, to indirect effects such as those caused by water and food shortages. A telephone survey was conducted between January and February 2009, on a stratified representative random sample of the Maltese population over the age of 18 years (N = 310,819). Five hundred and forty-three individuals successfully participated in the survey giving a response rate of 92.7%. The respondent sample was very similar to the target population by gender (P = 0.977), age (P = 0.767) and district (P = 0.812). The results of the study demonstrate a very strong relationship between the perception of climate change as a threat to health and well-being, support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to implement measures to address climate change. The findings of this study show that the perception that climate change may claim lives, cause disease, reduce the standard of living and worsen water shortages, may be the strongest driver behind support for climate change mitigation policy and a willingness to act. It is recommended that, in order to gain more public support, climate change campaigns and risk communication strategies should frame climate change as a threat to human health and general well-being.

  13. Frightfully funny : Combining threat and humour in health messages for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; Janssen, Loes

    2017-01-01

    Objective: It is imperative for public health to investigate what factors may reduce defensive responses and increase the effectiveness of health information. The present research investigated gender differences in responses to threatening health-promoting information communicated with humour.

  14. Climate change and Australian agriculture: a review of the threats facing rural communities and the health policy landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Elizabeth G; Bell, Erica; King, Debra; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2011-03-01

    Population health is a function of social and environmental health determinants. Climate change is predicted to bring significant alterations to ecological systems on which human health and livelihoods depend; the air, water, plant, and animal health. Agricultural systems are intrinsically linked with environmental conditions, which are already under threat in much of southern Australian because of rising heat and protracted drying. The direct impact of increasing heat waves on human physiology and survival has recently been well studied. More diffusely, increasing drought periods may challenge the viability of agriculture in some regions, and hence those communities that depend on primary production. A worst case scenario may herald the collapse of some communities. Human health impacts arising from such transition would be profound. This article summarizes existing rural health challenges and presents the current evidence plus future predictions of climate change impacts on Australian agriculture to argue the need for significant augmentation of public health and existing health policy frameworks. The article concludes by suggesting that adaptation to climate change requires planning for worst case scenario outcomes to avert catastrophic impacts on rural communities. This will involve national policy planning as much as regional-level leadership for rapid development of adaptive strategies in agriculture and other key areas of rural communities.

  15. Are harmful algal blooms becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bryan W; Lazorchak, James M; Howard, Meredith D A; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Morton, Steve L; Perkins, Dawn A K; Reavie, Euan D; Scott, Geoffrey I; Smith, Stephanie A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortunately, the magnitude, frequency, and duration of HABs in inland waters are poorly understood across spatiotemporal scales and differentially engaged among states, tribes, and territories. Harmful algal bloom impacts are not as predictable as those from conventional chemical contaminants, for which water quality assessment and management programs were primarily developed, because interactions among multiple natural and anthropogenic factors determine the likelihood and severity to which a HAB will occur in a specific water body. These forcing factors can also affect toxin production. Beyond site-specific water quality degradation caused directly by HABs, the presence of HAB toxins can negatively influence routine surface water quality monitoring, assessment, and management practices. Harmful algal blooms present significant challenges for achieving water quality protection and restoration goals when these toxins confound interpretation of monitoring results and environmental quality standards implementation efforts for other chemicals and stressors. Whether HABs presently represent the greatest threat to inland water quality is debatable, though in inland waters of developed countries they typically cause more severe acute impacts to environmental quality than conventional chemical contamination events. The authors identify several timely research needs. Environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, and risk-assessment expertise must interface with ecologists, engineers, and public health practitioners to engage the complexities of HAB assessment and management, to address the forcing factors for HAB formation, and

  16. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  17. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on Dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The flaviviruses Dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex sp), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses. PMID:25287260

  18. Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daep, Carlo Amorin; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Eugenin, Eliseo Alberto

    2014-12-01

    The flaviviruses dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and Culex spp.), traveling within endemic areas, rapid adaptation of the insects into new geographic locations, climate change, and lack of medical surveillance have greatly contributed to the increase in flaviviral infections worldwide. The mechanisms by which flaviviruses alter the immune and the central nervous system have only recently been examined despite the alarming number of infections, related deaths, and increasing global distribution. In this review, we will discuss the expansion of the geographic areas affected by flaviviruses, the potential threats to previously unaffected countries, the mechanisms of pathogenesis, and the potential therapeutic interventions to limit the devastating consequences of these viruses.

  19. Components of Population Vulnerability and Their Relationship With Climate-Sensitive Health Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, P B; Richardson, M J

    2016-03-01

    Climate change is increasingly being framed as risks that will impact the poorest and most vulnerable communities among us. This has led to more efforts to estimate climate change risks across populations and in the context of human health and health equity. We describe the public health dimensions of climate vulnerability-exposure, population sensitivity, and adaptive capacity-and explore how these dimensions can modify population health impacts and their distribution. An overview of health disparities associated with specific climate risks is presented, and we offer potential solutions grounded in equitable urban development and improved characterization of climate vulnerabilities.

  20. Addressing Stereotype Threat is Critical to Diversity and Inclusion in Organizational Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Casad, Bettina J.; Bryant, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have debated the relevance of stereotype threat to the workplace. Critics have argued that stereotype threat is not relevant in high stakes testing such as in personnel selection. We and others argue that stereotype threat is highly relevant in personnel selection, but our review focused on underexplored areas including effects of stereotype threat beyond test performance and the application of brief, low-cost interventions in the workplace. Relevant to the workplace, ste...

  1. Climatic change and security stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Ph.; Hallegatte, St.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between climate change and security. Potential threats from climate change, as a unique source of stress or together with other factors, to human security are first examined. Some of the most explicit examples illustrate this section: food security, water availability, vulnerability to extreme events and vulnerability of small islands States and coastal zones. By questioning the basic needs of some populations or at least aggravating their precariousness, such risks to human security could also raise global security concerns, which we examine in turn, along four directions: rural exodus with an impoverishment of displaced populations, local conflicts for the use of natural resources, diplomatic tensions and international conflicts, and propagation to initially-unaffected regions through migratory flows. (authors)

  2. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-06-01

    Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms 'online pharmacies', 'Internet pharmacies', 'cyber pharmacies', 'rogue pharmacies', and 'e-pharmacies' using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999-2005. Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Digital danger: a review of the global public health, patient safety and cybersecurity threats posed by illicit online pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K.; Nayyar, Gaurvika

    2016-01-01

    Background Amidst the rise of e-commerce, there has been a proliferation of illicit online pharmacies that threaten global patient safety by selling drugs without a prescription directly to the consumer. Despite this clear threat, little is known about the key risk characteristics, central challenges and current legal, regulatory and law enforcement responses. Sources of data A review was conducted of the English literature with search terms ‘online pharmacies’, ‘Internet pharmacies’, ‘cyber pharmacies’, ‘rogue pharmacies’, and ‘e-pharmacies’ using PubMed, JSTOR, and Google Scholar from 1999–2005. Areas of agreement Illicit online pharmacies are a rapidly growing public health threat and are characterized by a number of complex and interrelated risk factors. Areas of controversy Solutions are varied and are of questionable utility in the face of evolving technology that enables this form of transnational cybercrime. Growing points Legal, regulatory and technology solutions must address the entire illicit online pharmacy ecosystem in order to be effective. Areas timely for developing research There is a critical need to build international consensus, conduct additional research and develop technology to combat illicit online pharmacies. PMID:27151957

  4. High-stakes educational testing and democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    the field of education. Then a sample of relevant historic case studies are examined in light of these definitions. Among other things, the article concludes that a combination of different evaluation technologies – some formative and some summative – might be the safest way to go from a democratic......This article investigates the relation between high-stakes educational testing and democracy drawn from the experiences of 20th-century high-stakes educational testing practices in the Danish history of education. The article presents various concepts of democracy using leading propositions within...

  5. Addressing a Threat to the Healthfulness of Tomorrow's Generation: The Case of Cigarette Smoking in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Catherine O.; Petersen, Inge; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has widely received the attention of international and local health bodies. Efforts are being made towards curbing smoking prevalence globally with a view to reduce the health, economic and social effects of smoking in the society. While some developed countries are recording success in this effort mainly through stringent…

  6. Health care cost disease as a threat to Iranian aging society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basakha, Mehdi; Yavari, Kazem; Sadeghi, Hosein; Naseri, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Because of the rapid aging rate, the share of health expenditure in gross domestic product rises irreversibly and increases concern among politicians and the general public. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of the Baumol's model of unbalanced growth in Iran over the period 1981-2010. This theoretical-analytical study was conducted in 2012 to investigate the various determinants of ongoing rise in the health expenditures. To this end, an Error Correction Model was derived from the long run cointegrating equation to inquire the veracity of Baumol's theory. Estimating the short run and long run equations by using time series data shows that the rate of increase in health expenditure is aligned with the difference between wage increases in and growth of productivity in the health sector. Besides, results show that both the per capita income and the inflation rate of health care had significant effects on raising the share of health sector in domestic economy. According to rapid population aging and existence of Baumol's cost disease in Iranian health sector, we predict much more rise in health expenditure in a few decades.

  7. Developing a Nuclear Global Health Workforce Amid the Increasing Threat of a Nuclear Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M; Dallas, Cham E

    2016-02-01

    This study argues that any nuclear weapon exchange or major nuclear plant meltdown, in the categories of human systems failure and conflict-based crises, will immediately provoke an unprecedented public health emergency of international concern. Notwithstanding nuclear triage and management plans and technical monitoring standards within the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization (WHO), the capacity to rapidly deploy a robust professional workforce with the internal coordination and collaboration capabilities required for large-scale nuclear crises is profoundly lacking. A similar dilemma, evident in the early stages of the Ebola epidemic, was eventually managed by using worldwide infectious disease experts from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network and multiple multidisciplinary WHO-supported foreign medical teams. This success has led the WHO to propose the development of a Global Health Workforce. A strategic format is proposed for nuclear preparedness and response that builds and expands on the current model for infectious disease outbreak currently under consideration. This study proposes the inclusion of a nuclear global health workforce under the technical expertise of the International Atomic Energy Agency and WHO's Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network leadership and supported by the International Health Regulations Treaty. Rationales are set forth for the development, structure, and function of a nuclear workforce based on health outcomes research that define the unique health, health systems, and public health challenges of a nuclear crisis. Recent research supports that life-saving opportunities are possible, but only if a rapidly deployed and robust multidisciplinary response component exists.

  8. Environmental Pollution: An Under-recognized Threat to Children's Health, Especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, William A; Ahanchian, Hamid; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Carpenter, David O; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ha, Eun-Hee; Huo, Xia; King, Malcolm; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; da Silva, Emerson R; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D; Stein, Renato T; van den Berg, Martin; Zar, Heather; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    Exposures to environmental pollutants during windows of developmental vulnerability in early life can cause disease and death in infancy and childhood as well as chronic, non-communicable diseases that may manifest at any point across the life span. Patterns of pollution and pollution-related disease change as countries move through economic development. Environmental pollution is now recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). According to the World Health Organization, pollution is responsible for 8.9 million deaths around the world each year; of these, 94% (8.4 million) are in LMICs. Toxic chemical pollution is growing into a major threat to children's health in LMICs. The disease and disability caused by environmental pollution have great economic costs, and these costs can undercut trajectories of national development. To combat pollution, improved programs of public health and environmental protection are needed in countries at every level of development. Pollution control strategies and technologies that have been developed in high-income countries must now be transferred to LMICs to assist these emerging economies to avoid the mistakes of the past. A new international clearinghouse is needed to define and track the health effects of pollution, quantify the economic costs of these effects, and direct much needed attention to environmental pollution as a risk factor for disease.

  9. Environmental Pollution: An Under-recognized Threat to Children’s Health, Especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, William A.; Ahanchian, Hamid; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Carpenter, David O.; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ha, Eun-Hee; Huo, Xia; King, Malcolm; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; da Silva, Emerson R.; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D.; Stein, Renato T.; van den Berg, Martin; Zar, Heather; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Exposures to environmental pollutants during windows of developmental vulnerability in early life can cause disease and death in infancy and childhood as well as chronic, non-communicable diseases that may manifest at any point across the life span. Patterns of pollution and pollution-related disease change as countries move through economic development. Environmental pollution is now recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). According to the World Health Organization, pollution is responsible for 8.9 million deaths around the world each year; of these, 94% (8.4 million) are in LMICs. Toxic chemical pollution is growing into a major threat to children’s health in LMICs. The disease and disability caused by environmental pollution have great economic costs, and these costs can undercut trajectories of national development. To combat pollution, improved programs of public health and environmental protection are needed in countries at every level of development. Pollution control strategies and technologies that have been developed in high-income countries must now be transferred to LMICs to assist these emerging economies to avoid the mistakes of the past. A new international clearinghouse is needed to define and track the health effects of pollution, quantify the economic costs of these effects, and direct much needed attention to environmental pollution as a risk factor for disease. PMID:26930243

  10. Pollution from Fossil-Fuel Combustion is the Leading Environmental Threat to Global Pediatric Health and Equity: Solutions Exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Frederica

    2017-12-23

    Fossil-fuel combustion by-products are the world's most significant threat to children's health and future and are major contributors to global inequality and environmental injustice. The emissions include a myriad of toxic air pollutants and carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is the most important human-produced climate-altering greenhouse gas. Synergies between air pollution and climate change can magnify the harm to children. Impacts include impairment of cognitive and behavioral development, respiratory illness, and other chronic diseases-all of which may be "seeded" in utero and affect health and functioning immediately and over the life course. By impairing children's health, ability to learn, and potential to contribute to society, pollution and climate change cause children to become less resilient and the communities they live in to become less equitable. The developing fetus and young child are disproportionately affected by these exposures because of their immature defense mechanisms and rapid development, especially those in low- and middle-income countries where poverty and lack of resources compound the effects. No country is spared, however: even high-income countries, especially low-income communities and communities of color within them, are experiencing impacts of fossil fuel-related pollution, climate change and resultant widening inequality and environmental injustice. Global pediatric health is at a tipping point, with catastrophic consequences in the absence of bold action. Fortunately, technologies and interventions are at hand to reduce and prevent pollution and climate change, with large economic benefits documented or predicted. All cultures and communities share a concern for the health and well-being of present and future children: this shared value provides a politically powerful lever for action. The purpose of this commentary is to briefly review the data on the health impacts of fossil-fuel pollution, highlighting the neurodevelopmental

  11. High-Stakes Testing and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Joshua Paul

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods research study was to examine how stress levels of middle school mathematics teachers who taught Algebra I in school districts in the state of Pennsylvania relate to high-stakes testing and to explore the experiences of middle school mathematics Algebra I teachers. The researcher collected and compared it to…

  12. Validating High-Stakes Testing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Makes the point that the interpretations and use of high-stakes test scores rely on policy assumptions about what should be taught and the content standards and performance standards that should be applied. The assumptions built into an assessment need to be subjected to scrutiny and criticism if a strong case is to be made for the validity of the…

  13. Threat to democracy: Physical and mental health impact of democracy movement in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wai Kai; Hall, Brian J; Canetti, Daphna; Lau, Kam Man; Ng, Sin Man; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence and critical predictors of anxiety and depressive symptoms and self-rated health, following the Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong. Random digit dialing recruited a population-representative sample of 1208 Chinese Hong Kong citizens (mean age=46.89 years; 63% female) in the first two weeks of February 2015. Respondents gave their informed consent and reported personal, social, and economic resource loss since the Umbrella Movement (Conservation of Resources-Evaluation), current anxiety symptoms (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and self-rated health (1=very good, 4=very bad). A total of 47.35% (95% CI=44.55, 50.17) respondents reported moderate/severe anxiety symptoms and 14.4% (95% CI=12.54, 16.50) reported moderate/severe depressive symptoms; 9.11% (95% CI=7.61, 10.86) reported "poor" or "very poor" health. Multivariable regressions revealed that personal and social resource loss was associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms and greater odds of "very poor" health (adjusted odds ratios/incidence rate ratios=5-102%), independent of lower education level and income and being unmarried. This study was cross-sectional in nature and thus could not determine causality from the associations between resource loss and outcome variables. Second, the telephone survey relied on self-reports; response bias and social desirability could influence respondents' answers and discount data validity. Third, potential confounders such as preexisting mental and physical health issues and concurrent predictors like exposure to the Umbrella Movement were not assessed. This is one of the first studies following any recent political movement (e.g., The Arab Spring) to quantify distress and the associated correlates of distress among affected citizens. Perceived psychosocial resource losses were critical predictors of poor outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia reveal new threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ponti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.

  15. Climate Change is Likely to Worsen the Public Health Threat of Diarrheal Disease in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Vance

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease is an important health challenge, accounting for the majority of childhood deaths globally. Climate change is expected to increase the global burden of diarrheal disease but little is known regarding climate drivers, particularly in Africa. Using health data from Botswana spanning a 30-year period (1974–2003, we evaluated monthly reports of diarrheal disease among patients presenting to Botswana health facilities and compared this to climatic variables. Diarrheal case incidence presents with a bimodal cyclical pattern with peaks in March (ANOVA p < 0.001 and October (ANOVA p < 0.001 in the wet and dry season, respectively. There is a strong positive autocorrelation (p < 0.001 in the number of reported diarrhea cases at the one-month lag level. Climatic variables (rainfall, minimum temperature, and vapor pressure predicted seasonal diarrheal with a one-month lag in variables (p < 0.001. Diarrheal case incidence was highest in the dry season after accounting for other variables, exhibiting on average a 20% increase over the yearly mean (p < 0.001. Our analysis suggests that forecasted climate change increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation may increase dry season diarrheal disease incidence with hot, dry conditions starting earlier and lasting longer. Diarrheal disease incidence in the wet season is likely to decline. Our results identify significant health-climate interactions, highlighting the need for an escalated public health focus on controlling diarrheal disease in Botswana. Study findings have application to other arid countries in Africa where diarrheal disease is a persistent public health problem.

  16. Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) reveal new threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Massimo; Fratangeli, Francesca; Dondi, Nicolò; Segre Reinach, Marco; Serra, Clara; Sweet, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of 'common' diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.

  17. Ebola viral disease in West Africa: a threat to global health, economy and political stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and povertydriven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/ response, poverty and disconnect

  18. Ebola Viral Disease in West Africa: A Threat to Global Health, Economy and Political Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Saidu, Yauba

    2016-08-17

    The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18 th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and poverty-driven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems) and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D) pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/response, poverty and disconnect between the

  19. Ebola Viral Disease in West Africa: A Threat to Global Health, Economy and Political Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ibrahim; Saidu, Yauba

    2016-01-01

    The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences. The authors reviewed mainly five databases and a hand search of key relevant literature. We reviewed 51 articles that were relevant up until the 18th of August 2014. The authors supplemented the search with reference list of relevant articles and grey literature as well as relevant Internet websites. Article searches were limited to those published either in English or French. There are strong indications that the EVD may have been triggered by increased human activities and encroachment into the forest ecosystem spurred by increasing population and poverty-driven forest-dependent local economy. Containment efforts are being hampered by weak and fragile health systems, including public health surveillance and weak governance, certain socio-anthropological factors, fast travels (improved transport systems) and globalization. The societal impacts of the EBV outbreak are grave, including economic shutdown, weakening of socio-political systems, psychological distress, and unprecedented consumption of scarce health resources. The research and development (R&D) pipeline for product against EBV seems grossly insufficient. The outbreak of Ebola and the seeming difficulty to contain the epidemic is simply a reflection of the weak health system, poor surveillance and emergency preparedness/response, poverty and disconnect between the government

  20. Land application of organic residuals: Public health threat or environmental benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste residuals consist of manure and biosolids produced by concentrated animal feeding operations and municipal waste water treatment plants. All wastes need to be disposed of in a proper manner, protecting public and environmental health, but also in a sustainable fashion to ensure that no system...

  1. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, S.J.; Fooks, A.R.; Poel, van der W.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered

  2. The public health threat of road traffic accidents in Nigeria: A call to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A systematic literature search using the advanced features of various databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google, and directory of open access journals was carried out using the key words “ RTA, public health problem, government response, Nigeria.” Out of initial 850 articles retrieved from the search 15 articles ...

  3. Giardiasis as a threat to backpackers in the United States: a survey of state health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, T R; Welch, T P

    1995-05-01

    Forty-eight of the 50 state health departments in the United States responded to a questionnaire about giardiasis in their jurisdictions. The agencies had reports of 34348 cases during 1991 and studied 80 outbreaks in the same period. Nineteen of these outbreaks were attributed to consumption of contaminated drinking water; only two outbreaks were reported among individuals identified as campers or backpackers. Only two departments considered water-associated giardiasis to be a problem for backpackers in their jurisdiction, and neither had any data to support this concern. The surveillance data of health departments indicate that giardiasis is a common communicable disease in the United States. They do not, however, provide any evidence that wilderness water is an important cause of the disease in this country.

  4. Analysis of environment state in technogenic region and its threat to public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishenko S.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to give a complex hygienic evaluation of environment state in Donetsk region and to determine the degree of their potential danger to population health. It includes air pollution, water contamination, state of soil. Nearly 43000 samples of air, 32000 drinking water samples and 4500 soil samples were analyzed. Regions with the highest rate of environmental pollution were defined. It was found that the main sources of environment pollution in Donetsk region are ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy enterprises, power, coal, building industry and transport. All other sources ac¬count for only 5-10% of total emissions. Level of harmful technogenic pressing on population’s health was determined.

  5. Meeting Report: Threats to Human Health and Environmental Sustainability in the Pacific Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G.; Carpenter, David O.; Kirk, Donald; Koh, David; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Cebrian, Mariano; Cifuentes, Luis; Khwaja, Mahmood; Ling, Bo; Makalinao, Irma; Paz-y-Miño, César; Peralta, Genandrialine; Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Kirpal; Sly, Peter; Tohyama, Chiharu; Woodward, Alistair; Zheng, Baoshan; Maiden, Todd

    2007-01-01

    The coastal zone of the Pacific Rim is home for about one-third of the world’s population. Disproportionate growth of Far Eastern economies has produced a disproportionate share of related environmental difficulties. As the region searches for acceptable compromises between growth and environmental quality, its influence on global environmental health is certain to increase. Consequences of global environmental change such as habitat alteration, storms, and sealevel rise will be particularly acute among Pacific Rim nations. Adverse health effects from arsenic exposure in Pacific Rim nations have been used to justify drinking water standards in the United States and elsewhere. As global manufacturing in the Pacific Rim increases, the centroid of global air quality and waste management issues will shift further toward Far Eastern nations. The Eleventh International Conference of the Pacific Basin Consortium (PBC) was held in September 2005 in Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of the conference was to bring together individuals to discuss regional challenges to sustainable growth. The historic emphasis of the conference on hazardous wastes in relation to human health makes the PBC an ideal forum for discussing technical aspects of sustainable economic growth in the Pacific region. That role is reflected in the 2005 PBC conference themes, which included management of arsenic in potable waters, air quality, climate change, pesticides, mercury, and electronics industry waste—each with emphasis on relationships to human health. Arsenic management exemplifies the manner in which the PBC can focus interdisciplinary discussion in a single technical area. The conference program provided talks on arsenic toxicology, treatment technologies, management of arsenic-bearing residuals from water treatment, and the probable societal costs and benefits of arsenic management. PMID:18087598

  6. A "Triple Threat" to Research Protocols and Logistics: Adolescents, Sexual Health, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Passmore, Denise; Baker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss lessons learned from conducting research with urban communities. A brief overview of the Health Improvement Project for Teens (HIPTeens) will be provided. It will be followed by several suggestions concerning recruitment and retention of participants, challenges related to working in impoverished environments, hiring and training of research teams, interacting with administration and community, and strategies for doing research in diverse settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Meeting report: threats to human health and environmental sustainability in the pacific basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G; Carpenter, David O; Kirk, Donald; Koh, David; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Cebrian, Mariano; Cifuentes, Luis; Khwaja, Mahmood; Ling, Bo; Makalinao, Irma; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Peralta, Genandrialine; Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Kirpal; Sly, Peter; Tohyama, Chiharu; Woodward, Alistair; Zheng, Baoshan; Maiden, Todd

    2007-12-01

    The coastal zone of the Pacific Rim is home for about one-third of the world's population. Disproportionate growth of Far Eastern economies has produced a disproportionate share of related environmental difficulties. As the region searches for acceptable compromises between growth and environmental quality, its influence on global environmental health is certain to increase. Consequences of global environmental change such as habitat alteration, storms, and sea level rise will be particularly acute among Pacific Rim nations. Adverse health effects from arsenic exposure in Pacific Rim nations have been used to justify drinking water standards in the United States and elsewhere. As global manufacturing in the Pacific Rim increases, the centroid of global air quality and waste management issues will shift further toward Far Eastern nations. The Eleventh International Conference of the Pacific Basin Consortium (PBC) was held in September 2005 in Honolulu, Hawaii. The purpose of the conference was to bring together individuals to discuss regional challenges to sustainable growth. The historic emphasis of the conference on hazardous wastes in relation to human health makes the PBC an ideal forum for discussing technical aspects of sustainable economic growth in the Pacific region. That role is reflected in the 2005 PBC conference themes, which included management of arsenic in potable waters, air quality, climate change, pesticides, mercury, and electronics industry waste-each with emphasis on relationships to human health. Arsenic management exemplifies the manner in which the PBC can focus interdisciplinary discussion in a single technical area. The conference program provided talks on arsenic toxicology, treatment technologies, management of arsenic-bearing residuals from water treatment, and the probable societal costs and benefits of arsenic management.

  8. Industrially contaminated areas in Serbia as a potential public health threat to the exposed population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Branislava I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining and mineral processing is still a vital source of income in Serbia, due to mineral abundance in copper, lead, zinc, antimony. Copper mining and metal-processing are located in the east: Bor, Veliki Krivelj, Cerovo, Majdanpek. Abandoned sites from antimony mining and processing and secondary lead smelter are at the western border: Zajača, Krupanj, Stolice. Coal mining and power plants are surrounding Belgrade: Obrenovac (2 power plants, Grabovac (plant ash landfill, Kolubara and Kostolac. Main objective is to focus on potential public health hazards from industrial contamination in Serbia. Key public health issue is presence of As and Cd in ambient air PM10 close to industrially contaminated sites due to the fact that ores have high naturally occurring contents of heavy metals and metalloids. Data originate from Serbian Environmental Protection Agency, Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor, Belgrade Institute of Public Health, as part of continuous measurement of air quality within State network of automatic stations. Concentration of As in PM10 are extremely above the limit value in Bor and Lazarevac, with Cd values slightly increased in Bor. Serbia lacks the legal framework for continuous and institutionalized follow-up of population groups vulnerable to hazardous environmental exposure, although measured concentration indicate urgent need for such activities.

  9. Gambling: Electronic friends or a threat to one's health and personal development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Svensson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gambling has become quite common in Sweden. The Swedish National Institute of Public Health (2010 has reported that about 70% of the Swedish population has gambled at least once during the last 12 months. Half of the population had gambled with money by 18 years of age and about 11% had gambled for the first time when they were 12-years-old or younger. In the report from the Swedish National Institute of Public Health, gambling problems are related to health problems and risky alcohol consumption. The highest problem rate is found among men aged 18 to 24; almost 1 in 10 had some gambling problems. The share of problem gamblers is found to be twice as high among the under-age gamblers as it is among the population as a whole. Young people gamble less but develop gambling problems to a larger extent than adult gamblers. In this article young people's gambling and their gambling careers are analysed as a natural part of their internalisation of other adult habits.

  10. Climate change threats to population health and well-being: the imperative of protective solutions that will last

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Kjellstrom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The observational evidence of the impacts of climate conditions on human health is accumulating. A variety of direct, indirect, and systemically mediated health effects have been identified. Excessive daily heat exposures create direct effects, such as heat stroke (and possibly death, reduce work productivity, and interfere with daily household activities. Extreme weather events, including storms, floods, and droughts, create direct injury risks and follow-on outbreaks of infectious diseases, lack of nutrition, and mental stress. Climate change will increase these direct health effects. Indirect effects include malnutrition and under-nutrition due to failing local agriculture, spread of vector-borne diseases and other infectious diseases, and mental health and other problems caused by forced migration from affected homes and workplaces. Examples of systemically mediated impacts on population health include famine, conflicts, and the consequences of large-scale adverse economic effects due to reduced human and environmental productivity. This article highlights links between climate change and non-communicable health problems, a major concern for global health beyond 2015. Discussion: Detailed regional analysis of climate conditions clearly shows increasing temperatures in many parts of the world. Climate modelling indicates that by the year 2100 the global average temperature may have increased by 34°C unless fundamental reductions in current global trends for greenhouse gas emissions are achieved. Given other unforeseeable environmental, social, demographic, and geopolitical changes that may occur in a plus-4-degree world, that scenario may comprise a largely uninhabitable world for millions of people and great social and military tensions. Conclusion: It is imperative that we identify actions and strategies that are effective in reducing these increasingly likely threats to health and well-being. The fundamental preventive

  11. Climate change threats to population health and well-being: the imperative of protective solutions that will last.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; McMichael, Anthony J

    2013-04-03

    The observational evidence of the impacts of climate conditions on human health is accumulating. A variety of direct, indirect, and systemically mediated health effects have been identified. Excessive daily heat exposures create direct effects, such as heat stroke (and possibly death), reduce work productivity, and interfere with daily household activities. Extreme weather events, including storms, floods, and droughts, create direct injury risks and follow-on outbreaks of infectious diseases, lack of nutrition, and mental stress. Climate change will increase these direct health effects. Indirect effects include malnutrition and under-nutrition due to failing local agriculture, spread of vector-borne diseases and other infectious diseases, and mental health and other problems caused by forced migration from affected homes and workplaces. Examples of systemically mediated impacts on population health include famine, conflicts, and the consequences of large-scale adverse economic effects due to reduced human and environmental productivity. This article highlights links between climate change and non-communicable health problems, a major concern for global health beyond 2015. Detailed regional analysis of climate conditions clearly shows increasing temperatures in many parts of the world. Climate modelling indicates that by the year 2100 the global average temperature may have increased by 34°C unless fundamental reductions in current global trends for greenhouse gas emissions are achieved. Given other unforeseeable environmental, social, demographic, and geopolitical changes that may occur in a plus-4-degree world, that scenario may comprise a largely uninhabitable world for millions of people and great social and military tensions. It is imperative that we identify actions and strategies that are effective in reducing these increasingly likely threats to health and well-being. The fundamental preventive strategy is, of course, climate change mitigation by

  12. Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Sally J.; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologic infections acquired from animals, known as zoonoses, pose a risk to public health. An estimated 60% of emerging human pathogens are zoonotic. Of these pathogens, >71% have wildlife origins. These pathogens can switch hosts by acquiring new genetic combinations that have altered pathogenic potential or by changes in behavior or socioeconomic, environmental, or ecologic characteristics of the hosts. We discuss causal factors that influence the dynamics associated with emergence or reemergence of zoonoses, particularly in the industrialized world, and highlight selected examples to provide a comprehensive view of their range and diversity. PMID:20031035

  13. Winning a Stake in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workplace Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The life and health insurance industry has begun to stimulate and support community initiatives to train and place the hard-to-employ disadvantaged in private sector jobs. Program activities include a variety of counseling, training, education, and support services. Available from W.C. Publications, Inc., P.O. Box 1578, Montclair, NJ 07042. (SK)

  14. Today's threat is tomorrow's crisis: advocating for dental education, dental and biomedical research, and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresch, Jack E; Luke, Gina G; McKinnon, Monette D; Moss, Myla J; Pritchard, Daryl; Valachovic, Richard W

    2006-06-01

    The current political environment in the nation's capital threatens federal support for programs vital to the academic dental community. To develop a strong cadre of advocates who can deliver an effective and unified message to members of Congress on behalf of dental education and dental research, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) and the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) created a new organizational structure: the National Oral Health Advocacy Committee (NOHAC) and the National Advocacy Network (NAN). The basic skills and knowledge required to function as an effective advocate include an understanding of the political environment, a working knowledge of the legislative processes and the political players, and the ability to build and work with grassroots networks and coalitions. NOHAC and NAN are designed to provide leadership in these areas to support effective advocacy for dental education and dental research.

  15. Effects of climate change on the spread of zika virus: a public health threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Hina; Carpenter, David O

    2018-03-28

    Zika is a vector-borne viral disease transmitted to humans primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The increased climate instability has contributed to the emergence of infections carried by mosquitoes like dengue, chikungunya and zika. While infection with the zika virus is not new, the recent epidemic of microcephaly in Brazil and other countries in South America resulting from the infection of pregnant women with the zika virus raise a number of serious public health concerns. These include the question of how climate change affects the range of zika vectors, what can we do to shorten the length of mosquito season, how and why the symptoms of zika infection have changed and what can be done to reduce the burden of human disease from this infection? Another important question that needs to be answered is what are the factors that caused the zika virus to leave the non-human primates and/or other mammals and invade the human population?

  16. Human skin wounds: A major and snowballing threat to public health and the economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, C.K.; Gordillo, G.M.; Roy, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, chronic wounds affect 6.5 million patients. An estimated excess of US$25 billion is spent annually on treatment of chronic wounds and the burden is rapidly growing due to increasing health care costs, an aging population and a sharp rise in the incidence of diabetes...... in homeland preparedness against natural disasters as well as against terrorism attacks. An additional burden of wound healing is the problem of skin scarring, a $12 billion annual market. The immense economic and social impact of wounds in our society calls for allocation of a higher level of attention...... and obesity worldwide. The annual wound care products market is projected to reach $15.3 billion by 2010. Chronic wounds are rarely seen in individuals who are otherwise healthy. In fact, chronic wound patients frequently suffer from "highly branded" diseases such as diabetes and obesity. This seems to have...

  17. Disposable baby diaper--a threat to the health and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umachitra, G; Bhaarathidhurai

    2012-07-01

    There is no doubt that disposable diapers are wonderfully convenient but are they safe for the babies? It is clear that there are also a number of potential dangers. Most of the parents are not aware of the adverse effects of this product being in contact with baby's reproductive organs 24 hours a day more than two years and the long-term effects it causes to the surroundings. Disposable diapers have been implicated by diapering proponents like leak proof polymers, super absorbent polymers and some scented chemicals which are the key factors for everything from chronic diaper rash, respiratory problems like asthma, male infertility even to testicular cancer. This article gives the detailed review of the health and other related problems in using the disposable baby diapers like cancer, liver damage, skin diseases, male infertility, birth abnormalities, respiratory problems, land fills, environmental pollution, toxic chemicals used etc.

  18. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapi, Léonie N; Rocklöv, Joacim; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Tetanye, Ekoe; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2010-11-29

    Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Schoolchildren (N = 285) aged 12-16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot) and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%), had fatigue (76%), and headaches (38%) in Yaoundé. Prevalences (%) were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39), feeling 'very hot overall' (37 vs 21), and 'very hot in head' (21 vs 18). Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning.

  19. Heat impact on schoolchildren in Cameroon, Africa: potential health threat from climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tord Kjellstrom

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health impacts related to climate change are potentially an increasing problem in Cameroon, especially during hot seasons when there are no means for protective and adaptive actions. Objective: To describe environmental conditions in schools and to evaluate the impact of heat on schoolchildren's health during school days in the Cameroon cities of Yaoundé and Douala. Methods: Schoolchildren (N=285 aged 12–16 years from public secondary schools completed a questionnaire about their background, general symptoms, and hot feelings in a cross-sectional study. In Yaoundé, 50 schoolchildren were individually interviewed during school days about hourly symptoms (fatigue, headache, and feeling very hot and performance. Lascar dataloggers were used to measure indoor classroom temperatures and humidity. Results: There was a significant correlation between daily indoor temperature and the percentages of schoolchildren who felt very hot, had fatigue, and headaches in Yaoundé. A high proportion of schoolchildren felt very hot (48%, had fatigue (76%, and headaches (38% in Yaoundé. Prevalences (% were higher among girls than boys for headaches (58 vs 39, feeling ‘very hot overall’ (37 vs 21, and ‘very hot in head’ (21 vs 18. Up to 62% were absentminded and 45% had slow writing speed. High indoor temperatures of 32.5°C in Yaoundé and 36.6°C in Douala were observed in school. Conclusions: Headache, fatigue, and feeling very hot associated with high indoor air temperature were observed among schoolchildren in the present study. Longitudinal data in schools are needed to confirm these results. School environmental conditions should be improved in order to enhance learning.

  20. Antibiotics in Serbian Households: a Source of Potential Health and Environmental Threats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusturica, Milica Paut; Tomić, Zdenko; Bukumirić, Zoran; Horvat, Olga; Pavlović, Nebojša; Mikov, Momir; Sabo, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide data indicate that antibiotics are frequently used inappropriately. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of storage and wastage of antibacterial agents in households in Novi Sad, Serbia. The study was performed in 8 months period (December 2011-July 2012) in households in Novi Sad, Serbia. The households were randomly selected from the telephone directory. The interviewer performed the survey visiting each household. The total number of antibacterial agents in the 383 surveyed households was 318, constituting 7.3% of the total stored medications. From 383 families included in the study antibiotics were found in 178 (46.5%). In 13 (7.3%) families were found more than one pack of the same antibiotics. The median number of antibacterial agents per household was 1 (range 1-5). The most common antibacterial agents that were not in current use were cephalexin (22.1%) and amoxicillin (16.6%), followed by doxycycline (11.4%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (11.4%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (9.2%). The percentage of expired antibacterial agents was 20.8%, while 85.2% were not currently in use. Antibacterial agents were commonly encountered in Serbian households, and a relatively large percentage was wasted. Informational and educational activities aimed at improving the public knowledge about antimicrobials play the leading role in reducing imprudent use of antibiotics. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  1. Leather waste--potential threat to human health, and a new technology of its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomaznik, K; Adamek, M; Andel, I; Uhlirova, M

    2008-12-30

    In this paper, the authors deal with the problem of processing various types of waste generated by leather industry, with special emphasis to chrome-tanned waste. The agent that makes this waste potentially hazardous is hexavalent chromium. Its compounds can have negative effects on human health and some CrVI salts are considered carcinogens. The authors present the risks of spontaneous oxidization of CrIII to CrVI in the open-air dumps as well as the possible risks of wearing bad quality shoes, in which the chromium content is not controlled. There are several ways of handling primary leather waste, but no satisfactory technology has been developed for the secondary waste (manipulation waste, e.g. leather scraps and used leather products). In this contribution, a new three-step hybrid technology of processing manipulation waste is presented and tested under laboratory, pilot-scale and industrial conditions. The filtrate can be used as a good quality NPK fertilizer. The solid product, titanium-chromium sludge, can serve as an inorganic pigment in glass and ceramic industry. Further, the authors propose selective collection of used leather products (e.g. old shoes), the hydrolysable parts of which can be also processed by the new hybrid technology.

  2. Diphtheria remains a threat to health in the developing world: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattos-Guaraldi Ana Luíza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the epidemiology of diphtheria are occurring worldwide. A large proportion of adults in many industrialized and developing countries are now susceptible to diphtheria. Vaccine-induced immunity wanes over time unless periodic booster is given or exposure to toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae occurs. Immunity gap in adults coupled with large numbers of susceptible children creates the potential for new extensive epidemics. Epidemic emergencies may not be long in coming in countries experiencing rapid industrialization or undergoing sociopolitical instability where many of the factors thought to be important in producing epidemic such as mass population movements and difficult hygienic and economic conditions are present. The continuous circulation of toxigenic C. diphtheriae emphasizes the need to be aware of epidemiological features, clinical signs, and symptoms of diphtheria in vaccine era so that cases can be promptly diagnosed and treated, and further public health measures can be taken to contain this serious disease. This overview focused on worldwide data obtained from diphtheria with particular emphasis to main factors leading to recent epidemics, new clinical forms of C. diphtheriae infections, expression of virulence factors, other than toxin production, control strategies, and laboratory diagnosis procedures.

  3. Endocrine disruptors in food contact materials; is there a health threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2014-01-01

    Food Contact Materials (FCMs) are a major source of endocrine disrupting chemical substances (EDCs), thus forming an important part of human exposure to these compounds, to which this article is addressed. The potential impact of such exposures on endocrine function, and thereby health outcomes, requires scientifically valid evidence so that appropriate risk management decisions can be taken to diminish human exposure, particularly in vulnerable population groups like infants and small children. Relevant aspects of exposure assessment are discussed based on testing migration of EDCs from FCMs, together with the different approaches so used. The specific migration testing determines whether limits for defined substances are met. However not all EDCs present in the leachate may be found by these means. In fact, the chances of detecting EDCs in the food simulant (leachate) are improved when it is subjected the relevant biological testing, thus helping to provide improved protection against these chemical substances. Nevertheless, official controls and risk management decisions do not necessarily take such testing into account, as the relevant legislation is based on specific migration limits that may be easily quantified and addressed in the risk management process. Elucidating the link between observed endocrine activity and any toxic effects so arising, is complicated by the complexity of endocrine interrelationships coupled with relatively limited sensitivity of toxicological tests. Any risk assessment implies a rather high uncertainty and should include also any cumulative effects. This review discusses the effects of the EDCs like bisphenol A, phthalates and benzophenone found in FCMs. In addition, the approaches from the USA and EU for systematically evaluating man-made EDCs in the environment are also considered, including appropriate prioritisation criteria.

  4. Confronting the Emerging Threat to Public Health in Northern Australia of Neglected Indigenous Arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Gyawali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In excess of 75 arboviruses have been identified in Australia, some of which are now well established as causative agents of debilitating diseases. These include Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus, and Murray Valley encephalitis virus, each of which may be detected by both antibody-based recognition and molecular typing. However, for most of the remaining arboviruses that may be associated with pathology in humans, routine tests are not available to diagnose infection. A number of these so-called ‘neglected’ or ‘orphan’ arboviruses that are indigenous to Australia might have been infecting humans at a regular rate for decades. Some of them may be associated with undifferentiated febrile illness—fever, the cause of which is not obvious—for which around half of all cases each year remain undiagnosed. This is of particular relevance to Northern Australia, given the Commonwealth Government’s transformative vision for the midterm future of massive infrastructure investment in this region. An expansion of the industrial and business development of this previously underpopulated region is predicted. This is set to bring into intimate proximity infection-naïve human hosts, native reservoir animals, and vector mosquitoes, thereby creating a perfect storm for increased prevalence of infection with neglected Australian arboviruses. Moreover, the escalating rate and effects of climate change that are increasingly observed in the tropical north of the country are likely to lead to elevated numbers of arbovirus-transmitting mosquitoes. As a commensurate response, continuing assiduous attention to vector monitoring and control is required. In this overall context, improved epidemiological surveillance and diagnostic screening, including establishing novel, rapid pan-viral tests to facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of febrile primary care patients, should be considered a public health priority. Investment in a rigorous

  5. [Zoonoses with wildlife reservoirs: a threat to public health and the economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello C, Carlos; Cabello C, Felipe

    2008-03-01

    The world is experiencing an increase in emergent infections as a result of anthropogenic changes of the biosphere and globalization. Global warming unrestricted exploitation of natural resources such as forests and fisheries, urbanization, human migration, and industrialization of animal husbandry cause environmental destruction and fragmentation. These changes of the biosphere favor local emergence of zoonoses from their natural biotopes and their interaction with domestic animals and human populations. Subsequently, international commerce, human and animal migration and travel, favor the dissemination of these zoonotic pathogens worldwide. Chile is undergoing an important degradation of many wild-life biotopes, affecting their diversity and contributing to the dissemination of zoonoses such as Chagas disease, Hantavirus, rabies, fish tapeworms, and marine vibriosis. Moreover, agents of many other zoonoses such as inverted exclamation markeptospirosis, hydatidosis, salmonellosis, rabies, brucellosis and anthrax have been detected in different wild-life environments in the country. The intensification and accelerations of the anthropogenic deterioration of the biosphere in Chile, as results of the unrestricted utilization of natural resources and global climate change, suggests that emergence of new zoonoses in the near future will lead to important public health and economic problems. Forestalling of these problems will require active epidemiológica! surveillance of wild and domestic animals with a wide range of modern molecular and ancillary epidemiológica! tools. This also demands government and private sector (i.e., animal husbandry) intervention, funding and the collaboration of professionals in human and veterinary medicine with those in the environmental sciences including ecology, climatology and oceanography.

  6. Using efficacy cues in persuasive health communication is more effective than employing threats - An experimental study of a vaccination intervention against Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, Alexander; Fahr, Andreas

    2018-04-10

    Although much effort has been made to study fear appeals in persuasive health communication, there is still mixed support for the effectiveness of this approach. Therefore, this research investigated the effect of invoked fear via health communication messages on crucial components of the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) by focusing on the rarely examined interaction between perceptions of threat and efficacy and their effects on fear control and danger control processes as well as health-relevant outcomes. We recruited 447 participants (M age  = 32.00 years; 64% female) for a 2 × 2 between-subjects experimental study via quota sampling. While completing an online questionnaire, subjects were randomly assigned to view one of four versions of a mock website containing information about vaccinations against Ebola virus disease (EVD), which varied in threat and efficacy. After seeing the stimulus, participants completed assessments of their perceptions of threat and efficacy, evoked fear, adaptive and defensive responses to the presented message, attitudes, and intentions. Structure equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the relationships within the model (EPPM). Promoting efficacy with respect to EVD was more effective than emphasizing threat, resulting in danger control rather than fear control processes. Although threat may be effective in attracting peoples' attention, there is a comparatively small effect of evoked fear on attitudes and intentions. The data support the assumption that there is an important association between threat and coping appraisals facilitating behaviour change. Moreover, the widely held notion that people have to be scared or threatened to encourage attitude and behaviour changes should be treated with caution. Communication should instead focus on efficacy to foster adaptive responses. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There is mixed support for the effectiveness of fear appeals in

  7. Towards a framework for teaching about information technology risk in health care: Simulating threats to health data and patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Borycki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author describes work towards developing an integrative framework for educating health information technology professionals about technology risk. The framework considers multiple sources of risk to health data quality and integrity that can result from the use of health information technology (HIT and can be used to teach health professional students about these risks when using health technologies. This framework encompasses issues and problems that may arise from varied sources, including intentional alterations (e.g. resulting from hacking and security breaches as well as unintentional breaches and corruption of data (e.g. resulting from technical problems, or from technology-induced errors. The framework that is described has several levels: the level of human factors and usability of HIT, the level of monitoring of security and accuracy, the HIT architectural level, the level of operational and physical checks, the level of healthcare quality assurance policies and the data risk management strategies level. Approaches to monitoring and simulation of risk are also discussed, including a discussion of an innovative approach to monitoring potential quality issues. This is followed by a discussion of the application (using computer simulations to educate both students and health information technology professionals about the impact and spread of technology-induced and related types of data errors involving HIT.

  8. Self-perceived health and self-care among diabetic subjects with defective vision: a comparison between subjects with threat of blindness and blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksell, Janeth K; Sandberg, Gun E; Wikblad, Karin F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare self-perceived health among diabetic patients who experienced threat of blindness with those who had already gone blind. Another aim was to explore different aspects of self-care in relation to self-perceived health among the subjects. Twenty-one diabetic patients under threat of becoming blind and 23 with diabetes-related blindness agreed to participate in the study. The participants were compared with an age- and gender-matched nondiabetic reference group. Self-perceived health was measured using the 63-item Swedish Health-Related Quality of Life Survey (SWED-QUAL) questionnaire. Data on diabetes-related variables were collected from the patient's hospital records. An interview guide was created for measuring dimensions of self-care. Patients with threat of becoming blind showed better self-perceived health than blind patients, but no differences were found in comparison with the Swedish reference group. Blind patients scored lower in 6 of the 13 health domains and they reported more problems with diabetes self-care than patients with threat of becoming blind. One of the 13 health domains, role limitations due to physical health, seemed to be associated with impaired self-care although only a partial understanding could be demonstrated. The results show that blind patients need specific support to cope well with different self-care situations. A great challenge in future research in diabetes is to implement education programs suitable especially for patients who have gone blind because of diabetes.

  9. Isolation and Identification of Brucella melitensis Biovar 3 from Vaccinated Small Ruminants: A Public Health Threat in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Dreshaj, S; Robaj, A; Sylejmani, D; Ramadani, N; Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, a human brucellosis case with severe clinical symptoms was reported at the University Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Prishtina, Kosovo. A trace-back investigation was conducted to find the source of human infection. A total of 49 blood samples and 15 corresponding milk samples from sheep and goats raised on the patient's farm were taken for serological and molecular analysis. Serology using RBT and CFT revealed 11 positive animals. Twelve milk samples were PCR positive. A Brucella strain isolated from a goat's milk sample was classified as Brucella melitensis biovar 3, indicating the first ever isolation and report in Kosovo. The use of the Bruce-ladder PCR provided differentiation between the field strain and the vaccine strain. Hence, the accidental transmission of the vaccine strain Rev 1 that was previously used for the vaccination of the farm animals could be excluded. The findings of this study show that brucellosis is still a public health threat in Kosovo despite control measures. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Counteracting effect of threat on reward enhancements during working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Moon; Padmala, Srikanth; Pessoa, Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive performance has been shown to be enhanced when performance-based rewards are at stake. On the other hand, task-irrelevant threat processing has been shown to have detrimental effects during several cognitive tasks. Crucially, the impact of reward and threat on cognition has been studied largely independently of one another. Hence, our understanding of how reward and threat simultaneously contribute to performance is incomplete. To fill in this gap, the present study investigated how reward and threat interact with one another during a cognitive task. We found that threat of shock counteracted the beneficial effect of reward during a working memory task. Furthermore, individual differences in self-reported reward-sensitivity and anxiety were linked to the extent to which reward and threat interacted during behaviour. Together, the current findings contribute to a limited but growing literature unravelling how positive and negative information processing jointly influence cognition.

  11. The Emergence of Ebola as a Global Health Security Threat: From ‘Lessons Learned’ to Coordinated Multilateral Containment Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sarathi; Kelkar, Dhanashree; Galwankar, Sagar C.; Papadimos, Thomas J.; Stawicki, Stanislaw P.; Arquilla, Bonnie; Hoey, Brian A.; Sharpe, Richard P.; Sabol, Donna; Jahre, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    health threat. Here we present a review of EBOV infection in an effort to further educate medical and political communities on what the Ebolavirus disease entails, and what efforts are recommended to treat, isolate, and eventually eliminate it. PMID:25538455

  12. The emergence of Ebola as a global health security threat: From ′lessons learned′ to coordinated multilateral containment efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Kalra

    2014-01-01

    as a public health threat. Here we present a review of EBOV infection in an effort to further educate medical and political communities on what the Ebolavirus disease entails, and what efforts are recommended to treat, isolate, and eventually eliminate it.

  13. Genetically modified plants: the stakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, G; Chupeau, Y

    2001-12-01

    Generically modified plants (GMP) are massively used on the American continent in Australia and in China, since they represent an unquestionable potential for progress. New attributes are therefore devoted to the human and animal diet, to the facilitating of culture management, to the reducing of the chemical fertilizer and pesticide usage, and to the conquest of new cultural spaces. Considering itself to be flawed by a too hasty plunge into the market, concomitant with sagging evaluations of other innovations, Europe is confronted by a strong societal debate which blocks GMP cultures and orientates the research towards an evaluation of the environmental and public health risks and an evaluation of their economical and sociological impacts. The authors encourage this societal debate in order to arbitrate the presence of transgenes in conventional productions and products, to define the accepted rules of responsibility, to decide what is not acceptable, and to involve the more upstream actors and operators of the innovation process, all that keeping in mind the agronomical, ecological and economical repercussions of their decisions.

  14. Public authority responses to marine stinger public health risks: a scenario analysis of the Irukandji health threat in controlled spaces at public beaches in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley-Cyr, Lynda

    2012-12-01

    This scenario analysis was undertaken to anticipate the likelihood of public authority liability for negligence arising from harm associated with the relatively new phenomenon of the Irukandji marine stinger health threat in Australia. The tort of negligence is about allocating liability for wrongs typically committed by one person or entity against another. The author questions whether a person who enters a marine stinger enclosure at one of Australia's patrolled and flagged beaches and suffers serious injury from an Irukandji sting can seek compensation or damages in negligence against government. It is argued that as the law currently stands, an injured bather without adequate warning could successfully sue a local authority for creating a false perception of safety and therefore inducing risky behaviour. Changes in ecology and climate variability are relevant considerations. This is a novel issue not previously dealt with in Australian courts.

  15. Radon - natural health threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Natural sources of radiation attract little attention, yet a survey has found radon gas in buildings at levels which put the occupants at some risk. The author wants safety standards set without undue delay. (author)

  16. Combatting Insider Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter G.

    Risks from insider threats are strongly context dependent, and arise in many ways at different layers of system abstraction for different types of systems. We discuss various basic characteristics of insider threats, and consider approaches to the development and use of computer-related environments that require systems and networking to be trustworthy in spite of insider misuse. We also consider future research that could improve both detectability, prevention, and response. This chapter seeks to cope with insider misuse in a broad range of application domains - for example, critical infrastructures, privacy-preserving database systems, financial systems, and interoperable health-care infrastructures. To illustrate this, we apply the principles considered here to the task of detecting and preventing insider misuse in systems that might be used to facilitate trustworthy elections. This discussion includes an examination of the relevance of the Saltzer-Schroeder-Kaashoek security principles and the Clark-Wilson integrity properties for end-to-end election integrity. Trustworthy system developments must consider insider misuse as merely one set of threats that must be addressed consistently together with many other threats such as penetrations, denials of service, system faults and failures, and other threats to survivability. In addition, insider misuse cannot be realistically addressed unless significant improvements are made in the trustworthiness of component systems and their networking as well as their predictably trustworthy compositions into enterprise solutions - architecturally, developmentally, and operationally.

  17. Offensive Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A. Mahdi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper try to give us more details about the meaning of directory, and which type of security involved within the intended with each type of the specified directory. The security threats pose a significant and increasing problem for organizations. This is shown by the regular stories of fraud and data loss reported daily in the media in anywhere in the world. There is a need to provide systematic protection from insider attacks because of their privileged access. Moreover, we should provide a systematic protection from the outside attacks, as well. It is worthy to separate the duty of directory by indentifying the main two duties: the duty of the system administrator and the database administrator, and we have to recognize the difference between them. We will provide the researchers with four main threats that might be offensive to the security of directory. Moreover, we will address the nature of attack and the purpose of this attack that may encounter the directory or network assets. Finally, we will show the relation between Active Directory Security and Server Security.

  18. Marine renewable energies. Stakes and technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Olivier; Macadre, Laura-Mae

    2012-05-01

    Marine renewable energies are able to supply carbon free energy from various ocean resources (tides, waves, currents, winds, salinity and temperature gradients). This sector, currently at an early stage of deployment, has good prospects of development in the coming years. ENEA releases a report on marine renewable energies giving a transversal vision of the associated stakes and prospects of development. Technical and economic characteristics, maturity level and specificities of each marine energy are analyzed. French and European sources of funding, regulatory framework and potential environmental and social impacts are also reported

  19. City and energy: which common stakes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saujot, Mathieu; Peiffer-Smadja, Oceane; Renard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of several issues addressed during sessions hold during a year. The addressed topics have been: the interactions between forms of urban development and energy transition, energetic vulnerability in relationship with mobility, the role and participation of inhabitants in the making of the city and in energy transition (the challenge of ways of life and usages in eco-districts), stakes and consequences of a more integrated urban production, the local governance of energy. Each of these topics is discussed, and the main lessons learned are highlighted

  20. The debate on climate change and health in the context of ecological public health: a necessary corrective to Costello et al.'s 'biggest global health threat', or co-opted apologists for the neoliberal hegemony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, B

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed to global health by climate change has been widely discussed internationally. The United Kingdom public health community seem to have accepted this as fact and have called for urgent action on climate change, often through state interventionist mitigation strategies and the adoption of a risk discourse. Putting aside the climate change deniers' arguments, there are critics of this position who seem to accept climate change as a fact but argue that the market and/or economic development should address the issue. Their view is that carbon reduction (mitigation) is a distraction, may be costly and is ineffective. They argue that what is required is more economic development and progress even if that means a warmer world. Both positions however accept the fact of growth based capitalism and thus fail to critique neoliberal market driven capitalism or posit an alternative political economy that eschews growth. Ecological public health, however, appears to be a way forward in addressing not only social determinants of health but also the political and ecological determinants. This might allow us to consider not just public health but also planetary health and health threats that arise from growth based capitalism. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Beliefs about dangerousness of people with mental health problems: the role of media reports and personal exposure to threat or harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, N J; Jorm, A F; Morgan, A J

    2016-09-01

    To assess the associations between beliefs about the dangerousness of people with mental health problems and exposure to media reports of violence or personal experiences of fear, threat or harm. Telephone interviews were carried out with 5220 Australians aged 18+. Respondents heard a vignette of a person with depression or early schizophrenia and were asked whether they believed him to be dangerous. Other questions covered past 12-month recall of media reports of violence and mental health problems, contact with and experiences of fear, threat or harm by people with mental health problems. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the associations between beliefs about dangerousness and media and these types of contact with people with mental health problems. For the early schizophrenia vignette, recall of media reports and having felt afraid of someone were associated with beliefs about dangerousness. For the depression vignette, media reports about violence and mental health problems or the experiences of feeling afraid or having been threatened or harmed were not strongly associated with beliefs about dangerousness. For both vignettes, knowing someone with a mental health problem and having a higher level of education were associated with less belief in dangerousness. Media reports may play a greater role in forming attitudes in low prevalence disorders and further efforts to reduce any adverse impact of media reporting should focus on these disorders. The study also supports the effectiveness of contact with people with mental health problems in reducing beliefs about dangerousness.

  2. Ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ozone hole was first discovered in 1980. Thus 15 years even after the first warming, the world is no where near to the elimination of man made gases that threaten to destroy the ozone layer. Ozone depletion has become a matter of enormous threat which remains to be solved by the Scientists and intelligentia of the world. Ozone (O3) is a pungent poisonous gas. It forms a layer at a distance of about 15 miles above the earth's surface which helps shield living things from the sun shearing ultra violet light. If ozone is lost, more ultra violet light reaches the earth, which can lead to increasing rate of skin cancer, the death of micro organisms and the failure of crops and plants. It was in 1974 when it was discovered that Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) cold rise slowly to the upper atmosphere and destroy the earth's fragile ozone shield. Chlorofluorocarbons are commonly used as coolants (such as Freon) for home and automobile air conditioners and in the making of fast food containers. CFCs take about 100 years or more to reach he stratosphere to damage the ozone layers. In 1988, Scientists confirmed that upto 3% of the ozone layer over the more populated Northern Hemisphere has been destroyed. it is believed that for every 1% decrease in ozone, skin cancers are expected to rise 5 to 6 per cent due to the increase of ultraviolet light. Cases of cataracts and certain human immune system diseases are also expected to rise. (author)

  3. Split or Steal? Cooperative Behavior When the Stakes Are Large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van den Assem (Martijn); D. van Dolder (Dennie); R.H. Thaler (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe examine cooperative behavior when large sums of money are at stake, using data from the television game show Golden Balls. At the end of each episode, contestants play a variant on the classic prisoner's dilemma for large and widely ranging stakes averaging over $20,000. Cooperation

  4. High-Stakes Testing in Education: Value, fairness and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theodorus Johannes Hendrikus Maria; Stobart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes educational testing is a global phenomenon which is increasing in both scale and importance. Assessments are high-stakes when there are serious consequences for one or more stakeholders. Historically, tests have largely been used for selection or for providing a ‘licence to practise’,

  5. High Stakes and Persistent Challenges –

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    In this separate rejoinder to Jan Klabbers' and Ino Augsberg's comments to the articles in the symposium on New Legal Realism in International Law (Leiden Journal of International Law, Volume 28:2, 2015), we respond from the point of view of the European New Legal Realism (ENLR) as propounded...... in our initial contribution to the symposium. Agreeing with Ingo Venzke who wrote in his introduction to the symposium that ‘stakes are high’ in the debate over international law and methodology, we argue that both Klabbers and Augsberg, each in their own way, fail to take sufficiently seriously the ENLR...... challenge to doctrinal scholarship. We argue that Klabbers underestimates the evergreen and persistent character of this challenge when he portrays the current push for New Legal Realism as merely a whimsy fashion wave. And we argue that Augsberg's essentially Kelsenian defence of doctrinal scholarship...

  6. Insider threats to cybersecurity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lakha, D

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Darshan Lakha Vodacom Group CTSO 6th CSIR Conference 6 October 2017 INSIDER THREATS Darshan Lakha 2 INSIDER THREATS | Impact Darshan Lakha 3 Are insider threats the main security threat in 2017? 2017 insider threat Intelligence report (Dtex...,2017) High Risk Applications 95% Leavers, Joiners & Movers 56% Public Data 64% Inappropriate Internet Usag 59% Security Bypass x2 INSIDER THREATS | Who is involved? Darshan Lakha 4 Privileged Users Terminated Employees Third...

  7. Comparison of ablation stake measurements and Airborne Laser Scanning results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, Lorenzo; Galos, Stephan; Klug, Christoph; Sailer, Rudolf

    2014-05-01

    Ablation measurements using ablation stakes are a well-established method in glaciology, which sees a lot of use. However, ablation stakes cannot always be installed and read at a sufficient number of points on a glacier or on multiple glaciers, due to limited personnel and financial capacities or because of inaccessible areas due to dangerous zones (crevasses, rock falls, avalanches) or remote terrain. Furthermore, ablation stakes only enable measurements of surface melt, whereas basal or internal melt processes as well as surface change related to glacier dynamics cannot be measured. Multi temporal Airborne laser scanning (ALS) can provide high resolution and very accurate topographic information for the whole glacier area, which allows the calculation of the difference in surface height and therefore - if the density profile is known or can be estimated - the determination of the local mass balance, including processes like basal melt at least to a certain degree. To gain a better understanding of the differences between ablation stake readings and differential ALS data at the stake locations, the results of both methods have been compared in detail. At Langenferner, a glacier in the Italian Eastern Alps, where mass balance measurements have been carried out since 2004, three ALS campaigns have been conducted at the end of the hydrological year in 2005, 2010 and 2013. There are about 30 ablation stakes installed at the glacier, which have been read during or very close to the time of the flight campaigns. The ablation measurements are then compared to the surface differences calculated from ALS data at the locations of the ablation stakes. To take the movement of the stakes due to glacier dyanmics into account, the position of the stakes has been measured with a differential GPS.

  8. Raising the stakes: How students’ motivation for mathematics associates with high- and low-stakes test achievement☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simzar, Rahila M.; Martinez, Marcela; Rutherford, Teomara; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses data from an urban school district to examine the relation between students’ motivational beliefs about mathematics and high- versus low-stakes math test performance. We use ordinary least squares and quantile regression analyses and find that the association between students’ motivation and test performance differs based on the stakes of the exam. Students’ math self-efficacy and performance avoidance goal orientation were the strongest predictors for both exams; however, students’ math self-efficacy was more strongly related to achievement on the low-stakes exam. Students’ motivational beliefs had a stronger association at the low-stakes exam proficiency cutoff than they did at the high-stakes passing cutoff. Lastly, the negative association between performance avoidance goals and high-stakes performance showed a decreasing trend across the achievement distribution, suggesting that performance avoidance goals are more detrimental for lower achieving students. These findings help parse out the ways motivation influences achievement under different stakes. PMID:27840563

  9. When the Stakes Turn Toxic: Learn about Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011 Print this issue When the Stakes Turn Toxic Learn About Problem Gambling Send us your comments ... gambling. you lose a job, educational opportunity or relationship because of gambling. you find that no matter ...

  10. Electric power from renewable energy: resources and stakes for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the essential of the last thematic letter published by the IFEN (French institute of the environment), devoted to the resources and stakes of the electric power produced by the renewable energies in France. (A.L.B.)

  11. Dwelling thermal renovation: which stakes, which solutions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delduc, Paul; Demeulenaere, Laurence; Verdure, Mathieu; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Fuk Chun Wing, Dimitri; Kiefer, Noemie; Mauroux, Amelie; Charlier, Dorothee; Hini, Sihame; Pinto Silva, Kleber; Giraudet, Louis Gaetan; Nauleau, Marie-Laure; Daussin-Benichou, Jeanne-Marie; Teissier, Olivier; Finidori, Esther; Grandjean, Alain; Allibe, Benoit; Gadrat, Pierre; Couriol, Aude; Menard, Francois; Rouquette, Celine; Houriez, Guillaume; Francois, Dominique; Aubert, Celine; Canardon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes three sets of contributions. The first one addresses context and stakes. The contributions propose: a literature review on household behaviour and investments in energy efficiency, a focus on the key role of dwellings in energy transition through a comparative study of the four pathways of the National Debate for Energy Transition, and a discussion about consensus and uncertainties regarding the determining factors of heating temperature in dwellings. The second set addresses public policies and their assessment: improvement of the technical-economical assessment of the benefit of dwelling energetic renovations, discussion of the organisation and results of a survey on dwelling, equipment, and energy needs and uses, an analysis of several measures aimed at reaching objectives of energy efficiency of dwellings, a discussion of renovation works quality, a discussion of the impact of the sustainable development tax credit on thermal renovation, the optimisation of energy renovation in co-properties by third party financing, some foreign examples of policies in favour of dwelling thermal renovation. The third set of contributions addresses the needed technical, organisational and market evolutions: how the building sector can face the challenges of energy transition, the possibilities to propose innovative solutions adapted to existing housing buildings, and a comparative analysis of material and building equipment costs and market structures in Europe. Other texts are proposed in appendix: the origin of the Phebus survey, a description of incentive arrangements, and a map of climate zones in France

  12. New stakes for electric power wholesale markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durtol, Jeannou; Jourdan, Esther; Musseau, Pierre; Ollivier, Benjamin; Schramm, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This note proposes an analysis of political as well as economic causes of dysfunctions of electricity wholesale markets in Europe. The authors show that the market model is not adapted any longer to the present situation, and outline that these dysfunctions are due to the economic crisis, to the gas-coal merit order, and also, to some extent, to the development of renewable energies. Then, the authors state that a new equilibrium must be found between public intervention and markets, in a context where stakes related to security of supply, and industrial and land planning policies require specific objectives which cannot be reached only through an energy and CO 2 wholesale market play, but with public intervention. The authors then discuss the role of public authorities regarding the energy mix, and outline the necessity of a better prediction and definition of credible objectives for a better consistence of public policies, and the necessity of a translation of energy policy objectives into actual and flexible instruments. Some propositions are formulated, notably regarding the nuclear sector. In the last part, the authors propose some possible reforms for the electricity market by addressing different issues: long term contracts and short term optimisation of energy markets, and security of supply on the long term

  13. Long-term stake evaluations of waterborne copper systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Cherilyn Hatfield; Douglas Crawford; Bessie Woodward

    2003-01-01

    Limitations on the use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) have heightened interest in use of arsenic-free copper-based alternatives. For decades, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory has been evaluating several of these systems in stake plots. Southern Pine 38- by 89- by 457-mm (1.5- by 3.5- by 18-inch) stakes were treated with varying concentrations of acid copper...

  14. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  15. Risk of Zika virus transmission in the Euro-Mediterranean area and the added value of building preparedness to arboviral threats from a One Health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Escadafal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the alarming context of risk of Zika virus (ZIKV transmission in the Euro-Mediterranean area, there is a need to examine whether capacities to detect, diagnose and notify ZIKV infections in the region are in place and whether ongoing capacity-building initiatives are filling existing gaps. The MediLabSecure network, created in 2014, comprises 55 laboratories of virology and medical entomology and 19 public health institutions in 19 countries in the Balkans, North-Africa, the Middle-East and the Black Sea regions. It aims to set up awareness, risk assessment, monitoring and control of emerging and re-emerging vector-borne viruses. We here examine the actions and strategies that MediLabSecure has been implementing and how they will contribute to the prevention and control of the ZIKV threat in the Euro-Mediterranean area. Capacity-building for arbovirus diagnostics is a major objective of the project and follows a methodological rather than disease-driven approach. This enables the implementation of laboratory trainings on techniques that are common to several arboviruses, including ZIKV, and putting into action appropriate diagnostic tools in the target region. Moreover, by its One Health approach and the interaction of its four sub-networks in human virology, animal virology, medical entomology and public health, MediLabSecure is fostering intersectoral collaboration, expertise and sharing of information. The resulting exchanges (methodological, communication and operational across disciplines and across countries, dedicated research on intersectoral collaboration and increasing diagnostic capacities are providing new paths and tools to public health professionals to face emerging viral threats such as a ZIKV epidemic in the Euro-Mediterranean region.

  16. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of integrating the World Health Organization patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan: a qualitative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Misbah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis of integrating the World Health Organization (WHO patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan. Methods A qualitative interpretive case study was conducted at Riphah International University, Islamabad, from October 2016 to June 2017. The study included 9 faculty members and 1 expert on patient safety. The interviews were audiotaped, and a thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed using NVivo software. Results Four themes were derived based on the need analysis model. The sub-themes derived from the collected data were arranged under the themes of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in accordance with the principles of SWOT analysis. The strengths identified were the need for a formal patient safety curriculum and its early integration into the undergraduate program. The weaknesses were faculty awareness and participation in development programs. The opportunities were an ongoing effort to develop an appropriate curriculum, to improve the current culture of healthcare, and to use the WHO curricular resource guide. The threats were attitudes towards patient safety in Pakistani culture, resistance to implementation from different levels, and the role of regulatory authorities. Conclusion The theme of patient safety needs to be incorporated early into the formal medical education curriculum, with the main goals of striving to do no harm and seeing mistakes as opportunities to learn. Faculty development activities need to be organized, and faculty members should to be encouraged to participate in them. The lack of a patient safety culture was identified as the primary reason for resistance to this initiative at many levels. The WHO curriculum, amended according to local institutional culture, can be implemented appropriately with support from the corresponding regulatory bodies.

  17. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis of integrating the World Health Organization patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misbah, Samreen; Mahboob, Usman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of integrating the World Health Organization (WHO) patient safety curriculum into undergraduate medical education in Pakistan. A qualitative interpretive case study was conducted at Riphah International University, Islamabad, from October 2016 to June 2017. The study included 9 faculty members and 1 expert on patient safety. The interviews were audiotaped, and a thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed using NVivo software. Four themes were derived based on the need analysis model. The sub-themes derived from the collected data were arranged under the themes of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, in accordance with the principles of SWOT analysis. The strengths identified were the need for a formal patient safety curriculum and its early integration into the undergraduate program. The weaknesses were faculty awareness and participation in development programs. The opportunities were an ongoing effort to develop an appropriate curriculum, to improve the current culture of healthcare, and to use the WHO curricular resource guide. The threats were attitudes towards patient safety in Pakistani culture, resistance to implementation from different levels, and the role of regulatory authorities. The theme of patient safety needs to be incorporated early into the formal medical education curriculum, with the main goals of striving to do no harm and seeing mistakes as opportunities to learn. Faculty development activities need to be organized, and faculty members should to be encouraged to participate in them. The lack of a patient safety culture was identified as the primary reason for resistance to this initiative at many levels. The WHO curriculum, amended according to local institutional culture, can be implemented appropriately with support from the corresponding regulatory bodies.

  18. Radon exposure: Human health threat. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on H.R. 2837

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The hearings on H.R. 2837 that amends the Toxic Substance Control Act to assist states in responding to the threat to human health posed by exposure to radon were held by the Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Health and Environment chaired by Hon. Henry A. Waxman. Testimony was presented by the Environmental Protection Agency Deputy Administrator and a number of other outstanding witnesses representing state governments, health organizations, homebuilders, and environmental groups. The bill is recorded in its entirety and provides for both technical and financial assistance to the states for the enactment and execution of radon testing programs

  19. Agro-fuels, a cartography of stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    This document proposes a dashboard of the main issues regarding agro-fuels. Nine sheets propose basic information and data on these issues: 1- agro-fuel production and consumption in the world (ethanol, vegetable oils, perspective for demand in the transport sector), 2- energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions (energy assessments and greenhouse effect of agro-fuels, discrepancies of results between first-generation European agro-fuels, case of agro-fuels produced in Southern countries), 3- needed surfaces in Europe (land use and cultivable areas for agro-fuel production in Europe and in France, competition between food and energy crops), 4- deforestation in the South (relationship between agriculture, deforestation and agro-fuels, between deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions), 5- impacts on biodiversity (use of pesticides and fertilizers, large scale cultivations and single-crop farming, cultivation of fallow land and permanent meadows, deforestation in the South, relationship between agro-fuels and GMOs), 6- impacts on water, soil and air (water quality and availability, soil erosion, compaction and fertility loss, air quality), 7- food-related and social stakes (issue of food security, social impacts of agro-fuel production with pressure on family agriculture and issues of land property), 8- public supports and economic efficiency (public promotion of agro-fuels, agro-fuel and oil prices, assessment of the 'avoided' CO 2 ton), and 9- perspectives for second-generation agro-fuels (definitions and processes, benefits with respect to first-generation fuels, possible impacts on the environment, barriers to their development)

  20. Perceived threat and corroboration: key factors that improve a predictive model of trust in internet-based health information and advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter R; Sillence, Elizabeth; Briggs, Pam

    2011-07-27

    How do people decide which sites to use when seeking health advice online? We can assume, from related work in e-commerce, that general design factors known to affect trust in the site are important, but in this paper we also address the impact of factors specific to the health domain. The current study aimed to (1) assess the factorial structure of a general measure of Web trust, (2) model how the resultant factors predicted trust in, and readiness to act on, the advice found on health-related websites, and (3) test whether adding variables from social cognition models to capture elements of the response to threatening, online health-risk information enhanced the prediction of these outcomes. Participants were asked to recall a site they had used to search for health-related information and to think of that site when answering an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a general Web trust questionnaire plus items assessing appraisals of the site, including threat appraisals, information checking, and corroboration. It was promoted on the hungersite.com website. The URL was distributed via Yahoo and local print media. We assessed the factorial structure of the measures using principal components analysis and modeled how well they predicted the outcome measures using structural equation modeling (SEM) with EQS software. We report an analysis of the responses of participants who searched for health advice for themselves (N = 561). Analysis of the general Web trust questionnaire revealed 4 factors: information quality, personalization, impartiality, and credible design. In the final SEM model, information quality and impartiality were direct predictors of trust. However, variables specific to eHealth (perceived threat, coping, and corroboration) added substantially to the ability of the model to predict variance in trust and readiness to act on advice on the site. The final model achieved a satisfactory fit: χ(2) (5) = 10.8 (P = .21), comparative fit

  1. Perceived Threat and Corroboration: Key Factors That Improve a Predictive Model of Trust in Internet-based Health Information and Advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter R; Briggs, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Background How do people decide which sites to use when seeking health advice online? We can assume, from related work in e-commerce, that general design factors known to affect trust in the site are important, but in this paper we also address the impact of factors specific to the health domain. Objective The current study aimed to (1) assess the factorial structure of a general measure of Web trust, (2) model how the resultant factors predicted trust in, and readiness to act on, the advice found on health-related websites, and (3) test whether adding variables from social cognition models to capture elements of the response to threatening, online health-risk information enhanced the prediction of these outcomes. Methods Participants were asked to recall a site they had used to search for health-related information and to think of that site when answering an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a general Web trust questionnaire plus items assessing appraisals of the site, including threat appraisals, information checking, and corroboration. It was promoted on the hungersite.com website. The URL was distributed via Yahoo and local print media. We assessed the factorial structure of the measures using principal components analysis and modeled how well they predicted the outcome measures using structural equation modeling (SEM) with EQS software. Results We report an analysis of the responses of participants who searched for health advice for themselves (N = 561). Analysis of the general Web trust questionnaire revealed 4 factors: information quality, personalization, impartiality, and credible design. In the final SEM model, information quality and impartiality were direct predictors of trust. However, variables specific to eHealth (perceived threat, coping, and corroboration) added substantially to the ability of the model to predict variance in trust and readiness to act on advice on the site. The final model achieved a satisfactory fit: χ2 5 = 10

  2. Designing and conducting tabletop exercises to assess public health preparedness for manmade and naturally occurring biological threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dausey David J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2001, state and local health departments in the United States (US have accelerated efforts to prepare for high-impact public health emergencies. One component of these activities has been the development and conduct of exercise programs to assess capabilities, train staff and build relationships. This paper summarizes lessons learned from tabletop exercises about public health emergency preparedness and about the process of developing, conducting, and evaluating them. Methods We developed, conducted, and evaluated 31 tabletop exercises in partnership with state and local health departments throughout the US from 2003 to 2006. Participant self evaluations, after action reports, and tabletop exercise evaluation forms were used to identify aspects of the exercises themselves, as well as public health emergency responses that participants found more or less challenging, and to highlight lessons learned about tabletop exercise design. Results Designing the exercises involved substantial collaboration with representatives from participating health departments to assure that the scenarios were credible, focused attention on local preparedness needs and priorities, and were logistically feasible to implement. During execution of the exercises, nearly all health departments struggled with a common set of challenges relating to disease surveillance, epidemiologic investigations, communications, command and control, and health care surge capacity. In contrast, performance strengths were more varied across participating sites, reflecting specific attributes of individual health departments or communities, experience with actual public health emergencies, or the emphasis of prior preparedness efforts. Conclusion The design, conduct, and evaluation of the tabletop exercises described in this report benefited from collaborative planning that involved stakeholders from participating health departments and exercise developers and

  3. The global threat of new and reemerging infectious diseases: reconciling U.S. national security and public health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chalk, P; Brower, J

    2003-01-01

    ... Wolfenson, president of the World Bank, has remarked: Many of us used to think of AIDS as a health issue. We were wrong. AIDS can no longer be confined to the health or social sector portfolios. Across Africa, AIDS is turning back the clock on development. Nothing we have seen is a greater challenge to the peace and stabilities of African societies ...

  4. A Review of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana: What Are the Sustainability Threats and Prospects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo

    2016-01-01

    Background The introduction of the national health insurance scheme (NHIS) in Ghana in 2003 significantly contributed to improved health services utilization and health outcomes. However, stagnating active membership, reports of poor quality health care rendered to NHIS-insured clients and cost escalations have raised concerns on the operational and financial sustainability of the scheme. This paper reviewed peer reviewed articles and grey literature on the sustainability challenges and prospects of the NHIS in Ghana. Methods Electronic search was done for literature published between 2003–2016 on the NHIS and its sustainability in Ghana. A total of 66 publications relevant to health insurance in Ghana and other developing countries were retrieved from Cochrane, PubMed, ScienceDirect and Googlescholar for initial screening. Out of this number, 31 eligible peer reviewed articles were selected for final review based on specific relevance to the Ghanaian context. Results Ability of the NHIS to continue its operations in Ghana is threatened financially and operationally by factors such as: cost escalation, possible political interference, inadequate technical capacity, spatial distribution of health facilities and health workers, inadequate monitoring mechanisms, broad benefits package, large exemption groups, inadequate client education, and limited community engagement. Moreover, poor quality care in NHIS-accredited health facilities potentially reduces clients’ trust in the scheme and consequently decreases (re)enrolment rates. These sustainability challenges were reviewed and discussed in this paper. Conclusions The NHIS continues to play a critical role towards attaining universal health coverage in Ghana albeit confronted by challenges that could potentially collapse the scheme. Averting this possible predicament will largely depend on concerted efforts of key stakeholders such as health insurance managers, service providers, insurance subscribers, policy

  5. Climate change: which stakes? Stakes of climate change. Man and the trajectory of the Earth ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramy, Herve; Rogalski, Michel; Sachs, Ignacy

    2011-12-01

    A first article recalls what the greenhouse effect is, outlines that the increase of CO 2 concentration due to human activity is indisputable, that the future of the Kyoto Protocol remains hypothetical, that evolving towards a new development mode is a crucial necessity. It also addresses the issue of financing this struggle against climate change, and outlines the importance of international negotiations. A second article outlines the stakes of climate change, notably by referring to the different international summits and to the associated issues (commitments of most countries, technology transfers, and so on). The third article comments the entry into the Anthropocene as a disruption for the joint evolution of mankind and biosphere. The author outlines the need of a new planning for development, and briefly discusses the question of energies

  6. Threat of the Health Quality of Garden Produces Linked to Pollution by Toxic Metals on Some Gardening Sites of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Koumolou Luc; Edorh A. Patrick; Agbandji Lucien; Hounkpatin S. Armelle; Elegbede Bernadin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Water and soil are vital resources used in agriculture. Current data establish a link between the pollution of soil, water and public health. For this reason, this study attempted to establish a link between the level of pollution of garden sites in lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Arsenic (As) and the health quality of vegetables grown there, through the quality of soil and of the irrigation water. Approach: Composite samples of vegetables, irrigation water and soil taken in th...

  7. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental risks perception--a study of the awareness of families to threats in areas with increased health disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Marchwińska-Wyrwał, Ewa; Piekut, Agata; Hajok, Ilona; Bilewicz-Wyrozumska, Teresa; Kuraszewska, Bernadeta

    2013-01-01

    Children are at greater risk than adults to experience adverse effects from environmental agents. Significant neurological damage to children can occur even at very low levels of exposure. Reliable protection of children living in areas with high environmental hazards is not possible without their parent's' understanding of where, how and why children's exposures occur. The aim of the presented study was to indicate families' awareness of environmental risks with increased health disorders in children in the chosen area of the Silesian Province. Rates of development disorders in general, including physical and psychomotor development disorders, in a population of children from the study area were estimated. A questionnaire was used in order to explore through a door-to-door survey the perceptions of environmental risk in a population of 2,491 residents. The presented study shows that the parents' awareness of environmental health risks is not satisfactory. The majority expressed an opinion that the outdoor environment exerts a major influence upon the state of health, but less than 1% of the parents were aware of the indoor environmental risk. The most effective way to prevent children's exposure is to teach the community to identify environmental threats and educate them on how to their protect children. The appropriate policies and programmes should be developed and implemented as this seems to be the most effective and cheapest way to prevent children's exposure to environmental risks.

  9. Climate change--the greatest public health threat of our time: seeing the wood, not just the trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    If asked to describe the key public health challenges of our time many practitioners might well cite issues such as health inequalities, obesity, smoking and poverty. However, with the greatest of respect to those agendas, they are not, in my view, the greatest priority at present. If we cannot learn to live within sustainable limits and damage beyond repair the essential life support systems that we depend on, they will fail catastrophically with horrific consequences for humanity. All credible, reliable scientific evidence suggests that without profound and significant change that is exactly where we are headed. However, there is time, albeit short, to avoid the very worst consequences of runaway climate change. But to do so requires collective and urgent action now! Public health practitioners have potentially so much to offer towards this effort. We have many of the skills and experience so critically needed to advocate for change--both political and behavioural; we have the ability to design creative, effective, and dynamic interventions to assist and facilitate communities and individuals make the journey; and equally importantly we have huge opportunities to do so. However to do so effectively means that we need to look at the problem through a different lens and make climate change a top public health priority. We need to see beyond many of the institutional and cultural barriers that exist, albeit not through deliberate design, within our organisations which can cause us to be focused on very specific agendas and see the whole wood, rather than individual trees within it. Climate change is not just an "environmental" problem and a priority therefore specifically for that sector. It is already costing lives and is life threatening on a scale that far surpasses current public health concerns and priorities. Equally critically, tackling climate change would and will significantly contribute towards addressing health inequalities. To use two well worn public

  10. Countering health threats by chemicals with a potential terrorist background--creating a rapid alert system for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, A; Desel, H; Wyke, S; Orford, R; Griffiths, M R; Edwards, N; Kupferschmidt, H; Mathieu, M; Pelclova, D; Duarte-Davidson, R

    2012-03-01

    The acronym "ASHT" stands for "Alerting System and Development of a Health Surveillance System for the Deliberate Release of Chemicals by Terrorists". Imagine this scenario: 15 patients with respiratory symptoms following a concert in Rome and 12 patients coughing after lunch in a cafeteria in the Czech Republic; are these events related? Today these events would never be connected as there is no mechanism to allow EU Member States to share this type of information effectively. The main objective of the ASHT project was to improve data sharing between EU Member States. In part, this was achieved by an internet accessible EU-wide alerting system with the aim to detect the deliberate (i.e. criminal or terrorist) or accidental release of chemicals. Nevertheless more information from police, fire brigades and health professionals is needed. Description of the design, development, functionality and testing of the relational database system called "RAS-CHEM" (Rapid Alert System for Chemicals). A database structure appropriate for the description of "events" with sophisticated retrieval functions was developed. For evaluation purposes 37 events were entered into the database including 29 scenarios and 8 historical mass intoxications. The alert level was "background information" for 21 events, "suspected mass intoxication" for 6 cases and "confirmed mass intoxication" for 10 events. The RAS-CHEM database works and will be integrated into the Health Emergency Operations Facility (HEOF) with other European Rapid Alert Systems. Poisons centres receive a large number of enquiries and could be important sentinels in this field of toxicovigilance. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pesticide Residues in Commercial Lettuce, Onion, and Potato Samples From Bolivia—A Threat to Public Health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Marlene; Renjel, Susana; Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2017-01-01

    Bolivia does not have a surveillance program for pesticide residues in food. The few published studies have suggested that pesticide contamination in food may present a public health problem. Data are lacking for all foods except tomatoes and breast milk. In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10...... or together would lead to exposures that exceeded the acceptable daily intake or the acute reference dose. To protect consumers from pesticide poisonings and chronic effects, the development of measures for prevention, control, and monitoring of food contamination by pesticides in Bolivia is suggested....

  12. Application of HACCP principles to control visitor health threats on dairy farms open to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barten, M; Noordhuizen, J P M; Lipman, L J A

    2008-10-01

    An increasing number of Dutch dairy farmers have diversified their activities, often opening their farm up to visitors (tourist accommodation, farm shop, contact with livestock, etc). It is essential to prevent these visitors from having accidents or becoming ill, which could result in financial claims and might harm the reputation of the agricultural sector. This article describes how the hazard analysis critical control points concept and principles (HACCP) can be applied to these activities and integrated with on-farm operational herd health and production management programmes.

  13. [Interdisciplinarity in the hospital setting: between daily challenge and group stakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutet, Marius; Guisado, Huguette; Butel, Jacques; Vuagnat, Hubert; Zulian, Gilbert

    2014-01-15

    Group functioning may limit interdisciplinarity. Four scenarios of health professionals' meetings are described. A) If priority is timing, the group isn't interdisciplinary any longer; decisions are endorsed without questioning or criticism. B) When positions' stakes aren't clarified, speaking helps active persons to take power and passive ones to strengthen their criticisms. C) If caregivers are turned to their duties and territory, recourse to interdisciplinary process is only made in case of difficulties. D) When the group is moved by implicit standards, resources are underutilized. In conclusion, added value of interdisciplinary work is superior when divergent options are brought without influence of recurring problems or protocols.

  14. Applicability of SWOT analysis for measuring quality of public oral health services as perceived by adult patients in Finland. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, T; Lahti, S; Leino-Kilpi, H

    1999-10-01

    To determine the applicability of SWOT analysis for measuring the quality of public oral health services from the adult client's perspective. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire developed in an earlier study. The study group consisted of all adult (over 18 years of age) clients (n = 256) using public municipal oral health services in Kirkkonummi, Finland, during 2 weeks in 1995. Before treatment, patients filled out a questionnaire that measured the importance of their expectations in different aspects of oral care. After the appointment, they filled out a similar questionnaire that measured the enactment of these expectations in the treatment situation. The response rate was 51%. The difference between subjective importance and enactment of expectations was tested by Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results were interpreted using both a conventional analysis of "expectation enacted or not" and SWOT analysis, which is used in strategic planning to identify areas of strengths (S), weaknesses (W), opportunities (O) and threats (T) in an organisation. In 28 statements out of 35, the two analyses revealed similar interpretations. In most areas the patient-perceived quality of the services was good. Weaknesses were found in the following areas: communicating to patients the causes and risk of developing oral diseases, informing them about different treatment possibilities, and including patients in decision-making when choosing restorative materials. SWOT analysis provided more structured interpretation of the results, and can be more easily transferred to development of services.

  15. Multiple Zoonotic Parasites Identified in Dog Feces Collected in Ponte de Lima, Portugal—A Potential Threat to Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Letra Mateus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs play many roles and their presence within people’s houses has increased. In rural settings dog faeces are not removed from the streets, representing an environmental pollution factor. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence of environmental contamination with zoonotic intestinal parasites of three groups of dogs in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, with a particular emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. We collected 592 dog faecal samples from the environment, farm and hunting dogs. Qualitative flotation coprological analysis was performed and the frequency in the positive samples ranged between 57.44% and 81.19% in different groups. We isolated up to four different parasites in one sample and detected seven intestinal parasitic species, genera or families overall. Ancylostomatidae was the most prevalent parasite, followed by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp., Isospora spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Toxascaris leonina. Taeniidae eggs were analyzed with the PCR technique and revealed not to be from Echinococcus. The parasite prevalence and the diversity of zoonotic parasites found were high, which calls for a greater awareness of the problem among the population, especially hunters. Promoting research at the local level is important to plan control strategies. Health education should be developed with regard to farmers and hunters, and a closer collaboration between researchers, practitioners and public health authorities is needed.

  16. Multiple Zoonotic Parasites Identified in Dog Feces Collected in Ponte de Lima, Portugal — A Potential Threat to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letra Mateus, Teresa; Castro, António; Niza Ribeiro, João; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2014-01-01

    Dogs play many roles and their presence within people’s houses has increased. In rural settings dog faeces are not removed from the streets, representing an environmental pollution factor. Our aim was to evaluate the occurrence of environmental contamination with zoonotic intestinal parasites of three groups of dogs in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, with a particular emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. We collected 592 dog faecal samples from the environment, farm and hunting dogs. Qualitative flotation coprological analysis was performed and the frequency in the positive samples ranged between 57.44% and 81.19% in different groups. We isolated up to four different parasites in one sample and detected seven intestinal parasitic species, genera or families overall. Ancylostomatidae was the most prevalent parasite, followed by Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp., Isospora spp., Dipylidium caninum, Taeniidae and Toxascaris leonina. Taeniidae eggs were analyzed with the PCR technique and revealed not to be from Echinococcus. The parasite prevalence and the diversity of zoonotic parasites found were high, which calls for a greater awareness of the problem among the population, especially hunters. Promoting research at the local level is important to plan control strategies. Health education should be developed with regard to farmers and hunters, and a closer collaboration between researchers, practitioners and public health authorities is needed. PMID:25257358

  17. Securing 'supportive environments' for health in the face of ecosystem collapse: meeting the triple threat with a sociology of creative transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Blake; Dooris, Mark; Haluza-Delay, Randolph

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we reflect on and explore what remains to be done to make the concept of supportive environments--one of the Ottawa Charter's five core action areas--a reality in the context of growing uncertainty about the future and accelerated pace of change. We pay particular attention to the physical environment, while underscoring the inextricable links between physical and social environments, and particularly the need to link social and environmental justice. The paper begins with a brief orientation to three emerging threats to health equity, namely ecological degradation, climate change, and peak oil, and their connection to economic instability, food security, energy security and other key determinants of health. We then present three contrasting perspectives on the nature of social change and how change is catalyzed, arguing for an examination of the conditions under which cultural change on the scale required to realize the vision of 'supportive environments for all' might be catalyzed, and the contribution that health promotion as a field could play in this process. Drawing on sociological theory, and specifically practice theory and the work of Pierre Bourdieu, we advocate rethinking education for social change by attending more adequately to the social conditions of transformative learning and cultural change. We conclude with an explication of three key implications for health promotion practice: a more explicit alignment with those seeking to curtail environmental destruction and promote environmental justice, strengthening engagement with local or settings-focused 'communities of practice' (such as the Transition Town movement), and finding new ways to creatively 'engage emergence', a significant departure from the current dominant focus on 'risk management'.

  18. Comparison of wood preservatives in stake tests : 2011 progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessie M. Woodward; Cherilyn A. Hatfield; Stan T. Lebow

    2011-01-01

    This report covers stake test results primarily from Southern Pine 2- by 4- by 18-in. sapwood, treated by pressure and nonpressure processes and installed by Forest Products Laboratory employees and cooperators in decay and termite exposure sites at various times since 1938 at Saucier, Mississippi; Madison, Wisconsin; Bogalusa, Louisiana; Lake Charles, Louisiana;...

  19. Student Engagement in High-Stakes Accountability Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavendish, Wendy; Márquez, Adrián; Roberts, Mary; Suarez, Kristen; Lima, Wesley

    2017-01-01

    In a nationwide effort to create standardized performance criteria, there has been an emphasis on testing data as the strict measurement of teacher and student success or failure (Volante & Sonia, 2010). These testing accountability systems, developed under No Child Left Behind (2001), were based on assumptions that high-stakes assessments…

  20. The Effects of High Stakes Testing on Teachers in NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgar, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    A great number of teachers in the United States have found themselves wrestling with an internal conflict between their teaching beliefs and a need to revert back to traditional modes of teaching in order to have their students demonstrate proficiency on high-stakes tests. While they want to include more non-traditional methods in their repertoire…

  1. What's at stake for Africa? | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-04

    Jan 4, 2011 ... Africa, in particular, has worked to refine its positions and flesh out their content with concrete proposals. This paper addresses the four key areas under negotiation — mitigation, adaptation, finance and technology transfers/capacity building — providing an African perspective on the issues at stake and the ...

  2. Adapting construction staking to modern technology : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report summarizes the tasks and findings of the ICT Project R27-163, Adapting Construction Staking to Modern Technology, which aims to develop written procedures for the use of modern technologies (such as GPS and civil information modeling) in ...

  3. The Impact of High Stakes Testing: The Australian Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenowski, Val; Wyatt-Smith, Claire

    2012-01-01

    High stakes testing in Australia was introduced in 2008 by way of the National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). Currently, every year all students in Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 are assessed on the same days using national tests in Reading, Writing, Language Conventions (Spelling, Grammar and Punctuation) and Numeracy. In 2010 the…

  4. Modelling the elimination of hepatitis C as a public health threat in Iceland: A goal attainable by 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nick; Ólafsson, Sigurður; Gottfreðsson, Magnús; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn; Rúnarsdóttir, Valgerdur; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Hernandez, Ubaldo Benitez; Sigmundsdóttir, Guðrún; Hellard, Margaret

    2017-12-21

    In Iceland a nationwide program has been launched offering direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for everyone living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We estimate (i) the time and treatment scale-up required to achieve the World Health Organization's HCV elimination target of an 80% reduction in incidence; and (ii) the ongoing frequency of HCV testing and harm reduction coverage among people who inject drugs (PWID) required to minimize the likelihood of future HCV outbreaks occurring. We used a dynamic compartmental model of HCV transmission, liver disease progression and the HCV cascade of care, calibrated to reproduce the epidemic of HCV in Iceland. The model was stratified according to injecting drug use status, age and stage of engagement. Four scenarios were considered for the projections. The model estimated that an 80% reduction in domestic HCV incidence was achievable by 2030, 2025 or 2020 if a minimum of 55/1,000, 75/1,000 and 188/1,000 PWID were treated per year, respectively (a total of 22, 30 and 75 of the estimated 400 PWID in Iceland per year, respectively). Regardless of time frame, this required an increased number of PWID to be diagnosed to generate enough treatment demand, or a 20% scale-up of harm reduction services to complement treatment-as-prevention incidence reductions. When DAA scale-up was combined with annual antibody testing of PWID, the incidence reduction target was reached by 2024. Treatment scale-up with no other changes to current testing and harm reduction services reduced the basic reproduction number of HCV from 1.08 to 0.59, indicating that future outbreaks would be unlikely. HCV elimination in Iceland is achievable by 2020 with some additional screening of PWID. Maintaining current monitoring and harm reduction services while providing ongoing access to DAA therapy for people diagnosed with HCV would ensure that outbreaks are unlikely to occur once elimination targets have been reached. In Iceland, a nationwide program has been

  5. Raising the Stakes – Impacts of privatisation, certification and partnerships in South African forestry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mayers

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available forestry Raising the stakes M ayers, Evans and Foy Raising the stakes Impacts of privatisation, certification and partnerships in South African forestry James Mayers Jeremy Evans Tim Foy Raising the stakes Forestry is a good, if risky, business...

  6. Insider threat data sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Sellen, Jeremey J.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Insider threat is a significant problem for both governmental and private organizations. Individuals can do immense harm with their trusted accesses. To combat this threat, organizations have created departments with trained analysts whose sole purpose is to deter, detect, and mitigate the insider threat. These analysts monitor employees and analyze activities to detect dangerous practices, whether witting or unwitting, and report thes...

  7. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go on to disc......Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go...

  8. Síndrome de insulinorresistencia, una amenaza para la salud Resistance to insulin, a threat for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Yanes Quesada

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: el síndrome de insulinorresistencia describe un grupo de anomalías clínicas relacionadas, que ocurren más comúnmente en sujetos con resistencia a la insulina, lo cual le confiere una elevada morbilidad, sobre todo, metabólica y cardiovascular. DESARROLLO: se realizó el presente trabajo con el objetivo de revisar las entidades que se asocian al síndrome de insulinorresistencia, siendo las más frecuentes: los eventos cardiovasculares, la hipertensión arterial, las dislipoproteinemias, la obesidad y los trastornos de la tolerancia a la glucosa. Otros trastornos asociados son: apnea obstructiva de sueño, hígado graso no alcohólico y el síndrome de ovarios poliquísticos. CONCLUSIONES: constituye un elevado riesgo de morbilidad y mortalidad para los pacientes que lo padecen, y existen diferentes afecciones asociadas que comprometen la salud y la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. Estas entidades deben ser buscadas de forma activa en los pacientes con este diagnósticoINTRODUCTION: insulin resistance syndrome describes a group of related clinical anomalies, occurring with a great frequency in subjects presenting with resistance to insulin, which confers a high morbidity, mainly, the metabolic and cardiovascular ones. DEVELOPMENT: aim of present paper is to review entities associated to insulin resistance syndrome, where the more frequent are: cardiovascular events, high blood pressure, dyslipoproteinemias, obesity, and disorders associated with glucose-tolerance. Others associated disorders are: dream-obstructive apnea, non-alcoholic fat liver, and polycystic ovary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: it is a high risk of mortality and morbidity for patients presenting it, and there are different associated affections involving health and live quality of these patients. These entities must to be searched in a active way in patients with this diagnosis

  9. High Stakes Testing Policy Issues in Education: An Analysis of Litigation Involving High Stakes Testing and the Denial of Diplomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the legal documents of cases involving the denial of a high school diploma as the result of not passing a high stakes exam in public education. The qualitative extrapolation of consistent themes in the court documents revealed information regarding the court's interpretation of the intersection of state authority to…

  10. Emerging Threats for Human Health in Poland: Pathogenic Isolates from Drug Resistant Acanthamoeba Keratitis Monitored in terms of Their In Vitro Dynamics and Temperature Adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz, Lidia; Conn, David Bruce; Padzik, Marcin; Szaflik, Jacek P; Walochnik, Julia; Zawadzki, Paweł J; Pawłowski, Witold; Dybicz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Amphizoic amoebae generate a serious human health threat due to their pathogenic potential as facultative parasites, causative agents of vision-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Recently, AK incidences have been reported with increasing frequency worldwide, particularly in contact lens wearers. In our study, severe cases of AK in Poland and respective pathogenic isolates were assessed at clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. Misdiagnoses and the unsuccessful treatment in other ophthalmic units delayed suitable therapy, and resistance to applied chemicals resulted in severe courses and treatment difficulties. Molecular assessment indicated that all sequenced pathogenic corneal isolates deriving from Polish patients with AK examined by us showed 98-100% homology with Acanthamoeba genotype T4, the most prevalent genotype in this human ocular infection worldwide. In vitro assays revealed that the pathogenic strains are able to grow at elevated temperature and have a wide adaptive capability. This study is our subsequent in vitro investigation on pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains of AK originating from Polish patients. Further investigations designed to foster a better understanding of the factors leading to an increase of AK observed in the past years in Poland may help to prevent or at least better cope with future cases.

  11. Emerging Threats for Human Health in Poland: Pathogenic Isolates from Drug Resistant Acanthamoeba Keratitis Monitored in terms of Their In Vitro Dynamics and Temperature Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Chomicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphizoic amoebae generate a serious human health threat due to their pathogenic potential as facultative parasites, causative agents of vision-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK. Recently, AK incidences have been reported with increasing frequency worldwide, particularly in contact lens wearers. In our study, severe cases of AK in Poland and respective pathogenic isolates were assessed at clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. Misdiagnoses and the unsuccessful treatment in other ophthalmic units delayed suitable therapy, and resistance to applied chemicals resulted in severe courses and treatment difficulties. Molecular assessment indicated that all sequenced pathogenic corneal isolates deriving from Polish patients with AK examined by us showed 98–100% homology with Acanthamoeba genotype T4, the most prevalent genotype in this human ocular infection worldwide. In vitro assays revealed that the pathogenic strains are able to grow at elevated temperature and have a wide adaptive capability. This study is our subsequent in vitro investigation on pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains of AK originating from Polish patients. Further investigations designed to foster a better understanding of the factors leading to an increase of AK observed in the past years in Poland may help to prevent or at least better cope with future cases.

  12. Emerging Threats for Human Health in Poland: Pathogenic Isolates from Drug Resistant Acanthamoeba Keratitis Monitored in terms of Their In Vitro Dynamics and Temperature Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz, Lidia; Conn, David Bruce; Padzik, Marcin; Szaflik, Jacek P.; Walochnik, Julia; Zawadzki, Paweł J.; Pawłowski, Witold; Dybicz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Amphizoic amoebae generate a serious human health threat due to their pathogenic potential as facultative parasites, causative agents of vision-threatening Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Recently, AK incidences have been reported with increasing frequency worldwide, particularly in contact lens wearers. In our study, severe cases of AK in Poland and respective pathogenic isolates were assessed at clinical, morphological, and molecular levels. Misdiagnoses and the unsuccessful treatment in other ophthalmic units delayed suitable therapy, and resistance to applied chemicals resulted in severe courses and treatment difficulties. Molecular assessment indicated that all sequenced pathogenic corneal isolates deriving from Polish patients with AK examined by us showed 98–100% homology with Acanthamoeba genotype T4, the most prevalent genotype in this human ocular infection worldwide. In vitro assays revealed that the pathogenic strains are able to grow at elevated temperature and have a wide adaptive capability. This study is our subsequent in vitro investigation on pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains of AK originating from Polish patients. Further investigations designed to foster a better understanding of the factors leading to an increase of AK observed in the past years in Poland may help to prevent or at least better cope with future cases. PMID:26682216

  13. Multilevel stake holder consensus building in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, Andrejs

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The increased demand of our society to its quality of life, global security and environmental safety as well as to observing a basic ethical principle of equity have advanced our attitude towards the recent proposals to develop shared multinational projects in the use of nuclear energy technologies, in particular, to: a) Siting of shared deep repositories for high-level radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel safe disposal. In turn, arrangement of multinational facilities requires to gain more complex consensus between all involved parties. Method: We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational repositories for RW deep disposal, based on self-organization (SO) of various stake holders, chaos and fuzziness concepts as well as Ashby principle of requisite variety. In the siting of a multi-national repository there appears an essential novel component of stake holder consensus building, namely: to reach consent - political, social, economic, ecological - among international partners, in addition to solving the whole set of intra-national consensus building items. An entire partnering country is considered as a national stake holder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, having possibly diverse political, economic and social interests. Main Results: Following inferences about building of multilevel consensus are developed: 1) The basis of synergetic approach to stake holder interaction - informational SO, by forming a knowledge-creating stake holder community via cooperation and competition among individuals, public bodies/groups, companies, institutions; 2) Building of international stake holder consensus could be promoted by activating and diversifying multilateral interactions between intra- and international stake

  14. Countering Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter

    threat, and to develop a common vision of how an insider can be categorized as well as an integrated approach that allows a qualitative reasoning about the threat and the possibilities of attacks. This report gives an overview of the discussions and presentations during the week, as well as the outcome...

  15. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After ...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  16. Threats and vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    In this chapter, we present a review of threats and vulnerabilities that could afflict society and individuals in the AmI world in the context of the key policy issues of privacy, identity, trust, security and digital divide. We define a threat as the potential for one or more unwanted consequences caused by a circumstance, capability, action or event that could be harmful to a system or person. Threats can be caused naturally, accidentally or intentionally. In essence, a threat is a ubiquitous phenomenon. A vulnerability is a flaw or weakness in a system's design, its implementation, operation or management that could be exploited to violate the system and, consequently, cause a threat. Vulnerabilities may have different dimensions: technical, functional or behavioural.1

  17. Wealth a Threat to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Overweight problems and related deseases are causing 400.000 death alone in the USA, and other countries are catching up. Together with too much food intake, too little use of the body energy is the main cause of the problem. It is shown how more physical exercise can help solving another big pro...

  18. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  19. Colloquium on the stakes and new realities of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Today, renewable energies represent 23% of the French energy production and should become a real advantage to overcome the greenhouse effect stakes and to optimize the durable development policy. This book brings together the interventions of the different participants to this colloquium on renewable energies. The following aspects were covered: how to make renewable energies profitable in the framework of an industrial facility; which specific renewable energy models would allow to overcome the greenhouse effect stake; how emission permits can incite to the use of renewable energies and reduce the pollution tax amount; how to take advantage of the new wastes valorization techniques in the rationalization of energy expenses; advantages and limitations of renewable energies in the on-site energy optimization; opportunities and stakes of the climate risk for renewable energies; last developments of the national regulatory framework applicable to renewable energies; status and perspectives of the European directive project on renewable energies; the suitability of renewable energies with respect to the energy needs of the industry and tertiary sectors; how to insert renewable energies in a durable development policy; how to exploit the diversity of renewable energies in order to maximize their economical and environmental potentialities; how to integrate the solar thermal and photovoltaic energies in the framework of a global environmental policy. (J.S.)

  20. Planning for Rift Valley fever virus: use of geographical information systems to estimate the human health threat of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus-related transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravan Kakani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF virus is a mosquito-borne phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae family that causes frequent outbreaks of severe animal and human disease in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. Based on its many known competent vectors, its potential for transmission via aerosolization, and its progressive spread from East Africa to neighbouring regions, RVF is considered a high-priority, emerging health threat for humans, livestock and wildlife in all parts of the world. Introduction of West Nile virus to North America has shown the potential for “exotic” viral pathogens to become embedded in local ecological systems. While RVF is known to infect and amplify within domestic livestock, such as taurine cattle, sheep and goats, if RVF virus is accidentally or intentionally introduced into North America, an important unknown factor will be the role of local wildlife in the maintenance or propagation of virus transmission. We examined the potential impact of RVF transmission via white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus in a typical north-eastern United States urban-suburban landscape, where livestock are rare but where these potentially susceptible, ungulate wildlife are highly abundant. Model results, based on overlap of mosquito, human and projected deer densities, indicate that a significant proportion (497/1186 km2, i.e. 42% of the urban and peri-urban landscape could be affected by RVF transmission during the late summer months. Deer population losses, either by intervention for herd reduction or by RVF-related mortality, would substantially reduce these likely transmission zones to 53.1 km2, i.e. by 89%.

  1. Reconsidering the Impact of High-stakes Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years, many states have implemented high-stakes tests as part of an effort to strengthen accountability for schools, teachers, and students. Predictably, there has been vigorous disagreement regarding the contributions of such policies to increasing test scores and, more importantly, to improving student learning. A recent study by Amrein and Berliner (2002a has received a great deal of media attention. Employing various databases covering the period 1990-2000, the authors conclude that there is no evidence that states that implemented high-stakes tests demonstrated improved student achievement on various external measures such as performance on the SAT, ACT, AP, or NAEP. In a subsequent study in which they conducted a more extensive analysis of state policies (Amrein & Berliner, 2002b, they reach a similar conclusion. However, both their methodology and their findings have been challenged by a number of authors. In this article, we undertake an extended reanalysis of one component of Amrein and Berliner (2002a. We focus on the performance of states, over the period 1992 to 2000, on the NAEP mathematics assessments for grades 4 and 8. In particular, we compare the performance of the high-stakes testing states, as designated by Amrein and Berliner, with the performance of the remaining states (conditioning, of course, on a state’s participation in the relevant NAEP assessments. For each grade, when we examine the relative gains of states over the period, we find that the comparisons strongly favor the high-stakes testing states. Moreover, the results cannot be accounted for by differences between the two groups of states with respect to changes in percent of students excluded from NAEP over the same period. On the other hand, when we follow a particular cohort (grade 4, 1992 to grade 8, 1996 or grade 4, 1996 to grade 8, 2000, we find the comparisons slightly favor the low-stakes testing states, although the discrepancy can

  2. The role of stake holders in the Italian debate on the national radioactive waste deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantone, Marie C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In early 2003, following an increased concern about the international terrorist threat, the Italian Government declared an emergency status for national nuclear installations, and in particular for radioactive waste deposits. A working group of experts - mainly from the Society for the Management of Nuclear Installations (SOGIN) and the Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment (ENEA) - was appointed and charged with the analysis of the technical aspects implied in the creation of a repository to host permanently LLRW and MLRW as well as to host temporarily HLRW. In November 2003 the Italian Government passed a decree to authorize the creation of a national nuclear waste repository within a geological salt deposit in the territory of Scanzano Jonico, in the Basilicata Region. The decision was made without any negotiation with the local population and the authorities of Scanzano Jonico. The lack of transparent communication and the attempt to impose the project 'from the top' was perceived as a 'deceptive strategy'. The population of the entire region spontaneously organized a mass protest movement against the project; blockades were carried out on the major highway connecting Northern to Southern Italy and the controversy gained the attention of the national mass media. Two weeks later, the Italian government withdrew the decree. Presently, the Italian nuclear waste is distributed over more than 20 locations in 11 different Regions, and the creation of a national disposal site has been postponed. The present study aims at highlighting the reasons behind social conflicts on nuclear waste risks. We will examine the attitudes and the communication strategies of the different stake holders which took part in the public debate on the Italian nuclear waste dump. Drawing on methodologies used in media studies, we are carrying out a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the main national and local newspapers in order to draw a 'map' of the

  3. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT CHILE : ITS CONVENTIONAL THREATS by Lieutenant Colonel Claudio Toledo Chilean Army Dr. Gabriel Marcella Project...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chile Its Conventional Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  4. Optimisation: how to develop stake holder involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Precautionary Principle is an internationally recognised approach for dealing with risk situations characterised by uncertainties and potential irreversible damages. Since the late fifties, ICRP has adopted this prudent attitude because of the lack of scientific evidence concerning the existence of a threshold at low doses for stochastic effects. The 'linear, no-threshold' model and the 'optimisation of protection' principle have been developed as a pragmatic response for the management of the risk. The progress in epidemiology and radiobiology over the last decades have affirmed the initial assumption and the optimisation remains the appropriate response for the application of the precautionary principle in the context of radiological protection. The basic objective of optimisation is, for any source within the system of radiological protection, to maintain the level of exposure as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account social and economical factors. Methods tools and procedures have been developed over the last two decades to put into practice the optimisation principle with a central role given to the cost-benefit analysis as a means to determine the optimised level of protection. However, with the advancement in the implementation of the principle more emphasis was progressively given to good practice, as well as on the importance of controlling individual levels of exposure through the optimisation process. In the context of the revision of its present recommendations, the Commission is reenforcing the emphasis on protection of the individual with the adoption of an equity-based system that recognizes individual rights and a basic level of health protection. Another advancement is the role that is now recognised to 'stakeholders involvement' in the optimisation process as a mean to improve the quality of the decision aiding process for identifying and selecting protection actions considered as being accepted by all those involved. The paper

  5. Poland and Global Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  6. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  7. The socio-technical setting of economic stakes of global environment risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    For policy-making for fighting acid rain, protecting the ozone layer and initiating action to prevent global climate change related to the growth of the greenhouse effect, the economic approach requires more precise consideration of how the economic stakes attached to these threats have been built up by their social actors. Global environmental risks (GER) are not directly perceivable nor can they be easily related to any activity or phenomena at local level (in time or space). There are scientific controversies about the reality of damage and establishing credible responsibility links. Moreover, these controversies are brought to media and social debate before any scientific clarification is possible. The media representations of GER emphasize the fact they could have catastrophic and irreversible consequences. So, the social demand for public action becomes very heavy when delay, possibly of several years between the causes and consequences of global environmental change, prevents any rapid clarification in the controversies. These difficulties have led to the evolution of a decision process in several steps: firstly, an international convention is prepared in which signatory countries commit themselves to cooperate and to take action; secondly, one or several agreements are signed with clear technical objectives and a timetable for implementations. 23 refs

  8. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  9. Caucasus and the petroleum stakes of Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalillosoltan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The splitting of the former USSR block in 1991 has generated a shock wave in the Caucasus area with the will of all ex-soviet republics to reach their complete independence. Because of the historical and geographical complexity of Caucasus, both geopolitical and human, this disorder has generated even more hazardous results, enhanced by the coveted oil and gas reserves of the Caspian Sea. This article analyses the petroleum stakes as factors of rivalry and instability (sovereignty of oil and gas fields, rivalries about the exploitation and transport of hydrocarbons), but also as factors of cooperation and re-composition. (J.S.)

  10. The Strategic stakes of budget policies after 2008-financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma ZAOUI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the current budget policies during sub primes crisis answering two original issues: bring together the principal theoretical arguments and the analysis of events the most remarkable of crisis. Then, we tackle matters of budget policy from many points of view. Here, the challenge is to highlight the current stakes and future challenges of budget policies on one hand, to smooth economic cycle in the short term; and to back up growth and employment in the long term on the other.

  11. High-Stakes Testing and the History of Graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Dorn

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An historical perspective on high-stakes testing suggests that tests required for high school graduation will have mixed results for the putative value of high school diplomas: (1 graduation requirements are likely to have indirect as well as direct effects on the likelihood of graduating; (2 the proliferation of different exit documents may dilute efforts to improve the education of all students; and (3 graduation requirements remain unlikely to disentangle the general cultural confusion in the U.S. about the purpose of secondary education and a high school diploma, especially confusion about whether the educational, exchange, or other value of a diploma is most important.

  12. Wind power: Areva acquires a 51% stake in Multibrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    AREVA announced the acquisition of a 51% stake in Multibrid, a designer and manufacturer of multi-megawatt off-shore wind turbines based in Germany. With this acquisition, AREVA has entered into a joint venture with Prokon Nord, a German off-shore wind turbine and biomass plant developer and current owner of Multibrid. This transaction values Multibrid at euro 150 million. AREVA plans to rapidly further develop Multibrid's activities by giving the company access to its industrial resources, financial base and international commercial network. In return, Multibrid will provide AREVA with its leading-edge technology which, developed for 5 MW turbines, can achieve a very high output while reducing operating costs thanks to a simplified maintenance system. With this stake in Multibrid, AREVA aims to increase its presence on the offshore wind market that meets land settlement requirements and that should grow significantly in the years to come (from 300 MW in Europe today to an expected 1400 MW by 2011). As an exclusive supplier of Prokon Nord, Multibrid will participate in projects such as Borkum West (30 MW), the first offshore project in Germany, Borkum West 2 (400 MW), and Cote d'Albatre (105 MW), the first offshore wind farm project in France. The stake in Multibrid strengthens AREVA's strategic positioning on the CO 2 -free energy market, thanks to complementary solutions ranging from nuclear technologies to renewables. A number of recent achievements illustrate this strategy: - bio-energy (crucial energy supply in numerous rural areas): delivery of turnkey biomass power plants; ongoing construction of 10 plants in India, Thailand and Brazil; future development plans in fast-growing regions, such as Latin America; - wind power: Multibrid adds to the Group's stake in REpower and to its partnership with Suzlon for which AREVA is the number one supplier of transmission and distribution solutions for wind power; - hydrogen and fuel cells: design and manufacture of

  13. SIP threats detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Řezáč, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with detection of threats in IP telephony, the authors developed a penetration testing system that is able to check up the level of protection from security threats in IP telephony. The SIP server is a key komponent of VoIP infrastructure and often becomes the aim of attacks and providers have to ensure the appropriate level of security. We have developed web-based penetration system which is able to check the SIP server if can face to the most common attacks.The d...

  14. The nuclear threat; La menace nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-26

    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  15. Nuclear weapons: new threats, new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, D.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief history of the Iranian nuclear crisis since 2003, the author discusses the four aspects of this crisis which make it a textbook case: a country which wants to control the whole nuclear process and therefore may reach the capacity to produce military-grade uranium (this raises the question of the relationship between nuclear energy and disarmament), the validity and efficiency of international controls is at stake, divergence may appear on the ways to have international treaties respected (different approaches between Europe and the USA), a country which is looking for nuclear weapon for matters of regional security and power (this raises the issue of a new approach to security). Then, the author describes the new nuclear threats: proliferating states, terrorist groups, and states with nuclear weapons (attitude of the USA, China, Russia, France and the United Kingdom, perspective of a nuclear disarmament of Europe). He gives an overview of the current status of disarmament and of treaties (START, NPT), and discusses the opportunities to save the non proliferation treaty from collapsing in 2005

  16. Trans-Saharan geopolitics. The game and the stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegrouche, L.

    2010-01-01

    The geopolitics of energy exports from the trans-Saharan region are similar to the Caspian great game' at the end of the last century. In North/West Africa as in West/Central Asia, the question of control over hydrocarbon reserves and lines of access to those reserves lies at the source of various conflicts. Rivalries are expressed through open and complex conflicts in which powers confront one another over oil-rich zones through proxy ethnic, religious or cultural groups, as dictated by the colossal economic interests at stake. The increasing number of conflicts - the Niger Delta, Darfur, the Azawak, etc. - is an illustration of this. The shock waves from this rivalry undermine regional peace and security, as well as the security of international energy supplies. The question here is to understand the game and the stakes of this trans-Saharan chess-board, to study its principal features and its energetic consequences. The national oil companies and states of the region can work around or through the geopolitical rifts caused by local rivalries and extra-regional appetites. There is therefore a need to understand the ways in which the players in the trans-Saharan 'great game' interact with one another, an to identifies the effects these interactions may have in the field of energy, in terms of potential reserves and transport projects. The TSGP is presented as an illustration of this geopolitical dynamics. (author)

  17. The threat of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, Olof.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on the threat of proliferation, is a keynote speech delivered to the Colloquium on Nuclear War, Nuclear Proliferation and their Consequences, Geneva, 1985. Topics discussed in the address include: nuclear weapons, nuclear war, terrorists, Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament, and leadership in world affairs. (UK)

  18. Student Motivation in Low-Stakes Assessment Contexts: An Exploratory Analysis in Engineering Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musekamp, Frank; Pearce, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the relationship of student motivation and achievement in low-stakes assessment contexts. Using Pearson product-moment correlations and hierarchical linear regression modelling to analyse data on 794 tertiary students who undertook a low-stakes engineering mechanics assessment (along with the questionnaire of…

  19. Devising Inequality: A Bernsteinian Analysis of High-Stakes Testing and Social Reproduction in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    High-stakes, standardized testing has become the central tool for educational reform and regulation in many industrialized nations in the world, and it has been implemented with particular intensity in the United States and the United Kingdom. Drawing on research on high-stakes testing and its effect on classroom practice and pedagogic discourse…

  20. Effects of mulching, staking and tillage on weed growth in yam plots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of two levels each of mulching (mulch, no mulch), staking, no stakes) and tillage (bed, mound) on weed infestation were studied in the 1994/95 and 1995/96 dry season. Data collected at the peak of yam foliation and at tuber maturity showed that mulching had no significant effect on total fresh weight of weeds.

  1. Hiding behind High-Stakes Testing: Meritocracy, Objectivity and Inequality in U.S. Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses how high-stakes, standardised testing became the policy tool in the U.S. that it is today and discusses its role in advancing an ideology of meritocracy that fundamentally masks structural inequalities related to race and economic class. This paper first traces the early history of high-stakes testing within the U.S. context,…

  2. Effects of Staking and Row-Spacing on the Yield of Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the close spaced rows. Staking increased the yield of Roma VF cultivar of tomato. Thus under Sokoto condition, farmers can use 40 cm row-spacing (60 cm plant-spacing) to obtain a good yield of Roma VF cultivar. Staking could be practiced to increase the yield of tomato. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science Vol.

  3. Student Experiences of High-Stakes Testing for Progression in One Undergraduate Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenny, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes testing in undergraduate nursing education are those assessments used to make critical decisions for student progression and graduation. The purpose of this study was to explore the different ways students experience multiple high-stakes tests for progression in one undergraduate BSN program. Research participants were prelicensure…

  4. High-Stakes Standardized Testing & Marginalized Youth: An Examination of the Impact on Those Who Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of high-stakes, large-scale, standardized literacy testing on youth who have failed the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test. Interviews with youth indicate that the unintended impact of high-stakes testing is more problematic than policy makers and educators may realize. In contrast to literacy policy's aims to…

  5. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  6. Cyber Intelligence Threat Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    actors resources. Money People Tools Training Motive Why do threat actors attack? Determining an actor’s motive provides insight into the...possible direction of their behavior. and determines their interest in targeting the organization. t Intrinsic (personally rewarding) Extrinsic (receive...Prioritization October 1, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Relevance From leadership to rank-and-file employees . the Internet offers a communication

  7. Addressing Stereotype Threat is Critical to Diversity and Inclusion in Organizational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J; Bryant, William J

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have debated the relevance of stereotype threat to the workplace. Critics have argued that stereotype threat is not relevant in high stakes testing such as in personnel selection. We and others argue that stereotype threat is highly relevant in personnel selection, but our review focused on underexplored areas including effects of stereotype threat beyond test performance and the application of brief, low-cost interventions in the workplace. Relevant to the workplace, stereotype threat can reduce domain identification, job engagement, career aspirations, and receptivity to feedback. Stereotype threat has consequences in other relevant domains including leadership, entrepreneurship, negotiations, and competitiveness. Several institutional and individual level intervention strategies that have been field-tested and are easy to implement show promise for practitioners including: addressing environmental cues, valuing diversity, wise feedback, organizational mindsets, reattribution training, reframing the task, values-affirmation, utility-value, belonging, communal goal affordances, interdependent worldviews, and teaching about stereotype threat. This review integrates criticisms and evidence into one accessible source for practitioners and provides recommendations for implementing effective, low-cost interventions in the workplace.

  8. Addressing Stereotype Threat is Critical to Diversity and Inclusion in Organizational Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina J Casad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently researchers have debated the relevance of stereotype threat to the workplace. Critics have argued that stereotype threat is not relevant in high stakes testing such as in personnel selection. We and others argue that stereotype threat is highly relevant in personnel selection, but our review focused on underexplored areas including effects of stereotype threat beyond test performance and the application of brief, low-cost interventions in the workplace. Relevant to the workplace, stereotype threat can reduce domain identification, job engagement, career aspirations, and receptivity to feedback. Stereotype threat has consequences in other relevant domains including leadership, entrepreneurship, negotiations, and competitiveness. Several institutional and individual level intervention strategies that have been field-tested and are easy to implement show promise for practitioners including: addressing environmental cues, valuing diversity, wise feedback, organizational mindsets, reattribution training, reframing the task, values-affirmation, utility-value, belonging, communal goal affordances, interdependent worldviews, and teaching about stereotype threat. This review integrates criticisms and evidence into one accessible source for practitioners and provides recommendations for implementing effective, low-cost interventions in the workplace.

  9. Addressing Stereotype Threat is Critical to Diversity and Inclusion in Organizational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Bryant, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently researchers have debated the relevance of stereotype threat to the workplace. Critics have argued that stereotype threat is not relevant in high stakes testing such as in personnel selection. We and others argue that stereotype threat is highly relevant in personnel selection, but our review focused on underexplored areas including effects of stereotype threat beyond test performance and the application of brief, low-cost interventions in the workplace. Relevant to the workplace, stereotype threat can reduce domain identification, job engagement, career aspirations, and receptivity to feedback. Stereotype threat has consequences in other relevant domains including leadership, entrepreneurship, negotiations, and competitiveness. Several institutional and individual level intervention strategies that have been field-tested and are easy to implement show promise for practitioners including: addressing environmental cues, valuing diversity, wise feedback, organizational mindsets, reattribution training, reframing the task, values-affirmation, utility-value, belonging, communal goal affordances, interdependent worldviews, and teaching about stereotype threat. This review integrates criticisms and evidence into one accessible source for practitioners and provides recommendations for implementing effective, low-cost interventions in the workplace. PMID:26834681

  10. Oil dependence. Myths and realities of a strategic stake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaliand, G.; Jafalian, A.

    2005-04-01

    Using a series of regional studies, this collective book proposes to evaluate the strategic dimensions of the oil dependence and to determine its geopolitical impacts in the Middle East, Russia, China, USA and Europe. Content: the oil stakes at the beginning of the 21. century; in the center of the oil scene: the Middle East; oil dependence and US foreign policy: beyond myths; the Russian oil, instrument of influence and of alliances re-knitting; China and oil: security feelings and strategic approach; towards a European supply strategy; beyond petroleum: what alternatives; 150 years of petroleum history; the energy dependence; energy economy; automotive fuels and pollution abatement; limitation of greenhouse gas emissions; glossary; bibliography; index; Web links. (J.S.)

  11. EVALUASI PROGRAM PEMBELAJARAN IPA SMP MENGGUNAKAN MODEL COUNTENANCE STAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astin Lukum

    2015-06-01

    THE EVALUATION OF SCIENCE TEACHING ON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL USING STAKE’S COUNTENANCE MODEL Abstract The purpose of the study was to describe the science learning program on junior high school in Bone Bolanga district based on the Regulation of Minister of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, Number 65 of 2013 about Processing Standard of Primary and Secondary Education. This study used Stake’s Countanance evaluation model. The data were collected using observation, interview and documentation techniques. The conclusion was: (1 the planning of science learning was categorized fair (68%, it was found that lesson plan was not in accordance with the learning processing standard. (2 The implementation of science learning was categorized fair (57%, that unconformitted with learning processing implementation standard. (3 Student learning outcomes have not met the completeness of minimum criteria (KKM that categorized enough (65% and (4 There were the contingency of planing learning proces and outcome. Keywords: Program Evaluation, Stake's Countenance, Science Learning

  12. Stakes and modalities of the climatic risk covering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marteau, D.

    2006-01-01

    Several econometric works show that climatic volatility is at the first rank of the risk factors in several economic sectors like energy, textile, agriculture and food, tourism, leisure, building industries etc. However, climate remains an underestimated economic factor for several reasons: lack of awareness about the comparative stakes of climate risks management and market risks management, difficulties in the measurement of climate risk exposure, weak knowledge of covering techniques for private contract and organized markets, and unsolved question of risk sharing between shareholders and managers. This document analyzes the sensitivity of companies with respect to climate risk and describes the 5 steps of implementation of a climate covering policy: risk exposure measurement, risk bearing or transfer decision, definition of the optimum covering profile, choice of markets and covering instruments, efficiency measurement. A practical example is shown with its related questions. (J.S.)

  13. Biofuels: stakes, perspectives and researches; Biocarburants: enjeux, perspectives et recherches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Ballerin, D.; Montagne, X.

    2004-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) is a major intervener of the biofuels sector, from the production to the end-use in engines. In this press conference, the IFP takes stock of the technological, environmental and economical stakes of today and future biofuel production processes and of their impact on transports. This document gathers 2 presentations dealing with: IFP's research strategy on biofuels (transparencies: context; today's processes: ethanol, ETBE, bio-diesel; tomorrows processes: biomass to liquid; perspectives), bio-diesel fuel: the Axens process selected by Diester Industrie company for its Sete site project of bio-diesel production unit. The researches carried out at the IFP on biofuels and biomass are summarized in an appendix: advantage and drawbacks of biofuels, the ethanol fuel industry, the bio-diesel industry, biomass to liquid fuels, French coordinated research program, statistical data of biofuel consumption in France, Spain and Germany. (J.S.)

  14. Billions at stake in climate finance: four key lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Peter [University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Roberts, J. Timmons [Brown University (United States); Boyd, Emily [University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Huq, Saleemul

    2009-11-15

    How can we break through the impasse on the road to Copenhagen? As the climate talks stall over the size of emissions cuts and who pays for them, it is increasingly clear that funding will be key to breaking the deadlock. Guaranteeing adequate levels of climate finance will be a deal maker or breaker for the poorest nations as the December summit approaches. But on the brink of a new chapter in climate funding, with unprecedented flows at stake, donor countries need to learn from decades of aid experience – mistakes as well as successes. Failure to do this risks wasting a great opportunity to kickstart low-carbon, climate-resilient development for the world's poor.

  15. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  16. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  17. Which US States Pose the Greatest Threats to Military Readiness and Public Health? Public Health Policy Implications for a Cross-sectional Investigation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Body Mass Index, and Injuries Among US Army Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Daniel B; Grieve, George L; Clennin, Morgan N; McLain, Alexander C; Whitsel, Laurie P; Beets, Michael W; Hauret, Keith G; Jones, Bruce H; Sarzynski, Mark A

    2018-01-09

    Many states in the southern region of the United States are recognized for higher rates of obesity, physical inactivity, and chronic disease. These states are therefore recognized for their disproportionate public health burden. The purpose of this study was to investigate state-level distributions of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI), and injuries among US Army recruits in order to determine whether or not certain states may also pose disproportionate threats to military readiness and national security. Sex-specific state-level values for injuries and fitness among 165 584 Army recruits were determined. Next, the relationship between median cardiorespiratory fitness and injury incidence at the state level was examined using Spearman correlations. Finally, multivariable Poisson regression models stratified by sex examined state-level associations between fitness and injury incidence, while controlling for BMI, and other covariates. Cardiorespiratory fitness and training-related injury incidence. A cluster of 10 states from the south and southeastern regions (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas) produced male or female recruits who were significantly less fit and/or more likely to become injured than recruits from other US states. Compared with the "most fit states," the incidence of injuries increased by 22% (95% CI, 17-28; P fit states," respectively. The impact of policies, systems, and environments on physical activity behavior, and subsequently fitness and health, has been clearly established. Advocacy efforts aimed at active living policies, systems, and environmental changes to improve population health often fail. However, advocating for active living policies to improve national security may prove more promising, particularly with legislators. Results from this study demonstrate how certain states, previously identified for their disproportionate public health

  18. Power affects performance when the pressure is on: evidence for low-power threat and high-power lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sonia K; Galinsky, Adam D; Kray, Laura J; Shirako, Aiwa

    2015-05-01

    The current research examines how power affects performance in pressure-filled contexts. We present low-power-threat and high-power-lift effects, whereby performance in high-stakes situations suffers or is enhanced depending on one's power; that is, the power inherent to a situational role can produce effects similar to stereotype threat and lift. Three negotiations experiments demonstrate that role-based power affects outcomes but only when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and, therefore, pressure-filled. We link these outcomes conceptually to threat and lift effects by showing that (a) role power affects performance more strongly when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and (b) underperformance disappears when the low-power negotiator has an opportunity to self-affirm. These results suggest that stereotype threat and lift effects may represent a more general phenomenon: When the stakes are raised high, relative power can act as either a toxic brew (stereotype/low-power threat) or a beneficial elixir (stereotype/high-power lift) for performance. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  20. Terrorism: Global Threat Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Gunaratna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three significant developments will characterize the global threat landscape in 2017. First, it is likely that the so-called Islamic State (IS will transform itself from a caliphate-building entity into a global terrorist movement in a similar manner as Al Qaeda (AQ. Second, the death of either the IS leader Abu Bakr al Baghdadi or AQ leader Ayman al Zawahiri, may lead to collaboration or possible unification of the most powerful terrorist groups. IS, AQ and their associates will compensate for their losses in the physical space by expanding further into cyber space

  1. The threat from without

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassi Saressalo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Of greatest importance in ethnic folklore are the recognised and unrecognised elements that are used when founding identity on tradition. For the aim of ethnic identification is to note and know the cultural features that connect me with people like me and separate me from people who are not like me. Every group and each of its members thus needs an opponent, a contact partner in order to identify itself. What about the Lapps? The ethnocentric values of ethnic folklore provide a model for this generalising comparison. 'They' are a potential danger, are unknown, strange, a threat from beyond the fells. They are sufficiently common for the group's ethnic feeling. It is here that we find tradition, folk tales, describing the community's traditional enemies, describing the threat from without, engendering preconceived ideas, conflicts and even war. The Lapps have never had an empire, they have never conquered others' territory, they have never engaged in systematic warfare against other peoples. For this reason Lapp tradition lacks an offensive ethnic folklore proper with emphasis on aggression, power, violence, heroism and an acceptance of the ideology of subordinating others. On the contrary,Lapp folklore is familiar with a tradition in which strangers are always threatening the Lapps' existence, plundering their territories, burning and destroying. The Lapp has always had to fight against alien powers, to give in or to outwit the great and powerful enemy. In the Lapp tradition the staalo represents an outside threat that cannot be directly concretised. If foes are regarded as concrete enemies that may be defeated in physical combat or that can be made to look ridiculous, a staalo is more mythical, more supranormal, more vague. One basic feature of the staalo tradition is that it only appears as one party to a conflict. The stories about the Lapp who succeeds in driving away a staalo threatening the community, to outwit the stupid giant or to kill

  2. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  3. Does self-threat promote social connection? The role of self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Maner, Jon K

    2009-01-01

    Six studies examined the social motivations of people with high self-esteem (HSE) and low self-esteem (LSE) following a threat to a domain of contingent self-worth. Whether people desired social contact following self-threat depended on an interaction between an individual's trait self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth. HSE participants who strongly based self-worth on appearance sought to connect with close others following a threat to their physical attractiveness. LSE participants who staked self-worth on appearance wanted to avoid social contact and, instead, preferred a less interpersonally risky way of coping with self-threat (wanting to enhance their physical attractiveness). Implications for theories of self-esteem, motivation, and interpersonal processes are discussed.

  4. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community Disparities in Lung Health Series "Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community" is part of the American Lung Association's ...

  5. Implications of Fuzziness for the Practical Management of High-Stakes Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jablonowski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available High-stakes (dangerous, catastrophic risks take on a wider profile as progress unfolds. What are the impacts of technological and social change on the risk landscape? Due to the complexities and dynamics involved, we can only answer these questions approximately. By using the concept of fuzziness, we can formalize our imprecision about high-stakes risk, and therefore place their management on a stronger footing. We review here the impacts of fuzziness, i.e., knowledge imperfection, on high-stakes risk management, including its implementation via computationally intelligent decision aids.

  6. Slashes to Medicaid pose threat to PWAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Congressional proposals are calling for cuts in Medicaid of up to $180 billion over the next 7 years. Because Medicaid is the largest source of health insurance for people living with HIV, the AIDS Action Council is educating policy makers about what is at stake. The Council's work has included testimony before the House Commerce Committee Subcommittee on Health and Environment and participation in a White House briefing on Medicaid sponsored by National AIDS Policy Director, Patsy Fleming, and Clinton's Special Assistant on Health Policy, Chris Jennings. At the briefing, Jennings assured participants that the President pledges to preserve Medicaid's entitlement status and keep cuts well under the Republicans' proposed cut of $182 billion. AIDS Action also prepared fact sheets for 10 states that detail the reliance of the HIV/AIDS community on Medicaid in each of those states. They are also supporting a postcard and telephone campaign organized by the Save Our Security Coalition (SOS), spearheaded by the health policy group Families USA. The postcards oppose Medicare and Medicaid cuts and ask the President to veto any such cuts.

  7. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  8. Addressing the insider threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  9. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  10. Management of radioactive materials and wastes: status, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Didier; Devin, Patrick; Tanguy, Loic; Bernard, Herve; Minon, Jean-Paul; Leclaire, Arnaud; Gilli, Ludivine; Lheureux, Yves; Pescatore, Claudio; Barbey, Pierre; Schneider, Thierry; Gay, Didier; Forest, Isabelle; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Baglan, Nicolas; Desnoyers, Bruno; Pieraccini, Michel; Poncet, Philippe; Seguin, Bertille; Calvez, Marianne; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Bancelin, Estelle; Fillion, Eric; Segura, Yannick; Vernaz, Etienne; Granier, Guy; De Preter, Peter; Petitfrere, Michael; Laye, Frederic; Nakamura, Takashi; Gin, Stephane; Lebaron-Jacobs, Laurence; Dinant, Sophie; Vacquier, Blandine; Crochon, Philippe; Griffault, Lise; Smith, Graham

    2013-10-01

    These technical days were organized by the Environment section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Time was given to some exchange about the societal aspects of radioactive waste management as well as about the legal context but the most part of the debates delt with the actual management modalities of the different types of wastes, both in France and in foreign countries, and with the related stakes, in particular in terms of impact. This document brings together the presentations (slides) of the following talks: - Contributions of radiation protection to the long-term safety management of radioactive wastes (Jean-Paul MINON - ONDRAF); - The national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes (Arnaud LECLAIRE - ANDRA); - The high activity, medium activity-long living wastes in debate - a co-building approach (ANCCLI/Clis of Bure/IRSN) to share stakes, enlighten, and develop thought (Ludivine GILLI - IRSN, Yves LHEUREUX - ANCCLI); - Social aspects of Radioactive Waste Management - The International Learning (Claudio PESCATORE - AEN/OCDE); - Citizens involvement and ACRO's point of view on radioactive wastes management (Pierre BARBEY - ACRO); - New CIPR recommendations about the geologic disposal of long-living radioactive wastes (Thierry SCHNEIDER - CEPN); - Overview of processes under the views of radiation protection principles (Didier GAY - IRSN); - The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (Loic TANGUY - ASN); - Joint convention on spent fuel management safety and on radioactive waste management safety - status and main stakes (Isabelle FOREST - ASN); - Transport of radioactive wastes (Bruno DESNOYERS - AREVA); - Optimisation and limitation of the environmental impacts of very-low level wastes - valorisation and processes selection (Michel PIERACCINI - EDF), Philippe PONCET - AREVA); - Management of hospital wastes - Example of Montpellier's University Regional Hospital (Bertille SEGUIN - CHRU de Montpellier); - Waste

  11. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  12. An outbreak of Leishmania major from an endemic to a non-endemic region posed a public health threat in Iraq from 2014-2017: Epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bajalan, Mariwan M M; Al-Jaf, Sirwan M A; Niranji, Sherko S; Abdulkareem, Dler R; Al-Kayali, Khudhair K; Kato, Hirotomo

    2018-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected worldwide, zoonotic, vector-borne, tropical disease that is a threat to public health. This threat may spread from endemic to non-endemic areas. Current research has exploited epidemiological, molecular and phylogenetical studies to determine the danger of an outbreak of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq from 2014-2017. For the first time, using sequence analysis of the cytochrome b gene, the occurrence of CL in the borderline area between northern and central Iraq was confirmed to be due to Leishmania major. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the L. major MRHO/IR/75/ER strain in Iran. In conclusion, the genotype confirmation of the L. major strain will improve our understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. This is important for facilitating control programs to prevent the further spread of CL. Furthermore, this area could be considered as a model for further research on the risk of global CL epidemics in other non-endemic countries where both reservoir hosts and sandfly vectors are present.

  13. Threats, protests greet conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, D

    1994-09-04

    In preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, Egypt has deployed 14,000 police to protect participants from threatened violence. The Vatican has joined forces with Muslim fundamentalists to condemn the conference as a vehicle for imposing Western ideals, particularly abortion, on Third world countries. In addition, the opposition is raising the specter of a descent of homosexuals onto Cairo and Muslim fundamentalists have threatened to murder Western representatives. A suit filed by Islamic lawyers, aimed at stopping the conference, failed. Sudan and Saudi Arabia plan to boycott the conference, and it remains uncertain whether Libya will be represented. Conference organizers have not been deterred by the threats and note that the controversy has drawn public attention to the central issues under debate.

  14. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  15. Simulation as a high stakes assessment tool in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Fenton

    2015-04-01

    The Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) will introduce high stakes simulation-based summative assessment in the form of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) into the Fellowship Examination from 2015. Miller's model emphasises that, no matter how realistic the simulation, it is still a simulation and examinees do not necessarily behave as in real life. OSCEs are suitable for assessing the CanMEDS domains of Medical Expert, Communicator, Collaborator and Manager. However, the need to validate the OSCE is emphasised by conflicting evidence on correlation with long-term faculty assessments, between essential actions checklists and global assessment scores and variable interrater reliability within individual OSCE stations and for crisis resource management skills. Although OSCEs can be a valid, reliable and acceptable assessment tool, the onus is on the examining body to ensure construct validity and high interrater reliability. © 2015 The Author. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  16. Rich, poor share stake in poverty, pollution link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCanio, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    A dirty environment and poverty go together, and this link between environmental protection and economic development is creating a new basis for international cooperation, says Stephen J. DeCanio of the University of California at Santa Barbara. open-quotes Both developed and developing countries have a stake in solving the development/environment impasse,close quotes DeCanio adds. open-quotes Furthermore, the link between these problems offers a fresh opportunity to make progress on both fronts.close quotes He says environmental protection expenditures by developed countries can be used to promote the sustainable economic growth of those countries struggling to escape from poverty. The money could be collected in several ways, he notes: from various types of environmental taxes, such as a carbon tax; from environmental user fees; from open-quotes debt-for natureclose quotes swaps; and from tradable emissions permits. Such mechanisms transfer resources to developing countries, where they can be applied to economic development-a desired objective, according to DeCanio. open-quotes The benefits of equitable worldwide growth and development outweigh any temporary loss of wealth developed countries may experience as a result of environmental transfers,close quotes he asserts

  17. What does social research say about high-stakes tests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Feito Alonso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High-stake tests, which students need to pass in order to gain a Secondary education certificate, have aroused a lot of controversy whenever they have been implemented. Especially in the USA these tests have produced a dramatic shrinking of school knowledge as they have been focused into questions posed by the very tests. At the same time, there has been a critical modification of the learning processes due to the fact that these tests encourage students to pay more attention to factual knowledge, which is far away from hands-on learning, debating in class or working in teams. In spite of certain discrepancies, by and large, research casts serious doubts about whether these tests are conductive to better academic performance. Nevertheless, the dropout rate is on the rise. More often than not, school principals have been found preventing struggling students to sit the exams. A review of the research into this matter allows us to put into context the debate surrounding external exams posed by the current education law (LOMCE: Law for the Improvement of Educational Quality passed by the parliamentary majority of the Popular Party in Spain in 2013.

  18. Biospheric Changes are Threat Multipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2010-01-01

    A threat multiplier is defined as another agent that impacts a current situation, creating an additional set of problems while also making existing problems worse. Sometimes a seemingly innocent change in the biosphere can cause major alterations and become a threat multiplier. Because the biosphere is a highly interactive system, damage to a single component, like the ocean for example, will produce a ripple effect throughout the entire system. In order for humans to eliminate threat multip...

  19. Food marketing to children and youth: threat or opportunity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinnis, J. Michael; Gootman, Jennifer Appleton; Kraak, Vivica I

    2006-01-01

    .... Yet the prevailing pattern of food and beverage marketing to children in America represents, at best, a missed opportunity, and at worst, a direct threat to the health prospects of the next generation. Childrenâ...

  20. Testing mechanical characteristics of chestnut stakes used in bed sills for stream restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Benfratello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using of wood elements for constructing bed sills in Mediterranean streams, where the banks are not protected by tree vegetation, needs an evaluation of biological and mechanical characteristics for evaluating both the wood durability and the effectiveness of the stream restoration project. Very few studies have dealt both with the decay of mechanical characteristics of wood elements employed for stream restoration works and with the changes over time of physical and chemical wood characters. In this paper, for a wood and stone bed sill located in a stream having no shaded banks, the changes of physical and chemical characters detected after 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48 months on chestnut stakes are preliminarily recalled. Then, using three chestnut stakes extracted after 96 and 108 months and two unaltered stakes, as reference condition, the mechanical compression tests were carried out. The results of the compression tests for both runs (altered and unaltered stake allowed to establish the influence of the ageing process on the compressive strength and stiffness of the chestnut wood. Finally, using two chestnut stake extracted after 108 and 120 months and two unaltered stakes, the flexural tests were carried out by a four points scheme (two supporting points and two loading points according to UNI EN 408-2012 standard. The results of the flexural tests for both runs (altered and unaltered stake allowed to establish that the wood ageing process determines the decay of mechanical strength of the material and reduces the bending strength of the chestnut wood. From an applicative point of view, the obtained results showed that after 10 years the mechanical resistance characteristics of the wood stakes are less than those corresponding to the undisturbed reference condition.

  1. The cyber security of French nuclear installations: stakes and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Notably due to the development of the number of connected objects, nuclear installations, their supply chain and all the actors of the chain value are exposed to cyber risks, even if a recent study noticed that successful cyber attacks involving nuclear plants are rare, but real. Thus, the threat is actual and growing, and the IAEA is already working with Interpol on this issue. The author then describes how French actors (EDF, Areva, CEA) have introduced cyber-resilience to better anticipate and identify actual threats and critical vulnerabilities in order to protect infrastructures. He comments some strengthened regulatory measures introduced for the French nuclear sector, and continuous improvements brought in the field of cyber security. He shows that handling these risks is also an opportunity to develop crisis management tools through the development of a specific know-how which also has an industrial value

  2. Threat Barometer. Ten Years of Terrorist Threat Assessment Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.; Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, which was commissioned by the NCTV to mark the occasion of the conference “Threat Barometer. Ten years of Terrorist Threat Assessments for the Netherlands 2005-2015”, we address this and other aspects of the DTN and consider how this instrument has developed over the past decade. We

  3. Mining in New Caledonia : environmental stakes and restoration opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Losfeld, G.; L'Huillier, L.; Fogliani, B.; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, C.

    2015-01-01

    New Caledonia is a widely recognised marine and terrestrial biodiversity hot spot. However, this unique environment is under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Major threats are related to land cover change and include fire, urban sprawling and mining. Resulting habitat loss and fragmentation end up in serious erosion of the local biodiversity. Mining is of particular concern due to its economic significance for the island. Open cast mines were exploited there since 1873, and scraping out soi...

  4. Thinking about threats: Memory and prospection in human threat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulley, Adam; Henry, Julie D; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Humans have evolved mechanisms for the detection and management of possible threats in order to abate their negative consequences for fitness. Internally generated ('detached') cognition may have evolved in part because of its contributions to this broad function, but important questions remain about its role in threat management. In this article, we therefore present a taxonomy of threat-related internally generated cognition comprising episodic and semantic formats of memory and prospection. We address the proximate mechanisms of each of the capacities in this taxonomy, and discuss their respective contributions to adaptive threat management in humans. For instance, mental time travel empowers people to contemplate and learn from threats experienced long ago, as well as to plan for dangers that might arise in the distant future. However, despite their functional benefits, these thought processes are also central to contemporary anxiety disorders and may be a potent source of distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The interRAI Acute Care instrument incorporated in an eHealth system for standardized and web-based geriatric assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the acute hospital setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The interRAI Acute Care instrument is a multidimensional geriatric assessment system intended to determine a hospitalized older persons’ medical, psychosocial and functional capacity and needs. Its objective is to develop an overall plan for treatment and long-term follow-up based on a common set of standardized items that can be used in various care settings. A Belgian web-based software system (BelRAI-software) was developed to enable clinicians to interpret the output and to communicate the patients’ data across wards and care organizations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the (dis)advantages of the implementation of the interRAI Acute Care instrument as a comprehensive geriatric assessment instrument in an acute hospital context. Methods In a cross-sectional multicenter study on four geriatric wards in three acute hospitals, trained clinical staff (nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, and geriatricians) assessed 410 inpatients in routine clinical practice. The BelRAI-system was evaluated by focus groups, observations, and questionnaires. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats were mapped (SWOT-analysis) and validated by the participants. Results The primary strengths of the BelRAI-system were a structured overview of the patients’ condition early after admission and the promotion of multidisciplinary assessment. Our study was a first attempt to transfer standardized data between home care organizations, nursing homes and hospitals and a way to centralize medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. With the BelRAI-software, privacy of data is guaranteed. Weaknesses are the time-consuming character of the process and the overlap with other assessment instruments or (electronic) registration forms. There is room for improving the user-friendliness and the efficiency of the software, which needs hospital-specific adaptations. Opportunities are a timely and systematic problem detection and continuity of

  6. The interRAI Acute Care instrument incorporated in an eHealth system for standardized and web-based geriatric assessment: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the acute hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Els; Wellens, Nathalie I H; Flamaing, Johan; Declercq, Anja; Moons, Philip; Boonen, Steven; Milisen, Koen

    2013-09-05

    The interRAI Acute Care instrument is a multidimensional geriatric assessment system intended to determine a hospitalized older persons' medical, psychosocial and functional capacity and needs. Its objective is to develop an overall plan for treatment and long-term follow-up based on a common set of standardized items that can be used in various care settings. A Belgian web-based software system (BelRAI-software) was developed to enable clinicians to interpret the output and to communicate the patients' data across wards and care organizations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the (dis)advantages of the implementation of the interRAI Acute Care instrument as a comprehensive geriatric assessment instrument in an acute hospital context. In a cross-sectional multicenter study on four geriatric wards in three acute hospitals, trained clinical staff (nurses, occupational therapists, social workers, and geriatricians) assessed 410 inpatients in routine clinical practice. The BelRAI-system was evaluated by focus groups, observations, and questionnaires. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats were mapped (SWOT-analysis) and validated by the participants. The primary strengths of the BelRAI-system were a structured overview of the patients' condition early after admission and the promotion of multidisciplinary assessment. Our study was a first attempt to transfer standardized data between home care organizations, nursing homes and hospitals and a way to centralize medical, allied health professionals and nursing data. With the BelRAI-software, privacy of data is guaranteed. Weaknesses are the time-consuming character of the process and the overlap with other assessment instruments or (electronic) registration forms. There is room for improving the user-friendliness and the efficiency of the software, which needs hospital-specific adaptations. Opportunities are a timely and systematic problem detection and continuity of care. An actual shortage of

  7. Landfills in Jiangsu province, China, and potential threats for public health: Leachate appraisal and spatial analysis using geographic information system and remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Kun; Zhou Xiaonong; Yan Weian; Hang Derong; Steinmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Waste disposal is of growing environmental and public health concern in China where landfilling is the predominant method of disposal. The assessment of potential health hazards posed by existing landfills requires sound information, and processing of a significant amount of spatial data. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) are valuable tools for assessing health impacts due to landfills. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the leachate and gas emissions from landfills used for domestic waste disposal in a metropolitan area of Jiangsu province, China, (ii) to investigate remotely-sensed environmental features in close proximity to landfills, and (iii) to evaluate the compliance of their location and leachate quality with the relevant national regulations. We randomly selected five landfills in the metropolitan areas of Wuxi and Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, established a GIS database and examined whether data were in compliance with national environmental and public health regulations. The leachates of the sampled landfills contained heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr 6+ and Hg) and organic compounds in concentrations considered harmful to human health. Measured methane concentrations on landfill surfaces were low. Spatial analysis of the location of landfills with regard to distance from major water bodies, sensible infrastructure and environmental conditions according to current national legislation resulted in the rejection of four of the five sites as inappropriate for landfills. Our results call for rigorous evaluation of the spatial location of landfills in China that must take into consideration environmental and public health criteria

  8. Climate change and global infectious disease threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E K

    The world's climate is warming up and, while debate continues about how much change we can expect, it is becoming clear that even small changes in climate can have major effects on the spread of disease. Erwin K Jackson, a member of Greenpeace International's Climate Impacts Unit and a delegate to the 11th session of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Rome, 11-15 December), reviews the scientific evidence of this new global threat to health.

  9. Threat Assessment in College Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Dewey

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

  10. Inquiry-Based Instruction and High Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothern, Rebecca L.

    Science education is a key to economic success for a country in terms of promoting advances in national industry and technology and maximizing competitive advantage in a global marketplace. The December 2010 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranked the United States 23rd of 65 countries in science. That dismal standing in science proficiency impedes the ability of American school graduates to compete in the global market place. Furthermore, the implementation of high stakes testing in science mandated by the 2007 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has created an additional need for educators to find effective science pedagogy. Research has shown that inquiry-based science instruction is one of the predominant science instructional methods. Inquiry-based instruction is a multifaceted teaching method with its theoretical foundation in constructivism. A correlational survey research design was used to determine the relationship between levels of inquiry-based science instruction and student performance on a standardized state science test. A self-report survey, using a Likert-type scale, was completed by 26 fifth grade teachers. Participants' responses were analyzed and grouped as high, medium, or low level inquiry instruction. The unit of analysis for the achievement variable was the student scale score average from the state science test. Spearman's Rho correlation data showed a positive relationship between the level of inquiry-based instruction and student achievement on the state assessment. The findings can assist teachers and administrators by providing additional research on the benefits of the inquiry-based instructional method. Implications for positive social change include increases in student proficiency and decision-making skills related to science policy issues which can help make them more competitive in the global marketplace.

  11. The Impact of High-Stakes Testing on Student Proficiency in Low-Stakes Subjects: Evidence from Florida's Elementary Science Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Marcus A.; Trivitt, Julie R.; Greene, Jay P.

    2010-01-01

    An important criticism of high-stakes testing policies--policies that reward or sanction schools based on their students' performance on standardized tests--is that they provide schools with an incentive to focus on those subjects that play a role in the accountability system while decreasing attention to those subjects that are not part of the…

  12. What Is at Stake in Knowing the Content and Capabilities of Children's Minds?: A Case for Basing High Stakes Tests on Cognitive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stephen P.; Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Phillips, Linda M.

    2004-01-01

    Many significant changes in perspective have to take place before efforts to learn the content and capabilities of children's minds can hold much sway in educational testing. The language of testing, especially of high stakes testing, remains firmly in the realm of "behaviors", "performance" and "competency" defined…

  13. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  14. Stakes in the eye of the beholder: an international study of learners' perceptions within programmatic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Suzanne; Driessen, Erik; van Tartwijk, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees; Heeneman, Sylvia

    2018-03-24

    Within programmatic assessment, the ambition is to simultaneously optimise the feedback and the decision-making function of assessment. In this approach, individual assessments are intended to be low stakes. In practice, however, learners often perceive assessments designed to be low stakes as high stakes. In this study, we explored how learners perceive assessment stakes within programmatic assessment and which factors influence these perceptions. Twenty-six learners were interviewed from three different countries and five different programmes, ranging from undergraduate to postgraduate medical education. The interviews explored learners' experience with and perception of assessment stakes. An open and qualitative approach to data gathering and analyses inspired by the constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data and reveal underlying mechanisms influencing learners' perceptions. Learners' sense of control emerged from the analysis as key for understanding learners' perception of assessment stakes. Several design factors of the assessment programme provided or hindered learners' opportunities to exercise control over the assessment experience, mainly the opportunities to influence assessment outcomes, to collect evidence and to improve. Teacher-learner relationships that were characterised by learners' autonomy and in which learners feel safe were important for learners' believed ability to exercise control and to use assessment to support their learning. Knowledge of the factors that influence the perception of assessment stakes can help design effective assessment programmes in which assessment supports learning. Learners' opportunities for agency, a supportive programme structure and the role of the teacher are particularly powerful mechanisms to stimulate the learning value of programmatic assessment. © 2018 The Authors. Medical Education published by Association for the Study of Medical Education and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Environmental Health: High-level Strategy and Leadership Needed to Continue Progress toward Protecting Children from Environmental Threats. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, John B.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to toxic chemicals or environmental pollutants may harm the health of the nation's 74 million children and contribute to increases in asthma and developmental impairments. In 2007, 66 percent of children lived in counties exceeding allowable levels for at least one of the six principal air pollutants that cause or aggravate asthma,…

  16. Information report on Proliferation geo-strategic stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    This large report, notably based on interviews of many representatives of international institutions and politicians, ambassadors and researchers of different countries, all involved or specialized in nuclear and defence issues, starts with a description of the evolution of the international and geo-strategic context from the Cold War to a period of a new nuclear proliferation, with, in between, a period of stabilisation between the USA and the USSR. It also questions the various forms of proliferation which could be ballistic, biological, chemical, and cybernetic. Then, it analyses the role which mass destruction weapons have in international relationships, making a distinction between countries possessing such weapons (USA, Russia, China, France, Great-Britain), Israel which has been a newcomer for thirty years, the new actors (India, Pakistan, Iran, North Korea) with their own and different motivations, and the possible new actors (Libya, Syria). It comments the meaning of the ballistic threat and of the anti-missile defence. The third part of this report deals with the dissemination of proliferating technologies, describing the proliferation networks and the failure of actions against state-based proliferations, questioning the reality of the associated risks (discussion about the impact of September 11 attacks, about a chemical and biological terrorist threat which is realistic as well as difficult to be implemented, and about cybernetic attacks). The fourth part comments the impact of the international community on proliferation, outlining the different efficiencies of the international agreements and institutions (Chemical Weapons Convention, IAEA, Non Proliferation Treaty, Biological Weapons Convention, The Hague Code of Conduct), commenting the opportunities associated with other texts (those about nuclear free areas, or those produced by exporter groups), and discussing the attitude of the international community with respect to proliferation, and the

  17. Forum on Microbial Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    communities adapt and respond to environmental stimuli; and potential applications for improving human, animal, plant, and ecosystem health... homeostasis ”, barrier integrity, and colonization re- sistance to pathogens. Research on these interactions will help to characterize microbial contributions

  18. Harmful alcohol drinking among HIV-positive people in Nepal: an overlooked threat to anti-retroviral therapy adherence and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Khem Narayan; Gaulee Pokhrel, Kalpana; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj; Sharma, Vidya Dev

    2018-01-01

    People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) often suffer from alcohol-use disorders resulting in their poor health and treatment outcomes. Little is known about the association of harmful alcohol drinking with their adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and health-related quality of life (QOL) in low-resource settings. This study aimed to investigate associations between harmful alcohol drinking, adherence to ART and health-related QOL in HIV-positive people, stratified by gender, in Nepal. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 682 HIV-positive people on ART to measure their self-reported harmful alcohol drinking and non-adherence to ART in the previous month of data collection. We also measured health-related QOL using a WHOQOL-HIV BREF scale. The association between harmful alcohol drinking and non-adherence to ART was examined using multiple logistic regressions. Additionally, multiple linear regressions examined association between harmful alcohol drinking and QOL. Harmful alcohol drinking was associated with non-adherence to ART among men (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.50, 4.11, p drinking. Moreover, women were more likely to have lower scores for the physical (β = -1.01, p = 0.015), social relations (β = -0.82, p = 0.033), environmental (β = -0.88, p = 0.011), and spiritual (β = -1.30, p = 0.005) domains of QOL when they had harmful alcohol drinking. Harmful alcohol drinking had a negative association with ART adherence and QOL in both HIV-positive men and women in Nepal. Screening for alcohol-use disorders and community-based counseling services should be provided while delivering ART services to improve treatment adherence and QOL.

  19. The effect of $1, $5 and $10 stakes in an online dictator game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; Mace, Ruth; Lamba, Shakti

    2013-01-01

    The decision rules underpinning human cooperative behaviour are often investigated under laboratory conditions using monetary incentives. A major concern with this approach is that stake size may bias subjects' decisions. This concern is particularly acute in online studies, where stakes are often far lower than those used in laboratory or field settings. We address this concern by conducting a Dictator Game using Amazon Mechanical Turk. In this two-player game, one player (the dictator) determines the division of an endowment between himself and the other player. We recruited subjects from India and the USA to play an online Dictator Game. Dictators received endowments of $1, $5 or $10. We collected two batches of data over two consecutive years. We found that players from India were less generous when playing with a $10 stake. By contrast, the effect of stake size among players from the USA was very small. This study indicates that the effects of stake size on decision making in economic games may vary across populations.

  20. Correlates of cooperation in a one-shot high-stakes televised prisoners' dilemma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell N Burton-Chellew

    Full Text Available Explaining cooperation between non-relatives is a puzzle for both evolutionary biology and the social sciences. In humans, cooperation is often studied in a laboratory setting using economic games such as the prisoners' dilemma. However, such experiments are sometimes criticized for being played for low stakes and by misrepresentative student samples. Golden balls is a televised game show that uses the prisoners' dilemma, with a diverse range of participants, often playing for very large stakes. We use this non-experimental dataset to investigate the factors that influence cooperation when "playing" for considerably larger stakes than found in economic experiments. The game show has earlier stages that allow for an analysis of lying and voting decisions. We found that contestants were sensitive to the stakes involved, cooperating less when the stakes were larger in both absolute and relative terms. We also found that older contestants were more likely to cooperate, that liars received less cooperative behavior, but only if they told a certain type of lie, and that physical contact was associated with reduced cooperation, whereas laughter and promises were reliable signals or cues of cooperation, but were not necessarily detected.

  1. Correcting for day of the week and public holiday effects: improving a national daily syndromic surveillance service for detecting public health threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Buckingham-Jeffery

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As service provision and patient behaviour varies by day, healthcare data used for public health surveillance can exhibit large day of the week effects. These regular effects are further complicated by the impact of public holidays. Real-time syndromic surveillance requires the daily analysis of a range of healthcare data sources, including family doctor consultations (called general practitioners, or GPs, in the UK. Failure to adjust for such reporting biases during analysis of syndromic GP surveillance data could lead to misinterpretations including false alarms or delays in the detection of outbreaks. The simplest smoothing method to remove a day of the week effect from daily time series data is a 7-day moving average. Public Health England developed the working day moving average in an attempt also to remove public holiday effects from daily GP data. However, neither of these methods adequately account for the combination of day of the week and public holiday effects. Methods The extended working day moving average was developed. This is a further data-driven method for adding a smooth trend curve to a time series graph of daily healthcare data, that aims to take both public holiday and day of the week effects into account. It is based on the assumption that the number of people seeking healthcare services is a combination of illness levels/severity and the ability or desire of patients to seek healthcare each day. The extended working day moving average was compared to the seven-day and working day moving averages through application to data from two syndromic indicators from the GP in-hours syndromic surveillance system managed by Public Health England. Results The extended working day moving average successfully smoothed the syndromic healthcare data by taking into account the combined day of the week and public holiday effects. In comparison, the seven-day and working day moving averages were unable to account for all

  2. The triple threat of pregnancy, HIV infection and malaria: reported causes of maternal mortality in two nationwide health facility assessments in Mozambique, 2007 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Patricia E; Keyes, Emily; Moran, Allisyn C; Singh, Kavita; Chavane, Leonardo; Chilundo, Baltazar

    2015-11-09

    The paper's primary purpose is to determine changes in magnitude and causes of institutional maternal mortality in Mozambique. We also describe shifts in the location of institutional deaths and changes in availability of prevention and treatment measures for malaria and HIV infection. Two national cross-sectional assessments of health facilities with childbirth services were conducted in 2007 and 2012. Each collected retrospective data on deliveries and maternal deaths and their causes. In 2007, 2,199 cases of maternal deaths were documented over a 12 month period; in 2012, 459 cases were identified over a three month period. In 2007, data collection also included reviews of maternal deaths when records were available (n = 712). Institutional maternal mortality declined from 541 to 284/100,000 births from 2007 to 2012. The rate of decline among women dying of direct causes was 66% compared to 26% among women dying of indirect causes. Cause-specific mortality ratios fell for all direct causes. Patterns among indirect causes were less conclusive given differences in cause-of-death recording. In absolute numbers, the combination of antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage was the leading direct cause of death each year and HIV and malaria the main non-obstetric causes. Based on maternal death reviews, evidence of HIV infection, malaria or anemia was found in more than 40% of maternal deaths due to abortion, ectopic pregnancy and sepsis. Almost half (49%) of all institutional maternal deaths took place in the largest hospitals in 2007 while in 2012, only 24% occurred in these hospitals. The availability of antiretrovirals and antimalarials increased in all types of facilities, but increases were most dramatic in health centers. The rate at which women died of direct causes in Mozambique's health facilities appears to have declined significantly. Despite a clear improvement in access to antiretrovirals and antimalarials, especially at lower levels of health care

  3. Harmful alcohol drinking among HIV-positive people in Nepal: an overlooked threat to anti-retroviral therapy adherence and health-related quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Khem Narayan; Gaulee Pokhrel, Kalpana; Neupane, Sanjeev Raj; Sharma, Vidya Dev

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) often suffer from alcohol-use disorders resulting in their poor health and treatment outcomes. Little is known about the association of harmful alcohol drinking with their adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and health-related quality of life (QOL) in low-resource settings. Objective: This study aimed to investigate associations between harmful alcohol drinking, adherence to ART and health-related QOL in HIV-positive people, stratified by gender, in Nepal. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 682 HIV-positive people on ART to measure their self-reported harmful alcohol drinking and non-adherence to ART in the previous month of data collection. We also measured health-related QOL using a WHOQOL-HIV BREF scale. The association between harmful alcohol drinking and non-adherence to ART was examined using multiple logistic regressions. Additionally, multiple linear regressions examined association between harmful alcohol drinking and QOL. Results: Harmful alcohol drinking was associated with non-adherence to ART among men (AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.50, 4.11, p < 0.001) and women (AOR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.32, 4.80, p = 0.005). Men were more likely to have lower score for the psychological (β = −0.55, p = 0.021) and level of independence (β = −0.68, p = 0.018) domains when they had harmful alcohol drinking. Moreover, women were more likely to have lower scores for the physical (β = −1.01, p = 0.015), social relations (β = −0.82, p = 0.033), environmental (β = −0.88, p = 0.011), and spiritual (β = −1.30, p = 0.005) domains of QOL when they had harmful alcohol drinking. Conclusions: Harmful alcohol drinking had a negative association with ART adherence and QOL in both HIV-positive men and women in Nepal. Screening for alcohol-use disorders and community-based counseling services should be provided while delivering ART services to improve

  4. Correcting for day of the week and public holiday effects: improving a national daily syndromic surveillance service for detecting public health threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Jeffery, Elizabeth; Morbey, Roger; House, Thomas; Elliot, Alex J; Harcourt, Sally; Smith, Gillian E

    2017-05-19

    As service provision and patient behaviour varies by day, healthcare data used for public health surveillance can exhibit large day of the week effects. These regular effects are further complicated by the impact of public holidays. Real-time syndromic surveillance requires the daily analysis of a range of healthcare data sources, including family doctor consultations (called general practitioners, or GPs, in the UK). Failure to adjust for such reporting biases during analysis of syndromic GP surveillance data could lead to misinterpretations including false alarms or delays in the detection of outbreaks. The simplest smoothing method to remove a day of the week effect from daily time series data is a 7-day moving average. Public Health England developed the working day moving average in an attempt also to remove public holiday effects from daily GP data. However, neither of these methods adequately account for the combination of day of the week and public holiday effects. The extended working day moving average was developed. This is a further data-driven method for adding a smooth trend curve to a time series graph of daily healthcare data, that aims to take both public holiday and day of the week effects into account. It is based on the assumption that the number of people seeking healthcare services is a combination of illness levels/severity and the ability or desire of patients to seek healthcare each day. The extended working day moving average was compared to the seven-day and working day moving averages through application to data from two syndromic indicators from the GP in-hours syndromic surveillance system managed by Public Health England. The extended working day moving average successfully smoothed the syndromic healthcare data by taking into account the combined day of the week and public holiday effects. In comparison, the seven-day and working day moving averages were unable to account for all these effects, which led to misleading smoothing

  5. Reassessing biological threats: Implications for cooperative mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine Grace Young

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple factors ranging from globalization to ecosystem disruption are presenting the global community with evolving biological threats to local, national, and global security that reach beyond the realm of traditional bioweapons threats. As a result, mitigation strategies have adapted necessarily to the increased diversity of biological threats. In general, response and preparedness strategies have largely shifted from being primarily reactive to traditional biological weapons to more proactive in nature. In this review, we briefly explore biological threats through a wider aperture, to embrace a deeper appreciation of viral pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and agricultural pathogens, and their potential to cause civil, economic, and political devastation. In addition we discuss current mitigation strategies codified by the Global Health Security Agenda and the One Health paradigm, as well as some of the available tools to assist with their sustainable implementation.

  6. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Prevent HAIs HICPAC One & Only Campaign A Patient Safety Threat – Syringe Reuse Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Important ... due to syringe reuse by your healthcare provider. Patients need to be aware of a very serious ...

  8. Defeating the Modern Asymmetric Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Connor, Robert

    2002-01-01

    ...) ending a horrific 19 year-old low-intensity conflict, Over the course of nearly two decades, the LTTE came to exemplify the modern asymmetric threat as they battled the Sri Lankan Armed Forces (SLAF...

  9. The impact of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure on pregnancy outcomes, infant health, and the threat of third-hand smoke exposure to our environment and to our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, T Allen; Mazela, Jan; Adamczak, Aleksandra; Merritt, Travis

    2012-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with various adverse effects on pregnancy and fetal development, carries a lot of serious complications such as spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, and reduced birth weight of the newborn. Children of smoking mothers have an increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory diseases during infancy. Smoking also causes long-term risk of maternal health problems such as: heart disease, cancer, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and higher mortality rate. Because women are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy than at any other time, there are attempts to increase motivation and help them to stop smoking at the procreative phase of their life. The article describes interventions that are carried out in Loma Linda, where the educational program "When You Smoke Your Baby Smokes" reminds parents about the health effects of smoking during pregnancy and harmful impact on child's health caused by second-hand smoke. Another threat to health and environment of our children, is the nicotine coming from indirect exposure to tobacco smoke. Residual nicotine that persists in high concentrations on the interior surfaces, including clothing, is forming in the reaction of nitric acid carcinogenic compounds of specific nitrosamines. In addition, ozone and related atmospheric oxidants react with nicotine smoke or smoke coming from the second-hand smoke, giving the smallest particles with high risk of asthma. Efforts towards reducing exposure to tobacco smoke coming from the passive and indirect smoking should be placed at a high priority throughout the European Union.

  10. Today's threat and tomorrow's reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The events of September 11 have only confirmed our past nightmares and warnings to industries, agencies, and governments. The threat of even more significant catastrophic attacks, using nuclear materials, was just as real ten years ago, as it is today. In many cases, our vulnerability remains the same as years ago. There is a dire need for all organizations to agree upon threats and vulnerabilities, and to implement appropriate protections, for nuclear materials or other 'means' to achieve an event of mass destruction. All appropriate organizations (industries, agencies, and governments) should be able to define, assess, and recognize international threats and vulnerabilities in the same manner. In complimentary fashion, the organizations should be able to implement safeguards against this consistent generic threat. On an international scale the same threats, and most vulnerabilities, pose high risks to all of these organizations and societies. Indeed, in today's world, the vulnerabilities of one nation may clearly pose great risk to another nation. Once threats and vulnerabilities are consistently recognized, we can begin to approach their mitigation in a more 'universal' fashion by the application of internationally recognized and accepted security measures. The path to recognition of these security measures will require agreement on many diverse issues. However, once there is general agreement, we can then proceed to the acquisition of diverse national and international resources with which to implement the security measures 'universally' to eliminate 'weak-links' in the chain of nuclear materials, on a truly international scale. I would like to discuss: developing a internationally acceptable 'generic' statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and security measure; proposing this international statement of threat, vulnerability assessment process, and appropriate security measures to organizations (industries, agencies, and governments

  11. Affirmative Action and Stereotype Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides experimental evidence on the effect of affirmative action (AA). In particular, we investigate whether affirmative action has a ”stereotype threat effect” – that is, whether AA cues a negative stereotype that leads individuals to conform to the stereotype and adversely affects their performance. Stereotype threat has been shown in the literature to be potentially significant for individuals who identify strongly with the domain of the stereotype and who engage in complex st...

  12. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Michael

    2005-01-01

    's promises and commitments. Fulfilling our promises in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, now with 189 member States, must be a primary aim. This Treaty, essential to our security, will be reviewed formally in 2005 at the UN. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) performs a vital role under the Treaty - it's the world's nuclear inspectorate to check that countries are not pursuing nuclear weapons. I've had the chance to visit the UN and IAEA at their headquarters in Vienna, Austria, and know how tough the job can be. We need to back the IAEA and make sure it stays strong in our fight against nuclear weapons. At the 2000 Review of the Treaty, the US along with all other parties to the Treaty made a pledge. Let me remind you of what was promised, and I quote: 'an unequivocal undertaking by the nuclear weapons States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals. leading to nuclear disarmament.' There are tens of thousands of nuclear weapons in the world, over 90% are possessed by Russia and the US. Most are many times more devastating than those used on Hiroshima. The arsenals of Russia and the US are armed, targeted and poised, waiting for three short computer signals to fire. These hair trigger devices represent the devastation of approximately 100,000 Hiroshimas and pose a horrific threat to life. The use of a nuclear weapon could take place by accident or design by States, or even terrorists. These weapons pose an unacceptable risk to the planet. We must demonstrate our unambiguous commitment to fulfill our promises. Other-wise, the prospect of more nuclear weapons States, and the construction of new nuclear weapons, will only increase human peril. The world needs a more effective non-proliferation and disarmament regime and is looking to us for leadership

  13. Cyber-security of nuclear facilities: stakes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, T.

    2016-01-01

    Major players in the French nuclear industry have implemented the concept of cyber-resilience that aims at anticipating and identifying real threats and detecting the weaknesses of the critical installations in order to protect them more efficiently. French law imposes for some categories of installations including nuclear power plants the implementation of advanced protection solutions to reach a high standard of cyber security. Sentryo, a start-up has developed a system that allows the detection of intruders in a digital network by analysing the interactions between the nodes of the network. The intruder is detected when the interaction mapping appears to be different from a configuration considered as normal. The feedback experience shows that any function in an enterprise must be made aware of the cyber risk. (A.C.)

  14. Teacher and headmaster attitudes towards benchmarking and high-stakes testing in adult teaching in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    Based on research, surveys and interviews the paper traces teacher and headmaster attitudes towards the introduction of benchmarking and high-stakes language testing introduced in the wake of a neo-liberal education policy in adult teaching for migrants in Denmark in the 2000s. The findings show...... that the majority of teachers and headmasters reject benchmarking. Meanwhile, due to both headmasters and language teachers the introduction of high stakes language testing has had an immense impact on the organization, content and quality of adult language teaching. On the one side teachers do not necessarily...... reject assessment and language tests or the fact that assessment may increase efficiency. According to the findings the introduction of high stakes testing in adult teaching on the other side has led to a range of paradoxes and negative effects such as less and diminished language competence among...

  15. Assessment of High-Stakes Testing, Hopeful Thinking, and Goal Orientation among Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Alice L; Robinson, Cecil

    2015-09-17

    High-stakes didactic testing assesses competency. Exams are stressful, and decreasing anxiety may enhance learning. Academic progression and graduation rates may result when higher levels of hopeful thinking (the belief in one's ability to achieve desired goals), and certain achievement goal orientation (why one desires to succeed) are present. This non-experimental study engaged undergraduate nursing students via surveys to examined relationships among hopeful thinking, goal orientation, and scores on standardized high-stakes examination of students. Regression analyses (N = 151) indicated that hopeful thinking was significantly related to higher exam scores, and that performance-avoidance goal scores were significantly related to lower scores. The positive relationship between hopeful thinking and exam scores suggests the need to consider supporting hopeful thinking in nursing education. Additional research may explicate the relationship between performance-avoidance and scores on high-stakes exams.

  16. Does high-stakes testing increase cultural capital among low-income and racial minority students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Pyo Hong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on research from Texas and Chicago to examine whether high-stakes testing enables low-income and racial minority students to acquire cultural capital. While students' performance on state or district tests rose after the implementation of high-stakes testing and accountability policies in Texas and Chicago in the 1990s, several studies indicate that these policies seemed to have had deleterious effects on curriculum, instruction, the percentage of students excluded from the tests, and student dropout rates. As a result, the policies seemed to have had mixed effects on students' opportunities to acquire embodied and institutionalized cultural capital. These findings are consistent with the work of Shepard (2000, Darling-Hammond (2004a, and others who have written of the likely negative repercussions of high-stakes testing and accountability policies.

  17. High stakes and high emotions: providing safe care in Canadian emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Samina Ali,1,2 Denise Thomson,3 Timothy A D Graham,4 Sean E Rickard,3 Antonia S Stang5 1Women and Children’s Health Research Institute, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Cochrane Child Health Field, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, 5Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Background: The high-paced, unpredictable environment of the emergency department (ED contributes to errors in patient safety. The ED setting becomes even more challenging when dealing with critically ill patients, particularly with children, where variations in size, weight, and form present practical difficulties in many aspects of care. In this commentary, we will explore the impact of the health care providers’ emotional reactions while caring for critically ill patients, and how this can be interpreted and addressed as a patient safety issue. Discussion: ED health care providers encounter high-stakes, high-stress clinical scenarios, such as pediatric cardiac arrest or resuscitation. This health care providers’ stress, and at times, distress, and its potential contribution to medical error, is underrepresented in the current medical literature. Most patient safety research is limited to error reporting systems, especially medication-related ones, an approach that ignores the effects of health care provider stress as a source of error, and limits our ability to learn from the event. Ways to mitigate this stress and avoid this type of patient safety concern might include simulation training for rare, high-acuity events, use of pre-determined clinical order sets, and post-event debriefing. Conclusion: While there are physiologic and anatomic differences that contribute to patient safety, we believe that they are insufficient to explain the need to address critical life-threatening event-related patient safety issues for both adults and, especially, children

  18. How does high stakes testing influence teachers' classroom instruction?: Institutional pressures and classroom instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Mika Yoder

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how a total of eight math and science elementary school teachers changed their classroom instruction in response to high stakes and low stakes testing in one school district. The district introduced new assessment in the school year of 2005--06 to meet the requirement set forth by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)---that the assessment should be aligned with the state academic standards. I conducted interviews with teachers and school administrators at two elementary schools, district officials, and a representative of a non-profit organization during the school year 2007--08 to examine how the new assessment introduced in 2005--06 had shaped classroom instruction. Concepts from New Institutional Theory and cognitive approaches to policy implementation guided the design of this study. This study focused on how materials and activities associated with high stakes testing promoted ideas about good instruction, and how these ideas were carried to teachers. The study examined how teachers received messages about instruction and how they responded to the messages. The study found that high stakes testing influenced teachers' classroom instruction more than low stakes testing; however, the instructional changes teachers made in response to state testing was at the content level. The teachers' instructional strategies did not change. The teachers' instructional changes varied with the degree of implementation of existing math curriculum and with the degree of support they received in understanding the meaning of assessment results. The study concluded that, among the six teachers I studied, high stakes testing was not a sufficient intervention for changing teachers' instructional strategies. The study also addressed the challenges of aligning instructional messages across assessment, standards, and curriculum.

  19. Power grids in the time of energy transition. Press seminar, European stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction which outlines the indispensable character of a European interdependence, this publication proposes an overview of the European policy of electric power: stakes and key data, main actors, European works, main steps for the construction of a European market of energy, and the interconnected European grid. The second part highlights the key role played by electric power transport. It presents RTE as a resolutely European actor, outlines the essential importance of the collaboration between electricity transport operators for the construction of a Europe of electric power, proposes an overview of tomorrow's stakes for the wholesale power market, and for the development of a structured European R and D

  20. Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-12

    Oklahoma, and Nebraska) produce 35% of U.S. cattle (Figure 2).18 CRS-7 Note:Catt le production consistsof milk and beef cattle. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Cattle...considered terrorist in nature. In 1952, the Mau Mau (an insurgent organization in Kenya) killed 33 head of cattle at a mission station using African milk ...diseases and three other disease agents (Akabane, Camel pox, and Menangle) considered to be emerging animal health risks for terrorism. The much larger

  1. Using Corpus Linguistics to Examine the Extrapolation Inference in the Validity Argument for a High-Stakes Speaking Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFlair, Geoffrey T.; Staples, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    Investigations of the validity of a number of high-stakes language assessments are conducted using an argument-based approach, which requires evidence for inferences that are critical to score interpretation (Chapelle, Enright, & Jamieson, 2008b; Kane, 2013). The current study investigates the extrapolation inference for a high-stakes test of…

  2. Nano threats and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Worries in the science community about a public backlash against nanotechnology have been growing in recent months. Currently, public fears range from the reasonable, such as the unknown effects of nanoparticles on health and the environment, to what scientists consider to be the ridiculous - a world overrun by plagues of self-replicating nanorobots. This is the 'grey goo' scenario that looms large in Prey, the recent novel by Michael Crichton that seems to have kick-started this current bout of nano-angst. The nightmare scenario for scientists is that the public - egged on by various pressure groups - will reject nanotechnology in the same way that the UK and other countries have rejected genetically modified (GM) food. (U.K.)

  3. THREAT ENSEMBLE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    software and manual TEVA-SPOT is used by water utilities to optimize the number and location of contamination detection sensors so that economic and/or public health consequences are minimized. TEVA-SPOT is interactive, allowing a user to specify the minimization objective (e.g., the number of people exposed, the time to detection, or the extent of pipe length contaminated). It also allows a user to specify constraints. For example, a TEVA-SPOT user can employ expert knowledge during the design process by identifying either existing or unfeasible sensor locations. Installation and maintenance costs for sensor placement can also be factored into the analysis. Python and Java are required to run TEVA-SPOT

  4. Strengthening the abilities of French-speaking NGOs. Post-2012 climate stakes. Adaptation - Energy - Deforestation, France - Africa - Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creach, Morgane; Margot, Stephanie; Connor, Richard; Angerand, Sylvain

    2007-10-01

    The first part of this report discusses the possibilities of an international response to face the challenge of adaptation to climate change (presentation of the main notions, discussion of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and international stakes about adaptation). The second part discusses the perspectives of access to energy in African countries: description of the African energy context, applications of existing mechanisms of struggle against climate change to the field of energy, stakes for post-2012 negotiations. The next part addresses the stakes of the avoided deforestation: definitions and key figures, direct and underlying causes of deforestation and assessment of the cost for slowing down or stopping it, stakes and struggle of interests about the 'avoided deforestation'. The last part reports the 'post-2012 climate stakes' workshop which addressed these same topics (access to energy in African countries, adaptation to climate change, avoided deforestation)

  5. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  6. Mining in New Caledonia: environmental stakes and restoration opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losfeld, Guillaume; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    New Caledonia is a widely recognised marine and terrestrial biodiversity hot spot. However, this unique environment is under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Major threats are related to land cover change and include fire, urban sprawling and mining. Resulting habitat loss and fragmentation end up in serious erosion of the local biodiversity. Mining is of particular concern due to its economic significance for the island. Open cast mines were exploited there since 1873, and scraping out soil to access ores wipes out flora. Resulting perturbations on water flows and dramatic soil erosion lead to metal-rich sediment transport downstream into rivers and the lagoon. Conflicting environmental and economic aspects of mining are discussed in this paper. However, mining practices are also improving, and where impacts are inescapable ecological restoration is now considered. Past and ongoing experiences in the restoration of New Caledonian terrestrial ecosystems are presented and discussed here. Economic use of the local floristic diversity could also promote conservation and restoration, while providing alternative incomes. In this regard, Ecocatalysis, an innovative approach to make use of metal hyperaccumulating plants, is of particular interest.

  7. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  8. Observations on the predictive value of short-term stake tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Bessie Woodward; Patricia Lebow

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares average ratings of test stakes after 3, 4, 5, and 7 years exposure to their subsequent ratings after 11 years. Average ratings from over 200 treatment groups exposed in plots in southern Mississippi were compared to average ratings of a reference preservative. The analysis revealed that even perfect ratings after three years were not a reliable...

  9. The effect of Mulching and Staking on the Development of Early and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The effect of mUlching and staking on the development of early and late leaf blight of tomato. (Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill))· caused by Alternaria solani (Ell. & Md.rt.) and. Phythophthora injestans (Mont.), respectively, were studied using a randomized complete block design replicatedfour times. Mulching and ...

  10. Effect of Staking and Pruning on the Growth and Yield of Cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of pruning and staking on the vegetative growth and yield of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.). The experiment was a 3 x 2 factorial laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. The results showed that vine length, number of flowers, total ...

  11. Understanding the Interaction between High-Stakes Graduation Tests and English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Julian Vasquez

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: The prevailing theory of action underlying No Child Left Behind's high-stakes testing and accountability ratings is that schools and students held accountable to these measures will automatically increase educational output as educators try harder, schools will adopt more effective methods, and students will learn more. In…

  12. Private Journals versus Public Blogs: The Impact of Peer Readership on Low-Stakes Reflective Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Drew

    2015-01-01

    This article isolates and observes the impact of peer readership on low-stakes reflective writing assignments in two large Introduction to Sociology classes. Through a comparative content analysis of over 2,000 private reflective journal entries and semipublic reflective blog posts, I find that both practices produce distinct forms of reflection.…

  13. Genres of High-Stakes Writing Assessments and the Construct of Writing Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sarah W.; Jeffery, Jill V.

    2007-01-01

    High-stakes writing assessments currently exert a strong influence on the writing curriculum and instruction in schools across the United States. Under these circumstances it is important to examine the construct of writing competence on which these assessments are based, as well as the extent to which this construct supports the goals of…

  14. Laser welded steel sandwich panel bridge deck development : finite element analysis and stake weld strength tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the analysis of laser welded steel sandwich panels for use in bridge structures and : static testing of laser stake welded lap shear coupons. Steel sandwich panels consist of two face sheets : connected by a relatively low-dens...

  15. High-Stakes Testing and Its Relationship to Stress Levels of Coastal Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sheneatha Lashelle Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between high-stakes tests and stress with secondary teachers. Furthermore, this study investigated whether veteran teachers experience more stress than novice teachers and whether or not self-efficacy, gender, accountability status, and years of experience influence teacher stress as it…

  16. Philosophical Questions about Teaching Philosophy: What's at Stake in High School Philosophy Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    What is at stake in high school philosophy education, and why? Why is it a good idea to teach philosophy at this level? This essay seeks to address some issues that arose in revising the Ontario grade 12 philosophy curriculum documents, significant insights from philosophy teacher education, and some early results of recent research funded by the…

  17. What are the stakes of the hydroelectric power? Supplement: report on the renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document presents the regulation and the stakes concerning the hydroelectricity development in France: contribution to the greenhouse effect fight, the environment preservation, possible uses. It proposes then, a grid of a socio-economical evaluation of the projects. In this framework, the impacts of the little hydroelectric power and the possible corrective measures are described. (A.L.B.)

  18. Of Mother Tongues and Other Tongues: The Stakes of Linguistically Inclusive Pedagogy in Minority Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa K.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses two key challenges that globalization poses to literacy research: the need for new models of literacy and literacy education, and the stakes of adopting multiliteracies pedagogies in different contexts--that is, the tensions between competing hegemonic discourses of collective identity in the public sphere of ethnolinguistic…

  19. Afro-pessimism and globalization: the stakes of symbolic death of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cold War is just a bad memory now. The stakes of the new discourse are therefore clear: assistance to development has become an obsolete notion which is synonymous with squandering capital. Henceforth, Africa must take the pace of world economy and contribute to production according to the new standards of ...

  20. Perceptions of Middle and High School Principals in Virginia on High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppage-Miller, Jacqueline C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of middle and high school principals in Virginia regarding high-stakes testing. Perceptions were assessed regarding unintended consequences impacting the principals' role and their alignment with professional and scholarly literature. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.). [The dissertation…

  1. The Effects of High-Stakes Testing Policy on Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard A., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined high-stakes test scores for 37,222 eighth grade students enrolled in music and/or visual arts classes and those students not enrolled in arts courses. Students enrolled in music had significantly higher mean scores than those not enrolled in music (p less than 0.001). Results for visual arts and dual arts were not as…

  2. The Role of Policy Assumptions in Validating High-stakes Testing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    L. Cronbach has made the point that for validity arguments to be convincing to diverse audiences, they need to be based on assumptions that are credible to these audiences. The interpretations and uses of high stakes test scores rely on a number of policy assumptions about what should be taught in schools, and more specifically, about the content…

  3. The Disproportionate Erosion of Local Control: Urban School Boards, High-Stakes Accountability, and Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina M.

    2013-01-01

    This case study of an urban school board's experiences under high-stakes accountability demonstrates how the district leaders eschewed democratic governance processes in favor of autocratic behaviors. They possessed narrowly defined goals for teaching and learning that emphasized competitive, individualized means of achievement. Their decision…

  4. Promoting Professional Socialization Within the Experiential Curriculum: Implementation of a High-stakes Professionalism Rubric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, Kim; Dintzner, Matthew

    2017-02-25

    Objectives. To describe the implementation of a high-stakes rubric to assess student professionalism in introductory and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs and APPEs) to promote the professional socialization of students in the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program at Western New England University (WNE). Findings. A professionalism rubric was adapted from the literature to assess the professional behavior of students enrolled in experiential courses based on evaluation of the following criteria: appropriate communication skills with patients and providers, appearance and dress code, timeliness, and initiative. The rubric was implemented in the fall semester of 2013 as a high-stakes component of the assessment within all experiential courses. Students were required to meet expectations for each of the four criteria in order to pass the practice experience, independent of their performance in other course components. Students were assessed by their preceptors at the midpoint and end of each practice experience using the appropriate evaluation tool. Each of the IPPE and APPE evaluation tools included the professionalism rubric as a requirement for assessment. Use of the Professionalism Rubric as a high-stakes assessment tool highlighted professionalism as an important component of the program, making expectations explicit to students and providing leverage to preceptors for holding students accountable. Summary. The Office of Experiential Affairs at WNE has raised awareness of the importance of professionalism and promoted the professional socialization of PharmD students with the use of a high-stakes professionalism rubric.

  5. The Complex and Unequal Impact of High Stakes Accountability on Untested Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Judith L.

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to research on the impact of high stakes accountability on social studies teaching where it is "not" tested by the state, and addresses the question of what is happening in middle and higher performing versus struggling schools (Wills, 2007). The author presents complex findings from a qualitative study in five…

  6. Utilization of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Reduce Test Anxiety in High Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Marie Elaine

    2013-01-01

    There are many reasons a person may fail a high stakes test such as the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®). Sleep deprivation, illness, life stressors, knowledge deficit, and test anxiety are some of the common explanations. A student with test anxiety may feel threatened by this evaluation process. This…

  7. The Impact of High-Stakes Testing on Latina/o Students' College Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jessica M.; Arellano, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence high-stakes testing has on Latina/o student aspirations and subsequent college enrollment. It quantitatively examines the critical juncture of high school exit and college entry at a school district serving a predominately Latino population. Findings confirm a strong correlation between the math and English…

  8. The Impact of High-Stakes Testing on Curriculum and Pedagogy: A Teacher Perspective from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesel, John; Rice, Suzanne; Dulfer, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Debates continue about how high-stakes testing regimes influence schools at all levels: their impact on teaching practices, distribution of resources and curriculum provision, and whether they achieve the intended increases in student achievement in targeted areas. In 2008, the Australian government Introduced a national testing scheme, the"…

  9. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    . Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...... environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...

  10. Measles: Still a Significant Health Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Claire; Lanzi, Maria; Lindberg, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Measles (Rubeola), although considered eradicated in the United States, still causes periodic outbreaks. Vaccine refusal leads to vulnerable pockets of individuals who may become infected once the virus is imported from countries where it is endemic. In turn, these individuals may spread the virus to young infants and to other vulnerable individuals. Many healthcare providers are not familiar with this disease or with the factors that contribute to the risk of spread. Measles causes a serious febrile illness that may lead to pneumonia, blindness, deafness, neurological disorders, and even death. Patients with measles need supportive care and administration of oral vitamin A. The measles vaccine is highly effective and considered extremely safe, but misinformation about the safety of this and other vaccines has decreased immunization coverage in some areas of the country. Mandatory immunization laws exist in every state and have been upheld by courts including the United States Supreme Court, but laws and exemptions vary among states. Nurses can play a strong role in care of patients with measles, case identification, and prevention of transmission. Most importantly, because nurses hold positions of trust in their communities, they should be tireless frontline advocates for immunization. The purpose of this article is to provide information on measles, its transmission, signs and symptoms, treatment, prevention, and relevant laws and regulations.

  11. Women's Health: Prevent the Top Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities you enjoy, from brisk walking to ballroom dancing. Limit alcohol. If you choose to drink alcohol, ... lifestyle also might play a role in preventing Alzheimer's disease. Women are more vulnerable than men to ...

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance: A Global Public Health Threat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 60 years of the antibiotic era has been marked by cycles of discovery of new antibiotics and the subsequent emergence of drug resistance. Imprudent use of antibiotics has lead to the development of resistance which has reached a grave situation. The factors which increase bacterial resistance to antibiotics are the ...

  13. INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY THREATS CLASSIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Gerić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Information systems are exposed to different types of security risks. Theconsequences of information systems security (ISS breaches can vary from e.g. damaging the data base integrity to physical "destruction" of entire information system facilities, and can result with minor disruptions in less important segments of information systems, or with significant interruptions in information systems functionality. The sources of security risks are different, and can origin from inside or outside of information system facility, and can be intentional or unintentional. The precise calculation of loses caused by such incidents is often not possible because a number of small scale ISS incidents are never detected, or detected with a significant time delay, a part of incidents are interpreted as an accidental mistakes, and all that results with an underestimation of ISS risks. This paper addresses the different types and criteria of information system security risks (threats classification and gives an overview of most common classifications used in literature and in practice. We define a common set of criteria that can be used for information system security threats classification, which will enable the comparison and evaluation of different security threats from different security threats classifications.

  14. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  15. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  16. Countering the nuclear terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to a RDD. RDDs, or 'dirty bombs' as they are often called, spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of a RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Terrorist acquisition and use of an IND is a low-probability but high-consequence threat. Terrorist use of a RDD is a threat of higher probability but lower consequence. Two threats need to be considered for civil radiological and nuclear facilities. One is the theft of materials by terrorists, and the other is an attack on a facility to disperse radiological or nuclear materials. Facilities may include reactors as well as nuclear waste and storage areas. While important elements of a layered defense against these threats are already in place, improved international cooperation and a sustained investment in the science and technology needed to win the war on terrorism is necessary. (author)

  17. Understanding Cyber Threats and Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews current and anticipated cyber-related threats to the Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) and Critical Infrastructures (CI). The potential impact of cyber-terrorism to CII and CI has been coined many times since the term was first coined during the 1980s. Being the

  18. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Moskowitz, Paul; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; St. Michel, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  19. Construction and Identification of a Recombinant Plasmid Encoding Echinococcus granulosus Oncosphere Antigen (EG95Abstract Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE, as a zoonotic disease cause to health threat and economic losses. Despite implemented cont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahideh MAZAHERI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Cystic echinococcosis (CE, as a zoonotic disease cause to health threat and economic losses. Despite implemented control programs, few countries have been able to decrease or eliminate this infection. Vaccination of the intermediate host offers an additional strategy to control the parasite transmission and EG95 antigen is considered more than the others in the vaccine issue. According to the high protection induced by the EG95 recombinant vaccine, this study was designed to construct recombinant plasmid formulation of EG95 antigen.Methods: In 2015, the Echinococcus granulosus eggs were recovered from an infected dog in Parasitological laboratory of Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran, Iran. Following hatching, the oncospheres of E. granulosus were activated to increase the presence of the desired mRNA. The extracted mRNA was transcribed to the cDNA which used as template in RT-PCR. Then the EG95 gene cloned into pET28a vector and the recombinant plasmids expression was  investigated in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Results:  The recombinant plasmid encoding EG95 antigen was successfully constructed and identified by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. In vitro expression of the EG95 antigen was confirmed in prokary­otic and eukaryotic systems by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis.Conclusion: Because of potential advantages of DNA vaccines, including ability to induce long-term immune responses, low production cost and stability in different temperatures, this study carried out to construct the EG95 gene into a vector. This recombinant vector can be evaluated in further studies as a DNA vaccine may provide new prospects for the development of a vaccine against cystic hydatid disease.

  20. Avoidance temperament and social-evaluative threat in college students' math performance: a mediation model of math and test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Jeffrey; Lench, Heather C; Kao, Grace; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Kwok, Oi-man

    2014-01-01

    Standardized testing has become a common form of student evaluation with high stakes, and limited research exists on understanding the roles of students' personality traits and social-evaluative threat on their academic performance. This study examined the roles of avoidance temperament (i.e., fear and behavioral inhibition) and evaluative threat (i.e., fear of failure and being viewed as unintelligent) in standardized math test and course grades in college students. Undergraduate students (N=184) from a large public university were assessed on temperamental fear and behavioral inhibition. They were then given 15 minutes to complete a standardized math test. After the test, students provided data on evaluative threat and their math performance (scores on standardized college entrance exam and average grades in college math courses). Results indicate that avoidance temperament was linked to social-evaluative threat and low standardized math test scores. Furthermore, evaluative threat mediated the influence of avoidance temperament on both types of math performance. Results have educational and clinical implications, particularly for students at risk for test anxiety and underperformance. Interventions targeting emotion regulation and stress management skills may help individuals reduce their math and test anxieties.

  1. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  2. SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Gül Yesevi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study will analyze main security threats in Central Asia. It is obvious thatsince the end of Cold War, there have been many security threats in Central Asiaas internal weakness of Central Asian states, terrorism, transnational crime,economic insecurity, environmental issues, drug trafficking, ethnic violence,regional instability. This study will propose thatwith increasing interdependence,states need each other to solve these global security problems. In that sense,regional and sub-regional cooperation between Central Asian states and with otherregional actors has been witnessed. It is clear that the withdrawal of NATO fromAfghanistan will destabilize Central Asia. This study will investigate overallsecurity situation in Central Asia and affects andcontributions of regionalorganizations to Eurasian security

  3. Operationalizing Counter Threat Finance Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    problem may reveal or create additional problems. As such, it is essential that the problem is exam - ined not as a stand-alone subject, but in the...terrorist finance could not be looked at in isolation. It is this realization that gave birth to the term “threat finance” which exam - ines not only...Newsletter, Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia, 2001, available from www.virginia.edu/ soa - sia/newsletter/Fall01/warfare.html, accessed on October

  4. TERRORIST THREATS AND PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan NASCU

    2009-01-01

    public transportation is an activity facing various problems. One of them, very complex and dangerous, is terrorism which together with criminal activities and vandalism, is making the top of the threats affecting public transportation and therefore urban life quality. Public transportation has several characteristics which make it vulnerable to terroris attacks and a main target for them. To compensate for these weeknesses, certain solutions are necessary to prevent the attack or in case it ...

  5. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  6. Autobiographical memory sources of threats in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenière, Alexandre; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; Dale, Allyson; Robidoux, Raphaëlle; De Koninck, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Temporal sources of dream threats were examined through the paradigm of the Threat Simulation Theory. Two groups of young adults (18-24 years old), who did not experience severe threatening events in the year preceding their dream and reported a dream either with or without threats, were included. Participants (N = 119) kept a log of daily activities and a dream diary, indicating whether dream components referred to past experiences. The occurrence of oneiric threats correlated with the reporting of threats in the daily logs, their average severity, and the stress level experienced the day preceding the dream. The group whose dreams contained threats had significantly more references to temporal categories beyond one year than the group with dreams without threats. Our findings suggest that in the absence of recent highly negative emotional experiences, the threat simulation system selects memory traces of threatening events experienced in the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Canadian Public and Stake holder Engagement Approach to a Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kim, Youn Ok; Whang, Joo Ho

    2008-01-01

    After Canada has struggled with a radioactive waste problem over for 20 years, the Canadian government finally found out that its approach by far has been lack of social acceptance, and needed a program such as public and stake holder engagement (PSE) which involves the public in decision-making process. Therefore, the government made a special law, called Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NFWA), to search for an appropriate nuclear waste management approach. NFWA laid out three possible approaches which were already prepared in advance by a nuclear expert group, and required Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) to be established to report a recommendation as to which of the proposed approaches should be adopted. However, NFWA allowed NWMO to consider additional management approach if the other three were not acceptable enough. Thus, NWMO studied and created a fourth management approach after it had undertaken an comparison of the benefits, risks and costs of each management approach: Adaptive Phased Management. This approach was intended to enable the implementers to accept any technological advancement or changes even in the middle of the implementation of the plan. The Canadian PSE case well shows that technological R and D are deeply connected with social acceptance. Even though the developments and technological advancement are carried out by the scientists and experts, but it is important to collect the public opinion by involving them to the decision-making process in order to achieve objective validity on the R and D programs. Moreover, in an effort to ensure the principles such as fairness, public health and safety, security, and adoptability, NWMO tried to make those abstract ideas more specific and help the public understand the meaning of each concept more in detail. Also, they utilized a variety of communication methods from face-to-face meeting to e-dialogue to encourage people to participate in the program as much as possible. Given the fact that Korea

  8. Selfish play increases during high-stakes NBA games and is rewarded with more lucrative contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    High-stakes team competitions can present a social dilemma in which participants must choose between concentrating on their personal performance and assisting teammates as a means of achieving group objectives. We find that despite the seemingly strong group incentive to win the NBA title, cooperative play actually diminishes during playoff games, negatively affecting team performance. Thus team cooperation decreases in the very high stakes contexts in which it is most important to perform well together. Highlighting the mixed incentives that underlie selfish play, personal scoring is rewarded with more lucrative future contracts, whereas assisting teammates to score is associated with reduced pay due to lost opportunities for personal scoring. A combination of misaligned incentives and psychological biases in performance evaluation bring out the "I" in "team" when cooperation is most critical.

  9. Selfish play increases during high-stakes NBA games and is rewarded with more lucrative contracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Luis Uhlmann

    Full Text Available High-stakes team competitions can present a social dilemma in which participants must choose between concentrating on their personal performance and assisting teammates as a means of achieving group objectives. We find that despite the seemingly strong group incentive to win the NBA title, cooperative play actually diminishes during playoff games, negatively affecting team performance. Thus team cooperation decreases in the very high stakes contexts in which it is most important to perform well together. Highlighting the mixed incentives that underlie selfish play, personal scoring is rewarded with more lucrative future contracts, whereas assisting teammates to score is associated with reduced pay due to lost opportunities for personal scoring. A combination of misaligned incentives and psychological biases in performance evaluation bring out the "I" in "team" when cooperation is most critical.

  10. Selfish Play Increases during High-Stakes NBA Games and Is Rewarded with More Lucrative Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Barnes, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    High-stakes team competitions can present a social dilemma in which participants must choose between concentrating on their personal performance and assisting teammates as a means of achieving group objectives. We find that despite the seemingly strong group incentive to win the NBA title, cooperative play actually diminishes during playoff games, negatively affecting team performance. Thus team cooperation decreases in the very high stakes contexts in which it is most important to perform well together. Highlighting the mixed incentives that underlie selfish play, personal scoring is rewarded with more lucrative future contracts, whereas assisting teammates to score is associated with reduced pay due to lost opportunities for personal scoring. A combination of misaligned incentives and psychological biases in performance evaluation bring out the “I” in “team” when cooperation is most critical. PMID:24763384

  11. The Rise of High-Stakes Educational Testing in Denmark (1920-1970)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    The Rise of High-Stakes Educational Testing in Denmark (1920–1970) is an attempt to determine why and how tests rose to prominence in an educational system that used to rely on qualitative tests and teacher evaluations. The study addresses the important issues of how testing interacts...... with and influences an educational system, and which common factors are involved in order to implement testing in an educational system. The study is based on three relatively unknown case studies – illustrious examples of high-stakes educational testing practices in the Danish public school system. The first case...... to 1959. The third case study examines the testing of Greenlandic children during the preparation scheme in the Greenlandic educational system from 1961 to 1976....

  12. Local governance of energy. Clarification of stakes and illustration by spatial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saujot, Mathieu; Ruedinger, Andreas; Guerry, Anais

    2014-01-01

    As energy transition implies important societal transformations, the authors developed an analysis framework about the main questions raised by local governance: role of the different levels of local communities in the definition and implementation of strategies, key stakes of the sharing of skills between the State and communities, and stakes regarding spatial planning in this context. The authors first address the issue of relevance of the different territorial scales in a context of evolution of energy policies. They propose an overview of this issue with reference to the debate on local governance of transition. They discuss the return on experience of decentralisation in other fields of action of local policies, notably urban planning and spatial planning

  13. Achievement goal orientation and situational motivation for a low-stakes test of content knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskiewicz, Rhonda A

    2012-05-10

    To determine the extent of the relationship between students' inherent motivation to achieve in a doctor of pharmacy program and their motivation to achieve on a single low-stakes test of content knowledge. The Attitude Toward Learning Questionnaire (ATL) was administered to 66 third-year pharmacy students at the beginning of the spring 2011 semester, and the Student Opinion Scale (SOS) was administered to the same group immediately following completion of the Pharmacy Curricular Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Significant differences were found in performance approach and work avoidance based on situational motivation scores. Situational motivation was also found to be directly correlated with performance and mastery approaches and inversely correlated with work avoidance. Criteria were met for predicting importance and effort from performance and mastery approaches and work avoidance scores of pharmacy students. The ability to predict pharmacy students' motivation to perform on a low-stakes standardized test of content knowledge increases the test's usefulness as a measure of curricular effectiveness.

  14. Road safety - threats and opportunities for poor countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road safety - threats and opportunities for poor countries. OC Kobusingye. Abstract. No Abstracts. African Health Sciences Vol.4(3) 2004: pp.199-201. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. Nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.; Aaltonen, H.; Laaksonen, J.; Lahtinen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Reponen, H.; Rytoemaa, T.; Suomela, M.; Toivonen, H.; Varjoranta, T.

    1995-10-01

    The political and economic upheavals which have taken place in Eastern Europe have had an impact on radiation and nuclear safety throughout Europe. Emergency preparedness systems for unexpected nuclear events have been developed further in all European countries, and prosperous western nations have invested in improving the safety of East European nuclear power plants. The economic crisis facing countries of the former Soviet Union has also promoted illicit trade in nuclear materials; this has made it necessary for various border guards and police authorities to intensify their collaboration and to tighten border controls. On 3-4 October 1995, Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) arranged a seminar on nuclear threats and emergency preparedness in Finland. In addition to STUK experts, a wide range of rescue and civil defence authorities, environmental health specialists and other persons engaged in emergency preparedness attended the seminar. The publication contains a compilation of reports presented at the seminar. The reports cover a broad spectrum of nuclear threats analyzed at STUK, the impacts of radioactive fallout on human beings and on the environment, and preparedness systems by which the harmful effects of radiation or nuclear accidents can, if necessary, be minimized. (33 figs., 5 tabs.)

  16. The nuclear: energy and environmental stakes and political and strategic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauvergeon, A.

    2003-01-01

    This document mentions the intervention of Anne Lauvergeon, at the colloquium Adapes, ''the nuclear: energy and environmental stakes and political and geo-strategic context''. Anne Lauvergeon is president of the Areva board. This speech takes stock on the energy resources and demand facing the economic development in a context of an environmental quality and especially the part of the nuclear energy in the future. (A.L.B.)

  17. International economy. 82, controlling greenhouse effect: the stake of the international public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.; Oliveira-Martins, J.; Sgard, J.

    2000-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is one of the first stake of public policy which needs to be considered at the worldwide level. The climate changes shade doubts on the economic growth strategies adopted by all countries, and, if no major effort is made in the mastery of energy demand, worldwide greenhouse gas emissions will rapidly reach dangerous thresholds. This book gives a status of the research carried out on the economical impact of these policies. (J.S.)

  18. Which teaching practices improve student performance on high-stakes exams? Evidence from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey Zakharov; Martin Carnoy; Prashant Loyalka

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between teaching practices aimed at raising student performance on a high stakes college entrance examination—the Russian Unified State Exam (USE) — and student performance on that test. The study uses data from a school/classroom survey of almost 3,000 students conducted in 2010 in three Russian regions. The analysis employs a student fixed effects method that estimates the impact of teaching practices used by students’ mathematics and Russian language te...

  19. It will cost you nothing to "kill" a Proof-of-Stake crypto-currency

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Houy

    2014-01-01

    It is a widely spread belief that crypto-currencies implementing a proof of stake transaction validation system are less vulnerable to a 51% attack than crypto-currencies implementing a proof of work transaction validation system. In this article, we show that it is not the case and that, in fact, if the attacker's motivation is large enough (and this is common knowledge), he will succeed in his attack at no cost.

  20. The stakes of iraqi petroleum: what is the role of France ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with some socio-economic and political aspects about the stakes of iraqi petroleum for France. After having described the history of iraqi petroleum, the author gives the estimation of the actual petroleum reserves, the production objective, the petroleum and gaseous projects and the exporting way. Then is given the economic and political role played by France: the increase of importation uses, the economic interests and the political responsibility. (O.L.). 10 tabs

  1. Dialogue. Industry consolidation: what's at stake for consumers and purchasers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, W; Allen, J; Wider, J J; Ray, C G

    1998-08-01

    The behavioral healthcare field has undergone massive consolidation, especially in the last year. Health plans, hospital systems, and community-based organizations have all been affected. Economists argue that consolidation is a logical consequence of the current, competitive healthcare market. But consumers and purchasers wonder if the mergers and acquisitions will benefit them. Efficient markets are supposed to stimulate competition in ways that reward purchasers and consumers of services. When prices go down and quality improves as a result of competitive market forces, then the market has functioned properly and has served its purpose. Behavioral healthcare, however, is an essential human service, not a commodity. And the consumers and purchasers of healthcare are typically not the same person or entity, which also makes the healthcare market different from the markets for cars, computers, food, or any other type of consumer product. More than 100 million Americans now receive managed behavioral health benefits from only three companies. With such intense power concentrated in the hands of such a small number of providers, the time has come to evaluate the impact of the consolidation trend. In the following dialogue article, leaders, representing different interest groups review the benefits and risks of massive industry consolidation, and propose solutions to the critical challenges that it raises.

  2. HYBRID THREATS, CYBER WARFARE AND NATO'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bachmans

    threats and at discussing some key implications when countering such risks and challenges. In essence, hybrid threats faced ..... just as a collateral effect of the belligerent actions. But in the African radical Islamist .... Defining comprehensive approach for 21st century threats to global risk and security”. Swedish MoD – High ...

  3. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  4. Mindfulness, anxiety, and high-stakes mathematics performance in the laboratory and classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David B; DeCaro, Marci S; Ralston, Patricia A S

    2015-12-01

    Mindfulness enhances emotion regulation and cognitive performance. A mindful approach may be especially beneficial in high-stakes academic testing environments, in which anxious thoughts disrupt cognitive control. The current studies examined whether mindfulness improves the emotional response to anxiety-producing testing situations, freeing working memory resources, and improving performance. In Study 1, we examined performance in a high-pressure laboratory setting. Mindfulness indirectly benefited math performance by reducing the experience of state anxiety. This benefit occurred selectively for problems that required greater working memory resources. Study 2 extended these findings to a calculus course taken by undergraduate engineering majors. Mindfulness indirectly benefited students' performance on high-stakes quizzes and exams by reducing their cognitive test anxiety. Mindfulness did not impact performance on lower-stakes homework assignments. These findings reveal an important mechanism by which mindfulness benefits academic performance, and suggest that mindfulness may help attenuate the negative effects of test anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Main post-accident management stakes: IRSN's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre Oudiz

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Off site management of a radiological crisis covers two phases which need to be clearly distinguished even if there are links between them: emergency phase and recovery phase (also called late or post-accident phase). The presentation will deal with the latter, rather neglected up until recently, but conveying special attention from now on in France and at the international level. It is clear now that the long term management of a radiological or nuclear crisis cannot be reduced to merely site decontamination. Actually, environmental decontamination considerations would be only one amongst other essential economical, social, health, psychological, cultural, and symbolical concerns. This is why off site management of a radiological crisis requires innovative governance, in order to challenge such a complexity. This need for challenge led IRSN to have on the go technical developments and new governance modes reflection. 1) Technical developments: they deal with implementing an organisation, a set of methods, a platform of technical tools which would allow the stakeholders to carry out efficiently their mission during the recovery phase. For example, countermeasures for agricultural and urban rehabilitation are developed within the framework of the 6. PCRDT EURANOS programme. Teams from several countries are involved in common elaboration of rehabilitation strategies based on the best available knowledge. Besides this, simple operational decision aiding tools for the stakeholders (local administration, elected representatives, professional agricultural groups, etc.) are currently developed by IRSN within the framework of the nuclear post-accident exercises. IRSN is also involved in doctrinal reflections about the respective roles of radioactive measurements in the environment and radiological consequences calculation during emergency and recovery phases. Criteria for emergency countermeasures withdrawal are also currently under

  6. Energy mastery: context, stakes, approaches; La maitrise de l'energie: le contexte, les enjeux, les approches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebot, B. [Agence International de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    Any energy use has both an environmental and an economical impact. The environmental stakes linked with the energy use impose to adapt the policies and practices towards a more rational use of energy sources and towards the improvement of energy systems efficiency. This document deals with the national and international context, the economical, energetic and environmental stakes and with the political and technical approaches of energy mastery. It is illustrated with the mastery of power demand. (J.S.)

  7. Relationships between high-stakes testing policies and student achievement after controlling for demographic factors in aggregated data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Marchant

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available With the mandate of No Child Left Behind, high-stakes achievement testing is firmly in place in every state. The few studies that have explored the effectiveness of high-stakes testing using NAEP scores have yielded mixed results. This study considered state demographic characteristics for each NAEP testing period in reading, writing, mathematics, and science from 1992 through 2002, in an effort to examine the relation of high-stakes testing policies to achievement and changes in achievement between testing periods. As expected, demographic characteristics and their changes were related significantly to most achievement outcomes, but high-stakes testing policies demonstrated few relationships with achievement. The few relationships between high-stakes testing and achievement or improvement in reading, writing, or science tended to appear only when demographic data were missing; and the minimal relationships with math achievement were consistent with findings in previous research. Considering the cost and potential unintended negative consequences, high-stakes testing policies seem to provide a questionable means of improving student learning.

  8. The nuclear threat and the Nuclear Threat Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Full text: President and chief operating officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), was invited by the IAEA Director General to speak about NTI and its mission at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium. Established by CNN founder Ted Turner and former U.S. Senator Sam Nunn, NTI is a charitable organization working to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. The foundation is global, concentrating not just on the United States, Russia, and other nations of the former Soviet Union, but also on those regions of greatest proliferation concern in Asia and the Middle East. NTI is working to close what it perceives as an increasingly dangerous gap between the threat from nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and the global response. NTI is supported by a pledge from Mr. Turner of at least $250 million over five years, among the largest sums any private individual has ever invested in these security issues. NTI's Board of Directors, an international team of experienced and knowledgeable experts, determines the overall direction of the foundation. (author)

  9. Conceptualizing threats to tobacco control from international economic agreements: the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drope, Jeffrey; McGrady, Benn; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Lencucha, Raphael; Silva, Vera Luiza da Costa E

    2017-10-19

    Using the results of dozens of interviews with key actors involved in tobacco control policymaking, we examine these actors' perceptions of threats to tobacco control policy efforts from international economic policies on trade and investment. We also evaluate, from a legal perspective, the genuine threats that exist or potential challenges that economic policies may pose to the Brazilian government's public health efforts. We find that most actors did not perceive these economic policies as a major threat to tobacco control. Objectively, we found that some threats do exist. For example, Brazil's attempt to ban most tobacco additives and flavorings continues to met resistance at the World Trade Organization.

  10. Toward a psychology of human survival: Psychological approaches to contemporary global threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, R.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear weapons, population explosion, resource and food-supply depletion, and environmental deterioration have been posing increasing threats to human survival. Moreover, for the first time in history, all these major global threats are human caused and can, therefore, be traced in large part to psychological origins. After a brief overview of the nature and extent of current threats, this paper suggests criteria for an adequate psychology of human survival. The causes and effects of the threats are examined from various psychological perspectives and the psychological principles underlying effective responses are deduced. The ways in which mental health professionals may contribute to this most crucial task are discussed. 76 references

  11. Design and fabrication hazard stakes golf course polymeric foam material empty bunch (EFB) fiber reinforced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfahmi; Syam, B.; Wirjosentono, B.

    2018-02-01

    A golf course with obstacles in the forms of water obstacle and lateral water obstacle marked with the stakes which are called golf course obstacle stake in this study. This study focused on the design and fabrication of the golf course obstacle stake with a solid cylindrical geometry using EFB fiber-reinforced polimeric foam composite materials. To obtain the EFB fiber which is free from fat content and other elements, EFB is soaked in the water with 1% (of the watre total volume) NaOH. The model of the mould designed is permanent mould that can be used for the further refabrication process. The mould was designed based on resin-compound paste materials with talc powder plus E-glass fiber to make the mould strong. The composition of polimeric foam materials comprised unsaturated resin Bqtn-Ex 157 (70%), blowing agent (10%), fiber (10%), and catalyst (10%). The process of casting the polimeric foam composit materials into the mould cavity should be at vertical casting position, accurate interval time of material stirring, and periodical casting. To find out the strength value of the golf course obstacle stake product, a model was made and simulated by using the software of Ansys workbench 14.0, an impact loading was given at the height of 400 mm and 460 mm with the variation of golf ball speed (USGA standard) v = 18 m/s, v = 35 m/s, v = 66.2 m/s, v = 70 m/s, and v = 78.2 m/s. The clarification showed that the biggest dynamic explicit loading impact of Fmax = 142.5 N at the height of 460 mm with the maximum golf ball speed of 78.2 m/s did not experience the hysteresis effect and inertia effect. The largest deformation area occurred at the golf ball speed v = 66.2 mm/s, that is 18.029 mm (time: 2.5514e-004) was only concentrated around the sectional area of contact point of impact, meaning that the golf course obstacle stakes made of EFB fiber-reinforced polymeric foam materials have the geometric functional strength that are able to absorb the energy of golf ball

  12. Perceived Threat, Risk Perception, and Efficacy Beliefs Related to SARS and Other (Emerging) Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene; Elam, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    -efficacy for SARS were higher in Asia compared to Europe. In multiple linear regression analyses, country was strongly associated with perceived threat. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively high perceived threat for SARS indicates that it is seen as a public health risk and offers a basis for communication in case...

  13. Intergovernmental Unity of Effort in Support of Biological Threat Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    the novel H1N1 influenza across the entire U.S. population, IHS was able to prioritize vaccine distribution in the Albuquerque, New Mexico , Navajo...global pandemic influenza , the tribal nations and health care providers in the field were reportedly addressing “walk overs” from Mexico who were...to examine stated health security policies and reported outcome of a large biological threat incident of H1N1 global pandemic influenza of 2009–2010

  14. New threats to academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The threat of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report aims to describe the present threat of nuclear war, with particular reference to New Zealand, and the increasing concern felt by many scientists, from a scientific viewpoint but in non-technical language. It surveys what is known about nuclear weapons and the consequences of their use, and attention is drawn to the importance of penetrating the language and examining the assumptions made in the propaganda about n uclear deterrence . The tasks involved in maintaining the present peace and attempting to establish an agreed disarmament is examined. The report pays particular attention to the roles of scientists in these endeavours

  16. Nuclear terrorism - Threat or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomper, Miles A.; Tarini, Gabrielle

    2017-11-01

    A terrorist attack using nuclear or radiological materials is a low-probability event, but if executed, would lead to unprecedented socio-economic, material, and psychological disruption and damage. This chapter seeks to provide a sound assessment of the scope and nature of the threat by examining the different types of nuclear terrorism, each of which poses different risks, involves different barriers to success, and requires different terrorist capabilities. In addition, the chapter aims to provide an overview of the sources and nature of terrorists' motivations to employ a nuclear attack.

  17. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Terrorist threats of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozsef Solymosi; Jozser Ronaky; Zoltan Levai; Arpad Vincze; Laszlo Foldi

    2004-01-01

    More than one year has passed since the terrible terrorist attacks against the United States. The tragic event fundamentally restructured our security policy approach and made requirements of countering terrorism a top priority of the 21st century. In one year a lot of studies were published and the majority of them analyses primarily the beginnings of terrorism then focus on the interrelations of causes and consequences of the attacks against the WTC. In most of the cases the authors can only put their questions most of which have remained unanswered to date. Meanwhile, in a short while after the attacks the secret assessments of threat levels of potential targets and areas were also prepared. One of the high priority fields is the issue of nuclear, biological, and chemical security, in short NBC-security. Here and now we focus on component N, that is the assessment techniques of nuclear security in short, without aiming at completeness. Our definite objective is to make non-expert readers understand - and present a concrete example as it is done in risk analysis - the real danger-level of nuclear facilities and especially the terrorist threat. Our objective is not to give tips to terrorists but to provide them with deterring arguments and at the same time calm worried people. In our communique we give an overview of international practice of nuclear antiterrorism and of preventive nuclear protection in Hungary. (author)

  19. Insider Threat to Computer Security at Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Rebecca Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-29

    After completing this session, you should be able to: Describe the Insider Threat; Characterize the cyber insider threat; Describe preventive measures against the insider threat; Describe protective measures against the insider threat.

  20. Stereotype threat and social function in opioid substitution therapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Henry, Julie D; Terrett, Gill; Mercuri, Kimberly; McAlear, Karen; Rendell, Peter G

    2017-06-01

    People with a history of substance abuse are subject to widespread stigmatization. It seems likely that this societal disapproval will result in feelings of stereotype threat, or the belief that one is the target of demeaning stereotypes. If so, stereotype threat has the potential to contribute to functional difficulties including poor social outcomes. Eighty drug users on opioid substitution therapy and 84 demographically matched controls completed measures of mental health and social function. The opioid substitution therapy group were additionally asked to complete a measure that focused on their feelings of stereotype threat in relation to their drug use history. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to establish the magnitude and specificity of the relationship between stereotype threat and social functioning. Relative to controls, the opioid substitution therapy group reported higher levels of negative affect and schizotypy, and poorer social functioning, with all three of these indices significantly correlated with their feelings of stereotype threat. The results also showed that stereotype threat contributed significant unique variance to social functioning in the opioid substitution therapy group, even after taking into account other background, clinical, and mental health variables. Social functioning is an important aspect of recovery, yet these data indicate that people with a history of drug abuse who believe they are the target of stereotypical attitudes have poorer social functioning. This relationship holds after controlling for the impact of other variables on social functioning, including mental health. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Concerns about being stereotyped can shape the social experiences of opioid substitution therapy patients. Opioid substitution therapy patients who feel negatively stereotyped experience greater social function deficits, and this

  1. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  2. Considering threats of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan consisted of three physical protection areas separated into limited access area, protected area with disposition of riot police riding in special guard vehicle, and inner area. Drilling of measures to protect against terrorism had been conducted based on design basis threat (DBT) and effectiveness of anti-terrorism measures corresponding with updated DBT had been evaluated by the inspection. Since nuclear power station had been target of terrorism using bomb, aircraft or military operation in overseas countries, anti-terrorism measures of nuclear power station in Japan should be paid more attention so as to overcome their weakness supported by Government's commitments like United States. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U...... to be addressed in order to successfully conduct IW. As result of researching the issues associated with developing a JIIM approach to IW, the paper makes the following recommendations: • Establishing universally accepted concepts and doctrines for IW, UW, Foreign Internal Defense (FID), Counter Insurgency (COIN......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...

  4. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  5. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ZIKA virus (ZIKV poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is being performed by RT-PCR and IgM-captured enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA. The real brunt of the virus is, however, borne by children and adults alike. Case studies of the ZIKV outbreaks in the French Polynesia and other places have suggested that there is a close link between the ZIKV and Gullian-Barre syndrome (GBS. The GBS has closely followed in areas facing ZIKV outbreaks. Although solid evidence is yet to emerge, clinical data integration has revealed a large number of ZIKV patients having GBS. Moreover, the amniotic fluids, blood cord, and miscarriage tissues of mothers have been detected with ZIKV, which indicates that the virus either gets transferred from mother to fetus or seeks direct entry in the fetus, causing microcephaly and other brain anomalies in the newborn babies. Studies on mice have confirmed the link between the ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in babies. Reports have highlighted the sexual transmission of the ZIKV, as it has been detected in the semen and saliva of affected persons. The intensity with which the ZIKA is spreading can collapse the health sector of several countries, which are poor. A comprehensive strategy is a need of an hour to combat this virus so as to prevent its transmission and avert the looming threat. At the same time, more research on the cure of the ZIKV is imperative.

  6. Do OSCE progress test scores predict performance in a national high-stakes examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Debra; Bhanji, Farhan; Cole, Gary; Dupre, Jonathan; Hatala, Rose; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Touchie, Claire; Wood, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    Progress tests, in which learners are repeatedly assessed on equivalent content at different times in their training and provided with feedback, would seem to lend themselves well to a competency-based framework, which requires more frequent formative assessments. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) progress test is a relatively new form of assessment that is used to assess the progression of clinical skills. The purpose of this study was to establish further evidence for the use of an OSCE progress test by demonstrating an association between scores from this assessment method and those from a national high-stakes examination. The results of 8 years' of data from an Internal Medicine Residency OSCE (IM-OSCE) progress test were compared with scores on the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada Comprehensive Objective Examination in Internal Medicine (RCPSC IM examination), which is comprised of both a written and performance-based component (n = 180). Correlations between scores in the two examinations were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were performed comparing IM-OSCE progress test scores with an 'elevated risk of failure' on either component of the RCPSC IM examination. Correlations between scores from the IM-OSCE (for PGY-1 residents to PGY-4 residents) and those from the RCPSC IM examination ranged from 0.316 (p = 0.001) to 0.554 (OSCE were predictive of an 'elevated risk of failure' on both components of the RCPSC IM examination. This study provides further evidence for the use of OSCE progress testing by demonstrating a correlation between scores from an OSCE progress test and a national high-stakes examination. Furthermore, there is evidence that OSCE progress test scores are predictive of future performance on a national high-stakes examination. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Topographical survey work and stake out of an agroindustrial building from Periam village, Timis county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Luminita Barliba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the project was to achieve a topographic survey works and mapping of an agro-purpose storage for vegetables and fruits produced by the existing farms from the village. The work theme includes achieving of cadastral plans base on a 1/5000 scale, using  measurements for all studied locations and land cadastre units. GPS technology used in thickening RGNS, namely the determination of network support, lead to the lifting of all topographical stake out of  the contour points. (Bârliba Luminiţa Livia, et. all.,2004, After that, the points were used as starting points for execution the tracing of the surface construction with the support of a total station. For topographical survey was used a V82 South GNSS receiver with two frequencies and 7 channels which allows RTK positioning in real time and then it was used  permanent topographic station nearby Timisoara (TIM1.2.3. After overlapping the situation plan and  plan developed by an architect, it was made the stake out of industrial building’s foundation with Leica Total Station 1205+, through the dedicated "Stakeout" software. Topographical works generally pursue two base objectives: the topographical survey completed by a digital representation of a small land area and staking out the construction building  respectively implementing the projects on the ground (Bârliba Luminiţa Livia, et. all.,2005. This paper demonstrated that it is possible to achieve the optimal time of all field and office operations with precision and accuracy parameters required by the topographical laws and rules.

  8. Security Threats in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Power Conflict • Rise of China • Rise of India • Return of Russia • EU-Europe and NATO • Japan’s dilemma • Changing alliances? Threat 2 Climate Change...tomorrow. Anon. Security Threats 1. Return of great power conflict 2. Climate change 3. Uneven development 4. Overpopulation , migration, pandemics...Threat 4 Overpopulation , Migration, Pandemics • Climate change means overpopulation • Mass migrations are unstoppable • Migrations mean conflict and

  9. Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rodriquez, Jose [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt theft of nuclear materials. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat.

  10. Extracting Cyber Threat Intelligence From Hacker Forums

    OpenAIRE

    Deliu, Isuf

    2017-01-01

    The use of more sophisticated tools and methods from cyber criminals has urged the cyber security community to look for enhancements to traditional security controls. Cyber Threat Intelligence represents one such proactive approach and includes the collection and analysis of information for potential threats from multiple diverse sources of data. The objective is to understand the methodology that different threat actors are using to launch their campaigns, and proactively adapt security cont...

  11. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  12. Microbial Threats to Health. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    super-absorbent tampons, prolonged use of diaphragms, and cesarean section deliveries - reported cases of TSS in males have been linked to local S... ancient Greece, now held by the Staatlichemuseen in Berlin. COVER: The background for the cover of this report is a photograph of batik designed and...have taught us, in the context of infectious diseases, there is no- where in the world from which we are remote and no one from whom we j are

  13. Negotiating the terrain of high-stakes accountability in science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Isaak

    Teachers interact with their students on behalf of the entire educational system. The aim of this study is to explore how biology teachers understand and construct their practice in a high-stakes accountability environment that is likely to be riddled with tensions. By critically questioning the technical paradigms of accountability this study challenges the fundamental assumptions of accountability. Such a critical approach may help teachers develop empowerment strategies that can free them from the de-skilling effects of the educational accountability system. This interpretive case study of a high-school in Maryland is grounded in three streams of research literature: quality science instruction based on scientific inquiry, the effects of educational accountability on the curriculum, and the influence of policy on classroom practice with a specific focus on how teachers balance competing tensions. This study theoretically occurs at the intersection of educational accountability and pedagogy. In terms of data collection, I conduct two interviews with all six biology teachers in the school. I observe each teacher for at least fifteen class periods. I review high-stakes accountability policy documents from the federal, state, and district levels of the education system. Three themes emerge from the research. The first theme, "re-defining science teaching," captures how deeply accountability structures have penetrated the science curriculum. The second theme, "the pressure mounts," explores how high-stakes accountability in science has increased the stress placed on teachers. The third theme, "teaching-in-between," explores how teachers compromise between accountability mandates and their own understandings of quality teaching. Together, the three themes shed light on the current high-stakes climate in which teachers currently work. This study's findings inform the myriad paradoxes at all levels of the educational system. As Congress and advocacy groups battle over

  14. Vector-borne disease intelligence: strategies to deal with disease burden and threats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braks, M.; Medlock, J. M.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Hjertqvist, M.; Perrin, Y.; Lancelot, R.; Duchyene, E.; Hendrickx, G.; Stroo, A.; Heyman, P.; Sprong, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 280 (2014), s. 280 ISSN 2296-2565 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : disease burden * emerging diseases * one health * surveillance * threat * vector-borne diseases Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. A Study on consensus development through stake holder engagement for the use of nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Yoshiko; Sawada, Tetsuo; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    In order to alleviate the distrust surrounding the use of nuclear energy and operation of nuclear facilities, as well as to foster trust and find better ways to live in harmony with society, it is essential for the state and electric power utilities not to provide one-sided information, but to formulate adequate bilateral communication and dialogue with stake holders. In this study, we conducted a case study focused on four stake holder meetings with a view to ensuring safety in the use of nuclear energy and operation of nuclear facilities in Japan; the 'Community Meeting for Securing the Transparency of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (Chiiki-no-kai)'; the 'Monitoring and Evaluation Conference on Environmental Radiation', established by communities where nuclear facilities are installed; the 'Round-Table Conference on Nuclear Power Policy' and the 'Conference for Public Participation and Decision Making for Nuclear Energy Policy' organized by Japan Atomic Energy Commission. As a consequence, it has been observed that in each case varying opinions were summarized through stake holder meetings, but the fact that no system exists to reflect these opinions in design of the nuclear energy policy has emerged as a controversial point. This study suggests future efforts in regard to the requirements in Japan for stake holder meetings that are necessary for fostering trust and mutual understanding among stake holders including the state and local government, electric power utilities and local residents. (author)

  16. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs

  17. Information security practices emerging threats and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Awad, Ahmed; Woungang, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces novel research targeting technical aspects of protecting information security and establishing trust in the digital space. New paradigms, and emerging threats and solutions are presented in topics such as application security and threat management; modern authentication paradigms; digital fraud detection; social engineering and insider threats; cyber threat intelligence; intrusion detection; behavioral biometrics recognition; hardware security analysis. The book presents both the important core and the specialized issues in the areas of protection, assurance, and trust in information security practice. It is intended to be a valuable resource and reference for researchers, instructors, students, scientists, engineers, managers, and industry practitioners. .

  18. Movements Indicate Threat Response Phases in Children at Risk for Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Ellen W; McGinnis, Ryan S; Muzik, Maria; Hruschak, Jessica; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Perkins, Noel C; Fitzgerald, Kate; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2017-09-01

    Temporal phases of threat response, including potential threat (anxiety), acute threat (startle, fear), and post-threat response modulation, have been identified as the underlying markers of anxiety disorders. Objective measures of response during these phases may help identify children at risk for anxiety; however, the complexity of current assessment techniques prevent their adoption in many research and clinical contexts. We propose an alternative technology, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), that enables noninvasive measurement of the movements associated with threat response, and test its ability to detect threat response phases in young children at a heightened risk for developing anxiety. We quantified the motion of 18 children (3-7 years old) during an anxiety-/fear-provoking behavioral task using an IMU. Specifically, measurements from a single IMU secured to the child's waist were used to extract root-mean-square acceleration and angular velocity in the horizontal and vertical directions, and tilt and yaw range of motion during each threat response phase. IMU measurements detected expected differences in child motion by threat phase. Additionally, potential threat motion was positively correlated to familial anxiety risk, startle range of motion was positively correlated with child internalizing symptoms, and response modulation motion was negatively correlated to familial anxiety risk. Results suggest differential theory-driven threat response phases and support previous literature connecting maternal child risk to anxiety with behavioral measures using more feasible objective methods. This is the first study demonstrating the utility of an IMU for characterizing the motion of young children to mark the phases of threat response modulation. The technique provides a novel and objective measure of threat response for mental health researchers.

  19. Evaluative threat and ambulatory blood pressure: cardiovascular effects of social stress in daily experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Birmingham, Wendy; Uchino, Bert N

    2012-11-01

    Physiological effects of social evaluation are central in models of psychosocial influences on physical health. Experimental manipulations of evaluative threat evoke substantial cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses in laboratory studies, but only preliminary evidence is available regarding naturally occurring evaluative threats in daily life. In such nonexperimental ambulatory studies, it is essential to distinguish effects of evaluative threat from related constructs known to alter stress, such as ability perceptions and concerns about appearance. 94 married, working couples (mean age 29.2 years) completed a 1-day (8 a.m. to 10 p.m.) ambulatory blood pressure protocol with random interval-contingent measurements using a Suntech monitor and Palm Pilot-based measures of control variables and momentary experiences of social-evaluative threat, concerns about appearance, and perceived ability. In hierarchical analyses for couples and multiple measurement occasions (Proc Mixed; SAS) and controlling individual differences (BMI, age, income) and potential confounds (e.g., posture, activity), higher reports of social-evaluative threat were associated with higher concurrent systolic (estimate = .87, SE = .34) and diastolic blood pressure (estimate = 1.06; SE = .26), both p social-evaluative threat remained significant when perceived ability and appearance concerns were controlled. Naturally occurring social-evaluative threat during daily activity is associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Given associations between ambulatory blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease, the findings support conceptual models of threats to the social self as a potentially important influence on physical health.

  20. [Chikungunya fever - A new global threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Antonio

    2015-08-07

    The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent and the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Islands, Asia and Europe. Due to their epidemiological and biological features and the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace and could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical and epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control and mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. The Identity Threat of Weight Stigma in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Wren B; Robinson, Jennifer C; Stewart, Mary W; Zhang, Lei; Hand, Samuel C

    2017-08-01

    Obesity remains a serious public health issue in adolescents, who may be subjected to weight stigma leading to increased stress and poor health outcomes. Stigma can be detrimental to adolescents during self-identity formation. The purpose of this study was to examine weight stigma in adolescents in light of the Identity Threat Model of Stigma. A cross-sectional correlational design was used to examine the relationships among the variables of weight stigma, psychosocial stress, coping styles, disordered eating, and physical inactivity. Regression modeling and path analysis were used to analyze the data. Over 90% of the sample had scores indicating weight stigma or antifat bias. Avoidant coping style and psychosocial stress predicted disordered eating. The strongest path in the model was from avoidant coping to disordered eating. The Identity Threat Model of Stigma partially explained adolescents' weight stigma. Nursing practice implications are discussed.

  3. The global threat of antimicrobial resistance: science for intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Roca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large to review the global threat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Examining the streams of a retention policy to understand the politics of high-stakes reform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Brown

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Using John Kingdon's (2003 multiple streams approach to agenda setting, I analyze how key actors within the state of Wisconsin understood the need to construct and implement the state's No Social Promotion statutes to improve students' academic performance. Policymakers within the state focused their standards-based reforms on the issue of improving students' academic performance through increasing accountability. In doing so, they did not see these high-stakes policies as a form of punishment for those who fail, but rather, as a tool to focus the education establishment on improving the academic skills and knowledge of all their students. Thus, the retained student is not the primary concern of the policymaker, but rather, the retained student demonstrates the state's system of accountability works. Raising the question as to whether those who support or oppose high-stakes policies such as these should focus their efforts on the agenda setting process rather than analyzing effects of such policies. I contend that while evaluating a policy's effects is important, education stakeholders must pay attention to all three streams of the agenda setting process as they promote particular reforms to improve students' academic performance.

  5. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Does Accountability Pressure Increase Student Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Nichols

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement across 25 states. Standardized portfolios were created for each study state. Each portfolio contained a range of documents that told the “story” of accountability implementation and impact in that state. Using the “law of comparative judgments,” over 300 graduate-level education students reviewed one pair of portfolios and made independent evaluations as to which of the two states’ portfolios reflected a greater degree of accountability pressure. Participants’ judgments yielded a matrix that was converted into a single rating system that arranged all 25 states on a continuum of accountability “pressure” from high to low. Using this accountability pressure rating we conducted a series of regression and correlation analyses. We found no relationship between earlier pressure and later cohort achievement for math at the fourth- and eighth-grade levels on the National Assessment of Educational Progress tests. Further, no relationship was found between testing pressure and reading achievement on the National Assessment of Education Progress tests at any grade level or for any ethnic student subgroup. Data do suggest, however, that a case could be made for a causal relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and subsequent achievement on the national assessment tests—but only for fourth grade, non-cohort achievement and for some ethnic subgroups. Implications and directions for future studies are discussed.

  6. Social Perception of Hydrogen Technologies: The View of Spanish Stake holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri Anglada, S.

    2013-01-01

    This technical report presents an overview of the social perception and vision of a sample of Spanish stake holders on hydrogen technologies. The study is based on the implementation of a survey, combining both quantitative and qualitative data. An ad hoc electronic survey was design to collect views and perceptions on several key factors regarding this innovative energy alternative. The group of experts participating (N=130) in the study, comes mainly from research centers, universities and private companies. The survey addresses three major themes: expert views, social acceptability, and contextual factors of hydrogen technologies. The aim is to capture both the current and the future scene as viewed by the experts on hydrogen technologies, identifying key factors in terms of changes, uncertainties, obstacles and opportunities. The objective is to identify potential key features for the introduction, development, promotion, implementation, and large-scale deployment of a highly successful energy proposal in countries such as Iceland, one of the pioneers in base its economy on hydrogen technologies. To conclude, this report illustrates the positive engagement of a sample of Spanish stake holders towards hydrogen technologies that may prove vital in the transition towards the Hydrogen Economy in Spain. (Author)

  7. Experimental Investigation on Electric Current-Aided Laser Stake Welding of Aluminum Alloy T-Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinge Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, aluminum alloy T-joints were welded using the laser stake-welding process. In order to improve the welding quality of the T-joints, an external electric current was used to aid the laser stake-welding process. The effects of the process parameters on the weld morphology, mechanical properties, and microstructure of the welded joints were analyzed and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the aided electric current should be no greater than a certain maximum value. Upon increasing the aided electric current, the weld width at the skin and stringer faying surface obviously increased, but there was an insignificant change in the penetration depth. Furthermore, the electric current and pressing force should be chosen to produce an expected weld width at the faying surface, whereas the laser power and welding speed should be primarily considered to obtain an optimal penetration depth. The tensile shear specimens failed across the faying surface or failed in the weld zone of the skin. The specimens that failed in the weld of the skin could resist a higher tensile shear load compared with specimens that failed across the faying surface. The microstructural observations and microhardness results demonstrated that the tensile shear load capacity of the aluminum alloy welded T-joint was mainly determined by the weld width at the faying surface.

  8. Examining a Public Montessori School’s Response to the Pressures of High-Stakes Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrie Rebecca Block

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to succeed in the current school assessment and accountability era, a public Montessori school is expected to achieve high student scores on standardized assessments. A problem for a public Montessori elementary school is how to make sense of the school’s high-stakes assessment scores in terms of its unique educational approach. This case study examined a public Montessori elementary school’s efforts as the school implemented the Montessori Method within the accountability era. The research revealed the ways the principal, teachers, and parents on the school council modified Montessori practices, curriculum, and assessment procedures based on test scores. A quality Montessori education is designed to offer children opportunities to develop both cognitive skills and affective components such as student motivation and socio-emotional skills that will serve them beyond their public school experiences. Sadly, the high-stakes testing environment influences so much of public education today. When quality education was measured through only one narrow measure of success the result in this school was clearly a restriction of priorities to areas that were easily assessed.

  9. Academically buoyant students are less anxious about and perform better in high-stakes examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W; Daly, Anthony L; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Sadreddini, Shireen

    2015-09-01

    Prior research has shown that test anxiety is negatively related to academic buoyancy, but it is not known whether test anxiety is an antecedent or outcome of academic buoyancy. Furthermore, it is not known whether academic buoyancy is related to performance on high-stakes examinations. To test a model specifying reciprocal relations between test anxiety and academic buoyancy and to establish whether academic buoyancy is related to examination performance. A total of 705 students in their final year of secondary education (Year 11). Self-report data for test anxiety and academic buoyancy were measured in two waves in Year 11. Examination performance was taken from the mean English, mathematics, and science scores from the high-stakes General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examinations taken at the end of Year 11. Measurement invariance was demonstrated for test anxiety and academic buoyancy across both waves of measurement. The worry component of test anxiety, but not the tension component, showed reciprocal relations with academic buoyancy. Worry predicted lower mean GCSE score and academic buoyancy predicted a higher mean GCSE score. Tension did not predict mean GCSE score. Academic buoyancy protects against the appraisal of examinations as threatening by influencing self-regulative processes and enables better examination performance. Worry, but not tension, shows a negative feedback loop to academic buoyancy. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. An ecological assessment of the pandemic threat of Zika virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Colin; Getz, Wayne; Dougherty, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus poses a threat of unknown magnitude to human health. While the range of the virus has been cataloged growing slowly over the last 50 years, the recent explosive expansion in the Americas indicates that the full potential distribution of Zika remains uncertain. Moreover, most current epidemiology relies on its similarities to dengue fever, a phylogenetically closely related disease of unknown similarity in spatial range or ecological niche. Here we compile th...

  11. An Ecological Assessment of the Pandemic Threat of Zika Virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Colin J Carlson; Eric R Dougherty; Wayne Getz

    2016-01-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus poses a severe threat to human health. While the range of the virus has been cataloged growing slowly over the last 50 years, the recent explosive expansion in the Americas indicates that the full potential distribution of Zika remains uncertain. Moreover, many studies rely on its similarity to dengue fever, a phylogenetically closely related disease of unknown ecological comparability. Here we compile a comprehensive spatially-explicit occurrence dataset fr...

  12. Eastern forest environmental threat assessment center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Research Station. USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center (EFETAC) provides the latest research and expertise concerning threats to healthy forests – such as insects and disease, wildland loss, invasive species, wildland fire, and climate change – to assist forest landowners, managers and scientists throughout the East. Established in 2005, EFETAC is a joint effort of...

  13. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Fernandes Junior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed towards the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during direct threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, no direct threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by direct threat stimuli. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies.

  14. Perception of the Threat of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Louck, Keren

    2016-04-28

    In light of the tense and ongoing security situation in Israel, one important issue that needs to be analyzed and understood is the perception of terrorism threats. Most studies focused mainly on the psychological implications of terrorist acts; this study examines the complexity of the manner in which the individual perceives the threat of terrorism. In all, 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men) were interviewed using semistructured in-depth interviews. Qualitative analysis indicates that the components of the perception of terrorism that construct the evaluation and subjective perception of the participants are as follows: (a) perception of control, which is a feeling of loss of control and helplessness due to uncertainty, inability to predict threats, and the vagueness of the threat; (b) perception of vulnerability to the threat, such as a feeling of vulnerability to and potential victimization by terrorism; and (c) perception of fear of terrorism that includes responses of fear, anxiety, feeling of danger, and emotional distress. In addition, gender differences were found in the analysis. The findings of this study help gain a better understanding as to how people perceive the threat of terrorism. The findings also enable an understanding of the complexity of living under ongoing terrorism threats and may assist in understanding how citizens cope with and adjust to this threat. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Dutch politicians' coping with terrorist threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijdam, Mirjam J.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    The psychosocial effects of terrorist threat and close protection have never been studied systematically in political leaders. We conducted a study among 12 Dutch politicians and their partners who were living under terrorist threat and close protection in the aftermath of two political murders.

  16. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  17. Perceived migrant threat among migrants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, Roos; Bles, Per; Lubbers, M.

    2017-01-01

    This research presents a new perspective on migrant integration. It questions the extent that established migrants perceive threats from new migrants, and how that is influenced by natives’ perceived migrant threat. We hypothesized about an acculturation pattern that established migrants will be

  18. Perceived migrant threat among migrants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwan, R. van der; Bles, P.H.; Lubbers, M.

    2017-01-01

    This research presents a new perspective on migrant integration. It questions the extent that established migrants perceive threats from new migrants, and how that is influenced by natives' perceived migrant threat. We hypothesized about an acculturation pattern that established migrants will be

  19. GLOBAL THREAT LANDSCAPE IN 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Gunaratna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The global terrorism threat has become decentralised, unpredictable, hard-to-detect and resilient with regenerative capacities. The global jihadist movements, principally the so-called Islamic State (IS and Al-Qaeda, have glocalised to exploit indigenous grievances, recruit aspiring jihadists and fight for local and global causes. Overall, both IS and Al-Qaeda have become underground terror networks. In 2018, three trends are likely to define the global terrorism landscape: IS is transforming itself from a ‘caliphate’-building entity to a global terrorist movement; IS is decentralising, shifting its centre of gravity from Iraq and Syria to its multiple wilayat and divisions in different countries; Al-Qaeda affiliates in Syria will capitalise on the vacuum left by IS and exploit the fragile and unstable situation in post-IS Syria. In order to prevent IS’ re-emergence and losing the hard-fought victory, it is imperative that the international community address the underlying conditions that facilitated the rise of IS, AlQaeda and other militant groups in Iraq and Syria, the issues that give sustenance to other terrorist and militant groups, and support governments that lack capabilities to fight terrorism

  20. [Health Ethics in Benin and HIV-AIDS : What are the stakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo-Chichi, V; Ouendo, E; Champagne, F

    2017-05-22

    As part of the fight against HIV-AIDS, an effort was made at the ethical component, namely that there are legal texts, institutional and ethical. There are ethics committees (three) that give reasoned opinions on study protocols and are endeavoring to raise awareness of the actors. But we note that there is not yet a real ownership and adoption of ethical practice by them. This study targeted research projects on HIV-AIDS and centers supported PLHIV in order to analyze ethical issues : 1) the method of recruitment of participants and beneficiaries ; 2) obtaining informed consent from them ; 2) measures of confidentiality and anonymity ; 3) the integrity of staff of these projects and centers and conflicts of interest. A thematic analysis of data collected, which is done, after semi-structured interviews, helped to highlight the issues related to the recruitment process, obtaining informed consent, confidentiality measures and anonymity, integrity and Conflict of Interest. Let us remember that what is done, not done yet in the forms of art. Constant monitoring is called for, as leaders with ethics committees.They are supposed to play fully their roles.

  1. Inferences from counterfactual threats and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Suzanne M; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2012-01-01

    We examine how people understand and reason from counterfactual threats, for example, "if you had hit your sister, I would have grounded you" and counterfactual promises, for example, "if you had tidied your room, I would have given you ice-cream." The first experiment shows that people consider counterfactual threats, but not counterfactual promises, to have the illocutionary force of an inducement. They also make the immediate inference that the action mentioned in the "if" part of the counterfactual threat and promise did not occur. The second experiment shows that people make more negative inferences (modus tollens and denial of the antecedent) than affirmative inferences (modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent) from counterfactual threats and promises, unlike indicative threats and promises. We discuss the implications of the results for theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes that underlie conditional inducements.

  2. Promoting dental hygiene to children: comparing traditional and interactive media following threat appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panic, Katarina; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Until now, social marketing campaigns mainly targeted children using traditional media. However, little is known about the effectiveness of computer games to communicate health-related information to children. This study compares the impact of an interactive game as a medium to provide health information and improve children's dietary habits to the impact of more traditional media. Using a 2 × 3 between-subject factorial design with 190 children (7-9 years old), this study investigates the effect of threat messages (weak vs. strong) concerning dental hygiene on behavioral outcome (snack choice), and how this effect is moderated by the type of medium used to communicate subsequent health information after the threat appeal (computer game, information brochure, narrative story). Results show a positive significant effect of perceived threat on children's adaptive behavior. However, this effect only remains significant when afterwards children are exposed to a narrative health-related story. When children play a game or read a brochure, they need to devote more attention to process this content, distracting them from the original threat message. In sum, when a threat message is followed by additional health information, the medium through which this information is presented influences the effectiveness of the preceding threat message.

  3. Preservice Teachers Reconfiguring Teaching Young Children in a High-Stakes Early Education Context through the Use of iPads: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher P.; Englehardt, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Having practicing or preservice early educators employing iPads and their apps as part of their practices with young children in high-stakes teaching contexts is a challenging process. The case study examined in this article further unpacks this complexity by investigating how incorporating iPads into their high-stakes field…

  4. Is the Physical Being Taken out of Physical Education? On the Possible Effects of High-Stakes Testing on an Embattled Profession's Curriculum Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Clancy; Garrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Building on recent discussions regarding how current national standards for physical education promote cognitive outcomes over physical outcomes, the authors explore how a new era in high-stakes testing is also contributing to an emphasis on the cognitive, over the physical. While high-stakes testing has been linked to reducing the amount of…

  5. The Impact of High-Stakes Testing on Instructional Practices: Perceptions of 3rd-5th Grade Teachers and Administrators in North Central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Tracie L.

    2014-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 requires all schools to be accountable for student performance. High-stakes accountability represents a growing concern among the field of education. Literature supports that teachers are vital to the success of students; however, the impact of high-stakes testing on instructional practice is changing…

  6. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerli, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  7. Fructose; a Hidden Threat for Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Korkmaz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Incremental usage of the fructose derived from corn by processed-food manufacturers has become a crucial threat in terms of human health. Although it is known as fruit sugar, the most important source of dietary fructose is now, processed-food prepared by using high-fructose corn syrup. Basically, fructose is metabolized within liver and its energy load is equal to glucose. Nevertheless, it does not make up satiety and fullness. Therefore, fructose-rich foods and beverages can be consumed in large amount because the absence of satiety. Studies performed recently unveil a connection between amount of fructose consumed and metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The incidence of metabolic diseases which are already affecting more than half of the adults has been increasing among children. Moreover, these types of foods are generally consumed by children. Therefore, in order to reduce the frequency of metabolic disorders in all ages, the amount of fructose in processed-foods and beverages should also be taken into consideration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 343-346

  8. Growing threat from counterfeit medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Lifesaving drugs are not exempt from the trade in counterfeit medicines. The World Health Organization (WHO) is working with Interpol to dislodge the criminal networks raking in billions of dollars from this cynical trade.

  9. Are all interventions created equal? A multi-threat approach to tailoring stereotype threat interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jenessa R; Williams, Amy M; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2013-02-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one's group-and self-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one's own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students' performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women's interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

  11. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  12. Challenges From and Beyond Symptomatology: Stereotype Threat in Young Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Steven L

    2018-02-01

    Stereotype threat-faced when one confronts a personally relevant stereotype in a domain-relevant context-can significantly jeopardize individual performance in test-taking situations. Research has overlooked the potential for mental health labels to serve as bases for stereotype threat in such situations. This study examines whether ADHD, a disorder frequently serving as a basis for standardized testing accommodation, may trigger stereotype threat in testing situations. Drawing from a sample of 114 participants (53 reporting a history of ADHD and 61 not reporting a history of ADHD), this study considers whether stereotype threat invoked on the basis of ADHD hinders performance on Graduate Record Examination (GRE) questions beyond the impact of symptomatology. Participants reporting ADHD achieved significantly lower scores on verbal and quantitative GRE questions than participants without ADHD. Participants between the ages of 18 and 24 reporting ADHD who were explicitly exposed to stereotype threat achieved significantly lower scores on quantitative GRE questions than their ADHD-reporting peers who were not explicitly exposed to stereotype threat. Domain-relevant mental health labels may trigger stereotype threat in test-taking situations.

  13. Primary Teachers' Experiences Relating to the Administration Processes of High-Stakes Testing: The Case of Mathematics Annual National Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, Mellony; Venkat, Hamsa

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we highlight teacher experiences of the administration of high-stakes testing, in particular, of the 2012 Annual National Assessments (ANAs). The exploration is based on data gathered across two primary numeracy teacher development projects in the Eastern Cape and Gauteng in the form of open-ended questionnaires designed to elicit…

  14. The Influence of High-Stakes Testing on Teacher Self-Efficacy and Job-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alejandro; Peters, Michelle L.; Orange, Amy; Grigsby, Bettye

    2017-01-01

    In the United States, teachers' job-related stress and self-efficacy levels across all grades are influenced in some manner by the demands of high-stakes testing. This sequential mixed-methods study aimed at examining the dynamics among assigned subject matter, teacher job-related stress, and teacher self-efficacy in a large south-eastern Texas…

  15. A Case Study of Co-Teaching in an Inclusive Secondary High-Stakes World History I Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hover, Stephanie; Hicks, David; Sayeski, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide increasing support for students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in high-stakes testing contexts, some schools have implemented co-teaching models. This qualitative case study explores how 1 special education teacher (Anna) and 1 general education history teacher (John) make sense of working together in an inclusive…

  16. Examining a Public Montessori School's Response to the Pressures of High-Stakes Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Corrie Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    A public Montessori school is expected to demonstrate high student scores on standardized assessments to succeed in the current school accountability era. A problem for a public Montessori elementary school is how to make sense of the school's high-stakes assessment scores in terms of Montessori's unique educational approach. This case study…

  17. Countries in transition and the developing countries in the negotiation on the climatic change. Stakes of the Kyoto conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, O.; Cavard, D.; Faudry, D.; Girod, J.; Menanteau, P.; Viguier, L.

    1997-10-01

    This document presents the positions of the countries in transition and the developing countries in the phase of the negotiations on the climatic change between 1994 and 1997, then takes stock on the pilot phase of the actions of the associated implementation. The negotiations stakes and the frame of the discussions are also presented. (A.L.B.)

  18. Teaching under the New Taylorism: High-Stakes Testing and the Standardization of the 21st Century Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The application of the principles of scientific management within the structure, organization, and curriculum of public schools in the US became dominant during the early 1900s. Based upon research evidence from the modern day era of high-stakes testing in US public education, the fundamental logics guiding scientific management have resurfaced…

  19. Stakes at the edge of participation: Where words and things are the entirely serious title of a problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Ulv Lenskjold, Tau

    2015-01-01

    language and discourse. Drawing on examples from the recent research project Urban Animals and Us (UA&Us), we suggest that experimental prototypes hold the promise of material enactments of relations that enable a re-articulation of what it means to have a stake in a socio-material event. In the specific...

  20. The impact of high-stakes school admission exams on study achievements: quasi-experimental evidence from Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Federičová, Miroslava; Münich, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2017), s. 1069-1092 ISSN 0933-1433 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : high-stakes exams * students’ motivation * achievement Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 1.136, year: 2016

  1. The impact of high-stakes school admission exams on study achievements: quasi-experimental evidence from Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Federičová, Miroslava; Münich, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2017), s. 1069-1092 ISSN 0933-1433 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : high-stakes exams * students’ motivation * achievement Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 1.136, year: 2016

  2. Diving in or Guarding the Tower: Mina Shaughnessy's Resistance and Capitulation to High-Stakes Writing Tests at City College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Mina Shaughnessy continues to exert powerful influences over Basic Writing practices, discourses and pedagogy thirty-five years after her death: Basic Writing remains in some ways trapped by Shaughnessy's legacy in what Min-Zhan Lu labeled as essentialism, accommodationism and linguistic innocence. High-stakes writing tests, a troubling hallmark…

  3. 2009 public meetings: To inform and exchange ideas on the issues at stake

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    The summer holidays are over. And like every year around this time the Staff Association comes to meet you in your Departments to inform you about the topics currently being discussed at CERN. We count very much on the exchange of views and opinions between you and us that takes place during these meetings. Once again in 2009 there are a wide range of topics to be discussed. If the stakes are generally high, this year and the next ones they are huge. This is an additional reason for the need to see a maximum number of motivated candidates stand at the forthcoming elections for the Staff Council in November 2009. For all these reasons and to help us prepare optimally for these critical deadlines, we invite all of you to attend our public meetings.

  4. Energy policy: the stakes of a global overview. Synthesis of the afternoon works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destot, M.

    1999-10-01

    This document is a report of the debates that took place at the French national assembly in October 1999 concerning the French energy policy and more particularly the new electricity and gas directives, the energy choices, the development of renewable energies, the building of the future EPR European Pressurized water reactor, the development of more efficient transportation systems, the reduction of air pollution and the fight against the greenhouse effect, and the mastery of energy consumptions. This synthesis of the afternoon works reports on the point of views exchanged during the last round table of the day about the stakes of the opening of the European energy market (internationalization and decentralization of the electricity and natural gas markets). (J.S.)

  5. CO2 emissions abatement and geologic sequestration - industrial innovations and stakes - status of researches in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium was jointly organized by the French institute of petroleum (IFP), the French agency of environmental and energy mastery (Ademe) and the geological and mining research office (BRGM). This press kit makes a status of the advances made in CO 2 emissions abatement and geological sequestration: technological advances of CO 2 capture and sequestration, geological reservoir dimensioning with respect to the problem scale, duration of such an interim solution, CO 2 emissions abatement potentialities of geological sequestration, regulatory, economical and financial implications, international stakes of greenhouse gas emissions. This press kit comprises a press release about the IFP-Ademe-BRGM colloquium, a slide presentation about CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and four papers: a joint IFP-Ademe-BRGM press conference, IFP's answers to CO 2 emissions abatement, Ademe's actions in CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and BRGM's experience in CO 2 sequestration and climatic change expertise. (J.S.)

  6. Electric power trading. The first study on stakes and consequences of power trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Power trading (purchase/sale of electricity on a stock exchange) is an emerging activity in continental Europe while it already came to maturity in the US, in the UK and in Scandinavia. Several stock exchanges have opened since 1988, in particular in Germany, Spain and in The Netherlands. New projects of creation are under study, except in France where public authorities remain reticent with respect to this evolution. Power trade is deeply overturning the organization of power markets with offering an alternative to the direct supply from producers and distributors. This study presents the functioning modes of the main stock exchanges in operation today. It analyzes the stakes of power trade for all intervening parties of the market (historical actors, newcomers and consumers). The situation and the strategic behaviour of 12 key-actors of the power sector are also examined. (J.S.)

  7. The Kyoto protocol: assessment and perspectives. Towards a new regime up to the climate stake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia

    2012-01-01

    This report proposes an analysis within the context of transition of the climate regime from the 'before-2012' regime to the 'post-2020' regime. It first gives an overview of international stakes and context (lack of ambition for climate policy, perspective of an international agreement from 2020). Then, the authors recall the history and achievements of the Kyoto protocol which is the basis of the present climate policy regime. They propose an assessment of actions performed by countries during the first period of the protocol, and focus on the present climate regime elements which are to be safeguarded. They analyse the weaknesses of the present regime, and propose possible improvements for the future post-2020 climate regime

  8. High Stakes Trigger the Use of Multiple Memories to Enhance the Control of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Robert M.G.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    We can more precisely tune attention to highly rewarding objects than other objects in our environment, but how our brains do this is unknown. After a few trials of searching for the same object, subjects' electrical brain activity indicated that they handed off the memory representations used to control attention from working memory to long-term memory. However, when a large reward was possible, the neural signature of working memory returned as subjects recruited working memory to supplement the cognitive control afforded by the representations accumulated in long-term memory. The amplitude of this neural signature of working memory predicted the magnitude of the subsequent behavioral reward-based attention effects across tasks and individuals, showing the ubiquity of this cognitive reaction to high-stakes situations. PMID:23448876

  9. The Power Stakes Between those who Finance itThe New Managerial Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomia Andres

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the conceptual background and aspects concerning the governing that means the system by which the organizations are leaded and controlled, covering the ensemble of dispositions that allow the insurance that the objectives wanted by the managers are legitimate and the means put to work are adapted to reach these objectives. Considering that the presented models (Stareholder and Stakeholder are stakes of power between those who lead and those that finance the organization, the convergence of the European and international governing models and systems that involve the existence of some superior governing models, economically, socially and political efficient, the approach of these issues presents special interest being a challenge to Romanian economy. The globalization gives a plus to the convergence - pleading for the Stareholder model and the cultural differences plead for the resort to one of the Stakeholder model's variants.

  10. The strategic industrial sectors of the green economy: stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, Jean-Paul; Larrieu, Catherine; Griot, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Proposing a transverse analysis and a synthesis, the first part of this voluminous report discusses the evolution of the context since 2009 for the green industry sector, outlines and comments the development stakes for the different sectors, analyses and comments their main evolutions for the last three years, outlines the development potential and perspectives of these activities in France, and proposes an overview of strategic policies implemented in the field of green economy in different countries (USA, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, China, South Korea). The second part addresses the evolution and perspectives of each sector: energy production from renewable sources (biofuels, biomass, marine energies, wind energy, geothermal energy, solar energy), optimization of natural energy consumption (building with low environmental impact, green chemistry, hydrogen and fuel cells, biomaterials, optimization of industrial processes, smart grids, energy storage, low-carbon vehicles), natural resource life cycle management (CO 2 capture and storage, water, purification and ecologic engineering, metrology and instrumentation, recycling and waste valorization)

  11. Disease-threat model explains acceptance of genetically modified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favoured survival of individuals who were able to avoid disease. The behavioural immune system is activated especially when our sensory system comes into contact with disease-connoting cues and/or when these cues resemble disease threat. We investigated whether or not perception of modern risky technologies, risky behaviour, expected reproductive goals and food neophobia are associated with the behavioural immune system related to specific attitudes toward genetically modified (GM products. We found that respondents who felt themselves more vulnerable to infectious diseases had significantly more negative attitudes toward GM products. Females had less positive attitudes toward GM products, but engaging in risky behaviours, the expected reproductive goals of females and food neophobia did not predict attitudes toward GM products. Our results suggest that evolved psychological mechanisms primarily designed to protect us against pathogen threat are activated by modern technologies possessing potential health risks.

  12. Examining perceived stereotype threat among overweight/obese adults using a multi-threat framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Domoff, Sarah E; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M; Hinman, Nova G; Davis, Alan K; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants' mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18-64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m². Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals' susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes' impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  13. Bioinformatics: The philosophical and ethical issues at stake in a new modality of research practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bouvet, Armelle; Deschamps, Claude; Boitte, Pierre; Boury, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the integration of ethical reflection into the research practices of the project at the Lille Nord-Pas-de-Calais genopole: "Multifactorial genetic pathologies and therapeutic innovations". The general hypothesis of this text is that changes in research practices in biology (mainly through the use of bioinformatics) imply changes in medical practices, which require critical reflection. This hypothesis could be broken down into three sub-hypotheses: (1) Research in biology is undergoing a complete transformation; (2) Research in biology is a cultural practice, which cannot be reduced to a simple cognitive action; (3) Research in biology is a techno-scientific practice. As for the method, the aim of our research at the Medical Ethics Centre is to elucidate the philosophical and ethical range of biomedical practices. This work entails a double task for reflection. On the one hand, from the revelation of ethical tensions present in these practices, we have to think about what is at stake in these practices, and more broadly in society. On the other hand, we have to analyse the conditions enabling the actors to assume the significance of ethical reflection in their practices. The method set up to undertake this double task could be qualified as "narrative hermeneutics", as its aim is to attempt to interpret the stakes in practices from proximity with these practices and from what their actors have to say about them. The text then goes on to analyse more specifically the emergence and place of bioinformatics in present-day biomedical research.

  14. Accuracy of portrayal by standardized patients: results from four OSCE stations conducted for high stakes examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Lubna A; Beran, Tanya N; Vallevand, Andrea; Baig, Zarrukh A; Monroy-Cuadros, Mauricio

    2014-05-19

    The reliability in Objective Structured Clinical Exams (OSCEs) is based on variance introduced due to examiners, stations, items, standardized patients (SP), and the interaction of one or more of these items with the candidates. The impact of SPs on the reliability has not been well studied. Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study was to assess the accuracy of portrayal by standardized patients. Four stations from a ten station high-stakes OSCE were selected for video recording. Due to the large number of candidates to be evaluated, the OSCE was administered using four assessment tracks. Four SPs were trained for each case (n = 16). Two physician assessors were trained to assess the accuracy of SP portrayal using a station-specific instrument based on the station guidelines. For the items with disagreement a third physician was asked to review and the mode was used for analysis. Each instrument included case-specific items on verbal and physical portrayal using a 3-point rating scale ("yes", "yes, but" and "not done"). The physician assessors also scored each SP on their overall performance based on a 5-item anchored global rating scale ("very poor", "poor", "ok", "good", and "very good"). SPs at location 1 were trained by one trainer and SPs at location 2 had another trainer. All SPs were employed in a high-stakes OSCE for at least the second time. The reliability of rating scores ranged from Cronbach's alpha of .40 to .74. Verbal portrayal by SPs did not significantly differ for most items; however, the facial expressions of the SPs differed significantly (p OSCE may contribute substantial error to OSCE assessments. The training of SPs should be strengthened and constantly monitored during the exam to ensure that the examinees' scores are a true reflection of their competency and devoid of exam errors.

  15. Perceptions of industrial and nuclear risks. Stakes, negotiations and social development of levels of risk acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, S.Ch.

    2007-11-01

    In this thesis we will question the perceptions of industrial risks in the occidental world at the beginning of the 21. century. For this purpose we will try to understand how concepts such as sustainable development, precautionary principle, liability, or even zero-risk bias have progressively developed around a thought model based on the scientific rationality. This model is now undermined by its incapacity to fully address the issues it raises and completely avoid the potential risks. However, despite consistent weaknesses, it remains a reference value moulded by past accidents which have led to the making of laws aiming mainly at defining liability and protecting those who are held liable. Thus, public information becomes a requirement for democracy and the protection of this thought model. In this context, the protagonists at stake are security-conscious, economical and political lobbies that constantly redefine the limits of risk acceptance. We come to the realization that our lifestyle and value system remain unchallenged even though undergoing a crisis. The specificity of this research lies into the importance we give to the local approach, dealing with registered Seveso sites and nuclear plants located in Indre et Loire. We have polled five categories of respondents through interviews or questionnaires in order to understand their opinion regarding situations involving technological risks. The result of this survey helps us understand and set the levels of risk acceptance that they define with regard to the industrial risks and show the complexity of a situation involving political stakes, environmental pressures, a profit-driven economy and security constraints, in a vague and complex context. This work gives us a contrasted picture of today's perceptions of risks. (author)

  16. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  17. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  18. Bureaucracy vs. Bioterrorism: Countering a Globalized Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY BUREAUCRACY VS. BIOTERRORISM: COUNTERING A GLOBALIZED THREAT by Stephen G. Hoffman, Lt Col, USAF...DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bureaucracy vs. Bioterrorism: Countering a Globalized Threat 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...and novel biothreats to our adversaries. Globalization and the increasing availability of knowledge required to develop biothreats coupled with

  19. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  20. Anomaly Detection of IP Header Threats

    OpenAIRE

    S.H.C. Haris, Ghossoon M. Waleed, R.B. Ahmad & M.A.H.A. Ghani

    2011-01-01

    Threats have become a big problem since the past few years as computerviruses are widely recognized as a significant computer threat. However, the roleof Information Technology security must be revisit again since it is too often. ITsecurity managers find themselves in the hopeless situation of trying to uphold amaximum of security as requested from management. At the same time they areconsidered an obstacle in the way of developing and introducing newapplications into business and government...