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Sample records for staircase maze training

  1. Positive and negative staircase effect during single twitch and train-of-four stimulation: a laboratory study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Flores, Manuel; Tseng, Chia T; Sakai, Daniel M; Romano, Marta; Campoy, Luis; Gleed, Robin D

    2017-04-01

    A positive staircase effect is well documented during neuromuscular monitoring. However, the increase in twitch amplitude may not remain stable over time. We compared the staircase phenomenon and twitch stability during single twitch (ST) or train-of-four (TOF) stimulation in anesthetized dogs. Force of contraction was measured in ten dogs. Each thoracic limb was stimulated with ST 0.1 Hz or TOF q 12 s for 25 min (random order). No neuromuscular blockers were administered. Every 5 min, ST and T1 amplitudes were compared within and between groups. Stability of twitch amplitude (5 % with TOF. An initial increase in ST amplitude remained stable over the observation period, but the increase in T1 amplitude during TOF was frequently followed by a decay. A stable twitch amplitude (variation twitch amplitude.

  2. Maze Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Maze Surgery Menu Topics Topics FAQs Maze Surgery Article Info En español Electrical impulses in your ... called an arrhythmia. Why do I need Maze surgery? Maze surgery is also called the Maze procedure. ...

  3. Second Language Learning with the Story Maze Task: Examining the Training Effect of Weaving through Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The maze task is a psycholinguistic experimental procedure that measures real-time incremental sentence processing. The task has recently been tested as a language learning tool with promising results. Therefore, the present study examines the merits of a contextualized version of this task: the story maze. The findings are consistent with…

  4. Generalising the staircase models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorey, P.; Ravanini, F.

    1993-01-01

    Systems of integral equations are proposed which generalise those previously encountered in connection with the so-called staircase models. Under the assumption that these equations describe the finite-size effects of relativistic field theories via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, analytical and numerical evidence is given for the existence of a variety of new roaming renormalisation group trajectories. For each positive integer k and s=0, .., k-1, these is a one-parameter family of trajectories, passing close by the coset conformal field theories G (k) xG (nk+s) /G ((n+1)k+s) before finally flowing to a massive theory for s=0, or to another coset model for s.=|0. (orig.)

  5. Spatial and Reversal Learning in the Morris Water Maze Are Largely Resistant to Six Hours of REM Sleep Deprivation Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair…

  6. Robust training attenuates TBI-induced deficits in reference and working memory on the radial 8-arm maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eSebastian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, it is estimated that nearly 10 million people sustain severe brain injuries leading to hospitalization and/or death every year. Amongst survivors, traumatic brain injury (TBI results in a wide variety of physical, emotional and cognitive deficits. The most common cognitive deficit associated with TBI is memory loss, involving impairments in spatial reference and working memory. However, the majority of research thus far has characterized the deficits associated with TBI on either reference or working memory systems separately, without investigating how they interact within in a single task. Thus we examined the effects of TBI on short-term working and long-term reference memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM with a sequence of 4 baited and 4 unbaited arms. Subjects were given 10 daily trials for 6 days followed by a memory retrieval test two weeks after training. Multiple training trials not only provide robust training, but also test the subjects’ ability to frequently update short-term memory while learning the reference rules of the task. Our results show that TBI significantly impaired short-term working memory function on previously acquired spatial information but has little effect on long-term reference memory. Additionally, TBI significantly increased working memory errors during acquisition and reference memory errors during retention testing two weeks later. With a longer recovery period after TBI, the robust RAM training mitigated the reference memory deficit in retention but not the short-term working memory deficit during acquisition. These results identify the resiliency and vulnerabilities of short-term working and long-term reference memory to TBI in the context of robust training. The data highlight the role of cognitive training and other behavioral remediation strategies implicated in attenuating deficits associated with TBI.

  7. Robust training attenuates TBI-induced deficits in reference and working memory on the radial 8-arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Veronica; Diallo, Aissatou; Ling, Douglas S F; Serrano, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that nearly 10 million people sustain severe brain injuries leading to hospitalization and/or death every year. Amongst survivors, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in a wide variety of physical, emotional and cognitive deficits. The most common cognitive deficit associated with TBI is memory loss, involving impairments in spatial reference and working memory. However, the majority of research thus far has characterized the deficits associated with TBI on either reference or working memory systems separately, without investigating how they interact within a single task. Thus, we examined the effects of TBI on short-term working and long-term reference memory using the radial 8-arm maze (RAM) with a sequence of four baited and four unbaited arms. Subjects were given 10 daily trials for 6 days followed by a memory retrieval test 2 weeks after training. Multiple training trials not only provide robust training, but also test the subjects' ability to frequently update short-term memory while learning the reference rules of the task. Our results show that TBI significantly impaired short-term working memory function on previously acquired spatial information but has little effect on long-term reference memory. Additionally, TBI significantly increased working memory errors during acquisition and reference memory errors during retention testing 2 weeks later. With a longer recovery period after TBI, the robust RAM training mitigated the reference memory deficit in retention but not the short-term working memory deficit during acquisition. These results identify the resiliency and vulnerabilities of short-term working and long-term reference memory to TBI in the context of robust training. The data highlight the role of cognitive training and other behavioral remediation strategies implicated in attenuating deficits associated with TBI.

  8. Maze Navigation by Honeybees: Learning Path Regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaowu; Mizutani, Akiko; Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the ability of honeybees to learn mazes of four types: constant-turn mazes, in which the appropriate turn is always in the same direction in each decision chamber; zig-zag mazes, in which the appropriate turn is alternately left and right in successive decision chambers; irregular mazes, in which there is no readily apparent pattern to the turns; and variable irregular mazes, in which the bees were trained to learn several irregular mazes simultaneously. The bees were able to learn to navigate all four types of maze. Performance was best in the constant-turn mazes, somewhat poorer in the zig-zag mazes, poorer still in the irregular mazes, and poorest in the variable irregular mazes. These results demonstrate that bees do not navigate such mazes simply by memorizing the entire sequence of appropriate turns. Rather, performance in the various configurations depends on the existence of regularity in the structure of the maze and on the ease with which this regularity is recognized and learned. PMID:11112795

  9. Adsorbing staircase polygons subject to a force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Nicholas R.

    2017-12-01

    We study several models of staircase polygons on the 45\\circ rotated square lattice, which interact with an impenetrable surface while also being pushed towards or pulled away from the surface by a force. The surface interaction is governed by a fugacity a and the force by a fugacity y. Staircase polygons are simplifications of more general self-avoiding polygons, a well-studied model of interacting ring polymers. For this simplified case we are able to exactly determine the limiting free energy in the full a-y plane, and demonstrate that staircase polygons exhibit four different phases, including a ‘mixed’ adsorbed-ballistic phase.

  10. Effects of an early experience involving training in a T-maze under either denial or receipt of expected reward through maternal contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios eStamatakis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The mother is the most salient stimulus for the developing pups and a number of early experience models employ manipulation of the mother-infant interaction. We have developed a new model which in addition to changes in maternal behavior includes a learning component on the part of the pups. More specifically, pups were trained in a T-maze and either received (RER rats or were denied (DER the reward of maternal contact, during postnatal days 10—13.Pups of both experimental groups learn the T-maze, but the RER do so more efficiently utilizing a procedural-type of learning and memory with activation of the dorsal basal ganglia. On the other hand, the DER experience leads to activation of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdala in the pups.In adulthood, male DER animals exhibit better mnemonic abilities in the Morris water maze and higher activation of the hippocampus, while they have decreased brain serotonergic activity, exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and proactive aggressive behavior in the resident-intruder test. On the other hand, male RER animals assume a reactive coping style in this test, showed increased emotionality as well as freezing in the memory test following both contextual and cued fear conditioning.

  11. Learning strategy preference of 5XFAD transgenic mice depends on the sequence of place/spatial and cued training in the water maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Cheol; Chung, ChiHye; Jeon, Won Kyung; Han, Jung-Soo

    2014-10-15

    Learning strategy preference was assessed in 5XFAD mice, which carry 5 familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutations. Mice were sequentially trained in cued and place/spatial versions of the water maze task. After training, a strategy preference test was conducted in which mice were required to choose between the spatial location where the platform had previously been during the place/spatial training, and a visible platform in a new location. 5XFAD and non-transgenic control mice showed equivalent escape performance in both training tasks. However, in the strategy preference test, 5XFAD mice preferred a cued strategy relative to control mice. When the training sequence was presented in the reverse order (i.e., place/spatial training before cued training), 5XFAD mice showed impairments in place/spatial training, but no differences in cued training or in the strategy preference test comparing to control. Analysis of regional Aβ42 deposition in brains of 5XFAD mice showed that the hippocampus, which is involved in the place/spatial learning strategy, had the highest levels of Aβ42 and the dorsal striatum, which is involved in cued learning strategy, showed a small increase in Aβ42 levels. The effect of training protocol order on performance, and regional differences in Aβ42 deposition observed in 5XFAD mice, suggest differential functional recruitment of brain structures related to learning in healthy and AD individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. (alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in maze

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: A study on current population status, sex ratio and age structures of Swayne's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) was carried out during 2009/2010 in Maze National Park. Total count method was used in an area of 220 km2 using well trained park scouts based on silent detection. There were 372 ...

  13. Endogenous anxiety and stress responses in water maze and Barnes maze spatial memory tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, F.E.; Hosseini, A.H.; McDonald, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of abnormally high or low stress on learning are well established. The Barnes maze and Morris water maze are two commonly-used tests of spatial memory, of which the water maze is considered more stressful; however, until now this has not been demonstrated empirically. In the present study, mice matched for performance on commonly-used anxiety tasks were trained on either the Barnes maze or water maze or received no cognitive testing. Water-maze training induced greater increases in plasma corticosterone than did Barnes maze training, assessed 30 min. after the final session. Importantly, spatial learning was inversely correlated with corticosterone levels in the water maze but not the Barnes maze, suggesting that performance on the water maze may be more affected by test-induced stress even within wild-type subjects of the same age and gender. These findings are important when considering the appropriate cognitive tasks for any experiment in which stress responses may differ systematically across groups. PMID:18996418

  14. Spatial and reversal learning in the Morris water maze are largely resistant to six hours of REM sleep deprivation following training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine M.; Booth, Victoria; Poe, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    This first test of the role of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in reversal spatial learning is also the first attempt to replicate a much cited pair of papers reporting that REM sleep deprivation impairs the consolidation of initial spatial learning in the Morris water maze. We hypothesized that REM sleep deprivation following training would impair both hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and learning a new target location within a familiar environment: reversal learning. A 6-d protocol was divided into the initial spatial learning phase (3.5 d) immediately followed by the reversal phase (2.5 d). During the 6 h following four or 12 training trials/day of initial or reversal learning phases, REM sleep was eliminated and non-REM sleep left intact using the multiple inverted flowerpot method. Contrary to our hypotheses, REM sleep deprivation during four or 12 trials/day of initial spatial or reversal learning did not affect training performance. However, some probe trial measures indicated REM sleep-deprivation–associated impairment in initial spatial learning with four trials/day and enhancement of subsequent reversal learning. In naive animals, REM sleep deprivation during normal initial spatial learning was followed by a lack of preference for the subsequent reversal platform location during the probe. Our findings contradict reports that REM sleep is essential for spatial learning in the Morris water maze and newly reveal that short periods of REM sleep deprivation do not impair concurrent reversal learning. Effects on subsequent reversal learning are consistent with the idea that REM sleep serves the consolidation of incompletely learned items. PMID:21677190

  15. [Subdural hygroma after falling down a staircase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, M.C. van der; Lammers, G.J.; Buchem, M.A. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    An 80-year-old man was admitted because of head trauma following a fall down a staircase. Initial CT-imaging of the brain showed only global atrophy, but repeated CT-imaging 4 days later revealed a subdural hygroma. Because of the discrepancy between the radiological deterioration and the unchanged

  16. Adaptive Staircase Measurement of Hand Proprioception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Hoseini

    Full Text Available Clinicians and researchers often need to measure proprioception (position sense, for example to monitor the progress of disease, to identify the cause of movement or balance problems, or to ascertain the effects of an intervention. While researchers can use sophisticated equipment to estimate proprioceptive acuity with good precision, clinicians lack this option and must rely on the subjective and imprecise methods currently available in the clinic. Here we describe a novel technique that applies psychometric adaptive staircase procedures to hand proprioception with a simple tablet-style apparatus that could easily be adapted for the clinic. We report test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity of the adaptive staircase method vs. two other methods that are commonly used in clinical settings: passive motion direction discrimination (PMDD and matching. As a first step, we focus on healthy adults. Subjects ages 18-82 had their proprioception measured with each of the three techniques, at the metacarpophalangeal joint in the second finger of the right hand. A subset completed a second session in which the measures were repeated, to assess test-retest reliability. Another subset had the measurements done by two different testers to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed using stepwise regression on age and activity level, and correlations calculated across the three methods. Results suggest that of the three methods, the adaptive staircase method yields the best test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity. The adaptive staircase method may prove to be a valuable clinical tool where more accurate assessment of proprioception is needed.

  17. Staircase Models from Affine Toda Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dorey, P; Dorey, Patrick; Ravanini, Francesco

    1993-01-01

    We propose a class of purely elastic scattering theories generalising the staircase model of Al. B. Zamolodchikov, based on the affine Toda field theories for simply-laced Lie algebras g=A,D,E at suitable complex values of their coupling constants. Considering their Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations, we give analytic arguments in support of a conjectured renormalisation group flow visiting the neighbourhood of each W_g minimal model in turn.

  18. Adaptive Staircase Measurement of Hand Proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Najmeh; Sexton, Brandon M; Kurtz, Karl; Liu, Yang; Block, Hannah J

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians and researchers often need to measure proprioception (position sense), for example to monitor the progress of disease, to identify the cause of movement or balance problems, or to ascertain the effects of an intervention. While researchers can use sophisticated equipment to estimate proprioceptive acuity with good precision, clinicians lack this option and must rely on the subjective and imprecise methods currently available in the clinic. Here we describe a novel technique that applies psychometric adaptive staircase procedures to hand proprioception with a simple tablet-style apparatus that could easily be adapted for the clinic. We report test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity of the adaptive staircase method vs. two other methods that are commonly used in clinical settings: passive motion direction discrimination (PMDD) and matching. As a first step, we focus on healthy adults. Subjects ages 18-82 had their proprioception measured with each of the three techniques, at the metacarpophalangeal joint in the second finger of the right hand. A subset completed a second session in which the measures were repeated, to assess test-retest reliability. Another subset had the measurements done by two different testers to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed using stepwise regression on age and activity level, and correlations calculated across the three methods. Results suggest that of the three methods, the adaptive staircase method yields the best test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity. The adaptive staircase method may prove to be a valuable clinical tool where more accurate assessment of proprioception is needed.

  19. Decreased hippocampal homoarginine and increased nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase levels in rats parallel training in a radial arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sase, Ajinkya; Nawaratna, Gayan; Hu, Shengdi; Wu, Guoyao; Lubec, Gert

    2016-09-01

    L-homoarginine (hArg) is derived from enzymatic guanidination of lysine. It was demonstrated that hArg is a substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, blocks lysine transport and inhibits the uptake of arginine into synaptosomes and modulates GABA responses ex vivo. As there is limited information on its physiological roles in the brain, the aim of the study was to show whether hippocampal or frontal lobe (FL) hArg is paralleling training in the radial arm maze (RAM) or NO formation. Hippocampi and FL of male Sprague-Dawley rats were taken from trained or yoked in a RAM. Then hArg and metabolites, NO and NO synthase (NOS) were determined by standard methods. The animals learned the task in the RAM showing significant reduction of working memory errors. hArg showed decreased levels in both brain regions of trained animals as compared to yoked animals. Nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) concentrations and NOS activity were significantly increased in hippocampi, F(1,36) = 170.5; P ≤ 0.0001 and FL, F(1,36) = 74.67; P ≤ 0.0001 of trained animals as compared to yoked animals. Levels of hArg were negatively correlated with NOx in hippocampus (r = -0.6355; P = 0.0483) but not in FL and with lysine in the FL (r = -0.6650; P = 0.0358). NOx levels were positively correlated with NOS in both the hippocampus (r = 0.7474; P = 0.0129) and FL (r = 0.9563; P ≤  0.0001). These novel findings indicate that hArg is linked to NO formation in hippocampus but not in FL and is paralleling spatial memory in the RAM.

  20. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  1. The imagination maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Scott; Rylander, Jeff

    2001-05-01

    Working off of a 10,000 Toyota TAPESTRY grant, 80 physics students at Maine East High School in Park Ridge, Illinois, spent the 1999-2000 school year building a gaint pool ball maze in the school's stairwell. The maze sits in a 10 × 11 × 1 ft recess in the wall. It features an 11-ft screwlift operated by a crank accessible to the passing student to raise the balls to the top where they then meander down four possible trails of copper tubing, performing a variety of physics tricks along the way. The project was a great lesson in organization, engineering, building, quality control, and of course, the laws of physics. The maze is now the "property" of all future AP physics classes whose job it will be to fine-tune, repair, replace, and generally take care of the maze.

  2. Post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade offers protection from retrograde interference but does not affect consolidation of weak or strong memory traces in the water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M; Langston, R F

    2006-01-01

    Memory consolidation is the process where labile memory traces become long-lasting, stable memories. Previous work has demonstrated that spatial memory consolidation, several days after training in a water maze had ceased, can be disrupted by a temporary intra hippocampal infusion of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate antagonist LY326325 (Riedel et al., 1999). Such reversible pharmacological techniques offer advantages over the permanent lesion studies that had first suggested a role for the hippocampus in memory consolidation. However, to date the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in such systems level processes remains controversial with evidence for impairments and augmentation of performance. Here we investigate the role of post-training hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade in rats and mice on the consolidation of weak and strong memory traces using an Atlantis water maze protocol. A hidden Atlantis platform was employed and rats (experiments 1 and 2) and mice (experiment 3) were required to dwell within 20 cm of the trained location to activate and subsequently reveal the escape platform. In experiments 1 and 3 a strong memory trace was established by training rats or mice for several days in the water maze. In experiment 2 a significantly weaker trace was instituted by reducing the training period. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade was induced after the last training trial and continued for seven days. Reliable memory for the trained platform location in a retention test 15 days after the last training day demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade did not affect memory consolidation in rats or mice. Our results also show that post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade can lead to better performance in further retention tests conducted after the consolidation and drug administration period. Those data suggest that specific post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade

  3. Structure and Evolution of Thermohaline Staircases in Tropical North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    series of mixed layers separated by sharp interfaces. The discovery of these ‘ thermohaline staircases’ by Tait and Howe (1968) further stimulated...EVOLUTION OF THERMOHALINE STAIRCASES IN TROPICAL NORTH ATLANTIC by Steven Wall December 2007 Thesis Advisor: Timour Radko Second Reader...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Structure and Evolution of Thermohaline Staircases in Tropical North Atlantic 6. AUTHOR(S

  4. The creativity maze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourgeois-Bougrine, Samira; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Botella, Marion

    2014-01-01

    The present article aims to address a current gap in our understanding of creativity in screenplay writing by focusing on the cognitive, conative, affective, and environmental factors that come into play at different stages in the creative process. It reports a study employing in-depth interviews...... and or treatment), and, finally, intense periods of writing and rewriting the script. These 3 stages, and, in particular, the multiple and concrete decisions to be taken within each one of them, support a vision of the creative process in this domain metaphorically conceptualized as crossing a maze. Creators...

  5. Dual-Sided Adsorption: Devil's Staircase of Coverage Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Youjian; Chia, Cheng-Ing; Crespi, Vincent H.

    2018-02-01

    By adsorbing the same species onto both sides of a suspended, atomically thin membrane, it is possible to couple two distinct surface adsorption systems. This new system, with reflection symmetry about the membrane, is described by a phase diagram with two axes, both representing the chemical potential of the same element, but in distinct half-spaces. For the case of potassium adsorption onto a graphene membrane, the result is a devil's staircase of fractions for the proportion of adsorbates adhered to one side. Fractions with simpler denominators are favored across wider regions of chemical potential, a pattern reminiscent of other fractional systems across a wide range of physics. Since the system can support multiple devil's staircases each at a distinct overall adsorbate areal density, points along the boundary between adjacent staircases can come arbitrarily close to violating the Gibbs phase rule. This dual-sided adsorbate geometry provides a means to explore surface science for pairs of weakly coupled surfaces.

  6. Quantum conductance staircase of holes in silicon nanosandwiches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay T. Bagraev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying the quantum conductance staircase of holes in one-dimensional channels obtained by the split-gate method inside silicon nanosandwiches that are the ultra-narrow quantum well confined by the delta barriers heavily doped with boron on the n-type Si (100 surface are reported. Since the silicon quantum wells studied are ultra-narrow (~2 nm and confined by the delta barriers that consist of the negative-U dipole boron centers, the quantized conductance of one-dimensional channels is observed at relatively high temperatures (T>77 K. Further, the current-voltage characteristic of the quantum conductance staircase is studied in relation to the kinetic energy of holes and their sheet density in the quantum wells. The results show that the quantum conductance staircase of holes in p-Si quantum wires is caused by independent contributions of the one-dimensional (1D subbands of the heavy and light holes. In addition, the field-related inhibition of the quantum conductance staircase is demonstrated in the situation when the energy of the field-induced heating of the carriers become comparable to the energy gap between the 1D subbands. The use of the split-gate method made it possible to detect the effect of a drastic increase in the height of the quantum conductance steps when the kinetic energy of holes is increased; this effect is most profound for quantum wires of finite length, which are not described under conditions of a quantum point contact. In the concluding section of this paper we present the findings for the quantum conductance staircase of holes that is caused by the edge channels in the silicon nanosandwiches prepared within frameworks of the Hall geometry. This longitudinal quantum conductance staircase, Gxx, is revealed by the voltage applied to the Hall contacts, with the plateaus and steps that bring into correlation respectively with the odd and even fractional values.

  7. Acoustic Mapping of Thermohaline Staircases in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranne, Christian; Mayer, Larry; Weber, Thomas C; Ruddick, Barry R; Jakobsson, Martin; Jerram, Kevin; Weidner, Elizabeth; Nilsson, Johan; Gårdfeldt, Katarina

    2017-11-09

    Although there is enough heat contained in inflowing warm Atlantic Ocean water to melt all Arctic sea ice within a few years, a cold halocline limits upward heat transport from the Atlantic water. The amount of heat that penetrates the halocline to reach the sea ice is not well known, but vertical heat transport through the halocline layer can significantly increase in the presence of double diffusive convection. Such convection can occur when salinity and temperature gradients share the same sign, often resulting in the formation of thermohaline staircases. Staircase structures in the Arctic Ocean have been previously identified and the associated double diffusive convection has been suggested to influence the Arctic Ocean in general and the fate of the Arctic sea ice cover in particular. A central challenge to understanding the role of double diffusive convection in vertical heat transport is one of observation. Here, we use broadband echo sounders to characterize Arctic thermohaline staircases at their full vertical and horizontal resolution over large spatial areas (100 s of kms). In doing so, we offer new insight into the mechanism of thermohaline staircase evolution and scale, and hence fluxes, with implications for understanding ocean mixing processes and ocean-sea ice interactions.

  8. Transient granular shock waves and upstream motion on a staircase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weele, J.P.; Kanellopoulos, Giorgos; Tsiavos, Christos; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2009-01-01

    A granular cluster, placed on a staircase setup, is brought into motion by vertical shaking. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the system goes through three phases. After a rapid initial breakdown of the cluster, the particle stream organizes itself in the form of a shock wave moving down the

  9. Aniracetam improves radial maze performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J R; Cumin, R; Aschwanden, W; Moreau, J L; Jenck, F; Haefely, W E

    1992-01-01

    The memory enhancing effect of the pyrrolidinone derivative aniracetam was investigated in rats trained in a delayed-response task in an 8-arm radial maze. Oral administration of aniracetam (100, 200, 400, or 800 mg kg-1) 16 h and again 1 h prior to a first trial of exposure to a given configuration of 4 baited arms resulted in a significant improvement in performance during a second trial in the maze given 3 h later in which there was access to all 8 arms but only the other 4 arms were baited. The pattern of baited arms was varied daily. The performance enhancement was greatest for the highest doses. These results extend the demonstration of the cognition enhancing effects of aniracetam to a spatial memory task in rats.

  10. Memory-Enhancing Activity of Palmatine in Mice Using Elevated Plus Maze and Morris Water Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Dhingra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmatine on memory of Swiss young male albino mice. Palmatine (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/kg, i.p. and physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p. per se were administered for 10 successive days to separate groups of mice. Effect of drugs on learning and memory of mice was evaluated using elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also estimated. Effect of palmatine on scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia was also investigated. Palmatine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg and physostigmine significantly improved learning and memory of mice, as indicated by decrease in transfer latency using elevated plus maze, and decrease in escape latency during training and increase in time spent in target quadrant during retrieval using Morris water maze. The drugs did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice. Memory-enhancing activity of palmatine (1 mg/kg was comparable to physostigmine. Palmatine (1 mg/kg significantly reversed scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia in mice. Palmatine and physostigmine also significantly reduced brain acetylcholinesterase activity of mice. Thus, palmatine showed memory-enhancing activity in mice probably by inhibiting brain acetylcholinesterase activity, through involvement of GABA-benzodiazepine pathway, and due to its antioxidant activity.

  11. Staircase polygons, scaling functions and asymmetric compact directed percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Kearney, M J

    2002-01-01

    The scaling function for compact directed percolation on a square lattice is investigated for the asymmetric case where two parameters control the critical behaviour. A simple representation for the area-perimeter generating function for staircase polygons is found, which can be recast as a non-linear functional equation. From this, the exact scaling function is extracted. In the process, the most concise derivations to date are given for the exact low order cluster moments. (letter to the editor)

  12. Staircase in mammalian muscle without light chain phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassier D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In disuse atrophied skeletal muscle, the staircase response is virtually absent and light chain phosphorylation does not occur. The purpose of the present study was to determine if staircase could be restored in atrophied muscle with continued absence of myosin light chain phosphorylation, by reducing what appears to be an otherwise enhanced calcium release. Control (untreated and sham-operated female Sprague-Dawley rats were compared with animals after 2 weeks of complete inactivity induced by tetrodotoxin (TTX application to the left sciatic nerve. In situ isometric contractile responses of rat gastrocnemius muscle were analyzed before and after administration of dantrolene sodium (DS, a drug which is known to inhibit Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle. Twitch active force (AF was attenuated by DS from 2.2 ± 0.2 N, 2.7 ± 0.1 N and 2.4 ± 0.2 N to 0.77 ± 0.2 N, 1.05 ± 0.1 N and 1.01 ± 0.2 N in TTX (N = 5, sham (N = 11 and control (N = 7 muscles, respectively. Following dantrolene treatment, 10 s of 10-Hz stimulation increased AF to 1.32 ± 0.2 N, 1.52 ± 0.1 N and 1.45 ± 0.2 N for the TTX, sham and control groups, respectively, demonstrating a positive staircase response. Regulatory light chain (R-LC phosphorylation was lower for TTX-treated (5.5 ± 5.5% than for control (26.1 ± 5.3% and sham (20.0 ± 5% groups. There was no significant change from resting levels for any of the groups after DS treatment (P = 0.88. This study shows that treatment with dantrolene permits staircase in atrophied muscle as well as control muscle, by a mechanism which appears to be independent of R-LC phosphorylation.

  13. Unbiased classification of spatial strategies in the Barnes maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illouz, Tomer; Madar, Ravit; Clague, Charlotte; Griffioen, Kathleen J; Louzoun, Yoram; Okun, Eitan

    2016-11-01

    Spatial learning is one of the most widely studied cognitive domains in neuroscience. The Morris water maze and the Barnes maze are the most commonly used techniques to assess spatial learning and memory in rodents. Despite the fact that these tasks are well-validated paradigms for testing spatial learning abilities, manual categorization of performance into behavioral strategies is subject to individual interpretation, and thus to bias. We have previously described an unbiased machine-learning algorithm to classify spatial strategies in the Morris water maze. Here, we offer a support vector machine-based, automated, Barnes-maze unbiased strategy (BUNS) classification algorithm, as well as a cognitive score scale that can be used for memory acquisition, reversal training and probe trials. The BUNS algorithm can greatly benefit Barnes maze users as it provides a standardized method of strategy classification and cognitive scoring scale, which cannot be derived from typical Barnes maze data analysis. Freely available on the web at http://okunlab.wix.com/okunlab as a MATLAB application. eitan.okun@biu.ac.ilSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Harmonic generation by internal waves in a thermohaline staircase with rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Scott

    2017-11-01

    Thermohaline staircases, generated by double-diffusive convection, are found in many regions of the ocean. Oceanic internal waves interact with these staircases. Recent results show that, in linear theory, internal waves with sufficiently long wavelengths are transmitted through the staircase, while short wavelengths may be reflected. However, nonlinear self-interaction of internal waves with the sharp density jumps within the staircase is expected to generate double-wavenumber harmonics of the incident waves. This effect removes energy from the incident waves, reducing the transmitted energy in some cases. Energy transferred to the harmonic waves may also impact the stability of the staircase. Here, weakly nonlinear theory is used to explore the implications of this nonlinear effect on the dynamics of internal waves in oceanic thermohaline staircases. Rotation is included, and variations with latitude are considered.

  15. Circle Maps and the Devil's Staircase in a Chemical Oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Gross, P.; Bar-Eli, K.

    1996-01-01

    We explain numerical results on a periodically perturbed Oregonator by Markman and Bar-Eli (J. Phys. Chem. 98 12248 (1994)). If the dynamics of the system is governed by a family of diffeomorphisms of a circle with a Devil's staircase one will expect the observed behavior, i.e. (1) Only periodic...... that an invariant circle must indeed exist when, as in the case under consideration, the unperturbed system is close to a saddle-node bifurcation on a limit cycle. Generalisations of the results are discussed....

  16. Dynamics of a jumping particle on a staircase profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.; Romero-Valles, M.J.; Torres, P.J.; Veerman, J.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the dynamics of the descent of a particle bouncing down a staircase profile under the action of gravity. In order to get interesting dynamics we make a detail analysis of the case which the particle loses momentum in the direction orthogonal to the collision plane but preserves the tangential component of the momentum. We prove that in this case all orbits are bounded and show the existence and stability of periodic solutions. The interplay between loss and gain of energy due to impacts and free falling respectively generates a rich dynamics

  17. Dynamics of fingering convection II: The formation of thermohaline staircases

    OpenAIRE

    Stellmach, S.; Traxler, A.; Garaud, P.; Brummell, N.; Radko, T.

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2011.99 Regions of the ocean's thermocline unstable to salt fingering are often observed to host thermohaline staircases, stacks of deep well-mixed convective layers separated by thin stably-stratified interfaces. Decades after their discovery, however, their origin remains controversial. In this paper we use 3D direct numerical simulations to shed light on the problem. We study the evolution of an analogous d...

  18. Double-diffusive staircases in gas giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaud, Pascale; Moll, Ryan; Mankovich, Chris; Fortney, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    We present Direct Numerical Simulations of the transport of heat and heavy elements across a double-diffusive interface or a double-diffusive staircase, in conditions that are close to those one may expect to find near the boundary between the heavy-element rich core and the hydrogen-helium envelope of giant planets such as Jupiter. We find that the non-dimensional ratio of the buoyancy flux associated with heavy element transport to the buoyancy flux associated with heat transport lies roughly between 0.5 and 1, which is much larger than previous estimates derived by analogy with geophysical double-diffusive convection. We also find that the structure of double-diffusive interfaces at low Prandtl number differs significantly from those observed at high Prandtl number. Using these results, we find that the entire core of Jupiter would be eroded within less than 1Myr assuming that the core-envelope boundary is composed of a single interface, but could be entirely preserved in the presence of a staircase. This is particularly pertinent in the context of present and anticipated results from the Juno mission. Supported by NSF AST 1412951, NASA NNX15AQ62H.

  19. Staircase falls: High-risk groups and injury characteristics in 464 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele van Hensbroek, P.; Mulder, S.; Luitse, J. S. K.; van Ooijen, M. R.; Goslings, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Few data are available about the epidemiology and injury characteristics in staircase falls. The available literature mainly concerns children and autopsy studies. Objective: To describe the epidemiology and injury characteristics of staircase falls, and to identify high-risk groups

  20. A robust vision-based method for staircase detection and localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maohai, Li; Han, Wang; Lining, Sun; Zesu, Cai

    2014-05-01

    A robust vision-based staircase identification method is proposed, which comprises 2D staircase detection and 3D staircase localization. The 2D detector pre-screens the input image, and the 3D localization algorithm continues the task of retrieving geometry of the staircase on the reported region in the image. A novel set of principal component analysis-based Haar-like features are introduced, which extends the classical Haar-like features from local to global domain and are extremely efficient at rejecting non-object regions for the early stages of the cascade, and the Viola-Jones rapid object detection framework is improved to adapt the context of staircase detection, modifications have been made on the scanning scheme, multiple detections integrating scheme and the final detection evaluation metrics. The V-disparity concept is applied to detect the planar regions on the staircase surface and locate 3D planes quickly from disparity maps, and then, the 3D position of staircase is localized robustly. Finally, experiments show the performance of the proposed method.

  1. A computer vision-based automated Figure-8 maze for working memory test in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, Samuel F; Song, Eun Young; Jung, Min Whan; Kim, Jeansok J

    2006-09-30

    The benchmark test for prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated working memory in rodents is a delayed alternation task utilizing variations of T-maze or Figure-8 maze, which requires the animals to make specific arm entry responses for reward. In this task, however, manual procedures involved in shaping target behavior, imposing delays between trials and delivering rewards can potentially influence the animal's performance on the maze. Here, we report an automated Figure-8 maze which does not necessitate experimenter-subject interaction during shaping, training or testing. This system incorporates a computer vision system for tracking, motorized gates to impose delays, and automated reward delivery. The maze is controlled by custom software that records the animal's location and activates the gates according to the animal's behavior and a control algorithm. The program performs calculations of task accuracy, tracks movement sequence through the maze, and provides other dependent variables (such as running speed, time spent in different maze locations, activity level during delay). Testing in rats indicates that the performance accuracy is inversely proportional to the delay interval, decreases with PFC lesions, and that animals anticipate timing during long delays. Thus, our automated Figure-8 maze is effective at assessing working memory and provides novel behavioral measures in rodents.

  2. Navigation using sensory substitution in real and virtual mazes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Robert Chebat

    Full Text Available Under certain specific conditions people who are blind have a perception of space that is equivalent to that of sighted individuals. However, in most cases their spatial perception is impaired. Is this simply due to their current lack of access to visual information or does the lack of visual information throughout development prevent the proper integration of the neural systems underlying spatial cognition? Sensory Substitution devices (SSDs can transfer visual information via other senses and provide a unique tool to examine this question. We hypothesize that the use of our SSD (The EyeCane: a device that translates distance information into sounds and vibrations can enable blind people to attain a similar performance level as the sighted in a spatial navigation task. We gave fifty-six participants training with the EyeCane. They navigated in real life-size mazes using the EyeCane SSD and in virtual renditions of the same mazes using a virtual-EyeCane. The participants were divided into four groups according to visual experience: congenitally blind, low vision & late blind, blindfolded sighted and sighted visual controls. We found that with the EyeCane participants made fewer errors in the maze, had fewer collisions, and completed the maze in less time on the last session compared to the first. By the third session, participants improved to the point where individual trials were no longer significantly different from the initial performance of the sighted visual group in terms of errors, time and collision.

  3. Navigation using sensory substitution in real and virtual mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Under certain specific conditions people who are blind have a perception of space that is equivalent to that of sighted individuals. However, in most cases their spatial perception is impaired. Is this simply due to their current lack of access to visual information or does the lack of visual information throughout development prevent the proper integration of the neural systems underlying spatial cognition? Sensory Substitution devices (SSDs) can transfer visual information via other senses and provide a unique tool to examine this question. We hypothesize that the use of our SSD (The EyeCane: a device that translates distance information into sounds and vibrations) can enable blind people to attain a similar performance level as the sighted in a spatial navigation task. We gave fifty-six participants training with the EyeCane. They navigated in real life-size mazes using the EyeCane SSD and in virtual renditions of the same mazes using a virtual-EyeCane. The participants were divided into four groups according to visual experience: congenitally blind, low vision & late blind, blindfolded sighted and sighted visual controls. We found that with the EyeCane participants made fewer errors in the maze, had fewer collisions, and completed the maze in less time on the last session compared to the first. By the third session, participants improved to the point where individual trials were no longer significantly different from the initial performance of the sighted visual group in terms of errors, time and collision.

  4. Structure and Dynamics of the Thermohaline Staircases in the Beaufort Gyre

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Ana L

    2007-01-01

    .... The primary convective regime in the Arctic region is characterized by the spontaneous formation of well mixed layers separated by thin high-gradient interfaces known as thermohaline staircases...

  5. First step towards a Devil´s staircase in spin-crossover materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trzop, E.; Zhang, D.; Pineiro-Lopez, L.; Valverde-Munoz, F.J.; Munoz, M.C.; Palatinus, Lukáš; Guerin, L.; Cailleau, H.; Real, J.A.; Collet, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 30 (2016), s. 8675-8679 ISSN 0044-8249 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : aperiodicity * coordination polymers * Devil’s staircase * phase transitions * spin-crossover Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  6. [DIN-compatible vision assessment of increased reproducibility using staircase measurement and maximum likelihood analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigmann, U; Petersen, J

    1996-08-01

    Visual acuity determination according to DIN 58,220 does not make full use of the information received about the patient, in contrast to the staircase method. Thus, testing the same number of optotypes, the staircase method should yield more reproducible acuity results. On the other hand, the staircase method gives systematically higher acuity values because it converges on the 48% point of the psychometric function (for Landolt rings in eight positions) and not on the 65% probability, as DIN 58,220 with criterion 3/5 does. This bias can be avoided by means of a modified evaluation. Using the staircase data we performed a maximum likelihood estimate of the psychometric function as a whole and computed the acuity value for 65% probability of correct answers. We determined monocular visual acuity in 102 persons with widely differing visual performance. Each subject underwent four tests in random order, two according to DIN 58,220 and two using the modified staircase method (Landolt rings in eight positions scaled by a factor 1.26; PC monitor with 1024 x 768 pixels; distance 4.5 m). Each test was performed with 25 optotypes. The two procedures provide the same mean visual acuity values (difference less than 0.02 acuity steps). The test-retest results match in 30.4% of DIN repetitions but in 50% of the staircases. The standard deviation of the test-retest difference is 1.41 (DIN) and 1.06 (modified staircase) acuity steps. Thus the standard deviation of the single test is 1.0 (DIN) and 0.75 (modified staircase) acuity steps. The new method provides visual acuity values identical to DIN 58,220 but is superior with respect to reproducibility.

  7. Simple Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Staircase Forward Error Correction (FEC) Scheme for FECFRAME

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, Vincent; Cunche, Mathieu; Lacan, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Request for Comments 6816; This document describes a fully specified simple Forward Error Correction (FEC) scheme for Low-Density Parity Check (LDPC) Staircase codes that can be used to protect media streams along the lines defined by FECFRAME. These codes have many interesting properties: they are systematic codes, they perform close to ideal codes in many use-cases, and they also feature very high encoding and decoding throughputs. LDPC-Staircase codes...

  8. Climatic irregular staircases: generalized acceleration of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Saedeleer, Bernard

    2016-01-27

    Global warming rates mentioned in the literature are often restricted to a couple of arbitrary periods of time, or of isolated values of the starting year, lacking a global view. In this study, we perform on the contrary an exhaustive parametric analysis of the NASA GISS LOTI data, and also of the HadCRUT4 data. The starting year systematically varies between 1880 and 2002, and the averaging period from 5 to 30 yr - not only decades; the ending year also varies . In this way, we uncover a whole unexplored space of values for the global warming rate, and access the full picture. Additionally, stairstep averaging and linear least squares fitting to determine climatic trends have been sofar exclusive. We propose here an original hybrid method which combines both approaches in order to derive a new type of climatic trend. We find that there is an overall acceleration of the global warming whatever the value of the averaging period, and that 99.9% of the 3029 Earth's climatic irregular staircases are rising. Graphical evidence is also given that choosing an El Niño year as starting year gives lower global warming rates - except if there is a volcanic cooling in parallel. Our rates agree and generalize several results mentioned in the literature.

  9. Three-Dimensional Structure of Thermohaline Staircases in the Tropical North Atlantic and Their Effect on Acoustic Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    STRUCTURE OF THERMOHALINE STAIRCASES IN THE TROPICAL NORTH ATLANTIC AND THEIR EFFECT ON ACOUSTIC PROPAGATION by Amy C. Bulters December... THERMOHALINE STAIRCASES IN THE TROPICAL NORTH ATLANTIC AND THEIR EFFECT ON ACOUSTIC PROPAGATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Amy C. Bulters 7...overlies cold, fresh fluid). The formation of staircases in the thermohaline structure of the ocean has been observed since the late 1960s, with

  10. [Glass maze in women's leadership].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá Heredia, Ester; Ramos López, Amparo; Candela Agulló, Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Psychological gender discrimination explanations have changed over the past thirty years, becoming more complex in order to obtain a better understanding of the social reality. At the present moment, one of the most interesting research areas is the one referring to the 'glass maze' phenomenon in women's management careers. The main purpose of this work is to reveal the theoretical evolution in an attempt to explain the leadership study from a gender perspective. The consecutive hypotheses, starting with the labour sexual division idea, are becoming more interactive in order to understand the current labour-social situation. Social psychology has underlined the role of beliefs, observed via gender stereotyped roles, prejudiced attitudes against women, sexist and neo-sexist ideology, or masculine, feminine and androgynous identity development. New psychological interpretations insist on the variability of the gender concept, where gender is sometimes observed through men and women's behaviours, and other times through those behaviour expectations. But gender is mainly observed though the power relations between men and women during social interactions in labour organizations.

  11. Seismic imaging of a thermohaline staircase in the western tropical North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel seismic data acquired in the Lesser Antilles in the western tropical North Atlantic indicate that the seismic reflection method has imaged an oceanic thermohaline staircase. Synthetic acoustic modeling using measured density and sound speed profiles corroborates inferences from the seismic data. In a small portion of the seismic image, laterally coherent, uniform layers are present at depths ranging from 550–700 m and have a separation of ~20 m, with thicknesses increasing with depth. The reflection coefficient, a measure of the acoustic impedance contrasts across these reflective interfaces, is one order of magnitude greater than background noise. Hydrography sampled in previous surveys suggests that the layers are a permanent feature of the region. Spectral analysis of layer horizons in the thermohaline staircase indicates that internal wave activity is anomalously low, suggesting weak internal wave-induced turbulence. Results from two independent measurements, the application of a finescale parameterization to observed high-resolution velocity profiles and direct measurements of turbulent dissipation rate, confirm these low levels of turbulence. The lack of internal wave-induced turbulence may allow for the maintenance of the staircase or may be due to suppression by the double-diffusive convection within the staircase. Our observations show the potential for seismic oceanography to contribute to an improved understanding of occurrence rates and the geographical distribution of thermohaline staircases, and should thereby improve estimates of vertical mixing rates ascribable to salt fingering in the global ocean.

  12. Staircase polymetalsilicon nanocomplexes - Polymetalphenyl siloxanes: Structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapkin, N. P.; Balanov, M. I.; Razov, V. I.; Gardionov, S. V.; Mayorov, V. Yu; Tokar, E. A.; Papynov, E. K.; Korochentsev, V. V.; Leont'ev, L. B.; Slobodyuk, A. B.; Modin, E. B.

    2018-03-01

    Polyphenyl siloxanes containing chromium, iron, and aluminum in the backbone chain have been synthesized. The structure of the obtained staircase nano-metal complexes has been studied by the methods of XRD analysis and IR, 29Si and 27Al NMR, and XPS spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Physical-chemical characteristics of these compounds have been investigated by the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The data of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) enabled us to calculate the size and volume of coherent scattering regions (CSR) and the cross-section area of the polymer chains. By means of the PAS method, the specific volumes of positron (Ve+) and positronium (Vps) "traps" have been calculated. The data of 29Si NMR spectroscopy have shown the presence of T2 and T3 fragments in the structure. As was shown on the basis of the data of 27Al NMR and XPS spectroscopy, tetrahedral (66%) and octahedral surroundings of the metal atom were realized in the backbone chain. The obtained data were used to describe a spatial layered structure of phenyl siloxanes containing trivalent metals. The electron microscopy of nanocomplexes revealed the presence of spherical particles, whose size changes in cases of chromium, iron, and aluminum. Using the data of low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, it was assumed that the specific surface area was filled with a layer of compacted spherical particles, whereas the layer thickness was determined, in its turn, by the specific polarizing potential (SPP) calculated as a ratio of the polarizing potential (PP) to the volume of voids between coherent scattering regions. Similar dependence is observed between the layer thickness and the specific polarizing potential calculated as a ratio of the polarizing potential to the positronium "trap" volume. A direct dependence between the thickness of the spherical particles layer and the specific polarizing potential has been demonstrated. The assumption

  13. Seismic Oceanography in the Tyrrhenian Sea: Thermohaline Staircases, Eddies, and Internal Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffett, G. G.; Krahmann, G.; Klaeschen, D.; Schroeder, K.; Sallarès, V.; Papenberg, C.; Ranero, C. R.; Zitellini, N.

    2017-11-01

    We use seismic oceanography to document and analyze oceanic thermohaline fine structure across the Tyrrhenian Sea. Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data were acquired during the MEDiterranean OCcidental survey in April-May 2010. We deployed along-track expendable bathythermograph probes simultaneous with MCS acquisition. At nearby locations we gathered conductivity-temperature-depth data. An autonomous glider survey added in situ measurements of oceanic properties. The seismic reflectivity clearly delineates thermohaline fine structure in the upper 2,000 m of the water column, indicating the interfaces between Atlantic Water/Winter Intermediate Water, Levantine Intermediate Water, and Tyrrhenian Deep Water. We observe the Northern Tyrrhenian Anticyclone, a near-surface mesoscale eddy, plus laterally and vertically extensive thermohaline staircases. Using MCS, we are able to fully image the anticyclone to a depth of 800 m and to confirm the horizontal continuity of the thermohaline staircases of more than 200 km. The staircases show the clearest step-like gradients in the center of the basin while they become more diffuse toward the periphery and bottom, where impedance gradients become too small to be detected by MCS. We quantify the internal wave field and find it to be weak in the region of the eddy and in the center of the staircases, while it is stronger near the coastlines. Our results indicate this is because of the influence of the boundary currents, which disrupt the formation of staircases by preventing diffusive convection. In the interior of the basin, the staircases are clearer and the internal wave field weaker, suggesting that other mixing processes such as double diffusion prevail.

  14. Thermohaline staircases in the Amundsen Basin: Possible disruption by shear and mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, John D.; Fer, Ilker; Morison, James H.

    2017-10-01

    As part of the 2013 and 2014 North Pole Environmental Observatories (NPEO) in the Amundsen Basin of the Arctic Ocean, two similar temperature microstructure experiments were performed with different results. In 2013, vertical fluxes were through a thermohaline staircase, and in 2014, the thermohaline staircase was largely absent. Here we investigate the reasons for this difference. The 2013 data set was characterized by an extensive thermohaline staircase, indicative of the diffusive convective type of double diffusion (DC), from 120 to 250 m depths. The staircase was absent above 200 m in 2014, even though analysis of density ratio, Rρ, still shows high susceptibility to DDC. In the depth range of interest, survey-averaged Rρ = 3.8 in 2013 and Rρ = 3.6 in 2014, indicating that the temperature-salinity structure in the pycnocline was not the cause of the lack of a staircase in 2014. We propose that exceptionally weak turbulent mixing, even for the typically quiescent Arctic Ocean, allowed formation of the staircase in 2013. Average thermal diffusivity, KT, between 50 and 120 m is elevated in 2014, 2 × 10-5 m2 s-1, compared to 2013, 1 × 10-6 m2 s-1. However, vertical Atlantic Water (AW) DC heat fluxes in 2013 are remarkably consistent with turbulent heat fluxes in 2014. Similar data sets collected in 2007 and 2008 both resemble 2014, showing consistently higher mixing values compared to 2013. The suppression of turbulence during NPEO 2013 resulted from increased near-surface stratification, possibly caused by a different large-scale circulation pattern that year.

  15. Conception et optimisation de codes AL-FEC : les codes GLDPC-Staircase

    OpenAIRE

    Mattoussi, Ferdaouss

    2014-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the design, analysis and optimization of Application-Level Forward Erasure Correction (AL-FEC) codes. In particular, we explore a class of Gen- eralized LDPC (GLDPC) codes, named GLDPC-Staircase codes, involving the LDPC- Staircase code (base code) as well as Reed-Solomon (RS) codes (outer codes). In the first part of this thesis, we start by showing that RS codes having “quasi” Han- kel matrix-based construction are the most suitable MDS codes to obtain the structur...

  16. Using a staircase procedure for the objective measurement of auditory stream integration and segregation thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Isabel Spielmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis describes the ability to segregate relevant sounds out from the environment and to integrate them into a single sound stream using the characteristics of the sounds to determine whether or not they are related. This study aims to contrast task performances in objective threshold measurements of segregation and integration using identical stimuli, manipulating two variables known to influence streaming, inter-stimulus-interval (ISI and frequency difference (Δf. For each measurement, one parameter (either ISI or Δf was held constant while the other was altered in a staircase procedure. By using this paradigm, it is possible to test within-subject across multiple conditions, covering a wide Δf and ISI range in one testing session. The objective tasks were based on across-stream temporal judgments (facilitated by integration and within-stream deviance detection (facilitated by segregation. Results show the objective integration task is well suited for combination with the staircase procedure, as it yields consistent threshold measurements for separate variations of ISI and Δf, as well as being significantly related to the subjective thresholds. The objective segregation task appears less suited to the staircase procedure. With the integration-based staircase paradigm, a comprehensive assessment of streaming thresholds can be obtained in a relatively short space of time. This permits efficient threshold measurements particularly in groups for which there is little prior knowledge on the relevant parameter space for streaming perception.

  17. Spontaneous Recovery of Human Spatial Memory in a Virtual Water Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, David; Martínez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous recovery in human spatial memory was assessed using a virtual environment. In Experiment 1, spatial memory was established by training participants to locate a hidden platform in a virtual water maze using a set of four distal landmarks. In Experiment 2, after learning about the location of a hidden platform, the…

  18. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C

    2010-01-01

    and environmental cues such as temperature and echolocation. We hypothesize that by limiting these cues, blind individuals will lose their advantage compared with controls in spatial navigation tasks. We therefore evaluated the performance of blind and sighted individuals in small-scale, tactile multiple T mazes...

  19. Architectural design and physical activity: an observational study of staircase and elevator use in different buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, David R; Browning, Ray; Conger, Scott A; Wolff, Dana L; Flynn, Jennifer I

    2013-05-01

    The indoor built environment has the potential to influence levels of physical activity. However, the extent to which architectural design in commercial buildings can influence the percentage of people choosing to use the stairs versus elevators is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if buildings with centrally located, accessible, and aesthetically pleasing staircases result in a greater percentage of people taking the stairs. Direct observations of stair and elevator use were conducted in 3 buildings on a university campus. One of the buildings had a bank of 4 centrally located elevators and a fire escape stairwell behind a steel door. The other 2 buildings had centrally located staircases and out-of-the-way elevators. The percentage of people who ascended the stairs was 8.1% in the elevator-centric building, compared with 72.8% and 81.1% in the 2 stair-centric buildings (P < .001). In addition, the percentage of people who descended the stairs was 10.8% in the first building, compared with 89.5% and 93.7% in the stair-centric buildings (P < .001). The results of the current study suggest that if buildings are constructed with centrally located, accessible, and aesthetically pleasing staircases, a greater percentage of people will choose to take the stairs.

  20. Staircase tableaux, the asymmetric exclusion process, and Askey-Wilson polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corteel, Sylvie; Williams, Lauren K

    2010-04-13

    We introduce some combinatorial objects called staircase tableaux, which have cardinality 4(n)n!, and connect them to both the asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP) and Askey-Wilson polynomials. The ASEP is a model from statistical mechanics introduced in the late 1960s, which describes a system of interacting particles hopping left and right on a one-dimensional lattice of n sites with open boundaries. It has been cited as a model for traffic flow and translation in protein synthesis. In its most general form, particles may enter and exit at the left with probabilities alpha and gamma, and they may exit and enter at the right with probabilities beta and delta. In the bulk, the probability of hopping left is q times the probability of hopping right. Our first result is a formula for the stationary distribution of the ASEP with all parameters general, in terms of staircase tableaux. Our second result is a formula for the moments of (the weight function of) Askey-Wilson polynomials, also in terms of staircase tableaux. Since the 1980s there has been a great deal of work giving combinatorial formulas for moments of classical orthogonal polynomials (e.g. Hermite, Charlier, Laguerre); among these polynomials, the Askey-Wilson polynomials are the most important, because they are at the top of the hierarchy of classical orthogonal polynomials.

  1. A Maze Game on Android Using Growing Tree Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Y. F.

    2018-01-01

    A maze is a type of puzzle games where a player moves in complex and branched passages to find a particular target or location. One method to create a maze is the Growing Tree method. The method creates a tree that has branches which are the paths of a maze. This research explored three types of Growing Tree method implementations for maze generation on Android mobile devices. The layouts produced could be played in first and third-person perspectives. The experiment results showed that it took 17.3 seconds on average to generate 20 cells x 20 cells dynamic maze layouts.

  2. Circle maps and the Devil's staircase in a periodically perturbed Oregonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Gross, Peter; Bar-Eli, Kedma

    1997-01-01

    there is a step with the period being the sum of the two periods and the concatenation of the two patterns (3) Certain scaling properties as the period tends to infinity. We show that such behavior occurs if the dynamics of the system is governed by a family of diffeomorphisms of a circle with a Devil's staircase....... Using invariant manifold theory we argue that an invariant circle must indeed exist when, as in the present case, the unforced system is close to a saddle-loop bifurcation. Generalisations of the results are briefly discussed....

  3. How to monitor and mitigate stair-casing in l1 trend filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Cristian R.; Wahlberg, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the estimation of changing trends in time-series using $\\ell_1$ trend filtering. This method generalizes 1D Total Variation (TV) denoising for detection of step changes in means to detecting changes in trends, and it relies on a convex optimization problem for which there are very efficient numerical algorithms. It is known that TV denoising suffers from the so-called stair-case effect, which leads to detecting false change points. The objective of this paper is to show...

  4. High Voltage Staircase Drive Circuit for Triggered High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Keisuke; Okada, Jumpei; Nakamura, Kotaro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2012-07-01

    In triggered high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, cavitation clouds are produced by extremely high intensity trigger pulses and enhance the effect of following heating waves. The ultrasound intensity must be quickly changed from that for trigger pulses to that for heating waves before cavitation clouds vanish. We newly designed and constructed a class D amplifier based on a staircase voltage drive concept, which has the capability of outputting high voltage waves for trigger pulses and continuous waves for heating waves and the capability of fast switching between the two modes. Its efficacy was confirmed by an experiment with a BSA containing polyacrylamide gel.

  5. Structured chaos in a devil's staircase of the Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M. [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Botha, A. E., E-mail: bothaae@unisa.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of South Africa, Science Campus, Private Bag X6, Florida Park 1710 (South Africa); Medvedeva, S. Yu. [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Kolahchi, M. R. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195-1159, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Irie, A. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Systems Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    The phase dynamics of Josephson junctions (JJs) under external electromagnetic radiation is studied through numerical simulations. Current-voltage characteristics, Lyapunov exponents, and Poincaré sections are analyzed in detail. It is found that the subharmonic Shapiro steps at certain parameters are separated by structured chaotic windows. By performing a linear regression on the linear part of the data, a fractal dimension of D = 0.868 is obtained, with an uncertainty of ±0.012. The chaotic regions exhibit scaling similarity, and it is shown that the devil's staircase of the system can form a backbone that unifies and explains the highly correlated and structured chaotic behavior. These features suggest a system possessing multiple complete devil's staircases. The onset of chaos for subharmonic steps occurs through the Feigenbaum period doubling scenario. Universality in the sequence of periodic windows is also demonstrated. Finally, the influence of the radiation and JJ parameters on the structured chaos is investigated, and it is concluded that the structured chaos is a stable formation over a wide range of parameter values.

  6. Optimal Trajectory Generation for Walking Up and Down a Staircase with a Biped Robot Using Genetic Algorithm (GA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Manseok; Kim, Jong-Wook

    In this paper, a humanoid is simulated and implemented to walk up and down a staircase using the blending polynomial and genetic algorithm (GA). Both ascending and descending a staircase are scheduled by four steps. Each step mimics natural gait of human being and is easy to analyze and implement. Optimal trajectories of ten motors in a lower extremity of a humanoid are rigorously computed to simultaneously satisfy stability condition, walking constraints, and energy efficiency requirements. As an optimization method, GA is applied to search optimal trajectory parameters in blending polynomials. The feasibility of this approach will be validated by simulation with a small humanoid robot.

  7. The Borromini's helicoidal staircase in Barberini Palace: scan laser survey and parametric modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Paris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the study of the shape and geometry of the helicoidal staircase in Barberini Palace. Integrated models of representation (graphic and 3D have been produced starting from the digital data acquired by a laser scanner, processed and subsequently managed through procedures for optimizing the cloud-points.The realization of the helicoidal staircase in the Barberini Palace has an important rule in the architectural history because  it is a wonderful example of the constructive development of a complex geometric shape which is a helix oval. This stair should be read and interpreted as evidence of a particular period,the Roman Baroque, rich of intertwining and overlapping of ecclesiastical and noble commissions, of alternations in the yards of the greatest artists and architects of the era, often working simultaneously. Borromini proposes a modification to the first design of Maderno, which included a helicoidal staircase to the right of the large porch entrance to the palace, imagining a new oval stair  with a set of six twin columns for each revolution, very similar to the staircase that had been built a few years earlier, in 1585, at the Quirinale Palace by the Mascherino. Borromini had worked a few years earlier, under the direction of Maderno, in the Quirinal Palace, having a possibility to carefully study the Mascherino’s oval stair .Following the death of Maderno (1629 the yard of the Barberini Palace takes over the Bernini. Borromini will initiate a collaboration destined to end soon. The scale will be built in 1633 when now Borromini had already left the yard.The article wants above all to highlight the correlations between form and geometry when designing a campaign of digital acquisition using a laser scanner. Indeed, there are important implications to choice the positioning points of the instrument, with important fallout on the relationship between quality and quantity of a points cloud. The points cloud is a 3D

  8. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with 3 He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance

  9. Rapid learning of magnetic compass direction by C57BL/6 mice in a 4-armed 'plus' water maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B Phillips

    Full Text Available Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in all five vertebrate classes. In rodents, nest building experiments have shown the use of magnetic cues by two families of molerats, Siberian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice. However, assays widely used to study rodent spatial cognition (e.g. water maze, radial arm maze have failed to provide evidence for the use of magnetic cues. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice can learn the magnetic direction of a submerged platform in a 4-armed (plus water maze. Naïve mice were given two brief training trials. In each trial, a mouse was confined to one arm of the maze with the submerged platform at the outer end in a predetermined alignment relative to magnetic north. Between trials, the training arm and magnetic field were rotated by 180(° so that the mouse had to swim in the same magnetic direction to reach the submerged platform. The directional preference of each mouse was tested once in one of four magnetic field alignments by releasing it at the center of the maze with access to all four arms. Equal numbers of responses were obtained from mice tested in the four symmetrical magnetic field alignments. Findings show that two training trials are sufficient for mice to learn the magnetic direction of the submerged platform in a plus water maze. The success of these experiments may be explained by: (1 absence of alternative directional cues (2, rotation of magnetic field alignment, and (3 electromagnetic shielding to minimize radio frequency interference that has been shown to interfere with magnetic compass orientation of birds. These findings confirm that mice have a well-developed magnetic compass, and give further impetus to the question of whether epigeic rodents (e.g., mice and rats have a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass similar to that found in amphibians and migratory birds.

  10. Effect of single and fractionated x-irradiation on maze learning ability of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Isao

    1976-01-01

    Fifty-six-day-old male ddk mice at the starting of the investigation were used as subjects through the experiment for 64 weeks. After 15 days' preliminary training, and 16 times of weekly trial training using complete maze, 15 mice received a single 224 rads of x-rays (S group), another 15 mice received two 112 rads spaced two weeks apart (F group) and another 15 mice were sham-irradiated (Control group). Then those mice were tested on the multiple T-maze with nine-choice points and change of performance was observed in terms of errorchoices by giving one test trial a week. We introduced the concept of ''confusional trials'' as an index for surmising to what extent mice failed to exhibit good maze learning habits. In the results, the F group showed significantly worse performance than the two other groups at early stages, opposite to it the S group exhibited the same, but at late stages after irradiation. The worse performance of F group should be considered to be due to the psychological after-effect to fractionated irradiation and that for S group could be assumed to be due to the acceleration of aging by the irradiation. (auth.)

  11. Orientation of lizards in a Morris water-maze: roles of the sun compass and the parietal eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foà, Augusto; Basaglia, Francesca; Beltrami, Giulia; Carnacina, Margherita; Moretto, Elisa; Bertolucci, Cristiano

    2009-09-15

    The present study examined for the first time whether a Morris water-maze can be used to explore compass and other orientation mechanisms in the ruin lizard Podarcis sicula. In the open field, during sunny days, lizards were individually trained to swim from the center of the water maze onto a hidden platform (the goal), positioned at the periphery of the maze in a single compass direction. The goal was invisible because it was placed just beneath the water surface and the water was rendered opaque. The results showed that lizards learn to swim directly towards the hidden goal under the sun in the absence of visual feature cues. We further examined whether the observed orientation response would be due to lizards learning the spatial position of the goal relative to the sun's azimuth, i.e. to the use of a time-compensated sun compass. Lizards reaching learning criteria were subjected to 6 h clock-shift (fast or slow), and tested for goal orientation in the Morris water-maze. Results demonstrated that the learned orientation response is mediated by a time-compensated sun compass. Further investigations provided direct evidence that in ruin lizards an intact parietal eye is required to perform goal orientation under the sun inside a Morris water-maze, and that other brain photoreceptors, like the pineal or deep brain photoreceptors, are not involved in orientation.

  12. Terrorism as a process: a critical review of Moghaddam's "Staircase to Terrorism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygre, Ragnhild B; Eid, Jarle; Larsson, Gerry; Ranstorp, Magnus

    2011-12-01

    This study reviews empirical evidence for Moghaddam's model "Staircase to Terrorism," which portrays terrorism as a process of six consecutive steps culminating in terrorism. An extensive literature search, where 2,564 publications on terrorism were screened, resulted in 38 articles which were subject to further analysis. The results showed that while most of the theories and processes linked to Moghaddam's model are supported by empirical evidence, the proposed transitions between the different steps are not. These results may question the validity of a linear stepwise model and may suggest that a combination of mechanisms/factors could combine in different ways to produce terrorism. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. Spatial memory impairment in Morris water maze after electroconvulsive seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Maria; Hallin, Thord; Broms, Jonas; Ekstrand, Joakim; Tingström, Anders

    2017-02-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficient treatments for severe major depression, but some patients suffer from retrograde memory loss after treatment. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, have repeatedly been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis, and multiple ECS treatments cause retrograde amnesia in hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Since recent studies propose that addition of newborn hippocampal neurons might degrade existing memories, we investigated whether the memory impairment after multiple ECS treatments is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments, or if it is the result of a delayed effect after a single ECS. We used the hippocampus-dependent memory task Morris water maze (MWM) to evaluate spatial memory. Rats were exposed to an 8-day training paradigm before receiving either a single ECS or sham treatment and tested in the MWM 24 h, 72 h, or 7 days after this treatment, or multiple (four) ECS or sham treatments and tested 7 days after the first treatment. A single ECS treatment was not sufficient to cause retrograde amnesia whereas multiple ECS treatments strongly disrupted spatial memory in the MWM. The retrograde amnesia after multiple ECS is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments rather than a delayed effect after a single ECS.

  14. Problem-solving in English through business mazes

    CERN Document Server

    Farthing, Joni

    1981-01-01

    We choose our job carefully. What we cannot choose are our colleagues - so it's not surprising that conflict and friction can arise in our working relationships. Business Mazes presents such problems for you to solve. Follow a route through the maze ans see the outcome of each decision you make. You may find that the quickest rout isn't always the best, or the easiest, in the long run. Business Mazes is designed for intermediate and advanced level students of English, working alone or in groups. It includes full teaching plans and exercises. The mazes may also be used effectively as an interesting approach to discussion for young people preparing their first job.

  15. Memory-impairing effects of local anesthetics in an elevated plus-maze test in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Blatt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-training intracerebroventricular administration of procaine (20 µg/µl and dimethocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, local anesthetics of the ester class, prolonged the latency (s in the retention test of male and female 3-month-old Swiss albino mice (25-35 g body weight; N = 140 in the elevated plus-maze (mean ± SEM for 10 male mice: control = 41.2 ± 8.1; procaine = 78.5 ± 10.3; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 58.7 ± 12.3; 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 109.6 ± 5.73; for 10 female mice: control = 34.8 ± 5.8; procaine = 55.3 ± 13.4; 10 µg/µl dimethocaine = 59.9 ± 12.3 and 20 µg/µl dimethocaine = 61.3 ± 11.1. However, lidocaine (10 or 20 µg/µl, an amide class type of local anesthetic, failed to influence this parameter. Local anesthetics at the dose range used did not affect the motor coordination of mice exposed to the rota-rod test. These results suggest that procaine and dimethocaine impair some memory process(es in the plus-maze test. These findings are interpreted in terms of non-anesthetic mechanisms of action of these drugs on memory impairment and also confirm the validity of the elevated plus-maze for the evaluation of drugs affecting learning and memory in mice

  16. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Wieczorek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  17. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G. F.; Stock, G. M.; Reichenbach, P.; Snyder, J. B.; Borchers, J. W.; Godt, J. W.

    2008-05-01

    Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  18. The Farey series devil's staircase: Connection to dynamical-systems, statistical physics, music theory and music perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Richard; Douthett, Jack; Cartwright, Julyan; Gonzalez, Diego; Piro, Oreste

    2010-10-01

    Some time ago two apparently dissimilar presentations were given at the 2007 Helmholtz Workshop in Berlin. One by J. Douthett and R. Krantz focused on the commonality between the mathematical descriptions of musical scales and the long-ranged, one-dimensional, anti-ferromagnetic Ising model of statistical physics. The other by J. Cartwright, D. Gonzalez, and O. Piro articulated a nonlinear dynamical model of pitch perception. Both approaches lead to a Farey series devil's staircase structure. In the first case, the ground state magnetic phase diagram of the Ising model is a Farey series devil's staircase. In the second case, the ear is modeled as a nonlinear system leading to a three-frequency resonant pitch perception model of the auditory system that exhibits a devil's staircase phase-locked structure. In this poster we present a summary of each of these works side-by-side to illuminate the link between these two seemingly disparate systems. Adapted from JMM Vol. 4, No. 1, 57, Mar. 2010.

  19. A link between planar polarity and staircase-like bundle architecture in hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarchini, Basile; Tadenev, Abigail L D; Devanney, Nicholas; Cayouette, Michel

    2016-11-01

    Sensory perception in the inner ear relies on the hair bundle, the highly polarized brush of movement detectors that crowns hair cells. We previously showed that, in the mouse cochlea, the edge of the forming bundle is defined by the 'bare zone', a microvilli-free sub-region of apical membrane specified by the Insc-LGN-Gαi protein complex. We now report that LGN and Gαi also occupy the very tip of stereocilia that directly abut the bare zone. We demonstrate that LGN and Gαi are both essential for promoting the elongation and differential identity of stereocilia across rows. Interestingly, we also reveal that total LGN-Gαi protein amounts are actively balanced between the bare zone and stereocilia tips, suggesting that early planar asymmetry of protein enrichment at the bare zone confers adjacent stereocilia their tallest identity. We propose that LGN and Gαi participate in a long-inferred signal that originates outside the bundle to model its staircase-like architecture, a property that is essential for direction sensitivity to mechanical deflection and hearing. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Behavior and spatial learning in radial mazes in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskacheva, M G

    2009-10-01

    This review addresses studies of spatial memory and learning in birds performed using the radial maze method. Descriptions of different versions of this test (standard and "giant" tunnel-type mazes, as well as unstructured "analogs") are described and the methodological problems of testing birds are discussed. Behavioral measures from birds and laboratory rats, as the "standard" system for radial maze studies, are compared. The characteristics of spatial learning in birds of different systematic groups (pigeons, tits, corvids, chickens, etc.) are compared. Particular attention is paid to studies addressing spatial memory in closely related bird species with different ecological features, in terms of the ability to hoard food and finding their hoards after prolonged time periods, as well as to the few reports of results from experiments with migrant birds and homing pigeons.

  1. Effect of a water-maze procedure on the redox mechanisms in brain parts of aged rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andreevna Krivova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze (MWM is a tool for assessment of age-related cognitive deficits. In our work, MWM was used for appraisal of cognitive deficits in 11-month-old rats and investigation of the effect exerted by training in the Morris water maze on the redox mechanisms in rat brain parts. Young adult (3-month-old and aged (11-month-old male rats were trained in the water maze. Intact animals of the corresponding age were used as the reference groups. The level of pro- and antioxidant capacity in brain tissue homogenates was assessed using the chemiluminescence method.Cognitive deficits were found in 11-month-old rats: at the first day of training they showed only 30% of successful MWM trials. However, at the last training day the percentage of successful trials was equal for young adult and aged animals. This indicates that cognitive deficits in aged rats can be reversed by MWM training. Therewith, the MWM spatial learning procedure itself produces changes in different processes of redox homeostasis in 11-month-old and 3-month-old rats as compared to intact animals. Young adult rats showed a decrease in prooxidant capacity in all brain parts, while 11-month-old rats demonstrated an increase in antioxidant capacity in the olfactory bulb, pons + medulla oblongata and frontal lobe cortex. Hence, the MWM procedure activates the mechanisms that restrict the oxidative stress in brain parts. The obtained results may be an argument for further development of the animal training procedures aimed to activate the mechanisms responsible for age-related cognitive deficits. This may be useful not only for the development of training procedures applicable to human patients with age-related cognitive impairments, but also for their rehabilitation.

  2. Myosin phosphorylation improves contractile economy of mouse fast skeletal muscle during staircase potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunda, Jordan; Gittings, William; Vandenboom, Rene

    2018-01-30

    Phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) potentiates rodent fast twitch muscle but is an ATP-requiring process. Our objective was to investigate the effect of skMLCK-catalyzed RLC phosphorylation on the energetic cost of contraction and the contractile economy (ratio of mechanical output to metabolic input) of mouse fast twitch muscle in vitro (25°C). To this end, extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from wild-type (WT) and from skMLCK-devoid (skMLCK -/- ) mice were subjected to repetitive low-frequency stimulation (10 Hz for 15 s) to produce staircase potentiation of isometric twitch force, after which muscles were quick frozen for determination of high-energy phosphate consumption (HEPC). During stimulation, WT muscles displayed significant potentiation of isometric twitch force while skMLCK -/- muscles did not (i.e. 23% versus 5% change, respectively). Consistent with this, RLC phosphorylation was increased ∼3.5-fold from the unstimulated control value in WT but not in skMLCK -/- muscles. Despite these differences, the HEPC of WT muscles was not greater than that of skMLCK -/- muscles. As a result of the increased contractile output relative to HEPC, the calculated contractile economy of WT muscles was greater than that of skMLCK -/- muscles. Thus, our results suggest that skMLCK-catalyzed phosphorylation of the myosin RLC increases the contractile economy of WT mouse EDL muscle compared with skMLCK -/- muscles without RLC phosphorylation. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Effects of zolpidem on sedation, anxiety, and memory in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Karina A; Patti, Camilla L; Sanday, Leandro; Fernandes-Santos, Luciano; Oliveira, Larissa C; Poyares, Dalva; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Zolpidem (Zolp), a hypnotic drug prescribed to treat insomnia, may have negative effects on memory, but reports are inconsistent. We examined the effects of acute doses of Zolp (2, 5, or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) on memory formation (learning, consolidation, and retrieval) using the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task. Mice were acutely treated with Zolp 30 min before training or testing. In addition, the effects of Zolp and midazolam (Mid; a classic benzodiazepine) on consolidation at different time points were examined. The possible role of state dependency was investigated using combined pre-training and pre-test treatments. Zolp produced a dose-dependent sedative effect, without modifying anxiety-like behavior. The pre-training administration of 5 or 10 mg/kg resulted in retention deficits. When administered immediately after training or before testing, memory was preserved. Zolp post-training administration (2 or 3 h) impaired subsequent memory. There was no participation of state dependency phenomenon in the amnestic effects of Zolp. Similar to Zolp, Mid impaired memory consolidation when administered 1 h after training. Amnestic effects occurred when Zolp was administered either before or 2-3 h after training. These memory deficits are not related to state dependency. Moreover, Zolp did not impair memory retrieval. Notably, the memory-impairing effects of Zolp are similar to those of Mid, with the exception of the time point at which the drug can modify consolidation. Finally, the memory effects were unrelated to sedation or anxiolysis.

  4. Control of magnetotactic bacterium in a micro-fabricated maze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Pichel, Marc Philippe; Pichel, M.P.; Reefman, B.A.; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the closed-loop control of a magnetotactic bacterium (MTB), i.e., Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, within a micro-fabricated maze using a magneticbased manipulation system. The effect of the channel wall on the motion of the MTB is experimentally analyzed. This analysis is done by

  5. A Hierarchical Maze Navigation Algorithm with Reinforcement Learning and Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannucci, T.; van Kampen, E.; Jin, Y; Kollias, S.

    2016-01-01

    Goal-finding in an unknown maze is a challenging problem for a Reinforcement Learning agent, because the corresponding state space can be large if not intractable, and the agent does not usually have a model of the environment. Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning has been shown in the past to

  6. Validating the Electric Maze Task as a Measure of Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kelly W.; Cheatham, Carol L.

    2017-01-01

    The Electric Maze Task (EMT) is a novel planning task designed to allow flexible testing of planning abilities across a broad age range and to incorporate manipulations to test underlying planning abilities, such as working-memory and inhibitory control skills. The EMT was tested in a group of 63 typically developing 7- to 12-year-olds.…

  7. What does the CBM-maze test measure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Kendeou, P.; de Jong, P.F.; van den Broek, P.W.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we identified the code-related (decoding, fluency) and language comprehension (vocabulary, listening comprehension) demands of the CBM-Maze test, a formative assessment, and compared them to those of the Gates–MacGinitie test, a standardized summative assessment. The demands of these

  8. Postoperative metabolic acidosis following the minimally invasive radiofrequency maze procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Patrick Hom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia treated in the world. While medical treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs remains the primary treatment modality, symptomatic refractory AF often requires treatment with a catheter or surgical ablation. One minimally invasive therapy is the Mini-Maze procedure, which utilizes epicardial radiofrequency ablation via a subxiphoid approach to rid the heart of arrhythmogenic atrial foci without a median sternotomy or cardiopulmonary bypass. The goal of this retrospective cohort study was to identify clinical factors associated with metabolic acidosis following the Mini-Maze procedure. Materials and Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, we studied patients undergoing the Mini-Maze procedure, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting or patients conventional Cox-Maze on cardiopulmonary bypass. The first base deficit value obtained in the Intensive Care Unit was used as a measure of metabolic acidosis. Using logistic regression with Akaike information criteria, we analyzed preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data to determine the factors associated with changes in base deficit. Results: A multivariable model using stepwise selection demonstrated that diabetes mellitus and weight were associated with a decrease in the base deficit by 2.87 mEq/L (95% CI: −5.55-−0.19 and 0.04 mEq/L (95%CI: −0.08, 0.004, respectively. Furthermore, creatinine was associated with a 1.57 mEq/L (95% CI: 0.14, 2.99 increase in the base deficit. Conclusion: The Mini-Maze procedure was not associated with postoperative metabolic acidosis. Instead, nondiabetic patients and patients with higher creatinine were associated with greater base deficits after undergoing cardiac surgery.

  9. 7-NI and ODQ Disturbs Memory in the Elevated Plus Maze, Morris Water Maze, and Radial Arm Maze Tests in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Oguz; Akar, Furuzan; Celikyurt, Ipek Komsuoglu; Tanyeri, Pelin; Ulak, Guner; Erden, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an atypical neurotransmitter that causes changes in cognition. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitors have been shown to exert some effects on cognition in previous studies; however, the findings have been controversial. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), and a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), on spatial memory in modified elevated plus maze (mEPM), Morris water maze (MWM), and radial arm maze (RAM) tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated via intraperitoneal injections with 7-NI (15 mg/kg), ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) + 7-NI (15 mg/kg), or physiological saline. ODQ (3 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly increased the second-day latency in the mEPM test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg) and ODQ (10 mg/kg) significantly increased the escape latency in second, third, and fourth sessions, decreased the time spent in the escape platform's quadrant, and increased the mean distance to the platform in the probe trial of the MWM test. ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg) and 7-NI (15 mg/kg) significantly increased the number of errors, whereas only 7-NI increased the latency in the RAM test. The administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg) prior to 7-NI inverted the effects of 7-NI, which supports the role of NO on cognition. Our study shows that the NO/cGMP/GS pathway can regulate spatial memory in mice.

  10. 7-NI and ODQ Disturbs Memory in the Elevated plus Maze, Morris Water Maze, and Radial Arm Maze Tests in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an atypical neurotransmitter that causes changes in cognition. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS and guanylate cyclase (GC inhibitors have been shown to exert some effects on cognition in previous studies; however, the findings have been controversial. This study was aimed at understanding the effects of an NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, and a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1 H -[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, on spatial memory in modified elevated plus maze (mEPM, Morris water maze (MWM, and radial arm maze (RAM tests. Male Balb-c mice were treated via intraperitoneal injections with 7-NI (15 mg/kg, ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg, L-arginine (100 mg/kg + 7-NI (15 mg/kg, or physiological saline. ODQ (3 mg/kg and 7-NI (15 mg/kg significantly increased the second-day latency in the mEPM test. 7-NI (15 mg/kg and ODQ (10 mg/kg significantly increased the escape latency in second, third, and fourth sessions, decreased the time spent in the escape platform's quadrant, and increased the mean distance to the platform in the probe trial of the MWM test. ODQ (3, 10 mg/kg and 7-NI (15 mg/kg significantly increased the number of errors, whereas only 7-NI increased the latency in the RAM test. The administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg prior to 7-NI inverted the effects of 7-NI, which supports the role of NO on cognition. Our study shows that the NO/cGMP/GS pathway can regulate spatial memory in mice.

  11. Effects of caffeine on learning and memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.M. Angelucci

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied some of the characteristics of the improving effect of the non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine, using an animal model of learning and memory. Groups of 12 adult male Wistar rats receiving caffeine (0.3-30 mg/kg, ip, in 0.1 ml/100 g body weight administered 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before the test session were tested in the spatial version of the Morris water maze task. Post-training administration of caffeine improved memory retention at the doses of 0.3-10 mg/kg (the rats swam up to 600 cm less to find the platform in the test session, P<=0.05 but not at the dose of 30 mg/kg. Pre-test caffeine administration also caused a small increase in memory retrieval (the escape path of the rats was up to 500 cm shorter, P<=0.05. In contrast, pre-training caffeine administration did not alter the performance of the animals either in the training or in the test session. These data provide evidence that caffeine improves memory retention but not memory acquisition, explaining some discrepancies among reports in the literature.

  12. Learning about cognition risk with the radial-arm maze in the developmental neurotoxicology battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction has been found in epidemiological studies to be among the most sensitive impairments associated with developmental exposure to a variety of environmental contaminants from heavy metals to polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and pesticides. These chemicals have been also shown to impair cognitive function after developmental exposure in experimental animal models. The radial-arm maze (RAM) has proven to be a sensitive and reliable way to assess both learning and memory in a variety of species, most often in rats and mice. The RAM is a very adaptable test method that takes advantage of rodents' instinct to explore new places in the environment to forage. That is, rodents do not need to be trained to run through the maze; they will normally do this from the initial session of testing. Training with differential reinforcement for arm choices provides a more rigorous test of learning and memory. The RAM is quite adaptable for assessing various aspects of cognition. Although the RAM has been mostly used to assess spatial learning and memory, it can be configured to assess non-spatial memory as well. Both working and reference memory can be easily distinguished. The RAM can be run with both appetitive (food reinforced) and aversive (water escape) motivators. The RAM has been found to be sensitive to a wide variety of developmental toxicants including heavy metals such as mercury and pesticides such as chlorpyrifos. There is an extremely rich literature especially with rats showing the effects of many types of brain lesions and drug effects so that the participation of a wide variety of neural systems in RAM performance is known. These systems, notably the hippocampus and frontal cortex, and acetylcholine and glutamate neurotransmitter systems, are the same neural systems that have been shown in humans to be critical for learning and memory. This considerably aids the interpretation of neurobehavioral toxicity studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  13. Novel conformal technique to reduce staircasing artifacts at material boundaries for FDTD modeling of the bioheat equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, E [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Chavannes, N [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Samaras, T [Radiocommunications Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kuster, N [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-08-07

    The modeling of thermal effects, often based on the Pennes Bioheat Equation, is becoming increasingly popular. The FDTD technique commonly used in this context suffers considerably from staircasing errors at boundaries. A new conformal technique is proposed that can easily be integrated into existing implementations without requiring a special update scheme. It scales fluxes at interfaces with factors derived from the local surface normal. The new scheme is validated using an analytical solution, and an error analysis is performed to understand its behavior. The new scheme behaves considerably better than the standard scheme. Furthermore, in contrast to the standard scheme, it is possible to obtain with it more accurate solutions by increasing the grid resolution.

  14. Staircase and saw-tooth field emission steps from nanopatterned n-type GaSb surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kildemo, M.; Le Roy, S.; Søndergård, E.

    2009-01-01

    High resolution field emission experiments from nanopatterned GaSb surfaces consisting of densely packed nanocones prepared by low ion-beam-energy sputtering are presented. Both uncovered and metal-covered nanopatterned surfaces were studied. Surprisingly, the field emission takes place by regular steps in the field emitted current. Depending on the field, the steps are either regular, flat, plateaus, or saw-tooth shaped. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first time that such results have been reported. Each discrete jump in the field emission may be understood in terms of resonant tunneling through an extended surface space charge region in an n-type, high aspect ratio, single GaSb nanocone. The staircase shape may be understood from the spatial distribution of the aspect ratio of the cones.

  15. A new approach for separating low-molecular-weight RNA molecules by staircase electrophoresis in non-sequencing gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Encarna; Rivas, Raúl; del Villar, María; Valverde, Angel; Peix, Alvaro; Mateos, Pedro F; Velázquez, Enrique; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    2006-05-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA profiles, which include ribosomal and transfer RNA molecules with similar small sizes, are molecular signatures of microorganisms with a great potential in microbial identification. The greatest resolution of these profiles was achieved by staircase electrophoresis in sequencing gels. Nevertheless, this technique is difficult to use because it takes 7 h, the gels have large sizes and it is necessary to heat the system and to recycle the buffer to maintain the denaturing conditions and avoid smile effects. Most available sequencing slabs have no internal temperature control or homogenizing devices, which by contrast are present in some newly designed non-sequencing slabs. Nevertheless, these slabs present two important problems for separating LMW RNA molecules, the size of gels is only 20 cm (instead of 40 cm) and the maximum voltage that can be reached is only 840 V (instead 2400 V). Staircase electrophoresis follows a model in which the external polarization is incrementally modified with a constant time step value. In the present work, we experimentally confirmed that by reducing the time step and increasing the total number of steps a suitable resolution is achieved. Under these conditions, despite the smaller size of the gels and the lower values of the electric field, the intensity reaches higher values than in sequencing gels and the LMW RNA profiles are correctly separated in 5 h. The resolution of these profiles obtained in non-sequencing gels is similar to that obtained in sequencing ones facilitating the analysis of large populations of microorganisms in any laboratory.

  16. Navigating a Maze with Balance Board and Wiimote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikkert, Wim; Hoeijmakers, Niek; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

    Input from the lower body in human-computer interfaces can be beneficial, enjoyable and even entertaining when users are expected to perform tasks simultaneously. Users can navigate a virtual (game) world or even an (empirical) dataset while having their hands free to issue commands. We compared the Wii Balance Board to a hand-held Wiimote for navigating a maze and found that users completed this task slower with the Balance Board. However, the Balance Board was considered more intuitive, easy to learn and ‘much fun’.

  17. Penentuan Nilai Motorik Halus Anak Dengan Game Magic Maze Menggunakan Metode Mamdani

    OpenAIRE

    Fadly, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Motor development is a very important factor in the development of the whole child. fine motor skills are very important because it affects the other terms of learning in early childhood. Therefore, it made the game Magic Maze to assess motor skills early childhood. Game Magic Maze in this study using Mamdani method in determining the values to a child's fine motor skills. Maze game will be made on the PC. 081402045

  18. Cognitive enrichment for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): evaluation of a novel underwater maze device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Davies, Samuel L; Madigan, Andrew W; Warner, Abby J; Kuczaj, Stan A

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive enrichment is gaining popularity as a tool to enhance captive animal well-being, but research on captive cetaceans is lacking. Dolphin cognition has been studied intensively since the 1950s, and several hundred bottlenose dolphins are housed in major zoos and aquaria worldwide, but most dolphin enrichment consists of simple floating objects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel, underwater maze device (UMD) was cognitively enriching for one group of male and one group of female dolphins at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, CA. The dolphin's task was to navigate a rubber ball through a maze of pipes, towards an exit pipe. We also tested a modification where an edible gelatine ball fell into the pool once the UMD was solved. The UMD was provided to each group between 8 and 11 times over a 4-week period. Male dolphins used the UMD without prior training, whereas females did not use the UMD at all. Two male dolphins solved the UMD 17 times, using a variety of problem-solving strategies. The UMD had no significant effect on circular (repetitive) swimming patterns, but males spent significantly more time underwater when the UMD was present. Males used the UMD significantly more when it contained the rubber ball, but the gelatine ball stimulated social play. The UMD is a safe and practical device for captive dolphins. It now requires further testing on other dolphins, particularly females, to in order to examine whether the sex differences we observed are a general phenomenon. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Influence of age on cognition and scopolamine induced memory impairment in rats measured in the radial maze paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenroth, Dorothea; Fleck, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The influence of age on (1) cognition and (2) scopolamine (CAS 51-34-3) induced memory impairment in female rats was measured in the radial maze paradigm (RAM). (1) First training trials were done with 3 and 12 months old rats. Rats were trained to find all eight food baits in the RAM without errors and within 1 min. Both 3- and 12-month old rats need about 15 trials for the first-time learning of the RAM task. After intervals of 3 6 months, respectively, initially young rats were re-trained with an age of 6 and 12 months. Surprisingly, re-trained rats successfully completed the maze runs already after one re-training trial. Thus the phenomenon of preserved spatial memory was approved for female rats. (2) Memory impairment by scopolamine in the RAM was tested for the time in rats with an age of 3 months. first rats with thesame After a control run,the rats received an i.p. injection of either scopolamine hydrochloride (0.05 mg/100 g b. wt.) or saline vehicle. The effect of scopolamine on working memory was measured 20 min after administration. Training procedure and scopolamine administration were repeated at an age of 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in the same manner. The cognition impairment after scopolamine (number of errors: control: <1; scopolamine: 5-6) remains constant between 3 and 24 months of age. The only significant difference was the increase in run time in rats older than 18 months caused by degenerative changes developing with age.

  20. Activation of the hippocampal complex during tactile maze solving in congenitally blind subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Schneider, Fabien C; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2012-01-01

    imaging (fMRI) in congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted participants while they navigated through a tactile multiple T-maze. Both groups learned the maze task at a similar pace. In blind participants, tactile maze navigation was associated with increased BOLD responses in the right hippocampus...... and parahippocampus, occipital cortex and fusiform gyrus. Blindfolded sighted controls did not show increased BOLD responses in these areas; instead they activated the caudate nucleus and thalamus. Both groups activated the precuneus during tactile maze navigation. We conclude that cross-modal plastic processes allow...

  1. A shortened Barnes maze protocol reveals memory deficits at 4-months of age in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Attar

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that manifests as memory loss, cognitive dysfunction, and dementia. Animal models of Alzheimer's disease have been instrumental in understanding the underlying pathological mechanism and in evaluation of potential therapies. The triple transgenic (3 × Tg mouse model of AD is unique because it recapitulates both pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease--amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The earliest cognitive deficits in this model have been shown at 6-m of age by most groups, necessitating aging of the mice to this age before initiating evaluation of the cognitive effects of therapies. To assess cognitive deficits in the 3 × Tg mice, originally we employed a typical Barnes maze protocol of 15 training trials, but found no significant deficits in aged mice. Therefore, we shortened the protocol to include only 5 training trials to increase difficulty. We found cognitive deficits using this protocol using mainly measures from the probe day, rather than the training trials. This also decreased the effort involved with data analysis. We compared 3 × Tg and wild-type mice at 4-m- and 15-m of age using both the original, long training, and the short training paradigms. We found that differences in learning between 3 × Tg and wild-type mice disappeared after the 4(th training trial. Measures of learning and memory on the probe day showed significant differences between 3 × Tg and wild-type mice following the short, 5-training trial protocol but not the long, 15-training trial protocol. Importantly, we detected cognitive dysfunction already at 4-m of age in 3 × Tg mice using the short Barnes-maze protocol. The ability to test learning and memory in 4-m old 3 × Tg mice using a shortened Barnes maze protocol offers considerable time and cost savings and provides support for the utilization of this model at pre-pathology stages for therapeutic studies.

  2. Walkable self-overlapping virtual reality maze and map visualization demo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serubugo, Sule; Skantarova, Denisa; Evers, Nicolaj

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places.......This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places....

  3. Effects of Amphetamine and β-Endorphin Fragments on Maze Performance in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, S. de; Bohus, B.

    1990-01-01

    Fragments of β-endorphin and amphetamine cause similar effects in some tests of maze behavior in rats. The present study served to compare the influence of amphetamine and two β-endorphin fragments [β-endorphin (βE)-(2-9) and βE-(2-16)] on maze behavior in more detail. In Experiment I no significant

  4. CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, S.; Espin, C.A.; Stevenson, C.E.

    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status,

  5. CBM Maze-Scores as Indicators of Reading Level and Growth for Seventh-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Siuman; Espin, Christine A.; Stevenson, Claire E.

    2018-01-01

    The technical adequacy of CBM maze-scores as indicators of reading level and growth for seventh-grade secondary-school students was examined. Participants were 452 Dutch students who completed weekly maze measures over a period of 23 weeks. Criterion measures were school level, dyslexia status, scores and growth on a standardized reading test.…

  6. The optomotor maze: a population assay for visual perception in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Swinderen, Bruno

    2011-11-01

    Vision is a major sensory modality in Drosophila behavior, with more than one-half of the Drosophila brain devoted to visual processing. The mechanisms of vision in Drosophila can now be studied in individuals and in populations of flies by using various paradigms. The optomotor maze, described here, is a novel and efficient approach for querying visual perception in Drosophila populations. The optomotor maze setup is very simple: An eight-choice maze consisting of 3-mm paths grooved into a transparent Plexiglas or acrylic slab is placed over an upturned cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor on which visuals are displayed. The placement or movement of the visuals on the CRT, which the flies can see through the flat bottom of the maze, influences their turning behavior at each choice point. This paradigm can be adapted for visual learning by simply rerunning flies in the maze (habituation) or as a more sophisticated version of the aversive phototaxic suppression (APS) paradigm.

  7. Nogo-A downregulation impairs place avoidance in the Carousel maze but not spatial memory in the Morris water maze

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrásek, Tomáš; Prokopová, Iva; Bahník, Štěpán; Schönig, K.; Berger, S.; Valeš, Karel; Tews, B.; Schwab, M. E.; Bartsch, D.; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 107, Jan 2014 (2014), s. 42-49 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP303/10/J032; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MZd(CZ) NT13386; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 365911 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Nogo-A * spatial navigation * cognitive coordination * spatial mazes * transgenic rat model Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.652, year: 2014

  8. Provenance of marbles used for building the internal spiral staircase of the bell tower of St. Nicholas Church (Pisa, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzerini, Marco; Antonelli, Fabrizio; Gallello, Gianni; Ramacciotti, Mirco; Parodi, Luca; Alberti, Antonio; Pagnotta, Stefano; Legnaioli, Stefano; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the provenance of marbles used as architectural elements (bases, shafts and capitals of columns) for building the internal spiral staircase of the medieval bell tower of St. Nicholas Church at Pisa, Italy. Accordingly, the 45 collected marble samples have been analysed by optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mass spectroscopy for carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratio analysis; additionally, SEM-EDS analysis have been performed to complement data about accessory minerals. By comparison with literature data on the main sources of the white Mediterranean marbles used in ancient times, the results show that the analysed samples are mainly white crystalline marbles from Carrara (Italy) and, subordinately, from other Tuscan and Eastern Mediterranean quarrying areas. In fact, Mt. Pisano and Campiglia M.ma (Tuscany, Italy) and Marmara (Turkey), Paros, Mt. Penteli, Thasos (Greece) are minor sources. The other coloured stones identified on the strength of their macroscopic features are quartzites from Mt. Pisano area and granitoids from Sardinia and Island of Elba (Italy). Occasionally, a very limited number of architectonical elements made up of Acquabona limestone from Rosignano Marittimo (Livorno, Italy), red limestone with ammonites (the so-called "Rosso Ammonitico") and black limestone belonging to the Tuscan Nappe sequence, outcropping at northwest of Pisa in the nearby Monti d'Oltre Serchio area, are present.

  9. Field dependence of magnetic ordering in Kagomé-staircase compound Ni3V2O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzelmann, M.; Harris, A. B.; Aharony, A.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Yildirim, T.; Huang, Q.; Park, S.; Lawes, G.; Broholm, C.; Rogado, N.; Cava, R. J.; Kim, K. H.; Jorge, G.; Ramirez, A. P.

    2006-07-01

    We present powder and single-crystal neutron diffraction and bulk measurements of the Kagomé-staircase compound Ni3V2O8 (NVO) in fields up to 8.5T applied along the c direction. (The Kagomé plane is the a-c plane.) This system contains two types of Ni ions, which we call “spine” and “cross-tie.” Our neutron measurements can be described with the paramagnetic space group Cmca for TTCC'=2.3K indicates an additional transition, which remarkably does not affect Bragg peaks of the commensurate C structure. Neutron, specific heat, and magnetization measurements produce a comprehensive temperature-field phase diagram. The symmetries of the incommensurate magnetic phases are consistent with the observation that only one phase is electrically polarized. The magnetic structures are explained theoretically using a simplified model Hamiltonian, that involves competing nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions, single-ion anisotropy, pseudodipolar interactions, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions.

  10. Novel Eye Movement Disorders in Whipple's Disease-Staircase Horizontal Saccades, Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus, and Esotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Ghasia, Fatema F

    2017-01-01

    Whipple's disease, a rare systemic infectious disorder, is complicated by the involvement of the central nervous system in about 5% of cases. Oscillations of the eyes and the jaw, called oculo-masticatory myorhythmia, are pathognomonic of the central nervous system involvement but are often absent. Typical manifestations of the central nervous system Whipple's disease are cognitive impairment, parkinsonism mimicking progressive supranuclear palsy with vertical saccade slowing, and up-gaze range limitation. We describe a unique patient with the central nervous system Whipple's disease who had typical features, including parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, and up-gaze limitation; but also had diplopia, esotropia with mild horizontal (abduction more than adduction) limitation, and vertigo. The patient also had gaze-evoked nystagmus and staircase horizontal saccades. Latter were thought to be due to mal-programmed small saccades followed by a series of corrective saccades. The saccades were disconjugate due to the concurrent strabismus. Also, we noted disconjugacy in the slow phase of gaze-evoked nystagmus. The disconjugacy of the slow phase of gaze-evoked nystagmus was larger during monocular viewing condition. We propose that interaction of the strabismic drifts of the covered eyes and the nystagmus drift, putatively at the final common pathway might lead to such disconjugacy.

  11. Novel Eye Movement Disorders in Whipple’s Disease—Staircase Horizontal Saccades, Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus, and Esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasef G. Shaikh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Whipple’s disease, a rare systemic infectious disorder, is complicated by the involvement of the central nervous system in about 5% of cases. Oscillations of the eyes and the jaw, called oculo-masticatory myorhythmia, are pathognomonic of the central nervous system involvement but are often absent. Typical manifestations of the central nervous system Whipple’s disease are cognitive impairment, parkinsonism mimicking progressive supranuclear palsy with vertical saccade slowing, and up-gaze range limitation. We describe a unique patient with the central nervous system Whipple’s disease who had typical features, including parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, and up-gaze limitation; but also had diplopia, esotropia with mild horizontal (abduction more than adduction limitation, and vertigo. The patient also had gaze-evoked nystagmus and staircase horizontal saccades. Latter were thought to be due to mal-programmed small saccades followed by a series of corrective saccades. The saccades were disconjugate due to the concurrent strabismus. Also, we noted disconjugacy in the slow phase of gaze-evoked nystagmus. The disconjugacy of the slow phase of gaze-evoked nystagmus was larger during monocular viewing condition. We propose that interaction of the strabismic drifts of the covered eyes and the nystagmus drift, putatively at the final common pathway might lead to such disconjugacy.

  12. The interplay between maze complexity, colony size, learning and memory in ants while solving a maze: A test at the colony level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Maya; Gilad, Tomer; Kilon-Kallner, Tal; Rosenfeld, Adar; Subach, Aziz; Scharf, Inon

    2017-01-01

    Central-place foragers need to explore their immediate habitat in order to reach food. We let colonies of the individually foraging desert ant Cataglyphis niger search for a food reward in a maze. We did so for three tests per day over two successive days and an additional test after a time interval of 4-20 days (seven tests in total). We examined whether the colonies reached the food reward faster, consumed more food and changed the number of workers searching over time, within and between days. Colonies' food-discovery time shortened within and between days, indicating that some workers learnt and became more efficient in moving through the maze. Such workers, however, also forgot and deteriorated in their food-discovery time, leveling off back to initial performance after about two weeks. We used mazes of increasing complexity levels, differing in the potential number of wrong turns. The number of workers searching increased with colony size. Food-discovery time also increased with colony size in complex mazes but not in simple ones, perhaps due to the more frequent interactions among workers in large colonies having to move through narrow routes. Finally, the motivation to solve the maze was probably not only the food reward, because food consumption did not change over time.

  13. Maze learning by a hybrid brain-computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaohui; Zheng, Nenggan; Zhang, Shaowu; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Liqiang; Su, Lijuan

    2016-09-01

    The combination of biological and artificial intelligence is particularly driven by two major strands of research: one involves the control of mechanical, usually prosthetic, devices by conscious biological subjects, whereas the other involves the control of animal behaviour by stimulating nervous systems electrically or optically. However, to our knowledge, no study has demonstrated that spatial learning in a computer-based system can affect the learning and decision making behaviour of the biological component, namely a rat, when these two types of intelligence are wired together to form a new intelligent entity. Here, we show how rule operations conducted by computing components contribute to a novel hybrid brain-computer system, i.e., ratbots, exhibit superior learning abilities in a maze learning task, even when their vision and whisker sensation were blocked. We anticipate that our study will encourage other researchers to investigate combinations of various rule operations and other artificial intelligence algorithms with the learning and memory processes of organic brains to develop more powerful cyborg intelligence systems. Our results potentially have profound implications for a variety of applications in intelligent systems and neural rehabilitation.

  14. Illustrated techniques for performing the Cox-Maze IV procedure through a right mini-thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jason O; Saint, Lindsey L; Leidenfrost, Jeremy E; Damiano, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    The Cox-Maze IV procedure has replaced the "cut-and-sew" technique of the original Cox-Maze operation with lines of ablation created using bipolar radiofrequency (RF) and cryothermal energy devices. In select patients, this procedure can be performed through a right mini-thoracotomy. This illustrated review is the first to detail the complete steps of the Cox-Maze IV procedure performed through a right mini-thoracotomy with careful attention paid to operative anatomy and advice. Pre- and post-operative management and outcomes are also discussed. This should be a practical guide for the practicing cardiac surgeon.

  15. Radial maze performance in three strains of mice - Role of the fimbria/fornix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, D. K.; Deboissiere, T.; Robinson, N.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Three strains of mice were tested on an 8-arm radial maze, an index of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Levels of performance differed betweens strains with C57Br/cdj greater than Balb/cj greater than C57B1/6j. Lesions of the fimbria/fornix disrupted performance in the C57Br and Balb strains: the C57Bl mice never performed better than chance before or after surgery. Choline acetyltransferase activity in hippocampus was not correlated with radial maze performance. These findings suggest a possible genetic contribution towards radial maze behavior.

  16. EFFECTS OF 5, 7-DIHYDROXYTRYPTAMINE-INDUCED DEPLETION OF BRAIN SEROTONIN ON RADIAL ARM-MAZE TASK IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Hefco

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult rats pretreated with desipramine (25 mg/kg i.p.30 min before anesthesia in order to protect noradrenergic system, were subjected to intracerebroventriculare injection of 5, 7 –dihydroxytryptamine (5, 7-DHT, 150 μg, 4.5 μl/ventricle, a chronic neurotoxin of the central serotonergic function. After 1.5 months later, we assessed the working memory and reference memory in radial 8 arm-mazes. Serotonergic depletion impaired more significantly shortterm memory tested by means of the average working memory errors, entries to repeat and average time taken to consume all five baits during 12 days training. Long-term memory, explored by means of reference memory errors, was less impaired. It is concluded that serotonin, among other neurotransmitters, play one important role in cognitive functions, including learning and memory.

  17. Sex differences in vicarious trial-and-error behavior during radial arm maze learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, H A; Denenberg, V H

    2000-02-01

    We investigated sex differences in VTE behavior in rats during radial arm maze learning. Females made more VTEs than males, although there were no sex differences in learning. Further, VTEs and errors were positively correlated during the latter testing sessions in females, but not in males. This sex difference may be a reflection of differences between the sexes in conflict behavior or cognitive strategy while solving the maze.

  18. A mechanism for the formation and sustainment of the self-organized global profile and E   ×   B staircase in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Kishimoto, Y.; Imadera, K.; Li, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.

    2018-05-01

    The mechanism for the formation and sustainment of a self-organized global profile and the ‘ E   ×   B staircase’ are investigated through simulations of a flux-driven ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence based on GKNET, a 5D global gyrokinetic code. The staircase is found to be initiated from the radially extended ITG mode structures with nearly up-down symmetry during the saturation phase, and is established as it evolves into a quasi-steady turbulence, leading to a self-organized global temperature profile and to meso-scale isomorphic profiles of the radial electric field and the temperature gradient. It is found that the quasi-regular E   ×   B shear flow pattern is primarily originated from an even-symmetrical zonal flow produced by the extended ITG mode, which flow pattern exhibits an in-phase relation with the mean flow variation induced by the temperature relaxation. Consequently, the staircase is initiated through the profiles of total electric field and temperature gradient with a self-organized manner. Since the sign of E   ×   B shear flow at the central part are opposite to that at both edges, it disintegrates the ITG mode into smaller scale eddies. Meanwhile, smaller scale eddies tend to be aligned radially by spontaneous phase matching, which can provide the growth of mode amplitude and the formation of radially extended mode structures, leading to the bursty heat transport. This process is repeated quasi-periodically, sustaining self-organized structures and the E   ×   B staircase. Moreover, the equilibrium mean field is found to be of specific importance in causing the structures and dynamics from meso- to macro scales in toroidal plasmas.

  19. Behavioral consequences of predator stress in the rat elevated T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, Erika Mondin; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Zangrossi, Helio

    2015-07-01

    Analyses of the behavioral reactions of rodents to predators have greatly contributed to the understanding of defense-related human psychopathologies such as anxiety and panic.We here investigated the behavioral consequences of exposing male Wistar rats to a live cat using the elevated T-maze test of anxiety. This test allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and escape, which in terms of pathology have been associated with generalized anxiety and panic disorders, respectively. For comparative reasons, the effects of exposure to the cat were also assessed in the elevated plus-maze. The results showed that a 5-min exposure to the cat selectively facilitated inhibitory avoidance acquisition, an anxiogenic effect, without affecting escape expression in the elevated T-maze. This was seen immediately but not 30 min after contact with the predator. This short-lived anxiogenic effect was also detected in the elevated plus-maze. Previous administration of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam (2 mg/kg) decreased the immediate avoidance response to the predator and the neophobic reaction to a dummy cat used as a control stimulus. The drug also impaired inhibitory avoidance acquisition in the elevated T-maze, indicating an anxiolytic effect, without affecting escape performance. The results indicate that the state of anxiety evoked during contact with the predator generalizes to both elevated plus- and T-mazes, impacting on defensive responses associated with generalized anxiety disorder.

  20. [Cox-maze III procedure for atrial fibrillation. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villarreal, Ovidio A

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efectiveness of the cut-and-sew Cox-maze III procedure against the Cox-maze IV peocedure by means of intraoperative bipolar radiofrequency delivery clamp. From January 2011 to October 2014, 50 patients were operated on with surgery for atrial fibrillation. All cases underwent mitral valve surgery as the first procedure, and secondarily a surgical procedure for atrial fibrillation was also performed. There were 2 groups. Group I (Cox-maze III «cut-and-sew»), and Group II (Cox-maze IV, intraoperative bipolar radiofrequency ablation). Group I was formed by 36 patients, and Group II by 14. All cases had atrial fibrillation longer than 1 year. The end-point was freedom of atrial fibrillation. There was no statistically significant difference between both groups regarding the basal and operative characteristics. Operative mortality was of 2 cases in the Group I, and no cases for Group II (P=0.9). A high tendency to eliminate atrial fibrillation in favour of Group I was observed (92% vs 53%, P<.001) in a 6 months follow-up. Classic standard Cox-maze III procedure showed superiority to eliminate atrial fibrillation over the Cox-maze IV procedure made with bipolar radiofrequency ablation clamp in patients with concomitant mitral valve disease. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Staircase To Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doorasamy Mishelle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article to provide a theoretical framework on the concepts of Sustainable Development and the process that companies need to follow in order to ensure the future sustainability of business operations. Various secondary sources and previous literature was reviewed to clearly identify why companies are finding it difficult to conduct their business operations in a sustainable manner. Stricter legislation and regulations, increased competition, depletion of natural resources and market pressures have placed organisations under increased pressure to improve environmental performance and achieve eco-efficiency. This paper provides comprehensive overview of how companies can achieve the ‘Triple bottom line’ by committing to continuous improvement and adhering to the regulations stipulated according to the International Standards of Organisations (ISO14001.

  2. Canted antiferromagnetism in KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 with a stair-case Kagomé lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Chen; Ren, Wei-Jian; Huang, Ya-Xi; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin-Xiao

    2017-10-01

    A new nickel phosphate KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 has been synthesized using a modified hydrothermal method. Structural characterizations show that it adopts a 3D framework structure with 2D layers of Ni octahedra in a stair-case Kagomé lattice. The Ni2 octahedron at the inversion center shares two trans-faces with Ni1 octahedra to form a linear trimer (Ni3O8F6) as the basic structural unit. The Ni-trimers are linked between themselves by sharing F-corners and to [PO3(F,OH)] tetrahedral groups by sharing O-corners to form 2D stair-case Kagomé layers, which are parallel to the (100) plane and are stacked along the a-axis. Successive Kagomé layers are combined together by [PO2(OH)2] tetrahedral groups and interstice cations K+. Magnetic measurements reveal that KNi3[PO3(F,OH)]2[PO2(OH)2]F2 exhibits a canted antiferromagnetic ordering with a ferromagnetic component at low temperatures.

  3. Preferred retinal locus--hand coordination in a maze-tracing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, George T; Omoscharka, Evanthia; Grose, Susan A; Bothwell, Rebecca

    2012-04-06

    Fine manual tasks require coordination of vision, eye movements, and motor control. Macular scotomas from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may adversely affect this coordination. The purpose of this research was to find whether the preferred retina locus for fixation (fPRL) also guided the hand in performing fine manual tasks and how the fingers, fPRL, and scotomas interacted in task performance. Subjects with bilateral macular scotomas from AMD and normally sighted controls traced an irregular "maze" line pattern with the index finger while viewing their hand and the maze in a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). Video images from the SLO showing the fingers and maze on the retina during the task were analyzed to produce retinal maps showing the scotoma and bivariate ellipses of fPRL and fingertip retinal positions. Fingertip retinal ellipses surrounded and were approximately centered on the fPRL ellipses. Fingertip retinal bivariate area was positively correlated with fPRL bivariate area and the percent time the fPRL was on the maze was correlated with visual acuity. Maze-tracing accuracy was positively correlated with saccade rate for scotoma subjects. Concentric overlap of fPRL and fingertip retinal ellipses indicates that it is the fPRL that guides the hand in the maze-tracing visuomotor task, just as the fovea guides the fingertip for visually normal subjects. It is likely that factors other than fPRL and scotoma characteristics contribute to poorer maze-tracing performance by scotoma subjects in comparison with controls.

  4. A single center's experience with pacemaker implantation after the Cox maze procedure for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ad, Niv; Holmes, Sari D; Ali, Rabia; Pritchard, Graciela; Lamont, Deborah

    2017-07-01

    The Cox maze procedure (CM) is safe and effective for all atrial fibrillation (AF) types. A recent randomized trial found alarming rates of pacemaker implantation (PMI) during hospitalization after CM. The purpose of this study was to assess the rate of PMI and its impact on outcomes after CM. Incidence of PMI was captured for all CM patients (2005-2015; N = 739). Data were collected prospectively. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine risk factors for PMI. Propensity score matching was conducted between concomitant CM patients and patients without surgical ablation since 2011. Fifty-two patients (7.0%) had in-hospital PMI after CM. Most common primary indication for PMI was sick sinus syndrome (67%), followed by complete heart block (23%) and sinus bradycardia (10%). The only risk factor for in-hospital PMI was type of procedure (P = .020). Patients with multiple valve procedures were at greatest risk (P = .004-.035). STS-defined perioperative outcomes were similar for patients with and without in-hospital PMI. Sinus rhythm off antiarrhythmic drugs were similar by PMI. After propensity score matching (n = 180 per group), in-hospital PMI was similar in CM patients and those without surgical ablation (5% vs 4%, P = .609). This study demonstrated lower incidence of PMI after CM procedures than recently reported. When indicated, PMI was not associated with increased short- or long-term morbidity or inferior freedom from atrial arrhythmia. Efforts to increase surgeon training with the CM procedure and postoperative management awareness are warranted to improve rhythm outcome and minimize adverse events and PMI. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Frontal cortex and hippocampus neurotransmitter receptor complex level parallels spatial memory performance in the radial arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Bharanidharan; Sase, Ajinkya; Miklosi, András G; Sialana, Fernando J; Subramaniyan, Saraswathi; Aher, Yogesh D; Gröger, Marion; Höger, Harald; Bennett, Keiryn L; Lubec, Gert

    2015-08-01

    Several neurotransmitter receptors have been proposed to be involved in memory formation. However, information on receptor complexes (RCs) in the radial arm maze (RAM) is missing. It was therefore the aim of this study to determine major neurotransmitter RCs levels that are modulated by RAM training because receptors are known to work in homo-or heteromeric assemblies. Immediate early gene Arc expression was determined by immunohistochemistry to show if prefrontal cortices (PFC) and hippocampi were activated following RAM training as these regions are known to be mainly implicated in spatial memory. Twelve rats per group, trained and untrained in the twelve arm RAM were used, frontal cortices and hippocampi were taken, RCs in membrane protein were quantified by blue-native PAGE immunoblotting. RCs components were characterised by co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometrical analysis and by the use of the proximity ligation assay. Arc expression was significantly higher in PFC of trained as compared to untrained rats whereas it was comparable in hippocampi. Frontal cortical levels of RCs containing AMPA receptors GluA1, GluA2, NMDA receptors GluN1 and GluN2A, dopamine receptor D1, acetylcholine nicotinic receptor alpha 7 (nAChR-α7) and hippocampal levels of RCs containing D1, GluN1, GluN2B and nAChR-α7 were increased in the trained group; phosphorylated dopamine transporter levels were decreased in the trained group. D1 and GluN1 receptors were shown to be in the same complex. Taken together, distinct RCs were paralleling performance in the RAM which is relevant for interpretation of previous and design of future work on RCs in memory studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Search strategy selection in the Morris water maze indicates allocentric map formation during learning that underpins spatial memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jake; Churilov, Leonid; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2017-03-01

    Using a Matlab classification algorithm, we demonstrate that a highly salient distal cue array is required for significantly increased likelihoods of spatial search strategy selection during Morris water maze spatial learning. We hypothesized that increased spatial search strategy selection during spatial learning would be the key measure demonstrating the formation of an allocentric map to the escape location. Spatial memory, as indicated by quadrant preference for the area of the pool formally containing the hidden platform, was assessed as the main measure that this allocentric map had formed during spatial learning. Our C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice exhibit quadrant preference in the highly salient cue paradigm but not the low, corresponding with a 120% increase in the odds of a spatial search strategy selection during learning. In contrast, quadrant preference remains absent in serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) knockout (KO) mice, who exhibit impaired search strategy selection during spatial learning. Additionally, we also aimed to assess the impact of the quality of the distal cue array on the spatial learning curves of both latency to platform and path length using mixed-effect regression models and found no significant associations or interactions. In contrast, we demonstrated that the spatial learning curve for search strategy selection was absent during training in the low saliency paradigm. Therefore, we propose that allocentric search strategy selection during spatial learning is the learning parameter in mice that robustly indicates the formation of a cognitive map for the escape goal location. These results also suggest that both latency to platform and path length spatial learning curves do not discriminate between allocentric and egocentric spatial learning and do not reliably predict spatial memory formation. We also show that spatial memory, as indicated by the absolute time in the quadrant formerly containing the hidden platform alone (without

  7. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús J. Hernández-Pérez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS, which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS, in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn, all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus, septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results

  8. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á; Olvera-Cortés, María E

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  9. Post-tectonic landscape evolution in NE Iberia using staircase terraces: Combined effects of uplift and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Claudia J.; Sancho, Carlos; McDonald, Eric V.; Peña-Monné, José Luis; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Rhodes, Edward; Calle, Mikel; Soto, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    River incision into bedrock resulting from the combined effects of tectonic uplift and climate governs long-term regional landscape evolution. We determined spatial and temporal patterns of post-orogenic stream incision from a sequence of well-preserved staircase terraces developed over the last 1 Ma in the Central Pyrenees and its southern foreland Ebro basin (NE Spain). Extensive remnants of ten vertically separated terraces (Qt1 to Qt10, from oldest to youngest) were mapped along 170 km of the Cinca River valley, transverse to the Pyrenean mountain belt. Multiple outcrops appear in the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa sector, 50 km from headwaters) as well as in the lower reach (Albalate sector, 125 km from headwaters). Fluvial incision into bedrock was calculated using (i) differentially corrected GPS measurements of the altitude of straths and (ii) numerical dating of alluvial sediments from the lower terraces (Qt5 to Qt9) by Optically Stimulated Luminescence, previously reported by Lewis et al. (2009), and supplemented with new dates for the upper terraces (Qt1, Qt2 and Qt3) based on paleomagnetism and supported by soil development. Considering altitude differences and the elapsed time between successive well preserved terrace couples (Qt3-Qt7, Qt7-Qt9 and Qt9-Active channel), mean bedrock incision rates ranged from 0.76 to 0.38 m ka- 1, at the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa section), and from 0.61 to 0.20 m ka- 1, at the lower reach (Albalate section). River incision along the valley produced vertically separated, near-parallel longitudinal terrace profiles evidencing a rapid near-uniform regional uplift as response to (i) the tectonic lithospheric thickening in NE Iberia and (ii) the erosional download rebound related to the Ebro basin exorheism. Moreover, a subtle upstream divergence of strath profiles may have been a consequence of an increase in uplift rate toward the head of the valley. Additionally, incision rates changed over time as indicate

  10. Predicting outcome of Morris water maze test in vascular dementia mouse model with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Akinori; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Min, Li-Juan; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Kan-No, Harumi; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Higaki, Jitsuo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2018-01-01

    The Morris water maze test (MWM) is one of the most popular and established behavioral tests to evaluate rodents' spatial learning ability. The conventional training period is around 5 days, but there is no clear evidence or guidelines about the appropriate duration. In many cases, the final outcome of the MWM seems predicable from previous data and their trend. So, we assumed that if we can predict the final result with high accuracy, the experimental period could be shortened and the burden on testers reduced. An artificial neural network (ANN) is a useful modeling method for datasets that enables us to obtain an accurate mathematical model. Therefore, we constructed an ANN system to estimate the final outcome in MWM from the previously obtained 4 days of data in both normal mice and vascular dementia model mice. Ten-week-old male C57B1/6 mice (wild type, WT) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (WT-BCAS) or sham-operation (WT-sham). At 6 weeks after surgery, we evaluated their cognitive function with MWM. Mean escape latency was significantly longer in WT-BCAS than in WT-sham. All data were collected and used as training data and test data for the ANN system. We defined a multiple layer perceptron (MLP) as a prediction model using an open source framework for deep learning, Chainer. After a certain number of updates, we compared the predicted values and actual measured values with test data. A significant correlation coefficient was derived form the updated ANN model in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. Next, we analyzed the predictive capability of human testers with the same datasets. There was no significant difference in the prediction accuracy between human testers and ANN models in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. In conclusion, deep learning method with ANN could predict the final outcome in MWM from 4 days of data with high predictive accuracy in a vascular dementia model.

  11. Predicting outcome of Morris water maze test in vascular dementia mouse model with deep learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Higaki

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze test (MWM is one of the most popular and established behavioral tests to evaluate rodents' spatial learning ability. The conventional training period is around 5 days, but there is no clear evidence or guidelines about the appropriate duration. In many cases, the final outcome of the MWM seems predicable from previous data and their trend. So, we assumed that if we can predict the final result with high accuracy, the experimental period could be shortened and the burden on testers reduced. An artificial neural network (ANN is a useful modeling method for datasets that enables us to obtain an accurate mathematical model. Therefore, we constructed an ANN system to estimate the final outcome in MWM from the previously obtained 4 days of data in both normal mice and vascular dementia model mice. Ten-week-old male C57B1/6 mice (wild type, WT were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (WT-BCAS or sham-operation (WT-sham. At 6 weeks after surgery, we evaluated their cognitive function with MWM. Mean escape latency was significantly longer in WT-BCAS than in WT-sham. All data were collected and used as training data and test data for the ANN system. We defined a multiple layer perceptron (MLP as a prediction model using an open source framework for deep learning, Chainer. After a certain number of updates, we compared the predicted values and actual measured values with test data. A significant correlation coefficient was derived form the updated ANN model in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. Next, we analyzed the predictive capability of human testers with the same datasets. There was no significant difference in the prediction accuracy between human testers and ANN models in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. In conclusion, deep learning method with ANN could predict the final outcome in MWM from 4 days of data with high predictive accuracy in a vascular dementia model.

  12. Corticosterone infused into the dorsal striatum selectively enhances memory consolidation of cued water-maze training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirarte, Gina L.; Sofia Ledesma de la Teja, I.; Casillas, Miriam; Serafin, Norma; Prado-Alcala, Roberto A.; Roozendaal, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones enhance memory consolidation of hippocampus-dependent spatial/contextual learning, but little is known about their possible influence on the consolidation of procedural/implicit memory. Therefore, in this study we examined the effect of corticosterone (2, 5, or 10 ng) infused

  13. Impaired water maze learning performance in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong; Yoo, Ji-Hoon; Yan, Ji-Jing; Song, Dong-Keun; Loh, Horace H; Ho, Ing K

    2003-09-10

    Previous study has demonstrated that the lack of mu-opioid receptor decreased LTP in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, suggesting the possibility that the lack of mu-opioid receptor may accompany a change in learning and memory. However, no behavioral study has been undertaken to correlate LTP deficits with spatial memory impairment in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. Therefore, the present study investigated the hypothesis that mu-opioid receptors contribute to learning and memory by using the Morris water maze, and comparing responses in wild type and mu-opioid receptor gene knockout mice. Our results indicated that mu-opioid receptor knockout mice showed a significant spatial memory impairment compared to wild type in the Morris water maze. This result suggests that the expression of mu-opioid receptor plays an important role in spatial learning and memory examined by Morris water maze.

  14. Effects of rolipram and zaprinast on learning and memory in the Morris water maze and radial arm maze tests in naive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, F; Mutlu, O; Celikyurt, I K; Ulak, G; Erden, F; Bektas, E; Tanyeri, P

    2015-02-01

    Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE) improved recognition memory and counteracted spatial learning impairment induced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in recent studies. Aim of this study was to investigate effects of rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor and zaprinast, a PDE5 inhibitor, on learning and memory in Morris water maze (MWM) and radial arm maze (RAM) tests in naive mice. Male Balb-c mice were treated subchronically with zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) and rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) for 6 days in the MWM test and acutely before the retention trial of radial arm maze test. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased escape latency between 2(nd) and 5(th) sessions, while zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased escape latency only in 2(nd) session. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly increased time spent in escape platform's quadrant in probe trial of MWM test; only rolipram decreased mean distance to platform, while zaprinast had no effect on mean distance to platform. Zaprinast (3 and 10 mg/kg) significantly decreased number of errors compared to control group, while rolipram (0.05 and 0.1mg/kg) had no effect on number of errors in retention trial of RAM test. Rolipram (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and zaprinast (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased time spent to complete retention trial (latency) compared to control group. Our study revealed that both zaprinast and rolipram enhanced spatial memory in MWM, while zaprinast seems to have more memory enhancing effects compared to rolipram in radial arm maze test. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Variance in Broad Reading Accounted for by Measures of Reading Speed Embedded within Maze and Comprehension Rate Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Andrea D.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Wilhoit, Brian; Ciancio, Dennis; Morrow, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Maze and reading comprehension rate measures are calculated by using measures of reading speed and measures of accuracy (i.e., correctly selected words or answers). In sixth- and seventh-grade samples, we found that the measures of reading speed embedded within our Maze measures accounted for 50% and 39% of broad reading score (BRS) variance,…

  16. Little and often? Maintaining continued performance in an automated T-maze for mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Pajor, Edmond A; Garner, Joseph P

    2011-02-01

    Operant and maze tasks in mice are limited by the small number of trials possible in a session before mice lose motivation. We hypothesized that by manipulating reward size and session length, motivation, and hence performance, would be maintained in an automated T-maze. We predicted that larger rewards and shorter sessions would improve acquisition; and smaller rewards and shorter sessions would maintain higher and less variable performance. Eighteen C57BL/6J mice (9 per sex) acquired (criterion 8/10 correct) and performed a spatial discrimination, with one of 3 reward sizes (.02, .04, or .08 g) and one of 3 session schedules (15, 30, or 45 min sessions). Each mouse had a total of 360 min of access to the maze per night, for two nights, and averaged 190 trials. Analysis used split-plot GLM with contrasts testing for linear effects. Acquisition of the discrimination was unaffected by reward size or session length/interval. After-criterion average performance improved as reward size decreased. After-criterion variability in performance was also affected. Variability increased as reward size increased. Session length/interval did not affect any outcome. We conclude that an automated maze, with suitable reward sizes, can sustain performance with low variability, at 5-10 times faster than traditional methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. MK-801 induced amnesia for the elevated plus-maze in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 131, 1-2 (2002), s. 221-225 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * elevated plus-maze * MK-801 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.791, year: 2002

  18. Anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats: grooming microstructure and elevated plus maze tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Maurício S; Couto-Pereira, Natividade S; Souza, Marilise F; Azeredo, Lucas A; Ferri, Marcelo K; Dalprá, Walesca L; Gomez, Rosane; Barros, Helena M T

    2012-06-05

    Grooming behavior is an adaptation to a stressful environment that can vary in accordance with stress intensity. Direct and indirect GABA(A) receptor agonists decrease duration, frequency, incorrect transitions and uninterrupted bouts of grooming. Hormonal variation during the different phases of the estrous cycle of female rats also changes the grooming behavior. It is known that GABA(A) agonists and endogenous hormones change anxiety-like behaviors observed in the elevated plus maze test, a classical animal model of anxiety. This study was designed to determine the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam in female rats in different estrous phases and to correlate anxiety behaviors in the elevated plus maze and grooming microstructure tests. Our results show that female rats displayed higher anxiety-like behavior scores during the estrus and proestrus phases in the elevated plus maze and that clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg; i.p.) had an anxiolytic effect that was independent of the estrous phase. Grooming behaviors were higher in the proestrus phase but were decreased by clonazepam administration, independent of the estrous phase, demonstrating the anxiolytic effect of this drug in both animal models. Grooming behaviors were moderately associated with anxiolytic-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze test. Here, we describe the anxiolytic effect of clonazepam and the influence of estrous phase on anxiety. Moreover, we show that the grooming microstructure test is a useful tool for detecting anxiolytic-like behaviors in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Incremental Sentence Processing in Japanese: A Maze Investigation into Scrambled and Control Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Jeffrey; Witzel, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates preverbal structural and semantic processing in Japanese, a head-final language, using the maze task. Two sentence types were tested--simple scrambled sentences (Experiment 1) and control sentences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that even for simple, mono-clausal Japanese sentences, (1) there are online processing…

  20. Postoperative environmental enrichment attenuates Fimbria-Fornix lesion-induced impairments in Morris Maze performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Rijzingen, I.M.S.; Spruijt, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were given a bilateral or a unilateral transection of the fimbria-fornix; subsequently they were kept in standard laboratory housing conditions or in enriched environments for 6 weeks, after which they were tested in the Morris maze. In the acquisition phase of the experiment rats

  1. Brain Interleukin-1 Facilitates Learning of a Water Maze Spatial Memory Task in Young Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Takemiya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1 is produced by many types of cells, including immune cells in the periphery and glia and neurons in the brain. The type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1r1 is primarily responsible for transmitting the inflammatory effects of IL-1 and mediates several biological functions by binding to either IL-1α or IL-1β. IL-1β activation is associated with hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Although IL-1β impairs spatial memory under certain pathophysiological conditions, IL-1β may be required for the normal physiological regulation of hippocampal plasticity and memory. In addition, brain IL-1β levels are thought to change in the hippocampus in an age-dependent manner. These findings suggest that IL-1β may have a beneficial, temporary effect on learning and memory in young mice, but the matter remains unclear. Therefore, we hypothesized that hippocampal IL-1β has a beneficial effect on spatial learning and memory in young mice via IL-1r1, which is diminished in adults. We investigated the performance of young (3-month-old and adult (6-month-old wild-type mice, IL-1β knockout mice (IL-1βko and IL-1r1 knockout mice (IL-1r1ko in learning a spatial memory task with a fixed platform in a water maze (WM and measured the levels of IL-1β and IL-1α in the hippocampus and cortex of adult and young mice by using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF. Learning was significantly impaired in the training trials of the WM spatial memory task in young IL-1βko and IL-1r1ko mice but not in adult IL-1βko and IL-1r1ko mice. Moreover, young IL-1r1ko mice but not IL-1βko mice showed an impairment in long-term memory extinction, suggesting that IL-1α might facilitate memory extinction. In this study, the cytokine assay using HTRF did not indicate a higher expression of hippocampal IL-1 in young mice but cortical IL-1β and IL-1α were significantly increased in adult mice. We need to investigate the role of cortical IL-1

  2. NORMAL QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER THE COX MAZE PROCEDURE FOR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Spencer J; Zierer, Andreas; Lubahn, Jordon G; Bailey, Marci S; Cox, James L; Schuessler, Richard B; Damiano, Ralph J

    2008-05-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation(AF) has been shown in numerous studies to significantly decrease patient quality of life. The Cox-Maze procedure has excellent long-term efficacy in curing AF. However, it is unknown whether this procedure improves long-term quality of life in these patients. The purpose of this study was to examine late quality of life in patients that underwent a lone Cox-Maze procedure. METHODS: Between 1987 and 2003, 163 patients underwent a Cox-Maze procedure for lone AF at our institution. Of these, 68 patients agreed and completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey. Scores from the age-matched general US population were normalized to a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10 to facilitate comparison. Collected data were compared to the norm-based score for each domain using a one-sample t-test. Four patients were removed from analysis because of AF recurrence. RESULTS: There were 52 males(81%). Mean age was 52.6±9.5 years. Preoperatively, 37 patients(58%) had paroxysmal and 25 patients(39%) had persistent or permanent AF. The mean duration of AF before surgery was 9.8±8.2 years. There was no statistical difference in norm-based scores between the Cox-Maze procedure group and the age-matched general US population in any of the eight health domains at a mean follow-up of 8.7±3.7 years. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the Cox-Maze procedure cures atrial fibrillation in the majority of patients, and that those patients that are cured obtain a normal quality of life as compared to the general population at late follow-up.

  3. Effects of runway shift and stay rules on rats' serial pattern learning in the T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jerome; Westlake, Kimberly; Szelest, Izabela

    2004-11-01

    Rats received three-trial series on a T-maze consisting of extended visually distinct left-black and right-striped side runways. During the first phase of training, when allowed to select baited runways within these series, they predominantly alternated their choices. During the second phase, rats received forced-choice serial pattern training of series consisting of two rewarded (R) trials and one nonrewarded (N) trial in two fixed orders, RRN and RNR. In Experiment 1, the rats in the runway shift rule group always received the second R trial when forced down a runway opposite that on the preceding trial in the series and the N trial when forced down the same runway. The rats in the runway stay rule group always received the second R trial when forced down the same runway and the N trial when forced down the opposite runway. In Experiment 2, each rat was conditionally trained with both runway outcome rules as determined by the central alley lighting and the type of food in the side alleys. The rats took longer to reduce their running speed on the N trial within each sequence under the runway stay rule than under the runway shift rule. They also took longer to acquire serial pattern responding for the RNR than for the RRN series only under the runway stay rule condition. When subsequently reexposed to series of free-choice trials on the final phase, rats maintained spontaneous alternating choice patterns under the runway shift rule conditions but either seldom alternated their choices (Experiment 1) or greatly reduced choice alternations (Experiment 2) under the runway stay rule condition. We discussed these effects in terms of rats' natural foraging strategies and as a factor that interacts with other within- and between-series variables that affect serial pattern behavior.

  4. The effect of a paraffin screen on the neutron dose at the maze door of a 15 MV linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmar, M; Nikolić, D; Kuzmanović, A; Kuzmanović, Z; Ganezer, K

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a paraffin screen located at various positions in the maze on the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door. The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze door of a room containing a 15 MV linear accelerator for x-ray therapy. Measurements were performed for several positions of the paraffin screen covering only 27.5% of the cross-sectional area of the maze. The neutron dose equivalent was also measured at all screen positions. Two simple models of the neutron source were considered in which the first assumed that the source was the cross-sectional area at the inner entrance of the maze, radiating neutrons in an isotropic manner. In the second model the reduction in the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door due to the paraffin screen was considered to be a function of the mean values of the neutron fluence and energy at the screen. The results of this study indicate that the equivalent dose at the maze door was reduced by a factor of 3 through the use of a paraffin screen that was placed inside the maze. It was also determined that the contributions to the dosage from areas that were not covered by the paraffin screen as viewed from the dosimeter, were 2.5 times higher than the contributions from the covered areas. This study also concluded that the contributions of the maze walls, ceiling, and floor to the total neutron dose equivalent were an order of magnitude lower than those from the surface at the far end of the maze. This study demonstrated that a paraffin screen could be used to reduce the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door by a factor of 3. This paper also found that the reduction of the neutron dose equivalent was a linear function of the area covered by the maze screen and that the decrease in the dose at the maze door could be modeled as an exponential function of the product φ·E at the screen.

  5. Regional differences in hippocampal PKA immunoreactivity after training and reversal training in a spatial Y-maze task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Timmer, Marjan; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2007-01-01

    It is suggested that the hippocampus functions as a comparator by making a comparison between the internal representation and actual sensory information from the environment (for instance, comparing a previously learned location of a food reward with an actual novel location of a food reward in a

  6. Intracranial self-stimulation also facilitates learning in a visual discrimination task in the Morris water maze in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Brito, Soleil; Morgado-Bernal, Ignacio; Biosca-Simon, Neus; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2017-01-15

    Intracranial self-Stimulation (ICSS) of the medial forebrain bundle is a treatment capable of consistently facilitating acquisition of learning and memory in a wide array of experimental paradigms in rats. However, the evidence supporting this effect on implicit memory comes mainly from classical conditioning and avoidance tasks. The present work aims to determine whether ICSS would also improve the performance of rats in another type of implicit task such as cued simultaneous visual discrimination in the Morris Water Maze. The ICSS treatment was administered immediately after each of the five acquisition sessions and its effects on retention and reversal were evaluated 72h later. Results showed that ICSS subjects committed fewer errors than Sham subjects and adopted more accurate trajectories during the acquisition of the task. This improvement was maintained until the probe test at 72h. However, ICSS animals experienced more difficulties than the Sham group during the reversal of the same learning, reflecting an impairment in cognitive flexibility. We conclude that post-training ICSS could also be an effective treatment for improving implicit visual discrimination learning and memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MK-801 and memantine act differently on short-term memory tested with different time-intervals in the Morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Weronika; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewski, Pawel; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-09-15

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a crucial role in spatial memory formation. In neuropharmacological studies their functioning strongly depends on testing conditions and the dosage of NMDAR antagonists. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate effects of NMDAR block by (+)MK-801 or memantine on short-term allothetic memory. Memory was tested in a working memory version of the Morris water maze test. In our version of the test, rats underwent one day of training with 8 trials, and then three experimental days when rats were injected intraperitoneally with low- 5 (MeL), high - 20 (MeH) mg/kg memantine, 0.1mg/kg MK-801 or 1ml/kg saline (SAL) 30min before testing, for three consecutive days. On each experimental day there was just one acquisition and one test trial, with an inter-trial interval of 5 or 15min. During training the hidden platform was relocated after each trial and during the experiment after each day. The follow-up effect was assessed on day 9. Intact rats improved their spatial memory across the one training day. With a 5min interval MeH rats had longer latency then all rats during retrieval. With a 15min interval the MeH rats presented worse working memory measured as retrieval minus acquisition trial for path than SAL and MeL and for latency than MeL rats. MK-801 rats had longer latency than SAL during retrieval. Thus, the high dose of memantine, contrary to low dose of MK-801 disrupts short-term memory independent on the time interval between acquisition and retrieval. This shows that short-term memory tested in a working memory version of water maze is sensitive to several parameters: i.e., NMDA receptor antagonist type, dosage and the time interval between learning and testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. - to Late-Holocene Fire History, Vegetation, and Climate Change in the Grand Staircase Region of the Colorado Plateau, Southwest Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. E.; Rittenour, T. M.; DeRose, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Fire seasons have lengthened by 25% and the amount of burnable area on Earth has increased. Furthermore, more frequent droughts are predicted under elevated greenhouse gas concentrations. Summer drought is a first-order control on regional fire years. While fire is an increasingly expensive and destructive natural hazard, it also provides benefits to vegetation communities by influencing structure, reducing understory fuels, and promoting fire dependent species. In order to predict and mitigate future fire, it is important to understand how fire, climate, and vegetation are connected. Because climate exhibits a first-order control on wildfire, we must understand how centennial- to millennial-scale climatic change has influenced fire in the past. The Grand Staircase region of the Colorado Plateau spans high elevation sub-alpine forests and transitions to desert scrub at lower elevations. The majority of the vegetation in the region is pinyon-juniper woodlands. We reconstruct the timing of Mid- to Late-Holocene fire using charcoal collected from alluvial deposits located in four watersheds including Kanab Ck., Johnson Wash, Paria R., and the Escalante R. The fire reconstruction contains 200 dated fires that extend back 7.5 ka. Thirty-two regional fire periods were identified. Of the fires recorded, 78% occurred in the last 3 ka. There is a continuous record of fire starting 4.3 ka with few no-fire periods. Periods with regional fires increase in frequency 3000 years ago with 22 out of 32 periods occurring in the last 3 ka and 17 out of 32 regional fire periods occurring in the last 2 ka. Climate proxies from the SW US indicate increased precipitation 4 ka, and greater moisture than present day conditions between 3 - 1.7 ka. Results show that increases in fire activity correspond to increased moisture and vegetation expansion. This study supports the hypothesis that in fuel-limited systems, fire activity is promoted when moisture is available to increase vegetation

  9. Shielding of radiation fields generated by 252Cf in a concrete maze. Part 2 -- Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasso, A.; Ipe, N.E.; Reyna, A.

    1998-03-01

    A streaming experiment performed in a concrete maze of shape and size typical of a radiotherapy room was simulated with the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The purpose of the calculation was to test the performance of the code in the low energy neutron range, and at the same time to provide additional information which could help in optimizing shielding of medical facilities. Instrument responses were calculated at different maze locations for several experimental configurations and were compared with measurements. In addition, neutron and gamma fluence, ambient dose equivalent and effective dose were calculated at the same positions. Both sources used in the experiment, namely a bare 252 Cf source and one shielded by a tungsten shell 5 cm thick, were considered in the simulation

  10. Shielding of radiation fields generated by {sup 252}Cf in a concrete maze. Part 2 -- Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, A.; Ipe, N.E.; Reyna, A. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; McCall, R.C. [McCall Associates, Woodside, CA (US)

    1998-03-01

    A streaming experiment performed in a concrete maze of shape and size typical of a radiotherapy room was simulated with the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The purpose of the calculation was to test the performance of the code in the low energy neutron range, and at the same time to provide additional information which could help in optimizing shielding of medical facilities. Instrument responses were calculated at different maze locations for several experimental configurations and were compared with measurements. In addition, neutron and gamma fluence, ambient dose equivalent and effective dose were calculated at the same positions. Both sources used in the experiment, namely a bare {sup 252}Cf source and one shielded by a tungsten shell 5 cm thick, were considered in the simulation.

  11. Hamsters' (Mesocricetus auratus) memory in a radial maze analog: the role of spatial versus olfactory cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonneau, François; Cabrera, Felipe; Corujo, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    The golden hamster's (Mesocricetus auratus) performance on radial maze tasks has not been studied a lot. Here we report the results of a spatial memory task that involved eight food stations equidistant from the center of a circular platform. Each of six male hamsters depleted the food stations along successive choices. After each choice and a 5-s retention delay, the hamster was brought back to the center of the platform for the next choice opportunity. When only one baited station was left, the platform was rotated to evaluate whether olfactory traces guided hamsters' choices. Results showed that despite the retention delay hamsters performed above chance in searching for food. The choice distributions observed during the rotation probes were consistent with spatial memory and could be explained without assuming guidance by olfactory cues. The radial maze analog we devised could be useful in furthering the study of spatial memory in hamsters.

  12. Model testing of a 10-kg high explosive blast attenuation maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacigalupi, C.M.; Burton, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The basement area of the proposed High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory includes 10-kg HE assembly and process cells, and a 10-kg corridor for the transport of up to 10 kg of HE from the receiving dock to the cells and to the experimental firing tanks. Previous model experiments developed a process cell-maze configuration that attenuated the effects of an accidental 10-kg detonation to acceptable levels (maximum of 10 to 11 psi reflected). This document reports 1/8-scale model tests conducted to confirm the maze design and to determine the blast pressures in adjacent areas in the final HEAF building configuration. In addition, pressure/time information was obtained at selected points in the model expansion chamber to provide the architect-engineer with information for structural design

  13. Comparisons of Online Reading Paradigms: Eye Tracking, Moving-Window, and Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Naoko; Witzel, Jeffrey; Forster, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This study compares four methodologies used to examine online sentence processing during reading. Specifically, self-paced, non-cumulative, moving-window reading (Just et al. in "J Exp Psychol Gen" 111:228-238, 1982), eye tracking (see e.g., Rayner in "Q J Exp Psychol" 62:1457-1506, 2009), and two versions of the maze task (Forster et al. in…

  14. Search Strategies Used by "APP" Transgenic Mice during Navigation in the Morris Water Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    TgCRND8 mice represent a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, with onset of cognitive impairment and increasing amyloid-[beta] plaques in their brains at 12 weeks of age. In this study, the spatial memory in 25- to 30-week-old TgCRND8 mice was analyzed in two reference and one working memory Morris water maze (MWM) tests. In reference…

  15. T-maze performance after developmental exposure to 19F tagged 5-HTP in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Sherry; Nash, Laurie; Hogan, Jeremy; Branch, Craig

    2004-12-01

    Chicks were used as a model to investigate behavioral effects of administering a new compound intended for use with magnetic resonance. The compound has multiple 19F atom tags covalently bonded to the indole ring of 5-hydroxytryptophan (PF-5HTP), the immediate precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin. On incubation Day 17, 5 microg of PF-5-HTP, an equivalent amount of 5-HTP, or just 200 microL of the weak phosphate buffered saline (PBS) vehicle was injected into the airsac of each egg. Three days after hatching, chicks were isolated at the top of a simple T-Maze which, when traversed correctly, enabled them to return to their brood mates. A second trial in the T-Maze was conducted about three hours later. The brief period of isolation at the start of a trial causes social distress in chicks who are reinforced by returning to the brood. The task was selected as being sensitive to functioning of the serotonin pathways whose development might be altered by administering the compound during brain development. Repeated-measures analysis of variance yielded a statistically significant main effect for trial within groups, but no significant difference between injection groups. Administering a low dose of the fluorine tagged compound during development did not impair performance on this T-maze task.

  16. Food restriction affects Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Chen, Yanmei; Li, Liane; Wang, Yumei; Kong, Xiangyang; Wang, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    The ambiguous effects of food restriction (FR) on cognition in rodents have been mostly explored in the aged brain by a variety of paradigms, in which either rewards or punishments are involved. This study aims to examine the effects of chronic and acute FR with varying intensities on spatial recognition memory in developing mice. We have used a Y-maze task that is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments. In chronic FR, mice had 70-30% chow of control for seven weeks. In acute FR, mice were food restricted for 12-48h before the tests. We found that chronic FR had no effect on the preference of mice for novelty in the Y-maze, but severe FR (50-30% of control) caused impairment on spatial recognition memory. The impairment significantly correlated with the slow weight growth induced by FR. Acute FR also did not affect the novelty preference of mice, but either improved or impaired the memory retention. These data suggest chronic FR impairs Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice depending on FR intensity and individual tolerability of the FR. Moreover, acute FR exerts diverse effects on the memory, either positive or negative. Our findings have revealed new insights on the effects of FR on spatial recognition memory in developing animals. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fractal dimensions: A new paradigm to assess spatial memory and learning using Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surjeet; Kaur, Harpreet; Sandhir, Rajat

    2016-02-15

    Morris water maze has been widely used for analysis of cognitive functions and relies on the time taken by animal to find the platform i.e. escape latency as a parameter to quantify spatial memory and learning. However, escape latency is confounded by swimming speed which is not necessarily a cognitive factor. Rather, path length may be a more appropriate and reliable parameter to assess spatial learning. This paper presents fractal dimension as a new paradigm to assess spatial memory and learning in animals. Male wistar rats were administrated with pentylenetetrazole and scopolamine to induce chronic epilepsy and dementia respectively. Fractal dimension of the random path followed by the animals on Morris water maze was analyzed and statistically compared among different experimental groups; the results suggest that fractal dimension is more reliable and accurate parameter to assess cognitive deficits compared to escape latency. Thus, the present study suggests that fractal dimensions could be used as an independent parameter to assess spatial memory and learning in animals using Morris water maze. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Remarkably reduced efficiency droop by using staircase thin InGaN quantum barriers in InGaN based blue light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kun; Ikeda, Masao, E-mail: mikeda2013@sinano.ac.cn, E-mail: jpliu2010@sinano.ac.cn; Liu, Jianping, E-mail: mikeda2013@sinano.ac.cn, E-mail: jpliu2010@sinano.ac.cn; Zhang, Shuming; Li, Deyao; Zhang, Liqun; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou (China); Cai, Jin; Wang, Hui; Wang, H. B. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou (China); Suzhou Nanojoin Photonics Co., Ltd., Suzhou (China)

    2014-10-27

    The efficiency droop of InGaN/GaN(InGaN) multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) with thin quantum barriers (QB) is studied. With thin GaN QB (3 nm–6 nm thickness), the efficiency droop is not improved, which indicates that hole transport cannot be significantly enhanced by the thin GaN QBs. On the contrary, the efficiency droop was remarkably reduced by using a InGaN staircase QB (InGaN SC-QB) MQWs structure where InGaN SC-QBs lower the transport energy barrier of holes. The efficiency droop ratio was as low as 3.3% up to 200 A/cm{sup 2} for the InGaN SC-QB LED. By using monitoring QW with longer wavelength we observe a much uniform carrier distribution in the InGaN SC-QB LEDs, which reveals the mechanism of improvement in the efficiency droop.

  19. SPA-LEED Study of the Morphology and Nucleation of a Novel Growth Mode and the ''devil's staircase'' on Pb/Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang-Chi Vincent Yeh

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was developed to address the following questions for the Pb/Si(111) system: (1) Is it possible to control the nano-structure growth by changing the initial substrate; (2) is the nucleation theory applicable to the case of the 7-step growth mode; and (3) what phase or phases could be formed between coverage 6/5 ML and 4/3 ML? The first question was answered in chapter 2, different growth results were observed for different initial substrate, suggesting the possibility of controlling nano-structure growth by selecting the initial substrate. The applicability of nucleation theory was determined to be unclear in chapter 3, from the results that the saturation island density does not depend on deposition rate, in contrary to the prediction of nucleation theory. Chapter 4 revealed a novel ''devil's staircase'' in Pb/Si(111) within the coverage range 6/5 ML and 4/3 ML. Low temperature deposition experiments showed high order of self-organization in such a system. Theoretical studies are needed to understand such a low temperature behavior. In general, this thesis provides possibilities of controlling nano-structure growth, which can be possibly an indication for future application. It also raises interesting questions in fundamental researches: a modified theory of nucleation is needed, and a detailed study of low temperature behavior is required. Details of the conclusions in each of the chapters are collected in the following sections

  20. Neural correlates of olfactory and visual memory performance in 3D-simulated mazes after intranasal insulin application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brünner, Yvonne F; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Mutic, Smiljana; Benedict, Christian; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    This fMRI study intended to establish 3D-simulated mazes with olfactory and visual cues and examine the effect of intranasally applied insulin on memory performance in healthy subjects. The effect of insulin on hippocampus-dependent brain activation was explored using a double-blind and placebo-controlled design. Following intranasal administration of either insulin (40IU) or placebo, 16 male subjects participated in two experimental MRI sessions with olfactory and visual mazes. Each maze included two separate runs. The first was an encoding maze during which subjects learned eight olfactory or eight visual cues at different target locations. The second was a recall maze during which subjects were asked to remember the target cues at spatial locations. For eleven included subjects in the fMRI analysis we were able to validate brain activation for odor perception and visuospatial tasks. However, we did not observe an enhancement of declarative memory performance in our behavioral data or hippocampal activity in response to insulin application in the fMRI analysis. It is therefore possible that intranasal insulin application is sensitive to the methodological variations e.g. timing of task execution and dose of application. Findings from this study suggest that our method of 3D-simulated mazes is feasible for studying neural correlates of olfactory and visual memory performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 5-HTT Deficiency Affects Neuroplasticity and Increases Stress Sensitivity Resulting in Altered Spatial Learning Performance in the Morris Water Maze but Not in the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeg, Margherita M.; Grauthoff, Sandra; Kollert, Sina Y.; Weidner, Magdalena; Heiming, Rebecca S.; Jansen, Friederike; Popp, Sandy; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether spatial hippocampus-dependent learning is affected by the serotonergic system and stress. Therefore, 5-HTT knockout (-/-), heterozygous (+/-) and wildtype (+/+) mice were subjected to the Barnes maze (BM) and the Morris water maze (WM), the latter being discussed as more aversive. Additionally, immediate early gene (IEG) expression, hippocampal adult neurogenesis (aN), and blood plasma corticosterone were analyzed. While the performance of 5-HTT-/- mice in the BM was undistinguishable from both other genotypes, they performed worse in the WM. However, in the course of the repeated WM trials 5-HTT-/- mice advanced to wildtype level. The experience of a single trial of either the WM or the BM resulted in increased plasma corticosterone levels in all genotypes. After several trials 5-HTT-/- mice exhibited higher corticosterone concentrations compared with both other genotypes in both tests. Corticosterone levels were highest in 5-HTT-/- mice tested in the WM indicating greater aversiveness of the WM and a greater stress sensitivity of 5-HTT deficient mice. Quantitative immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus revealed increased cell counts positive for the IEG products cFos and Arc as well as for proliferation marker Ki67 and immature neuron marker NeuroD in 5-HTT-/- mice compared to 5-HTT+/+ mice, irrespective of the test. Most differences were found in the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus of the septal hippocampus. Ki67-immunohistochemistry revealed a genotype x environment interaction with 5-HTT genotype differences in naïve controls and WM experience exclusively yielding more Ki67-positive cells in 5-HTT+/+ mice. Moreover, in 5-HTT-/- mice we demonstrate that learning performance correlates with the extent of aN. Overall, higher baseline IEG expression and increased an in the hippocampus of 5-HTT-/- mice together with increased stress sensitivity may constitute the neurobiological correlate of raised

  2. Spatial memory deficits in a virtual reality eight-arm radial maze in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Elena A; Astur, Robert S; West, Jeffrey T; Griego, Jacqueline A; Rowland, Laura M

    2012-03-01

    Learning and memory impairments are present in schizophrenia (SZ) throughout the illness course and predict psychosocial function. Abnormalities in prefrontal and hippocampal function are thought to contribute to SZ deficits. The radial arm maze (RAM) is a test of spatial learning and memory in rodents that relies on intact prefrontal and hippocampal function. The goal of the present study was to investigate spatial learning in SZ using a virtual RAM. Thirty-three subjects with SZ and thirty-nine healthy controls (HC) performed ten trials of a virtual RAM task. Subjects attempted to learn to retrieve four rewards each located in separate arms. As expected, subjects with SZ used more time and traveled more distance to retrieve rewards, made more reference (RM) and working memory (WM) errors, and retrieved fewer rewards than HC. It is important to note that the SZ group did learn but did not reach the level of HC. Whereas RM errors decreased across trials in the SZ group, WM errors did not. There were no significant relationships between psychiatric symptom severity and maze performance. To our knowledge, use of a virtual 8-arm radial maze task in SZ to assess spatial learning is novel. Impaired virtual RAM performance in SZ is consistent with studies that examined RAM performance in animal models of SZ. Results provide further support for compromised prefrontal and hippocampal function underlying WM and RM deficits in SZ. The virtual RAM task could help bridge preclinical and clinical research for testing novel drug treatments of SZ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Photon dose evaluation at the entrance of radiotherapy bunkers without maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facure, Alessandro; Salata, Camila

    2017-01-01

    Radiation protection has become an important field of study, as the use of ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy increased along the years. According to the ALARA principles, shielding is one of the most efficient ways to minimize radiation exposure. Linear accelerators for radiotherapy treatment can lead to a considerable risk due to radiation for public and workers if proper shielding is not calculated. Mazeless rooms for LINACS are becoming more usual, as they need less space to be constructed, but, on the other hand they are more expensive. The doors of those kinds of rooms are an important point, as they will have to be thicker in mazelles room to proper shield the radiation. The NCRP 151 lays out the general considerations for the shielding calculation of standard rooms, with mazes, but there are no specific recommendations for mazeless rooms on literature. The work herein presented evaluated the absorbed dose in a room model without maze, which will be constructed soon in Brazil. The applicant calculated the thickness of the door as if it was a room with maze, and the authors used computational simulation wit MCNP code to simulate the same room, and calculated the door thickness as if it was a secondary barrier. The dose limit considered was for public occupation, 1 mSv/sem, and the energy beam was of 6 MeV. The simulated results showed that the applicant calculation thickness for the door was underestimated in 88%. The obtained results are important to establish a better methodology for shielding calculation of mazeless radiotherapy rooms that are becoming more common in Brazil. (author)

  4. Photon dose evaluation at the entrance of radiotherapy bunkers without maze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facure, Alessandro; Salata, Camila, E-mail: facure@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: camila.salata@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radiation protection has become an important field of study, as the use of ionizing radiation for diagnosis and therapy increased along the years. According to the ALARA principles, shielding is one of the most efficient ways to minimize radiation exposure. Linear accelerators for radiotherapy treatment can lead to a considerable risk due to radiation for public and workers if proper shielding is not calculated. Mazeless rooms for LINACS are becoming more usual, as they need less space to be constructed, but, on the other hand they are more expensive. The doors of those kinds of rooms are an important point, as they will have to be thicker in mazelles room to proper shield the radiation. The NCRP 151 lays out the general considerations for the shielding calculation of standard rooms, with mazes, but there are no specific recommendations for mazeless rooms on literature. The work herein presented evaluated the absorbed dose in a room model without maze, which will be constructed soon in Brazil. The applicant calculated the thickness of the door as if it was a room with maze, and the authors used computational simulation wit MCNP code to simulate the same room, and calculated the door thickness as if it was a secondary barrier. The dose limit considered was for public occupation, 1 mSv/sem, and the energy beam was of 6 MeV. The simulated results showed that the applicant calculation thickness for the door was underestimated in 88%. The obtained results are important to establish a better methodology for shielding calculation of mazeless radiotherapy rooms that are becoming more common in Brazil. (author)

  5. Behavioral profiles displayed by rats in an elevated asymmetric plus-maze: effects of diazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruarte M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available When rats are exposed to unknown environments where novelty and fear-inducing characteristics are present (conflictive environments, some specific behaviors are induced and exploration is apparently modulated by fear. In our laboratory, a new type of plus-maze was designed as a model of conflictive exploration. The maze is composed of four arms with different geometrical characteristics, differing from each other by the presence or absence of walls. The degree of asymmetry was as follows: NW, no wall arm; SW, a single high wall present; HL, a low and a high wall present, and HH, two high walls present. The four arms were arranged at 90o angles and the apparatus was called the elevated asymmetric plus-maze (APM. The purpose of the present study was to assess the behavioral profile of rats exposed for a single time to the APM with or without treatment with benzodiazepine. Increasing doses of diazepam were injected intraperitoneally in several groups of male, 90-day-old Holtzman rats. Distilled water was injected in control animals. Thirty minutes after treatment all rats were exposed singly to a 5-min test in the APM. Diazepam induced a biphasic modification of exploration in the NW and SW arms. The increase in the exploration score was evident at low doses of diazepam (0.25-1.0 mg/kg body weight and the decrease in exploration was found with the higher doses of diazepam (2.0-3.0 mg/kg body weight. Non-exploratory behaviors (permanency were not affected by benzodiazepine treatment. In the HL arm, exploration was not modified but permanency was increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the HH arm, exploration and permanency were not affected. Results are compatible with the idea that exploration-processing mechanisms in conflictive environments are modulated by fear-processing mechanisms of the brain.

  6. [Analysis of variance of repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Guo-qin; Jin, Ru-feng; Zhao, Wei-kang

    2007-01-01

    To introduce the method of analyzing repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS 11.0, and offer a reference statistical method to clinical and basic medicine researchers who take the design of repeated measures. Using repeated measures and multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) process of the general linear model in SPSS and giving comparison among different groups and different measure time pairwise. Firstly, Mauchly's test of sphericity should be used to judge whether there were relations among the repeatedly measured data. If any (PSPSS statistical package is available to fulfil this process.

  7. PbCu3TeO7: an S= 1/2 staircase kagome lattice with significant intra-plane and inter-plane couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteswararao, B; Chou, F C; Kumar, R; Mahajan, A V; Chakraborty, Jayita; Dasgupta, I; Jeon, Byung-Gu; Kim, Kee Hoon

    2013-01-01

    We have synthesized polycrystalline and single-crystal samples of PbCu 3 TeO 7 and studied its properties via magnetic susceptibility, χ(T), and heat-capacity, C p (T), measurements and also electronic structure calculations. Whereas the crystal structure is suggestive of the presence of a quasi-2D network of Cu 2+ (S = 1/2) buckled staircase kagome layers, the χ(T) data show magnetic anisotropy and three magnetic anomalies at temperatures T N1 ∼ 36 K, T N2 ∼ 25 K, and T N3 ∼ 17 K. The χ(T) data follow the Curie–Weiss law above 200 K and a Curie–Weiss temperature θ CW ∼− 150 K is obtained. The data deviate from the simple Curie–Weiss law below 200 K, which is well above T N1 , suggesting the presence of competing magnetic interactions. The magnetic anomaly at T N3 appears to be of first order from magnetization measurements, although our C p (T) results do not display any anomaly at T N3 . The hopping integrals obtained from our electronic structure calculations suggest the presence of significant intra-kagome (next-nearest neighbor and diagonal) and inter-kagome couplings. These couplings take the PbCu 3 TeO 7 system away from a disordered ground state and lead to long-range order, in contrast to what might be expected for an ideal (isotropic) 2D kagome system. (paper)

  8. Magnetic properties of the Kagome staircase mixed system (Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x}){sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Navid

    2008-09-26

    The orthooxovanadates of the 3d transition metals M{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}, known as Kagome staircase systems, reveal interesting magnetic properties due to their crystal structure. Although these compounds are isostructural for M=Co,Ni,Mn,Cu, they differ considerably with respect to their magnetic phase transitions and magnetic structures. As the magnetic ions are situated on corners of cornersharing triangles, geometric frustration plays an important role in this system. This is not only confined to the fact, that the antiferromagnetic structures exhibit reduced magnetic moments, but apparently also to the ferromagnetic structure of Co{sub 3}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}, which exhibits a strongly reduced Co moment of 1.54 Bohr magnetons. Within this work precisely this ferromagnetic structure has been investigated in detail and it could be shown that the relatively weak magnetic moment does not result from frustration, but is a consequence of the strong hybridization effects between the cobalt and oxygen orbitals. The pronounced covalent character of this Co ion leads to the fact that due to the charge transfer the oxygen ions significantly contribute to the bulk magnetization when applying an external magnetic field. The second part of the presented work deals with the systematic investigation of the mixed system (Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x})3V{sub 2}O{sub 8}. A detailed magnetic phase diagram could be drawn, in which the temperature and composition dependent magnetic phase transitions have been pinpointed. Furthermore, an interesting magnetic structure of a chosen composition of x=0.5 has been observed, which differs considerably from those of the end members. (orig.)

  9. Use of an Eight-arm Radial Water Maze to Assess Working and Reference Memory Following Neonatal Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penley, Stephanie C.; Gaudet, Cynthia M.; Threlkeld, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Working and reference memory are commonly assessed using the land based radial arm maze. However, this paradigm requires pretraining, food deprivation, and may introduce scent cue confounds. The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs. Specifically, subjects are required to avoid the arms previously used for escape during each testing day (working memory) as well as avoid the fixed arms, which never contain escape platforms (reference memory). Re-entries into arms that have already been used for escape during a testing session (and thus the escape platform has been removed) and re-entries into reference memory arms are indicative of working memory deficits. Alternatively, first entries into reference memory arms are indicative of reference memory deficits. We used this maze to compare performance of rats with neonatal brain injury and sham controls following induction of hypoxia-ischemia and show significant deficits in both working and reference memory after eleven days of testing. This protocol could be easily modified to examine many other models of learning impairment. PMID:24335781

  10. Use of an eight-arm radial water maze to assess working and reference memory following neonatal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penley, Stephanie C; Gaudet, Cynthia M; Threlkeld, Steven W

    2013-12-04

    Working and reference memory are commonly assessed using the land based radial arm maze. However, this paradigm requires pretraining, food deprivation, and may introduce scent cue confounds. The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs. Specifically, subjects are required to avoid the arms previously used for escape during each testing day (working memory) as well as avoid the fixed arms, which never contain escape platforms (reference memory). Re-entries into arms that have already been used for escape during a testing session (and thus the escape platform has been removed) and re-entries into reference memory arms are indicative of working memory deficits. Alternatively, first entries into reference memory arms are indicative of reference memory deficits. We used this maze to compare performance of rats with neonatal brain injury and sham controls following induction of hypoxia-ischemia and show significant deficits in both working and reference memory after eleven days of testing. This protocol could be easily modified to examine many other models of learning impairment.

  11. Transcranial slow oscillation stimulation during NREM sleep enhances acquisition of the radial maze task and modulates cortical network activity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja eBinder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Slow wave sleep, hallmarked by the occurrence of slow oscillations (SO, plays an important role for the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories. Transcranial stimulation by weak electric currents oscillating at the endogenous SO frequency (SO-tDCS during post-learning sleep was previously shown by us to boost SO activity and improve the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory in human subjects. Here, we aimed at replicating and extending these results to a rodent model. Rats were trained for 12 days at the beginning of their inactive phase in the reference memory version of the radial arm maze. In a between subjects design, animals received SO-tDCS over prefrontal cortex or sham stimulation within a time frame of 1 hour during subsequent non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Applied over multiple daily sessions SO-tDCS impacted cortical network activity as measured by EEG and behavior: At the EEG level, SO-tDCS enhanced post-stimulation upper delta (2-4 Hz activity whereby the first stimulations of each day were preferentially affected. Furthermore, commencing on day 8, SO-tDCS acutely decreased theta activity indicating long-term effects on cortical networks. Behaviorally, working memory for baited maze arms was enhanced up to day 4, indicating enhanced consolidation of task-inherent rules, while reference memory errors did not differ between groups. Taken together, we could show here for the first time an effect of SO-tDCS during NREM sleep on cognitive functions and on cortical activity in a rodent model.

  12. Water Associated Zero Maze: A novel rat test for long term traumatic re-experiencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eRitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Often, freezing and startle behaviors in the context of a previously experienced stress are taken as an indication of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD-like symptoms in rats. However, PTSD is characterized by large individual variations of symptoms. In order to take into consideration the complex and long term distinctive variations in effects of trauma exposure additional behavioral measures are required.The current study used a novel behavioral test, the Water Associated Zero Maze (WAZM. This test was planned to enable a formation of an association between the context of the maze and an underwater trauma or swim stress in order to examine the impact of exposure to the context which immediately precedes a stressful or a traumatic experience on rat's complex behavior. Rats were exposed to the WAZM and immediately after to an underwater trauma or short swim. One month later rats were re-exposed to the context of the WAZM while their behavior was video recorded. Furthermore, c-Fos expression in the amygdala was measured 90 min after this exposure.The results of the current study indicate that the WAZM can be used to discern behavioral changes measured a long time after the actual traumatic or stressful events. Furthermore, the behavioral changes detected were accompanied by changes of c-Fos expression in the amygdala of exposed rats. We suggest that the WAZM can be used to model traumatic memories re-experiencing in rodent models of human stress-related pathologies such as PTSD.

  13. Assessment of anxiety in open field and elevated plus maze using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecorps, Benjamin; Rödel, Heiko G; Féron, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Due to their direct inaccessibility, affective states are classically assessed by gathering concomitant physiological and behavioral measures. Although such a dual approach to assess emotional states is frequently used in different species including humans, the invasiveness of procedures for physiological recordings particularly in smaller-sized animals strongly restricts their application. We used infrared thermography, a non-invasive method, to assess physiological arousal during open field and elevated plus maze tests in mice. By measuring changes in surface temperature indicative of the animals' emotional response, we aimed to improve the inherently limited and still controversial information provided by behavioral parameters commonly used in these tests. Our results showed significant and consistent thermal responses during both tests, in accordance with classical physiological responses occurring in stressful situations. Besides, we found correlations between these thermal responses and the occurrence of anxiety-related behaviors. Furthermore, initial temperatures measured at the start of each procedure (open field, elevated plus maze), which can be interpreted as a measure of the animals' initial physiological arousal, predicted the levels of activity and of anxiety-related behaviors displayed during the tests. Our results stress the strong link between physiological correlates of emotions and behaviors expressed during unconditioned fear tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated (+)-maze and hole-board exploration in lurcher mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, C; Lalonde, R

    1995-12-08

    The behavior of lurcher mice, a mutant with degeneration of cerebellar cells, was compared to that of normal mice for three days in two tests of exploration; an elevated (+)-maze and a 4 x 4 hole-board. In the elevated (+)-maze, lurcher mutants visited fewer closed arms than normal mice only on the first test day. Lurcher mutants were slower to emerge from the first closed arm but did not differ from normal mice for entry latencies into the first open arm. The time spent by the mutants in the open arms was higher than that of normal mice, an indication of decreased inhibition to open spaces. In the hole-board, lurcher mutants visited fewer holes than normal mice only on the first day of testing. In proportion to the total number of holes explored, lurcher mutants visited fewer center holes and fewer holes situated next to each other. These results may be due to a lesion-induced tendency to explore a more restricted region of a novel spatial environment and to explore it in a more haphazard fashion.

  15. A novel radial water tread maze tracks age-related cognitive decline in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no treatment and cure for age-related dementia and cognitive impairment in humans. Mice suffer from age-related cognitive decline just as people do, but assessment is challenging because of cumbersome and at times stressful performance tasks. We developed a novel radial water tread (RWT maze and tested male C57BL/6 (B6 and C57BL/6 x Balb/c F1 (CB6F1 mice at ages 4, 12, 20, and 28 months. B6 mice showed a consistent learning experience and memory retention that gradually decreased with age. CB6F1 mice showed a moderate learning experience in the 4 and 12 month groups, which was not evident in the 20 and 28 month groups. In conclusion, CB6F1 mice showed more severe age-related cognitive impairment compared to B6 mice and might be a suitable model for intervention studies. In addition, the RWT maze has a number of operational advantages compared to currently accepted tasks and can be used to assess age-related cognition impairment in B6 and CB6F1 mice as early as 12 months of age.

  16. New data on the chronology of the Vale do Forno sedimentary sequence (Lower Tejo River terrace staircase) and its relevance as a fluvial archive of the Middle Pleistocene in western Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunha, Pedro; Martins, Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2017-01-01

    The Vale do Forno archaeological sites (Alpiarça, central Portugal) document the earliest human occupation in the Lower Tejo River, well established in geomorphological and environmental terms, within the Middle Pleistocene. In a staircase of six fluvial terraces, the Palaeolithic sites were found...... unit has a probable age of ca. 335 to 325 ka and the US unit an age of ca. 325 to 155 ka. This is in contrast to previous interpretations ascribing this terrace (and lithic industries) to the Last Interglacial and early phases of the Last Glacial. The VF3 site (Milharós), containing Micoquian (Final...

  17. A Novel Heterocyclic Compound CE-104 Enhances Spatial Working Memory in the Radial Arm Maze in Rats and Modulates the Dopaminergic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aher, Yogesh D; Subramaniyan, Saraswathi; Shanmugasundaram, Bharanidharan; Sase, Ajinkya; Saroja, Sivaprakasam R; Holy, Marion; Höger, Harald; Beryozkina, Tetyana; Sitte, Harald H; Leban, Johann J; Lubec, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Various psychostimulants targeting monoamine neurotransmitter transporters (MATs) have been shown to rescue cognition in patients with neurological disorders and improve cognitive abilities in healthy subjects at low doses. Here, we examined the effects upon cognition of a chemically synthesized novel MAT inhibiting compound 2-(benzhydrylsulfinylmethyl)-4-methylthiazole (named as CE-104). The efficacy of CE-104 in blocking MAT [dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter] was determined using in vitro neurotransmitter uptake assay. The effect of the drug at low doses (1 and 10 mg/kg) on spatial memory was studied in male rats in the radial arm maze (RAM). Furthermore, the dopamine receptor and transporter complex levels of frontal cortex (FC) tissue of trained and untrained animals treated either with the drug or vehicle were quantified on blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE). The drug inhibited dopamine (IC50: 27.88 μM) and norepinephrine uptake (IC50: 160.40 μM), but had a negligible effect on SERT. In the RAM, both drug-dose groups improved spatial working memory during the performance phase of RAM as compared to vehicle. BN-PAGE Western blot quantification of dopamine receptor and transporter complexes revealed that D1, D2, D3, and DAT complexes were modulated due to training and by drug effects. The drug's ability to block DAT and its influence on DAT and receptor complex levels in the FC is proposed as a possible mechanism for the observed learning and memory enhancement in the RAM.

  18. Effects of environmentally differential rearing upon maze performance in prenatally irradiated microcephalic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M.L.; Inouye, M.; Kiyono, S.; Shibagaki, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant rats received 100 rads of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. Control pregnant rats were sham-irradiated on the same gestation day. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched, standard colony, and impoverished conditions for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. All the prenatally X-irradiated rats were microcephalic: their mean cerebral wet weight was 15.5% less than controls. The effect of X-irradiation was not significant in error scores and running times, whereas the effect of environment was significant in these items; initial and total error scores and running times were decreased in enriched groups compared to impoverished groups in controls as well as in X-irradiated animals

  19. Anxiogenic Effect of Low-dose Methamphetamine in the Test of Elevated Plus-maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Pometlová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamines (MA are psychostimulant drugs that are known to change individuals’ behavior. Psychostimulants could either evoke positive emotions (e.g. joy and happiness or attenuate negative emotional states (e.g. anxiety and depression in humans. In animal experiments, the test of elevated plus-maze (EPM is widely used. This test is appropriate for evaluation of anxiolytic and anxiogenic drug effects, or for examination of specific subtypes of anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acute single dose of MA (1 mg/kg on the behavior of laboratory rat in the EPM. The detailed ethologic analysis of behavior was performed using a modified protocol based on the study of Fernández Espejo (1997. Our results demonstrated that MA affects rat’s behavior in the EPM in the majority of analyzed categories. The present protocol allowed us to determine positive anxiogenic effect of MA.

  20. Clearing out a maze: A model of chemotactic motion in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tanja; Voigtmann, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    We study the anomalous dynamics of a biased "hungry" (or "greedy") random walk on a percolating cluster. The model mimics chemotaxis in a porous medium: In close resemblance to the 1980s arcade game PAC-MA N ®, the hungry random walker consumes food, which is initially distributed in the maze, and biases its movement towards food-filled sites. We observe that the mean-squared displacement of the process follows a power law with an exponent that is different from previously known exponents describing passive or active microswimmer dynamics. The change in dynamics is well described by a dynamical exponent that depends continuously on the propensity to move towards food. It results in slower differential growth when compared to the unbiased random walk.

  1. Effects of prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) treatment in rats on water maze performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Andreas; Jongen-Rêlo, Ana L; Pothuizen, Helen H J; Feldon, Joram

    2005-06-20

    Prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) treatment has been shown to induce morphological abnormalities in cortical areas of the offspring. Based on the neuroanatomical and behavioural abnormalities, this treatment has been suggested as a useful animal model for schizophrenia. In a previous study (Jongen-Relo AL, Leng A, Luber M, Pothuizen HHJ, Weber L, Feldon J. The prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate treatment: a neurodevelopmental animal model for schizophrenia? Behav Brain Res 2004;149:159-81) we have studied MAM-treated animals in a series of behavioural tests related to schizophrenia, such as latent inhibition and pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response to establish the validity of prenatal MAM treatment (20mg/kg i.p. on gestational days 9-15; MAM 9-MAM 15). We found that, apart from a marginal effect of increased activity in the open field, the MAM treatment on gestational day 15 was behaviourally ineffective. Here, we extended our previous study to a water maze experiment conducted in the same batch of animals as presented previously (MAM 12-MAM 15). MAM-treated animals showed similar water maze performance compared with control animals during the acquisition phase and the probe tests. However, during the reversal phase, MAM 15 animals showed impaired acquisition of the new platform location. This might indicate some cognitive deficits in MAM 15 animals in terms of working memory or behavioural flexibility. However, in combination with the lack of behavioural abnormalities of MAM 12-MAM 15 animals in several other tests related to schizophrenia in the previously reported study, the use of MAM treatment (MAM 12-MAM 15) as a valid model for schizophrenia still remains debatable.

  2. Improving Students’ English Pronunciation Ability Through Go Fish Game and Maze Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Astuti Wahyu Nurhayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem highlighted in this research is the low pronunciation ability of Kindergarten students in Al-Irsyad  Madiun  that is caused by (1 the uninteresting activities in learning English; (2 the students' difficulties in pronunciating English words; (3 the students' low motivation in learning. The theoretical review includes the young learners characteristics, games in language, games for young learners. The procedure of the research consists of identifying the problem, planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the result of the research. In this research, the researcher acts as the teacher who conducts the action research in the classroom and she is helped by the classsroom teacher. In collecting the data, the researcher uses observational technique supported with tests. In analyzing the data, the researcher uses the field notes, teacher's diaries, students ‘work supported with the cassette recording and photograph,then also compares the result of the students' pre-test and post-test to answer the research questions. There is significant improvement in the result of pre-test and post-test of cycle 1 and 2. In cycle 1, t0 (2.55734 is higher than tt (1.73 and in cycle 2, t0 (6.765738 is also higher than tt (1.73. From these two results, therefore, h0 is rejected and the alternative hypothesis (ha is accepted. They practice their pronunciation through taking turn and asking each other for cards to match those they have in their hands, arranging a word and sticking on alphabet, pronunciating the word, giving the meaning, hen making a sentence such as Go Fish Game and Maze Game. By conducting these games, using interesting media, creating various interesting tasks and activities can increase the students' motivation in learning English and pronunciation ability.Keywords: Improving, pronunciation, ability,  go fish and Maze games

  3. Separating defence and civilian radioactive waste programs in Nevada: can the public navigate the maze?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Nevada is at the centre of public policy debate with regards to high and low level radioactive waste disposal. Nevada's Yucca Mountain is the only site under consideration for a US geologic repository for commercial spent nuclear fuel and defence high level waste. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has long been a low level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the Department of Energy (DOE) defence waste and is now expected to take even more LLW as the preferred site for a regional or centralised disposal facility. Furthermore, the primary mission at NTS, defence, continues to add more contamination to the site. Combined, these facts present a public policy enigma, confused further by the intentional separation of the programs by DOE, even though all are essentially conducted at the same site. Involving the public in policy decisions for these programs is a dilemma because the public does not make the same artificial distinctions between them as DOE, DOE credibility suffers from past public involvement efforts conducted during an era of Cold War secrecy and because DOE public involvement programs are operated independently, with little or no co-operation between programs. The public does not know where it fits into the DOE decision-making process or if it impacts the policy decisions being made that affect it. This paper examines the complex maze of radioactive policy and bureaucracy in order to unveil the enigma Nevada residents face. Are they able to navigate this maze to effectively participate in government policy and decision-making? Or, will they remain confused by the government bureaucracy which deliberately makes a mess of the situation and seeks to exploit a politically weak state with large tracts of federally controlled land? lt further evaluates the effect this enigma has in producing acceptable public policy for radioactive waste disposal in the US, the role of public participation in that policy, and the reason the public is disillusioned and disengaged in the

  4. Use of maze in cyclotron hoppers; Utilizacao de labirinto em bunker de ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Fernando A.; Alves, Juliano S.; Fochesatto, Cintia; Cerioli, Luciane; Borges, Joao Alfredo; Gonzalez, Delfin; Silva, Daniel C., E-mail: fernandofernandes@biofarmaco.com.br [Delfin Farmacos e Derivados (Biofarmaco Marcadores Moleculares), Lauro de Freitas, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: the increasing number of cyclotrons in Brazil due to constitutional amendment 49 /06 that enabled the production of radiopharmaceuticals with a short half - life by private companies. The radionuclides used for PET - CT require production centers near or within the diagnostic centers. In order to minimize maintenance and operating risks, gaining efficiency, our facility was the first in Brazil to use the access to a cyclotron bunker via maze, rather than armored door stopper type. Materials: the design calculations were based on the Monte Carlo method (MCNP5 - Monte Carlo N-Particletransportcode version 5). At the ends of the labyrinth are installed a door of polyethylene, for thermalization of neutrons, and other of wood for limiting access. Both legs of the maze have wall thickness of 100cm. In inspection Brazilian CNEN realize measures of dose rate for neutrons and gamma 9 points: 7 around the bunker, 1 over the bunker and 1 in the exhaust with the cyclotron operating with maximum load, double beam of 50uA for 2 hours. After commissioning were carried out around the bunker, the following measures: cumulative dose in three months with dosimeters for neutron rate dose with a gas proportional detector type filled with {sup 3}He and polyethylene neutron moderator and dose rate with a Geiger - Mueller detector for gamma radiation. Readings with neutron detectors were classified as background radiation and dose rates were always below the limits established in standard EN 3.01, and the calculation of the predicted regardless of the intensity of irradiation inside the bunker. Conclusion: the use of labyrinths as a way to access the bunkers cyclotron has been shown to be effective as the radiation shielding and efficient by allowing quick and easy access, virtually eliminating the maintenance.

  5. Optimization of Apparatus Design and Behavioral Measures for the Assessment of Visuo-Spatial Learning and Memory of Mice on the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy P.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that apparatus design can affect visual-spatial cue use and memory performance of mice on the Barnes maze. The present experiment extends these findings by determining the optimal behavioral measures and test procedure for analyzing visuo-spatial learning and memory in three different Barnes maze designs. Male and female…

  6. Sertindole, in contrast to clozapine and olanzapine, does not disrupt water maze performance after acute or chronic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Michael; Kreilgaard, Mads; Arnt, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    .e. percentage of trials where the rat was unable to find the platform within the total trial time of 60 s. Clozapine (40 mg/kg, p.o.) and olanzapine (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) impaired water maze performance when given acutely. However, tolerance developed to the deficit induced by clozapine, whereas the olanzapine...

  7. The Canine Sand Maze: An Appetitive Spatial Memory Paradigm Sensitive to Age-Related Change in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvin, Hannah E.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Valenzuela, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aged dogs exhibit a spectrum of cognitive abilities including a syndrome similar to Alzheimer's disease. A major impediment to research so far has been the lack of a quick and accurate test of visuospatial memory appropriate for community-based animals. We therefore report on the development and validation of the Canine Sand Maze. A 4.5-m-diameter…

  8. Classification Accuracy of Oral Reading Fluency and Maze in Predicting Performance on Large-Scale Reading Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Dawn M.; Hixson, Michael D.; Shaw, Amber; Johnson, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether using a multiple-measure framework yielded better classification accuracy than oral reading fluency (ORF) or maze alone in predicting pass/fail rates for middle-school students on a large-scale reading assessment. Participants were 178 students in Grades 7 and 8 from a Midwestern school district.…

  9. Fear-potentiation in the elevated plus-maze test depends on stressor controllability and fear conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, S M; Bohus, B; de Boer, Sietse

    The purpose of the study was to determine which stressor qualities (escapable vs. inescapable stress and unconditioned vs. conditioned stress) can potentiate fear in the elevated plus-maze. While inescapable stress potentiated fear, escapable stress did not, but escapable stress increased the

  10. Egocentric virtual maze learning in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Godehard; Siemerkus, Jakob; Barke, Antonia; Lange, Claudia; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Sachsse, Ulrich; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Irle, Eva

    2013-05-30

    Present neuroimaging findings suggest two subtypes of trauma response, one characterized predominantly by hyperarousal and intrusions, and the other primarily by dissociative symptoms. The neural underpinnings of these two subtypes need to be better defined. Fourteen women with childhood abuse and the current diagnosis of dissociative amnesia or dissociative identity disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view (egocentric), lacked any topographical landmarks and could be learned only by using egocentric navigation strategies. Participants with dissociative disorders (DD) were not impaired in learning the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar, although weaker, pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Stronger dissociative disorder severity of participants with DD was related to better virtual maze performance, and to stronger activity increase within the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. Our results add to the present knowledge of preserved attentional and visuospatial mnemonic functioning in individuals with DD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The response strategy and the place strategy in a plus-maze have different sensitivities to devaluation of expected outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Yutaka; Pearce, John M; McGregor, Anthony

    2018-04-10

    Previous studies have suggested that spatial navigation can be achieved with at least two distinct learning processes, involving either cognitive map-like representations of the local environment, referred to as the "place strategy", or simple stimulus-response (S-R) associations, the "response strategy". A similar distinction between cognitive/behavioral processes has been made in the context of non-spatial, instrumental conditioning, with the definition of two processes concerning the sensitivity of a given behavior to the expected value of its outcome as well as to the response-outcome contingency ("goal-directed action" and "S-R habit"). Here we investigated whether these two versions of dichotomist definitions of learned behavior, one spatial and the other non-spatial, correspond to each other in a formal way. Specifically, we assessed the goal-directed nature of two navigational strategies, using a combination of an outcome devaluation procedure and a spatial probe trial frequently used to dissociate the two navigational strategies. In Experiment 1, rats trained in a dual-solution T-maze task were subjected to an extinction probe trial from the opposite start arm, with or without prefeeding-induced devaluation of the expected outcome. We found that a non-significant preference for the place strategy in the non-devalued condition was completely reversed after devaluation, such that significantly more animals displayed the use of the response strategy. The result suggests that the place strategy is sensitive to the expected value of the outcome, while the response strategy is not. In Experiment 2, rats with hippocampal lesions showed significant reliance on the response strategy, regardless of whether the expected outcome was devalued or not. The result thus offers further evidence that the response strategy conforms to the definition of an outcome-insensitive, habitual form of instrumental behavior. These results together attest a formal correspondence between

  12. Dose reduction of scattered photons from concrete walls lined with lead: Implications for improvement in design of megavoltage radiation therapy facility mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Affan, I A M; Hugtenburg, R P; Bari, D S; Al-Saleh, W M; Piliero, M; Evans, S; Al-Hasan, M; Al-Zughul, B; Al-Kharouf, S; Ghaith, A

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the possibility of using lead to cover part of the radiation therapy facility maze walls in order to absorb low energy photons and reduce the total dose at the maze entrance of radiation therapy rooms. Experiments and Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to establish the possibility of using high-Z materials to cover the concrete walls of the maze in order to reduce the dose of the scattered photons at the maze entrance. The dose of the backscattered photons from a concrete wall was measured for various scattering angles. The dose was also calculated by the FLUKA and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. The FLUKA code was also used to simulate an existing radiotherapy room to study the effect of multiple scattering when adding lead to cover the concrete walls of the maze. Monoenergetic photons were used to represent the main components of the x ray spectrum up to 10 MV. It was observed that when the concrete wall was covered with just 2 mm of lead, the measured dose rate at all backscattering angles was reduced by 20% for photons of energy comparable to Co-60 emissions and 70% for Cs-137 emissions. The simulations with FLUKA and EGS showed that the reduction in the dose was potentially even higher when lead was added. One explanation for the reduction is the increased absorption of backscattered photons due to the photoelectric interaction in lead. The results also showed that adding 2 mm lead to the concrete walls and floor of the maze reduced the dose at the maze entrance by up to 90%. This novel proposal of covering part or the entire maze walls with a few millimeters of lead would have a direct implication for the design of radiation therapy facilities and would assist in upgrading the design of some mazes, especially those in facilities with limited space where the maze length cannot be extended to sufficiently reduce the dose. © 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Multivariate temporal pattern analysis applied to the study of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze: methodological and conceptual highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Magnusson, M S; Roy, V; Arabo, A; Sorbera, F; Santangelo, A; Faulisi, F; Crescimanno, G

    2014-08-30

    Aim of this article is to illustrate the application of a multivariate approach known as t-pattern analysis in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. By means of this multivariate approach, significant relationships among behavioral events in the course of time can be described. Both quantitative and t-pattern analyses were utilized to analyze data obtained from fifteen male Wistar rats following a trial 1-trial 2 protocol. In trial 2, in comparison with the initial exposure, mean occurrences of behavioral elements performed in protected zones of the maze showed a significant increase counterbalanced by a significant decrease of mean occurrences of behavioral elements in unprotected zones. Multivariate t-pattern analysis, in trial 1, revealed the presence of 134 t-patterns of different composition. In trial 2, the temporal structure of behavior become more simple, being present only 32 different t-patterns. Behavioral strings and stripes (i.e. graphical representation of each t-pattern onset) of all t-patterns were presented both for trial 1 and trial 2 as well. Finally, percent distributions in the three zones of the maze show a clear-cut increase of t-patterns in closed arm and a significant reduction in the remaining zones. Results show that previous experience deeply modifies the temporal structure of rat behavior in the elevated plus maze. In addition, this article, by highlighting several conceptual, methodological and illustrative aspects on the utilization of t-pattern analysis, could represent a useful background to employ such a refined approach in the study of rat behavior in elevated plus maze. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of modafinil on the rat dopamine transporter and dopamine receptors D1-D3 paralleling cognitive enhancement in the radial arm maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eKarabacak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of drugs have been reported to increase memory performance modulating the dopaminergic system and herein modafinil was tested for its working memory (WM enhancing properties. Reuptake inhibition of dopamine, serotonin (SERT and norepinephrine (NET by modafinil was tested. 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups (modafinil-treated 1-5-10 mg/kg body weight, trained and untrained and vehicle treated trained and untrained rats; daily injected intraperitoneally for a period of 10 days and tested in a radial arm maze (RAM, a paradigm for testing spatial WM. Hippocampi were taken six hours following the last day of training and complexes containing the unphosphorylated or phosphorylated dopamine transporter (DAT-CC and pDAT-CC and complexes containing the D1-3 dopamine receptor subunits (D1-D3-CC were determined. Modafinil was binding to the DAT but insignificantly to SERT or NET and dopamine reuptake was blocked specifically (IC50=11.11; SERT 1547; NET 182. From day 8 (day 9 for 1 mg/kg body weight modafinil was decreasing WM errors in the RAM significantly and remarkably at all doses tested as compared to the vehicle controls. WMEs were linked to the D2R-CC and the pDAT-CC. pDAT and D1-D3-CC levels were modulated significantly and modafinil was shown to enhance spatial WM in the rat in a well-documented paradigm at all the three doses and dopamine reuptake inhibition with subsequent modulation of D1-3-CC is proposed as a possible mechanism of action.

  15. A novel elevated plus-maze procedure to avoid the one-trial tolerance problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy eSchneider

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The elevated plus-maze (EPM test is one of the most commonly used behavioural assays to evaluate anxiety-related behaviour in rodents. It is a rather economic test which usually uses a short (5 min protocol and does not require conditioning of the animals. The critical measure for anxiety is the time spent in the open arms of the maze. A confounding problem of the EPM is the so called one-trial tolerance (OTT, characterised by a marked decrease of open arm exploration in spite of treatment with anxiolytic acting benzodiazepines upon re-exposure to the EPM. This consistent finding is often raised as an evidence for the inappropriateness to re-test rodents in the EPM. However, a reliable re-test paradigm would broaden the usability and effectiveness of this test.Therefore, we tested how a prolongation of the inter-trial interval to 28 days (instead of the usual 24 hours, and an additional change of the testing room would affect the open arm time and other behaviours on the EPM. In two experiments, drug naive Wistar rats were exposed to the EPM on trial 1, and treated intraperitoneally with either vehicle or midazolam (0.25 mg/kg 30 min before trial 2. Then, trial 2 (28 days after trial 1 was carried out in either the same testing room (Exp. 1 or a second unfamiliar room (Exp. 2.Twenty-eight days after trial 1 the open arm time of the rats in the vehicle treated control rats of both experimental groups was comparable to that of the first trial, independent of the testing room. Most importantly, we found that the treatment with the benzodiazepine midazolam had a significantly anxiolytic-like (i.e. increase of open arm time effect in trial 2 only when conducted in the previously unfamiliar testing room (Exp. 2. We suggest that in order to reliably re-test the EPM and to prevent confounding effects due to the OTT, an inter-trial interval of 28 days and a change in testing rooms reinstates anxiolytic-like actions of benzodiazepines

  16. Un cas particulier du scénario dans l'apprentissage des langues : le labyrinthe (action maze Action Mazes: a special case of the scenario for language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Rézeau

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En didactique des langues l'approche actionnelle et les scénarios sont d'actualité, en lien avec les Tice (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication pour l'Enseignement. Cependant, des activités de type labyrinthe (action mazes, courantes dans les années 1980 et souvent portées sur les micro-ordinateurs de l'époque, semblent quelque peu tombées dans l'oubli. Cet article entend montrer qu'il est relativement aisé de concevoir et de réaliser de telles activités sur une plateforme d'enseignement à distance telle que Moodle. Nous analyserons également l'impact d'une activité de type labyrinthe sur une population d'étudiants dans le cadre d'un enseignement d'anglais de type Lansad (langues pour spécialistes d'autres disciplines.The development of ICT in language teaching concurs with an interest in task-based approaches and scenarios. Surprisingly, however, such activities as "adventure games" and "action mazes" which were quite popular in CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning in the 1980s seem to have fallen into oblivion. This article aims at demonstrating that it is relatively easy to design and implement "action mazes" on an LMS (Learning Management System such as Moodle. We shall then analyse the impact of an "action maze" learning activity on a population of students of ESP (English for Specific Purposes.

  17. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Khairul Azali Sahak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM. Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7–9 weeks old were force-fed daily with 6.0 μL/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n=6 or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control (CO group; n=6 for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME in the NSO-treated group.

  18. Nigella sativa Oil Enhances the Spatial Working Memory Performance of Rats on a Radial Arm Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahak, Mohamad Khairul Azali; Mohamed, Abdul Majid; Hashim, Noor Hashida; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa, an established historical and religion-based remedy for a wide range of health problems, is a herbal medicine known to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. This present study investigated the effect of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) administration on the spatial memory performance (SMP) of male adult rats using eight-arm radial arm maze (RAM). Twelve Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks old) were force-fed daily with 6.0  μ L/100 g body weight of Nigella sativa oil (NSO group; n = 6) or 0.1 mL/100 g body weight of corn oil (control) (CO group; n = 6) for a period of 20 consecutive weeks. For each weekly evaluation of SMP, one day food-deprived rats were tested by allowing each of them 3 minutes to explore the RAM for food as their rewards. Similar to the control group, the SMP of the treated group was not hindered, as indicated by the establishment of the reference and working memory components of the spatial memory. The results demonstrated that lesser mean numbers of error were observed for the NSO-treated group in both parameters as compared to the CO-treated group. NSO could therefore enhance the learning and memory abilities of the rats; there was a significant decrease in the overall mean number of working memory error (WME) in the NSO-treated group.

  19. Relative luminosity in the plus maze upon the exploratory behaviour of female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Yae Sakae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the provision of two configuration of the Elevated Pluz-Maze (EPM by analizing the exploratory behaviour of female Wistar rats in different phases of the estrous cycle in EPMs with different gradients of luminosity between the open and enclosed arms (O/E∆Lux.Methods Female Wistar rats were treated with Midazolam (MDZ, 1.0 mg.kg-1 and were tested for their exploratory behaviour in either the EPM 10 O/E∆Lux or EPM 96 O/E∆Lux.Results A multiple regression analysis indicated that the O/E∆Lux is negatively associated with the %Open arm entries and %Open arm time, suggesting that as O/E∆Lux increases, the open arm exploration decreases. The estrous cycle phase did not influence the open-arm exploration in either EPM. MDZ- induced anxiolysis was detected in 96 O/E∆Lux EPM in all phases of the EC.Discussion Results of this study suggest the importance of the O/E∆Lux to establish the arm preference in the EPM, and to preserve the predictive validity of the EPM.

  20. Effects of early maternal separation on the performance in the elevated plus maze in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Rodriguez, Diego Armando; Duenas Gomez, Zulma Janeth

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of mother pup interaction during early life exerts long lasting effects on the brain and behavioral development. Therefore subjects exposed to early maternal separation stress (MS) show variations in anxiety like behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of SMT stress on anxiety like behaviors in adult male and female wistar rats. Rats were housed with reversed light dark cycle (light on at 7 p.m., off at 7 a.m.), water and food ad libitum. Separation was carried out in postnatal days 1 to 21, twice daily in dark cycle (7:00 a 10:00 y 13:00 a 16:00 p.m.). The anxiety like behaviors were tested through the elevated plus maze (EPM) when the pups reached 230 g of weigh. We found that the MS stress has sex specific effects on anxiety like behaviors: the maternal separated females displayed a lesser anxious outline than the not separated ones and the separated males showed a large exploration/avoidance conflict. These results confirm previous effects of our labs, which may be related to an interaction between vulnerability to environmental challenge and maternal care compensatory behaviors

  1. Myristic Acid Produces Anxiolytic-Like Effects in Wistar Rats in the Elevated Plus Maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Contreras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of eight fatty acids (linoleic, palmitic, stearic, myristic, elaidic, lauric, oleic, and palmitoleic acids at similar concentrations identified in human amniotic fluid produces anxiolytic-like effects comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats. However, individual effects of each fatty acid remain unexplored. In Wistar rats, we evaluated the separate action of each fatty acid at the corresponding concentrations previously found in human amniotic fluid on anxiety-like behaviour. Individual effects were compared with vehicle, an artificial mixture of the same eight fatty acids, and a reference anxiolytic drug (diazepam, 2 mg/kg. Myristic acid, the fatty acid mixture, and diazepam increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and reduced the anxiety index compared with vehicle, without altering general locomotor activity. The other fatty acids had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour, but oleic acid reduced locomotor activity. Additionally, myristic acid produced anxiolytic-like effects only when the concentration corresponded to the one identified in human amniotic fluid (30 g/mL but did not alter locomotor activity. We conclude that of the eight fatty acids contained in the fatty acid mixture, only myristic acid produces anxiolytic-like effects when administered individually at a similar concentration detected in human amniotic fluid.

  2. Serotonin in anxiety and panic: contributions of the elevated T-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G

    2014-10-01

    The elevated T-maze (ETM) was developed to test the hypothesis that serotonin (5-HT) plays an opposing role in the regulation of defensive behaviors associated with anxiety and panic. This test allows the measurement in the same rat of inhibitory avoidance acquisition, related to generalized anxiety disorder, and of one-way escape, associated with panic disorder. The evidence so far reported with the ETM supports the above hypothesis and indicates that: (1) whereas 5-HT neurons located at the dorsal raphe nucleus are involved in the regulation of both inhibitory avoidance and escape, those of the median raphe nucleus are primarily implicated in the former task; (2) facilitation of 5-HT1A- and 5-HT2A-mediated neurotransmission in the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) is likely to mediate the panicolytic drug action; (3) stimulation of 5-HT2C receptors in the basolateral amygdala increases anxiety and is implicated in the anxiogenesis caused by short-term administration of antidepressant drugs, and (4) 5-HT1A and the μ-opioid receptors work together in the dPAG to modulate escape or panic attacks. These last results point to the possible benefits of adjunctive opioid therapy for panic patients resistant to antidepressants that act on 5-HT neurotransmission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cox-Maze III procedure with valvular surgery in an autopneumonectomized patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi Jin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Destructive pulmonary inflammation can leave patients with only a single functional lung, resulting in anatomical and physiological changes that may interfere with subsequent cardiac surgeries. Such patients are vulnerable to perioperative cardiopulmonary complications. Herein, we report the first case, to our knowledge, of an autopneumonectomized patient who successfully underwent a modified Cox-Maze III procedure combined with valvular repairs. The three major findings in this case can be summarized as follows: (1 a median sternotomy with peripheral cannulations, such as femoral cannulations, can provide an optimal exposure and prevent the obstruction of vision that may occur as a result of multiple cannulations through a median sternotomy; (2 a modified septal incision combined with biatrial incisions facilitate adequate exposure of the mitral valve; and (3 the aggressive use of intraoperative ultrafiltration may be helpful for the perioperative managements as decreasing pulmonary water contents, thereby avoiding the pulmonary edema associated with secretion of inflammatory cytokines during a cardiopulmonary bypass. We also provide several suggestions for achieving similar satisfactory surgical outcomes in patients with a comparable condition.

  4. Grey matter volume correlates with virtual water maze task performance in boys with androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S C; Merke, D P; Leschek, E W; Fromm, S; Grillon, C; Cornwell, B R; Vanryzin, C; Ernst, M

    2011-12-01

    Major questions remain about the specific role of testosterone in human spatial navigation. We tested 10 boys (mean age 11.65 years) with an extremely rare disorder of androgen excess (Familial Male Precocious Puberty, FMPP) and 40 healthy boys (mean age 12.81 years) on a virtual version of the Morris Water Maze task. In addition, anatomical magnetic resonance images were collected for all patients and a subsample of the controls (n=21) after task completion. Behaviourally, no significant differences were found between both groups. However, in the MRI analyses, grey matter volume (GMV) was correlated with performance using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Group differences in correlations of performance with GMV were apparent in medial regions of the prefrontal cortex as well as the middle occipital gyrus and the cuneus. By comparison, similar correlations for both groups were found in the inferior parietal lobule. These data provide novel insight into the relation between testosterone and brain development and suggest that morphological differences in a spatial navigation network covary with performance in spatial ability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Midazolam-Ketamine Dual Therapy Stops Cholinergic Status Epilepticus And Reduces Morris Water Maze Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niquet, Jerome; Baldwin, Roger; Norman, Keith; Suchomelova, Lucie; Lumley, Lucille; Wasterlain, Claude G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Pharmacoresistance remains an unsolved therapeutic challenge in status epilepticus (SE) and in cholinergic SE induced by nerve agent intoxication. SE triggers a rapid internalization of synaptic GABAA receptors and externalization of NMDA receptors that may explain the loss of potency of standard anti-epileptic drugs (AED). We hypothesized that a drug combination aimed at correcting the consequences of receptor trafficking would reduce SE severity and its long-term consequences. Methods A severe model of SE was induced in adult Sprague-Dawley rats with a high dose of lithium and pilocarpine. The GABAA receptor agonist midazolam, the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine and/or the AED valproate were injected 40 min after SE onset in combination or as monotherapy. Measures of SE severity were the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were acute neuronal injury, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), and Morris water maze (MWM) deficits. Results Midazolam-ketamine dual therapy was more efficient than double-dose midazolam or ketamine monotherapy or than valproate-midazolam or valproate-ketamine dual therapy in reducing several parameters of SE severity, suggesting a synergistic mechanism. In addition, midazolam-ketamine dual therapy reduced SE-induced acute neuronal injury, epileptogenesis and MWM deficits. Significance This study showed that a treatment aimed at correcting maladaptive GABAA receptor and NMDA receptor trafficking can stop SE and reduce its long-term consequences. Early Midazolam-ketamine dual therapy may be superior to monotherapy in the treatment of benzodiazepine-refractory SE. PMID:27500978

  6. The psychostimulant modafinil facilitates water maze performance and augments synaptic potentiation in dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanov, Marian; Lyons, Declan G; Barlow, Sally; González Reyes, Rodrigo E; O'Mara, Shane M

    2010-01-01

    Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug used widely for the treatment of narcolepsy, which also has additional positive effects on cognition. Here, we investigate the effects of modafinil on behavioural performance and synaptic plasticity in rats. Improved acquisition in the water maze task was observed in animals that underwent chronic treatment with modafinil. We found that the distance traveled and escape latency were reduced after the first day in chronically-treated rats, compared to controls. Importantly, swim velocity was similar for both groups, excluding pharmacological effects on motor skills. We also found that modafinil increases synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus of urethane-anaesthetized rats; modafinil induced a robust augmentation of the population spike, evident after application of 2 bursts of 200 Hz high-frequency stimulation. Furthermore, the modafinil-dependent enhancement of postsynaptic potentials correlated selectively with theta rhythm augmentation. We propose that modafinil may facilitate hippocampal-associated spatial representation via increased theta-related hippocampal plasticity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Insular muscarinic signaling regulates anxiety-like behaviors in rats on the elevated plus-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Lei; Li, Peng; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhai, Haifeng

    2014-08-15

    Anxiety is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders, and little is known about its pathogenesis. In order to investigate the neural mechanisms of this mental disorder, we used rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze as an animal model of anxiety and the insular cortex (insula) as a brain target. The microinjection of non-selective and selective M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) agonists or antagonists was used to explore whether the insular muscarinic receptor and its subtypes regulate levels of anxiety. The results showed that both non-selective and selective M1 and M4 mAChR agonists increased the time spent on exploring in the open arms, whereas antagonists decreased exploration. Our results indicate that activation of insular mAChRs could produce anxiolytic effects, whereas inhibition of insular mAChRs could increase anxiety. We concluded that the insular muscarinic system plays a role in the modulation of anxiety, and dysfunction of mAChR signaling may be involved in the mechanism of anxiogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Cox-maze IV procedure in its second decade: still the gold standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruaengsri, Chawannuch; Schill, Matthew R; Khiabani, Ali J; Schuessler, Richard B; Melby, Spencer J; Damiano, Ralph J

    2018-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and the treatment options include medical treatment and catheter-based or surgical interventions. AF is a major cause of stroke, and its prevalence is increasing. The surgical treatment of AF has been revolutionized over the past 2 decades through surgical innovation and improvements in endoscopic imaging, ablation technology and surgical instrumentation. The Cox-maze (CM) procedure, which was developed by James Cox and introduced clinically in 1987, is a procedure in which multiple incisions are created in both the left and the right atria to eliminate AF while allowing the sinus impulse to reach the atrioventricular node. This procedure became the gold standard for the surgical treatment of AF. Its latest iteration is termed the CM IV and was introduced in 2002. The CM IV replaced the previous cut-and-sew method (CM III) by replacing most of the incisions with a combination of bipolar radiofrequency and cryoablation. The use of ablation technologies, made the CM IV technically easier, faster and more amenable to minimally invasive approaches. The aims of this article are to review the indications and preoperative planning for the CM IV, to describe the operative technique and to review the literature including comparisons of the CM IV with the previous cut-and-sew method. Finally, this review explores future directions for the surgical treatment of patients with AF.

  9. Environmental enrichment to alleviate maze performance deficits in rats with microcephaly induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibagaki, M.; Seo, M.; Asano, T.; Kiyono, S.

    1981-01-01

    Pregnant rats received 150 R of X-irradiation on day 17 of gestation. The male offspring were reared under environmentally enriched (EC), standard colony (SC) or impoverished conditions (IC) for 30 days after weaning. Then the Hebb-Williams maze test was carried out. The effects of X-irradiation and environment were both significant in initial, repetitive and total error scores and running time. Further analysis revealed that both EC-SC and EC-IC differences in initial, repetitive and total error scores were significant in X-irradiated animals, whereas only the EC-IC difference in initial and total error scores was significant in sham-irradiated control animals. Total protein, protein/g cortex, total benzodiazepine and muscarine cholinergic receptor bindings, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding/mg protein in the cerebral cortex were decreased in X-irradiated groups, compared to controls, but the effect of environment was not significant in these items. The results confirmed that environmental enrichment is a useful tool to alleviate the learning decrements in prenatally X-irradiated microcephalic rats. (author)

  10. An elevated plus-maze in mixed reality for studying human anxiety-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Sarah V; Biedermann, Daniel G; Wenzlaff, Frederike; Kurjak, Tim; Nouri, Sawis; Auer, Matthias K; Wiedemann, Klaus; Briken, Peer; Haaker, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B; Fuss, Johannes

    2017-12-21

    A dearth of laboratory tests to study actual human approach-avoidance behavior has complicated translational research on anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) is the gold standard to assess approach-avoidance behavior in rodents. Here, we translated the EPM to humans using mixed reality through a combination of virtual and real-world elements. In two validation studies, we observed participants' anxiety on a behavioral, physiological, and subjective level. Participants reported higher anxiety on open arms, avoided open arms, and showed an activation of endogenous stress systems. Participants' with high anxiety exhibited higher avoidance. Moreover, open arm avoidance was moderately predicted by participants' acrophobia and sensation seeking, with opposing influences. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled experiment, GABAergic stimulation decreased avoidance of open arms while alpha-2-adrenergic antagonism increased avoidance. These findings demonstrate cross-species validity of open arm avoidance as a translational measure of anxiety. We thus introduce the first ecologically valid assay to track actual human approach-avoidance behavior under laboratory conditions.

  11. Applications of the Morris water maze in translational traumatic brain injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Laura B; Velosky, Alexander G; McCabe, Joseph T

    2018-05-01

    Acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently accompanied by persistent cognitive symptoms, including executive function disruptions and memory deficits. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) is the most widely-employed laboratory behavioral test for assessing cognitive deficits in rodents after experimental TBI. Numerous protocols exist for performing the test, which has shown great robustness in detecting learning and memory deficits in rodents after infliction of TBI. We review applications of the MWM for the study of cognitive deficits following TBI in pre-clinical studies, describing multiple ways in which the test can be employed to examine specific aspects of learning and memory. Emphasis is placed on dependent measures that are available and important controls that must be considered in the context of TBI. Finally, caution is given regarding interpretation of deficits as being indicative of dysfunction of a single brain region (hippocampus), as experimental models of TBI most often result in more diffuse damage that disrupts multiple neural pathways and larger functional networks that participate in complex behaviors required in MWM performance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Maze III modificado con pinza de crioablación reutilizable vs. Maze III clásico con corte y sutura, en pacientes con fibrilación auricular permanente y cirugía concomitante de la válvula mitral Maze III modified with cryoablation reusable clamp vs. classic cut and suture Maze III in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation and concommitant mitral valve surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Mendoza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el propósito del estudio fue evaluar el eficacia de la cirugía de Maze III modificada mediante una pinza de crioablación reutilizable en comparación con el Maze III clásico de corte y sutura, sólo en pacientes con fibrilación auricular permanente, y a la vez realizar cirugía mitral. Métodos: desde mayo de 1993 a abril de 2005, se realizó cirugía de Maze a 134 pacientes, de los cuales 92 presentaban fibrilación auricular permanente y además tenían cirugía de la válvula mitral. En el grupo clásico de Maze se incluyeron 71 pacientes (grupo I y en el nuevo grupo 21 (grupo II. Se realizó un análisis multivariable para analizar estos resultados. Resultados: la edad promedio fue 48,1 años (24 a 67 años, en un total de 24 hombres y 68 mujeres. La duración de la fibrilación fue de 3,8 años ± 4,3 años (DE 0,5-20 y el promedio del diámetro de la aurícula izquierda fue de 57 (26-82. No se hallaron diferencias significativas en ambos grupos. El tiempo de isquemia del grupo I fue de 83 min y del grupo II de 77 min (p = 0,4. El sangrado post-quirúrgico fue de 762 mL en el grupo I y 680 para el grupo II (p= 0,6. La mortalidad en el grupo I fue de 5,6% y en el grupo II de 0%. El ritmo sinusal se recobró en el 87% de los pacientes del grupo I y en el 85,7% del grupo II. Conclusiones: la cirugía de Maze III modificada con pinza de crioablación reutilizable, es tan efectiva como el Maze clásico, que se considera el patrón de oro. Se encontró una disminución en el tiempo de isquemia y en el riesgo de sangrado post-quirúrgico, la cual fue no significativa estadísticamente. Hay diferencia en la mortalidad de los dos grupos. Esta modificación es segura y puede aplicarse por un mayor número de cirujanos en cualquier institución. En países que se encuentran en vía de desarrollo este aparato puede utilizarse como un método alterno de energía.Introduction: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of

  13. Transient overexpression of the 5-HT1A receptor impairs water-maze but not hole-board performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, B; Dere, E; Wilhelmi, N; Kusserow, H; Theuring, F; Huston, J P; Fink, H

    2005-07-01

    Previously, we showed that mice that overexpress the 5-HT(1A) receptor transiently from embryonic to perinatal stages show reduced anxiety and changes in brain serotonin turnover as adults. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of the temporary overexpression of the 5-HT(1A) receptor during early embryonic and perinatal development on the performance in two memory tasks. In the hole-board test mice that were homozygous for the transgene showed similar behavioral habituation but increased locomotion compared to heterozygous mice. In contrast water-maze performance of homozygous mice was impaired compared to heterozygous mice. These results suggest that a transient overexpression of 5-HT(1A) receptor during embryonic and perinatal development has detrimental effects on water-maze performance at adult stages.

  14. Decreased proliferation in the adult rat hippocampus after exposure to the Morris water maze and its reversal by fluoxetine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náměstková, Kateřina; Šimonová, Zuzana; Syková, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 1 (2005), s. 26-32 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/03/1189; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Antidepressant * Water maze * Neurogenesis Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants Impact factor: 2.865, year: 2005

  15. Late Results of Cox Maze III Procedure in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Associated with Structural Heart Disease

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    Gustavo Gir Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cox-Maze III procedure is one of the surgical techniques used in the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF. Objectives: To determine late results of Cox-Maze III in terms of maintenance of sinus rhythm, and mortality and stroke rates. Methods: Between January 2006 and January 2013, 93 patients were submitted to the cut-and-sew Cox-Maze III procedure in combination with structural heart disease repair. Heart rhythm was determined by 24-hour Holter monitoring. Procedural success rates were determined by longitudinal methods and recurrence predictors by multivariate Cox regression models. Results: Thirteen patients that obtained hospital discharge alive were excluded due to lost follow-up. The remaining 80 patients were aged 49.9 ± 12 years and 47 (58.7% of them were female. Involvement of mitral valve and rheumatic heart disease were found in 67 (83.7% and 63 (78.7% patients, respectively. Seventy patients (87.5% had persistent or long-standing persistent AF. Mean follow-up with Holter monitoring was 27.5 months. There were no hospital deaths. Sinus rhythm maintenance rates were 88%, 85.1% and 80.6% at 6 months, 24 months and 36 months, respectively. Predictors of late recurrence of AF were female gender (HR 3.52; 95% CI 1.21-10.25; p = 0.02, coronary artery disease (HR 4.73 95% CI 1.37-16.36; p = 0.01 and greater left atrium diameter (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; p = 0.02. Actuarial survival was 98.5% at 12, 24 and 48 months and actuarial freedom from stroke was 100%, 100% and 97.5% in the same time frames. Conclusions: The Cox-Maze III procedure, in our experience, is efficacious for sinus rhythm maintenance, with very low late mortality and stroke rates.

  16. Kv4.2 knockout mice display learning and memory deficits in the Lashley maze [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potassium channels have been shown to be involved in neural plasticity and learning. Kv4.2 is a subunit of the A-type potassium channel. Kv4.2 channels modulate excitability in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Deletion of Kv4.2 results in spatial learning and conditioned fear deficits; however, previous studies have only examined deletion of Kv4.2 in aversive learning tests. Methods: For the current study, we used the Lashley maze as an appetitive learning test. We examined Kv4.2 wildtype (WT and knockout (KO mice in the Lashley maze over 4 days during adulthood. The first day consisted of habituating the mice to the maze. The mice then received five trials per day for the next 3 days. The number of errors and the time to the goal box was recorded for each trial. The goal box contained a weigh boat with an appetitive reward (gelatin with sugar. There was an intertrial interval of 15 minutes. Results: We found that Kv4.2 KO mice committed more errors across the trials compared to the WT mice p<0.001. There was no difference in the latency to find the goal box over the period. Discussion: Our finding that deletion of Kv4.2 resulted in more errors in the Lashley maze across 15 trials contribute to a growing body of evidence that Kv4.2 channels are significantly involved in learning and memory.

  17. Behavioral effects of "vehicle" microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal grey of rats tested in the elevated plus maze

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    Matheus M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the behavioral effects of different vehicles microinjected into the dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG of male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, tested in the elevated plus maze, animals were implanted with cannulas aimed at this structure. One week after surgery the animals received microinjections into the DPAG of 0.9% (w/v saline, 10% (v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 2% (v/v Tween-80, 10% (v/v propylene glycol, or synthetic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Ten min after the injection (0.5 µl the animals (N = 8-13/group were submitted to the elevated plus maze test. DMSO significantly increased the number of entries into both the open and enclosed arms when compared to 0.9% saline (2.7 ± 0.8 and 8.7 ± 1.3 vs 0.8 ± 0.3 and 5.1 ± 0.9, respectively, Duncan test, P<0.05, and tended to increase enclosed arm entries as compared to 2% Tween-80 (8.7 ± 1.3 vs 5.7 ± 0.9, Duncan test, P<0.10. In a second experiment no difference in plus maze exploration was found between 0.9% saline- or sham-injected animals (N = 11-13/group. These results indicate that intra-DPAG injection of some commonly used vehicles such as DMSO, saline or Tween-80 affects the exploratory activity of rats exposed to the elevated plus maze in statistically different manners

  18. Exposure to 56Fe Particles Produces Deficits in Spatial Learning and Memory in the Radial Arm Water Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Miller, Marshall; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James

    Previous research has shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) which will be encountered on long-term space missions, can adversely affect the ability of rats to perform a variety of behavioral tasks. This outcome has implications for an astronaut's ability to successfully complete requirements associated with these missions. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. Therefore, in the present study, we used a combination of these two tests, the 8 arm radial water maze (RAWM), to measure spatial learning in rats which were irradiated at the NSRL with 0, 150cGy, or 200cGy of 56Fe radiation. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to the HNRCA and tested in the RAWM (2-3 months later) for 5 days, 3 trials/day. In this version of the RAWM, there were 4 hidden platforms that the rat needed to locate to successfully solve a trial. Once the rat located a platform, it was allowed to remain there for 15 sec before the platform sank, at which point the rat tried to locate the remaining ones. Reference (entering an arm that never contained the platform) and working (re-entering an arm in which the platform had already been found) memory errors were tabulated. Results showed that the irradiated rats had more reference and working memory errors while learning the maze, particularly on Day 3 of testing. Additionally, they utilized non-spatial strategies to solve the RAWM task whereas the control animals used spatial strategies. These results show that irradiation with 56Fe high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by USDA Intramural and N.A.S.A. Grant NNX08AM66G

  19. Golden hamsters on the eight-arm maze in light and darkness: the role of dead reckoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, A S; Sitbon, S; Dahn-Hurni, C; Maurer, R

    1994-11-01

    This paper examines whether golden hamsters can rely on dead reckoning (getting positional information from updated signals generated during locomotion) on an eight-arm maze. Two groups of hamsters were tested: Group L under ordinary room light, Group D in darkness. To enhance the role of dead reckoning, each subject could climb from its own home cage onto the central platform of the maze. In a first experimental phase (15 trials), the L subjects learned to master the maze through developing a locomotor rule (arm chaining) after three to four trials. The D subjects developed arm chaining less readily and fluctuated more in their performance than did the L subjects. In a second experimental phase (15 trials), four arms were blocked at the beginning of each trial. In both experimental groups the performance decreased, yet remained well above chance level. Success and arm chaining were positively correlated in Phase 1 and negatively correlated with success in Phase 2. We assume that in Phase 2 the L subjects switched to the predominant use of visual cues, and the D subjects to dead reckoning.

  20. The effect of Resveratrol flavonoid on learning and memory in passive avoidance and Y maze in diabetic rat

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    Sima Nasri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes type I is accompanied with disturbances in cognitive skills, memory and learning. In this research, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol chronic treatment on learning and memory in diabetic male rats. Material and Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups: control, resveratrol-treated control, diabetic and resveratrol-treated diabetic groups. We used streptozotosin for inducing diabetes. Resveratrol (10mg/kg I.p. was administered for 8 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, passive avoidance test and Y-maze task were used. For Statistical analysis, SPSS software and paired T-test and one-way ANOVA were used. Results: Resveratrol decreased serum glucose in diabetic rats (P<0.01. In passive avoidance learning, there wasn’t any significant difference in initial latency between diabetic and treated- diabetic group. Also, a significant decrease of step latency was observed in diabetic and treated diabetic rats (P<0.01. In Y maze, Resveratrol improved alternation percentage in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Probably due to different mechanism of long term and short term memory, long term resveratrol treatment didn’t improve memory and learning in passive avoidance learning. In Y maze, method for determining the spatial memory, resveratrol improved spatial memory in diabetic rats. Resveratrol not only regulates glucose in diabetic rats but also it improves short term memory.

  1. A novel heterocyclic compound CE-104 enhances spatial working memory in the radial arm maze in rats and modulates the dopaminergic system

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    Yogesh D Aher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various psychostimulants targeting monoamine neurotransmitter transporters (MAT have been shown to rescue cognition in patients with neurological disorders and improve cognitive abilities in healthy subjects at low doses. Here, we examined the effects upon cognition of a chemically synthetized novel MAT inhibiting compound 2-(benzhydrylsulfinylmethyl-4-methylthiazole (named as CE-104. The efficacy of CE-104 in blocking MAT (DAT – dopamine transporter, SERT – serotonin transporter and NET – norepinephrine transporter was determined using in vitro neurotransmitter uptake assay. The effect of the drug at low doses (1 and 10mg/kg on spatial memory was studied in male rats in the radial arm maze (RAM. Furthermore, the dopamine receptor and transporter complex levels of frontal cortex (FC tissue of trained and untrained animals treated either with the drug or vehicle were quantified on blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE. The drug inhibited dopamine (IC50: 27.88µM and norepinephrine uptake (IC50: 160.40µM, but had a negligible effect on SERT. In the RAM, both drug-dose groups improved spatial working memory during the performance phase of RAM as compared to vehicle. BN-PAGE western blot quantification of dopamine receptor and transporter complexes revealed that D1, D2, D3 and DAT complexes were modulated due to training and by drug effects. The drug’s ability to block DAT and its influence on dopamine transporter and receptor complex levels in the FC is proposed as a possible mechanism for the observed learning and memory enhancement in the RAM.

  2. Lesions of reuniens and rhomboid thalamic nuclei impair radial maze win-shift performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembrook, Jacqueline R; Mair, Robert G

    2011-08-01

    The reuniens (Re) and rhomboid (Rh) nuclei are major sources of thalamic input to hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. We compared effects of lesions in ReRh and other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex on tasks affected by lesions in terminal fields innervated by these nuclei, including: visuospatial reaction time (VSRT), a measure of sensory guided responding; serial VSRT, a measure of action sequence learning; and win/shift radial arm maze (RAM) measures of spatial memory. ReRh lesions affected RAM, but not VSRT or serial VSRT performance. The effects of caudal intralaminar lesions were doubly dissociated from ReRh lesions, affecting VSRT, but not RAM or serial VSRT performance. Rostral intralaminar lesions did not produce significant impairments, other than a subgroup with larger lesions that were impaired performing a delayed RAM task. Combined lesions damaging all three sites produced RAM deficits comparable to ReRh lesions and VSRT deficits comparable to caudal intralaminar lesions. Thus there was no indication that deficits produced by lesions in one site were exacerbated significantly by the cumulative effect of damage in other parts of the midline-intralaminar complex. The effects of ReRh lesions provide evidence that these nuclei affect memory functions of hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The double dissociation observed between the effects of ReRh and caudal intralaminar nuclei provides evidence that different nuclei within the midline-intralaminar complex affect distinct aspects of cognition consistent with the effects of lesions in the terminal fields they innervate. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Molecular mechanisms for the destabilization and restabilization of reactivated spatial memory in the Morris water maze

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    Kim Ryang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory retrieval is not a passive process. Recent studies have shown that reactivated memory is destabilized and then restabilized through gene expression-dependent reconsolidation. Molecular studies on the regulation of memory stability after retrieval have focused almost exclusively on fear memory, especially on the restabilization process of the reactivated fear memory. We previously showed that, similarly with fear memories, reactivated spatial memory undergoes reconsolidation in the Morris water maze. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which reactivated spatial memory is destabilized and restabilized remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism that regulates the stability of the reactivated spatial memory. Results We first showed that pharmacological inactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR in the hippocampus or genetic inhibition of cAMP-responsible element binding protein (CREB-mediated transcription disrupted reactivated spatial memory. Finally, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and L-type voltage gated calcium channels (LVGCCs in the hippocampus blocked the disruption of the reactivated spatial memory by the inhibition of protein synthesis. Conclusions Our findings indicated that the reactivated spatial memory is destabilized through the activation of CB1 and LVGCCs and then restabilized through the activation of NMDAR- and CREB-mediated transcription. We also suggest that the reactivated spatial memory undergoes destabilization and restabilization in the hippocampus, through similar molecular processes as those for reactivated contextual fear memories, which require CB1 and LVGCCs for destabilization and NMDAR and CREB for restabilization.

  4. Comparison of the predictive validity of the mirror chamber and elevated plus maze tests in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Neil E; Iwunze, Michelle; Davis, Scott F; Malekiani, Sam A; Hanania, Taleen

    2010-04-30

    The mirror chamber (MC) is a putative test of anxiety-like behavior in mice, and is increasingly popular. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether the observed behaviors rely on the presence of mirrored panels. If so, it is unclear whether the behaviors are sensitive to clinically effective anxiolytics, and how the test compares to the elevated plus maze (EPM) in terms of predictive validity. The present studies assessed anxiety-like behaviors in different mouse strains in the MC using mirrored and non-mirrored panels, under variable lighting conditions. We also assessed the pharmacological validity of the MC and EPM tests, and the locomotor properties of active test compounds. Seven mouse strains exhibited different levels of anxiety-like behaviors in the MC, and differential sensitivity to panel and light conditions. DBA/2J mice appeared most sensitive to the mirrored, versus black or white, panels and were therefore used in pharmacological MC studies. The mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviors, similar to an intermediate dose of the benzodiazepine diazepam. The benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide and alprazolam and the 5HT(1A) partial agonist buspirone had no effects on anxiety-like behaviors in the MC. None of the MC effects of active test compounds were attributable to non-specific/locomotor effects. The antidepressants fluoxetine and venlafaxine increased anxiety-like behaviors in the MC. By contrast, the anxiolytic-like effects of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and MPEP were revealed in the EPM in C57Bl6/J mice. In conclusion, the EPM test exhibits superior predictive validity compared to the MC test, despite the sensitivity of the MC to mouse strain differences. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of lactation on motor activity and elevated plus maze behavior

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    Silva M.R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactating rats show less noise-induced freezing and fewer inhibitory responses on the 6th day post-delivery when submitted to water and food deprivation in a classical conflict paradigm. Lactating mice go more often to the illuminated chamber in a light-dark cage and stay longer in it than virgin females. The present study was designed to assess the influence of this physiological state, i.e. lactation, on the elevated plus maze (EPM and open-field behavior in adult female rats. Total (TL and central (CL locomotion and rearing (RF frequencies were measured in an open-field. Number of entries into the open and closed arms as well as the time spent in each of these arms were measured in the EPM. Percent time spent and number of entries into the open arms were calculated and compared. In the open-field, TL was significantly decreased (115 ± 10.6 vs 150 ± 11.6 while CL and RF did not differ from those presented by virgin rats. In the EPM, lactating rats displayed a significant reduction in percent time spent (10.9 ± 1.5 vs 17.4 ± 2.3 in the open arms as well as a tendency to a reduction in percent entries into the open arms (35.7 ± 4.7 vs 45.7 ± 4.3. These results show that the physiological state of lactation modulates the open-field and EPM behaviors in rats

  6. Preoperative study of the surface ECG for the prognosis of atrial fibrillation maze surgery outcome at discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, Antonio; Rieta, José Joaquín; Alcaraz, Raúl; Hornero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The Cox-maze surgery is an effective procedure for terminating atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients requiring open-heart surgery associated with another heart disease. After the intervention, regardless of the patient's rhythm, all are treated with oral anticoagulants and antiarrhythmic drugs prior to discharge. Furthermore, patients maintaining AF before discharge could also be treated with electrical cardioversion (ECV). In view of this, a preoperative prognosis of the patient's rhythm at discharge would be helpful for optimizing drug therapy planning as well as for advancing ECV therapy. This work analyzes 30 preoperative electrocardiograms (ECGs) from patients suffering from AF in order to predict the Cox-maze surgery outcome at discharge. Two different characteristics of the AF pattern have been studied. On the one hand, the atrial activity (AA) organization, which provides information about the number of propagating wavelets in the atria, was investigated. AA organization has been successfully used in previous studies related to spontaneous reversion of paroxysmal AF and to the outcome of ECV. To assess organization, the dominant atrial frequency (DAF) and sample entropy (SampEn) have been computed. On the other hand, the second characteristic studied was the fibrillatory wave (f-wave) amplitude, which has been demonstrated to be a valuable indicator of the Cox-maze surgery outcome in previous studies. Moreover, this parameter has been obtained through a new methodology, based on computing the f-wave average power (fWP). Finally, all the computed indices were combined in a decision tree in order to improve prediction capability. Results for the DAF yielded a sensitivity (Se), a specificity (Sp) and an accuracy (Acc) of 61.54%, 82.35% and 73.33%, respectively. For SampEn the values were 69.23%, 76.00% and 73.33%, respectively, and for fWP they were 92.31%, 82.35% and 86.67%, respectively. Finally, the decision tree combining the three parameters

  7. A novel heterocyclic compound improves working memory in the radial arm maze and modulates the dopamine receptor D1R in frontal cortex of the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ahmed M; Aher, Yogesh D; Kalaba, Predrag; Aher, Nilima Y; Dragačević, Vladimir; Radoman, Bojana; Ilić, Marija; Leban, Johann; Beryozkina, Tetyana; Ahmed, Abdel Baset M A; Urban, Ernst; Langer, Thierry; Lubec, Gert

    2017-08-14

    A series of compounds have been shown to enhance cognitive function via the dopaminergic system and indeed the search for more active and less toxic compounds is continuing. It was therefore the aim of the study to synthetise and test a novel heterocyclic compound for cognitive enhancement in a paradigm for working memory. Specific and effective dopamine re-uptake inhibition DAT (IC50=4,1±0,8μM) made us test this compound in a radial arm maze (RAM) in the rat. CE-125 (4-((benzhydrylsulfinyl)methyl)-2-cyclopropylthiazole), was tested for dopamine (DAT), serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibition by a well-established system. The working memory index (WMI) was evaluated in male Sprague Dawley rats that were intraperitoneally injected with CE-125 (1 or 10mg/kg body weight). In order to evaluate basic neurotoxicity, the open field, elevated plus maze, rota rod studies and the forced swim test were carried out. Frontal cortex was taken at the last day of the RAM test and dopamine receptors D1R and D2R, DAT and phosphorylated DAT protein levels were determined. On the 10th day both doses were increasing the WMI as compared to the vehicle-treated group. In both, trained and treated groups, D1R levels were significantly reduced while D2R levels were unchanged. DAT levels were comparable between all groups while phosphorylated DAT levels were increased in the trained group treated with 1mg/kg body weight. CE-125 as a probably non-neurotoxic compound and specific reuptake inhibitor was shown to increase performance (WMI) and modulation of the dopaminergic system is proposed as a possible mechanism of action. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The perceptual learning of time-compressed speech: A comparison of training protocols with different levels of difficulty.

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    Yafit Gabay

    Full Text Available Speech perception can improve substantially with practice (perceptual learning even in adults. Here we compared the effects of four training protocols that differed in whether and how task difficulty was changed during a training session, in terms of the gains attained and the ability to apply (transfer these gains to previously un-encountered items (tokens and to different talkers. Participants trained in judging the semantic plausibility of sentences presented as time-compressed speech and were tested on their ability to reproduce, in writing, the target sentences; trail-by-trial feedback was afforded in all training conditions. In two conditions task difficulty (low or high compression was kept constant throughout the training session, whereas in the other two conditions task difficulty was changed in an adaptive manner (incrementally from easy to difficult, or using a staircase procedure. Compared to a control group (no training, all four protocols resulted in significant post-training improvement in the ability to reproduce the trained sentences accurately. However, training in the constant-high-compression protocol elicited the smallest gains in deciphering and reproducing trained items and in reproducing novel, untrained, items after training. Overall, these results suggest that training procedures that start off with relatively little signal distortion ("easy" items, not far removed from standard speech may be advantageous compared to conditions wherein severe distortions are presented to participants from the very beginning of the training session.

  9. Un cas particulier du scénario dans l'apprentissage des langues : le labyrinthe (action maze) Action Mazes: a special case of the scenario for language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Rézeau

    2008-01-01

    En didactique des langues l'approche actionnelle et les scénarios sont d'actualité, en lien avec les Tice (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication pour l'Enseignement). Cependant, des activités de type labyrinthe (action mazes), courantes dans les années 1980 et souvent portées sur les micro-ordinateurs de l'époque, semblent quelque peu tombées dans l'oubli. Cet article entend montrer qu'il est relativement aisé de concevoir et de réaliser de telles activités sur une plateforme d...

  10. The transfer from survey (map-like to route representations into Virtual Reality Mazes: effect of age and cerebral lesion

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    Stampatori Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To go from one place to another, we routinely generate internal representations of surrounding spaces, which can include egocentric (body-centred and allocentric (world-centred coordinates, combined into route and survey representations. Recent studies have shown how both egocentric and allocentric representations exist in parallel and are joined to support behaviour according to the task. Our study investigated the transfer from survey (map-like to route representations in healthy and brain-damaged subjects. The aim was two-fold: first, to understand how this ability could change with age in a sample of healthy participants, aged from 40 to 71 years old; second, to investigate how it is affected after a brain lesion in a 8 patients' sample, with reference to specific neuropsychological frames. Methods Participants were first required to perform the paper and pencil version of eight mazes, then to translate the map-like paths into egocentric routes, in order to find the right way into equivalent Virtual Reality (VR mazes. Patients also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including a specific investigation of some topographical orientation components. Results As regards the healthy sample, we found age-related deterioration in VR task performance. While education level and gender were not found to be related to performance, global cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination, previous experience with computer and fluidity of navigation into the VR appeared to influence VR task results. Considering the clinical sample, there was a difficulty in performing the VR Maze task; executive functions and visuo-spatial abilities deficits appeared to be more relevant for predicting patients' results. Conclusions Our study suggests the importance of developing tools aimed at investigating the survey to route transfer ability in both healthy elderly and clinical samples, since this skill seems high cognitive

  11. The transfer from survey (map-like) to route representations into Virtual Reality Mazes: effect of age and cerebral lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Laura; Rusconi, Maria Luisa; Scarabelli, Chiara; Stampatori, Chiara; Mattioli, Flavia; Riva, Giuseppe

    2011-01-31

    To go from one place to another, we routinely generate internal representations of surrounding spaces, which can include egocentric (body-centred) and allocentric (world-centred) coordinates, combined into route and survey representations.Recent studies have shown how both egocentric and allocentric representations exist in parallel and are joined to support behaviour according to the task.Our study investigated the transfer from survey (map-like) to route representations in healthy and brain-damaged subjects. The aim was two-fold: first, to understand how this ability could change with age in a sample of healthy participants, aged from 40 to 71 years old; second, to investigate how it is affected after a brain lesion in a 8 patients' sample, with reference to specific neuropsychological frames. Participants were first required to perform the paper and pencil version of eight mazes, then to translate the map-like paths into egocentric routes, in order to find the right way into equivalent Virtual Reality (VR) mazes.Patients also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, including a specific investigation of some topographical orientation components. As regards the healthy sample, we found age-related deterioration in VR task performance. While education level and gender were not found to be related to performance, global cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination), previous experience with computer and fluidity of navigation into the VR appeared to influence VR task results.Considering the clinical sample, there was a difficulty in performing the VR Maze task; executive functions and visuo-spatial abilities deficits appeared to be more relevant for predicting patients' results. Our study suggests the importance of developing tools aimed at investigating the survey to route transfer ability in both healthy elderly and clinical samples, since this skill seems high cognitive demanding and sensitive to cognitive decline.Human-computer interaction

  12. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    OpenAIRE

    Pirchl, Michael; Kemmler, Georg; Humpel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux) , blue (1.3–2.3 lux), and red light (0.8–1.4 lux) affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials) under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. ...

  13. Un cas particulier du scénario dans l'apprentissage des langues : le labyrinthe (action maze)

    OpenAIRE

    Rézeau, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    En didactique des langues l'approche actionnelle et les scénarios sont d'actualité, en lien avec les Tice (Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication pour l'Enseignement). Cependant, des activités de type labyrinthe (action mazes), courantes dans les années 1980 et souvent portées sur les micro-ordinateurs de l'époque, semblent quelque peu tombées dans l'oubli. Cet article entend montrer qu'il est relativement aisé de concevoir et de réaliser de telles activités sur une plateforme d...

  14. [Sleep deprivation effect upon spatial memory consolidation in rats after one-day learning in a Morris water maze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, V B; Kozhedub, R G; Arsen'ev, G N; Kozhechkin, S N; Ukraintseva, Iu V; Kulikov, M A; Manolov, A I; Koval'zon, V M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation by 'carousel' method on spatial memory consolidation in a Morris water maze was studied in Wistar male rats after one-day learning (in accordance to a protocol by Frick et al., 2000). It was found that after fast 3-hr learning the memory trace retains during 24-hr. Twenty four hour sleep deprivation followed learning impaired consolidation of spatial memory. So the rat model of a one-day learning is suitable for the studying of neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep deprivation effects on spatial memory consolidation.

  15. Long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult rats: radial-arm maze performance and operant food reinforced responding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Risher

    Full Text Available Adolescence is not only a critical period of late-stage neurological development in humans, but is also a period in which ethanol consumption is often at its highest. Given the prevalence of ethanol use during this vulnerable developmental period we assessed the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure during adolescence, compared to adulthood, on performance in the radial-arm maze (RAM and operant food-reinforced responding in male rats.Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CIE (or saline and then allowed to recover. Animals were then trained in either the RAM task or an operant task using fixed- and progressive- ratio schedules. After baseline testing was completed all animals received an acute ethanol challenge while blood ethanol levels (BECs were monitored in a subset of animals. CIE exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood decreased the amount of time that animals spent in the open portions of the RAM arms (reminiscent of deficits in risk-reward integration and rendered animals more susceptible to the acute effects of an ethanol challenge on working memory tasks. The operant food reinforced task showed that these effects were not due to altered food motivation or to differential sensitivity to the nonspecific performance-disrupting effects of ethanol. However, CIE pre-treated animals had lower BEC levels than controls during the acute ethanol challenges indicating persistent pharmacokinetic tolerance to ethanol after the CIE treatment. There was little evidence of enduring effects of CIE alone on traditional measures of spatial and working memory.These effects indicate that adolescence is a time of selective vulnerability to the long-term effects of repeated ethanol exposure on neurobehavioral function and acute ethanol sensitivity. The positive and negative findings reported here help to further define the nature and extent of the impairments observed after adolescent CIE and provide direction for future

  16. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure in Adolescent and Adult Rats: Radial-Arm Maze Performance and Operant Food Reinforced Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risher, Mary-Louise; Fleming, Rebekah L.; Boutros, Nathalie; Semenova, Svetlana; Wilson, Wilkie A.; Levin, Edward D.; Markou, Athina; Swartzwelder, H. Scott; Acheson, Shawn K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescence is not only a critical period of late-stage neurological development in humans, but is also a period in which ethanol consumption is often at its highest. Given the prevalence of ethanol use during this vulnerable developmental period we assessed the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure during adolescence, compared to adulthood, on performance in the radial-arm maze (RAM) and operant food-reinforced responding in male rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to CIE (or saline) and then allowed to recover. Animals were then trained in either the RAM task or an operant task using fixed- and progressive- ratio schedules. After baseline testing was completed all animals received an acute ethanol challenge while blood ethanol levels (BECs) were monitored in a subset of animals. CIE exposure during adolescence, but not adulthood decreased the amount of time that animals spent in the open portions of the RAM arms (reminiscent of deficits in risk-reward integration) and rendered animals more susceptible to the acute effects of an ethanol challenge on working memory tasks. The operant food reinforced task showed that these effects were not due to altered food motivation or to differential sensitivity to the nonspecific performance-disrupting effects of ethanol. However, CIE pre-treated animals had lower BEC levels than controls during the acute ethanol challenges indicating persistent pharmacokinetic tolerance to ethanol after the CIE treatment. There was little evidence of enduring effects of CIE alone on traditional measures of spatial and working memory. Conclusions/Significance These effects indicate that adolescence is a time of selective vulnerability to the long-term effects of repeated ethanol exposure on neurobehavioral function and acute ethanol sensitivity. The positive and negative findings reported here help to further define the nature and extent of the impairments observed

  17. Utility of the Hebb–Williams Maze Paradigm for Translational Research in Fragile X Syndrome: A Direct Comparison of Mice and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Isabelle; Collin, Charles A.; MacLeod, Lindsey S.; Messier, Claude; Holahan, Matthew R.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Gandhi, Reno M.; Kogan, Cary S.

    2018-01-01

    To generate meaningful information, translational research must employ paradigms that allow extrapolation from animal models to humans. However, few studies have evaluated translational paradigms on the basis of defined validation criteria. We outline three criteria for validating translational paradigms. We then evaluate the Hebb–Williams maze paradigm (Hebb and Williams, 1946; Rabinovitch and Rosvold, 1951) on the basis of these criteria using Fragile X syndrome (FXS) as model disease. We focused on this paradigm because it allows direct comparison of humans and animals on tasks that are behaviorally equivalent (criterion #1) and because it measures spatial information processing, a cognitive domain for which FXS individuals and mice show impairments as compared to controls (criterion #2). We directly compared the performance of affected humans and mice across different experimental conditions and measures of behavior to identify which conditions produce comparable patterns of results in both species. Species differences were negligible for Mazes 2, 4, and 5 irrespective of the presence of visual cues, suggesting that these mazes could be used to measure spatial learning in both species. With regards to performance on the first trial, which reflects visuo-spatial problem solving, Mazes 5 and 9 without visual cues produced the most consistent results. We conclude that the Hebb–Williams mazes paradigm has the potential to be utilized in translational research to measure comparable cognitive functions in FXS humans and animals (criterion #3). PMID:29643767

  18. Dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation facilitates anxiety-, but not panic-related, defensive responses in rats tested in the elevated T-maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplesi, M. Jr.; Bortoli, V.C. de; Paula Soares, V. de; Nogueira, R.L.; Zangrossi, H. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The escape response to electrical or chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has been associated with panic attacks. In order to explore the validity of the DPAG stimulation model for the study of panic disorder, we determined if the aversive consequences of the electrical or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area can be detected subsequently in the elevated T-maze. This animal model, derived from the elevated plus-maze, permits the measurement in the same rat of a generalized anxiety- and a panic-related defensive response, i.e., inhibitory avoidance and escape, respectively. Facilitation of inhibitory avoidance, suggesting an anxiogenic effect, was detected in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) tested in the elevated T-maze 30 min after DPAG electrical stimulation (current generated by a sine-wave stimulator, frequency at 60 Hz) or after local microinjection of the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 pmol). Previous electrical (5, 15, 30 min, or 24 h before testing) or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area did not affect escape performance in the elevated T-maze or locomotion in an open-field. No change in the two behavioral tasks measured by the elevated T-maze was observed after repetitive (3 trials) electrical stimulation of the DPAG. The results indicate that activation of the DPAG caused a short-lived, but selective, increase in defensive behaviors associated with generalized anxiety

  19. Dorsal periaqueductal gray stimulation facilitates anxiety-, but not panic-related, defensive responses in rats tested in the elevated T-maze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camplesi, M. Jr. [Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Bortoli, V.C. de [Departamento de Ciências da Saúde, Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, São Mateus, ES (Brazil); Paula Soares, V. de [Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil); Nogueira, R.L. [Laboratório de Psicologia Comparada, Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zangrossi, H. Jr. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-03

    The escape response to electrical or chemical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (DPAG) has been associated with panic attacks. In order to explore the validity of the DPAG stimulation model for the study of panic disorder, we determined if the aversive consequences of the electrical or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area can be detected subsequently in the elevated T-maze. This animal model, derived from the elevated plus-maze, permits the measurement in the same rat of a generalized anxiety- and a panic-related defensive response, i.e., inhibitory avoidance and escape, respectively. Facilitation of inhibitory avoidance, suggesting an anxiogenic effect, was detected in male Wistar rats (200-220 g) tested in the elevated T-maze 30 min after DPAG electrical stimulation (current generated by a sine-wave stimulator, frequency at 60 Hz) or after local microinjection of the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist bicuculline (5 pmol). Previous electrical (5, 15, 30 min, or 24 h before testing) or chemical stimulation of this midbrain area did not affect escape performance in the elevated T-maze or locomotion in an open-field. No change in the two behavioral tasks measured by the elevated T-maze was observed after repetitive (3 trials) electrical stimulation of the DPAG. The results indicate that activation of the DPAG caused a short-lived, but selective, increase in defensive behaviors associated with generalized anxiety.

  20. Right minithoracotomy versus conventional median sternotomy for patients undergoing mitral valve surgery and Cox-maze IV ablation with entirely bipolar radiofrequency clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaolei; Tang, Min; Ma, Nan; Liu, Hao; Ding, Fangbao; Bao, Chunrong; Mei, Ju

    2018-02-02

    Cox-maze IV ablation by bipolar radiofrequency clamp was considered to be only performed through median sternotomy (MS), but impossible through right minithoracotomy (RM). Now, we developed a novel technique of performing Cox-maze IV ablation entirely by bipolar clamp through RM. To compare the outcomes of RM or MS for patients undergoing mitral valve surgery and concomitant Cox-maze IV ablation with entirely bipolar clamp. All 152 patients underwent mitral valve surgery and concomitant Cox-maze IV ablation with bipolar clamp through RM (n = 69) or MS (n = 83) were analyzed for outcome differences. The etiology of mitral valve disease was rheumatic (n = 97) and degenerative (n = 55). All patients had long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). Diameter of left atrium ranged from 42 to 60 mm. All patients successfully underwent Cox-maze IV ablation by bipolar clamp. RM group had longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (130.3 ± 17.7 vs 115.3 ± 14.4 min; P clamp time (91.8 ± 12.7 vs 74.6 ± 9.3 min; P clamp. In addition, patients through RM had faster recovery.

  1. Anxiogenic-like effect of acute and chronic fluoxetine on rats tested on the elevated plus-maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T.A. Silva

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX is widely prescribed for depression and anxiety-related disorders. On the other hand, enhanced serotonergic transmission is known to be classically related to anxiety. In this study, the effects of acute (5.0 mg/kg and chronic (5.0 mg/kg, 22 days FLX were investigated in both food-deprived and non-deprived rats tested in the elevated plus-maze. Significant main effects of the three factors (drug, food condition and administration regimen were observed, but no interaction between them. The administration of either acute or chronic FLX resulted in an anxiogenic effect, as detected by a significant reduction in the percentage of time spent in the open arms and in the percentage of open arm entries. Food deprivation yielded an anxiolytic-like profile, probably related to changes in locomotor activity. The administration regimen resulted in an anxiolytic profile in chronically treated rats, as would be expected after 22 days of regular handling. The anxiogenic action of acute FLX is consistent with both its neurochemical and clinical profile. The discrepancy between the anxiogenic profile of chronic FLX and its therapeutic uses is discussed in terms of possible differences between the type of anxiety that is measured in the plus-maze and the types of human anxiety that are alleviated by fluoxetine.

  2. Hippocampal histamine receptors and conflictive exploration in the rat: studies using the elevated asymmetric plus-maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Ruarte

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The possible role of histamine receptors in the hippocampal formation on the exploratory motivation and emotionality of the rat was studied. An elevated asymmetric plus-maze composed of 4 different arms (no walls, single high wall, high and low walls and two high walls arranged at 90o angles was used. The exploration score, considered to be an index of exploratory motivation, and the permanency score, considered to be an index of emotionality (anxiety, were determined. Histamine was administered locally into the ventral hippocampus at three different doses (9, 45 and 90 nmol. Another group of rats was also microinjected with 45 nmol of pyrilamine (a histamine H1 receptor antagonist or ranitidine (a histamine H2 receptor antagonist in addition to 9 nmol of histamine in order to identify the possible type of histamine receptor involved. Histamine administration significantly inhibited the exploration score and increased the permanency score at the doses of 9 and 45 nmol in two of four arms. These effects were completely blocked by the administration of either histamine receptor antagonist. The present results suggest that in the hippocampal formation histamine inhibits exploratory motivation and decreases emotionality by activating both types of histamine receptors. Also, the elevated asymmetric plus-maze appears to be a suitable technique to quantify exploration and possibly" anxiety"

  3. Curcuma comosa improves learning and memory function on ovariectomized rats in a long-term Morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Wyss, J Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2010-07-06

    Curcuma comosa extract and some purified compounds from this plant have been reported to have estrogenic-like effects, and estrogen improves learning in some animals and potentially in postmenopausal women; therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that Curcuma comosa and estrogen have similar beneficial effects on spatial learning and memory. Curcuma comosa hexane extract, containing 0.165 mg of (4E,6E)-1,7-diphenylhepta-4,6-dien-3-one per mg of the crude extract, was orally administered to ovariectomized Wistar rats at the doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight. 17beta-estradiol (10 microg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) was used as a positive control. Thirty days after the initiation of treatment, animals were tested in a Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. They were re-tested every 30 days and a final probe trial was run on day 119. Compared to control rats, OVX rats displayed significant memory impairment for locating the platform in the water maze from day 67 after the surgery, onward. In contrast, OVX rats treated with either Curcuma comosa or estrogen were significantly protected from this decline in cognitive function. Further, the protection of cognitive effects by Curcuma comosa was larger at higher dose. These results suggest that long-term treatment with Curcuma comosa has beneficial effects on learning and memory function in rats. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Late Results of Cox Maze III Procedure in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Associated with Structural Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gustavo Gir; Gali, Wagner Luis; Sarabanda, Alvaro Valentim Lima; Cunha, Claudio Ribeiro da; Kessler, Iruena Moraes; Atik, Fernando Antibas

    2017-07-01

    Cox-Maze III procedure is one of the surgical techniques used in the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). To determine late results of Cox-Maze III in terms of maintenance of sinus rhythm, and mortality and stroke rates. Between January 2006 and January 2013, 93 patients were submitted to the cut-and-sew Cox-Maze III procedure in combination with structural heart disease repair. Heart rhythm was determined by 24-hour Holter monitoring. Procedural success rates were determined by longitudinal methods and recurrence predictors by multivariate Cox regression models. Thirteen patients that obtained hospital discharge alive were excluded due to lost follow-up. The remaining 80 patients were aged 49.9 ± 12 years and 47 (58.7%) of them were female. Involvement of mitral valve and rheumatic heart disease were found in 67 (83.7%) and 63 (78.7%) patients, respectively. Seventy patients (87.5%) had persistent or long-standing persistent AF. Mean follow-up with Holter monitoring was 27.5 months. There were no hospital deaths. Sinus rhythm maintenance rates were 88%, 85.1% and 80.6% at 6 months, 24 months and 36 months, respectively. Predictors of late recurrence of AF were female gender (HR 3.52; 95% CI 1.21-10.25; p = 0.02), coronary artery disease (HR 4.73 95% CI 1.37-16.36; p = 0.01) and greater left atrium diameter (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; p = 0.02). Actuarial survival was 98.5% at 12, 24 and 48 months and actuarial freedom from stroke was 100%, 100% and 97.5% in the same time frames. The Cox-Maze III procedure, in our experience, is efficacious for sinus rhythm maintenance, with very low late mortality and stroke rates. A operação de Cox-Maze III é uma das variantes técnicas no tratamento cirúrgico da fibrilação atrial (FA). Estudar os resultados tardios da operação de Cox-Maze III, quanto à eficácia na manutenção de ritmo sinusal e taxas de mortalidade e acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Entre janeiro de 2006 a janeiro de 2013, 93 pacientes

  5. Phobos: A novel software for recording rodents' behavior during the thigmotaxis and the elevated plus-maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telonis, Aristeidis G; Margarity, Marigoula

    2015-07-10

    Evaluation of fear and anxiety levels offers valuable insight on the impact of experimental conditions. The elevated plus-maze and the open field (thigmotactic responce) tests are two well-established behavioral procedures for the quantification of anxiety in rodents. In this study, Phobos, a novel, effective and simple application developed for recording rodents' behavior during the elevated plus-maze and the open-field test, is being presented. Phobos is able to generate all basic locomotor-related behavioral results at once, immediately after a simple manual record of the rodent's position, along with simultaneous analysis of the experiment in 5-min periods. The efficiency of Phobos is demonstrated by presenting results from the two behavioral tests showing that animal's behavior unfolds differently in each one. Phobos manages to ease the experimenter from laborious work by providing self-explanatory characteristics and a convenient way to record the behavior of the animal, while it quickly calculates all basic locomotor-related parameters, easing behavioral studies. Phobos is freely accessible at https://sourceforge.net/projects/phobosapplication/. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Curcuma comosa improves learning and memory function on ovariectomized rats in a long-term Morris water maze test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Wyss, J. Michael; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study Curcuma comosa extract and some purified compounds from this plant have been reported to have estrogenic-like effects, and estrogen improves learning in some animals and potentially in postmenopausal women; therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that Curcuma comosa and estrogen have similar beneficial effects on spatial learning and memory. Materials and methods Curcuma comosa hexane extract, containing 0.165 mg of (4E,6E)-1,7-diphenylhepta-4,6-dien-3-one per mg of the crude extract, was orally administered to ovariectomized Wistar rats at the doses of 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight. 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) was used as a positive control. Thirty days after the initiation of treatment, animals were tested in a Morris water maze for spatial learning and memory. They were re-tested every 30 days and a final probe trial was run on day 119. Results Compared to control rats, OVX rats displayed significant memory impairment for locating the platform in the water maze from day 67 after the surgery, onward. In contrast, OVX rats treated with either Curcuma comosa or estrogen were significantly protected from this decline in cognitive function. Further, the protection of cognitive effects by Curcuma comosa was larger at higher dose. Conclusions These results suggest that long-term treatment with Curcuma comosa has beneficial effects on learning and memory function in rats. PMID:20420894

  7. OPTIMASI ALGHORITMA BREADTH FIRST SEARCH PADA GAME ENGINE 3D THIRD PERSON SHOOTER MAZE BERBASIS AGEN CERDAS ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Novita Putri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Game is currently very popular in the community at large, one of which is the game third person shooter (TPS which can be run through a mobile phone or computer, making it very easy and affordable, one thrid person shooter game 3D maze.The labyrinth is a game to find the right path to achieve the objectives which the way players experience many obstacles to destination, so spend a lot of time,then in need of a settlement in order to facilitate the player in completing the levels on every obstacle, in need of a alghoritm Breadth First Search for ease in completing permainan.Cara employment levels every alghoritm Breadth First Search is a search method that starts with the roots off the road to the next.This search is done by looking at all the nodes or vertices have the same level to determine the final outcome at that level,if they do not find the will to move to the next level. so that the process backtrackto re-find the right path to achieve goals the appropriate time.   Keyword: Games, Third person, Shooter, Maze, Breadth First Search.

  8. SPA-LEED Study of the Morphology and Nucleation of a Novel Growth Mode and the ''devil's staircase'' on Pb/Si(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Wang-Chi Vincent [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was developed to address the following questions for the Pb/Si(111) system: (1) Is it possible to control the nano-structure growth by changing the initial substrate; (2) is the nucleation theory applicable to the case of the 7-step growth mode; and (3) what phase or phases could be formed between coverage 6/5 ML and 4/3 ML? The first question was answered in chapter 2, different growth results were observed for different initial substrate, suggesting the possibility of controlling nano-structure growth by selecting the initial substrate. The applicability of nucleation theory was determined to be unclear in chapter 3, from the results that the saturation island density does not depend on deposition rate, in contrary to the prediction of nucleation theory. Chapter 4 revealed a novel ''devil's staircase'' in Pb/Si(111) within the coverage range 6/5 ML and 4/3 ML. Low temperature deposition experiments showed high order of self-organization in such a system. Theoretical studies are needed to understand such a low temperature behavior. In general, this thesis provides possibilities of controlling nano-structure growth, which can be possibly an indication for future application. It also raises interesting questions in fundamental researches: a modified theory of nucleation is needed, and a detailed study of low temperature behavior is required. Details of the conclusions in each of the chapters are collected in the following sections.

  9. Effects of intrahippocampal aniracetam treatment on Y-maze avoidance learning performance and behavioral long-term potentiation in dentate gyrus in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y; Xiao, P; Xu, S

    2001-02-09

    Effects of intrahippocampal treatment of aniracetam, a selective agonist for DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproionic acid (AMPA) receptors, on Y-maze avoidance learning task and behavioral long-term potentiation (LTP) in perforant path-dentate gyrus were studied in freely moving rats by using in vivo electrophysiology combined with behavioral tests. The results were as follows: (1) intrahippocampal treatment of aniracetam reversibly enhanced basal synaptic transmission in perforant path to dentate gyrus in a dosage dependent manner; (2) aniracetam produced improvement in Y-maze learning performance when administration occurred 5 min prior to maze learning; (3) aniracetam administration significantly facilitated behavioral LTP in dentate gyrus, while the maximal amplitude of LTP has no significant difference when compared to saline group. The present results indicate that hippocampal AMPA receptors are involved in learning and memory.

  10. The ABLATE Trial: Safety and Efficacy of Cox Maze-IV Using a Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Jonathan M; Zemlin, Christian W; Cox, James L; Stirling, Mack; Mack, Michael; Hooker, Robert L; Morris, Allen; Heimansohn, David A; Longoria, James; Gandhi, Divyakant B; McCarthy, Patrick M

    2015-11-01

    The Cox Maze-IV procedure (CMP-IV) has replaced the Cox Maze-III procedure as the most common approach for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). The Food and Drug Administration-regulated AtriCure Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation of Permanent Atrial Fibrillation (ABLATE) trial sought to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the CMP-IV performed with the Synergy ablation system (AtriCure, Inc, Cincinnati, OH). Fifty-five patients (aged 70.5 ± 9.3 years), 92.7% of whom had nonparoxysmal AF, underwent CMP-IV to terminate AF during a concomitant cardiac surgical procedure. Lesions were created using the AtriCure Synergy bipolar radiofrequency ablation system. All patients were seen for follow-up visits after 30 days, 3 months, and 6 months, with 24-hour Holter monitoring at 6 months. Late evaluation was performed by 48-hour Holter monitoring at an average of 21 months. The primary efficacy endpoint, absence of AF (30 seconds or less) at 6-month follow-up off antiarrhythmic medications (Heart Rhythm Society definition), indicated 76% (38 of 50) were AF free (95% confidence interval: 62.6% to 85.7%). The primary safety endpoint, the rate of major adverse events within 30 days, was 9.1% (5 of 55; 95% confidence interval: 3.9% to 19.6%), with 3.6% mortality (2 of 55). Secondary efficacy endpoints included being AF free with antiarrhythmic drugs (6 months, 84%; 21 months, 75%), successful pulmonary vein isolation (100%), and AF burden at 6 and 21 months. The results, together with those for the secondary safety endpoint (6-month major adverse events), demonstrated that the Synergy system performs comparably to the cut-and-sew Cox Maze-III procedure. The CMP-IV using the AtriCure Synergy system was safe and effective for cardiac surgical patients who had persistent and longstanding persistent AF. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A new semisynthetic derivative of sauroine induces LTP in hippocampal slices and improves learning performance in the Morris Water Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Mariana; Loyola, Sebastián; Contreras, Darwin; Ugarte, Gonzalo; Cifuente, Diego; Ortega, Gabriela; Cabrera, José L; Zeise, Marc; Tonn, Carlos; Carreño, Mario; Delgado, Ricardo; Morales, Bernardo; Agnese, Mariel

    2014-06-01

    Two semisynthetic acetyl derivatives of the alkaloid sauroine from Huperzia saururus, monoacetyl sauroine, and diacetyl sauroine (DAS) were obtained and their chemical structures were analyzed by NMR. While monoacetyl sauroine is the typical product of acetylation, DAS is an unexpected derivative related to the keto-enol formation of sauroine. Recordings of field excitatory post-synaptic potentials from the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices showed that only DAS acutely applied induced chemical long-term potentiation (LTP) in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 1.15 ± 0.09 μM. This effect was blocked by 10 μM D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5), suggesting dependence on the NMDA receptor. DAS significantly increased NMDA receptor-dependent excitatory post-synaptic currents without affecting α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor-dependent currents. Repetitive administration of DAS improved visuo-spatial learning in the Morris Water Maze. In slices from rats tested in the Morris Water Maze, LTP resulting from electrical synaptic stimulation was 2.5 times larger than in controls. Concentration of DAS measured in the brain after repetitive administration was 29.5 μM. We conclude that slices perfused with DAS display a robust NMDA receptor-dependent chemical LTP. During chronic treatment, DAS enhances learning abilities through a metaplastic mechanism as revealed by the augmentation of LTP in slices. DAS, therefore, may be a promising compound as a nootropic therapeutic drug. A semisynthetic derivative of sauroine, diacetyl sauroine (DAS), induces chemical long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices increasing the NMDA receptor-dependent current. 2 mg/kg prior to each session in a Morris Water Maze (MWM) improves behavior performance. In slices prepared from the tested rats the electrical stimulation-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) was greatly enhanced. Therefore, DAS may have potency as a nootropic drug against the

  12. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level of s...

  13. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 April to 02 July 2004. This course is designed for people with a good level...

  14. Vicarious trial-and-error behavior and hippocampal cytochrome oxidase activity during Y-maze discrimination learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Xu, Xiaojuan; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    The present study investigated whether more vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) behavior, defined by head movement from one stimulus to another at a choice point during simultaneous discriminations, led to better visual discrimination learning in a Y-maze, and whether VTE behavior was a function of the hippocampus by measuring regional brain cytochrome oxidase (C.O.) activity, an index of neuronal metabolic activity. The results showed that the more VTEs a rat made, the better the rat learned the visual discrimination. Furthermore, both learning and VTE behavior during learning were correlated to C.O. activity in the hippocampus, suggesting that the hippocampus plays a role in VTE behavior during discrimination learning.

  15. NMDA receptor activation antagonizes the NMDA antagonist-induced antianxiety effect in the elevated plus-maze test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleszak, Ewa; Serefko, Anna; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wośko, Sylwia; Dudka, Jarosław; Wróbel, Andrzej; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Wlaź, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how the activation of different regulatory domains of the NMDA complex affects the antianxiety effect of antagonists acting at its distinct binding sites. The anxiolytic-like activity was assessed by the elevated plus-maze test in mice. The anxiolytic activity of CGP 37849 (a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist) and L-701,324 (an antagonist at glycine site) was confirmed, but effects of both were significantly reduced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) or by D-serine agonists at glutamate and glycine site of the NMDA receptor complex, respectively. The obtained data suggest that stimulation of the glutamate or glycine recognition site of the NMDA receptor complex significantly decreases the antianxiety properties of antagonists of either site.

  16. The flexible use of multiple cue relationships in spatial navigation : A comparison of water maze performance following hippocampal, medial septal, prefrontal cortex, or posterior parietal cortex lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, DM; Griffith, HR; McDaniel, WF; Foster, RA; Davis, BK

    Rats prepared with lesions of the prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, hippocampus, or medial septal area were tested for acquisition of a number of variations of the open-field water maze using a version of place learning assessment described by Eichenbaum, Stewart, and Morris (1991).

  17. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  18. MK-801 and memantine act differently on short-term memory tested with different time-intervals in the Morris water maze test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duda, W.; Wesierska, M.; Ostaszewski, P.; Valeš, Karel; Nekovářová, Tereza; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 311, Sep 15 (2016), s. 15-23 ISSN 0166-4328 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14053; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : short-term memory * spatial working memory * memantine * dizocilpine * Morris water maze Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.002, year: 2016

  19. Effect of Exposure to Lithium-Paired or Amphetamine-Paired Saccharin Solution on Open Arm Avoidance in an Elevated Plus Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Shadna A.; Parker, Linda A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that drug-induced conditioned taste avoidance may be mediated by conditioned fear (e.g., Parker, 2003). The experiments reported here evaluated the effect of exposure to a drug-paired flavor on open arm exploration in an elevated plus maze (EPM), a measure of fear. When rats were tested on a familiar (trial 2) EPM, but not…

  20. Similar reliability and equivalent performance of female and male mice in the open field and water-maze place navigation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Ann-Kristina; Amrein, Irmgard; Wolfer, David P

    2017-09-01

    Although most nervous system diseases affect women and men differentially, most behavioral studies using mouse models do not include subjects of both sexes. Many researchers worry that data of female mice may be unreliable due to the estrous cycle. Here, we retrospectively evaluated sex effects on coefficient of variation (CV) in 5,311 mice which had performed the same place navigation protocol in the water-maze and in 4,554 mice tested in the same open field arena. Confidence intervals for Cohen's d as measure of effect size were computed and tested for equivalence with 0.2 as equivalence margin. Despite the large sample size, only few behavioral parameters showed a significant sex effect on CV. Confidence intervals of effect size indicated that CV was either equivalent or showed a small sex difference at most, accounting for less than 2% of total group to group variation of CV. While female mice were potentially slightly more variable in water-maze acquisition and in the open field, males tended to perform less reliably in the water-maze probe trial. In addition to evaluating variability, we also directly compared mean performance of female and male mice and found them to be equivalent in both water-maze place navigation and open field exploration. Our data confirm and extend other large scale studies in demonstrating that including female mice in experiments does not cause a relevant increase of data variability. Our results make a strong case for including mice of both sexes whenever open field or water-maze are used in preclinical research. © 2017 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Training management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    The following topics to be covered in this report are: Design principles for training programmes; training methods, materials and facilities; national and international organization; training assessment and documentation; relation between supplier and customer, licensing requirements and practices. (orig.)

  2. Visual Priming Enhances the Effects of Nonspatial Cognitive Rehabilitation Training on Spatial Learning After Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clarice M; Kumar, Krishma; Koesarie, Kathleen; Brough, Elizabeth; Ritter, Anne C; Brayer, Samuel W; Thiels, Edda; Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Wagner, Amy K

    2015-10-01

    Previous work demonstrates that spatial (explicit) and nonspatial (implicit) elements of place learning in the Morris water maze (MWM) task can be dissociated and examined in the context of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Providing nonspatial cognitive training (CT) after injury can improve place learning compared with untrained controls. In the present study, we hypothesized that brief exposure to extra-maze cues, in conjunction with CT, may further improve MWM performance and extra-maze cue utilization compared with CT alone. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 66) received controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury or sham surgery. Beginning day 8 postsurgery, CCI and sham rats received 6 days of no training (NT) or CT with/without brief, noncontextualized exposure to extra-maze cues (BE and CT, respectively). Acquisition (days 14-18), visible platform (VP; day 19), carryover (CO; days 20-26), and periodic probe trials were performed. Platform latencies, peripheral and target zone time allocation, and search strategies were assessed. CCI/BE rats had shorter acquisition trial latencies than CCI/NT (P strategies from day 14 to day 18 relative to CCI/CT and showed similar swim strategy selection to the Sham/NT group. These data suggest that visual priming improves initial place learning in the MWM. These results support the visual priming response as another clinically relevant experimental rehabilitation construct, to use when assessing injury and treatment effects of behavioral and pharmacological therapies on cognition after TBI. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in...

  4. Evaluation of attention training and metacognitive facilitation to improve reading comprehension in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaime B; Moore Sohlberg, McKay

    2013-05-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of direct attention training combined with metacognitive facilitation on reading comprehension in individuals with aphasia. A single-subject, multiple baseline design was employed across 4 participants to evaluate potential changes in reading comprehension resulting from an 8-week intervention using Attention Process Training-3 (APT-3). The primary outcome measure was a maze reading task. Pre- and posttesting included attention and reading comprehension measures. Visual inspection of graphed performance data across conditions was used as the primary method of analysis. Treatment effect sizes were calculated for changes in reading comprehension probes from baseline to maintenance phases. Two of the study's 4 participants demonstrated improvements in maze reading, with corresponding effect sizes that were small in magnitude according to benchmarks for aphasia treatment research. All 4 participants made improvements on select standardized measures of attention. Interventions that include a metacognitive component with direct attention training may elicit improvements in participants' attention and allocation of resources. Maze passage reading is a repeated measure that appears sensitive to treatment-related changes in reading comprehension. Issues for future research related to measurement, candidacy, and clinical delivery are discussed.

  5. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  6. Language Training - French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 3rd April 2009. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Nathalie Dumeaux : Tel. 78144. Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  7. The effects of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin and other serotonergic agonists on performance in a radial maze: a possible role for 5-HT1A receptors in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J C; Petti, D T

    1987-08-01

    A group of ten rats was trained to obtain food pellets in an 8-arm radial maze. The effects of pretreatment with (+)-Lysergic acid diethylamide (+)-tartrate (LSD), m-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine oxalate (5-MeO-DMT), racemic 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin HBr (8-OH-DPAT), and 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-indole succinate (RU 24969) were then evaluated. All drugs were administered IP 15 min before testing. With the exception of an increased rate of responding at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg of 8-OH-DPAT, all drugs produced a dose-related decline in response rate. In addition, LSD, RU 24969, and 8-OH-DPAT caused a statistically significant decrease in efficiency of responding. Of the three, 8-OH-DPAT was clearly the most active. Doses of 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg resulted in efficiencies of 61%, 53%, and 44%, respectively. The present results taken in light of 8-OH-DPAT's preferential binding to 5-HT1A receptors, the high density of these receptors in hippocampus, and the observation that the number of 5-HT1A receptors is decreased in Alzheimer's disease, suggest a possible role for this serotonergic receptor subtype in memory.

  8. Species-relevant inescapable stress differently influences memory consolidation and retrieval of mice in a spatial radial arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janitzky, K; Schwegler, H; Kröber, A; Roskoden, T; Yanagawa, Y; Linke, R

    2011-05-16

    Stress affects learning and there are both facilitating and impairing actions of stressors on memory processes. Here we investigated the influence of acute exposure to 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), an ethological relevant stressor for rodents, on spatial memory formation and performance in a radial arm maze (RAM) task and studied TMT effects on corticosterone levels in GAD67-GFP knock-in mice and their wildtype littermates. Our results suggest that predator odor-exposure differently affects consolidation and retrieval of memory in a hippocampus-dependent spatial learning task in adult male mice, independently from their genotypes. Acute TMT-stress before retrieval facilitates performance, whereas repeated TMT-stress during consolidation exerts no influence. Additionally, we found genotype specific effects of TMT on corticosterone release. While TMT-stress tend to result in increased corticosterone release in wildtypes there was a significant decrease in transgenic mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that biologically significant predator odor-induced stress can have different actions on the strength of spatial memory formation depending on the timing with regard to memory phases. Furthermore, we suppose an impact of GABAergic mechanisms on HPA-stress axis activation to TMT resulting in absent peripheral corticosterone release of GAD67-GFP mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of acute pesticide exposure on bee spatial working memory using an analogue of the radial-arm maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Elizabeth E. W.; Chen-Wishart, Zachary P.; Gill, Richard J.; Leadbeater, Ellouise

    2016-12-01

    Pesticides, including neonicotinoids, typically target pest insects by being neurotoxic. Inadvertent exposure to foraging insect pollinators is usually sub-lethal, but may affect cognition. One cognitive trait, spatial working memory, may be important in avoiding previously-visited flowers and other spatial tasks such as navigation. To test this, we investigated the effect of acute thiamethoxam exposure on spatial working memory in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, using an adaptation of the radial-arm maze (RAM). We first demonstrated that bumblebees use spatial working memory to solve the RAM by showing that untreated bees performed significantly better than would be expected if choices were random or governed by stereotyped visitation rules. We then exposed bees to either a high sub-lethal positive control thiamethoxam dose (2.5 ng-1 bee), or one of two low doses (0.377 or 0.091 ng-1) based on estimated field-realistic exposure. The high dose caused bees to make more and earlier spatial memory errors and take longer to complete the task than unexposed bees. For the low doses, the negative effects were smaller but statistically significant, and dependent on bee size. The spatial working memory impairment shown here has the potential to harm bees exposed to thiamethoxam, through possible impacts on foraging efficiency or homing.

  10. Anxiolytic effects of Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, stem-bark in elevated plus maze and marble burying test on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal B Badgujar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dolichandrone falcata Seem., Bignoniaceae, is a deciduous tree commonly known as Medshingi in local areas of Toranmal region of Maharashtra, India. Its bark paste is applied on fractured or dislocated bones, used as a fish poison; bark juice is used in cases of menorragia and leucorrhoea. The leaves of the plant have afforded chrysin-7-rutinoside. The present study was carried out to investigate the anxiolytic effects of methanol extract (DFBM, ethyl acetate extract (DFBEA and isolated compound DFB (V+VI of D. falcata stem-bark using animal models. Anxiolytic effects were studied by elevated plus maze (EPM and marble burying test (MBT assay. The crude dried DFBM and DFBEA extract was prepared in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg whereas DFB (V+VI compound was prepared in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and were administered orally to mice for evaluation of anxiolytic activity. DFBEA 400 and DFB (V+VI 200 mg/kg produced highly significant (p <0.01 anxiolytic effects in dose dependent manner by increasing the time spent on and the number of entries into the open arms of the EPM and by decreasing the number of marbles buried by mice in MBT test. This study showed that the DFBM, DFBEA extracts and DFB (V+VI isolated compound possesses potential pharmacological active constituents flavonoids (like chrysin which may be responsible for the anxiolytic activity.

  11. A Preliminary Study of Functional Brain Activation among Marijuana Users during Performance of a Virtual Water Maze Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tropp Sneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported neurocognitive impairments associated with chronic marijuana use. Given that the hippocampus contains a high density of cannabinoid receptors, hippocampal-mediated cognitive functions, including visuospatial memory, may have increased vulnerability to chronic marijuana use. Thus, the current study examined brain activation during the performance of a virtual analogue of the classic Morris water maze task in 10 chronic marijuana (MJ users compared to 18 nonusing (NU comparison subjects. Imaging data were acquired using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla during retrieval (hidden platform and motor control (visible platform conditions. While task performance on learning trials was similar between groups, MJ users demonstrated a deficit in memory retrieval. For BOLD fMRI data, NU subjects exhibited greater activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and cingulate gyrus compared to the MJ group for the Retrieval-Motor Control contrast (NU > MJ. These findings suggest that hypoactivation in MJ users may be due to differences in the efficient utilization of neuronal resources during the retrieval of memory. Given the paucity of data on visuospatial memory function in MJ users, these findings may help elucidate the neurobiological effects of marijuana on brain activation during memory retrieval.

  12. Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Elderly Patients with the Cox Maze Procedure Concurrently with Other Cardiac Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Hong Kuh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In elderly patients who have atrial fibrillation (AF, surgical ablation of the arrhythmia during cardiac surgery may be challenging. Despite the reported advantages of ablating AF with the Cox maze procedure (CMP, the addition of the CMP may complicate other cardiac operations. We evaluated the effect of the CMP in elderly patients concurrent with other cardiac operations. Methods: From October 2007 to December 2015, we enrolled 27 patients aged >70 years who had AF and who underwent the CMP concurrently with other cardiac operations. The mean preoperative additive European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation score was 8±11 (high risk. Results: Only 1 hospital death occurred (4%. The Kaplan-Meier method showed a high 5‐year cumulative survival rate (92%. At mean follow‐up of 51 months, 23 patients (89% had sinus rhythm conversion. The postoperative left atrial dimensions did not significantly differ between the 8 patients who had reduction plasty for giant left atrium (53.4±7.5 cm and the 19 patients who did not have reduction plasty (48.7±5.7 cm. Conclusion: In patients aged >70 years, concurrent CMP may be associated with a high rate of sinus rhythm conversion without increased surgical risk, despite the added complexity of the main cardiac procedure.

  13. [Automatic measurement of special leaning characteristics in mice during the water Morris maze test with inverted light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotskin, N V; Fursenko, D V; Bazovkina, D V; Kulikov, V A; Kulikov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The description of the installation with inverted light is given as well as its software EthoStudio, which allows tracking the movements of any color animal in the water Morris maze (WMM) in high definition. The installation is based on the transmitted light technology (inverted light). The software gives possibility to estimate a wide range of learning indices. We have studied the statistic properties of three most widespread indices: latent time of platform finding, covered distance and the sum of distances to the center of the platform. The covered distance has shown the best statistic characteristics if compared to two other indices. The influence of polymorphism C1473G in the gene of the key serotonin synthesis enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, on the learning abilities of mice in WMM has been studied. Mice of the unique congenic lines B6-1473C and B6-12473G that differ by the polymorphic alleles C1473G have not demonstrated the association between the ability to learn and the genetically determined activity of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 in the brain.

  14. Vacuum Die Casting Process and Simulation for Manufacturing 0.8 mm-Thick Aluminum Plate with Four Maze Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Kyu Jin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using vacuum die casting, 0.8 mm-thick plates in complicated shapes are manufactured with the highly castable aluminum alloy Silafont-36 (AlSi9MgMn. The sizes and shapes of the cavities, made of thin plates, feature four different mazes. To investigate formability and mechanical properties by shot condition, a total of six parameters (melt temperatures of 730 °C and 710 °C; plunger speeds of 3.0 m/s and 2.5 m/s; vacuum pressure of 250 mbar and no vacuum are varied in experiments, and corresponding simulations are performed. Simulation results obtained through MAGMA software show similar tendencies to those of the experiments. When the melt pouring temperature is set to 730 °C rather than 710 °C, formability and mechanical properties are superior, and when the plunger speed is set to 3.0 m/s rather than to 2.5 m/s, a fine, even structure is obtained with better mechanical properties. The non-vacuumed sample is half unfilled. The tensile strength and elongation of the sample fabricated under a melt temperature of 730 °C, plunger speed of 3.0 m/s, and vacuum pressure of 250 mbar are 265 MPa and 8.5%, respectively.

  15. The beneficial effects of olibanum on memory deficit induced by hypothyroidism in adult rats tested in Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahmoud; Hadjzadeh, Mosa Al-Reza; Derakhshan, Mohammad; Havakhah, Shahrzad; Rassouli, Fatemeh Behnam; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Saffarzadeh, Fatema

    2010-03-01

    Functional consequences of hypothyroidism include impaired learning and memory and inability to produce long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus. Olibanum has been used for variety of therapeutic purposes. In traditional medicine, oilbanum is used to enhance learning and memory. In the present study the effect of olibanum on memory deficit in hypothyroid rats was investigated. Male wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated for 180 days. Group 1 received tap drinking water while in group 2, 0.03% methimazol was added to drinking water. Group 3 and 4 were treated with 0.03% methimazole as well as 100 and 500 mg/kg olibanum respectively. The animals were tested in Morris water maze. The swimming speed was significantly lower and the distance and time latency were higher in group 2 compared with group 1. In groups 3 and 4 the swimming speed was significantly higher while, the length of the swim path and time latency were significantly lower in comparison with group 2. It is concluded that methimazole-induced hypothyroidism impairs learning and memory in adult rats which could be prevented by using olibanum.

  16. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertholet Jean-Yves

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J. Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures or involve different animal models.

  17. Behavior in the elevated plus maze is differentially affected by testing conditions in rats under and over three weeks of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Albani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The late postnatal period in rats is marked by numerous changes in perceptual and cognitive abilities. As such, age-related variation in cognitive test performance might result in part from disparate sensitivities to environmental factors. To better understand how testing conditions might interact with age, we assessed anxiety behavior on an elevated plus maze in juvenile rats around three weeks of age under diverse testing conditions. Plasma corticosterone and neuronal activation patterns in the forebrain were examined after maze exposure. We found that anxiety was differentially expressed during different stages of late postnatal development. Bright illumination and morning testing encouraged greatest open arm exploration on the elevated plus maze in younger animals, while older rats explored open areas more under dim illumination in the morning compared to bright illumination in the afternoon/evening. Older rats exhibited higher plasma corticosterone levels at baseline compared to younger rats; however, this trend was reversed for post-testing corticosterone. Additionally, post-testing corticosterone levels were inversely related to time of testing. Compared to testing in the morning, elevated plus maze exposure in the afternoon/evening elicited greater neuronal Arc expression in the amygdala. Arc expression in the amygdala after morning testing was greater at P22-24 than P17-19. In layer 2/3 of primary visual cortex, Arc expression was elevated in younger animals and age interacted with time of testing to produce opposing effects at P17-19 and P22-24. These data suggest that age-related differences in anxiety-associated behavior during the late postnatal period are due in part to changes in light sensitivity and emergence of a circadian cycle for corticosterone. The findings illustrate that late postnatal behavioral development in rodents is a complex orchestration of changes in neural systems involved in perception, cognition, affect and

  18. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 langua...

  19. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    La prochaine session se déroulera du 04 octobre 2004 au 11 février 2005 (interruption de 3 semaines à Noël). Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web : http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter M. Liptow, tél. 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants ...

  20. Language Training: English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 04 October 2004 to 11 February 2005 (3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For further information, please contact Mr. Liptow, tel. 72957. Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 languag...

  1. Anti-anxiety activity of successive extracts of Angelica archangelica Linn. on the elevated T-maze and forced swimming tests in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali; Shah, M Y

    2012-09-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn. is widely used in food and liquor preparations and also in Kashmiri folk medicine to reduce anxiety. We evaluated the anxiolytic effect of successive extracts of A. archangelica linn. (SAE) on rats tested in the elevated T-maze test (an animal model of generalized anxiety) at doses that exhibit antidepressant-like activity in humans. A. archangelica (1 kg) was subjected to successive extraction in a soxhlet apparatus with solvents [petroleum ether (40-60 degrees C), chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and decoction with water] in order of increasing polarity (yield: 6.9%, 7.3%, 5.1%, 11.88% and 8.2% w/w, respectively). SAE were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using the elevated T-maze and forced swimming tests in rats. Oral dosing of diazepam (1 mg/kg) and extracts (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) clearly showed an anxiolytic-like profile in the elevated T-maze test: it increased one-way escape and decreased inhibitory avoidance on the first, third and seventh day. In the forced swimming test, imipramine and SAE showed antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects as reflected by increased climbing time, swimming time and decreased immobility time on the first, third and seventh day. Aqueous and methanol extracts showed the most, petroleum ether (40-60 degrees C) and chloroform intermediate, and ethyl acetate the least anxiolytic activity (*Parchangelica and strongly justify its use in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of anxiety.

  2. Blind rats are not profoundly impaired in the reference memory Morris water maze and cannot be clearly discriminated from rats with cognitive deficits in the cued platform task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, M D; Plone, M A; Schallert, T; Emerich, D F

    1997-06-01

    The Morris water maze is commonly used to test cognitive function in rodent models of neurological disorders including age-related cognitive deficits. It is often assumed that the most profoundly impaired aged rats may be blind due to retinal degeneration, and it has been reported that animals with visual sensory deficits can be identified based on their performance in a cued platform task. The results of the present study demonstrate that blind rats can perform surprisingly well in the reference memory version of the Morris water maze, and that blind rats cannot be selectively excluded based on performance in the cued platform task since atropine-treated rats also perform poorly in the cued platform task. Future studies may be able to develop screening procedures that help to eliminate subjects with non-cognitive deficits, but the present results do not support the use of the cued platform or straight swim task as screening procedures. Experimenters must be careful to consider the role that visual sensory function and other non-cognitive factors may have in performance of the spatial learning Morris water maze, and also the role that severe cognitive deficits may have in performance of the cued platform task.

  3. First Insight into Exploration and Cognition in Wild Caught and Domesticated Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax in a Maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Benhaïm

    Full Text Available European sea bass aquaculture is so recent that very little is known on the effects of the early steps of its domestication. Behavioural parameters are sensitive indicators of the domestication process since they are generally impacted as soon as the first generation. The present work compared wild-caught and domesticated sea bass juvenile swimming activity, exploration and ability to learn to discriminate between two 2-D objects associated to a simple spatial task that enabled the tested individual to visually interact with an unfamiliar congener (the reward located behind a transparent wall at the end of one of the two arms of a maze. Ten fish from each origin were individually tested 3 times in a row during 3 days (9 trials in total. Fish were placed in a start box closed by a transparent wall located in front of two 2-D objects. Fish were filmed during 10 min after the removal of the start box wall. Different swimming variables including angular velocity, total distance travelled and velocity mean, were analyzed from videos as well as the time spent in each of 6 virtual zones including the reward zone near the congener (Cong and the zone opposite to the reward zone (OpCong. Two learning criteria were chosen: the number of successful turns and time to reach Cong. Behavioural differences were found between domesticated and wild fish. Angular velocity was higher in wild fish while the distance travelled and the velocity mean were higher in domesticated ones. Wild and domesticated fish spent most of the time in Cong and in OpCong. No differences were seen in learning ability between wild and domesticated fish. However, our findings for learning require confirmation by further studies with larger numbers of learning sessions and experiments designed to minimise stress. This study therefore demonstrated an impact of domestication on swimming behaviour but not on spatial learning.

  4. Spatial navigational strategies correlate with grey matter in the hippocampus of healthy older adults tested in a virtual maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko eKonishi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Healthy young adults use different strategies when navigating in a virtual maze. Spatial strategies involve using environmental landmarks while response strategies involve executing a series of movements from specific stimuli. Neuroimaging studies previously confirmed that people who use spatial strategies show increased activity and grey matter in the hippocampus, while those who use response strategies show increased activity and grey matter in caudate nucleus (Bohbot, Lerch, Thorndycraft, Iaria, & Zijdenbos, 2007; Iaria, Petrides, Dagher, Pike, & Bohbot, 2003. A growing number of studies report that cognitive decline that occurs with normal aging is correlated with a decrease in volume of the hippocampus. Here, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine whether spatial strategies in aging are correlated with greater grey matter in the hippocampus, as found in our previous study with healthy young participants. Forty-five healthy older adults were tested on a virtual navigation task that allows spatial and response strategies. All participants learn the task to criterion after which a special probe trial that assesses spatial and response strategies is given. Results show that spontaneous spatial memory strategies, and not performance on the navigation task, positively correlate with grey matter in the hippocampus. Since numerous studies have shown that a decrease in the volume of the hippocampus correlates with cognitive deficits during normal aging and increases the risks of ensuing dementia, the current results suggest that older people who use their spatial memory strategies in their everyday lives may have increased grey matter in the hippocampus and enhance their probability of healthy and successful aging.

  5. The Effects of Histaminergic Agents in the Nucleus ccumbens of Rats in the Elevated Plus-Maze Test of Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Rezayof

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n The nucleus accumbens (NAc receive histaminergic neurons from tuberomammillary nuclei. There are reports indicating that central histamine systems are involved in many physiological behavioral processes, including anxiety. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the histaminergic system of the NAc is involved in anxiety-related behaviors. Methods: Rats were anesthetized with intra-peritoneal injection of ketamine hydrochloride, plus xylazine and then were placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. In addition, two stainless-steel cannuale were placed 2 mm above the nucleus accumbens shell. Seven days after recovery from surgery, the behavioral testing was started. As a model of anxiety, the elevated plus maze which is a useful test to investigate the effects of anxiogenic or anxiolytic drugs in rodents, was used in male Wistar rats.  "nResults: Intra-NAc administration of histamine (0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat increased the percentage of open arm time (%OAT and open arm entries (%OAE ,but not locomotor activity, indicating an anxiolytic response. Furthermore, bilateral  microinjections of different doses of the H1 receptor  antagonist pyrilamine (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat or the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat into the NAc increased %OAT and %OAE , but not locomotor activity. However, both histamine and histamine receptor antagonists showed an anxiolytic-like effect ; the antagonists (1 µg/rat also decreased the histamine response. "n "n Conclusion: The results may indicate a modulatory effect for the H1 and H2 histamine receptors of nucleus accumbens in the anxiety behavior of rats.

  6. Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Interval training can help you get the most out of your workout. By Mayo Clinic Staff Are you ready to shake up ... more time at the gym? Consider aerobic interval training. Once the domain of elite athletes, interval training ...

  7. Western Diet Chow Consumption in Rats Induces Striatal Neuronal Activation While Reducing Dopamine Levels without Affecting Spatial Memory in the Radial Arm Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jason C D; Ali, Saher F; Kosari, Sepideh; Woodman, Owen L; Spencer, Sarah J; Killcross, A Simon; Jenkins, Trisha A

    2017-01-01

    Rats fed high fat diets have been shown to be impaired in hippocampal-dependent behavioral tasks, such as spatial recognition in the Y-maze and reference memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). It is clear from previous studies, however, that motivation and reward factor into the memory deficits associated with obesity and high-fat diet consumption, and that the prefrontal cortex and striatum and neurotransmitter dopamine play important roles in cognitive performance. In this series of studies we extend our research to investigate the effect of a high fat diet on striatal neurochemistry and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task, a paradigm highly reliant on dopamine-rich brain regions, such as the striatum after high fat diet consumption. Memory performance, neuronal activation and brain dopaminergic levels were compared in rats fed a "Western" (21% fat, 0.15% cholesterol) chow diet compared to normal diet (6% fat, 0.15% cholesterol)-fed controls. Twelve weeks of dietary manipulation produced an increase in weight in western diet-fed rats, but did not affect learning and performance in the delayed spatial win-shift radial arm maze task. Concurrently, there was an observed decrease in dopamine levels in the striatum and a reduction of dopamine turnover in the hippocampus in western diet-fed rats. In a separate cohort of rats Fos levels were measured after rats had been placed in a novel arena and allowed to explore freely. In normal rats, this exposure to a unique environment did not affect neuronal activation. In contrast, rats fed a western diet were found to have significantly increased Fos expression in the striatum, but not prefrontal cortex or hippocampus. Our study demonstrates that while western diet consumption in rats produces weight gain and brain neuronal and neurotransmitter changes, it did not affect performance in the delayed spatial win-shift paradigm in the radial arm maze. We conclude that modeling the cognitive decline

  8. Emotional and Cognitive Information Processing: Relations to Behavioral Performance and Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation In Vivo during a Spatial Water Maze Training in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristina; Korz, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Emotionality as well as cognitive abilities contribute to the acquisition and retrieval of memories as well as to the consolidation of long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular model of memory formation. However, little is known about the timescale and relative contribution of these processes. Therefore, we tested the effects of weak water maze…

  9. The Leidenfrost Maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Carmen; Guy, Matthew; Narduzzo, Alessandro; Takashina, Kei

    2015-05-01

    Recent research into applications of the Leidenfrost effect have sparked renewed interest for this phenomenon. We report here on some of these developments, and on their deployment in an undergraduate teaching project that culminated in the production of a viral internet video. We analyse the key ingredients to the project’s apparent success, both in terms of physics pedagogy and outreach/public engagement.

  10. Language Training - English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people w...

  11. Language Training - English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Nathalie Dumeaux, tel. 78144. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be an average of 8 participants per class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays, etc., depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 2nd March to end of June 2009 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is designed for people ...

  12. Modulation of auditory cortex response to pitch variation following training with microtonal melodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Zatorre

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested changes in cortical functional response to auditory configural learning by training ten human listeners to discriminate micromelodies (consisting of smaller pitch intervals than normally used in Western music. We measured covariation in blood oxygenation signal to increasing pitch-interval size in order to dissociate global changes in activity from those specifically associated with the stimulus feature of interest. A psychophysical staircase procedure with feedback was used for training over a two-week period. Behavioral tests of discrimination ability performed before and after training showed significant learning on the trained stimuli, and generalization to other frequencies and tasks; no learning occurred in an untrained control group. Before training the functional MRI data showed the expected systematic increase in activity in auditory cortices as a function of increasing micromelody pitch-interval size. This function became shallower after training, with the maximal change observed in the right posterior auditory cortex. Global decreases in activity in auditory regions, along with global increases in frontal cortices also occurred after training. Individual variation in learning rate was related to the hemodynamic slope to pitch-interval size, such that those who had a higher sensitivity to pitch-interval variation prior to learning achieved the fastest learning. We conclude that configural auditory learning entails modulation in the response of auditory cortex specifically to the trained stimulus feature. Reduction in blood oxygenation response to increasing pitch-interval size suggests that fewer computational resources, and hence lower neural recruitment, is associated with learning, in accord with models of auditory cortex function, and with data from other modalities.

  13. Effect of Speed of Processing Training on Older Driver Screening Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranmalee Eramudugolla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Computerized training for cognitive enhancement is of great public interest, however, there is inconsistent evidence for the transfer of training gains to every day activity. Several large trials have focused on speed of processing (SOP training with some promising findings for long-term effects on daily activity, but no immediate transfer to other cognitive tests. Here, we examine the transfer of SOP training gains to cognitive measures that are known predictors of driving safety in older adults.Methods: Fifty-three adults aged 65–87 years who were current drivers participated in a two group non-randomized design with repeated measures and a no-contact matched control group. The Intervention group completed an average of 7.9 (SD = 3.0 hours of self-administered online SOP training at home. Control group was matched on age, gender and test-re-test interval. Measures included the Useful Field of View (UFOV test, a Hazard Perception test, choice reaction time (Cars RT, Trail Making Test B, a Maze test, visual motion threshold, as well as road craft and road knowledge tests.Results: Speed of processing training resulted in significant improvement in processing speed on the UFOV test relative to controls, with an average change of -45.8 ms (SE = 14.5, and effect size of ω2 = 0.21. Performance on the Maze test also improved, but significant slowing on the Hazard Perception test was observed after SOP training. Training effects on the UFOV task was associated with similar effects on the Cars RT, but not the Hazard Perception and Maze tests, suggesting transfer to some but not all driving related measures. There were no effects of training on any of the other measures examined.Conclusion: Speed of processing training effects on the UFOV task can be achieved with self-administered, online training at home, with some transfer to other cognitive tests. However, differential effects of training may be observed for tasks requiring goal

  14. Influence of Chronic Moderate Sleep Restriction and Exercise Training on Anxiety, Spatial Memory, and Associated Neurobiological Measures in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Mark R.; Davis, J. Mark; Fadel, James R.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation can have deleterious effects on cognitive function and mental health. Moderate exercise training has myriad beneficial effects on cognition and mental health. However, physiological and behavioral effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and its interaction with common activities, such as moderate exercise training, have received little investigation. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and moderate exercise training on anxiety-related behavior, spatial memory, and neurobiological correlates in mice. Male mice were randomized to one of four 11-week treatments in a 2 [sleep restriction (~4 h loss/day) vs. ad libitum sleep] × 2 [exercise (1 h/day/6 d/wk) vs. sedentary activity] experimental design. Anxiety-related behavior was assessed with the elevated-plus maze, and spatial learning and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze. Chronic moderate sleep restriction did not alter anxiety-related behavior, but exercise training significantly attenuated anxiety-related behavior. Spatial learning and recall, hippocampal cell activity (i.e., number of c-Fos positive cells), and brain derived neurotrophic factor were significantly lower after chronic moderate sleep restriction, but higher after exercise training. Further, the benefit of exercise training for some memory variables was evident under normal sleep, but not chronic moderate sleep restriction conditions. These data indicate clear detrimental effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction on spatial memory and that the benefits of exercise training were impaired after chronic moderate sleep restriction. PMID:23644185

  15. Experimental investigation of railway train-induced vibrations of surrounding ground and a nearby multi-story building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, He; Chen, Jianguo; Wei, Pengbo; Xia, Chaoyi; de Roeck, G.; Degrande, G.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a field experiment was carried out to study train-induced environmental vibrations. During the field experiment, velocity responses were measured at different locations of a six-story masonry structure near the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway and along a small road adjacent to the building. The results show that the velocity response levels of the environmental ground and the building floors increase with train speed, and attenuate with the distance to the railway track. Heavier freight trains induce greater vibrations than lighter passenger trains. In the multi-story building, the lateral velocity levels increase monotonically with floor elevation, while the vertical ones increase with floor elevation in a fluctuating manner. The indoor floor vibrations are much lower than the outdoor ground vibrations. The lateral vibration of the building along the direction of weak structural stiffness is greater than along the direction with stronger stiffness. A larger room produces greater floor vibrations than the staircase at the same elevation, and the vibration at the center of a room is greater than at its corner. The vibrations of the building were compared with the Federal Transportation Railroad Administration (FTA) criteria for acceptable ground-borne vibrations expressed in terms of rms velocity levels in decibels. The results show that the train-induced building vibrations are serious, and some exceed the allowance given in relevant criterion.

  16. Differential Arc expression in the hippocampus and striatum during the transition from attentive to automatic navigation on a plus maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert S.; Suarez, Daniel F.; Robinson-Burton, Nadira K.; Rudnicky, Christopher J.; Gulati, Asish; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Dumas, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    The strategies utilized to effectively perform a given task change with practice and experience. During a spatial navigation task, with relatively little training, performance is typically attentive enabling an individual to locate the position of a goal by relying on spatial landmarks. These (place) strategies require an intact hippocampus. With task repetition, performance becomes automatic; the same goal is reached using a fixed response or sequence of actions. These (response) strategies require an intact striatum. The current work aims to understand the activation patterns across these neural structures during this experience-dependent strategy transition. This was accomplished by region-specific measurement of activity-dependent immediate early gene expression among rats trained to different degrees on a dual-solution task (i.e., a task that can be solved using either place or response navigation). As expected, rats increased their reliance on response navigation with extended task experience. In addition, dorsal hippocampal expression of the immediate early gene Arc was considerably reduced in rats that used a response strategy late in training (as compared with hippocampal expression in rats that used a place strategy early in training). In line with these data, vicarious trial and error, a behavior linked to hippocampal function, also decreased with task repetition. Although Arc mRNA expression in dorsal medial or lateral striatum alone did not correlate with training stage, the ratio of expression in the medial striatum to that in the lateral striatum was relatively high among rats that used a place strategy early in training as compared with the ratio among over-trained response rats. Altogether, these results identify specific changes in the activation of dissociated neural systems that may underlie the experience-dependent emergence of response-based automatic navigation. PMID:26976088

  17. Harmine treatment enhances short-term memory in old rats: Dissociation of cognition and the ability to perform the procedural requirements of maze testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Gerson, Julia E; Dunckley, Travis; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Harmine is a naturally occurring monoamine oxidase inhibitor that has recently been shown to selectively inhibit the dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). We investigated the cognitive effects of 1mg (low) Harmine and 5mg (high) Harmine using the delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) asymmetrical 3-choice water maze task to evaluate spatial working and recent memory, and the Morris water maze task (MM) to test spatial reference memory. Animals were also tested on the visible platform task, a water-escape task with the same motor, motivational, and reinforcement components as the other tasks used to evaluate cognition, but differing in its greater simplicity and that the platform was visible above the surface of the water. A subset of the Harmine-high treated animals showed clear motor impairments on all behavioral tasks, and the visible platform task confirmed a lack of competence to perform the procedural components of water maze testing. After excluding animals from the high dose group that could not perform the procedural components of a swim task, it was revealed that both high- and low-dose treatment with Harmine enhanced performance on the latter portion of DMS testing, but had no effect on MM performance. Thus, this study demonstrates the importance of confirming motor and visual competence when studying animal cognition, and verifies the one-day visible platform task as a reliable measure of ability to perform the procedural components necessary for completion of a swim task. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Field training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumford, G.E.; Hadaway, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    Individualized, personal training can be used to increase an employee's awareness of the HSE program. Such training can stimulate personal commitment and provide personal skills that can be utilized for the benefit of the overall HSE effort. But, providing such training within our industry can be a difficult task due to the scheduling, travel arrangements, and cost associated with bringing employees from isolated, remote locations to centrally located training facilities. One method of overcoming these obstacles involves the use of field instructors to provide the training at the many, and varied number of individuals can be reached with minimal disruption to their work scheduling or to their time off. In fact, this type of on-site training is already used by some oil companies and drilling contractors with encouraging results. This paper describes one drilling contractor's experiences with such a training program. The results after eight years how that this program not only can provide and efficient, economical means of employee training, but also can have a direct application to employee motivation regarding a company's HSE effort

  19. Training Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocational Training Council, Wellington (New Zealand).

    This bibliography is intended primarily for managers and trainers but will also be of interest to employers, unions, and all parties interested in improving the competency of trade and nonprofessional workers through improved training. Materials represent the topics of needs assessment, identification of training objectives, monitoring and…

  20. Operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.

    1983-12-01

    The traditional operator job is changing, which among other things has generated a need for better job training. Surprisingly increased process automation has lead to increased operator qualifications, i.e. basic job training but also up-date and rehearsal training within certain fixed intervals. There are several, similar models for instructional system development available in the literature. One model which is of special interest integrates Operator Training development and Man-Machine Interfaces development. The extent to which Systematic Operator Training has been implemented varies with branches and companies. The nuclear power branch is given as an example in the report. This branch probably represents something better than the average among the process industries.(author)

  1. ENGLISH TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch PLACES AVAILABLE Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English who need to improve their professional writing (administrative, scientific, technical). Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Date and timetable will be fixed when there are sufficient participants enrolled. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their sp...

  2. Training Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the benefits of and required process and recommendations for implementing the standardization of training in the nuclear power industry in the United States and abroad. Current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) enable training standardization in the nuclear power industry. The delivery of training through the Internet, Intranet and video over IP will facilitate this standardization and bring multiple benefits to the nuclear power industry worldwide. As the amount of available qualified and experienced professionals decreases because of retirements and fewer nuclear engineering institutions, standardized training will help increase the number of available professionals in the industry. Technology will make it possible to use the experience of retired professionals who may be interested in working part-time from a remote location. Well-planned standardized training will prevent a fragmented approach among utilities, and it will save the industry considerable resources in the long run. It will also ensure cost-effective and safe nuclear power plant operation

  3. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  4. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  5. Training Attestations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2004-01-01

    In the past, paper Training Attestations were printed during the first quarter of a New Year for Staff Members having followed courses and seminars the previous year in the context of CERN's official Training Programmes.  The attestations were sent to Divisional Training Officers (DTO's) for distribution to all Staff Members concerned within their Division. In practise many Staff Members did not find this paper useful, however some expressed a wish to be able to have access to a self-service facility in case of need. This change was discussed by the Joint Training Board (JTB) and with the DTO's during 2003 and was supported. As a consequence, following a collaboration between HR-PMD and IT-AIS, from 2004 onwards paper Training Attestations will no longer be printed and distributed as before. Those requiring a list of training followed in the past can now obtain their attestation directly from the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application for all training followed since 1997. https://hrt.cern...

  6. Temporary inhibition of dorsal or ventral hippocampus by muscimol: distinct effects on measures of innate anxiety on the elevated plus maze, but similar disruption of contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Ning; Bast, Tobias; Xu, Yan; Feldon, Joram

    2014-04-01

    Studies in rats, involving hippocampal lesions and hippocampal drug infusions, have implicated the hippocampus in the modulation of anxiety-related behaviors and conditioned fear. The ventral hippocampus is considered to be more important for anxiety- and fear-related behaviors than the dorsal hippocampus. In the present study, we compared the role of dorsal and ventral hippocampus in innate anxiety and classical fear conditioning in Wistar rats, examining the effects of temporary pharmacological inhibition by the GABA-A agonist muscimol (0.5 ug/0.5 ul/side) in the elevated plus maze and on fear conditioning to a tone and the conditioning context. In the elevated plus maze, dorsal and ventral hippocampal muscimol caused distinct behavioral changes. The effects of ventral hippocampal muscimol were consistent with suppression of locomotion, possibly accompanied by anxiolytic effects, whereas the pattern of changes caused by dorsal hippocampal muscimol was consistent with anxiogenic effects. In contrast, dorsal and ventral hippocampal muscimol caused similar effects in the fear conditioning experiments, disrupting contextual, but not tone, fear conditioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effects of nootropic drugs on behavior of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice in the exploratory cross-maze test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, E V; Salimov, R M; Kovalev, G I

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory behavior, locomotor activity, and anxiety in inbred mice of C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains subchronically treated with placebo or various types of nootropic (cognition enhancing) drugs (piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, semax, pantogam, nooglutil) have been evaluated using the exploratory cross-maze test. It was found that BALB/c mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice are characterized by greater anxiety and lower efficiency of exploratory behavior in the previously unfamiliar environment. All tested drugs clearly improved the exploratory behavior in BALB/c mice only. In BALB/c mice, piracetam, phenotropil, noopept, and semax also reduced anxiety, while phenotropil additionally increased locomotor activity. Thus, the nootropic drugs displayed clear positive modulation of spontaneous orientation in the mice strain with initially low exploratory efficiency (BALB/c) in the cross-maze test. Some drugs (pantogam, nooglutil) exhibited only nootropic properties, while the other drugs exhibited both nootropic effects on the exploratory activity and produced modulation of the anxiety level (piracetam, fenotropil, noopept, semax) and locomotor activity (fenotropil).

  8. Enhancement of radial maze performances in CD1 mice after prenatal exposure to oxiracetam: possible role of sustained investigative responses developed during ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammassari-Teule, M; D'Amato, F R; Sansone, M; Oliverio, A

    1988-01-01

    A longitudinal study aimed at analyzing the behavioral effects of prenatal exposure to the nootropic compound oxiracetam was carried out in CD1 mice. Two groups of females were injected either with oxiracetam or saline from the beginning of pregnancy until parturition. Examination of pups from birth until the first month of age revealed no-influence of the treatment on litter size, body weights, sensory motor reflexes and motility. When placed in the open field at one month of age, mice born by mothers exposed to oxiracetam displayed more self grooming and spent less time in freezing than control mice. Prenatally treated mice were then found more interactive with their environment since the introduction of a novel object in the open field was followed by increased ambulation and higher sniffing object and rearing object scores. At three months of age, mice from both groups were tested in a radial six-arm maze task. Choice accuracy was significantly higher in prenatally treated mice which also tended to optimize their exploratory sequences by frequently running the maze in a clock-wise fashion. These results suggest that the better learning performances observed in the experimental group could be viewed as a consequence of an enhanced cognitive development based upon the higher rate of interactions with the environment shown by prenatally treated mice during ontogeny.

  9. Driverless Train

    OpenAIRE

    Törnqvist, Julia; Berglund, Emma

    2017-01-01

    As automation increases in train services, this project resulted in making a driver-less train. The main purpose was to see how security can be increased. By using sensors, today’s technologies and rebuild the stations with walls on the platforms, the safety can increase for the better. This project designs a railway system consisting of a train, boom barriers and a station. The mechanical parts were made from scratch to get the system to work beneficially. The use of Arduino as a micro contro...

  10. Training Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Aja

    This thesis explores the phenomenon of horse-assisted leadership training and the manners, in which the training relations between horses, managers and facilitators were entangled with perceptions of, what “proper sociality” entailed and felt like in contemporary Danish society. The study...... managers, horses and facilitators were training to strike between self-centredness and other-orientation, self-interests and fellow-feelings, was related to this marriage. The thesis contributes to the conceptualisation of the relationship between the self and sociality, particularly within consumer...... culture research interested in destabilising the primacy of the agentive powers of the human consumer. It does so by broadening the notion of the social to include animals – and by emphasising the sensorial, bodily and affective dimensions of the relations between self and sociality. A related...

  11. French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place: from 13 October to 19 December 2003. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Language Training Françoise Benz Tel.73127 language.training@cern.ch

  12. Anxiolytic-like effect of Rauvolfia ligustrina Willd: ex Roem. & Schult., Apocynaceae, in the elevated plus-maze and hole-board tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Mendonça Netto

    Full Text Available Rauvolfia ligustrina Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. (Apocynaceae, popularly known as "arrebenta-boi" and "paratudo". In behavioral screening ethanol extract of R. ligustrina roots demonstrated depressant effect on the CNS and anticonvulsant properties. The purpose of this study was to characterize the putative anxiolytic-like effects of the ethanol extract of Rauvolfia ligustrina roots (EER using the elevated plus maze (EPM and the hole-board apparatus in rodents. This extract, administered intraperitoneally, in different doses (3.9, 7.8 and 15.6 mg/kg was able to increase significantly the number of entries (p < 0.05, as well as the time spent in the open arms of the EPM, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. Additionally, EER-treated (3.9 and 7.8 mg/kg increased significantly the number of border visit and head-dipping. This data suggest an anxiolytic effect of EER in animal models of anxiety.

  13. Anxiogenic-like effects of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. aqueous extract in an elevated plus maze test in mice: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliani, María Celeste; Rosso, María Celeste; Zunino, Paula M; Baiardi, Gustavo; Ponce, Andrés Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of orally administered Uncaria tomentosa aqueous extracts (UTE) (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) DC. (Rubiaceae) during 7, 15, 30 and 90 days of treatment on the expression of anxiety, as expressed in the elevated plus maze test in male Albino Swiss mice. UTE revealed an anxiogenic effect in relation to the control group at 15 and 30 days, but it was reversed after 90 days of administration, without affecting the locomotor activity or any deleterious effects on the overall performance of the animal, either for its ambulation, or clinical status, and body weight and organ weight/body weight from liver, lung and kidney were unaffected. These biphasic effects are usually indicative of heterogeneity in sites of action due to the presence of many alkaloids (speciophylline, uncarine F and uncarine E) and flavanols (catechin and epigallocatechin) identified and isolated from UTE.

  14. Monte Carlo simulations for the design of the treatment rooms and synchrotron access mazes in the CNAO hadron-therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, A.; Agosteo, S.; Campi, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Italian National Centre for Hadron-therapy is based on a synchrotron capable of accelerating protons and carbon ions up to 250 MeV and 400 MeV u -1 , respectively. The present work describes some Monte Carlo simulations performed to verify the design of the treatment rooms and synchrotron access mazes. The different shielding efficiency and induced activations of the common concrete and the baryte concrete were analysed. In such a radiation field, i.e. with high-energy neutrons, the baryte concrete gains twice the activation than the common concrete without any relevant dose reduction. Moreover, the simulations have stressed, again, the discrepancies between H*(10) and E in such cases where the neutron radiation field is the dominant component and, particularly, in the medium-high energy range. (authors)

  15. Effect of experience with pine (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king (Lampropeltis getulus) snake odors on Y-maze behavior of pine snake hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J; Boarman, W; Kurzava, L; Gochfeld, M

    1991-01-01

    The abilities of hatchling pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king snakes (Lampropeltis getulus) to discriminate the chemical trails of pine and king snakes was investigated inY-maze experiments. Pine snakes were housed for 17 days either with shavings impregnated with pine snake odor, king snake odor, or no odor to test for the effect of experience on choice. Both pine and king snake hatchlings entered the arm with the pine snake odor and did not enter the arm with the king snake odor. The data support the hypothesis that hatchlings of both species can distinguish conspecific odors from other odors and that our manipulation of previous experience was without effect for pine snake hatchlings.

  16. Microinjection of naltrexone into the central, but not the basolateral, amygdala blocks the anxiolytic effects of diazepam in the plus maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Paul R.; Wilson, Marlene A.

    2009-01-01

    The amygdala is involved in behavioral and physiological responses to fear, and the anxiolytic properties of several drugs are localized to this region. Activation of endogenous opioid systems is known to occur in response to stress and a growing body of literature suggests that opioid systems regulate the properties of anxiolytic drugs. These experiments sought to elucidate the role of opioid receptors in the central (CeA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei of the amygdala in regulating the anxiolytic properties of ethanol and diazepam. Male rats fitted with cannula received bilateral microinjections of the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NAL) immediately followed by systemic delivery of either ethanol (1 g/kg) or diazepam (2 mg/kg) in the elevated plus maze. Both diazepam and ethanol decreased anxiety-like behavior. Delivery of NAL into the CeA blocked the anxiolytic properties of diazepam. Delivery of NAL into the BLA slightly increased open arm avoidance, but had no effect on the anxiolytic properties of diazepam. Microinjection of NAL into either nucleus failed to block the effects of ethanol. These results were specific to the anxiolytic properties of diazepam, since baseline behaviors were unaffected by microinjection of naltrexone. Microinjection of lidocaine produced results distinct from NAL and failed to block the anxiolytic actions of diazepam. These studies indicate distinct roles for opioid receptor systems in the CeA and BLA in regulating the anxiolytic properties of diazepam in the elevated plus maze. Further, opioid receptor systems in the CeA and BLA do not regulate the anxiolytic properties of ethanol in this test. PMID:16123750

  17. Hippocampal-dependent spatial memory in the water maze is preserved in an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Inostroza

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a major concern in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. While different experimental models have been used to characterize TLE-related cognitive deficits, little is known on whether a particular deficit is more associated with the underlying brain injuries than with the epileptic condition per se. Here, we look at the relationship between the pattern of brain damage and spatial memory deficits in two chronic models of TLE (lithium-pilocarpine, LIP and kainic acid, KA from two different rat strains (Wistar and Sprague-Dawley using the Morris water maze and the elevated plus maze in combination with MRI imaging and post-morten neuronal immunostaining. We found fundamental differences between LIP- and KA-treated epileptic rats regarding spatial memory deficits and anxiety. LIP-treated animals from both strains showed significant impairment in the acquisition and retention of spatial memory, and were unable to learn a cued version of the task. In contrast, KA-treated rats were differently affected. Sprague-Dawley KA-treated rats learned less efficiently than Wistar KA-treated animals, which performed similar to control rats in the acquisition and in a probe trial testing for spatial memory. Different anxiety levels and the extension of brain lesions affecting the hippocampus and the amydgala concur with spatial memory deficits observed in epileptic rats. Hence, our results suggest that hippocampal-dependent spatial memory is not necessarily affected in TLE and that comorbidity between spatial deficits and anxiety is more related with the underlying brain lesions than with the epileptic condition per se.

  18. Navigating to new frontiers in behavioral neuroscience: traditional neuropsychological tests predict human performance on a rodent-inspired radial-arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennenga, Sarah E; Baxter, Leslie C; Grunfeld, Itamar S; Brewer, Gene A; Aiken, Leona S; Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Camp, Bryan W; Acosta, Jazmin I; Braden, B Blair; Schaefer, Keley R; Gerson, Julia E; Lavery, Courtney N; Tsang, Candy W S; Hewitt, Lauren T; Kingston, Melissa L; Koebele, Stephanie V; Patten, K Jakob; Ball, B Hunter; McBeath, Michael K; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2014-01-01

    We constructed an 11-arm, walk-through, human radial-arm maze (HRAM) as a translational instrument to compare existing methodology in the areas of rodent and human learning and memory research. The HRAM, utilized here, serves as an intermediary test between the classic rat radial-arm maze (RAM) and standard human neuropsychological and cognitive tests. We show that the HRAM is a useful instrument to examine working memory ability, explore the relationships between rodent and human memory and cognition models, and evaluate factors that contribute to human navigational ability. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven participants were tested on the HRAM, and scores were compared to performance on a standard cognitive battery focused on episodic memory, working memory capacity, and visuospatial ability. We found that errors on the HRAM increased as working memory demand became elevated, similar to the pattern typically seen in rodents, and that for this task, performance appears similar to Miller's classic description of a processing-inclusive human working memory capacity of 7 ± 2 items. Regression analysis revealed that measures of working memory capacity and visuospatial ability accounted for a large proportion of variance in HRAM scores, while measures of episodic memory and general intelligence did not serve as significant predictors of HRAM performance. We present the HRAM as a novel instrument for measuring navigational behavior in humans, as is traditionally done in basic science studies evaluating rodent learning and memory, thus providing a useful tool to help connect and translate between human and rodent models of cognitive functioning.

  19. Evaluation of neurobehavioral deficits following different severities of cerebral ischemia in rats: a comparison between the modified hole board test and the Morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Maria Lucia; Jungwirth, Bettina; Ohl, Frauke; Kellermann, Kristine; Kochs, Eberhard F; Blobner, Manfred

    2012-11-01

    While histological injury following cerebral ischemia has been extensively characterized in rodents, evidence on the effects on executive functioning is still missing. This study was designed to evaluate neuropsychological outcome following different severities of cerebral ischemia in rats with the modified hole board test or the Morris water maze. With institutional review board approval, anesthetized rats were exposed to bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for escalating time intervals (0-12.5 min). Postoperatively cognitive performance was assessed using either the modified hole board test (mHB) or the Morris water maze (MWM). On postoperative day 14 rats were euthanized and intact neurons in five cerebral regions were counted. Rats of the 0 and 5 min groups showed normal functional outcome with mild histological damage after 5 min of BCAO. Following 7.5 min of BCAO the mHB test showed cognitive deficits reflecting histological damage of the hippocampus while the MWM revealed normal functional outcome. Rats of the 10 and 12.5 min groups showed cognitive deficits in both tests, motor dysfunction and behavioral alterations in the mHB test and profound histological damage. The results indicate that the mHB is not inferior to the MWM for the evaluation of cognitive impairment following incomplete forebrain ischemia in rats. As the mHB additionally investigates a variety of behavioral dimensions and motor parameters in the same test environment, it is advantageous for the evaluation of interacting and potentially confounding behavioral changes following cerebral ischemia in rats. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Navigating to new frontiers in behavioral neuroscience: Traditional neuropsychological tests predict human performance on a rodent-inspired radial-arm maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Mennenga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We constructed an 11-arm, walk-through, human radial-arm maze (HRAM as a translational instrument to compare existing methodology in the areas of rodent and human learning and memory research. The HRAM, utilized here, serves as an intermediary test between the classic rat radial-arm maze (RAM and standard human neuropsychological and cognitive tests. We show that the HRAM is a useful instrument to examine working memory ability, explore the relationships between rodent and human memory and cognition models, and evaluate factors that contribute to human navigational ability. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven participants were tested on the HRAM, and scores were compared to performance on a standard cognitive battery focused on episodic memory, working memory capacity, and visuospatial ability. We found that errors on the HRAM increased as working memory demand became elevated, similar to the pattern typically seen in rodents, and that for this task, performance appears similar to Miller’s classic description of human working memory capacity of 7±2 items. Regression analysis revealed that measures of working memory capacity and visuospatial ability accounted for a large proportion of variance in HRAM scores, while measures of episodic memory and general intelligence did not serve as significant predictors of HRAM performance. We present the HRAM as a novel instrument for measuring navigational behavior in humans, as is traditionally done in basic science studies evaluating rodent learning and memory, thus providing a useful tool to help connect and translate between human and rodent models of cognitive functioning.

  1. Supervisor training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    on the experience of an integrated supervisor training programme offered in Aalborg, Denmark in 2009/2010. In this programme general issues of professional supervision and the application of artistic media as a core element in the supervisory process were Integrated. It is the hope of the author that this article...

  2. Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

  3. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training'form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Tessa Osborne, tel.16 23 40. Oral Expression The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).This course is intended for people with a goo...

  4. Language training

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Tessa Osborne, tel.16 23 40. Oral Expression The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).This course is intended for people with a good knowl...

  5. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order in which they are received. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from end of September 2005 to middle of February 2006 (2/ 3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression The next session will take place from end of September to December 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain the...

  6. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Monday 9 February 2004 From 10:00 to 12:00 - IT Auditorium - bldg. 31, 3rd floor ANSOFT High-Frequency Seminar David Prestaux, Application Engineer, ANSOFT F-78535 BUC, France This Technical Training seminar will present two Ansoft application products: Ansoft HFSS and Ansoft Designer. Ansoft HFSS makes use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) to calculate field solutions from first principles. It can accurately predict all high-frequency behaviours such as dispersion, mode conversion, and losses due to materials and radiation. Ansoft Designer is a suite of design tools to fully integrate high-frequency, physics-based electromagnetic simulations into a seamless system-level simulation environment. Ansoft Designer uses a simple interface to give complete control over every design task, by a method allowing multiple solvers, Solver on Demand. • Introduction • Overview of the Ansoft Total solution • Ansoft HFSS 9...

  7. Effects of post-training modafinil administration in a discriminative avoidance task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Helaine Arrais; Zanin, Karina Agustini; Patti, Camilla de Lima; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo Brito; Bizerra, Carolina Souza; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Although the cognitive-enhancing abilities after modafinil have been demonstrated, its effects on memory consolidation remain overlooked. We investigated the effects of repeated modafinil administration on consolidation of a discriminative avoidance task. Mice were trained in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task. After training, mice received intraperitonial modafinil (doses of 32, 64 or 128 mg/kg). Animals were treated for more 9 consecutive days; 30 min after the last injection, testing was performed. In addition, the effects of 32 mg/kg modafinil on consolidation at different time points were examined. The smaller dose of modafinil (32 mg/kg) impaired memory consolidation, without modifying anxiety or locomotion. Still, modafinil post-training administration at 1 or 2 h impaired memory persistence. Modafinil impaired memory consolidation in a dose- and time-dependent fashion.

  8. Laparoscopic surgical box model training for surgical trainees with no prior laparoscopic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, Myura; Toon, Clare D; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2014-01-17

    taken for task completion was significantly shorter in the box trainer group than the control group (8 trials; 249 participants; SMD -0.48 seconds; 95% CI -0.74 to -0.22). Compared with the control group, the box trainer group also had lower error score (3 trials; 69 participants; SMD -0.69; 95% CI -1.21 to -0.17), better accuracy score (3 trials; 73 participants; SMD 0.67; 95% CI 0.18 to 1.17), and better composite performance scores (SMD 0.65; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.88). Three trials reported movement distance but could not be meta-analysed as they were not in a format for meta-analysis. There was significantly lower movement distance in the box model training compared with no training in one trial, and there were no significant differences in the movement distance between the two groups in the other two trials. None of the remaining secondary outcomes such as mortality and morbidity were reported in the trials when animal models were used for assessment of training, error in movements, and trainee satisfaction. Different methods of box training: One trial (36 participants) found significantly shorter time taken to complete the task when box training was performed using a simple cardboard box trainer compared with the standard pelvic trainer (SMD -3.79 seconds; 95% CI -4.92 to -2.65). There was no significant difference in the time taken to complete the task in the remaining three comparisons (reverse alignment versus forward alignment box training; box trainer suturing versus box trainer drills; and single incision versus multiport box model training). There were no significant differences in the error score between the two groups in any of the comparisons (box trainer suturing versus box trainer drills; single incision versus multiport box model training; Z-maze box training versus U-maze box training). The only trial that reported accuracy score found significantly higher accuracy score with Z-maze box training than U-maze box training (1 trial; 16 participants; SMD 1

  9. Sports Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Practitioners of martial arts have long seen a need for a precise method of measuring the power of a karate kick or a boxer's punch in training and competition. Impax sensor is a piezoelectric film less than one thousandth of an inch thick, yet extremely durable. They give out a voltage impulse when struck, the greater the force of impact, the higher the voltage. The impulse is transmitted to a compact electronics package where voltage is translated into a force-pounds reading shown on a digital display. Impax, manufactured by Impulse Technology, Inc. is used by martial arts instructors, practitioners, U.S. Olympic Committee Training Center, football blocking sleds, and boxers as well as police defensive tactics, providing a means of evaluating the performance of recruits.

  10. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    PermanenceA "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00 New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF and BULATS). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link: http://English courses http://French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  11. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Permanence A "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier - French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne - English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00   New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF, DALF). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link:  English courses French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  12. NR2B-subunit dependent facilitation of long-term potentiation in primary visual cortex following visual discrimination training of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagolewicz, Peter J; Dringenberg, Hans C

    2011-10-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an important mechanism thought to mediate changes in synaptic connectivity following various types of experience. We examined the effects of visual discrimination training on LTP in the mature, rodent thalamocortical visual system. Adult rats underwent visual discrimination training in a modified Morris Water Maze containing a Y-maze insert, requiring rats to associate visual cues with the location of a hidden escape platform placed in one of the two goal arms of the Y-maze insert. On the day following successful task acquisition (average of nine training days), rats were anesthetized (urethane), and LTP in the thalamocortical system was characterized. In task-naïve rats, theta-burst stimulation of the lateral geniculate nucleus resulted in modest (∼40%) potentiation of field postsynaptic potentials recorded in the primary visual cortex (V1). Rats trained on the visual discrimination task showed significantly greater levels of LTP (∼60%), an effect that was not seen in rats trained to swim in the maze without a predictive association between visual cues and platform location. An antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunit ([R-(R *,S *)]-α-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-β-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperidinepropanol hydrochloride (Ro 25-6981); 2 mm, applied locally at the recording site in V1) reversed the training-induced LTP enhancement without affecting LTP in task-naïve rats. An antagonist of metabotropic glutamate receptors [(2S)-2-amino-2-[(1S,2S)-2-carboxycycloprop-1-yl]-3-(xanth-9-yl) propanoic acid (LY 341495); 2 mm] was ineffective in reversing the training-induced LTP facilitation. These data suggest that behavioral (visual) training can result in changes in plasticity exhibited by the mature, thalamocortical visual system that require activation of NMDA receptors containing the NR2B subunit. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience

  13. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Tuesday 3 February 2004 From 09:00 to 13:30 - Training Centre Auditorium - bldg. 593, room 11 USB (Universal Serial Bus) CYPRESS Seminar Claudia Colombini, Field Application Engineer CYPRESS ActiveComp Electronic GmbH D-85077 MANCHING, Germany As a pioneer in USB, CYPRESS sets the standard for cost-effective solutions without sacrificing functionality, performance or reliability. Having shipped over 200 million USB devices, Cypress is the undisputed market leader and demonstrates unmatched USB expertise. With the industry's broadest selection of USB solutions, Cypress has the right silicon, software and support for every USB application, from Low-speed to High-Speed and USB On-The-Go (OTG). 9:00 - 10:30 Overview of USB systems. USB CYPRESS product overview. Peripherals: Low Speed, Full Speed, High Speed (1.1 and 2.0). Hub Solutions, Embedded Host Solutions, On-The-Go (OTG) and wireless USB. USB Development Tools (first part) 10:30 -...

  14. Media Training

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    With the LHC starting up soon, the world's media are again turning their attention to CERN. We're all likely to be called upon to explain what is happening at CERN to media, friends and neighbours. The seminar will be given by BBC television news journalists Liz Pike and Nadia Marchant, and will deal with the kind of questions we're likely to be confronted with through the restart period. The training is open for everybody. Make sure you arrive early enough to get a seat - there are only 200 seats in the Globe. The session will also be webcast: http://webcast.cern.ch/

  15. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    6, 7 May LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Decoding the Human Genome, Scientific basis and ethic and social aspects by S.E. Antonarakis and A. Mauron / Univ. of Geneva Decoding the Human genome is a very up-to-date topic, raising several questions besides purely scientific, in view of the two competing teams (public and private), the ethics of using the results, and the fact that the project went apparently faster and easier than expected. The lecture series will address the following chapters: Scientific basis and challenges, Ethical and social aspects of genomics. Academic Training Françoise Benz Tel. 73127

  16. Rehabilitative skilled forelimb training enhances axonal remodeling in the corticospinal pathway but not the brainstem-spinal pathways after photothrombotic stroke in the primary motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiko Okabe

    Full Text Available Task-specific rehabilitative training is commonly used for chronic stroke patients. Axonal remodeling is believed to be one mechanism underlying rehabilitation-induced functional recovery, and significant roles of the corticospinal pathway have previously been demonstrated. Brainstem-spinal pathways, as well as the corticospinal tract, have been suggested to contribute to skilled motor function and functional recovery after brain injury. However, whether axonal remodeling in the brainstem-spinal pathways is a critical component for rehabilitation-induced functional recovery is not known. In this study, rats were subjected to photothrombotic stroke in the caudal forelimb area of the primary motor cortex and received rehabilitative training with a skilled forelimb reaching task for 4 weeks. After completion of the rehabilitative training, the retrograde tracer Fast blue was injected into the contralesional lower cervical spinal cord. Fast blue-positive cells were counted in 32 brain areas located in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. Rehabilitative training improved motor performance in the skilled forelimb reaching task but not in the cylinder test, ladder walk test, or staircase test, indicating that rehabilitative skilled forelimb training induced task-specific recovery. In the histological analysis, rehabilitative training significantly increased the number of Fast blue-positive neurons in the ipsilesional rostral forelimb area and secondary sensory cortex. However, rehabilitative training did not alter the number of Fast blue-positive neurons in any areas of the brainstem. These results indicate that rehabilitative skilled forelimb training enhances axonal remodeling selectively in the corticospinal pathway, which suggests a critical role of cortical plasticity, rather than brainstem plasticity, in task-specific recovery after subtotal motor cortex destruction.

  17. The Pitch Imagery Arrow Task: effects of musical training, vividness, and mental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelding, Rebecca W; Thompson, William Forde; Johnson, Blake W

    2015-01-01

    Musical imagery is a relatively unexplored area, partly because of deficiencies in existing experimental paradigms, which are often difficult, unreliable, or do not provide objective measures of performance. Here we describe a novel protocol, the Pitch Imagery Arrow Task (PIAT), which induces and trains pitch imagery in both musicians and non-musicians. Given a tonal context and an initial pitch sequence, arrows are displayed to elicit a scale-step sequence of imagined pitches, and participants indicate whether the final imagined tone matches an audible probe. It is a staircase design that accommodates individual differences in musical experience and imagery ability. This new protocol was used to investigate the roles that musical expertise, self-reported auditory vividness and mental control play in imagery performance. Performance on the task was significantly better for participants who employed a musical imagery strategy compared to participants who used an alternative cognitive strategy and positively correlated with scores on the Control subscale from the Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale (BAIS). Multiple regression analysis revealed that Imagery performance accuracy was best predicted by a combination of strategy use and scores on the Vividness subscale of BAIS. These results confirm that competent performance on the PIAT requires active musical imagery and is very difficult to achieve using alternative cognitive strategies. Auditory vividness and mental control were more important than musical experience in the ability to perform manipulation of pitch imagery.

  18. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, rol...

  19. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-p...

  20. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Formation en anglais Cours d'anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera: du 06 octobre 2003 au 13 février 2004 (interruption de 3/4 semaines à Noël). Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web: http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter Mme Benz, tél. 73127 ou Mr Liptow, tél. 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 06 October 2003 to 13 February 2004 (3/4 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Writing Professional Documents in Engl...

  1. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Formation en anglais Cours d'anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera: du 06 octobre 2003 au 13 février 2004 (interruption de 3/4 semaines à Noël). Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web: http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter Mme Benz, tél. 73127 ou Mr Liptow, tél. 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 06 October 2003 to 13 February 2004 (3/4 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel. 73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: ...

  2. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Formation en anglais Cours d'anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera: du 06 octobre 2003 au 13 février 2004 (interruption de 3/4 semaines à Noël). Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour vous inscrire et voir tout le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages Web: http://cern.ch/Training Vous pouvez aussi contacter M. Liptow, tél. 72957. General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 06 October 2003 to 13 February 2004 (3/4 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of...

  3. Ventral hippocampal histamine increases the frequency of evoked theta rhythm but produces anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Michelle; Treit, Dallas; Dickson, Clayton T

    2016-07-01

    The neurobiological underpinnings of anxiety are of paramount importance to the development of effective therapeutic treatments. To date, there is considerable pharmacological evidence suggesting that the suppression of hippocampal theta frequency is a robust and predictive assay of anxiolytic drug action. Recently, this idea has been challenged using histamine (2-(4-imidazolyl)ethanamine), an endogenous neurotransmitter involved in a number of brain and behavioral functions. Here, we systematically evaluate the effects of dorsal and ventral hippocampal histamine infusions on evoked theta frequency and behavioral anxiety. Given the complex pharmacological profile of histamine and its receptors in the hippocampus, we reasoned that local intra-hippocampal infusions would be a powerful test of the theta suppression model. While dorsal hippocampal infusions of histamine produced neither significant changes in anxious-like behavior in the elevated plus maze nor changes of evoked theta, ventral infusions of histamine produced potent behavioral anxiolysis which corresponded to an increase, and not a decrease, in evoked theta frequency. As a positive neurophysiological control, we demonstrated that diazepam, a proven anxiolytic drug, decreased the frequency of hippocampal theta following both dorsal and ventral hippocampal infusions. Our results further challenge the hippocampal theta frequency suppression model as a measure of anxiolytic drug action. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of periadolescent fluoxetine and paroxetine on elevated plus-maze, acoustic startle, and swimming immobility in rats while on and off-drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Michael T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale Whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs exposure during adolescent brain development causes lasting effects remains unresolved. Objective Assess the effects of fluoxetine and paroxetine 60 days after adolescent exposure compared with when on-drug. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley littermates (41 litters were gavaged on postnatal days 33-53 with fluoxetine (3 or 10 mg/kg/day, paroxetine (3, 10 or, 17 mg/kg/day, or water; half were tested while on-drug (21 litters and half after 60 days off-drug (20 litters. Results The highest dose of the drugs reduced body weight gain during treatment that rebounded 1 week post-treatment. On-drug, no significant group differences were found on elevated plus maze time-in-open, zone entries, or latency to first open entry; however, the high dose of paroxetine significantly reduced head-dips (N = 20/group. No significant effects were found on-drug for acoustic startle response/prepulse inhibition (ASR/PPI although a trend (p Conclusions The data provide no evidence that fluoxetine or paroxetine have long-term adverse effects on the behaviors measured here after adolescent to young adult exposure.

  5. The effects of A single dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on behavior of rats in Morris's water maze and in the open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Lievajova, K.; Capicikova, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a sublethal dose of gamma-rays applied on the head on selected behavioral parameters were investigated in this study. Adult male Sprague-Dowley rats (n=9) were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy of gamma-rays from a 60 Co radiation source. The irradiated animals as well as sham-irradiated controls were tested daily in Morris water maze (MWM) (2 sessions per day) and in the open field test. The ability of spatial learning given by latency time to find the hidden platform was followed in MWM. The horizontal and vertical locomotion, the number of crossings of the center of the field and the washing behavior were recorded during an 8-minute test in the open field. The results obtained show, that radiation didn't altered significantly the dynamic of learning in MWM during the experiment. The level of horizontal and vertical locomotory activity in open field was lower in irradiated group in comparison with controls. The number of the crossings of the field's center, related to the level of anxiozity of animals was non-significantly lower in irradiated animals, whereas no differences in number of washing between both groups were detected. The results point to differences in radiosensitivity in various behavioral parameters in rats, maybe due to different level of their control and coordination in CNS. (authors)

  6. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    25, 26, 27, 28 February and 1st March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 LECTURE SERIES Neutrino masses and oscillations by A. de Rujula / CERN-TH This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos. Academic Training Françoise Benz Secretariat Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  7. Training apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteith, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Training apparatus for use in contamination surveillance uses a mathematical model of a hypothetical contamination source (e.g. nuclear, bacteriological or chemical explosion or leak) to determine from input data defining the contamination source, the contamination level at any location within a defined exercise area. The contamination level to be displayed by the apparatus is corrected to real time from a real time clock or may be displayed in response to a time input from a keyboard. In a preferred embodiment the location is defined by entering UTM grid reference coordinates using the keyboard. The mathematical model used by a microprocessor of the apparatus for simulation of contamination levels in the event of a nuclear explosion is described. (author)

  8. English training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.

  9. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.

  10. Advanced training systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savely, Robert T.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    1990-01-01

    Training is a major endeavor in all modern societies. Common training methods include training manuals, formal classes, procedural computer programs, simulations, and on-the-job training. NASA's training approach has focussed primarily on on-the-job training in a simulation environment for both crew and ground based personnel. NASA must explore new approaches to training for the 1990's and beyond. Specific autonomous training systems are described which are based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground based support personnel that show an alternative to current training systems. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training.

  11. Use of an innovative T-tube maze assay and the proboscis extension response assay to assess sublethal effects of GM products and pesticides on learning capacity of the honey bee Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang; Cui, Jin-Jie; Desneux, Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Transgenic Cry1Ac+CpTI cotton (CCRI41) is a promising cotton cultivar throughout China but side effects and especially sublethal effects of this transgenic cultivar on beneficial insects remain poorly studied. More specifically potential sublethal effects on behavioural traits of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. have not been formally assessed despite the importance of honey bees for pollination. The goal of our study was to assess potential effects of CCRI41 cotton pollen on visual and olfactory learning by honey bees. After a 7-day oral chronic exposure to honey mixed with either CCRI41 pollen, imidacloprid-treated conventional pollen (used as positive sublethal control) or conventional pollen (control), learning performance was evaluated by the classical proboscis extension reflex (PER) procedure as well as a T-tube maze test. The latter assay was designed as a new device to assess potential side effects of pesticides on visual associative learning of honey bees. These two procedures were complementary because the former focused on olfactory learning while the latter was involved in visual learning based on visual orientation ability. Oral exposure to CCRI41 pollen did not affect learning capacities of honey bees in both the T-tube maze and PER tests. However, exposure to imidacloprid resulted in reduced visual learning capacities in T-tube maze evaluation and decreased olfactory learning performances measured with PER. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of risks of transgenic CCRI41 cotton crops for honey bees.

  12. Nuclear manpower training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, In Suk; Lee, H. Y.; Joe, B. J.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, E. J.; Yoo, B. H.; Seo, K. W.; Lee, W. K.; Jun, H. I.; Yang, K. N.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, I. H.; Kim, M. Y.; Ju, Y. C.; Hyun, H. Y.; Choi, I. G.; Hong, C. S.; Won, J. Y.; Nam, J. Y.; Lee, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the annual results of training courses. the scope and contents are as follows: 1. Regional and interregional training courses 2. Training courses assisted by foreign experts 3. Training courses for nuclear industry personnel 4. Training courses for internal staff-members 5. Training courses under the law. This Nuclear Training Center executed the open-door training courses for 2,400 engineers/scientists from the regulatory body, nuclear industries, research institutes and other related organizations by means of offering 51 training courses during the fiscal year 1996. (author). 23 refs.

  13. Nuclear manpower training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, In Suk; Lee, H. Y.; Joe, B. J.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, E. J.; Yoo, B. H.; Seo, K. W.; Lee, W. K.; Jun, H. I.; Yang, K. N.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, I. H.; Kim, M. Y.; Ju, Y. C.; Hyun, H. Y.; Choi, I. G.; Hong, C. S.; Won, J. Y.; Nam, J. Y.; Lee, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the annual results of training courses. the scope and contents are as follows: 1. Regional and interregional training courses 2. Training courses assisted by foreign experts 3. Training courses for nuclear industry personnel 4. Training courses for internal staff-members 5. Training courses under the law. This Nuclear Training Center executed the open-door training courses for 2,400 engineers/scientists from the regulatory body, nuclear industries, research institutes and other related organizations by means of offering 51 training courses during the fiscal year 1996. (author). 23 refs

  14. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from 26 February or 5 March to end of June 2007 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Françoise Benz, tel. 73127. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 26 February or 5 March to end of June 2007 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 26 February or...

  15. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 26 February or 5 March to end of June 2007 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Françoise Benz, tel. 73127. Oral Expression The next session will take place from 26 February or 5 March to end of June 2007 (1/2 weeks break at Easter). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from 26 February or 5 M...

  16. Language training

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from end of September 2005 to middle of February 2006 (2/ 3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression in English The next session will take place from end of September to December 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from end of September 2005 to middle of Feb...

  17. Language training

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Tessa Osborne, tel.16 23 40. Oral Expression The next session will take place from beginning of October 2006 to beginning of February 2007 (3 weeks break at Christmas).This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc., depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 30 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 660 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students). Writing Professional Documents in English The next ses...

  18. Language Training

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from end of September 2005 to middle of February 2006 (2/ 3 weeks break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957. Oral Expression in English The next session will take place from end of September to December 2005. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be a maximum of 10 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. Duration: 20 hours Price: 440 CHF (for a minimum of 8 students) Writing Professional Documents in English The next session will take place from end of September 2005 to middle of Febr...

  19. Physical exercise counteracts MPTP-induced changes in neural precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and restores spatial learning but not memory performance in the water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C; Rasińska, J; Empl, L; Sparenberg, M; Poshtiban, A; Hain, E G; Iggena, D; Rivalan, M; Winter, Y; Steiner, B

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a continuous loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, which not only leads to characteristic motor symptoms but also to cognitive impairments. Physical exercise has been shown to improve hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions in PD patients. Animal studies have demonstrated the involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in exercise-induced improvements of visuo-spatial learning and memory. Here, we investigated the direct impact of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) using the1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. We also analyzed striatal and hippocampal dopamine transmission and mRNA expression levels of dopamine receptors. We show that MPTP-induced spatial learning deficits were alleviated by short-term physical exercise but not MPTP-induced spatial memory impairments in either exercise intervention group. Neural precursor proliferation was transiently altered in MPTP-treated mice, while the cell survival was increased by exercise. Dopamine was progressively depleted by MPTP and its turnover altered by exercise. In addition, gene expression of dopamine receptor D1/D5 was transiently upregulated following MPTP treatment but not affected by physical exercise. Our findings suggest that physical exercise benefits spatial learning but not memory performance in the MWM after MPTP-induced dopamine depletion by restoring precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus and influencing dopamine transmission. This adds to the understanding of cognitive decline and mechanisms for potential improvements by physical exercise in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anxiolytic effects of repeated treatment with an essential oil from Lippia alba and (R)-(-)-carvone in the elevated T-maze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, V.Y.; Torricelli, A.S.; Giassi, A.C.C.; Coslope, L.A.; Viana, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is widely used in different regions of Central and South America as a tranquilizer. The plant's anxiolytic properties, however, merit investigation. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated daily (14 days) intraperitoneal (ip) treatment with an essential oil (EO) from a chemotype of L. alba (LA, chemotype II, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg; N = 6-8) and (R)-(-)-carvone (25 mg/kg; N = 8-12), the main constituent of this chemotype, on male Wistar rats (weighing 250 g at the beginning of the experiments) submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM). The ETM allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape. In terms of psychopathology, these responses have been related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Treatment with the EO impaired ETM avoidance latencies, without altering escape, in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (P < 0.05) (avoidance 2: control = 84.6 ± 35.2; EO 12.5 mg/kg = 11.8 ± 3.8; EO 25 mg/kg = 14.6 ± 2.7; diazepam = 7 ± 2.1). (R)-(-)-carvone also significantly altered this same response (P < 0.05; avoidance 1: control = 91.9 ± 31.5; carvone = 11.6 ± 1.8; diazepam = 8.1 ± 3.3). These results were not due to motor changes since no significant effects were detected in an open field. These observations suggest that LA exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors that have been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder, and suggest that carvone is one of the constituents of LA responsible for its action as a tranquilizer

  1. A working memory "theory of relativity": elasticity in temporal, spatial, and modality dimensions conserves item capacity in radial maze, verbal tasks, and other cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, R B

    1999-03-15

    It is remarkable that working memory (WM) capacity for numbers of items remains modest, at approximately 7+/-2 (the so-called "magical number"), across a wide variety of kinds of material. Indeed, consideration of radial maze studies together with more traditional memory research shows that WM capacity remains fairly constant whether the items are verbal or visuospatial, and that this same capacity is true of other species as of humans. In contrast to their limited numerousness, WM items are extremely flexible in ways that are here brought under the heading of "dimensionality." Therefore, the physical items represented in WM, can vary widely in any quantitative characteristic and in the temporal pace at which they are encountered. Combinatorial considerations suggest that WM numerousness results from evolution of a middle ground between a sterile parsimony and an overwhelming excess, for organizing neurocognitive associations. Such natural selection seems likely to have worked opportunistically to yield diverse characteristics of neuronal tissue, from subcellular components to properties of ensembles, which converge on the required cognitive properties of WM. Priming and implicit memory may play supporting roles with WM. These intermediate-term memory phenomena allow certain kinds of background information to be accumulated at higher volume than seems possible from the textbook, "modal model" of memory. By expediting attentional focus on subsets of information already in long-term memory, priming may help WM chunks to emerge in limited number as appropriately scaled "figures" from the primed "ground." The larger neuronal dynamic patterns that embody these cognitive phenomena must regulate their microscopic component systems, automatically selecting those having parameters of temporal persistence, rhythm, and connectivity patterns that are pertinent to the current task. Relevant neural phenomena may include "Hebbian" associativity and persistence of firing patterns

  2. Left atrial and left ventricular diastolic function after the maze procedure for atrial fibrillation in mitral valve disease: degenerative versus rheumatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan Wook; Moon, Mi Hyoung; Jo, Keon Hyun; Song, Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-02-01

    The present study was aimed to compare the left atrial and left ventricular diastolic functions amongst the rheumatic and degenerative mitral valve disease patients in atrial fibrillation who reverted to normal sinus rhythm following Cox-maze procedure. We prospectively investigated the left atrial and left ventricular function with Doppler echocardiography, by dividing into the rheumatic (N = 105) and the degenerative group (N = 47). Over the follow-up period (mean: 4.4 ± 1.2 years in the rheumatic group, 4.8 ± 1.3 years in the degenerative group), the rheumatic group showed statistically significant decrease in A' velocity and E' velocity, on contrary to degenerative group (A' velocity: mean decrease of 0.43 ± 0.13 cm/s in the rheumatic group, mean increase of 0.57 ± 0.11 cm/s in the degenerative group, p = 0.029, E' velocity: mean decrease of 0.23 ± 0.17 cm/s in the rheumatic group, mean increase of 0.21 ± 0.15 cm/s in the degenerative group, p = 0.031). In addition, the rheumatic group showed statistically significant increase in E/E' ratio than the degenerative group (mean increase of 4.49 ± 1.98 in the rheumatic group, mean increase of 1.74 ± 1.52 in the degenerative group, p = 0.047). Despite successful sinus rhythm restoration, the progressive loss of LA function as well as LV diastolic function is more prominent in the rheumatic group than the degenerative group. Therefore, differentiated strategies for postoperative surveillance are needed according to the pathology of mitral valve disease.

  3. Anxiolytic effects of repeated treatment with an essential oil from Lippia alba and (R)-(-)-carvone in the elevated T-maze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, V.Y.; Torricelli, A.S.; Giassi, A.C.C.; Coslope, L.A.; Viana, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is widely used in different regions of Central and South America as a tranquilizer. The plant's anxiolytic properties, however, merit investigation. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated daily (14 days) intraperitoneal (ip) treatment with an essential oil (EO) from a chemotype of L. alba (LA, chemotype II, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg; N = 6-8) and (R)-(-)-carvone (25 mg/kg; N = 8-12), the main constituent of this chemotype, on male Wistar rats (weighing 250 g at the beginning of the experiments) submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM). The ETM allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape. In terms of psychopathology, these responses have been related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Treatment with the EO impaired ETM avoidance latencies, without altering escape, in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (P < 0.05) (avoidance 2: control = 84.6 ± 35.2; EO 12.5 mg/kg = 11.8 ± 3.8; EO 25 mg/kg = 14.6 ± 2.7; diazepam = 7 ± 2.1). (R)-(-)-carvone also significantly altered this same response (P < 0.05; avoidance 1: control = 91.9 ± 31.5; carvone = 11.6 ± 1.8; diazepam = 8.1 ± 3.3). These results were not due to motor changes since no significant effects were detected in an open field. These observations suggest that LA exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors that have been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder, and suggest that carvone is one of the constituents of LA responsible for its action as a tranquilizer. PMID:22358424

  4. Environmental enrichment decreases avoidance responses in the elevated T-maze and delta FosB immunoreactivity in anxiety-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Danielle A; Souza, Thaissa M O; de Andrade, José S; Silva, Mariana F S; Antunes, Hanna K M; Sueur-Maluf, Luciana Le; Céspedes, Isabel C; Viana, Milena B

    2018-02-12

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an animal management technique, which seems to improve adaptation to the experimental conditions of housing in laboratory animals. Previous studies have pointed to different beneficial effects of the procedure in the treatment of several disorders, including psychiatric conditions such as depression. The anxiolytic effects induced by EE, on the other hand, are not as clear. In fact, it has been proposed that EE acts as a mild stressor agent. To better understand the relationship of EE with anxiety-related responses, the present study exposed rats to one week of EE and subsequently tested these animals in the inhibitory avoidance and escape tasks of the elevated T-maze (ETM). In clinical terms, these responses have been respectively related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder. All animals were tested in an open field, immediately after the ETM, for locomotor activity assessment. Additionally, analysis of delta FosB protein immunoreactivity (FosB-ir) was used to map areas activated by EE exposure and plasma corticosterone measurements were performed. The results obtained demonstrate that exposure to EE for one week impaired avoidance responses, an anxiolytic-like effect, without altering escape reactions. Also, in animals submitted to the avoidance task EE exposure decreased FosB-ir in the cingulate cortex, dorsolateral and intermediate lateral septum, hippocampus (cornus of Ammon), anterior and dorsomedial hypothalamus, medial and basolateral amygdala and ventral region of the dorsal raphe nucleus. Although no behavioral differences were observed in animals submitted to the escape task, EE exposure also decreased FosB-ir in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus (dentate gyrus), lateral amygdala, paraventricular, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsomedial periaqueductal gray and ventral and dorsal region of the dorsal raphe. No changes in corticosterone levels, however, were observed. These results contribute to a better

  5. Effect of cannabidiol on sleep disruption induced by the repeated combination tests consisting of open field and elevated plus-maze in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi-Tse; Yi, Pei-Lu; Li, Chia-Ling; Chang, Fang-Chia

    2012-01-01

    Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently complain of having sleep disturbances, such as insomnia and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep abnormality. Cannabidiol (CBD), a psycho-inactive constituent of marijuana, reduces physiological non-REM (NREM) sleep and REM sleep in normal rats, in addition to generating its anxiolytic effect. However, the effects of CBD on anxiety-induced sleep disturbances remain unclear. Because anxiety progression is caused by persistent stress for a period of time, we employed the repeated combination tests (RCT) consisting of a 50-min open field (OF) and a subsequent 10-min elevated plus-maze (EPM) for four consecutive days to simulate the development of anxiety. Time spent in the centre arena of OF and during open arms of the EPM was substantially decreased in latter days of RCT, suggesting the habituation, which potentially lessens anxiety-mediated behavioural responses, was not observed in current tests. CBD microinjected into the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) significantly enhanced time spent in centre arena of OF, increased time during the open arms and decreased frequency of entry to the enclosed arms of EPM, further confirming its anxiolytic effect. The decrease of NREM sleep during the first hour and the suppression of REM sleep during hours 4-10 after the RCT represent the similar clinical observations (e.g. insomnia and REM sleep interruption) in PTSD patients. CBD efficiently blocked anxiety-induced REM sleep suppression, but had little effect on the alteration of NREM sleep. Conclusively, CBD may block anxiety-induced REM sleep alteration via its anxiolytic effect, rather than via sleep regulation per se. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. H1 but not H2 histamine antagonist receptors mediate anxiety-related behaviors and emotional memory deficit in mice subjected to elevated plus-maze testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Serafim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of H1 and H2 receptors in anxiety and the retrieval of emotional memory using a Trial 1/Trial 2 (T1/T2 protocol in an elevated plus-maze (EPM. Tests were performed on 2 consecutive days, designated T1 and T2. Before T1, the mice received intraperitoneal injections of saline (SAL, 20 mg/kg zolantidine (ZOL, an H2 receptor antagonist, or 8.0 or 16 mg/kg chlorpheniramine (CPA, an H1 receptor antagonist. After 40 min, they were subjected to the EPM test. In T2 (24 h later, each group was subdivided into two additional groups, and the animals from each group were re-injected with SAL or one of the drugs. In T1, the Student t-test showed no difference between the SAL and ZOL or 8 mg/kg CPA groups with respect to the percentages of open arm entries (%OAE and open arm time (%OAT. However, administration of CPA at the highest dose of 16 mg/kg decreased %OAE and %OAT, but not locomotor activity, indicating anxiogenic-like behavior. Emotional memory, as revealed by a reduction in open arm exploration between the two trials, was observed in all experimental groups, indicating that ZOL and 8 mg/kg CPA did not affect emotional memory, whereas CPA at the highest dose affected acquisition and consolidation, but not retrieval of memory. Taken together, these results suggest that H1 receptor, but not H2, is implicated in anxiety-like behavior and in emotional memory acquisition and consolidation deficits in mice subjected to EPM testing.

  7. Anxiolytic effects of repeated treatment with an essential oil from Lippia alba and (R)-(-)-carvone in the elevated T-maze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, V.Y.; Torricelli, A.S. [Departamento de Biociências, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, SP (Brazil); Giassi, A.C.C. [Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); Coslope, L.A. [Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina, Chapada Diamantina, BA (Brazil); Viana, M.B. [Departamento de Biociências, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Santos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-27

    Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is widely used in different regions of Central and South America as a tranquilizer. The plant's anxiolytic properties, however, merit investigation. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated daily (14 days) intraperitoneal (ip) treatment with an essential oil (EO) from a chemotype of L. alba (LA, chemotype II, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg; N = 6-8) and (R)-(-)-carvone (25 mg/kg; N = 8-12), the main constituent of this chemotype, on male Wistar rats (weighing 250 g at the beginning of the experiments) submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM). The ETM allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape. In terms of psychopathology, these responses have been related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Treatment with the EO impaired ETM avoidance latencies, without altering escape, in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (P < 0.05) (avoidance 2: control = 84.6 ± 35.2; EO 12.5 mg/kg = 11.8 ± 3.8; EO 25 mg/kg = 14.6 ± 2.7; diazepam = 7 ± 2.1). (R)-(-)-carvone also significantly altered this same response (P < 0.05; avoidance 1: control = 91.9 ± 31.5; carvone = 11.6 ± 1.8; diazepam = 8.1 ± 3.3). These results were not due to motor changes since no significant effects were detected in an open field. These observations suggest that LA exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors that have been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder, and suggest that carvone is one of the constituents of LA responsible for its action as a tranquilizer.

  8. Rats with differential self-grooming expression in the elevated plus-maze do not differ in anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Adriano Edgar; de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Chiavegatto, Silvana; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2015-10-01

    Individual differences are important biological predictors for reactivity to stressful stimulation. The extent to which trait differences underlie animal's reactions to conditioned and unconditioned fear stimuli, for example, is still to be clarified. Although grooming behavior has been associated with some aspects of the obsessive-compulsive disorder in humans, its relation with other anxiety disorders is still unknown. Given that grooming behavior could be a component of the whole spectrum of these disorders, in the present study we allocated male Wistar rats in low, intermediate and high self-grooming groups according to the duration of such behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). These groups were then evaluated in unconditioned fear tests, such as the EPM and the open-field, and in conditioned fear tests, such as fear-potentiated startle and fear extinction retention. Additionally, we studied the expression of unconditioned behaviors in marble burying test and the sensorimotor gate function with prepulse inhibition test. Neurochemicals and neuroendocrine parameters were also evaluated, with the quantification of basal corticosterone in the plasma, and dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in brain structures involved with fear processing. In general, rats classified according to grooming expression showed similar performance in all behavioral tests. Accordingly, corticosterone and monoamine concentrations were similar among groups. Thus, despite grooming expression elicited by different approaches--especially pharmacological ones--has been related with some aspects of anxiety disorders, rats with different expression of spontaneous self-grooming in the EPM do not differ in anxiety-like behaviors nor in neurochemical and neuroendocrine parameters generally associated with anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Training the Sales Neophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Clyde E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The article reappraises initial sales training and presents a program emphasizing objectives, responsibility for training, program content, and teaching techniques. Formal Initial Responsive Sales Training System (FIRSTS) is the name of the program explored and evaluated. (Author/MW)

  10. Dynamic training devices in CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, J.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot training effectiveness and flying safety of a seasonal tour flight company are described. The change from single pilot to two pilot operated twin otters is examined. The use of the ATC 810 training device, its possibilities and training capacity is outlined. Problem areas which may arise, emergency system and pilot/passenger interaction are analyzed.

  11. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Switzerland (please sp...

  12. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tuesday 30 March TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR From 9:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 16:00 hrs - Council Chamber, Salle B, Salle des Pas Perdus National Instruments (NI) on Tour 2004 Claudia Jüngel, Evrem Yarkin, Joel Clerc, Hervé Baour / NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The special event NI on Tour 2004, run in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, will be at CERN on March 30. Technical seminars and free introductory courses will be offered all day long in the Council Chamber, Salle B, and Salle des Pas Perdus (buildings 61 and 503). Technical conferences: 09:00 - 12:00 Data acquisition systems on PCs. Industrial measurement and control techniques. 13:00 - 16:00 Advanced LabVIEW software and PXI instrumentation. Measuring instruments and system components for teststand automation. Introductory courses: 09:00 - 12:00 DIAdem: Data analysis and presentation 13:00 - 16:00 Data acquisition with LabVIEW Language: English and French Free special seminar. Registration is recommended with National Instruments Swi...

  13. Privacy Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing that training and awareness are critical to protecting agency Personally Identifiable Information (PII), the EPA is developing online training for privacy contacts in its programs and regions.

  14. Psoriasis & Comorbidities: Unraveling the Maze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Dowlatshahi (Emmilia)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis we used a multifaceted approach to analyzing depression in psoriasis, by investigating Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), depressive symptoms, clinical depression and antidepressant use, using various data sources and statistical methods. These

  15. Running wheel training does not change neurogenesis levels or alter working memory tasks in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. Acevedo-Triana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Exercise can change cellular structure and connectivity (neurogenesis or synaptogenesis, causing alterations in both behavior and working memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male Wistar rats using a T-maze test. Methods An experimental design with two groups was developed: the experimental group (n = 12 was subject to a forced exercise program for five days, whereas the control group (n = 9 stayed in the home cage. Six to eight weeks after training, the rats’ working memory was evaluated in a T-maze test and four choice days were analyzed, taking into account alternation as a working memory indicator. Hippocampal neurogenesis was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry of BrdU positive cells. Results No differences between groups were found in the behavioral variables (alternation, preference index, time of response, time of trial or feeding, or in the levels of BrdU positive cells. Discussion Results suggest that although exercise may have effects on brain structure, a construct such as working memory may require more complex changes in networks or connections to demonstrate a change at behavioral level.

  16. Resistance exercise training increases lower limb speed of strength generation during stair ascent and descent in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsaker, J C; Brown, S J; Bowling, F L; Maganaris, C N; Boulton, A J M; Reeves, N D

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of a 16-week resistance exercise training intervention on the speed of ankle and knee strength generation during stair ascent and descent, in people with neuropathy. A total of 43 people: nine with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 13 with diabetes but no neuropathy and 21 healthy control subjects ascended and descended a custom-built staircase. The speed at which ankle and knee strength were generated, and muscle activation patterns of the ankle and knee extensor muscles were analysed before and after a 16-week intervention period. Ankle and knee strength generation during both stair ascent and descent were significantly higher after the intervention than before the intervention in the people with diabetes who undertook the resistance exercise intervention (P strength generation observed after the intervention would be expected to improve stability during the crucial weight acceptance phase of stair ascent and descent, and ultimately contribute towards reducing the risk of falling. Improvements in muscle strength as a result of the resistance exercise training intervention are likely to be the most influential factor for increasing the speed of strength generation. It is recommended that these exercises could be incorporated into a multi-faceted exercise programme to improve safety in people with diabetes and neuropathy. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  17. Training of maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture precises the method and means developed by EDF to ensure the training of maintenance personnel according to their initial educational background and their experience. The following points are treated: General organization of the training for maintenance personnel in PWR and GCR nuclear power stations and in Creys Malville fast breeder reactor; Basic nuclear training and pedagogical aids developed for this purpose; Specific training and training provided by contractors; complementary training taking into account the operation experience and feedback; Improvement of velocity, competence and safety during shut-down operations by adapted training. (orig.)

  18. L-histidine provokes a state-dependent memory retrieval deficit in mice re-exposed to the elevated plus-maze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Serafim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of L-histidine (LH on anxiety and memory retrieval were investigated in adult male Swiss Albino mice (weight 30-35 g using the elevated plus-maze. The test was performed on two consecutive days: trial 1 (T1 and trial 2 (T2. In T1, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of saline (SAL or LH before the test and were then injected again and retested 24 h later. LH had no effect on anxiety at the dose of 200 mg/kg since there was no difference between the SAL-SAL and LH-LH groups at T1 regarding open-arm entries (OAE and open-arm time (OAT (mean ± SEM; OAE: 4.0 ± 0.71, 4.80 ± 1.05; OAT: 40.55 ± 9.90, 51.55 ± 12.10, respectively; P > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis test, or at the dose of 500 mg/kg (OAE: 5.27 ± 0.73, 4.87 ± 0.66; OAT: 63.93 ± 11.72, 63.58 ± 10.22; P > 0.05, Fisher LSD test. At T2, LH-LH animals did not reduce open-arm activity (OAE and OAT at the dose of 200 mg/kg (T1: 4.87 ± 0.66, T2: 5.47 ± 1.05; T1: 63.58 ± 10.22; T2: 49.01 ± 8.43 for OAE and OAT, respectively; P > 0.05, Wilcoxon test or at the dose of 500 mg/kg (T1: 4.80 ± 1.60, T2: 4.70 ± 1.04; T1: 51.55 ± 12.10, T2: 43.88 ± 10.64 for OAE and OAT, respectively; P > 0.05, Fisher LSD test, showing an inability to evoke memory 24 h later. These data suggest that LH does not act on anxiety but does induce a state-dependent memory retrieval deficit in mice.

  19. Enrichment and training improve cognition in rats with cortical malformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R Jenks

    Full Text Available Children with malformations of cortical development (MCD frequently have associated cognitive impairments which reduce quality of life. We hypothesized that cognitive deficits associated with MCD can be improved with environmental manipulation or additional training. The E17 methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM exposure model bears many anatomical hallmarks seen in human MCDs as well as similar behavioral and cognitive deficits. We divided control and MAM exposed Sprague-Dawley rats into enriched and non-enriched groups and tested performance in the Morris water maze. Another group similarly divided underwent sociability testing and also underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI scans pre and post enrichment. A third group of control and MAM rats without enrichment were trained until they reached criterion on the place avoidance task. MAM rats had impaired performance on spatial tasks and enrichment improved performance of both control and MAM animals. Although MAM rats did not have a deficit in sociability they showed similar improvement with enrichment as controls. MRI revealed a whole brain volume decrease with MAM exposure, and an increase in both MAM and control enriched volumes in comparison to non-enriched animals. In the place avoidance task, MAM rats required approximately 3 times as long to reach criterion as control animals, but with additional training were able to reach control performance. Environmental manipulation and additional training can improve cognition in a rodent MCD model. We therefore suggest that patients with MCD may benefit from appropriate alterations in educational strategies, social interaction and environment. These factors should be considered in therapeutic strategies.

  20. Training adaptive teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C; Cooke, Nancy J; Amazeen, Polemnia G

    2010-04-01

    We report an experiment in which three training approaches are compared with the goal of training adaptive teams. Cross-training is an established method in which team members are trained with the goal of building shared knowledge. Perturbation training is a new method in which team interactions are constrained to provide new coordination experiences during task acquisition. These two approaches, and a more traditional procedural approach, are compared. Assigned to three training conditions were 26 teams. Teams flew nine simulated uninhabited air vehicle missions; three were critical tests of the team's ability to adapt to novel situations. Team performance, response time to novel events, and shared knowledge were measured. Perturbation-trained teams significantly outperformed teams in the other conditions in two out of three critical test missions. Cross-training resulted in significant increases in shared teamwork knowledge and highest mean performance in one critical test. Procedural training led to the least adaptive teams. Perturbation training allows teams to match coordination variability during training to demands for coordination variability during posttraining performance. Although cross-training has adaptive benefits, it is suggested that process-oriented approaches, such as perturbation training, can lead to more adaptive teams. Perturbation training is amenable to simulation-based training, where perturbations provide interaction experiences that teams can transfer to novel, real-world situations.

  1. Operator training and the training simulator experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.

    The author outlines the approach used by Ontario Hydro to train operators from the day they are hired as Operators-in-Training until they are Authorized Unit First Operators. He describes in detail the use of the simulator in the final year of the authorization program, drawing on experience with the Pickering NGS A simulator. Simulators, he concludes, are important aids to training but by no means all that is required to guarantee capable First Operators

  2. Training effectiveness evaluation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    NAESCO's Training Effectiveness Evaluation Model (TEEM) integrates existing evaluation procedures with new procedures. The new procedures are designed to measure training impact on organizational productivity. TEEM seeks to enhance organizational productivity through proactive training focused on operation results. These results can be identified and measured by establishing and tracking performance indicators. Relating training to organizational productivity is not easy. TEEM is a team process. It offers strategies to assess more effectively organizational costs and benefits of training. TEEM is one organization's attempt to refine, manage and extend its training evaluation program

  3. Tree Awareness for Relational DBMS Kernels: Staircase Join

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grust, Torsten; van Keulen, Maurice; Blanken, Henk; Grabs, T.; Schek, H-J.; Schenkel, R.; Weikum, G.

    2003-01-01

    Relational database management systems (RDBMSs) derive much of their efficiency from the versatility of their core data structure: tables of tuples. Such tables are simple enough to allow for an efficient representation on all levels of the memory hierarchy, yet sufficiently generic to host a wide

  4. Climatically controlled river terrace staircases : a worldwide quaternary phenomenon.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgland, D. R.; Westaway, R.

    2007-01-01

    A comparison of fluvial terrace sequences from around the world, based on data collected as part of International Geoscience Programme (IGCP) Project No. 449, has revealed significant patterns. River terraces provide important records of uplift, which is essential for their formation, and of landscape evolution. Their cyclic formation, however, almost invariably seems to have been a response to climatic fluctuation. Sequences in the European core area of IGCP 449, which has the longest and...

  5. Artificial electromagnetism for neutral atoms: Escher staircase and Laughlin liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Erich J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for creating fields that couple to neutral atoms in the same way that electromagnetic fields couple to charged particles. We show that this technique opens the door for a range of neutral atom experiments, including probing the interplay between periodic potentials and quantum Hall effects. Furthermore, we propose, and analyze, seemingly paradoxical geometries which can be engineered through these techniques. For example, we show how to create a ring of sites where an atom continuously reduces its potential energy by moving in a clockwise direction

  6. The Dangerous Staircase: Exploring Sexuality between Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Malach, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The link between pedagogy and sexuality is an educational twilight zone both dangerous and full of possibilities. Being such a controversial and sensitive issue, teachers should have a safe space to discuss it. I suggest that fiction manages to capture the evasive nature of the subject. To illustrate this point, I analyze the novel "Up the…

  7. The Spiral Staircase: A Narrative Approach to Pastoral Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    The following is a patient-centered pastoral conversation paradigm to be used by chaplains, pastors, or any other spiritual care provider, in engaging in healing conversation with patients, clients, or parishioners. It is based on the intimate, interpathic incarnation of oneself into another's story. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Finite Element Analysis of a Free-Standing Staircase | Ajagbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing approximate analytical methods of analyzing free-standing stairs fail to predict the distribution of any stress resultant and the actual three dimensional behavior of the stair slab system. A more rationale but simple and accurate method of analysis based on finite element method is presented. Plate flexural ...

  9. Structure and Evolution of Thermohaline Staircases in Tropical North Atlantic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wall, Steven

    2007-01-01

    .... Salt finger convection is generally observed in mid-latitude regions, particularly in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, between the hase of the mixed layer and the top of the intermediate water...

  10. Training warning flags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    Problems in accredited training programmes at US nuclear stations have resulted in several programmes having their accreditation status designated as probationary. A limited probationary period allows time for problem resolution before the programmes are again reviewed by the National Nuclear Accrediting Board. A careful study of these problems has resulted in the identification of several 'Training Warning Flags' that singularly, or in concert, may indicate or predict degraded training programme effectiveness. These training warning flags have been used by several US nuclear stations as a framework for self-assessments, as a reference in making changes to training programmes, and as a tool in considering student and management feedback on training activities. Further analysis and consideration of the training warning flags has developed precursors for each of the training warning flags. Although more subjective than the training warning flags, the precursors may represent early indicators of factors that may lead to or contribute to degraded training programme effectiveness. Used as evaluative tools, the training warning flags and the precursors may help identify areas for improvements in training programmes and help prioritize training programme improvement efforts. (author)

  11. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  12. Technical training - places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  13. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Marie Lahchimi, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  14. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or have any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tel: 74924)

  15. Technical training: places available

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    If you would like more information on a course, or for any other inquiry/suggestions, please contact Technical.Training@cern.ch. Eva Stern and Elise Romero, Technical Training Administration (Tél : 74924)  

  16. Training and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, E.; Oria, M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with problems of training and education in a developing country which decided to launch a nuclear propramme. The aims of training and education under such circumstances are described and tecniques for accomplishing these aims are suggested [fr

  17. Moldova - Value Chain Training

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the GHS value chain training subactivity wwas designed to measure the extent, if any, to which the training activities improved the productivity...

  18. Nuclear instrument technician training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollesen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Nuclear Instrument Technician (NIT) training that has developed at an accelerated rate over the past three decades. During the 1960's commercial nuclear power plants were in their infancy. For that reason, there is little wonder that NIT training had little structure and little creditability. NIT training, in many early plants, was little more than On-The Job Training (OJT). The seventies brought changes in Instrumentation and Controls as well as emphasis on the requirements for more in depth training and documentation. As in the seventies, the eighties saw not only changes in technologies but tighter requirements, standardized training and the development of accredited Nuclear Instrument Training; thus the conclusion: Nuclear Instrument Training Isn't What It Used To Be

  19. Toilet Training Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndrome (IBS) Home Family Health Infants and Toddlers Toilet Training Your Child Toilet Training Your Child Share Print Children go through ... and for you—is learning to use the toilet. Parents often have many questions about when and ...

  20. Mechanics of train collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-30

    A simple and a more detailed mathematical model for the simulation of train collisions are presented. The study presents considerable insight as to the causes and consequences of train motions on impact. Comparison of model predictions with two full ...

  1. [Application of the method of one-day learning in a Morris water maze to analyse the effects of sleep deprivation on memory trace recall 24 hours later, after learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, V B; Kozhedub, R G; Arsenyev, G N; Bukhgolts, O I; Marchenko, V G; Puchkova, A N

    2014-01-01

    The proposed model of a one-day spatial learning is of interest in research of how sleep influences the hippocamp-dependent memory consolidation. We have studied the influence of a one-day total sleep deprivation on spatial memory consolidation in hooded rats after a one-day learning in the Morris water maze according to Feldman et al. [2010] protocol. According to it rats had to find a submerged platform that was alternatively marked by a flag or completely invisible to an animal. In a previous study [Dorokhov et al., 2011] we have used another one-day learning protocol [Frick et al., 2000] and Wistar rats and have demonstrated a large interindividual variance in learning parameters and sleep deprivation effects on memory consolidation. In this study we confirm previously acquired results on negative impact of sleep deprivation on spatial memory consolidation. To demonstrate the effects of sleep deprivation on the results of one-day learning we are using for the first time an evaluation of the time spent by an animal in the area of the platform placement and corresponding areas in the other quadrants of the water maze.

  2. Human factors in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.W.; Brown, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Human Factors concept is a focused effort directed at those activities which require human involvement. Training is, by its nature, an activity totally dependent on the Human Factor. This paper identifies several concerns significant to training situations and discusses how Human Factor awareness can increase the quality of learning. Psychology in the training arena is applied Human Factors. Training is a method of communication represented by sender, medium, and receiver. Two-thirds of this communications model involves the human element directly

  3. Evaluating Corporate Sales Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Jon M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Sales training programs require continual evaluation. The authors present a conceptual model of the interrelationships of planning, training, evaluation, and modification (IPTEM) in corporate sales training programs. (CT)

  4. Online Training in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzic, Joze

    2013-01-01

    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  5. Functional Training Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siff, Mel C.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that though functional training is vital in all sporting preparation, it is only one aspect of the overall process. The paper defines functional training; discusses facets of functionality, functionality and balancing drills, and functional training and periodization; and concludes that functionality is best defined in terms of the outcome…

  6. Strength Training for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  7. Paradental Training Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This report describes institutional, faculty, and student activities and problems resulting from Lane Community College's acceptance of a federal contract to develop a paradental training program designed specifically to provide training/retraining required to quality military-trained dental corpsmen for examination by the Oregon State Board of…

  8. Abramovo Counterterrorism Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Christopher M.; Ross, Larry; Kaldenbach, Karen Yvonne; Estigneev, Yuri; Murievav, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. government has been assisting the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) for many years with nuclear weapons transportation security (NWTS) through the provision of specialized guard escort railcars and cargo railcars with integrated physical security and communication systems, armored transport vehicles, and armored escort vehicles. As a natural continuation of the NWTS program, a partnership has been formed to construct a training center that will provide counterterrorism training to personnel in all branches of the RF MOD. The Abramovo Counterterrorism Training Center (ACTC) is a multinational, multiagency project with funding from Canada, RF and the U.S. Departments of Defense and Energy. ACTC will be a facility where MOD personnel can conduct basic through advanced training in various security measures to protect Category IA material against the threat of terrorist attack. The training will enhance defense-in-depth principles by integrating MOD guard force personnel into the overall physical protection systems and improving their overall response time and neutralization capabilities. The ACTC project includes infrastructure improvements, renovation of existing buildings, construction of new buildings, construction of new training facilities, and provision of training and other equipment. Classroom training will be conducted in a renovated training building. Basic and intermediate training will be conducted on three different security training areas where various obstacles and static training devices will be constructed. The central element of ACTC, where advanced training will be held, is the 'autodrome,' a 3 km road along which various terrorist events can be staged to challenge MOD personnel in realistic and dynamic nuclear weapons transportation scenarios. This paper will address the ACTC project elements and the vision for training development and integrating this training into actual nuclear weapons transportation operations.

  9. Radiological worker training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  10. Training techniques for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of commonly used training techniques in relation to cost-effective, prevention-oriented Quality Assurance are examined. Important questions are whether training techniques teach cost effectiveness and whether the techniques are, themselves, cost effective. To answer these questions, criteria for evaluating teaching techniques for cost effectiveness were developd, and then commonly used techniques are evaluated in terms of specific training program objectives. Motivation of personnel is also considered important to the success of a training program, and methods are outlined by which recognition of the academic quality of industrial training can be used as a motivational technique

  11. Workmanship Training Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ashley; Sikes, Larry; Corbin, Cheryl; Rucka, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Special processes require special skills, knowledge and experienced application. For over 15 years, the NASA Johnson Space Center's Receiving, Inspection and Test Facility (RITF) has provided Workmanship Standards compliance training, issuing more than 500 to 800 training completion certificates annually. It is critical that technicians and inspectors are trained and that they maintain their proficiency to implement the applicable standards and specifications. Training services include 'hands-on' training to engineers, technicians, and inspectors in the areas of electrostatic discharge (ESD), soldering, fiber optics, lithium battery handling, torque and wire safety, and wire wrapping.

  12. Prosthetic training: upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shawn Swanson; Mansfield, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Ideally, a collaborative team approach is already in place between the certified prosthetist (CP) and the occupational therapist (OT) before patients are casted for a prosthesis. Once an individual has completed their preprosthetic rehabilitation program and received an operational prosthesis from a CP, it is imperative that an OT provides prosthetic training. Prosthetic training is necessary so that the individual can learn how to use and incorporate the prosthesis into their daily life. Prosthetic training consists of 3 main phases: controls training, repetitive drills, and bimanual functional skill training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiological worker training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance

  14. Academic Training: Academic Training Lectures-Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 academic.training@cern.ch SUGGEST AND WIN! Its time to plan the 2004-2005 lecture series. From today until March 19 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lecture Series. At the web site: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.

  15. Making training decisions proactively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The challenge of making training decisions with a high degree of confidence as to the results of those decisions face every DOD, Federal, State, and City agency. Training has historically been a very labor and paper intensive system with limited automation support. This paper outlines how one DOD component, the Air Force, is approaching that challenge. The Training Decision System (TDS) will provide the Air Force with an automated decision aid to help plan and estimate the consequences of various mixes of resident training, On-The-Job Training (OJT), and field training within a specialty such as security. The system described provides training from enlistment to separation and responds to hundreds of related security task needs. This system identifies what the tasks are, who should provide the training, what training setting should be used, what proficiency should be achieved, and through computer modeling provides an assessment of training effectiveness options and estimate the impact of implementing those options. With current budgetary constraints and with the possibility of further reductions in the future, the most cost effective training mix must be found to sustain required capabilities

  16. Training assessments and assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager has established an independent Training Assessment Program, the intent of which is to evaluate, exclusively, transportation and packaging training activities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) community. The results generated from an application of the Training Assessment Program are intended to be utilized as a management tool for maintaining compliance with applicable regulatory-driven training requirements. In addition, the Transportation Assessment Program can be employed to evaluate training methodologies and, through a pre-arranged, cooperative, technical assistance effort, provide each Department of Energy (DOE) site with the means necessary to enhance it's overall transportation and packaging training capabilities

  17. Computer training aids for nuclear operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.G.P.; Binns, J.B.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Royal Navy's Nuclear Propulsion School at HMS SULTAN which is responsible for training all ratings and officers who operate Submarine Pressurised Water Reactor plants, has available a varied selection of classroom simulator training aids as well as purpose built Submarine Manoeuvring Room simulators. The use of these classroom training aids in the twelve months prior to Autumn 1981 is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of using relatively expensive computer based aids to support classroom instruction for students who do not investigate mathematically the dynamics of the Reactor Plant are identified. The conclusions drawn indicate that for students of limited academic ability the classroom simulators are disproportionately expensive in cost, maintenance load, and instructional time. Secondly, the experience gained in the use of the Manoeuvring Room Simulators to train future operators who have just finished the academic phase of their training is outlined. The possible pitfalls for the instructor are discussed and the lessons learnt, concluding that these simulators provide a valuable substitute for the live plant enabling trainees to be brought up to a common standard and reducing their on job training time to an acceptable level. (author)

  18. Portable Virtual Training Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Reagan; Johnston, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Mission Operations Lab initiated a project to design, develop, deliver, test, and validate a unique training system for astronaut and ground support personnel. In an effort to keep training costs low, virtual training units (VTUs) have been designed based on images of actual hardware and manipulated by a touch screen style interface for ground support personnel training. This project helped modernized the training system and materials by integrating them with mobile devices for training when operators or crew are unavailable to physically train in the facility. This project also tested the concept of a handheld remote device to control integrated trainers using International Space Station (ISS) training simulators as a platform. The portable VTU can interface with the full-sized VTU, allowing a trainer co-located with a trainee to remotely manipulate a VTU and evaluate a trainee's response. This project helped determine if it is useful, cost effective, and beneficial for the instructor to have a portable handheld device to control the behavior of the models during training. This project has advanced NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) VTU capabilities with modern and relevant technology to support space flight training needs of today and tomorrow.

  19. Team skills training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, R.P.; Carl, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous reports and articles have been written recently on the importance of team skills training for nuclear reactor operators, but little has appeared on the practical application of this theoretical guidance. This paper describes the activities of the Training and Education Department at GPU Nuclear (GPUN). In 1987, GPUN undertook a significant initiative in its licensed operator training programs to design and develop initial and requalification team skills training. Prior to that time, human interaction skills training (communication, stress management, supervisory skills, etc.) focused more on the individual rather than a group. Today, GPU Nuclear conducts team training at both its Three Mile Island (YMI), PA and Oyster Creek (OC), NJ generating stations. Videotaped feedback is sued extensively to critique and reinforce targeted behaviors. In fact, the TMI simulator trainer has a built-in, four camera system specifically designed for team training. Evaluations conducted on this training indicated these newly acquired skills are being carried over to the work environment. Team training is now an important and on-going part of GPUN operator training

  20. Classical altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann-Bette, B

    2008-08-01

    For more than 40 years, the effects of classical altitude training on sea-level performance have been the subject of many scientific investigations in individual endurance sports. To our knowledge, no studies have been performed in team sports like football. Two well-controlled studies showed that living and training at an altitude of >or=1800-2700 m for 3-4 weeks is superior to equivalent training at sea level in well-trained athletes. Most of the controlled studies with elite athletes did not reveal such an effect. However, the results of some uncontrolled studies indicate that sea-level performance might be enhanced after altitude training also in elite athletes. Whether hypoxia provides an additional stimulus for muscular adaptation, when training is performed with equal intensity compared with sea-level training is not known. There is some evidence for an augmentation of total hemoglobin mass after classical altitude training with duration >or=3 weeks at an altitude >or=2000 m due to altitude acclimatization. Considerable individual variation is observed in the erythropoietic response to hypoxia and in the hypoxia-induced reduction of aerobic performance capacity during training at altitude, both of which are thought to contribute to inter-individual variation in the improvement of sea-level performance after altitude training.

  1. Language Training: Anglais

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 2 hours a week between 26 April and 1 July 2004. Timetable: Thursdays 12.00 to 14.00 Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students and 20 hours) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  2. Safety training news

    CERN Document Server

    Safety Training, HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

      SELF-RESCUE MASK The "Self-Rescue Mask" face-to-face training course has been replaced by a revised version. This measure concerns both the initial and the refresher course. For personnel who have successfully attended the initial or refresher Self-Rescue Mask training within the last three years, their Self-Rescue Mask training will still be valid.  The course description and registration form can be found in the training catalogue on the Safety Training Service’s website or catalogue. The Self-Rescue Mask training course is a mandatory prerequisite for following the new "Portable ODH Detector" e-learning course.   PORTABLE ODH DETECTOR A new e-learning awareness course, "Portable ODH Detector", is available via the SIR application on CERN’s intranet. Personnel requiring a portable ODH detector of the DRÄGER x-am 5000 type to allowed access th...

  3. Training Recurrent Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With

    1997-01-01

    Training recurrent networks is generally believed to be a difficult task. Excessive training times and lack of convergence to an acceptable solution are frequently reported. In this paper we seek to explain the reason for this from a numerical point of view and show how to avoid problems when tra...... training. In particular we investigate ill-conditioning, the need for and effect of regularization and illustrate the superiority of second-order methods for training......Training recurrent networks is generally believed to be a difficult task. Excessive training times and lack of convergence to an acceptable solution are frequently reported. In this paper we seek to explain the reason for this from a numerical point of view and show how to avoid problems when...

  4. Memory enhancement produced by post-training exposure to sucrose-conditioned cues [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/ur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Holahan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of aversive and appetitive unconditioned stimuli (such as shock and food are known to produce memory enhancement when they occur during the post-training period. Post-training exposure to conditioned aversive stimuli has also been shown to enhance memory consolidation processes. The present study shows for the first time that post-training exposure to conditioned stimuli previously paired with consumption of a sucrose solution also enhances memory consolidation. Male Long Evans rats were trained on a one-session conditioned cue preference (CCP task on a radial arm maze. Immediately or 2 hours after training, rats consumed a sucrose solution or were exposed to cues previously paired with consumption of sucrose or cues previously paired with water. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were tested for a CCP. Immediate, but not delayed, post-training consumption of sucrose enhanced memory for the CCP. Immediate, but not delayed, post-training exposure to cues previously paired with sucrose, but not with water, also enhanced CCP memory. The possibility that rewarding and aversive conditioned stimuli affect memory by a common physiological process is discussed.

  5. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  6. Achieving excellence in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, A.M.; Solymossy, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Operating a nuclear power plant is a uniquely challenging activity, requiring a high degree of competence from all who are involved. Achieving and maintaining this competence requires excellence in training. But what does excellence mean, and how do we achieve it. Based on the experience gained by INPO in plant training evaluations and accreditation activities, this paper describes some of the actions that can be taken to achieve the quality appropriate for nuclear power plant training. These actions are discussed in relation to the four phases of a performance-based training system: (1) needs analysis, (2) program design and development, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation and improvement

  7. Nuclear Manpower Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. W.; Lee, H. Y.; Lee, E. J. and others

    2004-12-01

    Through the project on nuclear human resources development in 2004, the Nuclear Training Center of KAERI has provided various nuclear education and training courses for 1,962 persons from the domestic nuclear related organizations such as Government Agencies, nuclear industries, R and D institutes, universities, and public as well as from IAEA Member States. The NTC has developed education programs for master/doctorial course on advanced nuclear engineering in cooperation with the University of Science and Technology which was established in 2003. Additionally, nuclear education programs such as nuclear technical training courses for the promotion of cooperation with member countries, have developed during the project period. The center has also developed and conducted 7 training courses on nuclear related technology. In parallel, the center has produced 20 training materials including textbooks, 3 multi-media education materials, and 56 Video On Demand (VOD) cyber training materials. In order to promote international cooperation for human resources development, the NTC has implemented a sub-project on the establishment of a web-portal including database for the exchange of information and materials within the framework of ANENT. Also, the center has cooperated with FNCA member countries to establish a model of human resources development, as well as with member countries on bilateral cooperation bases to develop training programs. The International Nuclear Training and Education Center (INTEC), which was opened in 2002, has hosted 318 international and domestic events (training courses, conferences, workshops, etc.) during the project period

  8. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  9. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  10. Components of Effective Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lussier, James W; Shadrick, Scott B

    2006-01-01

    .... The two types of activity are markedly different in structure, pace, amount and type of coaching required, composition of the training audience, focus of conscious attention, appropriate performance...

  11. Virtual Environments for Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stiles, R

    1998-01-01

    .... Progress on productization of the VET Training Studio software includes increased robustness for Vista virtual environment display and interaction services, a new capability to use the STEVE visual...

  12. Lithuania training needs analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The present assessment of training needs in the Lithuanian natural gas sector is one of a total of four programmes on which Danish Oil and Natural Gas (DONG) and Lithuanian Gas (LG) cooperate. DONG's contribution is financed by the Danish Foreign Ministry. Long-term Objective is enhancement of the natural gas sector in Lithuania for efficient, cost-effective and environmentally responsible energy supply and utilization, in accordance with international standards. Immediate Objective is to establish a basis of competence in the Lithuanian Gas Sector, manage the modernization process effectively, and develop the involved human resources to the required performance level. The strategy for training in the Lithuanian natural gas sector proposed by this report integrates recommendations under three main headings: Six programmes of training and development. Strengthening of the institutional framework and the system for training. Upgrading of training capacity. The six programmes comprise: Legislation and Educational Planning. Management Development. Economy. Marketing and Sales. Supervisory Skills Development. Training Skills Development. Management and Specialists' Workshops on Technology. Following organisation for implementation of recommendations is proposed: Steering Board. Advisory Board. Coordination Group. Project Management Group. Group of Lithuanian Specialists. Group of Advisers. Short-term Consultants/Teachers. Lithuanian Consultants/Teachers. The project is envisaged to be implemented in carefully timed phases allowing for coordination between management workshops, training programmes and revision work regarding the institutional framework for training and the training system. (EG)

  13. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases the cognitive enhancing effects of working memory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew M; Spiegler, Kevin M; Sauce, Bruno; Wass, Christopher D; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Matzel, Louis D

    2013-11-01

    Increases in performance on tests of attention and learning are often observed shortly after a period of aerobic exercise, and evidence suggests that humans who engage in regular exercise are partially protected from age-related cognitive decline. However, the cognitive benefits of exercise are typically short-lived, limiting the practical application of these observations. Here, we explored whether physical exercise might induce lasting changes in general cognitive ability if that exercise was combined with working memory training, which is purported to broadly impact cognitive performance. Mice received either exercise treatment (6 weeks of voluntary running wheel access), working memory training (in a dual radial-arm maze), both treatments, or various control treatments. After this period of exercise, working memory training was initiated (alternating with days of exercise), and continued for several weeks. Upon completion of these treatments, animals were assessed (2-4 weeks later) for performance on four diverse learning tasks, and the aggregate performance of individual animals across all four learning tasks was estimated. Working memory training alone promoted small increases in general cognitive performance, although any beneficial effects of exercise alone had dissipated by the time of learning assessments. However, the two treatments in combination more than doubled the improvement in general cognitive performance supported by working memory training alone. Unlike the transient effects that acute aerobic exercise can have on isolated learning tasks, these results indicate that an acute period of exercise combined with working memory training can have synergistic and lasting impact on general cognitive performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Training rats to voluntarily dive underwater: investigations of the mammalian diving response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Paul F

    2014-11-12

    Underwater submergence produces autonomic changes that are observed in virtually all diving animals. This reflexly-induced response consists of apnea, a parasympathetically-induced bradycardia and a sympathetically-induced alteration of vascular resistance that maintains blood flow to the heart, brain and exercising muscles. While many of the metabolic and cardiorespiratory aspects of the diving response have been studied in marine animals, investigations of the central integrative aspects of this brainstem reflex have been relatively lacking. Because the physiology and neuroanatomy of the rat are well characterized, the rat can be used to help ascertain the central pathways of the mammalian diving response. Detailed instructions are provided on how to train rats to swim and voluntarily dive underwater through a 5 m long Plexiglas maze. Considerations regarding tank design and procedure room requirements are also given. The behavioral training is conducted in such a way as to reduce the stressfulness that could otherwise be associated with forced underwater submergence, thus minimizing activation of central stress pathways. The training procedures are not technically difficult, but they can be time-consuming. Since behavioral training of animals can only provide a model to be used with other experimental techniques, examples of how voluntarily diving rats have been used in conjunction with other physiological and neuroanatomical research techniques, and how the basic training procedures may need to be modified to accommodate these techniques, are also provided. These experiments show that voluntarily diving rats exhibit the same cardiorespiratory changes typically seen in other diving animals. The ease with which rats can be trained to voluntarily dive underwater, and the already available data from rats collected in other neurophysiological studies, makes voluntarily diving rats a good behavioral model to be used in studies investigating the central aspects of the

  15. Anxiogenic drug administration and elevated plus-maze exposure in rats activate populations of relaxin-3 neurons in the nucleus incertus and serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawther, A J; Clissold, M L; Ma, S; Kent, S; Lowry, C A; Gundlach, A L; Hale, M W

    2015-09-10

    Anxiety is a complex and adaptive emotional state controlled by a distributed and interconnected network of brain regions, and disruption of these networks is thought to give rise to the behavioral symptoms associated with anxiety disorders in humans. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), which contains the majority of forebrain-projecting serotonergic neurons, is implicated in the control of anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior via neuromodulatory effects on these networks. Relaxin-3 is the native neuropeptide ligand for the Gi/o-protein-coupled receptor, RXFP3, and is primarily expressed in the nucleus incertus (NI), a tegmental region immediately caudal to the DR. RXFP3 activation has been shown to modulate anxiety-related behavior in rodents, and RXFP3 mRNA is expressed in the DR. In this study, we examined the response of relaxin-3-containing neurons in the NI and serotonergic neurons in the DR following pharmacologically induced anxiety and exposure to an aversive environment. We administered the anxiogenic drug FG-7142 or vehicle to adult male Wistar rats and, 30 min later, exposed them to either the elevated plus-maze or home cage control conditions. Immunohistochemical detection of c-Fos was used to determine activation of serotonergic neurons in the DR and relaxin-3 neurons in the NI, measured 2h following drug injection. Analysis revealed that FG-7142 administration and exposure to the elevated plus-maze are both associated with an increase in c-Fos expression in relaxin-3-containing neurons in the NI and in serotonergic neurons in dorsal and ventrolateral regions of the DR. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that relaxin-3 systems in the NI and serotonin systems in the DR interact to form part of a network involved in the control of anxiety-related behavior. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro and ex-vivo cellular antioxidant protection and cognitive enhancing effects of an extract of Polygonum minus Huds (Lineminus™) demonstrated in a Barnes Maze animal model for memory and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Polygonum minus Huds.is a culinary flavouring that is common in South East Asian cuisine and as a remedy for diverse maladies ranging from indigestion to poor eyesight. The leaves of this herb have been reported to be high in antioxidants. Flavonoids which have been associated with memory, cognition and protection against neurodegeneration were found in P. minus. Method This study examined a P. minus aqueous extract (Lineminus™) for its antioxidant activity using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay, the ex vivo Cellular Antioxidant Protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assays and for potential anticholinesterase activity in vitro. Cognitive function and learning of Lineminus™ was evaluated using scopolamine induced cognition deficits in a Barnes maze, rodent model of cognition. Results The extract displayed in vitro antioxidant activity with a total ORAC value of 16,964 μmole TE/gram. Cellular antioxidant protection from free radical damage using the CAP-e assay, with an IC50 of 0.58 g/L for inhibition of cellular oxidative damage, was observed. The extract inhibited cholinesterase activity with an IC50 of 0.04 mg/ml with a maximum inhibition of 68%. In a rodent model of cognition using scopolamine induced cognition deficits in the Barnes maze, the extract attenuated scopolamine induced disruptions in learning at the higher dose of 100 mg/kg. Conclusion These data shows that P. minus possesses antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity and demonstrated enhanced cognition in vivo. The data suggest neuroprotective properties of the extract. PMID:24886679

  17. Altitude and endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (altitude training period (training effect at altitude may have been compromised due to insufficient training stimuli for enhancing the function of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems; and (3) enhanced stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  18. Outsourcing of Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAMIN, J.E.

    1999-06-17

    Several lessons are covered that has been learned at Fluor Daniel Hanford during their outsourcing effort. We have overcome problems because of our joint commitment to success. We continue to work our way through issues as they arise. On the positive side, several good things have happened as a result of outsourcing. Our training provider (EXITECH) has proven to be very responsive to our many different customers. We have been able to establish and support a 6-month training schedule for the first time. This has allowed the different facilities who send workers to training with more flexibility in planning their workers' time away from their jobs. In addition to the master training schedule, each facility on the Hanford Site has its own special or emergent training needs, and EXITECH has been very responsive in meeting these individual facilities' needs. Student and supervisor feedback on the quality and effectiveness of environmental, safety and health training provided by EXITECH has been very positive. Worker and supervisor feedback indicates the ''hands-on'' training serves their needs, and focuses on what they need to know to be able to perform work safely and efficiently. EXITECH strives very hard at presenting training so students can become successful in their training efforts. The workforce has noticed EXITECH's training philosophy is based on shared success with the trainee, not failure. Along the way, FDH has saved money as a result of this outsourcing. During our first year of the contract, we estimated a $400,000 savings. The decision as to outsource training is likely the most important you will make for your organization. In our situation, it fit the business goals we had established in our bid for the Hanford contract. However, if we were to begin again, we would factor some of the valuable lessons learned experienced during the first 16 months of our current outsourcing.

  19. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns

  20. Intercultural Training: Six Measures Assessing Training Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Andrea; Mertesacker, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop recommendations for measures assessing intercultural training needs for international human resource management. Based on scientific as well as application-oriented criteria the aim is to select six measures assessing general intercultural competencies and with the help of behaviour ratings in…

  1. Army Training Study: Battalion Training Model Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-08

    LIVR ARTEPSACTI CMDR CAMOUFLAGECOEAN JUDGEMENT CONCEAL MAT CNELMOVE -. omw ,.r o TEMP PITS- , - - - ~E ~%- STANDAR4DS ROUNDS INF’HIEO[ *,.F,.CB POWER...A distillation of the requirements of that methodology are outlined below: a. Training requirements. Precise requirements in the form of battle

  2. All aboard the Safety Train(ing)!

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2015-01-01

    Would you like to influence CERN’s safety courses? Do you want to help build better training courses? If your answer is yes to one or both of these questions: now is the time! The Safety Training section is looking for volunteers from the whole CERN community to test new courses before they go online for all members of the personnel.    The Safety Training section is redesigning the CERN e-learning package in order to adopt a more educational approach and to make the courses a more enjoyable experience. The section is now calling for volunteers. “We know we can do much more with testers’ help and feedback,” explains Christoph Balle, Safety Training section leader. “By having the end users actively involved in the process, we’ll achieve our goal of communicating safety in the best possible way. As the volunteers will play an active role in the development of the courses, they will be providing a service to the whole community.&am...

  3. Academic Training: 2004 - 2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    1st Term - 01 October to 17 December 2004 REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME New Trends in Fusion Research by A. Fasoli, EPFL, Lausanne, CH 11, 12, 13 October Physics at e+e- linear collider by K. Desch, DESY, Hamburg, D 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 November LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Standard Model by R. Barbieri, CERN-PH-TH 6, 7, 8, 9 10 December The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc) will be published in the CERN Bulletin, the WWW, and by notices before each term and for each series of lectures. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form a...

  4. Measurement Science and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, C. Victor

    The need for training and retraining is a central element in current discussions about the economy of the United States. This paper is designed to introduce training practitioners to some new concepts about how measurement science can provide a new framework for assessing progress and can add new discipline to the development, implementation, and…

  5. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be

  6. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  7. Dance Training for Gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    This book views gymnastics as both sport and art and provides gymnasts with an introduction to the types of dance training that can enhance their performances. Dance training routines that incorporate several dance styles are presented to help gymnasts acquire polish, prevent injuries, improve their body alignment, express their creativity, and…

  8. Job Instruction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  9. Importance of proper training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manion, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the training programme, designed by Westinghouse, to prepare Philippine engineers and technicians for the successful operation of the Philippines Nuclear Power Plant. In addition to nuclear operator training the programme also addresses turbine-generator operations, balance-of-plant, PWR fundamentals, maintenance, and various auxiliary disciplines. (author)

  10. Training in laparoscopic urology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, Ma Pilar; de Reijke, Theodorus M.; Wijkstra, Hessel; de la Rosette, Jean

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Training in laparoscopy has become an important issue in the current surgical scenario. In this overview we aim to update the current knowledge in the field of laparoscopic urological training and to highlight the potential dangers of using simulation for accreditation and

  11. Can Trains Really Float?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Robin Ward; Deroche, Sarah; Pontiff, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Have you ever heard of a Maglev train? Who would be crazy enough to think that exploring how a high-tech train little known in the United States works with a group of fourth-grade students would yield understandings about the properties of magnetism, force and motion, and inquiry science? Fortunately, the authors--a college methods professor and…

  12. Academic Vocational Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren; Keller, Hanne Dauer; Stegeager, Nikolaj

    2010-01-01

    they come). Starting from a theoretical viewpoint based on traditional learning theory, supplemented by much new research on the transfer of training, as well as on Donald A. Schön’s classic work on practicum as a crucial component in the training of practitioners, our paper presents and illustrates...

  13. Training a Multicultural Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Penny

    The materials comprise a 30-hour training package designed to assist workplace supervisors in Australia in understanding the issues and strategies for managing and training a multicultural workforce, particularly when it includes refugees or immigrants of non-English-speaking backgrounds. The course is to be taught by, and these materials are…

  14. HSM training guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This guide focuses on identifying HSM training currently available to state and local agencies who are considering implementation of the HSM. The objectives of the training guide are to: : Identify key focus groups that can be used as a basis fo...

  15. [Operative vaginal deliveries training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, O

    2008-12-01

    The appropriate use of forceps, vacuums or spatulas facilitates the rapid delivery of foetuses faced with life-threatening situations. It also makes possible the relief of certain cases of prolonged second-stage labor. In France, operative vaginal delivery (OVD) accounts for approximately 10% of all births. OVD training aims to optimize maternal, as well as neonatal safety. It should enable trainees to indicate or contraindicate an OVD safely, as well as to choose the appropriate instrument, use it correctly, and master quality control principles. Traditional OVD training is confronted with both spatial and time-related limitations. Spatial constraints involve both the teacher and trainee who only have limited visual access to the pelvic canal, and the head of the foetus; the time constraint occurs whenever the OVD occurs in an emergency setting. These limitations have been further aggravated by new constraints: decreasing time dedicated to training (European safety rules prohibit work the day after night duty), increasing litigation, and constraints imposed by society. Training by means of simulation removes such limitations making it possible to both avoid exposing pregnant women to the hazards of traditional training, and adapt the training to the skills of each trainee. OVD training should include forceps, vacuums and the use of spatulas. The OVD skills of obstetricians should be audited regularly on both a personal and a confidential level. Such audits could be based on a method using a simulator. Prospective studies comparing traditional and simulation-based training should be encouraged.

  16. Exports and Job Training

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Paulo; Silva, Joana; Proenca, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether export participation matters for job training. The paper draws on longitudinal worker-firm data for Brazilian manufacturing, linked with detailed records on training activity from the main provider. The analysis uses industry-specific exchange rate movements to generate exogenous variation in export status at the firm-level. The findings indicate that export par...

  17. Training Accreditation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The cornerstone of safe operation of Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is personnel performing the day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Training that is conducted efficiently and effectively and is directly related to the needs of the job (i.e. performance-based training) is fundamental to safe operation. Responsibility for the safe operation of these facilities is a line management function. Therefore, achieving performance-based training requires commitment from the organization for which training is provided. This commitment includes making subject matter experts available for participation in and review of the products of the performance-based training process. It also includes budgeting and scheduling the time required for both initial and continuing training. This commitment must be made by corporate and facility senior management from the beginning. Management must get involved at the start to ensure that they are not only cognizant of ongoing activities, but are also involved to the degree necessary to thoroughly understand the process. Policies implemented and support demonstrated by senior management provide the driving force to ensure that training programs receive the attention that is imperative if facility training programs are to be successful

  18. Technical Training for Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    The question has arisen as to what kind of information a manager without extensive technical training needs to learn to supervise effectively. For example, the Nike Hercules fire control platoon leader, usually an officer in his first active duty assignment, seldom has had extensive technical training. Yet he is responsibile for the…

  19. Sensing train integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Westenberg, Roel; Schoemaker, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to check integrity of cargo trains based on a distributed wireless sensor network (WSN). The WSN is autonomous and gathers information about the composition of the train without outside help or intervention. If the WSN infers from its data that an unexpected change

  20. Training at Aerospatiale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabod, Rene

    A training plan for Aerospatiale is outlined which incorporates goals for both the organization and the individual. Emphasis is placed on the training of staff in multiple skills such as mechanics/electronics. Other areas considered include the development of information tools, the development of commercial approaches, and the learning of new industrial techniques and foreign languages.

  1. Time Use on Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . The passengers create a travel space in which they make dynamic shifts in different kinds of activities: media use, media non-use, social interactions and non-social interactions. Passengers expect the train operator to provide the travel space for different activities (including the possibility of mobile......This study explores how travel time is used and how passengers conceptualise travel time in Danish intercity trains and intercity fast trains. The new contribution to the literature this study can offer is in the inclusion of all kinds of passengers in the different compartments to understand train...... travel as a dynamic act of moving with shifts in activities. A mixed-method approach is used with self-completed questionnaires, frequency observations, shadowing observations and interviews. The findings reveal that the train passengers’ acts on the move are framed by both macro- and microstructures...

  2. Training and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Training and Information Division provides centralized direction and coordination for the training and information activities of the Center for Energy and Environment Research (formerly Puerto Rico Nuclear Center). The Division Head serves as Educational Officer, Technical Information Officer, and Public Information Officer. Training responsibilities include registering students; maintaining centralized records on training activities; preparing reports for ERDA; scheduling the utilization of training facilities; providing audiovisual equipment; assisting in the preparation of courses, seminars, symposia, and meetings; administering fellowship programs; and providing personal assistance to students in matters such as housing and immigration. The Division Head represents the Director on the Admissions Committee. Information responsibilities include preparation of manuscripts for ERDA patent clearance and publication release, maintenance of central files on all manuscripts and publications, preparation of the Annual Report, providing editorial and translation assistance, operation of a Technical Reading Room, operation of an ERDA Film Library, operation of a Reproduction Shop, providing copying services, and assisting visitors

  3. Technical Training: Places available

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. The number of places available may vary. Please check our Web site to find out the current availability. Places are available in the following courses: The Joint PVSS JCOP Framework: 14 - 18.6.2004 (5 days) EXCEL 2003 - niveau 2 : 17 & 18.6.2004 (2 jours) MAGNE-04 : Magnétisme pour l'électrotechnique : 6 au 8.7.2004 (3 jours) Technical Training Monique Duval - Tel.74924 technical.training@cern.ch

  4. COMPLEX TRAINING: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Ebben

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plyometric training is well supported by research. Complex training has gained popularity as a training strategy combining weight training and plyometric training. Anecdotal reports recommend training in this fashion in order to improve muscular power and athletic performance. Recently, several studies have examined complex training. Despite the fact that questions remain about the potential effectiveness and implementation of this type of training, results of recent studies are useful in guiding practitioners in the development and implementation of complex training programs. In some cases, research suggests that complex training has an acute ergogenic effect on upper body power and the results of acute and chronic complex training include improved jumping performance. Improved performance may require three to four minutes rest between the weight training and plyometrics sets and the use of heavy weight training loads

  5. Management of nuclear training center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, In Suk; Lee, Han Young; Cho, Boung Jae; Lee, Seung Hee; Lee, Eoi Jin; You, Byung Hoon; Lee, Won Ku; Jeon, Hyung Ryeon; Seo, Kyung Won; Kim, Young Joong; Kim, Ik Hyun; Hyun, Ha Il; Choi, Il Ki; Hong, Choon Sun; Won, Jong Yeul; Joo, Yong Chang; Nam, Jae Yeul; Sin, Eun Jeong

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the annual results of training courses. The scope and contents are as follows : 1. Regional and interregional training courses, 2. Training courses assisted by foreign experts, 3. Training courses for nuclear industry personnel, 4. Training courses for internal staff-members, 5. Training courses under the law. The nuclear training center executed the open-door training courses for 2,699 engineers/scientists from the regulatory body, nuclear industries, research institutes and other related organizations by means of offering 69 training courses during the fiscal year 1995. (Author) .new

  6. PSA in operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nos, V.; Faig, J.; Plesa, P.; Delgado, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The systematic approach to training is internationally accepted as the best method to achieve and maintain the qualification and competence of power plant personnel and to guarantee the quality of their training. Following the recommendations and guidelines of international organisations competent in the field, TECNATOM SA has developed projects based on the systematic approach to training for all Spanish nuclear power plants. One of the latest projects was the systematic approach to training developed for the operation personnel of ASCO Nuclear Power Plant. In this case, certain results of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) which complement the systematic safety and reliability criteria of the systematic approach to training process have been incorporated in the traditional processes of work and task analysis and training plan design. This incorporation provides the training manager with additional criteria based not only on safety aspects obtained through the statistical treatment of considerations of skilled technical personnel (operators, operation chief supervisors, etc), but also on the independent criterion of the PSA. The inclusion of this approach basically affects all systematics in two of its stages: During the selection process of operating practices in SMR or SGI, the possible scenarios have been associated with all those situations where human actions which lead to an initiating event or human actions to mitigate an initiating event, may take place, as defined in the PSA. During the scenario development process, the instruments involved in the performance of human actions which originate or mitigate an event taking place have been identified. This pakes it possible to reconcile the scenario event sequence with the sequence considered in the PSA study, as the most likely to provoke a more serious accident. The incorporation of these PSA results contributes to the strengthening of safety aspects in training in an objective way, and confirms that

  7. Training logbook for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Robin D.; Maciejewski, Boguslaw; Leer, Jan Willem; Kinay, Munir; Heeren, Germaine

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To develop a structured logbook for trainees in the medical speciality of radiotherapy with Europe that records the increasing experience throughout their training period. Material and methods: A working party appointed by the European Board of Radiotherapy developed a draft version of a European logbook for trainees in radiotherapy. For development, the update European Core Curriculum for Radiotherapists (Radiation Oncologists) was taken into consideration. The logbook is composed of six sections: (1) biodata of the trainee, (2) scientific training documentation, (3) clinical training documentation, (4) record of formal presentations by the trainee, (5) publications, (6) training courses. Decisions were made to suggest that the clinical section of the logbook should: (a) only collect data that was essential for the purposes of appraisal, assessment and regulation, (b) be as user friendly as possible, (c) concentrate on quality of the data and not volume. The logbook was tested by trainees in several European training departments and adapted according to their suggestions. A final draft of the logbook was circulated among the national and professional societies for radiotherapy in Europe for review before a European consensus conference took place in Brussels in December 2002. Results: The European training logbook for radiotherapy was endorsed by representatives of 35 European nations during the Brussels consensus conference on December 14, 2002. Conclusion: Keeping a training logbook is an essential feature of the record of training for all EU trainees who wish to retain an opportunity to spend part of their training time in another country of the Union, important for someone who seeks an appointment as a specialist in another country within a few years of achieving specialist accreditation, and good professional practice for all other trainees. The European training logbook for radiotherapy is a robust instrument that allows the systematic collection of the

  8. Cognitive training for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the HTA report is to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training methods to treat cognitive disorders of dementia and other diseases with cognitive deficits. For this purpose, a systematic literature search was carried out first based on the DIMDI superbase retrieval. The identified publications were judged and selected by two independent, methodically competent experts. 33 publications were included in the report. Based on the studies for a normal cognitive development in old age a theory that healthy older people have a considerable capacity reserve for an improved performance in abstract abilities of thinking can be assumed. The first symptoms for older people at risk for dementia are a reduced cognitive capacity reserve. Cognitive training methods therefore focus abilities of abstract memory. Apart from types of dementia another two groups of diseases with cognitive deficits were included in the HTA report: cerebral lesions and schizophrenic psychoses. Studies with mild as well as forms of dementia heavy forms including the Alzheimer disease were included. The described training methods were very heterogeneous with regard to their contents, the temporal sequence and the outcome parameter. The studies were methodically partly contestable. Approximately a third of the studies of all publications could show improvements in the cognitive achievements by the training. Three studies concerning cognitive training methods in case of cerebral lesions were included. All three studies demonstrated a significant improvement in the training group in some outcome parameters. Special cognitive training methods were used for the treatment of cognitive deficits at schizophrenic psychoses. The neurocognitive training (NET, the "Cognitive Remediation Therapy" as well as the strategic training with coaching proved to be effective. The studies, however, were hardly comparable and very heterogeneous in detail. Summarising the cognitive training

  9. Automatically controlled training systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milashenko, A.; Afanasiev, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the computer system for NPP personnel training was developed for training centers in the Soviet Union. The system should be considered as the first step in training, taking into account that further steps are to be devoted to part-task and full scope simulator training. The training room consists of 8-12 IBM PC/AT personal computers combined into a network. A trainee accesses the system in a dialor manner. Software enables the instructor to determine the trainee's progress in different subjects of the program. The quality of any trainee preparedness may be evaluated by Knowledge Control operation. Simplified dynamic models are adopted for separate areas of the program. For example, the system of neutron flux monitoring has a dedicated model. Currently, training, requalification and support of professional qualifications of nuclear power plant operators is being emphasized. A significant number of emergency situations during work are occurring due to operator errors. Based on data from September-October 1989, more than half of all unplanned drops in power and stoppages of power plants were due to operator error. As a comparison, problems due to equipment malfunction accounted for no more than a third of the total. The role of personnel, especially of the operators, is significant during normal operations, since energy production costs as well as losses are influenced by the capability of the staff. These facts all point to the importance of quality training of personnel

  10. Training by simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, E.

    1984-12-01

    Effective training by simulation is a matter of 1. accurate definition of the training need, 2. selecting the right hardware/software package to do the job cost effectively, 3. careful, methodical building of the training program and 4. an appropriate setting, such as a well-equipped training center. Several points seem clear: 1. ''Computer shock'' or computer phobia -- that is, fear of the simulator, can be a factor with some of the older operators. But it quickly disappears once they're into the program, and learn the versatility and the exciting dynamics of simulators. 2. Operator training is becoming more sophisticated throughout the HPI. Among other things, operators should get out into the plant to learn more about how their actions in the control room impact the plant. Operators are becoming more ''big picture'' oriented. 3. When inexperienced training instructors are used, they should attend a good ''train the trainer'' course emphasizing platform skills and instructional technology. 4. Operators need as much ''hands on'' experience with the plant's actual operating equipment as possible. The cognitive ''linkage'' between that equipment and what they see on the CRT is vitally important.

  11. Training 1983 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Quality training is necessary to assure competent, safe, efficient, and economical operation of a Nuclear Power Plant thereby providing the best insurance for our investors, customers and employees. By providing quality training programs to meet our needs, we can also meet the requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Programs designed and administered to meet the utility needs will assure the rapid integration of new employees into the Nuclear Mission staff and operating units. The task of providing quality training for such diverse groups of employees, each with differing needs, is a challenge to the utility both financially and in manpower availability to perform training. A review of current training needs and resources is discussed. A new approach to training is presented to identify possible resources available and cooperative units which could be developed to increase the manpower available for operations, utilize the manpower available for training more effectively, provide more efficient use of classroom facilities, and to be more cost effective providing the funds that will be necessary to support the new needs of the total Nuclear organization

  12. 38 CFR 21.4265 - Practical training approved as institutional training or on-job training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approved as institutional training or on-job training. 21.4265 Section 21.4265 Pensions, Bonuses, and... training or on-job training. (a) Medical-dental internships and residencies. (1) Medical residencies (other...) of this section. If the course is not so accredited such practical or on-the-job training or...

  13. Nuclear Manpower Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. J.; Han, K. W.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2006-01-15

    Through the project on nuclear human resources development in 2005, the Nuclear Training Center of KAERI has provided 67 nuclear education and training courses for 3,658 persons from the domestic nuclear related organizations such as Government Agencies, nuclear industries, R and D institutes, universities, and public as well as from IAEA Member States. In addition, 6 students (MS and Ph D.) have taken nuclear technology related courses offered by UST-KAERI. The project has developed 8 programs and 12 courses. They includes programs for IAEA training, bilateral education and training, and in-house training as well as courses dealing with maintenance of nuclear power plants and management of electricity generation, thermal-hydraulics nuclear hydrogen, nuclear safeguards, radiation emergency preparedness and etc. National and international cooperation has been promoted. For ANENT, test operation, data loading and revision of the web-portal have been undertaken. Also the web-portal operation system has been established. For FNCA, NTC has cooperated for the establishment of a model of human resource development and the exchange of information/materials. With WNU, the NTC has made an effort for hosting 2007 WNU Summer Institute. The infrastructure for nuclear education and training has been strengthened. Basic directions for providing the customers with better service, This includes showing kindness to the customer, renovation of the interior of training facilities, and upgrading of web-based management system for learning and using facilities of NTC. Other efforts have resulted in the publication of 25 course materials (10 for international courses and 15 for national courses), and the improvement of education and training equipment. The International Nuclear Training and Education Center (INTEC), which was opened in 2002, has hosted 296 international and domestic events in 2005.

  14. Reactor Physics Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2007-01-01

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  15. [Post-training N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blockade facilitates retention of acquired spatial memory in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Keisuke; Hata, Toshimichi

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the effect of a post-training chronic infusion of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocker on retention of spatial reference memory in rats. In Experiment 1, we trained 4 groups of rats for 4 days (4 trials/ day) in the Morris water maze task. In a single probe trial after retention intervals of 1, 7, 14, and 28 days, the 1-day group showed more goal crossings than shown by the other 3 groups. In Experiment 2, a chronic infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-AP5) or a control vehicle into the lateral ventricle was initiated 1 day after the training session, and continued for 6 days. In the subsequent probe trial (7 days after training), the rats that had received the D-AP5 infusion showed significantly more goal crossings than the controls. These findings suggest that an NMDA receptor blockade following acquisition facilitates retention of spatial reference memory.

  16. Academic Training: 2004 - 2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    1st Term - 01 October to 17 December 2004 REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME New Trends in Fusion Research by A. Fasoli, EPFL, Lausanne, CH 11, 12, 13 October Physics at e+e- linear collider by K. Desch, DESY, Hamburg, D 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 November LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Standard Model by R. Barbieri, CERN-PH-TH 6, 7, 8, 9 10 December The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc) will be published in the CERN Bulletin, the WWW, and by notices before each term and for each series of lectures. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  17. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  18. Review: Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ja'fari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depression, and hyper acute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of the sound of a miracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  19. The TRAINS-90 Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    TRAINS domain was inspired by the ARMTRAK domain [Martin el al., 1989]. Like ARM- TRAK. the TRAINS domain involves planning about the operation of...ation PkCCCUCTIO-CrENCCR 1 0(628 lel9) >> 4- aborto a,’,t uses these vaIues S0O! 50 Agents :all N1 Hangup N1 Mt:ro Tick Send Agent Message Set Fitters...34 Computer Science 91-3. Uni- versity of Rochester, 1991, TRAINS Technical Note. [Malrtin el al.. 1989] N. Martin. J. Allen, and C. Brown, "ARMTRAK: A Domain

  20. Training in radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, E.; Zeledon, P.; Rey, A.; Fornaro, L.; Ures, C.; Balter, H.; Monterio, N.; Apuy, J.; Padhy, A.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of having a professional with suitable training in Radiopharmacy to be responsible of a Radiopharmacy Unit in a Nuclear Medicine Service was the reason of promoting a Radiopharmacy Specialisation. With the coordination of the Radiochemistry Laboratory this training is giving by three Schools of the University: Chemistry and Pharmacy School, Sciences School and Medicine School (through the participation of the University Hospital). The training, which takes place during six months with full dedication enables the professional to implement Good Radiopharmaceutical Practice in a Nuclear Medicine Service, and to manage with diagnostic and therapeutic protocols

  1. Leadership and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öfner, D

    Against the background of substantial changes in the field of healthcare in Austria, the specialization in surgery must be reconsidered starting from modified points of view. However, in this context, the new training regulations are not the only standard: the training officers must show leadership skills by paying attention to the modified framework conditions and by promoting a new corporate culture related to training with innovating concepts. The challenge of the threatening quality loss in surgery can only be addressed in this way.

  2. Training for excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas Soriano, S.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability of the Human Factor is based on competence, which is understood to be the body of knowledge, skills and attitudes that, acquired through training and experience, lead to excellent performance and have a bearing on the economic efficiency, improvement and availability of the operation of nuclear installations. In order to improve this reliability, training programs are designed and developed methodology using a Systematic Approach to Training (SAT); they are implemented in learning environments as close as possible to reality or in the workplace itself, with highly qualified instructors and a level of demand according to the job position and the requirements of national and international qualification standards. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Physical training for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mônica Corso

    2014-01-01

    People with asthma may show less tolerance to exercise due to worsening asthma symptoms during exercise or other reasons such as deconditioning as a consequence of inactivity. Some may restrict activities as per medical advice or family influence and this might result in reduced physical fitness. Physical training programs aim to improve physical fitness, neuromuscular coordination and self confidence. Subjectively, many people with asthma report that they are symptomatically better when fit, but results from trials have varied and have been difficult to compare because of different designs and training protocols. Also, as exercise can induce asthma, the safety of exercise programmes needs to be considered. To gain a better understanding of the effect of physical training on the respiratory and general health of people with asthma, from randomised trials. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials up to January 2013. We included randomised trials of people over eight years of age with asthma who were randomised to undertake physical training or not. Physical training had to be undertaken for at least 20 minutes, two times a week, over a minimum period of four weeks. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility for inclusion and undertook risk of bias assessment for the included studies. Twenty-one studies (772 participants) were included in this review with two additional 2012 studies identified as 'awaiting classification'. Physical training was well tolerated with no adverse effects reported. None of the studies mentioned worsening of asthma symptoms following physical training. Physical training showed marked improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness as measured by a statistically and clinically significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake (mean difference (MD) 4.92 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.98 to 5.87; P physical training may have positive effects on health-related quality of life, with four of five studies

  4. Team training/simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin A S; Fisher, Janet; Arafeh, Julia; Druzin, Maurice

    2010-03-01

    Obstetrical emergencies require the rapid formation of a team with clear communication, strong leadership, and appropriate decision-making to ensure a positive patient outcome. Obstetric teams can improve their emergency response capability and efficiency through team and simulation training. Postpartum hemorrhage is an ideal model for team and simulation training, as postpartum hemorrhage requires a multidisciplinary team with the capability to produce a protocol-driven, rapid response. This article provides an overview of team and simulation training and focuses on applications within obstetrics, particularly preparation for postpartum hemorrhage.

  5. Nuclear security officer training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Training has become complex and precise in today's world of critical review and responsibility. Entrusted to a security officer is the success or demise of large business. In more critical environments the security officer is entrusted with the monitoring and protection of life sensitive systems and devices. The awareness of this high visibility training requirement has been addressed by a limited few. Those involved in the nuclear power industry through dedication and commitment to the American public have without a doubt become leading pioneers in demanding training excellence

  6. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    You are running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  7. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are you planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual session of this course will take place on 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  8. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    You are running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced using Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on December 12, 2008 and January 30, 2009. Register using our catalogue : http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at Technical.Training@cern.ch

  9. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are you planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at mailto:Technical.Training@cern.ch

  10. CERN Technical Training : Vista !

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Are you running Vista on your new PC – or are planning to install it? The Technical Training service is organizing a half-day training course on the new features of the VISTA operating system. This course introduces the new interfaces and presents the new functionalities for people who are experienced in the use of Windows XP. The next bilingual sessions of this course will take place on 12 December 2008 and 30 January 2009. Register using our catalogue: http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=110:9 or contact us with your questions/comments at Technical.Training@cern.ch

  11. Otologic Skills Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiet, Gregory J; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the current simulation training for otologic skills. There is a wide variety of educational approaches, assessment tools, and simulators in use, including simple low-cost task trainers to complex computer-based virtual reality systems. A systematic approach...... to otologic skills training using adult learning theory concepts, such as repeated and distributed practice, self-directed learning, and mastery learning, is necessary for these educational interventions to be effective. Future directions include development of measures of performance to assess efficacy...... of simulation training interventions and, for complex procedures, improvement in fidelity based on educational goals....

  12. Safety training priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, N. A.; Ruck, H. W.

    1984-04-01

    The Air Force is interested in identifying potentially hazardous tasks and prevention of accidents. This effort proposes four methods for determining safety training priorities for job tasks in three enlisted specialties. These methods can be used to design training aimed at avoiding loss of people, time, materials, and money associated with on-the-job accidents. Job tasks performed by airmen were measured using task and job factor ratings. Combining accident reports and job inventories, subject-matter experts identified tasks associated with accidents over a 3-year period. Applying correlational, multiple regression, and cost-benefit analysis, four methods were developed for ordering hazardous tasks to determine safety training priorities.

  13. Early exposure to noise followed by predator stress in adulthood impairs the rat's re-learning flexibility in Radial Arm Water Maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui-Huerta, Fernando; Ruvalcaba-Delgadillo, Yaveth; Garcia-Estrada, Joaquin; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; Ramos-Zuñiga, Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Luquin, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive effect of chronic exposure to environmental noise on RAWM performance of juvenile rats, and the ability of adult rats exposed to a novel acute stress to perform in the RAWM as a function of whether or not they were exposed to environmental noise as juveniles. We examined the consequences of exposure to noise during the juvenile-early periadolescent period on adulthood stress response by assessing cognitive performance in the RAWM. Male rats were exposed to environmental noise during the childhood-prepubescent period (21-35 PND), and their RAWM performance was tested at the end of the exposure to noise, and then again two months later when they had to cope with a new stressful event. RAWM execution included a 3-day training phase and a reversal learning phase on day 4. Escape latency, reference memory errors and working memory errors were compared between experimental and control groups. In addition, body weight gain and serum corticosterone levels were evaluated. Stressed rats demonstrated spatial impairment, as evidenced by poor execution on day 4. This effect was significantly noticeable in the doubly stressed group. Noise annoyance was evidenced by reduced body weight gain and increased serum corticosterone levels. Our results suggest that environmental noise may produce potent stress-like effects in developing subjects that can persist into adulthood, affecting spatial learning abilities. This cognitive impairment may restrict the subject's ability to learn under a new spatial configuration.

  14. Corporate Training in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Nebolsky

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents virtual training worlds that are relatively low-cost distributed collaborative learning environments suitable for corporate training. A virtual training world allows a facilitator, experts and trainees communicating and acting in the virtual environment for practicing skills during collaborative problem solving. Using these environments is beneficial to both trainees and corporations. Two system prototypes – the sales training and the leadership training virtual worlds – are described. The leadership training course design is discussed in details.

  15. Khmelnitsky NPP personnel training system improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapronov, V.G.; Issupov, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant personnel training system improvement is described, including creation of Training center, development of training courses based on SAT methodology, development of training hardware

  16. 24 CFR 964.140 - Resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: (1) Community organization and leadership training; (2) Organizational development training for..., rights and responsibilities training; and (4) Business entrepreneurial training, planning and job skills...

  17. MODALITIES OF TRAINING PARAMETER ALTERNATION IN NOWADAYS STRENGTH TRAINING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANISAVLJEV IGOR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Large number of variables could be alternated during the process of planning and programming in sports training. Superior training results in majority of sports are achieved by optimally manipulating training parameters in appropriate sequences and combinations. Additionally, in some sports they might be the result of appropriate periodization pattern. Today's tendency in strength training practice is training movements instead of training muscles. Exercise classification according to the dominant movement types, allows creating new modalities in training alternation. Additional variations in volume, intensity, rest brakes, repetition velocity andinter-repetition rest can be the important part of functional strength training program. Alternation and combination of different training parameters makes appropriate training stimulus for strength increase in the most of nowadays sports. Optimal alternation of basic training parameters should be the first part in the processof planning and programming. As a result, majority of athletes might not need advanced periodization patterns for optimal improvement in muscle strength and power

  18. A Training Technology Evaluation Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Livingston, Stephen C; Dyer, Jean L; Swinson, Diadra

    2005-01-01

    .... The overall ratings reflect the initial performance of the Soldiers to be trained on the tasks covered by the training technology, task and subtask characteristics, learning difficulty, residual...

  19. Training programming: revisiting terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C. Marques

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Does the way the literature presents the classic periodization or programming make sense? In our opinion, the answer is clearly no. To get started, periodization and programming are terms used interchangeably (as synonyms in scientific literature when they actually have different meanings. Thus, to periodize is to set periods for a process (e.g., to a season or the sports life, whereas programming is defined as to devise and order the necessary actions to carry out a project. Accordingly, coaches and physical conditioning professionals should divide or periodize the season in different cycles and then, within each cycle, programming the training sessions. The periodization should not only help to structure the training process, but also to express the goals to achieve, to control the training process evolution and allow a great execution of the action plan. When designing a plan, we simply organize all the “ingredients” that should be part of the work/training design in a concrete and detailed way. From a scientific point of view, the programming is nothing more than an adequate interpretation of the training biological laws (Tschione, 1992; Latonov, 1997, Issurin, 2008 and must have the performance improvement as the major reference criteria (Issurin 2010. In practice, during the last decades, we have followed a set of instructions mainly based on experienced coaches (Matveyev, 1981, Bompa, 1994, Zatsiorsky, 1995 who have obtained relevant results. As a consequence, it is very difficult to accept another solid scientific based vision or proposal since the accumulation of systematic experiences has led to the construction of a theoretical model, even though there are no scientific evidences. The multiplication and implementation of the traditional programming models (Matveyev, 1981, Bompa, 1994 have guided us to a set of erroneous terms, among which we highlight the “micro”, the “meso” and the “macro” cycles, that were never

  20. Interactive Karyotyping Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kotwaliwale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide use of newer techniques in genetic diagnostics, there remains a need for technologists to learn human chromosome morphology, identify abnormal metaphases and report clinical abnormalities. Global short age of cytogenetic trainers and a time consuming training process makes Karyotyping training difficult. We have developed a web based interactive Karyotyping training tool, KaryoTutor©, that allows technologists to learn karyotyping in an interactive environment and aids the trainer in the training process. KaryoTutor©provides visual clues for identifying abnormal chromosomes, provides instant test scores and includes a reference library of ideograms,sample chromosome images and reference materials. Trainees are able to recursively work on a case till a satisfactory result is achieved,with KaryoTutor providing interactive inputs.Additionally, trainers can assign cases and monitor trainee progress using audit trail management and other administrative features.