WorldWideScience

Sample records for stainless steel-based interconnects

  1. Phase transformations evaluation on a UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel based on nondestructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo Silva, Edgard de, E-mail: edgard@cefetpb.edu.br [Centro federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Paraiba (CEFET PB), Area da Industria, Avenida 1o de Maio, 720 - 58015-430 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Costa de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo, E-mail: victor.albuquerque@fe.up.pt [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Cidade Universitaria, S/N - 58059-900 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Pereira Leite, Josinaldo, E-mail: josinaldo@ct.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Cidade Universitaria, S/N - 58059-900 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Gomes Varela, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: varela@cefetpb.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Cidade Universitaria, S/N - 58059-900 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Pinho de Moura, Elineudo, E-mail: elineudo@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Campus do Pici, Bloco 715, 60455-760 - Fortaleza/CE (Brazil); Tavares, Joao Manuel R.S., E-mail: tavares@fe.up.pt [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial (DEMEGI)/Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial - INEGI, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-08-15

    Duplex stainless steel presents special mechanical properties such as, for example, mechanical and corrosion strength, becoming competitive in relation to the other types of stainless steel. One of the great problems of duplex stainless steel microstructural changes study is related to embrittlement above 300 deg. C, with the precipitation of the {alpha}' phase occurring over the ferritic microstructure. Aiming to characterise embrittlement of duplex stainless steel, hardening kinetics, from 425 to 475 deg. C, was analysed through the speed of sound, Charpy impact energy, X-ray diffraction, hardness and microscopy parameters. The presence of two hardening stages, detected through the speed of sound, was observed, one being of brittle characteristic and the other ductile. Moreover, the speed of sound showed a direct correlation with the material's hardness. Thus, it is concluded that the speed of sound is a promising nondestructive parameter to follow-up embrittlement in duplex stainless steel.

  2. Phase transformations evaluation on a UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel based on nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo Silva, Edgard de; Costa de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo; Pereira Leite, Josinaldo; Gomes Varela, Antonio Carlos; Pinho de Moura, Elineudo; Tavares, Joao Manuel R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel presents special mechanical properties such as, for example, mechanical and corrosion strength, becoming competitive in relation to the other types of stainless steel. One of the great problems of duplex stainless steel microstructural changes study is related to embrittlement above 300 deg. C, with the precipitation of the α' phase occurring over the ferritic microstructure. Aiming to characterise embrittlement of duplex stainless steel, hardening kinetics, from 425 to 475 deg. C, was analysed through the speed of sound, Charpy impact energy, X-ray diffraction, hardness and microscopy parameters. The presence of two hardening stages, detected through the speed of sound, was observed, one being of brittle characteristic and the other ductile. Moreover, the speed of sound showed a direct correlation with the material's hardness. Thus, it is concluded that the speed of sound is a promising nondestructive parameter to follow-up embrittlement in duplex stainless steel.

  3. Production and characterization of stainless steel based Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si(-Co) shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otubo, J.

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that the Fe based alloys can exhibit shape memory effect due to the γ to ε martensitic transformation. The effect may not be as striking as observed in the NiTi alloy but it might become attractive from the practical point of view. In this work, two compositions of Fe-Cr-Ni-Mn-Si(-Co) stainless steel based shape memory alloy, prepared by the VIM technique, will be presented. The results are good with shape recovery of 95% for a pre-strain of 4% after some training cycles. In terms of workability the alloys produced are worse than the usual AISI304. However, adjusting the thermo-mechanical processing, it is perfectly possible to produce wire as thin as 1,20mm in dia. or down. (orig.)

  4. Modeling of Ni Diffusion Induced Austenite Formation in Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Alimadadi, Hossein; Molin, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steel interconnect plates are widely used in planar solid oxide fuel cell and electrolysis cell stacks. During stack production and operation, nickel from the Ni/yttria stabilized zirconia fuel electrode or from the Ni contact component layer diffuses into the interconnect plate......, causing transformation of the ferritic phase into an austenitic phase in the interface region. This is accompanied with changes in volume, and in mechanical and corrosion properties of the interconnect plates. In this work, kinetic modeling of the inter-diffusion between Ni and FeCr based ferritic...

  5. Evaluation of Perovskite Overlay Coatings on Ferritic Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Maupin, Gary D.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2006-08-02

    Conductive oxide coatings are used to improve electrical performance and surface stability of metallic interconnects, as well as to mitigate or prevent chromium poisoning in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). To further understand materials suitability and shed light on mass transport, two conductive perovskites, were taken as examples and applied as dense coatings via radio frequency (rf)-sputtering on three stainless steels.

  6. Modeling of Ni Diffusion Induced Austenite Formation in Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Molin, Sebastian; Zhang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steel interconnect plates are widely used in planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or electrolysis cell (SOEC) stacks. During stack production and operation, nickel from the Ni/YSZ fuel electrode or from the Ni contact component diffuses into the IC plate, causing transformation...... of the ferritic phase into an austenitic phase in the interface region. This is accompanied with changes in volume and in mechanical and corrosion properties of the IC plates. In this work, kinetic modeling of the inter-diffusion between Ni and FeCr based ferritic stainless steel was conducted, using the CALPHAD...

  7. Creep behaviour of austenitic stainless steels, base and weld metals used in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, during temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsen, M.F.

    1982-07-01

    Creep rupture and deformation during temperature variations have been studied for 316 austenitic steel, base and weld metals. Loaded specimens were heated to 900 0 C or 1000 0 C and maintained at this temperature for different durations. The heating rate to these temperatures was between 5 and 50 0 C h -1 , whilst the cooling rate was between 5 and 20 0 C h -1 . The above tests were coupled with short time creep and tensile tests (straining rate 10 -2 h -1 to 10 3 h -1 ) at constant temperature. These tests were used for predicting the creep behaviour of the materials under changing temperature condition. The predictions were in good agreement with the changing temperature and creep experimental results. In addition, a correlation between certains tensile properties, such as the rupture time as a function of stress was observed at high temperature

  8. Ferritic stainless steel coated with La{sub 0},{sub 6}Sr{sub 0,4}Co{sub O3} for application as intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korb, Matias de Angelis; Motta, Felipe; Falcade, Tiago; Oliveira, Giselle; Silva, Renato Figueira da; Malfati, Celia de Fraga [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], Emails: matiasak@gmail.com, celia.malfatti@ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    The ceramic interconnects have been used in solid oxide fuel cell due to their compatible characteristics with this type of cell. However, this kind of material has disadvantages such as high cost and difficulty of fabricating. Recent studies have been developed aiming to decrease the cell operating temperature between 600 and 800 degree C (ITSOFC) to make possible the use of metallic material as interconnects. In this work the ABNT 430 ferritic stainless steel was coated with (La,Sr)CoO{sub 3} using the spray pyrolysis technique to permit the use of metallic interconnect instead of ceramic interconnect. Films with high adhesion and low thickness were obtained. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the coating obtained was dense and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis demonstrated that La{sub 0,6}Sr{sub 0,4}CoO{sub 3} perovskite crystalline phase was formed after heat-treated at 800 deg C for 2 hours. (author)

  9. A comparison of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress from welding fumes generated with a new nickel-, copper-based consumable versus mild and stainless steel-based welding in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badding, Melissa A; Fix, Natalie R; Antonini, James M; Leonard, Stephen S

    2014-01-01

    Welding processes that generate fumes containing toxic metals, such as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni), have been implicated in lung injury, inflammation, and lung tumor promotion in animal models. While federal regulations have reduced permissible worker exposure limits to Cr(VI), this is not always practical considering that welders may work in confined spaces and exhaust ventilation may be ineffective. Thus, there has been a recent initiative to minimize the potentially hazardous components in welding materials by developing new consumables containing much less Cr(VI) and Mn. A new nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu)-based material (Ni-Cu WF) is being suggested as a safer alternative to stainless steel consumables; however, its adverse cellular effects have not been studied. This study compared the cytotoxic effects of the newly developed Ni-Cu WF with two well-characterized welding fumes, collected from gas metal arc welding using mild steel (GMA-MS) or stainless steel (GMA-SS) electrodes. RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were exposed to the three welding fumes at two doses (50 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml) for up to 24 hours. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, phagocytic function, and cytokine production were examined. The GMA-MS and GMA-SS samples were found to be more reactive in terms of ROS production compared to the Ni-Cu WF. However, the fumes from this new material were more cytotoxic, inducing cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction at a lower dose. Additionally, pre-treatment with Ni-Cu WF particles impaired the ability of cells to phagocytize E. coli, suggesting macrophage dysfunction. Thus, the toxic cellular responses to welding fumes are largely due to the metal composition. The results also suggest that reducing Cr(VI) and Mn in the generated fume by increasing the concentration of other metals (e.g., Ni, Cu) may not necessarily improve welder safety.

  10. A comparison of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress from welding fumes generated with a new nickel-, copper-based consumable versus mild and stainless steel-based welding in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Badding

    Full Text Available Welding processes that generate fumes containing toxic metals, such as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI, manganese (Mn, and nickel (Ni, have been implicated in lung injury, inflammation, and lung tumor promotion in animal models. While federal regulations have reduced permissible worker exposure limits to Cr(VI, this is not always practical considering that welders may work in confined spaces and exhaust ventilation may be ineffective. Thus, there has been a recent initiative to minimize the potentially hazardous components in welding materials by developing new consumables containing much less Cr(VI and Mn. A new nickel (Ni and copper (Cu-based material (Ni-Cu WF is being suggested as a safer alternative to stainless steel consumables; however, its adverse cellular effects have not been studied. This study compared the cytotoxic effects of the newly developed Ni-Cu WF with two well-characterized welding fumes, collected from gas metal arc welding using mild steel (GMA-MS or stainless steel (GMA-SS electrodes. RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages were exposed to the three welding fumes at two doses (50 µg/ml and 250 µg/ml for up to 24 hours. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, phagocytic function, and cytokine production were examined. The GMA-MS and GMA-SS samples were found to be more reactive in terms of ROS production compared to the Ni-Cu WF. However, the fumes from this new material were more cytotoxic, inducing cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction at a lower dose. Additionally, pre-treatment with Ni-Cu WF particles impaired the ability of cells to phagocytize E. coli, suggesting macrophage dysfunction. Thus, the toxic cellular responses to welding fumes are largely due to the metal composition. The results also suggest that reducing Cr(VI and Mn in the generated fume by increasing the concentration of other metals (e.g., Ni, Cu may not necessarily improve welder safety.

  11. Transurban interconnectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Møller

    2012-01-01

    , radicalism and nationalism in 1848. In the concluding paragraph, the limitations of the notion of urban–rural nterconnectivity are discussed in order to clarify the nature of transurban interconnectivity. 1848 revolutions; European history; interconnectivity; transurban; urban political movements...

  12. Interconnection Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interconnection Guidelines provide general guidance on the steps involved with connecting biogas recovery systems to the utility electrical power grid. Interconnection best practices including time and cost estimates are discussed.

  13. SOFC INTERCONNECT DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane M. England

    2004-03-16

    An interconnect for an SOFC stack is used to connect fuel cells into a stack. SOFC stacks are expected to run for 40,000 hours and 10 thermal cycles for the stationary application and 10,000 hours and 7000 thermal cycles for the transportation application. The interconnect of a stack must be economical and robust enough to survive the SOFC stack operation temperature of 750 C and must maintain the electrical connection to the fuel cells throughout the lifetime and under thermal cycling conditions. Ferritic and austenitic stainless steels, and nickel-based superalloys were investigated as possible interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The alloys were thermally cycled in air and in a wet nitrogen-argon-hydrogen (N2-Ar-H2-H2O) atmosphere. Thermogravimetry was used to determine the parabolic oxidation rate constants of the alloys in both atmospheres. The area-specific resistance of the oxide scale and metal substrates were measured using a two-probe technique with platinum contacts. The study identifies two new interconnect designs which can be used with both bonded and compressive stack sealing mechanisms. The new interconnect designs offer a solution to chromium vaporization, which can lead to degradation of some (chromium-sensitive) SOFC cathodes.

  14. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  15. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  16. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  17. Correlation between microstructure and electrical properties of Cu{sub 1.3}Mn{sub 1.7}O{sub 4}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite-coated ferritic stainless steel interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, N., E-mail: nazaneen_hosseini@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimzadeh, F.; Abbasi, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Choi, G.M. [Fuel Cell Research Center and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of screen-printed Cu{sub 1.3}Mn{sub 1.7}O{sub 4}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite coating on chromia scale growth and electrical behavior of AISI430 stainless steel interconnects. The coated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (FESEM-EDS) and 4-probe area specific resistance (ASR) tests. The results showed that LaCrO{sub 3} conductive perovskite is formed due to the interdiffusion between Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and/or CrO{sub 3} and La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presence of LaCrO{sub 3} through the composite coating and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} sub-scale accompanied by the effective role of spinel phase, acted as a barrier to mitigate the sub-scale growth preventing chromium diffusion through the coating and the cathode. Besides, LaCrO{sub 3} particles within the sub-scale provided suitable conductive paths decreasing ASR from 19.3 mΩ cm{sup 2} for spinel coated sample to 15 mΩ cm{sup 2} for composite coated sample at the end of 500 h oxidation at 750° C. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 1.3}Mn{sub 1.7}O{sub 4}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was deposited on AISI 430 by screen-printing method. • LaCrO{sub 3} perovskite was formed due to the interdiffusion between Cr species and La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • LaCrO{sub 3} particles within the chromia provided conductive paths causing ASR reduction. • The co-existence of LaCrO{sub 3} and Cu{sub 1.3}Mn{sub 1.7}O{sub 4} noticeably retarded the chromia growth.

  18. Advanced Interconnect Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z.G.; Maupin, G.; Simner, S.; Singh, P.; Stevenson, J.; Xia, G.

    2005-01-27

    The objectives of this project are to develop cost-effective, optimized materials for intermediate temperature SOFC interconnect and interconnect/electrode interface applications and identify and understand degradation processes in interconnects and at their interfaces with electrodes.

  19. Ceria based protective coatings for steel interconnects prepared by spray pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczewska, Dagmara; Molin, Sebastian; Chen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Stainless steels can be used in solid oxide fuel/electrolysis stacks as interconnects. For successful long term operation they require protective coatings, that lower the corrosion rate and block chemical reactions between the interconnect and adjacent layers of the oxygen or the hydrogen electrode...

  20. Solar cell array interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  1. Qubit compatible superconducting interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxen, B.; Mutus, J. Y.; Lucero, E.; Graff, R.; Megrant, A.; Chen, Yu; Quintana, C.; Burkett, B.; Kelly, J.; Jeffrey, E.; Yang, Yan; Yu, Anthony; Arya, K.; Barends, R.; Chen, Zijun; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A.; Gidney, C.; Giustina, M.; Huang, T.; Klimov, P.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Martinis, John M.

    2018-01-01

    We present a fabrication process for fully superconducting interconnects compatible with superconducting qubit technology. These interconnects allow for the three dimensional integration of quantum circuits without introducing lossy amorphous dielectrics. They are composed of indium bumps several microns tall separated from an aluminum base layer by titanium nitride which serves as a diffusion barrier. We measure the whole structure to be superconducting (transition temperature of 1.1 K), limited by the aluminum. These interconnects have an average critical current of 26.8 mA, and mechanical shear and thermal cycle testing indicate that these devices are mechanically robust. Our process provides a method that reliably yields superconducting interconnects suitable for use with superconducting qubits.

  2. Balkan electro energetic interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnalkovski, Trajche; Grashevska-Shekjerinska, Jelena; Badarovska, Elizabeta; Cherepnalkovski, Nikola

    1998-01-01

    The Balkan Energy Interconnections Task Force was realized in the framework of the Black Sea Regional Energy Center (BSREC); to set up comprehensive inventory of the potential Interconnection projects in the region and with the neighboring systems. In the paper impacts to the region of the strategy for developing the Trans European Networks (TEN) and potential interests for inter regional cooperation are analyzed. The list of accepted projects and applied methodology for definition the priorities are presented. (Author)

  3. Benefits of transmission interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, D.

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of new power transmission interconnections from Alberta were discussed with reference to the challenges and measures needed to move forward. Alberta's electricity system has had a long period of sustained growth in generation and demand and this trend is expected to continue. However, no new interconnections have been built since 1985 because the transmission network has not expanded in consequence with the growth in demand. As such, Alberta remains weakly interconnected with the rest of the western region. The benefits of stronger transmission interconnections include improved reliability, long-term generation capability, hydrothermal synergies, a more competitive market, system efficiencies and fuel diversity. It was noted that the more difficult challenges are not technical. Rather, the difficult challenges lie in finding an appropriate business model that recognizes different market structures. It was emphasized that additional interconnections are worthwhile and will require significant collaboration among market participants and governments. It was concluded that interties enable resource optimization between systems and their benefits far exceed their costs. tabs., figs

  4. Open Systems Interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenberg, Ray

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for standards allowing computer-to-computer communication and gives examples of technical issues. The seven-layer framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model is explained and illustrated. Sidebars feature public data networks and Recommendation X.25, OSI standards, OSI layer functions, and a glossary.…

  5. CAISSON: Interconnect Network Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Cray response to HPCS initiative. Model future petaflop computer interconnect. Parallel discrete event simulation techniques for large scale network simulation. Built on WarpIV engine. Run on laptop and Altix 3000. Can be sized up to 1000 simulated nodes per host node. Good parallel scaling characteristics. Flexible: multiple injectors, arbitration strategies, queue iterators, network topologies.

  6. Electromagnetism and interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Charruau, S

    2009-01-01

    This book covers the theoretical problems of modeling electrical behavior of the interconnections encountered in everyday electronic products. The coverage shows the theoretical tools of waveform prediction at work in the design of a complex and high-speed digital electronic system. Scientists, research engineers, and postgraduate students interested in electromagnetism, microwave theory, electrical engineering, or the development of simulation tools software for high speed electronic system design automation will find this book an illuminating resource.

  7. Photovoltaic sub-cell interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Swinger Platt, Heather Anne

    2017-05-09

    Photovoltaic sub-cell interconnect systems and methods are provided. In one embodiment, a photovoltaic device comprises a thin film stack of layers deposited upon a substrate, wherein the thin film stack layers are subdivided into a plurality of sub-cells interconnected in series by a plurality of electrical interconnection structures; and wherein the plurality of electrical interconnection structures each comprise no more than two scribes that penetrate into the thin film stack layers.

  8. Interconnects, Transmitters, and Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Interconnects on-chip between transistors and between functions like processors and memories, between chips on carriers or in stacks, and the communication with the outside world have become a highly complex performance, reliability, cost, and energy challenge. Twelve layers of metal interconnects, produced by lithography, require, including the contact vias, 24 mask and process cycles on top of the process front-end. The resulting lines are associated with resistance, capacitance and inductance parasitics as well as with ageing due to high current densities. Large savings in wiring lengths are achieved with 3D integration: transistor stacking, chip stacking and TSV's, a direction, which has exploded since 2005 because of many other benefits and, at the same time, with sensitive reliability and cost issues. On top of this or as an alternative, non-contact interconnects are possible with capacitive or inductive coupling. Inductive in particular has proven to be attractive because its transmission range is large enough for communication in chip stacks and yet not too large to cause interference.Optical transmitters based on integrated III-V compound-semiconductor lasers and THz power amplifiers compete with ascending low-cost, parallel-wire transmitters based on BiCMOS technologies. Parallel mm-wave and THz transceiver arrays enable mm-wave radar for traffic safety and THz computed-tomography. In spite of all these technology advances, the power efficiency of data communication will only improve 100× in a decade. New compression and architectural techniques are in high demand.

  9. Interconnectivity: Benefits and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Access to affordable and reliable electricity supplies is a basic prerequisite for economic and social development, prosperity, health, education and all other aspects of modern society. Electricity can be generated both near and far from the consumption areas as transmission lines, grid interconnections and distribution systems can transport it to the final consumer. In the vast majority of countries, the electricity sector used to be owned and run by the state. The wave of privatisation and market introduction in a number of countries and regions which started in the late 1980's has in many cases involved unbundling of generation from transmission and distribution (T and D). This has nearly everywhere exposed transmission bottlenecks limiting the development of well-functioning markets. Transmission on average accounts for about 10-15% of total final kWh cost paid by the end-user but it is becoming a key issue for effective operation of liberalised markets and for their further development. An integrated and adequate transmission infrastructure is of utmost importance for ensuring the delivery of the most competitively priced electricity, including externalities, to customers, both near and far from the power generating facilities. In this report, the role of interconnectivity in the development of energy systems is examined with the associated socio-economic, environmental, financial and regulatory aspects that must be taken into account for successful interconnection projects.

  10. Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    This is a presentation on interconnection of distributed energy resources, including the relationships between different aspects of interconnection, best practices and lessons learned from different areas of the U.S., and an update on technical advances and standards for interconnection.

  11. LHC beampipe interconnection

    CERN Multimedia

    Particle beams circulate for around 10 hours in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During this time, the particles make four hundred million revolutions of the machine, travelling a distance equivalent to the diameter of the solar system. The beams must travel in a pipe which is emptied of air, to avoid collisions between the particles and air molecules (which are considerably bigger than protons). The beam pipes are pumped down to an air pressure similar to that on the surface of the moon. Much of the LHC runs at 1.9 degrees above absolute zero. When material is cooled, it contracts. The interconnections must absorb this contraction whilst maintaining electrical connectivity.

  12. Performance of Topological Insulator Interconnects

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Timothy M.; Hirsbrunner, Mark R.; Park, Moon Jip; Gilbert, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The poor performance of copper interconnects at the nanometer scale calls for new material solutions for continued scaling of integrated circuits. We propose the use of three dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators (TIs), which host backscattering-protected surface states, for this purpose. Using semiclassical methods, we demonstrate that nanoscale TI interconnects have a resistance 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than copper interconnects and graphene nanoribbons at the nano...

  13. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  14. Weldability of Stainless Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    It gives an outline of metallographic properties of welding zone of stainless steels, generation and mechanisms of welding crack and decreasing of corrosion resistance of welding zone. It consists of seven chapters such as introduction, some kinds of stainless steels and properties, metallographic properties of welding zone, weld crack, toughness of welding zone, corrosion resistance and summary. The solidification modes of stainless steels, each solidification mode on the cross section of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy phase diagram, each solidification mode of weld stainless steels metal by electron beam welding, segregation state of alloy elements at each solidification mode, Schaeffler diagram, Delong diagram, effects of (P + S) mass content in % and Cr/Ni equivalent on solidification cracking of weld stainless steels metal, solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, effects of trace impurity elements on solidification crack susceptibility of weld high purity stainless steels metal, ductile fracture susceptibility of weld austenitic stainless steels metal, effects of H2 and ferrite content on generation of crack of weld 25Cr-5N duplex stainless steels, effects of O and N content on toughness of weld SUS 447J1 metals, effect of ferrite content on aging toughness of weld austenitic stainless steel metal, corrosion morphology of welding zone of stainless steels, generation mechanism of knife line attack phenomenon, and corrosion potential of some kinds of metals in seawater at room temperature are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  15. Area array interconnection handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Totta, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Microelectronic packaging has been recognized as an important "enabler" for the solid­ state revolution in electronics which we have witnessed in the last third of the twentieth century. Packaging has provided the necessary external wiring and interconnection capability for transistors and integrated circuits while they have gone through their own spectacular revolution from discrete device to gigascale integration. At IBM we are proud to have created the initial, simple concept of flip chip with solder bump connections at a time when a better way was needed to boost the reliability and improve the manufacturability of semiconductors. The basic design which was chosen for SLT (Solid Logic Technology) in the 1960s was easily extended to integrated circuits in the '70s and VLSI in the '80s and '90s. Three I/O bumps have grown to 3000 with even more anticipated for the future. The package families have evolved from thick-film (SLT) to thin-film (metallized ceramic) to co-fired multi-layer ceramic. A later famil...

  16. Location constrained resource interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discussed issues related to wind integration from the perspective of the California Independent System Operator (ISO). Issues related to transmission, reliability, and forecasting were reviewed. Renewable energy sources currently used by the ISO were listed, and details of a new transmission financing plan designed to address the location constraints of renewable energy sources and provide for new transmission infrastructure was presented. The financing mechanism will be financed by participating transmission owners through revenue requirements. New transmission interconnections will include network facilities and generator tie-lines. Tariff revisions have also been implemented to recover the costs of new facilities and generators. The new transmission project will permit wholesale transmission access to areas where there are significant energy resources that are not transportable. A rate impact cap of 15 per cent will be imposed on transmission owners to mitigate short-term costs to ratepayers. The presentation also outlined energy resource area designation plans, renewable energy forecasts, and new wind technologies. Ramping issues were also discussed. It was concluded that the ISO expects to ensure that 20 per cent of its energy will be derived from renewable energy sources. tabs., figs

  17. Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Colella, Nicolas J.; Williams, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  18. Graph theory and interconnection networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Lih-Hsing

    2008-01-01

    The advancement of large scale integrated circuit technology has enabled the construction of complex interconnection networks. Graph theory provides a fundamental tool for designing and analyzing such networks. Graph Theory and Interconnection Networks provides a thorough understanding of these interrelated topics. After a brief introduction to graph terminology, the book presents well-known interconnection networks as examples of graphs, followed by in-depth coverage of Hamiltonian graphs. Different types of problems illustrate the wide range of available methods for solving such problems. The text also explores recent progress on the diagnosability of graphs under various models.

  19. Interconnecting heterogeneous database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, V. D.; Luckenbaugh, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is still a great need for the development of improved communication between remote, heterogeneous database management systems (DBMS). Problems regarding the effective communication between distributed DBMSs are primarily related to significant differences between local data managers, local data models and representations, and local transaction managers. A system of interconnected DBMSs which exhibit such differences is called a network of distributed, heterogeneous DBMSs. In order to achieve effective interconnection of remote, heterogeneous DBMSs, the users must have uniform, integrated access to the different DBMs. The present investigation is mainly concerned with an analysis of the existing approaches to interconnecting heterogeneous DBMSs, taking into account four experimental DBMS projects.

  20. Universal Interconnection Technology Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheaffer, P.; Lemar, P.; Honton, E. J.; Kime, E.; Friedman, N. R.; Kroposki, B.; Galdo, J.

    2002-10-01

    The Universal Interconnection Technology (UIT) Workshop - sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability (DEER) Program, and Distribution and Interconnection R&D - was held July 25-26, 2002, in Chicago, Ill., to: (1) Examine the need for a modular universal interconnection technology; (2) Identify UIT functional and technical requirements; (3) Assess the feasibility of and potential roadblocks to UIT; (4) Create an action plan for UIT development. These proceedings begin with an overview of the workshop. The body of the proceedings provides a series of industry representative-prepared papers on UIT functions and features, present interconnection technology, approaches to modularization and expandability, and technical issues in UIT development as well as detailed summaries of group discussions. Presentations, a list of participants, a copy of the agenda, and contact information are provided in the appendices of this document.

  1. SU-8 cantilever chip interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Janting, Jakob; Schultz, Peter

    2006-01-01

    the electrodes on the SU-8 chip to a printed circuit board. Here, we present two different methods of electrically connecting an SU-8 chip, which contains a microfluidic network and free-hanging mechanical parts. The tested electrical interconnection techniques are flip chip bonding using underfill or flip chip...... bonding using an anisotropic conductive film (ACF). These are both widely used in the Si industry and might also be used for the large scale interconnection of SU-8 chips. The SU-8 chip, to which the interconnections are made, has a microfluidic channel with integrated micrometer-sized cantilevers...... that can be used for label-free biochemical detection. All the bonding tests are compared with results obtained using similar Si chips. It is found that it is significantly more complicated to interconnect SU-8 than Si cantilever chips primarily due to the softness of SU-8....

  2. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  3. Property improvement of stainless-steel-base surface composites fabricated by high-energy electron-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Keesam; Lee, Sunghak

    2003-12-01

    This is a study on the fabrication of surface composites of SiC, TiC particulates, and AISI 304 substrate by high voltage electron beam irradiation. Using CaF2 powders as flux, two kinds of surface composites were fabricated for a comparative analysis of the microstructural modification and mechanical properties. Through the employed process, the powders and substrate surface were melted and surface composite layers were successfully formed in both cases. In the specimen fabricated with SiC powders, a volume fraction of Cr23C6 particles (-22 vol.%) were homogeneously distributed along solidification cell boundaries. The large amount of Cr23C6 particles in combination with solid solution hardening of Si in the matrix resulted in the improved hardness and wear resistance of the surface composite layer, that are 2 to 3 times those of the substrate. In the specimen fabricated with SiC and Ti+SiC powders, TiC and Cr23C6 particles were precipitated without precipitation of SiC.

  4. Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.

  5. High-speed photonics interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chrostowski, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic increases in processing power have rapidly scaled on-chip aggregate bandwidths into the Tb/s range. This necessitates a corresponding increase in the amount of data communicated between chips, so as not to limit overall system performance. To meet the increasing demand for interchip communication bandwidth, researchers are investigating the use of high-speed optical interconnect architectures. Unlike their electrical counterparts, optical interconnects offer high bandwidth and negligible frequency-dependent loss, making possible per-channel data rates of more than 10 Gb/s. High-Speed

  6. Cellular structures with interconnected microchannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaefer, Robert Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Williams, Brian

    2018-01-30

    A method for fabricating a cellular tritium breeder component includes obtaining a reticulated carbon foam skeleton comprising a network of interconnected ligaments. The foam skeleton is then melt-infiltrated with a tritium breeder material, for example, lithium zirconate or lithium titanate. The foam skeleton is then removed to define a cellular breeder component having a network of interconnected tritium purge channels. In an embodiment the ligaments of the foam skeleton are enlarged by adding carbon using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) prior to melt-infiltration. In an embodiment the foam skeleton is coated with a refractory material, for example, tungsten, prior to melt infiltration.

  7. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections

  8. Nanophotonic Devices for Optical Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Thourhout, D.; Spuesens, T.; Selvaraja, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    We review recent progress in nanophotonic devices for compact optical interconnect networks. We focus on microdisk-laser-based transmitters and discuss improved design and advanced functionality including all-optical wavelength conversion and flip-flops. Next we discuss the fabrication uniformity...

  9. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, D; Snakenborg, D; Dufva, M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic observation. The interconnection block method is scalable, flexible and supports high interconnection density. The average pressure limit of the interconnection block was near 5.5 bar and all individual results were well above the 2 bar threshold considered applicable to most microfluidic applications

  10. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic...... observation. The interconnection block method is scalable, flexible and supports high interconnection density. The average pressure limit of the interconnection block was near 5.5 bar and all individual results were well above the 2 bar threshold considered applicable to most microfluidic applications....

  11. Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Maciel Mattos de Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental model was proposed to study biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 on AISI 304 (#4 stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential during this process. In this model, biofilm formation was conducted on the surface of stainless steel coupons, set on a stainless steel base with 4 divisions, each one supporting 21 coupons. Trypic Soy Broth was used as bacterial growth substrate, with incubation at 37 ºC and stirring of 50 rpm. The number of adhered cells was determined after 3, 48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 hours of biofilm formation and biotransfer potential from 96 hours. Stainless steel coupons were submitted to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM after 3, 144 and 240 hours. Based on the number of adhered cells and SEM, it was observed that L. monocytogenes adhered rapidly to the stainless steel surface, with mature biofilm being formed after 240 hours. The biotransfer potential of bacterium to substrate occurred at all the stages analyzed. The rapid capacity of adhesion to surface, combined with biotransfer potential throughout the biofilm formation stages, make L. monocytogenes a potential risk to the food industry. Both the experimental model developed and the methodology used were efficient in the study of biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes on stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential.

  12. A review of hot cracking in austenitic stainless steel weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, V.; Gill, T.P.S.; Mannan, S.L.; Rodriguez, P.

    1991-01-01

    The occurrence of hot cracking in austenitic stainless steel weldments is discussed with respect to its origin and metallurgical contributory factors. Of the three types of hot cracking, namely solidification cracking, liquation and ductility dip cracking, solidification cracking occurs in the interdendritic regions in weld metal while liquation and ductility dip cracking occur intergranularly in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Segregation of impurity and minor elements such as sulphur, phosphorous, silicon, niobium, boron etc to form low melting eutectic phases has been found to be the major cause of hot cracking. Control of HAZ cracking requires minimisation of impurity elements in the base metal. In stabilized stainless steels containing niobium, higher amounts of delta-ferrite have been found necessary to prevent cracking than in unstabilized compositions. Titanium compounds have been found to cause liquation cracking in maraging steels and titanium containing stainless steels and superalloys. In nitrogen added stainless steels, cracking resistance decreases when the solidification mode changes to primary austenitic due to nitrogen addition. A review of the test methods to evaluate hot cracking behaviour showed that several external restraint and semi-self-restraint tests are available. The finger Test, WRC Fissure Bend Test, the PVR test and the Varestraint Test are described along with typical test results. Hot ductility testing to reveal HAZ cracking tendency during welding is described, which is of particular importance to stabilized stainless steels. Based on the literature, recommendations are made for welding stabilized and nitrogen added steels, indicating areas of further work. (author). 81 refs., 30 figs., 1 tab

  13. Pitting and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saithala, Janardhan R.

    An investigation has been performed to determine the pitting resistance of stainless steels and stress corrosion cracking of super duplex stainless steels in water containing chloride ions from 25 - 170°C. The steels studied are 12% Cr, FV520B, FV566, 304L, Uranus65, 2205, Ferallium Alloy 255, and Zeron 100. All these commercial materials used in very significant industrial applications and suffer from pitting and stress corrosion failures. The design of a new experimental setup using an autoclave enabled potentiodynamic polarisation experiments and slow strain rate tests in dilute environments to be conducted at elevated temperatures. The corrosion potentials were controlled using a three electrode cell with computer controlled potentiostat.The experimental programme to determine pitting potentials was designed to simulate the service conditions experienced in most industrial plants and develop mathematical model equations to help a design engineer in material selection decision. Stress corrosion resistance of recently developed Zeron100 was evaluated in dilute environments to propose a mechanism in chloride solutions at high' temperatures useful for the nuclear and power generation industry. Results have shown the significance of the composition of alloying elements across a wide range of stainless steels and its influence on pitting. Nitrogen and molybdenum added to modern duplex stainless steels was found to be unstable at higher temperatures. The fractographic results obtained using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has given insight in the initiation of pitting in modem duplex and super duplex stainless steels. A mathematical model has been proposed to predict pitting in stainless steels based on the effect of environmental factors (temperature, chloride concentration, and chemical composition). An attempt has been made to identify the mechanism of SCC in Zeron100 super duplex stainless steel.The proposed empirical models have shown good correlation

  14. Study on Thermal Physical Properties of 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dong; Jun-mao, Qie; Hao-hua, Deng

    The DIL402C thermal dilatometer and STA449C thermal analyzer were employed to test the linear expansion and contraction coefficient, CP and DSC curve of 304 stainless steel. The result showed that the linear expansion coefficient range was 20.9700×10-6˜21.5712×10-6 and the linear contraction coefficient range was 21.2528×10-6˜21.9471×10-6. The linear expansion and contraction coefficient were higher than other steel grade, so the 304 stainless steel belonged to the crack sensitive steel. Because of the crystal phase transformation occurred during the 1000˜1400 °C,the curve of CP fluctuated obviously and the defects of casting blank occurred easily. Chosen 1414°C as the liquidus temperature of 304 stainless steel based on the analysis results of DSC. The curve of DSC was unsmooth during 1450˜1100°C, the crystal phase transformation occurs and thermal stability of slab was inferior.When the initial solidified shell formed in this temperature range,the thickness of the shell would be nonuniform and the surface defects occurred more easily.

  15. The repair of preveneered posterior stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yucel; Gurbuz, Taskin; Eyuboglu, Ozge; Belduz, Nihal

    2008-01-01

    This study's purposes were to determine the shear bond strength (SBS) for and to perform dye penetration (microleakage) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluations of preveneered posterior stainless steel crowns (SSCs) that were repaired using 2 different materials. Twenty-two crowns were used. They were stored in artificial saliva for 30 days and then thermocycled. A force was applied on the crowns' occlusal surfaces until the original veneer material appeared to be fractured. The fracture types and S8S values were recorded. The crowns were then repaired using Panavia opaque cement and Tetric Flow or Monoopaque and Tetric Flow. Twenty of the repaired crowns were subjected to dye penetration and SBS tests, and the remaining 2 were evaluated using SEM. Statistical analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in the results of either the S8S or the dye penetration test (P = .58 and P = 38, respectively). A statistically significant difference was found between original and repaired crowns regarding fracture extent (P = .02), but not failure type (P = .08). SEM evaluation showed that there was no observable gap at the interface of the original or repaired materials and the stainless steel base. Preveneered posterior stainless steel crowns may be repaired using either repair material types tested here.

  16. Driving Interconnected Networks to Supercriticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Networks in the real world do not exist as isolated entities, but they are often part of more complicated structures composed of many interconnected network layers. Recent studies have shown that such mutual dependence makes real networked systems potentially exposed to atypical structural and dynamical behaviors, and thus there is an urgent necessity to better understand the mechanisms at the basis of these anomalies. Previous research has mainly focused on the emergence of atypical properties in relation to the moments of the intra- and interlayer degree distributions. In this paper, we show that an additional ingredient plays a fundamental role for the possible scenario that an interconnected network can face: the correlation between intra- and interlayer degrees. For sufficiently high amounts of correlation, an interconnected network can be tuned, by varying the moments of the intra- and interlayer degree distributions, in distinct topological and dynamical regimes. When instead the correlation between intra- and interlayer degrees is lower than a critical value, the system enters in a supercritical regime where dynamical and topological phases are no longer distinguishable.

  17. 47 CFR 90.477 - Interconnected systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Interconnected Systems § 90.477 Interconnected systems. (a... indicate on their applications (class of station code) that their stations will be interconnected... the use. (3) For licensees in the Industrial/Business Pool and those licensees who establish...

  18. 18 CFR 292.306 - Interconnection costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interconnection costs... § 292.306 Interconnection costs. (a) Obligation to pay. Each qualifying facility shall be obligated to pay any interconnection costs which the State regulatory authority (with respect to any electric...

  19. Microstructural observation of ion-irradiated austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, T.; Hamada, S.; Hishinuma, A.

    1992-01-01

    Type 316 stainless steel, base metal and weld metal obtained from an electron beam weld joint, was irradiated with 90 MeV Br +6 in the JAERI tandem accelerator. Cross-sectional TEM specimens were obtained by nickel plating. Microstructural observation revealed a band of tiny dislocation loops was observed around the mean projected range and the measured distance from the surface was 6.75±0.15μm. This is slightly larger than the calculated value using Ziegler's stopping power. Defect clusters were also observed around defect sinks within the mean projected range, suggesting cascade-sink interaction. These sinks are the grain boundary in the base metal specimen and preexisting dislocation lines in the weld metal specimen. Surface roughness of polished specimen was detected at the shallower side of the peak damage band, although no visible crystalline defect cluster was observed. This suggests radiation-induced microchemical evolution prior to sever microstructural evolution. (author)

  20. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  1. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  2. Chromium-Makes stainless steel stainless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Chromium, a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point, is a silvery white, hard, and bright metal plating on steel and other material. Commonly known as chrome, it is one of the most important and indispensable industrial metals because of its hardness and resistance to corrosion. But it is used for more than the production of stainless steel and nonferrous alloys; it is also used to create pigments and chemicals used to process leather.

  3. Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of current research in optical interconnect technologies and architectures. Introductory chapters on high-performance computing and the associated issues in conventional interconnect architectures, and on the fundamental building blocks for integrated optical interconnect, provide the foundations for the bulk of the book which brings together leading experts in the field of optical interconnect architectures for data communication. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the photonic components are assembled into architectures to address the needs of data-intensive on-chip communication, and to the performance evaluation of such architectures for specific applications.   Provides state-of-the-art research on the use of optical interconnects in Embedded Systems; Begins with coverage of the basics for high-performance computing and optical interconnect; Includes a variety of on-chip optical communication topologies; Features coverage of system integration and opti...

  4. Multi-net optimization of VLSI interconnect

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Konstantin; Wimer, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers layout design and layout migration methodologies for optimizing multi-net wire structures in advanced VLSI interconnects. Scaling-dependent models for interconnect power, interconnect delay and crosstalk noise are covered in depth, and several design optimization problems are addressed, such as minimization of interconnect power under delay constraints, or design for minimal delay in wire bundles within a given routing area. A handy reference or a guide for design methodologies and layout automation techniques, this book provides a foundation for physical design challenges of interconnect in advanced integrated circuits.  • Describes the evolution of interconnect scaling and provides new techniques for layout migration and optimization, focusing on multi-net optimization; • Presents research results that provide a level of design optimization which does not exist in commercially-available design automation software tools; • Includes mathematical properties and conditions for optimal...

  5. Electricity Market Interconnections and Electricity Price Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Nuno; Duque, João

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model of changes in electricity price returns in the context of interconnected electricity markets. This model predicts an inverse relationship between the increase in interconnection capacity and the volatility of price returns in the corresponding electricity markets. This means that an increase of interconnection between two markets leads to a decrease in the volatility of their prices. We support our model with empirical results from the Australian, European an...

  6. Bending Behavior of Porous Sintered Stainless Steel Fiber Honeycombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shuiping; Wan, Zhenping; Lu, Longsheng; Tang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    A novel porous honeycomb-type substrate has been developed using solid-state sintering stainless steel fibers. The porous sintered stainless steel fiber honeycombs (PSSSFH) are composed of a skeleton of sintered stainless steel fibers, three-dimensionally interconnected porous structures and multiple parallel microchannels. The bending behavior of the PSSSFH is investigated using three-point bending tests. Four stages, including an elastic stage, a yielding stage with a plateau, a hardening stage and a failure stage, are observed during the bending process of the PSSSFH. In the initial yielding stage, the bending forces increase slowly with displacement increasing, and then a yielding plateau follows, which is unique compared with other porous materials. Moreover, the structure parameters of the PSSSFH are varied to investigate the influence on the bending strength. It is determined that the multiple parallel microchannels can enhance the bending strength of porous stainless steel fiber sintered substrates (PSSFSS) and do not influence the variation trend of bending strength of PSSFSS with porosity increasing. The open ratio is conducive to increasing the bending strength, and the microchannel diameters ranging from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm have little influence on the bending strength. In addition, both the increasing of sintering temperature and sintering time can strengthen the PSSSFH.

  7. Fluidic interconnections for microfluidic systems: A new integrated fluidic interconnection allowing plug 'n' play functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Bundgaard, Frederik; Geschke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    for interconnecting polymer microsystems in terms of cost, space and performance. Following this path we propose a new reversible, integrated fluidic interconnection composed of custom-made cylindrical rings integrated in a polymer house next to the fluidic network. This allows plug 'n' play functionality between...... external metal ferrules and the system. Theoretical calculations are made to dimension and model the integrated fluidic interconnection. Leakage tests are performed on the interconnections, in order to experimentally confirm the model, and detect its limits....

  8. Interconnection blocks with minimal dead volumes permitting planar interconnection to thin microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We have previously described 'Interconnection Blocks' which are re-usable, non-integrated PDMS blocks which allowing multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Here, we describe Interconnection Block versions with zero dead volumes that allow fluidic interfacing to flat or thin s...

  9. High Nitrogen Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    crack growth (FCG) test (ASTM E 647-95a) - square bar specimen of 0.4x0.4x2.8 in. in L-orientation with a Charpy notch at the mid- length for SCC...Hydrogen Embrittlement in Steel by the Increment Loading Technique. Fractography: After the stress-life fatigue tests , the fracture surface morphology...NAWCADPAX/TR-2011/162 HIGH NITROGEN STAINLESS STEEL by E. U. Lee R. Taylor 19 July 2011 Approved for

  10. Network interconnections: an architectural reference model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butscher, B.; Lenzini, L.; Morling, R.; Vissers, C.A.; Popescu-Zeletin, R.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Heger, D.; Krueger, G.; Spaniol, O.; Zorn, W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the major problems in understanding the different approaches in interconnecting networks of different technologies is the lack of reference to a general model. The paper develops the rationales for a reference model of network interconnection and focuses on the architectural implications for

  11. Colligation, Or the Logical Inference of Interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter

    1998-01-01

    laws or assumptions. Yet interconnection as an abstract concept seems to be without scientific underpinning in pure logic. Adopting a historical viewpoint, our aim is to show that the reasoning of interconnection may be identified with a neglected kind of logical inference, called "colligation...

  12. Colligation or, The Logical Inference of Interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franksen, Ole Immanuel; Falster, Peter

    2000-01-01

    laws or assumptions. Yet interconnection as an abstract concept seems to be without scientific underpinning in oure logic. Adopting a historical viewpoint, our aim is to show that the reasoning of interconnection may be identified with a neglected kind of logical inference, called "colligation...

  13. Modeling interconnect corners under double patterning misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Daijoon; Shin, Youngsoo

    2016-03-01

    Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on March 16th, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on March 28th. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance. Interconnect corners should accurately reflect the effect of misalingment in LELE double patterning process. Misalignment is usually considered separately from interconnect structure variations; this incurs too much pessimism and fails to reflect a large increase in total capacitance for asymmetric interconnect structure. We model interconnect corners by taking account of misalignment in conjunction with interconnect structure variations; we also characterize misalignment effect more accurately by handling metal pitch at both sides of a target metal independently. Identifying metal space at both sides of a target metal.

  14. Hydrogen effects in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen on stainless steels have been reviewed and are summarized in this paper. Discussion covers hydrogen solution and transport in stainless steels as well as the effects of hydrogen on deformation and fracture under various loading conditions. Damage is caused also by helium that arises from decay of the hydrogen isotope tritium. Austenitic, ferritic, martensite, and precipitation-hardenable stainless steels are included in the discussion. 200 references

  15. Stainless super p-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.; Sezgin, E.; Stelle, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    The elementary and solitonic supersymmetric p-brane solutions to supergravity theories form families related by dimensional reduction, each headed by a maximal ('stainless') member that cannot be isotropically dimensionally oxidized into higher dimensions. We find several new families, headed by stainless solutions in various dimensions D≤9. In some cases, these occur with dimensions (D,p) that coincide with those of descendants of known families, but since the new solutions are stainless, they are necessarily distinct. The new stainless supersymmetric solutions include a 6-brane and a 5-brane in D=9, a string in D=5, and particles in all dimensions 5≤D≤9. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of the Fatigue Strength of Sintered Steel Based on Fracture Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 正名; 井上, 克己; 鄧, 鋼; 佐藤, 寿樹; 亀子, 峰雄

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with an evaluation of the fatigue strength of sintered steel based on linear fracture mechanics. The fatigue crack growth is measured with bend test specimens of Fe-Cu-Cr sintered steel of various densities. From this result, the fatigue strengths of the specimens with initial length of crack a at the life N are calculated, and they are shown as N-S-A curves. A model, which has an initial crack at the surface but is homogeneous and has no internal flaws, is introduced to anal...

  17. Nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel are highly safe and effective for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Kyudae; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dongkyun

    2017-04-01

    The safety and effectiveness of antimicrobial ZnO films must be established for general applications. In this study, the antimicrobial activity, skin irritation, elution behavior, and mechanical properties of nanostructured ZnO films on stainless steel were evaluated. ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and ZnO nanowall (NW) structures were prepared with different surface roughnesses, wettability, and concentrations using an RF magnetron sputtering system. The thicknesses of ZnO NP and ZnO NW were approximately 300 and 620 nm, respectively, and ZnO NW had two diffraction directions of [0002] and [01-10] based on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ZnO NW structure demonstrated 99.9% antimicrobial inhibition against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Penicillium funiculosum, and no skin irritation was detected using experimental rabbits. Approximately 27.2 ± 3.0 μg L -1 Zn ions were eluted from the ZnO NW film at 100 °C for 24 h, which satisfies the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. Furthermore, the Vickers hardness and fracture toughness of ZnO NW films on stainless steel were enhanced by 11 and 14% compared to those of the parent stainless steel. Based on these results, ZnO NW films on STS316L sheets are useful for household supplies, such as water pipes, faucets, and stainless steel containers.

  18. Influence of Micro-Damage on Reliability of Cryogenic Bellows in the LHC Interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2008-01-01

    To achieve maximum beam energy in the LHC the accumulated length of the interconnections between LHC main magnets has been limited to around 3% of the total magnetic length in the Arcs and Dispersion Suppressors. Such a low ratio leads to a very compact design of components located in the LHC interconnections. This implies development and evolution of high intensity plastic strain fields in the stainless steel expansion bellows subjected to thermo-mechanical loads at low temperatures. These components have been optimised to ensure high reliability standards required for the LHC. Nevertheless, initial damage can occur and lead to a premature fatigue failure. For structures in which plasticity is not confined to the crack tip region, standard failure mechanics, based classically on the stress intensity factor or the strain energy density release rate, can not be used. In the present paper, a constitutive model taking into account plastic strain induced g->a' phase transformation and orthotropic ductile damage i...

  19. Evaluating Pillar Industry's Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China's steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities' abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns.

  20. Electrochemical Study of Welded AISI 304 and 904L Stainless Steel in Seawater in View of Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Richárd Székely; Réka Répánszki; András Somogyi; Ákos Horváth; János Dobránszki

    2010-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the corrosion behaviour of welds in AISI 304 and AISI 904L stainless steels carried out in seawater model solution in the temperature range 5-35°C and the standard of corrosion testing of welds was followed. The corrosion rate and corrosion attack characteristics were determined for welds of the examined steels with several type of treatment. The aim of this work was to compare the steels based on their resistance against the corrosion in terms of pitting potent...

  1. Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Keren; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks covers optical networks and how they can provide high bandwidth, energy efficient interconnects with increased communication bandwidth. This volume, with contributions from leading researchers in the field, presents an integrated view of the expected future requirements of data centers and serves as a reference for some of the most advanced and promising solutions proposed by researchers from leading universities, research labs, and companies. The work also includes several novel architectures, each demonstrating different technologies such as optical circuits, optical switching, MIMO optical OFDM, and others. Additionally, Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks provides invaluable insights into the benefits and advantages of optical interconnects and how they can be a promising alternative for future data center networks.

  2. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher e±ciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coe±cient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  3. The Interconnections of the LHC Cryomagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquemod, A; Skoczen, Blazej; Tock, J P

    2001-01-01

    The main components of the LHC, the next world-class facility in high-energy physics, are the twin-aperture high-field superconducting cryomagnets to be installed in the existing 26.7-km long tunnel. After installation and alignment, the cryomagnets have to be interconnected. The interconnections must ensure the continuity of several functions: vacuum enclosures, beam pipe image currents (RF contacts), cryogenic circuits, electrical power supply, and thermal insulation. In the machine, about 1700 interconnections between cryomagnets are necessary. The interconnections constitute a unique system that is nearly entirely assembled in the tunnel. For each of them, various operations must be done: TIG welding of cryogenic channels (~ 50 000 welds), induction soldering of main superconducting cables (~ 10 000 joints), ultrasonic welding of auxiliary superconducting cables (~ 20 000 welds), mechanical assembly of various elements, and installation of the multi-layer insulation (~ 200 000 m2). Defective junctions cou...

  4. Advanced Interconnect and Device-Field Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Essaaidi, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    ... be avoided. Those tasks concerned the development of OOP codes using C++ based on the Method of Moments for microwave interconnections analysis considering different geometrical configurations (i.e...

  5. Variation Tolerant On-Chip Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Nigussie, Ethiopia Enideg

    2012-01-01

    This book presents design techniques, analysis and implementation of high performance and power efficient, variation tolerant on-chip interconnects.  Given the design paradigm shift to multi-core, interconnect-centric designs and the increase in sources of variability and their impact in sub-100nm technologies, this book will be an invaluable reference for anyone concerned with the design of next generation, high-performance electronics systems. Provides comprehensive, circuit-level explanation of high-performance, energy-efficient, variation-tolerant on-chip interconnect; Describes design techniques to mitigate problems caused by variation; Includes techniques for design and implementation of self-timed on-chip interconnect, delay variation insensitive communication protocols, high speed signaling techniques and circuits, bit-width independent completion detection and process, voltage and temperature variation tolerance.                          

  6. Interconnect mechanisms in microelectronic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Maria Penafrancia C.

    alloy showed differences in adhesion strength and IMC formation. Bond strength by wire pull testing showed the 95Ag alloy with higher values while shear bond testing showed the 88Ag higher bond strength. Use of Cu pillars in flip chips and eutectic bonding in wafer level chip scale packages are direct consequences of diminishing interconnect dimension as a result of the drive for miniaturization. The combination of Cu-Sn interdiffusion, Kirkendall mechanism and heterogeneous vacancy precipitation are the main causes of IMC and void formation in Cu pillar - Sn solder - Cu lead frame sandwich structure. However, adding a Ni barrier agent showed less porous IMC layer as well as void formation as a result of the modified Cu and Sn movement well as the void formation. Direct die to die bonding using Al-Ge eutectic bonds is necessary when 3D integration is needed to reduce the footprint of a package. Hermeticity and adhesion strength are a function of the Al/Ge thickness ratio, bonding pressure, temperature and time. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) allowed imaging of interfacial microstructures, porosity, grain morphology while Scanning Transmission Electron microscope (STEM) provided diffusion profile and confirmed interdiffusion. Ion polishing technique provided information on porosity and when imaged using backscattered mode, grain structure confirmed mechanical deformation of the bonds. Measurements of the interfacial bond strength are made by wire pull tests and ball shear tests based on existing industry standard tests. However, for the Al-Ge eutectic bonds, no standard strength is available so a test is developed using the stud pull test method using the Dage 4000 Plus to yield consistent results. Adhesion strengths of 30-40 MPa are found for eutectic bonded packages however, as low as 20MPa was measured in low temperature bonded areas.

  7. Assessing the yield point of concrete steels based upon known chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šiško Kuliš

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on both, theoretical and experimental work and aims to assessment the yield point of concrete steels, based on the known alloy chemical composition. The experimental portion of the work was performed at the Split steelmaking factory, which produces concrete steels from the waste iron. The theoretical portion of this study involves mathematical modelling carried out using the software package MATLAB. The work presented here provides both a scientific and practical contribution to the field. By using mathematical modelling, the accuracy of the estimation of the yield point is improved by 8,5%. Using this correlation enables the reduction of the concrete steel production costs because it is possible to reduce the use of expensive tests for the characterization of strength and mechanical properties.

  8. Blister formation in multiple energy He+ implanted stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.; Haggmark, L.G.; Langley, R.A.

    1976-12-01

    A series of multiple energy He + implantations has been conducted on type 316 stainless steel at 575 and 775 K. Pre-implantations with 3, 10 and 15 keV He + were used to create a series of uniform helium concentrations to a depth of approximately 700 A. The effects of these pre-implantation helium concentrations on subsequent 20 keV bombardment were studied by gas re-emission and scanning electron microscopy. If was found that serious blistering and exfoliation would occur unless the pre-implantation helium concentration was approximately greater than 0.3 atom fraction from the surface to nearly the depth of the 20 keV implant. At this pre-implant level, an interconnected pathway to the surface developed, allowing helium release without surface blistering. Evidence for rapid helium mobility along the interconnection was found at temperatures as low as 80K. These results indicate that multiple energy implantation will still produce extensive surface deformation if the helium accumulates to a local critical concentration before an interconnected pathway develops. Until detailed first wall particle fluxes are available, He + induced surface exfoliation cannot be ruled out as a potentially serious source of wall erosion and plasma contamination in a MFE reactor

  9. Electrochemical Study of Welded AISI 304 and 904L Stainless Steel in Seawater in View of Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richárd Székely

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a comparative study of the corrosion behaviour of welds in AISI 304 and AISI 904L stainless steels carried out in seawater model solution in the temperature range 5-35°C and the standard of corrosion testing of welds was followed. The corrosion rate and corrosion attack characteristics were determined for welds of the examined steels with several type of treatment. The aim of this work was to compare the steels based on their resistance against the corrosion in terms of pitting potential (Epit and repassivation potential (Erepass. Seawater is an electrochemically aggressive medium, which can initiate localised corrosion in welded stainless steels. Different electrochemical and testing methods were used, including cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, pH measuring and penetration tests.

  10. Corrosion stability of ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide electrolyser cell interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palcut, Marián; Mikkelsen, Lars; Neufeld, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Long-term oxidation behaviour of eight ferritic steels with 20–29 wt.% chromium (F 20 T, TUS 220 M, AL 453, Crofer 22 APU, Crofer 22 H, Sanergy HT, E-Brite and AL 29-4C) has been studied. The samples were cut into square coupons, ground and annealed for 140–1000 h at 1173 K in flowing, wet hydrog...... of a superior alloy composition are given....

  11. Ssip-a processor interconnection simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaux, P.; Weber, R.; Prezzi, J.; Tazza, M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent growing interest in multiple processor architectures has given rise to the study of procesor-memory interconnections for the determination of better architectures. This paper concerns the development of the SSIP-sistema simulador de interconexao de processadores (processor interconnection simulating system) which allows the evaluation of different interconnection structures comparing its performance in order to provide parameters which would help the designer to define an architcture. A wide spectrum of systems may be evaluated, and their behaviour observed due to the features incorporated into the simulator program. The system modelling and the simulator program implementation are described. Some results that can be obtained are shown, along with the discussion of their usefulness. 12 references.

  12. Packaging and interconnection for superconductive circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacker, W.

    1976-01-01

    A three dimensional microelectronic module packaged for reduced signal propagation delay times including a plurality of circuit carrying means, which may comprise unbacked chips, with integrated superconductive circuitry thereon is described. The circuit carrying means are supported on their edges and have contact lands in the vicinity of, or at, the edges to provide for interconnecting circuitry. The circuit carrying means are supported by supporting means which include slots to provide a path for interconnection wiring to contact the lands of the circuit carrying means. Further interconnecting wiring may take the form of integrated circuit wiring on the reverse side of the supporting means. The low heat dissipation of the superconductive circuitry allows the circuit carrying means to be spaced approximately no less than 30 mils apart. The three dimensional arrangement provides lower random propagation delays than would a planar array of circuits

  13. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1985-06-24

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping lase pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  14. Characterization of a Cobalt-Tungsten Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harthøj, Anders; Holt, Tobias; Caspersen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A ferritic steel interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell must be coated in order to prevent chromium evaporation from the steel substrate. The Technical University of Denmark and Topsoe Fuel Cell have developed an interconnect coating based on a cobalt-tungsten alloy. The purpose of the coating...... for 300 h at 800 °C. The coating was characterized with Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy (GDOES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The oxidation properties were evaluated by measuring weight change of coated samples of Crofer 22 H and Crofer 22 APU as a function...

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 on metallic interconnect and interaction with glass-ceramic sealant for solid oxide fuel cells application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeacetto, Federico; De Miranda, Auristela; Cabanas Polo, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Cr-containing stainless steels are widely used as metallic interconnects for SOFCs. Volatile Cr-containing species, which originate from the oxide formed on steel, can poison the cathode material and subsequently cause degradation in the SOFC stack. Mn1.5Co1.5O4 spinel is one of the most promising...

  16. Experimental demonstration of titanium nitride plasmonic interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinsey, N.; Ferrera, M.; Naik, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    An insulator-metal-insulator plasmonic interconnect using TiN, a CMOS-compatible material, is proposed and investigated experimentally at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 mu m. The TiN waveguide was shown to obtain propagation losses less than 0.8 dB/mm with a mode size of 9.8 mu m...

  17. The Achievable Dynamics via Control by Interconnection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinjamoor, Harsh; Schaft, Arjan J. van der

    We consider the problem of finding a controller such that, when interconnected to the plant, we obtain a system that is equivalent to a desired system. Here, "equivalence" is formalized as "bisimilarity." We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such a controller. The systems

  18. Absorbed radiation dose on LHC interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    Here we present the results of our FLUKA simulations devoted to the evaluation of the peak dose absorbed by the busbar insulator in the LHC Interaction Region 7 interconnects. The peak dose absorbed by the cold magnet coils are also presented.

  19. Patterned electrodeposition of interconnects using microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestad, A.; Rendering, H.; Maijenburg, A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Microcontact printing combined with electroless deposition is a potential low cost technique to make electrical interconnects for opto-electronic devices. Microcontact printed inhibitors locally prevent electroless deposition resulting in a pre-defined pattern of metal tracks. The inhibition of

  20. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

    2000-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

  1. An architectural model for network interconnection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Vissers, C.A.; Kalin, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a technique of successive decomposition of a common users' activity to illustrate the problems of network interconnection. The criteria derived from this approach offer a structuring principle which is used to develop an architectural model that embeds heterogeneous subnetworks

  2. Estimation of temperature in the lubricant film during cold forging of stainless steel based on studies of phase transformation in the film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Thomas; Olsen, J.S.; Christensen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    -3(PO4)(2). 4H(2)O and amorphous Zn1.5Ca1.5(PO4)(2)) lubricated with soap or MoS2. The temperature in the lubricant film during the process was estimated from changes in friction in correlation with observed phase transitions in the lubricant. Phase transitions in the carrier coatings as a function...

  3. Investigation of attenuation coefficients of some stainless steel and aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Zafer; Tufan, Mustafa ćaǧatay

    2018-02-01

    In this study, attenuation coefficients of two different stainless steel alloys (AISI 304 and AISI 310), which have a wide range of applications from home appliances to the automotive sector, and two different aluminum alloys (6013 and 5083), which have a high mechanical strength and a light weight structure and are used in many fields from aviation to military vehicles, has been determined. For this purpose, we used gamma spectrometer system with NaI(Tl) detector. In our measurements, we used Eu-152, Ra-226 and Co-60 as gamma ray sources. To narrow the beam of gamma rays, we designed the new steel based collimator. We also investigated the effect of using collimator. Obtained results were compared with the NIST XCOM values.

  4. Evaluation of stainless steel reinforcement construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Stainless steel reinforcement has greater corrosion resistance than that of the conventional reinforcement. In this project, bridge A6059, the first in Missouri utilizing stainless steel reinforcement in the deck, was constructed, along with bridge A...

  5. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  6. Silver flip chip interconnect technology and solid state bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Chu-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, fluxless transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding and solid state bonding between thermal expansion mismatch materials have been developed using Ag-In binary systems, pure Au, Ag, and Cu-Ag composite. In contrast to the conventional soldering process, fluxless bonding technique eliminates any corrosion and contamination problems caused by flux. Without flux, it is possible to fabricate high quality joints in large bonding areas where the flux is difficult to clean entirely. High quality joints are crucial to bonding thermal expansion mismatch materials since shear stress develops in the bonded pair. Stress concentration at voids in joints could increases breakage probability. In addition, intermetallic compound (IMC) formation between solder and underbump metallurgy (UBM) is essential for interconnect joint formation in conventional soldering process. However, the interface between IMC and solder is shown to be the weak interface that tends to break first during thermal cycling and drop tests. In our solid state bonding technique, there is no IMC involved in the bonding between Au to Au, Ag and Cu, and Ag and Au. All the reliability issues related to IMC or IMC growth is not our concern. To sum up, ductile bonding media, such as Ag or Au, and proper metallic layered structure are utilized in this research to produce high quality joints. The research starts with developing a low temperature fluxless bonding process using electroplated Ag/In/Ag multilayer structures between Si chip and 304 stainless steel (304SS) substrate. Because the outer thin Ag layer effectively protects inner In layer from oxidation, In layer dissolves Ag layer and joints to Ag layer on the to-be-bonded Si chip when temperature reaches the reflow temperature of 166ºC. Joints consist of mainly Ag-rich Ag-In solid solution and Ag2In. Using this fluxless bonding technique, two 304SS substrates can be bonded together as well. From the high magnification SEM images taken at cross

  7. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  8. Development and operation of interconnections in a restructuring context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In many countries the electrical network is not fully interconnected and the best technical solution to achieve interconnection has to be found. At the same time the electricity industry is being restructured and interconnecting independent energy markets presents technical challenges. It is therefore timely to consider interconnection development and operation options: examine the benefits of interconnecting electrical networks and the development strategies, review the interconnection design options and the technologies available, identify the operational issues, the security problems of large interconnected systems, the protection issues, consider the impact of the restructuring of the electrical supply industry, assess the political, environmental and social implications of interconnections. reorganized in slovenia from 5-7 april 2004. (author)

  9. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, Albany, NY (United States); Reed, Gregory [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States.

  10. Si micro photonics for optical interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, K.; Ahn, D.H.; Lim, D.R.; Michel, J.; Kimerling, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews current status of silicon microphotonics and the recent prototype of on-chip optical interconnection. Si microphotonics pursues complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatibility of photonic devices to reduce the materials diversity eventually to integrate on Si chips. Fractal optical H-trees have been implemented on a chip and found to be a technology breakthrough beyond metal interconnection. It has shown that large RC time constants associated with metal can be eliminated at least long distant data communication on a chip, and eventually improve yield and power issues. This has become the world's first electronic and photonic integrated circuits (EPICs) and the possibility of at least 10 GHz clocking for personal computers has been demonstrated

  11. Development of Interconnect Technologies for Particle Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Mani [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-01-29

    This final report covers the three years of this grant, for the funding period 9/1/2010 - 8/31/2013. The project consisted of generic detector R&D work at UC Davis, with an emphasis on developing interconnect technologies for applications in HEP. Much of the work is done at our Facility for Interconnect Technologies (FIT) at UC Davis. FIT was established using ARRA funds, with further studies supported by this grant. Besides generic R&D work at UC Davis, FIT is engaged in providing bump bonding help to several DOE supported detector R&D efforts. Some of the developmental work was also supported by funding from other sources: continuing CMS project funds and the Linear Collider R&D funds. The latter program is now terminated. The three year program saw a good deal of progress on several fronts, which are reported here.

  12. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  13. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  14. A Thermal Model for Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay Mayberry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have studied Joule heating in carbon nanotube based very large scale integration (VLSI interconnects and incorporated Joule heating influenced scattering in our previously developed current transport model. The theoretical model explains breakdown in carbon nanotube resistance which limits the current density. We have also studied scattering parameters of carbon nanotube (CNT interconnects and compared with the earlier work. For 1 µm length single-wall carbon nanotube, 3 dB frequency in S12 parameter reduces to ~120 GHz from 1 THz considering Joule heating. It has been found that bias voltage has little effect on scattering parameters, while length has very strong effect on scattering parameters.

  15. 2017 Accomplishments – Tritium Aging Studies on Stainless Steel Weldments and Heat-Affected Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hitchcock, Dale [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Krentz, Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McNamara, Joy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duncan, Andrew [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-31

    In this study, the combined effects tritium and decay helium in forged and welded Types 304L and 21-6-9 stainless steels were studied. To measure these effects, fracture mechanic specimens were thermally precharged with tritium and aged for approximately 17 years to build in decay helium from tritium decay prior to testing. The results are compared to earlier measurements on the same alloys and weldments (4-5, 8-9). In support of Enhanced Surveillance, “Tritium Effects on Materials”, the fracture toughness properties of long-aged tritium-charged stainless-steel base metals and weldments were measured and compared to earlier measurements. The fracture-toughness data were measured by thermally precharging as-forged and as-welded specimens with tritium gas at 34.5 MPa and 350°C and aging for approximately 17 years to build-in decay helium prior to testing. These data result from the longest aged specimens ever tested in the history of the tritium effects programs at Savannah River and the fracture toughness values measured were the lowest ever recorded for tritium-exposed stainless steel. For Type 21-6-9 stainless steel, fracture toughness values were reduced to less than 2-4% of the as-forged values to 41 lbs / in specimens that contained more than 1300 appm helium from tritium decay. The fracture toughness properties of long-aged weldments were also measured. The fracture toughness reductions were not as severe because the specimens did not retain as much tritium from the charging and aging as did the base metals. For Type 304L weldments, the specimens in this study contained approximately 600 appm helium and their fracture toughness values averaged 750 lbs / in. The results for other steels and weldments are reported and additional tests will be conducted during FY18.

  16. Performance of high molybdenum superaustenitic stainless steel welds in harsh chloride environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenvall, P.; Liljas, M.; Wallen, B.

    1996-01-01

    Superaustenitic steels are normally welded with nickel-based alloys as filler materials. To clarify the understanding of weld behavior in superaustenitic stainless steels this paper presents the development history of 6Mo and 7Mo steels, and results of laboratory tests and field tests on welds of UNS S31254 (6Mo) and UNS S32654 (7 Mo) in different types of chloride containing environments. The laboratory tests consisted of the well known ferric chloride test (ASTM G 48 Method A). Shielded metal arc welds, gas tungsten arc welds and submerged arc welds in both grades were tested. The critical pitting temperatures were determined and the locations of the attack were noted. Some specimens were sectioned at the position of the attack followed by studies using light optical microscopy. The critical pitting temperatures of the welds in S31254 and S32654 were at normal levels for both grades, i.e., 40--50 C for S31254 and 60--75 C for S32654. The locations of the attack differed depending on the welding process. In shielded metal arc welds the attack was mostly located in the weld metal. In gas tungsten arc welds the attack was predominantly located next to the fusion line. The field tests showed that the behavior of welds and parent metal of superaustenitic stainless steels, as well as of nickel-based alloys, is much dependent on the corrosive environment. In oxidizing chloride solutions, similar results to those of the ferric chloride test, are observed. However, crevice corrosion in the parent material is at a greater risk than pitting corrosion in the welds. In very oxidizing solutions of low chloride concentrations, welds made of nickel-based fillers may corrode faster than the stainless steel base metal due to transpassive uniform corrosion. The opposite situation exists when active uniform corrosion prevails, i.e., welds made of nickel-based fillers corrode less than the stainless steel parent material

  17. Uncertainty in an Interconnected Financial System, Contagion

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Li; Frank Milne; Junfeng Qiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies contagion and market freezes caused by uncertainty in financial network structures and provides theoretical guidance for central banks. We establish a formal model to demonstrate that, in a financial system where financial institutions are interconnected, a negative shock to an individual financial institution could spread to other institutions, causing market freezes because of creditors' uncertainty about the financial network structure. Central bank policies to alleviate...

  18. Hybrid Nanomaterials for Flexible Electronics Interconnects (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-19

    2017-1847; Clearance Date: 19 Apr 2017. This document contains color. Journal article published in Micro and Nanomechanics, Volume 5, Conference...to high strain-rate deformation (high impact environment), interconnects materials are to exhibit high strain to failure characteristics while...In emerging flexible electronics survivable to high strain-rate deformation (high impact environment), intercon- nects materials are to exhibit high

  19. Microtexture and strain in electroplated copper interconnects

    OpenAIRE

    Spolenak, Ralph; Barr, D.L.; Gross, M.E.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Brown, W.L.; Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Valek, B.C.; Bravman, J.C.; Flinn, P.; Marieb, T.; Keller, R.R.; Batterman, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure of narrow metal conductors in the electrical interconnections on IC chips has often been identified as of major importance in the reliability of these devices. The stresses and stress gradients that develop in the conductors as a result of thermal expansion differences in the materials and of electromigration at high current densities are believed to be strongly dependent on the details of the grain structure. The present work discusses new techniques based on microbe...

  20. Microtexture of Strain in electroplated copper interconnects

    OpenAIRE

    Spolenak, R.; Barr, D.L.; Gross, M.E.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Brown, W.L.; Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Valek, B.C.; Bravman, J.C.; Flinn, P.; Marieb, T.; Keller, R.R.; Batterman, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure of narrow metal conductors in the electrical interconnections on IC chips has often been identified as of major importance in the reliability of these devices. The stresses and stress gradients that develop in the conductors as a result of thermal expansion differences in the materials and of electromigration at high current densities are believed to be strongly dependent on the details of the grain structure. The present work discusses new techniques based on microbe...

  1. Viewing Integrated-Circuit Interconnections By SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Russel A.; Gauldin, Robert E.; Ruiz, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    Back-scattering of energetic electrons reveals hidden metal layers. Experiment shows that with suitable operating adjustments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) used to look for defects in aluminum interconnections in integrated circuits. Enables monitoring, in situ, of changes in defects caused by changes in temperature. Gives truer picture of defects, as etching can change stress field of metal-and-passivation pattern, causing changes in defects.

  2. Investigation of electrical and thermal properties of carbon nanotube interconnects

    OpenAIRE

    Todri-Sanial , Aida

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) present themselves as a viable material for on-and off-chip interconnect material due to their unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. The electrothermal properties of CNTs, including high Young's modulus, resiliency and low thermal expansion coefficient offer great advantage for reliable and strong interconnects, and even more so for local and global on-chip interconnects. With aggressive scaling, on-chip interconnects contribute ...

  3. High-density hybrid interconnect methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.; Zimmermann, L.; Moor, P.De; Hoof, C.Van

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The presentation gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of hybrid integration and in particular the IMEC technological approaches that will be able to address future hybrid detector needs. The dense hybrid flip-chip integration of an array of detectors and its dedicated readout electronics can be achieved with a variety of solderbump techniques such as pure Indium or Indium alloys, Ph-In, Ni/PbSn, but also conducting polymers... Particularly for cooled applications or ultra-high density applications, Indium solderbump technology (electroplated or evaporated) is the method of choice. The state-of-the-art of solderbump technologies that are to a high degree independent of the underlying detector material will be presented and examples of interconnect densities between 5x1E4cm-2 and 1x1E6 cm-2 will be demonstrated. For several classes of detectors, flip-chip integration is not allowed since the detectors have to be illuminated from the top. This applies to image sensors for EUV applications such as GaN/AlGaN based detectors and to MEMS-based sensors. In such cases, the only viable interconnection method has to be through the (thinned) detector wafer followed by a solderbump-based integration. The approaches for dense and ultra-dense through-the-wafer interconnect 'vias' will be presented and wafer thinning approaches will be shown

  4. The first LHC sector is fully interconnected

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Sector 7-8 is the first sector of the LHC to become fully operational. All the magnets, cryogenic line, vacuum chambers and services are interconnected. The cool down of this sector can soon commence. LHC project leader Lyn Evans, the teams from CERN's AT/MCS, AT/VAC and AT/MEL groups, and the members of the IEG consortium celebrate the completion of the first LHC sector. The 10th of November was a red letter day for the LHC accelerator teams, marking the completion of the first sector of the machine. The magnets of sector 7-8, together with the cryogenic line, the vacuum chambers and the distribution feedboxes (DFBs) are now all completely interconnected. Sector 7-8 has thus been closed and is the first LHC sector to become operational. The interconnection work required several thousand electrical, cryogenic and insulating connections to be made on the 210 interfaces between the magnets in the arc, the 30 interfaces between the special magnets and the interfaces with the cryogenic line. 'This represent...

  5. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot-welding. Th...

  6. Nickel release from stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

    1997-09-01

    In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same reaction to the DMG test (negative result), which shows again its lack of sensitivity. In contrast, the HNO3 spot test distinguished AISI 303 from the non-resulfurized grades. Clinical patch tests again showed that some patients (4%) were intolerant to AISI 303, while none were

  7. Wireless Interconnects for Intra-chip & Inter-chip Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narde, Rounak Singh

    With the emergence of Internet of Things and information revolution, the demand of high performance computing systems is increasing. The copper interconnects inside the computing chips have evolved into a sophisticated network of interconnects known as Network on Chip (NoC) comprising of routers, switches, repeaters, just like computer networks. When network on chip is implemented on a large scale like in Multicore Multichip (MCMC) systems for High Performance Computing (HPC) systems, length of interconnects increases and so are the problems like power dissipation, interconnect delays, clock synchronization and electrical noise. In this thesis, wireless interconnects are chosen as the substitute for wired copper interconnects. Wireless interconnects offer easy integration with CMOS fabrication and chip packaging. Using wireless interconnects working at unlicensed mm-wave band (57-64GHz), high data rate of Gbps can be achieved. This thesis presents study of transmission between zigzag antennas as wireless interconnects for Multichip multicores (MCMC) systems and 3D IC. For MCMC systems, a four-chips 16-cores model is analyzed with only four wireless interconnects in three configurations with different antenna orientations and locations. Return loss and transmission coefficients are simulated in ANSYS HFSS. Moreover, wireless interconnects are designed, fabricated and tested on a 6'' silicon wafer with resistivity of 55O-cm using a basic standard CMOS process. Wireless interconnect are designed to work at 30GHz using ANSYS HFSS. The fabricated antennas are resonating around 20GHz with a return loss of less than -10dB. The transmission coefficients between antenna pair within a 20mm x 20mm silicon die is found to be varying between -45dB to -55dB. Furthermore, wireless interconnect approach is extended for 3D IC. Wireless interconnects are implemented as zigzag antenna. This thesis extends the work of analyzing the wireless interconnects in 3D IC with different

  8. Economic and environmental benefits of interconnected systems. The Spanish example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicharro, A.S.; Dios Alija, R. de

    1996-01-01

    The interconnected systems provide large technical and economic benefits which, evaluated and contrasted with the associated network investment cost, usually produce important net savings. There are continental electrical systems formed by many interconnected subsystems. The optimal size of an interconnection should be defined within an economic background. It is necessary to take into account the global environmental effects. The approach and results of studies carried out by Red Electrica is presented, in order to analyse both economic and environmental benefits resulting from an increase in the present Spanish interconnection capacities. From both economic and environmental points of view, the development of the interconnected systems is highly positive. (author)

  9. Crosstalk in modern on-chip interconnects a FDTD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, B K; Patnaik, Amalendu

    2016-01-01

    The book provides accurate FDTD models for on-chip interconnects, covering most recent advancements in materials and design. Furthermore, depending on the geometry and physical configurations, different electrical equivalent models for CNT and GNR based interconnects are presented. Based on the electrical equivalent models the performance comparison among the Cu, CNT and GNR-based interconnects are also discussed in the book. The proposed models are validated with the HSPICE simulations. The book introduces the current research scenario in the modeling of on-chip interconnects. It presents the structure, properties, and characteristics of graphene based on-chip interconnects and the FDTD modeling of Cu based on-chip interconnects. The model considers the non-linear effects of CMOS driver as well as the transmission line effects of interconnect line that includes coupling capacitance and mutual inductance effects. In a more realistic manner, the proposed model includes the effect of width-dependent MFP of the ...

  10. Carbon nanotubes for interconnects process, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dijon, Jean; Maffucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as interconnect material for horizontal, on-chip and 3D interconnects. The authors demonstrate the uses of bundles of CNTs, as innovative conducting material to fabricate interconnect through-silicon vias (TSVs), in order to improve the performance, reliability and integration of 3D integrated circuits (ICs). This book will be first to provide a coherent overview of exploiting carbon nanotubes for 3D interconnects covering aspects from processing, modeling, simulation, characterization and applications. Coverage also includes a thorough presentation of the application of CNTs as horizontal on-chip interconnects which can potentially revolutionize the nanoelectronics industry. This book is a must-read for anyone interested in the state-of-the-art on exploiting carbon nanotubes for interconnects for both 2D and 3D integrated circuits. Provides a single-source reference on carbon nanotubes for interconnect applications; Includes c...

  11. Interconnectivity and the Electronic Academic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Riggs

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Due to the emphasis on the use of computing networks on campuses and to the very nature of more information being accessible to library users only via electronic means, we are witnessing a migration to electronic academic libraries. this new type of library is being required to have interconnections with the campus' other online information/data systems. Arizona State University libraries have been provided the opportunity to develop an electronic library that will be the focal point of a campus-wide information/data network.

  12. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  13. Inherent dynamic properties of interconnected power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinov, S.M. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Information and Control Systems; Milanovic, J.V. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Electronics; Maslennikov, V.A. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Power Networks and Systems

    2002-06-01

    The paper presents the analytical formulae for calculation of the damping and frequency of the electromechanical modes in large interconnected power systems. The system used for the derivation of those formulae had a structure of a rectangular uniform grid of arbitrary dimensions. It is clearly shown that the low frequency inter-area (LFIA) oscillations are fundamental property of the large longitudinal systems. The reasons for poor damping of these modes are analysed. Analytical expressions for the corresponding eigenvalues are also derived and the modal properties of the LFIA oscillations are discussed. Analytically obtained results are verified through numerical simulations. (author)

  14. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  15. The low-temperature aging embrittlement in a 2205 duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, K.L.; Chen, H.R.; Yang, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of isothermal treatment (at temperatures ranging between 400 and 500 deg. C) on the embrittlement of a 2205 duplex stainless steel (with 45 ferrite-55 austenite, vol.%) has been investigated. The impact toughness and hardness of the aged specimens were measured, while the corresponding fractography was studied. The results show that the steel is susceptible to severe embrittlement when exposed at 475 deg. C; this aging embrittlement is analogous with that of the ferritic stainless steels, which is ascribed to the degenerated ferrite phase. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that an isotropic spinodal decomposition occurred during aging at 475 deg. C in the steel studied; the original δ-ferrite decomposed into a nanometer-scaled modulated structure with a complex interconnected network, which contained an iron-rich BCC phase (α) and a chromium-enriched BCC phase (α'). It is suggested that the locking of dislocations in the modulated structure leads to the severe embrittlement

  16. Anelasticity in austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-dependent anelastic deformation mechanisms arise in austenitic stainless steel when load is removed during a high-temperature creep test. This phenomenon is investigated by conducting creep tests, with intermittent load removal, on AISI Type 316H austenitic stainless steel at 550 and 650 °C, supported by in situ measurement of creep-induced intergranular residual strains by neutron diffraction. All the cyclic tests exhibit anelastic behaviour on unloading and develop substantially lower load-on creep strain rates, reduced ductility and longer rupture times than baseline steady-load creep tests at similar conditions. The mechanisms underlying the observed anelastic behaviour and changes in macroscopic creep properties are discussed with reference to the development of intergranular strains and dislocation behaviour.

  17. Thermophysical properties of stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.

    1975-09-01

    Recommended values of the thermodynamic and transport properties of stainless steels Type 304L and Type 316L are given for temperatures from 300 to 3000 0 K. The properties in the solid region were obtained by extrapolating available experimental data to the melting range, while appropriate correlations were used to estimate the properties in the liquid region. The properties evaluated include the enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, vapor pressure, density, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and viscosity. (9 fig, 11 tables)

  18. Nano-composite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  19. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  20. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M; Riaz, N; Asghar, S; Malik, U A; Rehman, A

    2011-01-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  1. Towards energy aware optical networks and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesk, Ivan; Osadola, Tolulope; Idris, Siti

    2013-10-01

    In a today's world, information technology has been identified as one of the major factors driving economic prosperity. Datacenters businesses have been growing significantly in the past few years. The equipments in these datacenters need to be efficiently connected to each other and also to the outside world in order to enable effective exchange of information. This is why there is need for highly scalable, energy savvy and reliable network connectivity infrastructure that is capable of accommodating the large volume of data being exchanged at any time within the datacenter network and the outside network in general. These devices that can ensure such effective connectivity currently require large amount of energy in order to meet up with these increasing demands. In this paper, an overview of works being done towards realizing energy aware optical networks and interconnects for datacenters is presented. Also an OCDMA approach is discussed as potential multiple access technique for future optical network interconnections. We also presented some challenges that might inhibit effective implementation of the OCDMA multiplexing scheme.

  2. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, M.; Asghar, S.; Malik, U. A.; Rehman, A.; Riaz, N.

    2011-12-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  3. Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuya Yabuki; Yasunori Arizumi; Tetsuhiro Shimozato; Samy Guezouli; Hiroaki Matsusita; Masayuki Tai

    2017-01-01

    The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate stre...

  4. Variational Integrators for Interconnected Lagrange-Dirac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Helen; Leok, Melvin

    2017-10-01

    Interconnected systems are an important class of mathematical models, as they allow for the construction of complex, hierarchical, multiphysics, and multiscale models by the interconnection of simpler subsystems. Lagrange-Dirac mechanical systems provide a broad category of mathematical models that are closed under interconnection, and in this paper, we develop a framework for the interconnection of discrete Lagrange-Dirac mechanical systems, with a view toward constructing geometric structure-preserving discretizations of interconnected systems. This work builds on previous work on the interconnection of continuous Lagrange-Dirac systems (Jacobs and Yoshimura in J Geom Mech 6(1):67-98, 2014) and discrete Dirac variational integrators (Leok and Ohsawa in Found Comput Math 11(5), 529-562, 2011). We test our results by simulating some of the continuous examples given in Jacobs and Yoshimura (2014).

  5. One-gigabit per second free-space optical interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, D Z

    1990-05-10

    A simple and efficient board-to-board optical interconnection consisting of only a laser, two lenses, and a detector demonstrates the direct free-space interconnection of digital circuits. No external laser driver, detector preamplifier, or other interface circuitry was required because of the high efficiency of the link. A differential electrical-to-electrical current efficiency as high as 19% was measured. The interconnection operates at clock rates of 1 GHz.

  6. Asynchronous decentralized method for interconnected electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Anni; Joo, Sung-Kwan; Song, Kyung-Bin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, Kisung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an asynchronous decentralized method to solve the optimization problem of interconnected electricity markets. The proposed method decomposes the optimization problem of combined electricity markets into individual optimization problems. The impact of neighboring markets' information is included in the objective function of the individual market optimization problem by the standard Lagrangian relaxation method. Most decentralized optimization methods use synchronous models of communication to exchange updated market information among markets during the iterative process. In this paper, however, the solutions of the individual optimization problems are coordinated through an asynchronous communication model until they converge to the global optimal solution of combined markets. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed asynchronous method over the existing synchronous methods. (author)

  7. Experimental demonstration of titanium nitride plasmonic interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, N; Ferrera, M; Naik, G V; Babicheva, V E; Shalaev, V M; Boltasseva, A

    2014-05-19

    An insulator-metal-insulator plasmonic interconnect using TiN, a CMOS-compatible material, is proposed and investigated experimentally at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55 µm. The TiN waveguide was shown to obtain propagation losses less than 0.8 dB/mm with a mode size of 9.8 µm on sapphire, which agree well with theoretical predictions. A theoretical analysis of a solid-state structure using Si(3)N(4) superstrates and ultra-thin metal strips shows that propagation losses less than 0.3 dB/mm with a mode size of 9 µm are attainable. This work illustrates the potential of TiN as a realistic plasmonic material for practical solid-state, integrated nano-optic and hybrid photonic devices.

  8. SIDES - Segment Interconnect Diagnostic Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, A.W.; Forster, R.; Gustafsson, L.; Ho, N.

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that the FASTBUS Segment Interconnect (SI) provides a communication path between two otherwise independent, asynchronous bus segments. The SI is probably the most important module in any FASTBUS data acquisition network since it's failure to function can cause whole segments of the network to be inaccessible and sometimes inoperable. This paper describes SIDES, an intelligent program designed to diagnose SI's both in situ as they operate in a data acquisition network, and in the laboratory in an acceptance/repair environment. The paper discusses important issues such as knowledge acquisition; extracting knowledge from human experts and other knowledge sources. SIDES can benefit high energy physics experiments, where SI problems can be diagnosed and solved more quickly. Equipment pool technicians can also benefit from SIDES, first by decreasing the number of SI's erroneously turned in for repair, and secondly as SIDES acts as an intelligent assistant to the technician in the diagnosis and repair process

  9. Virtual interconnection platform initiative scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kou, Gefei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pan, Zuohong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Yilu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); King Jr., Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Due to security and liability concerns, the research community has limited access to realistic large-scale power grid models to test and validate new operation and control methodologies. It is also difficult for industry to evaluate the relative value of competing new tools without a common platform for comparison. This report proposes to develop a large-scale virtual power grid model that retains basic features and represents future trends of major U.S. electric interconnections. This model will include realistic power flow and dynamics information as well as a relevant geospatial distribution of assets. This model will be made widely available to the research community for various power system stability and control studies and can be used as a common platform for comparing the efficacies of various new technologies.

  10. Cost based interconnection charges as a way to induce competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between regulation of interconnection charges and the level of competition. One of the most important issues in the debate on interconnect regulation has been use of forward looking costs for setting of interconnection charges. This debate...... has been ongoing within the EU as well as in US. This paper discusses the European experiences and in particular the Danish experiences with use of cost based interconnection charges, and their impact on competition in the telecom market....

  11. Assessment of The Electrical Systems Interconnection in The Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Abderrazzaq

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The international trend of interconnecting electric power systems has two dimensions; economical and technical. Electric power systems in the Arab World are not only eligible, but in need for having a unified power grid. The potentials, status and conditions of the existing and future interconnections in this region are overviewed. The development of the six countries interconnection project, including the completed phase of Jordan-Egypt submarine link, is discussed in details. Finally, the main technical problems, which either faced the first stages of the project or expected to face the interconnected systems in the subsequent stages, are highlighted.

  12. Interconnection of subsystems in closed-loop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    The focus in this paper is analysis of stability and controller design for interconnected systems. This includes both the case with known and unknown interconnected sub-system. The key element in both the stability analysis and controller design is the application of the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kuce......The focus in this paper is analysis of stability and controller design for interconnected systems. This includes both the case with known and unknown interconnected sub-system. The key element in both the stability analysis and controller design is the application of the Youla...

  13. Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection Systems: Technology Review and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, N. R.

    2002-09-01

    Interconnecting distributed energy resources (DER) to the electric utility grid (or Area Electric Power System, Area EPS) involves system engineering, safety, and reliability considerations. This report documents US DOE Distribution and Interconnection R&D (formerly Distributed Power Program) activities, furthering the development and safe and reliable integration of DER interconnected with our nation's electric power systems. The key to that is system integration and technology development of the interconnection devices that perform the functions necessary to maintain the safety, power quality, and reliability of the EPS when DER are connected to it.

  14. Is galvanic corrosion between titanium alloy and stainless steel spinal implants a clinical concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhan, Hassan; Slivka, Michael; Albert, Todd; Kwak, S Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Surgeons are hesitant to mix components made of differing metal classes for fear of galvanic corrosion complications. However, in vitro studies have failed to show a significant potential for galvanic corrosion between titanium and stainless steel, the two primary metallic alloys used for spinal implants. Galvanic corrosion resulting from metal mixing has not been described in the literature for spinal implant systems. To determine whether galvanic potential significantly affects in vitro corrosion of titanium and stainless steel spinal implant components during cyclical compression bending. Bilateral spinal implant constructs consisting of pedicle screws, slotted connectors, 6.35-mm diameter rods and a transverse rod connector assembled in polyethylene test blocks were tested in vitro. Two constructs had stainless steel rods with mixed stainless steel (SS-SS) and titanium (SS-Ti) components, and two constructs had titanium rods with mixed stainless steel (Ti-SS) and titanium (Ti-Ti) components. Each construct was immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) at 37 C and tested in cyclic compression bending using a sinusoidal load-controlling function with a peak load of 300 N and a frequency of 5 Hz until a level of 5 million cycles was reached. The samples were then removed and analyzed visually for evidence of corrosion. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were used to evaluate the extent of corrosion at the interconnections. None of the constructs failed during testing. Gross observation of the implant components after disassembly revealed that no corrosion had occurred on the surface of the implants that had not been in contact with another component. The Ti-Ti interfaces showed some minor signs of corrosion only detectable using SEM and EDS. The greatest amount of corrosion occurred at the SS-SS interfaces and was qualitatively less at the SS-Ti and Ti-SS interfaces. The results from this study indicate

  15. Electric power grid interconnection in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol; Zhang, Zhong Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In spite of regional closeness, energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has remained unexplored. However, this situation appears to be changing. The government of South Korea seems to be very enthusiastic for power grid interconnection between the Russian Far East and South Korea to overcome difficulties in finding new sites for building power facilities to meet its need for increased electricity supplies. This paper analyzes the feasibility of this electric power grid interconnection route. The issues addressed include electricity market structures; the prospects for electric power industry restructuring in the Russian Federation and South Korea; the political issues related to North Korea; the challenges for the governments involved and the obstacles anticipated in moving this project forward; project financing and the roles and concerns from multilateral and regional banks; and institutional framework for energy cooperation. While there are many technical issues that need to be resolved, we think that the great challenge lies in the financing of this commercial project. Thus, the governments of the Russian Federation and South Korea involved in the project need to foster the development of their internal capital markets and to create confidence with international investors. To this end, on energy side, this involves defining a clear energy policy implemented by independent regulators, speeding up the already started but delayed reform process of restructuring electric power industry and markets, and establishing a fair and transparent dispute resolution mechanism in order to reduce non-commercial risks to a minimum. The paper argues that establishing a framework for energy cooperation in this region will contribute positively towards that end, although views differ regarding its specific form. Finally, given that North Korea has a crucial transit role to play and faces a very unstable political situation, it is concluded that moving the project forward needs to be

  16. Evaluating Pillar Industry’s Transformation Capability: A Case Study of Two Chinese Steel-Based Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhidong; Marinova, Dora; Guo, Xiumei; Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Many steel-based cities in China were established between the 1950s and 1960s. After more than half a century of development and boom, these cities are starting to decline and industrial transformation is urgently needed. This paper focuses on evaluating the transformation capability of resource-based cities building an evaluation model. Using Text Mining and the Document Explorer technique as a way of extracting text features, the 200 most frequently used words are derived from 100 publications related to steel- and other resource-based cities. The Expert Evaluation Method (EEM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques are then applied to select 53 indicators, determine their weights and establish an index system for evaluating the transformation capability of the pillar industry of China’s steel-based cities. Using real data and expert reviews, the improved Fuzzy Relation Matrix (FRM) method is applied to two case studies in China, namely Panzhihua and Daye, and the evaluation model is developed using Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation (FCE). The cities’ abilities to carry out industrial transformation are evaluated with concerns expressed for the case of Daye. The findings have policy implications for the potential and required industrial transformation in the two selected cities and other resource-based towns. PMID:26422266

  17. Solidification cracking in austenitic stainless steel welds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    V Shankar et al. Although much research experience exists on the nature of hot cracking in stainless steels ... that crack-resistant weld deposits could be produced if the composition is adjusted to result in 5–35% fer- .... A large volume of literature is devoted to the prediction and measurement of δ-ferrite in stainless steel ...

  18. Robert Aymar seals the last interconnect in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The LHC completes the circle. On 7 November, in a brief ceremony in the LHC tunnel, CERN Director General Robert Aymar (Photo 1) sealed the last interconnect between the main magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Jean-Philippe Tock, leader of the Interconnections team, tightens the last bolt (Photos 4-8).

  19. 14 CFR 29.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) Where tank outlets are interconnected and allow fuel to flow between them due to gravity or flight accelerations, it must be impossible for fuel to flow between tanks in...

  20. Carbon Nanotubes as Vertical Interconnects in 3D Integrated Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollebregt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Interconnects in integrated circuits (IC) are the major cause of power dissipation and delay. 3D integration has been proposed as a method to reduce these issues. For this 3D integration, fabrication of high aspect ratio reliable vertical interconnects (vias) are required. For this new materials,

  1. Circuit and interconnect design for high bit-rate applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, H.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents circuit and interconnect design techniques and design flows that address the most difficult and ill-defined aspects of the design of ICs for high bit-rate applications. Bottlenecks in interconnect design, circuit design and on-chip signal distribution for high bit-rate

  2. Laser induced forward transfer of interconnects for 3D integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, G.; Prenen, A.; Huis in 't veld, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Interconnects are an important cost driver in advanced 3D chip packaging. This holds for Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) for chip stacking, but also for other interconnect steps like re-distribution layers and solder bumps. Especially in applications with a low number (<100 mm-2) of relatively large

  3. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  4. Determining the Utility Value of Water-Supply Interconnections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, James L.; Cheremisinoff, Paul N.

    1979-01-01

    This article is the third in a series which discusses a mathematical methodology for evaluating interconnections of water supply systems. The model can be used to analyze the carrying capacity of proposed links or predict the impact of abandoning interconnections. (AS)

  5. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Altaf Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA archwires. Materials and Methods: We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets - titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel - using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated canine retraction was undertaken to evaluate the difference in frictional resistance between titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires. Results and Conclusion: We compared the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires, with the help of Instron Universal Testing Machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Student′s "t" test, and post hoc multiple range test at level of <0.05 showed statistically significant difference in the mean values of all groups. Results demonstrated that the titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets of 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot had no significant variations in frictional résistance. The self-ligating bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the other groups. The titanium bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the stainless steel brackets.

  6. Anisotropic Constitutive Model of Strain-Induced Phenomena in Stainless Steels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garion, C.; Skoczen, B.

    2004-01-01

    A majority of the thin-walled components subjected to intensive plastic straining at cryogenic temperatures are made of stainless steels. The examples of such components can be found in the interconnections of particle accelerators, containing the superconducting magnets, where the thermal contraction is absorbed by thin-walled, axisymmetric shells called bellows expansion joints. The stainless steels show three main phenomena induced by plastic strains at cryogenic temperatures: serrated (discontinuous) yielding, γ→α' phase transformation and anisotropic ductile damage. In the present paper, a coupled constitutive model of γ→α' phase transformation and orthotropic ductile damage is presented. A kinetic law of phase transformation, and a kinetic law of evolution of orthotropic damage are presented. The model is extended to anisotropic plasticity comprising a constant anisotropy (texture effect), which can be classically taken into account by the Hill yield surface, and plastic strain induced anisotropy. For such a model the shape of the yield surface in the stress space varies as a function of the plastic strains. The constitutive model creates a bridge between material science (experiments) and structural analysis. It has been used to predict the response of beam vacuum and cryogenic bellows to monotonic and cyclic loads developed in the interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

  7. Laser Direct Routing for High Density Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Wilfrido Alejandro

    The laser restructuring of electronic circuits fabricated using standard Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) process techniques, is an excellent alternative that allows low-cost quick turnaround production with full circuit similarity between the Laser Restructured prototype and the customized product for mass production. Laser Restructurable VLSI (LRVLSI) would allow design engineers the capability to interconnect cells that implement generic logic functions and signal processing schemes to achieve a higher level of design complexity. LRVLSI of a particular circuit at the wafer or packaged chip level is accomplished using an integrated computer controlled laser system to create low electrical resistance links between conductors and to cut conductor lines. An infrastructure for rapid prototyping and quick turnaround using Laser Restructuring of VLSI circuits was developed to meet three main parallel objectives: to pursue research on novel interconnect technologies using LRVLSI, to develop the capability of operating in a quick turnaround mode, and to maintain standardization and compatibility with commercially available equipment for feasible technology transfer. The system is to possess a high degree of flexibility, high data quality, total controllability, full documentation, short downtime, a user-friendly operator interface, automation, historical record keeping, and error indication and logging. A specially designed chip "SLINKY" was used as the test vehicle for the complete characterization of the Laser Restructuring system. With the use of Design of Experiment techniques the Lateral Diffused Link (LDL), developed originally at MIT Lincoln Laboratories, was completely characterized and for the first time a set of optimum process parameters was obtained. With the designed infrastructure fully operational, the priority objective was the search for a substitute for the high resistance, high current leakage to substrate, and relatively low density Lateral

  8. Next generation space interconnect research and development in space communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Interconnect or "bus" is one of the critical technologies in design of spacecraft avionics systems that dictates its architecture and complexity. MIL-STD-1553B has long been used as the avionics backbone technology. As avionics systems become more and more capable and complex, however, limitations of MIL-STD-1553B such as insufficient 1 Mbps bandwidth and separability have forced current avionics architects and designers to use combination of different interconnect technologies in order to meet various requirements: CompactPCI is used for backplane interconnect; LVDS or RS422 is used for low and high-speed direct point-to-point interconnect; and some proprietary interconnect standards are designed for custom interfaces. This results in a very complicated system that consumes significant spacecraft mass and power and requires extensive resources in design, integration and testing of spacecraft systems.

  9. On the reliability oriented optimization of the LHC interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Skoczen, Blazej; Jacquemod, A; Poncet, A; Schauf, F; Tock, J P

    2002-01-01

    To achieve the maximum beam energy in the LHC the accumulated length of spatial zones, dedicated to the interconnections between the main cryomagnets, has been limited to 3% of the total magnetic length in the Arcs and Dispersion Suppressors. Such a low ratio leads to a very compact design of systems and subsystems situated in the LHC interconnections. The requirements concerning reliability of the LHC interconnections are very tight since the availability of the collider for physics cannot be compromised. The failure modes taken into account in the LHC interconnections are grouped into 4 categories: material failures, structural failures, fatigue failures and electrical failures. A concept of reliability oriented parametric optimization of the LHC interconnections is presented. (4 refs).

  10. Fuel cell electrode interconnect contact material encapsulation and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derose, Anthony J.; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Gudyka, Russell A.; Bonadies, Joseph V.; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2016-05-31

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cell cassettes each including a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode. Each fuel cell cassette also includes an electrode interconnect adjacent to the anode or the cathode for providing electrical communication between an adjacent fuel cell cassette and the anode or the cathode. The interconnect includes a plurality of electrode interconnect protrusions defining a flow passage along the anode or the cathode for communicating oxidant or fuel to the anode or the cathode. An electrically conductive material is disposed between at least one of the electrode interconnect protrusions and the anode or the cathode in order to provide a stable electrical contact between the electrode interconnect and the anode or cathode. An encapsulating arrangement segregates the electrically conductive material from the flow passage thereby, preventing volatilization of the electrically conductive material in use of the fuel cell stack.

  11. A one-semester course in modeling of VSLI interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative understanding of the parasitic capacitances and inductances, and the resultant propagation delays and crosstalk phenomena associated with the metallic interconnections on the very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits has become extremely important for the optimum design of the state-of-the-art integrated circuits. More than 65 percent of the delays on the integrated circuit chip occur in the interconnections and not in the transistors on the chip. Mathematical techniques to model the parasitic capacitances, inductances, propagation delays, crosstalk noise, and electromigration-induced failure associated with the interconnections in the realistic high-density environment on a chip will be discussed. A One-Semester Course in Modeling of VLSI Interconnections also includes an overview of the future interconnection technologies for the nanotechnology circuits.

  12. Characterization of microstructure and texture across dissimilar super duplex/austenitic stainless steel weldment joint by super duplex filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eghlimi, Abbas, E-mail: a.eghlimi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamanian, Morteza [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eskandarian, Masoomeh [Department of Materials Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabolian, Azam [Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Szpunar, Jerzy A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon SK S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    In the present paper, microstructural changes across an as-welded dissimilar austenitic/duplex stainless steel couple welded by a super duplex stainless steel filler metal using gas tungsten arc welding process is characterized with optical microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction techniques. Accordingly, variations of microstructure, texture, and grain boundary character distribution of base metals, heat affected zones, and weld metal were investigated. The results showed that the weld metal, which was composed of Widmanstätten austenite side-plates and allotriomorphic grain boundary austenite morphologies, had the weakest texture and was dominated by low angle boundaries. The welding process increased the ferrite content but decreased the texture intensity at the heat affected zone of the super duplex stainless steel base metal. In addition, through partial ferritization, it changed the morphology of elongated grains of the rolled microstructure to twinned partially transformed austenite plateaus scattered between ferrite textured colonies. However, the texture of the austenitic stainless steel heat affected zone was strengthened via encouraging recrystallization and formation of annealing twins. At both interfaces, an increase in the special character coincident site lattice boundaries of the primary phase as well as a strong texture with <100> orientation, mainly of Goss component, was observed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Weld metal showed local orientation at microscale but random texture at macroscale. • Intensification of <100> orientated grains was observed adjacent to the fusion lines. • The austenite texture was weaker than that of the ferrite in all duplex regions. • Welding caused twinned partially transformed austenites to form at SDSS HAZ. • At both interfaces, the ratio of special CSL boundaries of the primary phase increased.

  13. Interconnecting Danube networks through satellite links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radureau, J.

    Studies to be performed by the French NADIR project on techniques to interconnect Danube local-area networks via the Telecom-1 satellite communications system are described. Danube links up to 256 stations by coaxial cable at a predicted rate of 1.8 Mbit/sec in CSMA/CD mode and offers both connectionless and connection-oriented service; Telecom 1 (as simulated by ANIS) provides call-per-call or semipermanent TDMA simplex or full-duplex linkage (point-to-point or multipoint) at 2.4-2000 kbit/sec with a delay of 300 msec and a bit error rate (BER) lower than 10 to the -6th 99 percent of the time (or 10 to the -10th with forward-error correction). The problems of routing, error control, and flow control are considered. A simple scheme involving routing by filtering the address fields, no error and flow control, and minicomputers as gateways in each Danube system is chosen for the point-to-point simulations, while the multipoint connections will be made receiver half-gates and single sender half-gates at each Danube system. Block diagrams are provided.

  14. Microtexture of Strain in electroplated copper interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spolenak, R.; Barr, D.L.; Gross, M.E.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Brown, W.L.; Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Valek, B.C.; Bravman, J.C.; Flinn, P.; Marieb, T.; Keller, R.R.; Batterman, B.W.; Patel, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure of narrow metal conductors in the electrical interconnections on IC chips has often been identified as of major importance in the reliability of these devices. The stresses and stress gradients that develop in the conductors as a result of thermal expansion differences in the materials and of electromigration at high current densities are believed to be strongly dependent on the details of the grain structure. The present work discusses new techniques based on microbeam x-ray diffraction (MBXRD) that have enabled measurement not only of the microstructure of totally encapsulated conductors but also of the local stresses in them on a micron and submicron scale. White x-rays from the Advanced Light Source were focused to a micron spot size by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The sample was stepped under the micro-beam and Laue images obtained at each sample location using a CCD area detector. Microstructure and local strain were deduced from these images. Cu lines with widths ranging from 0.8 mm to 5 mm and thickness of 1 mm were investigated. Comparisons are made between the capabilities of MBXRD and the well established techniques of broad beam XRD, electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and focused ion beam imagining (FIB)

  15. Interconnected cavernous structure of bacterial fruiting bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron W Harvey

    Full Text Available The formation of spore-filled fruiting bodies by myxobacteria is a fascinating case of multicellular self-organization by bacteria. The organization of Myxococcus xanthus into fruiting bodies has long been studied not only as an important example of collective motion of bacteria, but also as a simplified model for developmental morphogenesis. Sporulation within the nascent fruiting body requires signaling between moving cells in order that the rod-shaped self-propelled cells differentiate into spores at the appropriate time. Probing the three-dimensional structure of myxobacteria fruiting bodies has previously presented a challenge due to limitations of different imaging methods. A new technique using Infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT revealed previously unknown details of the internal structure of M. xanthus fruiting bodies consisting of interconnected pockets of relative high and low spore density regions. To make sense of the experimentally observed structure, modeling and computer simulations were used to test a hypothesized mechanism that could produce high-density pockets of spores. The mechanism consists of self-propelled cells aligning with each other and signaling by end-to-end contact to coordinate the process of differentiation resulting in a pattern of clusters observed in the experiment. The integration of novel OCT experimental techniques with computational simulations can provide new insight into the mechanisms that can give rise to the pattern formation seen in other biological systems such as dictyostelids, social amoeba known to form multicellular aggregates observed as slugs under starvation conditions.

  16. Interconnection issues in Ontario : a status check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbronner, V.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed wind and renewable energy interconnection issues in Ontario. The province's Green Energy Act established a feed-in tariff (FIT) program and provided priority connection access to the electricity system for renewable energy generation facilities that meet regulatory requirements. As a result of the province's initiatives, Hydro One has identified 20 priority transmission expansion projects and is focusing on servicing renewable resource clusters. As of October 2010, the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) has received 1469 MW of FIT contracts executed for wind projects. A further 5953 MW of wind projects are awaiting approval. A Korean consortium is now planning to develop 2500 MW of renewable energy projects in the province. The OPA has also been asked to develop an updated transmission expansion plan. Transmission/distribution availability tests (TAT/DAT) have been established to determine if there is sufficient connection availability for FIT application projects. Economic connection tests (ECTs) are conducted to assess whether grid upgrade costs to enable additional FIT capacity are justifiable. When projects pass the ECT, grid upgrades needed for the connection included in grid expansion plans. Ontario's long term energy plan was also reviewed. tabs., figs.

  17. Electrically driven monolithic subwavelength plasmonic interconnect circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jiasen; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2017-10-01

    In the post-Moore era, an electrically driven monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) fabricated from a single material is pursued globally to enable the construction of wafer-scale compact computing systems with powerful processing capabilities and low-power consumption. We report a monolithic plasmonic interconnect circuit (PIC) consisting of a photovoltaic (PV) cascading detector, Au-strip waveguides, and electrically driven surface plasmon polariton (SPP) sources. These components are fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor)-compatible doping-free technique in the same feature size, which can be reduced to deep-subwavelength scale (~λ/7 to λ/95, λ = 1340 nm) compared with the 14-nm technique node. An OEIC could potentially be configured as a repeater for data transport because of its "photovoltaic" operation mode to transform SPP energy directly into electricity to drive subsequent electronic circuits. Moreover, chip-scale throughput capability has also been demonstrated by fabricating a 20 × 20 PIC array on a 10 mm × 10 mm wafer. Tailoring photonics for monolithic integration with electronics beyond the diffraction limit opens a new era of chip-level nanoscale electronic-photonic systems, introducing a new path to innovate toward much faster, smaller, and cheaper computing frameworks.

  18. Irradiation embrittlement of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, K.; Kayano, H.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of the irradiation embrittlement of some ferritic stainless steels were examined by tensile tests. Steels selected in this investigation were classified into three groups: chi phase, precipitation hardened Fe-13Cr steels; tempered martensitic Fe-12Cr steels; and low alloy steels. The latter steels were chosen in order to compare the irradiation embrittlement characteristics with those of stainless steels. The stainless steels were superior to the low alloy steels with regard to the irradiation embrittlement (the changes in both ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and unstable plastic flow transition temperature (UPFTT)), irrespective of whether these stainless steels had chi phase precipitated structures or tempered martensitic structures. The suppression of the DBTT increase owing to irradiation results from low yield stress increase Δσsub(y) and high |[dσsub(y)(u)/dT]|, where u denotes unirradiated, in the stainless steels. The suppression of the UPFTT results from the high work hardening rate or the high work exponent and the low Lueders strain in the stainless steels. These characteristics of irradiation embrittlement in the ferritic stainless steels are thought to be caused by the defect structure, which is modified by Cr atoms. (author)

  19. Development of new high-performance stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soo

    2002-01-01

    This paper focused on high-performance stainless steels and their development status. Effect of nitrogen addition on super-stainless steel was discussed. Research activities at Yonsei University, on austenitic and martensitic high-performance stainless, steels, and the next-generation duplex stainless steels were introduced

  20. Assesment of (Mn,Co)3O4 powders for possible coating material for SOFC/SOEC interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczewska, D.; Molin, Sebastian; Venkatachalam, Vinothini

    2015-01-01

    In this work (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel powders with different Mn:Co ratio (1:1 and 1:2) and from different commercial suppliers are evaluated for possible powder for production of interconnect coatings. Sinterability of the powders is evaluated on pressed pellets sintered in oxidizing and in reducing....../oxidizing atmospheres. For selected powder, coatings are then prepared by the electrophoretic deposition method on Crofer 22 APU stainless steel coupons. Effects of dispersant/iodine content and deposition voltage and times are evaluated. Thickness as a function of deposition parameters is described. Results show...

  1. Study of the Contact Resistance of Interlaced Stainless Steel Yarns Embedded in Hybrid Woven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Simona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contact resistance of two interlacing electro-conductive yarns embedded in a hybrid woven fabric will constitute a problem for electro-conductive textiles under certain circumstances. A high contact resistance can induce hotspots, while a variable contact resistance may cause malfunctioning of the components that are interconnected by the electro-conductive yarns. Moreover, the contact robustness should be preserved over time and various treatments such as washing or abrading should not alter the functioning of the electro-conductive textiles. The electrical resistance developed in the contact point of two interlacing electro-conductive yarns is the result of various factors. The influence of diameter of the electro-conductive stainless steel yarns, the weave pattern, the weft density, and the abrasion on the contact resistance was investigated. Hybrid polyester fabrics were produced according to the design of experiments (DoE and statistical models were found that describe the variation of the contact resistance with the selected input parameters. It was concluded that the diameter of the stainless steel warp and weft yarns has a statistically significant influence on the contact resistance regardless of the weave. Weft density had a significant influence on the contact resistance but only in case of the twill fabrics. Abrasion led to an increase in contact resistance regardless of the weave pattern and the type of stainless steel yarn that was used. Finally, a combination of parameters that leads to plain and twill fabrics with low contact resistance and robust contacts is recommended.

  2. Topologies for optical interconnection networks based on the optical transpose interconnection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, D; Ferreira, A; Muñoz, X

    2000-06-10

    Many results exist in the literature describing technological and theoretical advances in optical network topologies and design. However, an essential effort has yet to be made in linking those results together. We propose a step in this direction by giving optical layouts for several graph-theoretical topologies studied in the literature, using the optical transpose interconnection system (OTIS) architecture. These topologies include the family of partitioned optical passive star (POPS) and stack-Kautz networks as well as a generalization of the Kautz and the de Bruijn digraphs.

  3. Signal Integrity Analysis in Single and Bundled Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, M.K.; Pandya, N.D.; Kaushik, B.K.; Manhas, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CN T) can be considered as an emerging interconnect material in current nano scale regime. They are more promising than other interconnect materials such as Al or Cu because of their robustness to electromigration. This research paper aims to address the crosstalk-related issues (signal integrity) in interconnect lines. Different analytical models of single- (SWCNT), double- (DWCNT), and multiwalled CNTs (MWCNT) are studied to analyze the crosstalk delay at global interconnect lengths. A capacitively coupled three-line bus architecture employing CMOS driver is used for accurate estimation of crosstalk delay. Each line in bus architecture is represented with the equivalent RLC models of single and bundled SWCNT, DWCNT, and MWCNT interconnects. Crosstalk delay is observed at middle line (victim) when it switches in opposite direction with respect to the other two lines (aggressors). Using the data predicted by ITRS 2012, a comparative analysis on the basis of crosstalk delay is performed for bundled SWCNT/DWCNT and single MWCNT interconnects. It is observed that the overall crosstalk delay is improved by 40.92% and 21.37% for single MWCNT in comparison to bundled SWCNT and bundled DWCNT interconnects, respectively.

  4. Hydrogen damage in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen damage has been studied in a wide variety of stainless steels. Both internal and external hydrogen damage were evaluated by ductility or J-integral under rising tensile loads and by fractography. Analysis of the data has emphasized the potential effects of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen damage. Strain-induced martensite was neither necessary nor sufficient for hydrogen damage in the alloys studied. Neither ductility loss nor fracture-mode change correlated generally with martensite formation. Alloy composition, particularly nickel and nitrogen contents, was the primary factor in resistance to hydrogen damage. Thermomechanical processing, however, could alter the degree of hydrogen damage in an alloy and was critical for optimizing resistance to hydrogen damage. 10 figures, 10 tables

  5. Special stainless steels for sea water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaselli, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Very exacting demands are made on the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of materials which in their service come into contact with seawater, and in many cases simultaneously with corrosive process solutions. The demand for higher alloy stainless steels for seawater application is rising in pace with the increasing requirements for safety and operation economy. The corrosion conditions in seawater and the resistance of stainless steels in this medium will be dealt with in the following. Sanicro 28 will then be compared with stainless steels, types AISI 304, 316 and 317, as well as with Alloy 20, Alloy 825 and SANDVIK 2RK65. (Author) [pt

  6. Recycle of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.; Leader, D.R.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy owns large quantities of radiologically contaminated austenitic stainless steel which could by recycled for reuse if appropriate release standards were in place. Unfortunately, current policy places the formulation of a release standard for USA industry years, if not decades, away. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and various university and industrial partners are participating in initiative to recycle previously contaminated austenitic stainless steels into containers for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. This paper describes laboratory scale experiments which demonstrated the decontamination and remelt of stainless steel which had been contaminated with radionuclides

  7. Genomic Predictability of Interconnected Biparental Maize Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedelsheimer, Christian; Endelman, Jeffrey B.; Stange, Michael; Sorrells, Mark E.; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Melchinger, Albrecht E.

    2013-01-01

    Intense structuring of plant breeding populations challenges the design of the training set (TS) in genomic selection (GS). An important open question is how the TS should be constructed from multiple related or unrelated small biparental families to predict progeny from individual crosses. Here, we used a set of five interconnected maize (Zea mays L.) populations of doubled-haploid (DH) lines derived from four parents to systematically investigate how the composition of the TS affects the prediction accuracy for lines from individual crosses. A total of 635 DH lines genotyped with 16,741 polymorphic SNPs were evaluated for five traits including Gibberella ear rot severity and three kernel yield component traits. The populations showed a genomic similarity pattern, which reflects the crossing scheme with a clear separation of full sibs, half sibs, and unrelated groups. Prediction accuracies within full-sib families of DH lines followed closely theoretical expectations, accounting for the influence of sample size and heritability of the trait. Prediction accuracies declined by 42% if full-sib DH lines were replaced by half-sib DH lines, but statistically significantly better results could be achieved if half-sib DH lines were available from both instead of only one parent of the validation population. Once both parents of the validation population were represented in the TS, including more crosses with a constant TS size did not increase accuracies. Unrelated crosses showing opposite linkage phases with the validation population resulted in negative or reduced prediction accuracies, if used alone or in combination with related families, respectively. We suggest identifying and excluding such crosses from the TS. Moreover, the observed variability among populations and traits suggests that these uncertainties must be taken into account in models optimizing the allocation of resources in GS. PMID:23535384

  8. Analysis of interconnecting energy systems over a synchronized life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology is developed for evaluating a life cycle of interconnected systems. • A new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced via quantitative formulation. • The interconnecting systems are synchronized through the partial temporal boundary. • A case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system is developed. - Abstract: Life cycle analysis (LCA) using the process chain analysis (PCA) approach has been widely applied to energy systems. When applied to an individual energy system, such as coal or nuclear electricity generation, an LCA–PCA methodology can yield relatively accurate results with its detailed process representation based on engineering data. However, there are fundamental issues when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to a more complex life cycle, namely, a synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems. A synchronized life cycle of interconnected energy systems is established through direct interconnections among the processes of different energy systems, and all interconnecting systems are bounded within the same timeframe. Under such a life cycle formation, there are some major complications when applying conventional LCA–PCA methodology to evaluate the interconnecting energy systems. Essentially, the conventional system and boundary formulations developed for a life cycle of individual energy system cannot be directly applied to a life cycle of interconnected energy systems. To address these inherent issues, a new LCA–PCA methodology is presented in this paper, in which a new concept of partial temporal boundary is introduced to synchronize the interconnecting energy systems. The importance and advantages of these new developments are demonstrated through a case study on the life cycle of the coal–uranium system.

  9. On-chip photonic interconnects a computer architect's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, Christopher J; Akella, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    As the number of cores on a chip continues to climb, architects will need to address both bandwidth and power consumption issues related to the interconnection network. Electrical interconnects are not likely to scale well to a large number of processors for energy efficiency reasons, and the problem is compounded by the fact that there is a fixed total power budget for a die, dictated by the amount of heat that can be dissipated without special (and expensive) cooling and packaging techniques. Thus, there is a need to seek alternatives to electrical signaling for on-chip interconnection appli

  10. 1st International Conference on Local Area Network Interconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Onvural, Raif O; Local area network interconnection

    1993-01-01

    QoS Enhancements and the New Transport Services; A. Danthine, et al. Performance Evaluation and Monitoring of Heterogenous Networks; J. Neuman, et al. Application of High Speed Networks in Hospital Environment; J.R. Rao. On Allocation Schemes for the Interconnection of LANs and Multimedia Sources over Broadband Networks; M. Mateescu. A Superposition of Bursty Sources in a LAN Interconnection Environment; J.M. Karlsson. Interconnecting LANs for Real Time Traffic Application; I. Chlamtac. An Analytical Model for ATM Based Networks which Utilize LookAhead Contention Resolution Switching;

  11. Horizontal electron beam welding for stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Olivera, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Stainless steel samples have been realized by local vacuum apparatus for electron beam welding applications to reactor core shell realizations. The best welding parameters have been determined by a systematic study. The welds have been characterized by mechanical tests [fr

  12. Consitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih

    2008-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels combine high formability and high strength, which are generally opposing properties in materials. This property is a consequence of the martensitic phase transformation that takes place during deformation. This transformation is purely mechanically induced

  13. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J. A. [Fermilab; Grimm, C. [Fermilab; Passarelli, D. [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  14. Duplex stainless steel—Microstructure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debold, Terry A.

    1989-03-01

    Literature describing the microstructure of austenitic-ferritic stainless steels is reviewed, including phases which can be deleterious, such as σ and ά. The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Carpenter Technology's 7-Mo PLUSsr stainless (UNS S32950) demonstrate the resistance of this material to the formation of these phases and their deleterious effects. This material was evaluated in the annealed and welded conditions and after extended thermal treatments to simulate boiler and pressure vessel service.

  15. On the Equilibrium States of Interconnected Bubbles or Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhaus, F.; Barker, W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the equilibrium states of a system composed of two interconnected, air-filled spherical membranes of different sizes. The equilibrium configurations are determined by the method of minimization of the availability of the system at constant temperature. (GA)

  16. 78 FR 73239 - Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... Provider's system (e.g., changing meters, fuses, relay settings) that would allow interconnection and... Facilities, together with lower prices for solar panels, smart grid enhancements and other factors, have...

  17. Lightweight Metal RubberTM Sensors and Interconnects, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed program is to develop lightweight and highly elastic electrically conducting interconnects and strain sensor arrays for next generation...

  18. Robust design of head interconnect for hard disk drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X. K.; Liu, Q. H.; Liu, Z. J.

    2005-05-01

    Design of head interconnect is one of the important issues for hard disk drives with higher data rate and storage capacity. The impedance of interconnect and electromagnetic coupling influence the quality level of data communication. Thus an insightful study on how the trace configuration affects the impedance and crosstalk is necessary. An effective design approach based on Taguchi's robust design method is employed therefore in an attempt to realize impedance matching and crosstalk minimization with the effects of uncontrollable sources taken into consideration.

  19. Interconnections within food, biofuel, and fossil fuel markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chrz, Stepan; Hruby, Zdenek; Janda, Karel; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    The interconnections within food, biofuel and fossil fuel markets are first described in the context of biofuels technologies and economic policy framework. Consequently, the econometric analysis consisting of Johansen cointegration, error correction model, vector autoregression and Granger causality is applied to price series of 12 biofuel related commodities. While a number of equilibrium relationships are found across the examined markets suggesting an interconnections of these markets, we...

  20. Interconnected Power Systems Mexico-Guatemala financed by BID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Veronica

    2003-01-01

    The article describes the plans for the interconnection of the electric power systems of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Mexico within the project Plan Pueba Panama. The objective of the interconnection is to create an electric market in the region that contributes to reduce costs and prices. The project will receive a financing of $37.5 millions of US dollars from the Banco Intrameramericano de Desarrollo (BID)

  1. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses of sigma precipitates and porosity in a superaustenitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Lauridsen Mejdal, Erik; Ludwig, W.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray micro-tomography revealed not only the true three-dimensional (3-D) distribution, interconnectivity, and morphology of coarse sigma precipitates in an AL-6XN superaustenitic stainless steel, but also the presence of an internal void network associated with these precipitates. The voids were...... present within the bulk of the undeformed material, indicating that they formed during alloy fabrication. The presence of these voids in association with the brittle sigma particles has important implications for the mechanical behavior of these alloys....

  2. About message routing in different hypercube interconnection network types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Popa

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the problem of message routing in different hypercube interconnection network types. Because the communication algorithms frequently use a few basic communication operations, the purpose was to optain relationships for the total communication time at the implementation of these basic operations in different hypercube interconnection types. The basic communication operations considered were: simple message transfer between two processors, one to all broadcast, all to all broadcast, one to all personalized communication, and all to all personalized communication. For establishing the desired relationships, the starting point were the relationships for the total communication time for the above mentioned operations implemented on three basic interconnection networks: classical hypercube, ring and mesh. The different hypercube interconnection network types considered were: the cube connected cycles network, the extended hypercube, the hypernet network, the k array n hypercube and the composed hypercube. The obtained relationships are useful to establish the performances of the considered networks, from the total communication time point of view, making comparisons between them and between them and the classical hypercube interconnection network with the same number of nodes. The most advantageous interconnection network from the above mentioned point of view, is the composed hypercube with the dynamic position of the nodes.

  3. Investigation on localized corrosion of 304 stainless steel joints brazed using Sn-plated Ag alloy filler in NaCl aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Li, Shuai; Peng, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Novel AgCuZnSn filler metal with high Sn contents was prepared from BAg50CuZn filler metal by a process of electroplating and thermal diffusion, and the prepared filler metal was applied to induction brazing of 304 stainless steel. The corrosion behavior of the brazed joints was evaluated based on localized corrosion analysis, the morphology of the joints were analyzed by SEM after immersion in a 3.5 vol% NaCl aqueous solution. The results indicated that corrosion groove occurred near the interface between the stainless steel base metal and the brazing seam. A wide range of defects such as holes and cracks appeared on the surface of the base metal, while the brazing seam zone almost no corrosion defects occur. With the increase of corrosion time, the corrosion rates of both the brazing seam and the base metal first exhibited an increasing trend, followed by a decreasing trend, and the corrosion rate of the base metal was slightly greater than that of the brazing seam. The corrosion potential of the brazing seam and 304 stainless steel were -0.7758 V and -0.7863 V, respectively.

  4. Current status of stainless steel industry and development of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deuk; Lee, Chan Soo; Kim Kwang Tae

    2000-01-01

    Stainless steel is not only clean and smooth in its surface, but also it is superior in quality in terms of corrosion resistance and strength. So that, it is widely in use in the field of construction, chemical installations, and other industries. Growth of stainless steel industry started since the steel technology was developed for mass production in 1960s. Since then stainless steel industry grew rapidly on account of diversified development in this field and growth rate went up to 5.8% per year comparable to 2.3% of steel growth. The rapid growth is attributed to significant industry developments in Europe and Japan in the years of 1970s and 1980s. In addition to these the expansion of stainless steel industry in Korea and Taiwan. Presently Korea produces about 120,000 tons of stainless steel and occupies about 8% of international market. This means Korea become the second largest single country in world in stainless steel production. Moreover Korea is to reinforce its domestic production line by affiliating production companies, increasing of production capability, and specializing in types of stainless steel. This paper is to describe activity of material development, and types of stainless steel for industry use. (Hong, J. S.)

  5. Conductive Protection Layers on Oxidation Resistant Alloys for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Maupin, Gary D.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2006-12-20

    Conductive oxide coatings are used as protection layers on metallic interconnects in SOFCs to improve their surface stability and electrical performance, as well as to mitigate or prevent chromium poisoning to cells. This paper discusses materials requirements for this particular application and summarizes our systematic study on varied conductive oxides as potential candidate materials for protection layers on stainless steel substrates. Overall, it appeared that chromites such as (La,Sr)CrO3 improved surface stability, but might not be good candidates for the protection layer applications due to chromium vaporization, albeit at a lower rate than Cr2O3, from these oxides at high temperatures in air or moist air. The application of non-chromite perovskite (La,Sr)FeO3 protection layers resulted in improved oxidation resistance and electrical performance. It is doubtful, however, that LSF can be an effective barrier to prevent chromium release during long term SOFC stack operation due to chromium diffusion through the LSF coatings. With a high oxygen ion conductivity, the coatings of Sn-doped In2O3 failed to provide protection to the metal substrate and are thus not suitable for the protection layer applications. The best performance was achieved using thermally-grown (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel protection layers that substantially improved the surface stability of the metal substrates, and prevented chromium outward migration.

  6. Upset Resistance Welding of Carbon Steel to Austenitic Stainless Steel Narrow Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozlati, Ashkaan; Movahedi, Mojtaba; Mohammadkamal, Helia

    2016-11-01

    Effects of welding current (at the range of 2-4 kA) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of upset resistance welds of AISI-1035 carbon steel to AISI-304L austenitic stainless steel rods were investigated. The results showed that the joint strength first increased by raising the welding current up to 3 kA and then decreased beyond it. Increasing trend was related to more plastic deformation, accelerated diffusion, reduction of defects and formation of mechanical locks at the joint interface. For currents more than 3 kA, decrease in the joint strength was mainly caused by formation of hot spots. Using the optimum welding current of 3 kA, tensile strength of the joint reached to 76% of the carbon steel base metal strength. Microstructural observations and microhardness results confirmed that there was no hard phase, i.e., martensite or bainite, at the weld zone. Moreover, a fully austenitic transition layer related to carbon diffusion from carbon steel was observed at the weld interface.

  7. Novel chitosan/diclofenac coatings on medical grade stainless steel for hip replacement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finšgar, Matjaž; Uzunalić, Amra Perva; Stergar, Janja; Gradišnik, Lidija; Maver, Uroš

    2016-05-01

    Corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, improved osteointegration, as well the prevention of inflammation and pain are the most desired characteristics of hip replacement implants. In this study we introduce a novel multi-layered coating on AISI 316LVM stainless steel that shows promise with regard to all mentioned characteristics. The coating is prepared from alternating layers of the biocompatible polysaccharide chitosan and the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac. Electrochemical methods were employed to characterize the corrosion behavior of coated and uncoated samples in physiological solution. It is shown that these coatings improve corrosion resistance. It was also found that these coatings release the incorporated drug in controlled, multi-mechanism manner. Adding additional layers on top of the as-prepared samples, has potential for further tailoring of the release profile and increasing the drug dose. Biocompatibility was proven on human-derived osteoblasts in several experiments. Only viable cells were found on the sample surface after incubation of the samples with the same cell line. This novel coating could prove important for prolongation of the application potential of steel-based hip replacements, which are these days often replaced by more expensive ceramic or other metal alloys.

  8. Impingement heat flux by dispersed molten metal fuel on a horizontal stainless steel structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Purviance, R.T.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Spencer, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    Although the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) possesses inherent safety features, an assessment of the consequences of melting of the metal fuel is necessary for risk analysis. As part of this effort an experimental study was conducted to determine the depths of sodium at 600 C required for pour streams of various molten uranium alloys (U, U-5 wt % Zr, U-10 wt % Zr, and U-10 wt % Fe) to break up and solidify. The quenched particulate material, which was in the shape of filaments and sheets, formed coolable beds because of the high void-age (∼0.9) and large particle size (∼10 mm). In a test with a 0.15-m sodium depth, the fragments from a pure uranium pour stream did not completely solidify but formed an agglomerated mass which did not fuse to the base plate. However, the agglomerated fragments of U-10 wt % Fe eutectic fused to the stainless steel base plate. An analysis of the temperature response of a 25-mm thick base plate was made by volume averaging the properties of the sodium and metal phases and assuming two semi-infinite solids coming into contact. Good agreement was obtained with the data during the initial 5 to 10 s of the contact period. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  9. A Unified Constitutive Model for Creep and Cyclic Viscoplasticity Behavior Simulation of Steels Based on the Absolute Reaction Rate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the viscoplasticity and creep behavior for modified 9Cr-1Mo and 316 stainless steels were investigated. Based on the absolute reaction rate theory, a unified constitutive model incorporating internal state variables was proposed to characterize the evolution of the back stress. Also, the model was implemented by the ABAQUS system with the semi-implicit stress integration. Compared to the experimental data, the results demonstrated that the proposed approach could effectively simulate the cyclic softening and hardening behavior for such structural steels.

  10. Free-Space Optical Interconnects for Multiprocessing Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Berlin

    Various new free-space optical interconnects are studied in this thesis. The focus of the research is to design and to develop fast, reliable and efficient free -space optical interconnects for linking multiprocessing digital computers. New approaches to realize optical crossover and perfect shuffle interconnects are presented in the first two chapters. To implement the optical crossover interconnects, two methods, one based on reflective components, such as mirrors and beam-splitters, and the other based on diffractive components, such as Fresnel zone plates, are used to provide controllable data permutations among digital processing elements. A new optical perfect shuffle, which can form a cascade network of shuffles, is also proposed. This new cascadable optical shuffle makes it possible to realize optical interconnects for multiple-instruction-and-multiple -data processing applications. Optical implementation of binary symmetric logic functions is also studied in this thesis. The proposed optical binary symmetric logic networks provide a new means of using a set of spatially interconnected contact switches as computation tools to execute various binary arithmetic operations, such as arithmetic addition and multiplication. In this thesis, processing element distribution methods for different interconnect topologies are also studied. A new concept to distribute processing elements in a ring array rather than in a rectangular array is proposed. Employing a pair of Dove prisms, the designed optical ring array imaging system can provide both bi-directional and unidirectional links for digital processing nodes. A reflective prism is also specially designed to perform a pair of conjugated image rotation operations for the proposed reflective ring array interconnect. Both the transmissive and reflective ring array networks offer a high speed clock-skew-free data communications among single-instruction-and-multiple -data processors. Finally, a detailed in

  11. Ion-nitriding of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, O.; Hertz, D.; Lebrun, J.P.; Michel, H.

    1995-01-01

    Although ion-nitriding is an extensively industrialized process enabling steel surfaces to be hardened by nitrogen diffusion, with a resulting increase in wear, seizure and fatigue resistance, its direct application to stainless steels, while enhancing their mechanical properties, also causes a marked degradation in their oxidation resistance. However, by adaption of the nitriding process, it is possible to maintain the improved wear resistant properties while retaining the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel. The controlled diffusion permits the growth of a nitrogen supersaturated austenite layer on parts made of stainless steel (AISI 304L and 316L) without chromium nitride precipitation. The diffusion layer remains stable during post heat treatments up to 650 F for 5,000 hrs and maintains a hardness of 900 HV. A very low and stable friction coefficient is achieved which provides good wear resistance against stainless steels under diverse conditions. Electrochemical and chemical tests in various media confirm the preservation of the stainless steel characteristics. An example of the application of this process is the treatment of Reactor Control Rod Cluster Assemblies (RCCAs) for Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactors

  12. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1985-10-01

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450 0 C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the α' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 450 0 C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 450 0 C. 18 refs., 13 figs

  13. Electrode and interconnect for miniature fuel cells using direct methanol feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Clara, Filiberto (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An improved system for interconnects in a fuel cell. In one embodiment, the membranes are located in parallel with one another, and current flow between them is facilitated by interconnects. In another embodiment, all of the current flow is through the interconnects which are located on the membranes. The interconnects are located between two electrodes.

  14. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  15. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-04-04

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  16. Microcoil Spring Interconnects for Ceramic Grid Array Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, S. M.; Hester, J. D.; Gowan, A. K.; Montgomery, R. K.; Geist, D. L.; Blanche, J. F.; McGuire, G. D.; Nash, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    As integrated circuit miniaturization trends continue, they drive the need for smaller higher input/output (I/O) packages. Hermetically sealed ceramic area array parts are the package of choice by the space community for high reliability space flight electronic hardware. Unfortunately, the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the ceramic area array package and the epoxy glass printed wiring board limits the life of the interconnecting solder joint. This work presents the results of an investigation by Marshall Space Flight Center into a method to increase the life of this second level interconnection by the use of compliant microcoil springs. The design of the spring and its attachment process are presented along with thermal cycling results of microcoil springs (MCS) compared with state-of-the-art ball and column interconnections. Vibration testing has been conducted on MCS and high lead column parts. Radio frequency simulation and measurements have been made and the MCS has been modeled and a stress analysis performed. Thermal cycling and vibration testing have shown MCS interconnects to be significantly more reliable than solder columns. Also, MCS interconnects are less prone to handling damage than solder columns. Future work that includes shock testing, incorporation into a digital signal processor board, and process evaluation of expansion from a 400 I/O device to a device with over 1,100 I/O is identified.

  17. HTPro: Low-temperature Surface Hardening of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance.......Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance....

  18. 77 FR 64545 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... merchandise as ``drawn stainless steel sinks with single or multiple drawn bowls, with or without drain boards... finishing the vertical corners to form the bowls. Stainless steel sinks with fabricated bowls may sometimes...

  19. Phosphate coating on stainless steel 304 sensitized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz V, J. P.; Vite T, J.; Castillo S, M.; Vite T, M.

    2009-01-01

    The stainless steel 304 can be sensitized when welding processes are applied, that causes the precipitation of chromium carbide in the grain limits, being promoted in this way the formation of galvanic cells and consequently the corrosion process. Using a phosphate coating is possible to retard the physiochemical damages that can to happen in the corrosion process. The stainless steel 304 substrate sensitized it is phosphate to base of Zn-Mn, in a immersion cell very hot. During the process was considered optimization values, for the characterization equipment of X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscopy was used. The XRD technique confirmed the presence of the phases of manganese phosphate, zinc phosphate, as well as the phase of the stainless steel 304. When increasing the temperature from 60 to 90 C in the immersion process a homogeneous coating is obtained. (Author)

  20. Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Shunichi; Hida, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Michio; Ando, Tomozumi; Shirai, Tasuku.

    1982-05-01

    Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds has been considered difficult because of the high noise level and remarkable attenuation of ultrasonic waves. To improve flaw detectability in this kind of steel, various inspection techniques have been studied. A series of tests indicated: (1) The longitudinal angle beam transducers newly developed during this study can detect 4.8 mm dia. side drilled holes in dissimilar metal welds (refraction angle: 55 0 from SUS side, 45 0 from CS side) and in cast stainless steel welds (refraction angle: 45 0 , inspection frequency: 1 MHz). (2) Cracks more than 5% t in depth in the heat affected zones of fine-grain stainless steel pipe welds can be detected by the 45 0 shear wave angle beam method (inspection frequency: 2 MHz). (3) The pattern recognition method using frequency analysis technology was presumed useful for discriminating crack signals from spurious echoes. (author)

  1. Generation adequacy and transmission interconnection in regional electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Saguan, Marcelo; Finon, Dominique; Pignon, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    The power system capacity adequacy has public good features that cannot be entirely solved by electricity markets. Regulatory intervention is then necessary and established methods have been used to assess adequacy and help regulators to fix this market failure. In regional electricity markets, transmission interconnections play an important role in contributing to adequacy. However, the adequacy problem and related policy are typically considered at a national level. This paper presents a simple model to study how the interconnection capacity interacts with generation adequacy. First results indicate that increasing interconnection capacity between systems improves adequacy up to a certain level; further increases do not procure additional adequacy improvements. Furthermore, besides adequacy improvement, increasing transmission capacity under asymmetric adequacy criteria or national system characteristics could create several concerns about externalities. These results imply that regional coordination of national adequacy policies is essential to internalise adequacy of cross-border effects.

  2. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  3. Mechanical response of spiral interconnect arrays for highly stretchable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Qaiser, Nadeem

    2017-11-21

    A spiral interconnect array is a commonly used architecture for stretchable electronics, which accommodates large deformations during stretching. Here, we show the effect of different geometrical morphologies on the deformation behavior of the spiral island network. We use numerical modeling to calculate the stresses and strains in the spiral interconnects under the prescribed displacement of 1000 μm. Our result shows that spiral arm elongation depends on the angular position of that particular spiral in the array. We also introduce the concept of a unit-cell, which fairly replicates the deformation mechanism for full complex hexagon, diamond, and square shaped arrays. The spiral interconnects which are axially connected between displaced and fixed islands attain higher stretchability and thus experience the maximum deformations. We perform tensile testing of 3D printed replica and find that experimental observations corroborate with theoretical study.

  4. Ionic implantation by plasma in titanium and stainless steels used in prosthesis and medical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz C, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    A study of a process known as plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of nitrogen at low voltages (< 4 kV) into three kind of samples: 1) austenitic stainless AISI 316-L steel plates, 2) ferritic stainless AISI 434 steel-based dentistry drills and 3) commercially pure titanium (CPTi) disks. On the case of CPTi the study was conducted in nitrogen- oxygen calibrated mixtures: 90% N-10% O, 80% N-20% O, 70% N-30% O and in 99.5% pure oxygen and 99.9% pure nitrogen. The PIII process was carried out by using a direct current plasma source controlled both in voltage and current, a negative voltage pulse modulator, a stainless AISI 304 steel vacuum chamber and a rod of the same material, horizontally located in the upper region of the chamber, which plays the role of anode in the plasma discharge. The purpose of the nitriding is forming a relatively thick layer on the surface of the steel specimens in order to enhance their both microhardness and general corrosion performances, desirable in medical applications. This layer contains interstitial nitrogen atoms (∼24% at.) which gives place to a deformed lattice (expanded phase) of the steel. Vickers microhardness and potentiodynamic tests (the latter in agreement to the norm ASTM G-61-89) confirm an increase of microhardness up to three times and a decrease of general corrosion rate in one order of magnitude. The nitriding of de dentistry drills is aimed at inhibiting the pitting corrosion produced by the asepsis process which results in pit nucleations, their propagation and consequent fractures when being under cyclic stress (fatigue). Scanning electron microscope micrographs reveal the risks involved in surpassing the critical treatment simple temperature of 450 C as the PIII process itself induces pitting. On its part, cyclic (ASTM G-61) potentiodynamic tests indicate an excellent pitting corrosion resistance of the samples treated under 450 C. In turn, the treatment of CPTi was meant to develop oxidized and

  5. Use of VCSEL arrays for parallel optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebby, Michael S.; Gaw, Craig A.; Jiang, Wenbin; Kiely, Philip A.; Shieh, Chan L.; Claisse, Paul R.; Ramdani, Jamal; Hartman, Davis H.; Schwartz, Daniel B.; Grula, Jerry

    1996-04-01

    The use of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) in a parallel optical interconnect for Motorola's OPTOBUSTM interconnect was made public over 1 year ago. This was the first time VCSELs were introduced into a product which took advantage of the excellent qualities of VCSELs over edge-emitting lasers. Motorola's OPTOBUSTM interconnect is a ten channel parallel bi-directional data link based on two 10 channel multimode fiber ribbons. One of the key differences in this type of interconnect compared with previous data link designs is the use of the VCSELs as the optical source for the link's fiber optic transmitter. A single 1 X 10 VCSEL array from a GaAs wafer is die attached to a 10 channel GUIDECASTTM optical interface unit which couples the emission from each laser device to its corresponding fiber ribbon channel and thus negates the use of expensive manufacturing techniques such as active alignment and pig-tailing. The OPTOBUSTM interconnect achieves its performance goals (which include low cost) via the unique characteristics of the GaAs VCSELs arrays. For example, the 850 nm devices produce a circular symmetric beam with a half angle of about 10 degrees allowing the coupling loss into the waveguide to be less than 3 dB. In addition, to maintain low manufacturing costs, each VCSEL array is individually and automatically probe tested (just as in the silicon industry) to verify that each VCSEL achieves the OPTOBUSTM interconnect's stringent electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical specifications. Typical computer generated wafer maps from automated production tooling and statistical parametric results are discussed. The combination of low threshold currents with superior thermal and optical performance allow the devices to be modulated under fixed bias conditions. Typical drive currents of 3X threshold are used to obtain nominal FDA Class 1 safety optical power levels from the GUIDECASTTM optical interface unit.

  6. Stainless Steel Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzner, Nathan T

    2010-06-01

    A nitrogen strengthened 21-6-9 stainless steel plate was spinformed into hemispherical test shapes. A battery of laboratory tests was used to characterize the hemispheres. The laboratory tests show that near the pole (axis) of a spinformed hemisphere the yield strength is the lowest because this area endures the least “cold-work” strengthening, i.e., the least deformation. The characterization indicated that stress-relief annealing spinformed stainless steel hemispheres does not degrade mechanical properties. Stress-relief annealing reduces residual stresses while maintaining relatively high mechanical properties. Full annealing completely eliminates residual stresses, but reduces yield strength by about 30%.

  7. Dual Damascene copper interconnects with low-k polymer dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David Thomas

    To increase the speed of integrated circuits (ICs), copper interconnects combined with low dielectric constant (low-k) insulators are accepted as the near future replacements for traditional aluminum and silicon dioxide based interconnect technology. In this work, multilevel copper interconnects and low-k polymer insulator fabrication strategies are investigated, with emphasis on integration and two-level metal process realization. Copper interconnects were fabricated with dual Damascene patterning of etching vias and interconnect trenches in the insulator followed by metal deposition and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) to remove the excess material. The copper adhesion layer and diffusion barrier (or liner) material used was sputtered tantalum. The low-k dielectrics used were vapor deposited parylene-n (PA-n) and spin-on CycloteneTM 5021 divinylsiloxane bisbenzocyclobutene (BCB). PECVD silicon nitride was used as a hard etch mask for dielectric etching, as well as a CMP polish stop, a plasma etch stop and copper diffusion barrier. The dual Damascene processing strategies used to create the via and interconnect pattern were investigated at length. Full integration was performed with four traditional dual Damascene strategies, followed by the development of two unique "clustered hard mask" strategies with full integration of one of them. The fabrication and characterization of dual Damascene copper interconnects led to the defining of eight dual Damascene optimization criteria, specifically addressing polymer dielectrics. Based on polymer dielectric processing considerations and electrical measurements, the clustered hard mask strategies were determined to be superior in comparison to the dual Damascene strategies previously developed for oxide-based dielectrics. The two-level interconnects were characterized by focused ion beam (FIB) cross sectioning and imaging to validate the success of the dual Damascene integration. The average metal-to-metal specific

  8. Compact models and performance investigations for subthreshold interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Dhiman, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    The book provides a detailed analysis of issues related to sub-threshold interconnect performance from the perspective of analytical approach and design techniques. Particular emphasis is laid on the performance analysis of coupling noise and variability issues in sub-threshold domain to develop efficient compact models. The proposed analytical approach gives physical insight of the parameters affecting the transient behavior of coupled interconnects. Remedial design techniques are also suggested to mitigate the effect of coupling noise. The effects of wire width, spacing between the wires, wi

  9. Load Frequency Control of AC Microgrid Interconnected Thermal Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Deepak Kumar; Barisal, Ajit Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a microgrid (MG) power generation system is interconnected with a single area reheat thermal power system for load frequency control study. A new meta-heuristic optimization algorithm i.e. Moth-Flame Optimization (MFO) algorithm is applied to evaluate optimal gains of the fuzzy based proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controllers. The system dynamic performance is studied by comparing the results with MFO optimized classical PI/PID controllers. Also the system performance is investigated with fuzzy PID controller optimized by recently developed grey wolf optimizer (GWO) algorithm, which has proven its superiority over other previously developed algorithm in many interconnected power systems.

  10. Wafer thinning for high-density, through-wafer interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianwei; Visser, Cassan C. G.; de Boer, Charles R.; Laros, M.; van der Vlist, W.; Groeneweg, J.; Craciun, G.; Sarro, Pasqualina M.

    2003-01-01

    Thinning of micromachined wafers containing trenches and cavities to realize through-chip interconnects is presented. Successful thinning of wafers by lapping and polishing until the cavities previously etched by deep reactive ion etching are reached is demonstrated. The possible causes of damage to the etched structures are investigated. The trapping of particles in the cavities and suitable cleaning procedures to address this issue are studied. The results achieved so far allow further processing of the thinned wafers to form through wafer interconnections by copper electroplating. Further improvement of the quality of thinned surfaces can be achieved by alternative cleaning procedures.

  11. Stability of interconnected dynamical systems described on Banach spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R. D.; Michel, A. N.

    1976-01-01

    New stability results for a large class of interconnected dynamical systems (also called composite systems or large scale systems) described on Banach spaces are established. In the present approach, the objective is always the same: to analyze large scale systems in terms of their lower order and simpler subsystems and in terms of their interconnecting structure. The present results provide a systematic procedure of analyzing hybrid dynamical systems (i.e., systems that are described by a mixture of different types of equations). To demonstrate the method of analysis advanced, two specific examples are considered.

  12. Supplemental Information for New York State Standardized Interconnection Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narang, David J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mather, Barry A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kroposki, Benjamin D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    This document is intended to aid in the understanding and application of the New York State Standardized Interconnection Requirements (SIR) and Application Process for New Distributed Generators 5 MW or Less Connected in Parallel with Utility Distribution Systems, and it aims to provide supplemental information and discussion on selected topics relevant to the SIR. This guide focuses on technical issues that have to date resulted in the majority of utility findings within the context of interconnecting photovoltaic (PV) inverters. This guide provides background on the overall issue and related mitigation measures for selected topics, including substation backfeeding, anti-islanding and considerations for monitoring and controlling distributed energy resources (DER).

  13. Fundamentals of reliability engineering applications in multistage interconnection networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gunawan, Indra

    2014-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals of reliability engineering with its applications in evaluating reliability of multistage interconnection networks. In the first part of the book, it introduces the concept of reliability engineering, elements of probability theory, probability distributions, availability and data analysis.  The second part of the book provides an overview of parallel/distributed computing, network design considerations, and more.  The book covers a comprehensive reliability engineering methods and its practical aspects in the interconnection network systems. Students, engineers, researchers, managers will find this book as a valuable reference source.

  14. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India...

  15. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular......, the morphology, microstructure and characteristics of so-called expanite “layers” on stainless steel are addressed....

  16. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present contribtion gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular......, the morphology, microstructure and characteristics of so-called expanded austenite "layers" on stainless steel are addressed....

  17. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group or stainless steel intended to provide...

  18. 78 FR 21417 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... drawn stainless steel sinks from China, provided for in subheading 7324.10.00 of the Harmonized Tariff... notification of a preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from China...

  19. SURFACE-MODIFIED FERRITIC INTERCONNECT MATERIALS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce R. Lanning; James Arps; Ronghua Wei; Goeff Dearnaley

    2004-03-15

    Interconnects are a critical element of an SOFC assembly and although much work has focused on chromium and chromium-iron alloys containing an oxide that is both oxidation resistant and electrically conductive, the thermal instability of typical native metal oxides allow interdiffusion of cations across the interconnect-electrode boundary that ultimately leads to degradation of SOFC performance. Phase I of the SECA Core Technology Program has been a one-year effort to investigate and evaluate the feasibility of: (1) Ion implanting an alumina-scale forming ferritic steel, such as FeCrAlY, to form an interconnect material with low resistance (< 0.1 {Omega}/cm{sup 2}) in oxidizing/reducing environments up to 800 C, and (2) Maintaining the above low resistance metric for an extended time (> 1000 hours at 800 C) in contact with an LSF cathode material. We confirmed, as part of our oxidation kinetics evaluation of FeCrAlY and 430 ferritic steel, the parabolic growth of a mixed chromia/alumina scale on FeCrAlY and a single chromia layer in the case of the 430 stainless steel; the outer contiguous layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, in the case of FeCrAlY, forming a stable, self-limiting, protective scale with no detectable cation interdiffusion between FeCrAlY and an LSF electrode even after 1000 hours at 800 C in air. To render the alumina scale conductive, we implanted either titanium or niobium ions into FeCrAlY scales to a fixed depth (0.12 {micro}m), varying only the thickness of the oxide. ASR for an un-doped FeCrAlY oxide scale (i.e., alumina) was more than an order of magnitude greater than the 430 control sample whereas, the ASR for the doped FeCrAlY oxide scale sample was comparable to the 430 control sample; hence, the resistance of a doped alumina scale on FeCrAlY was equal to the resistance of a chromia-scale forming alloy, such as 430 (chromia scales of which are typically < 0.1 {Omega}-cm). Along with the ASR measurements, AC impedance measurements were conducted

  20. Anti-carburizing Coating for Resin Sand Casting of Low Carbon Steel Based on Composite Silicate Powder Containing Zirconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Chunyi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the structure and properties of anticarburizing coating based on composite silicate powder containing zirconium by X-ray diffraction analyzer, thermal expansion tester, digital microscope and other equipment. It is introduced that the application example of the coating in the resin-sand casting of ZG1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel impeller. The anti-carburizing effect of the coating on the surface layer of the cast is studied by using direct reading spectrometer and spectrum analyzer. The change of the micro-structure of the coating after casting and cooling is observed by scanning electron microscope. The analysis of anti-carburizing mechanism of the coating is presented. The results indicate that the coating possesses excellent suspension property, brush ability, permeability, levelling property and crackresistance. The coating exhibits high strength and low gas evolution. Most of the coating could be automatically stripped off flakily when the casting was shaken out. The casting possesses excellent surface finish and antimetal penetration effect. The carburizing layer thickness of the stainless steel impeller casting with respect to allowable upper limit of carbon content is about 1mm and maximum carburizing rate is 23.6%. The anticarburizing effect of casting surface is greatly improved than that of zircon powder coating whose maximum carburizing rate is 67.9% and the carburizing layer thickness with respect to allowable upper limit of carbon content is greater than 2mm. The composite silicate powder containing zirconium coating substantially reduces the zircon powder which is expensive and radioactive and mainly dependent on imports. The coating can be used instead of pure zircon powder coating to effectively prevent metal-penetration and carburizing of resin-sand-casting surface of low carbon steel, significantly improve the foundry production environment and reduce the production costs.

  1. Security challenges for cooperative and interconnected mobility systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, T.; Kievit, S. de; Sluis, H.J.D. van de; Nunen, E. van; Passchier, I.; Luiijf, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Software is becoming an important part of the innovation for vehicles. In addition, the systems in vehicles become interconnected and also get external connections, to the internet and Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs). These trends form a combined security and safety threat, because recent

  2. Interconnecting Microgrids via the Energy Router with Smart Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingshu Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel and flexible interconnecting framework for microgrids and corresponding energy management strategies are presented, in response to the situation of increasing renewable-energy penetration and the need to alleviate dependency on energy storage equipment. The key idea is to establish complementary energy exchange between adjacent microgrids through a multiport electrical energy router, according to the consideration that adjacent microgrids may differ substantially in terms of their patterns of energy production and consumption, which can be utilized to compensate for each other’s instant energy deficit. Based on multiport bidirectional voltage source converters (VSCs and a shared direct current (DC power line, the energy router serves as an energy hub, and enables flexible energy flow among the adjacent microgrids and the main grid. The analytical model is established for the whole system, including the energy router, the interconnected microgrids and the main grid. Various operational modes of the interconnected microgrids, facilitated by the energy router, are analyzed, and the corresponding control strategies are developed. Simulations are carried out on the Matlab/Simulink platform, and the results have demonstrated the validity and reliability of the idea for microgrid interconnection as well as the corresponding control strategies for flexible energy flow.

  3. An efficient reduction algorithm for computation of interconnect delay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop a method for delay analysis of interconnects considering the impact of Gaussian metal process variations. The resistance and capacitance of a distributed RC line are expressed as correlated Gaussian random variables which are then used to compute the standard deviation of delay Probability Distribution ...

  4. On the Computation of Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the computation of additively separable Lyapunov functions for interconnected systems. The presented results can be applied to reduce the complexity of the computations associated with stability analysis of large scale systems. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition ...

  5. 78 FR 14532 - Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Small Generator Interconnection Agreements and Procedures; Workshop Take notice that Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) staff will convene a workshop in the above..., DC 20426. Members of the Commission may attend the workshop, which will also be open to the public...

  6. Interconnects and On-Chip Data Communication Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, E.; Schinkel, Daniel; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    Global on-chip communication is rapidly becoming a speed and power bottleneck in CMOS circuits. In this paper, a ‘mixed-signal’ approach is taken to analyze on-chip interconnects and it is investigated how data-rates can be improved. It is shown that complex signaling schemes such as OFDM and CDMA

  7. Bandgap control with local and interconnected LC piezoelectric shunts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Parra, Edgar A.; Bergamini, Andrea; Lossouarn, Boris; Van Damme, Bart; Cenedese, Mattia; Ermanni, Paolo

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on the control of longitudinal wave propagation, in the kHz frequency range, using local and interconnected LC (inductance-capacitance) shunts distributed periodically along a rod. The LC shunts are connected to piezoelectric inserts and tuned to engender narrow or broad-band pass-bands in the forbidden band frequency range. The Bragg-scattering bandgaps are the result of the periodic mechanical mismatch between PMMA (polymethyl-methacrylate) of the rod and PZT (lead-zirconate-titanate). The narrow pass-bands correspond to the local configuration, where an equivalence between the mechanical impedance of the PMMA and PZT occurs around the shunt resonance frequency. Conversely, the interconnected shunts give a way to an electrical medium through which energy can propagate parallel to its mechanical counterpart, leading to broad pass-bands. This paper presents analytical models for calculating the dispersion and displacements of the 1D medium with interconnected LC shunts. An analytical formulation is also introduced to expediently identify the location of bandgaps and pass-bands in the medium comprised of local LC shunts. Moreover, analytical investigations are carried out to elucidate different physical phenomena giving rise to these pass-bands. The findings are experimentally validated using a finite periodic rod. The ability to tune the dispersion properties of the medium to control the width or depth of the bandgap, by utilizing local or interconnected shunts, offers a new and powerful application for piezoelectric shunts.

  8. Ultra-Stretchable Interconnects for High-Density Stretchable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Shafqat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for proven standardized (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-type process recipes using bulk integrated circuit (IC microfabrication tools and fine-pitch photolithography patterning. Here, we address this combined challenge of microfabrication with extreme stretchability for high-density SE devices by introducing CMOS-enabled, free-standing, miniaturized interconnect structures that fully exploit their 3D kinematic freedom through an interplay of buckling, torsion, and bending to maximize stretchability. Integration with standard CMOS-type batch processing is assured by utilizing the Flex-to-Rigid (F2R post-processing technology to make the back-end-of-line interconnect structures free-standing, thus enabling the routine microfabrication of highly-stretchable interconnects. The performance and reproducibility of these free-standing structures is promising: an elastic stretch beyond 2000% and ultimate (plastic stretch beyond 3000%, with <0.3% resistance change, and >10 million cycles at 1000% stretch with <1% resistance change. This generic technology provides a new route to exciting highly-stretchable miniature devices.

  9. A nanostructure based on metasurfaces for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shulang; Gu, Huarong

    2017-08-01

    Optical-electronic Integrated Neural Co-processor takes vital part in optical neural network, which is mainly realized by optical interconnects. Because of the accuracy requirement and long-term goal of integration, optical interconnects should be effective and pint-size. In traditional solutions of optical interconnects, holography built on crystalloid or law of Fresnel diffraction exploited on zone plate was used. However, holographic method cannot meet the efficiency requirement and zone plate is too bulk to make the optical neural unit miniaturization. Thus, this paper aims to find a way to replace holographic method or zone plate with enough diffraction efficiency and smaller size. Metasurfaces are composed of subwavelength-spaced phase shifters at an interface of medium. Metasurfaces allow for unprecedented control of light properties. They also have advanced optical technology of enabling versatile functionalities in a planar structure. In this paper, a nanostructure is presented for optical interconnects. The comparisons of light splitting ability and simulated crosstalk between nanostructure and zone plate are also made.

  10. Early resistance change and stress/electromigrationmodeling in aluminium interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrescu, V.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Schoenmaker, W.

    1997-01-01

    A complete description for early resistance change and two dimensional simulation of mechanical stress evolution in confined Al interconnects, related to the electromigration, is given in this paper. The model, combines the stress/ vacancy concentration evolution with the early resistance change of

  11. Distributed Robustness Analysis of Interconnected Uncertain Systems Using Chordal Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Hansson, Anders; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale interconnected uncertain systems commonly have large state and uncertainty dimensions. Aside from the heavy computational cost of performing robust stability analysis in a centralized manner, privacy requirements in the network can also introduce further issues. In this paper, we...

  12. Advanced Modulation Techniques for High-Performance Computing Optical Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally assess the performance of a 64 × 64 optical switch fabric used for ns-speed optical cell switching in supercomputer optical interconnects. More specifically, we study four alternative modulation formats and detection schemes, namely, 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-...

  13. Automatic generation control of interconnected power system with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, automatic generation control (AGC) of two area interconnected power system having diverse sources of power generation is studied. A two area power system comprises power generations from hydro, thermal and gas sources in area-1 and power generations from hydro and thermal sources in area-2. All the ...

  14. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  15. Load frequency control of three area interconnected hydro-thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences- Deemed University, Allahabad, INDIA ... This paper present analysis on dynamic performance of Load Frequency Control (LFC) of three area interconnected ..... Higher values of Kp give better steady-state performance, but worse transient response.

  16. Load frequency control of three area interconnected hydro-thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper present analysis on dynamic performance of Load Frequency Control (LFC) of three area interconnected hydrothermal reheat power system by the use of Artificial Intelligent and PI Controller. In the proposed scheme, control methodology developed using conventional PI controller, Artificial Neural Network ...

  17. The myth of interconnected plastids and related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattat, Martin H; Barton, Kiah A; Mathur, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    Studies spread over nearly two and a half centuries have identified the primary plastid in autotrophic algae and plants as a pleomorphic, multifunctional organelle comprising of a double-membrane envelope enclosing an organization of internal membranes submerged in a watery stroma. All plastid units have been observed extending and retracting thin stroma-filled tubules named stromules sporadically. Observations on living plant cells often convey the impression that stromules connect two or more independent plastids with each other. When photo-bleaching techniques were used to suggest that macromolecules such as the green fluorescent protein could flow between already interconnected plastids, for many people this impression changed to conviction. However, it was noticed only recently that the concept of protein flow between plastids rests solely on the words "interconnected plastids" for which details have never been provided. We have critically reviewed botanical literature dating back to the 1880s for understanding this term and the phenomena that have become associated with it. We find that while meticulously detailed ontogenic studies spanning nearly 150 years have established the plastid as a singular unit organelle, there is no experimental support for the idea that interconnected plastids exist under normal conditions of growth and development. In this review, while we consider several possibilities that might allow a single elongated plastid to be misinterpreted as two or more interconnected plastids, our final conclusion is that the concept of direct protein flow between plastids is based on an unfounded assumption.

  18. Inkjet-printed, intrinsically stretchable conductors and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, U.; Molina-Lopez, F.; Zhu, C.; Wang, Y.; Bao, Z.; Murmann, B.

    2017-08-01

    In the future, a large variety of electronic devices will be wearable and operate in close contact with the skin. To accommodate deformations such as twisting and elongation, these devices should ideally be stretchable. One viable approach toward stretchable electronics is the development of intrinsically stretchable electronic materials, devices and circuits. Recently, the first intrinsically stretchable transistors have been demonstrated [1-7]. However, for the realization of stretchable circuits, stretchable interconnects are equally important. For the deployment of highly stretchable materials as interconnects and electrodes, patterning is crucial. Therefore, we developed a process for inkjet printing of intrinsically stretchable PEDOT:PSS-based interconnects and conductors. Ionic additives act as dopants and plasticisers in this approach [8]. A customized ink was printed on stretchable polymeric substrates (SEBS, styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene) and optimized to achieve a smooth morphology of the printed features by adjusting the surface tension and suppressing the coffee stain effect. The printed interconnects have a conductivity of 700 S/cm, sustain strains above 100% and show good stability in 1000-cycle stretching experiments. In addition to morphology, electrical properties and stretchability, we also investigated bias-stress stability, long-term stability in ambient air and cycling stability.

  19. Modelling the material behaviour of metastable stainless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Post, J.; Beyer, J.; Huetink, Han; Cesar de Sa, Jose M.A.; Santos, Abel D.

    2007-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels are designed to be thermodynamically unstable such that deformation even at room temperatures can bring about a change in the phase of face centred cubic austenite to either hexagonal close packed martensite and/or to body centred cubic martensite. This solid

  20. DETERMINATION OF METAL IONS RELEASED BY STAINLESS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amounts of cobalt, iron, manganese, nickel and chromium ions released from new and reused stainless steel arch bar used for maxillomandibular fixation was determined in Hank's solutions of different hydrogen and chloride ions concentrations, whole blood serum and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in vitro, over a ...

  1. Granulate of stainless steel as compensator material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.C. van Santvoort (J. P C)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCompensators produced with computer controlled milling devices usually consist of a styrofoam mould, filled with an appropriate material. We investigated granulate of stainless steel as filling material. This cheap, easy to use, clean and re-usable material can be obtained with an

  2. Stainless steel forgings for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This Specification covers detailed requirements for the supply of austenitic stainless steel forgings used in radioactive and corrosive areas within the Nuclear Industry. With the exception of 316S51 the materials specified are all suitable for contact with nitric acid, 316S51 being included as suitable for use in contact with sodium and other alkali metals at elevated temperatures. (author)

  3. Austenitic stainless steels for cryogenic service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Juhas, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    Presently available information on austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel plate, welds, and castings for service below 77 K are reviewed with the intent (1) of developing systematic relationships between mechanical properties, composition, microstructure, and processing, and (2) of assessing the adequacy of these data bases in the design, fabrication, and operation of engineering systems at 4 K

  4. CASE-HARDENING OF STAINLESS STEEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to case-hardening of a stainless steel article by means of gas including carbon and/or nitrogen, whereby carbon and/or nitrogen atoms diffuse through the surface into the article. The method includes activating the surface of the article, applying a top layer on the activated...

  5. At the speed of light? electricity interconnections for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, S.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity moves almost at the speed of light: 273,000 km per second. The speed of electricity makes it the ultimate 'just in time' commodity. A problem anywhere can be transmitted every where in a nanosecond. Electricity interconnection is a prominent issue in the news, sometimes even featured as a panacea for the shortcomings of the European electricity market - a panacea that will ensure security o supply, solidarity and pave the way for a promising use of renewables in the future. The present study is devoted to electricity interconnections in Europe, their current state and the projects concerning them. The study addresses the following questions: - What is the role of interconnections in the development of a sustainable grid that can emerge from the existing pieces, make optimum use of existing generation capacity, ensure energy security, and offer economies of scales? What is their role in the process of building a different energy concept, one that would be concerned with climate change and thus in favour of the use of renewables? - How are existing interconnections exploited and governed, and how can their exploitation be improved? Does the EU need more and new interconnections; and if so, where and why, and who is going to finance them? Prominent projects as such as Desertec, the debate on DC or AC lines, or the limits of synchronization, as well as the state of a potential East-West electricity linkage between Former Soviet Union and EU, termed UCTE-UPS/IPS, are discussed in the volume. Part I develops definitions and basic notions necessary for the understanding of the subject. It also addresses the independent variables that influence interconnections (here the dependent variable), and recounts the historical legacies and their enduring impact on today's grid. Part II is devoted to the EU legal framework and to the complex landscape of governance and its current state of transition. Part III addresses the management of existing interconnections and

  6. At the speed of light? electricity interconnections for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, S.

    2010-07-01

    Electricity moves almost at the speed of light: 273,000 km per second. The speed of electricity makes it the ultimate 'just in time' commodity. A problem anywhere can be transmitted every where in a nanosecond. Electricity interconnection is a prominent issue in the news, sometimes even featured as a panacea for the shortcomings of the European electricity market - a panacea that will ensure security o supply, solidarity and pave the way for a promising use of renewables in the future. The present study is devoted to electricity interconnections in Europe, their current state and the projects concerning them. The study addresses the following questions: - What is the role of interconnections in the development of a sustainable grid that can emerge from the existing pieces, make optimum use of existing generation capacity, ensure energy security, and offer economies of scales? What is their role in the process of building a different energy concept, one that would be concerned with climate change and thus in favour of the use of renewables? - How are existing interconnections exploited and governed, and how can their exploitation be improved? Does the EU need more and new interconnections; and if so, where and why, and who is going to finance them? Prominent projects as such as Desertec, the debate on DC or AC lines, or the limits of synchronization, as well as the state of a potential East-West electricity linkage between Former Soviet Union and EU, termed UCTE-UPS/IPS, are discussed in the volume. Part I develops definitions and basic notions necessary for the understanding of the subject. It also addresses the independent variables that influence interconnections (here the dependent variable), and recounts the historical legacies and their enduring impact on today's grid. Part II is devoted to the EU legal framework and to the complex landscape of governance and its current state of transition. Part III addresses the management of existing

  7. Assessment of on-farm anaerobic digester grid interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhnke, W.

    2006-01-01

    While several anaerobic digestion (AD) pilot plants have recently been built in Canada, early reports suggest that interconnection barriers are delaying their widescale implementation. This paper examined grid interconnection experiences from the perspectives of farmers, local distributing companies (LDCs) and other stakeholders. The aim of the paper was to identify challenges to the implementation of AD systems. Case studies included an Ontario Dairy Herd AD system generating 50 kW; a Saskatchewan hog farm AD system generating 120 kW and an Alberta outdoor beef feedlot AD system generating 1000 kW. Two survey forms were created for project operators, and LDCs. The following 3 category barriers were identified: (1) technical concerns over islanding conditions, power quality requirements, power flow studies and other engineering analyses; (2) business practices barriers such as a lack of response after initial utility contact; and (3) regulatory barriers including the unavailability of fair buy-back rates, the lack of net metering programs, restrictive net metering programs, and pricing issues. It was suggested that collaborative efforts among all stakeholders are needed to resolve barriers quickly. Recommendations included the adoption of uniform technical standards for connecting generators to the grid, as well as adopting standard commercial practices for any required LDC interconnection review. It was also suggested that standard business terms for interconnection agreements should be established. Regulatory principles should be compatible with distributed power choices in regulated and unregulated markets. It was concluded that resolving interconnection barriers is a critical step towards realizing market opportunities available for AD technologies. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Fabrication and Characteristics of Sintered Cutting Stainless Steel Fiber Felt with Internal Channels and an Al2O3 Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel sintered cutting stainless steel fiber felt with internal channels (SCSSFFC composed of a stainless-steel fiber skeleton, three-dimensional interconnected porous structure and multiple circular microchannels is developed. SCSSFFC has a jagged and rough surface morphology and possesses a high specific surface area, which is approximately 2.4 times larger than that of the sintered bundle-drawing stainless steel fiber felt with internal channels (SBDSSFFC and is expected to enhance adhesive strength. The sol-gel and wet impregnation methods are adopted to prepare SCSSFFC with an Al2O3 coating (SCSSFFC/Al2O3. The adhesive strength of SCSSFFC/Al2O3 is investigated using ultrasonic vibration and thermal shock tests. The experimental results indicate that the weight loss rate of the Al2O3 coating has a 4.2% and 8.42% reduction compared with those of SBDSSFFCs based on ultrasonic vibration and thermal shock tests. In addition, the permeability of SCSSFFC/Al2O3 is investigated based on forced liquid flow tests. The experimental results show that the permeability and inertial coefficients of SCSSFFC/Al2O3 are mainly affected by the coating rate, porosity and open ratio; however, the internal microchannel diameter has little influence. It is also found that SCSSFFC/Al2O3 yields superior permeability, as well as inertial coefficients compared with those of other porous materials reported in the literature.

  9. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Ren, Yibin

    2010-02-01

    The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels.

  10. Friction Welding For Cladding Applications: Processing, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inertia Friction Welds of Stainless Steel to Low Carbon Steel and Evaluation of Wrought and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steels for Cladding Applications in Acidchloride Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzner, Nathan

    Friction welding, a solid-state joining method, is presented as a novel alternative process step for lining mild steel pipe and forged components internally with a corrosion resistant (CR) metal alloy for petrochemical applications. Currently, fusion welding is commonly used for stainless steel overlay cladding, but this method is costly, time-consuming, and can lead to disbonding in service due to a hard martensite layer that forms at the interface due to partial mixing at the interface between the stainless steel CR metal and the mild steel base. Firstly, the process parameter space was explored for inertia friction butt welding using AISI type 304L stainless steel and AISI 1018 steel to determine the microstructure and mechanical properties effects. A conceptual model for heat flux density versus radial location at the faying surface was developed with consideration for non-uniform pressure distribution due to frictional forces. An existing 1 D analytical model for longitudinal transient temperature distribution was modified for the dissimilar metals case and to account for material lost to the flash. Microstructural results from the experimental dissimilar friction welds of 304L stainless steel to 1018 steel were used to discuss model validity. Secondly, the microstructure and mechanical property implications were considered for replacing the current fusion weld cladding processes with friction welding. The nominal friction weld exhibited a smaller heat softened zone in the 1018 steel than the fusion cladding. As determined by longitudinal tensile tests across the bond line, the nominal friction weld had higher strength, but lower apparent ductility, than the fusion welds due to the geometric requirements for neck formation adjacent to a rigid interface. Martensite was identified at the dissimilar friction weld interface, but the thickness was smaller than that of the fusion welds, and the morphology was discontinuous due to formation by a mechanism of solid

  11. Fractal Characteristics Analysis of Blackouts in Interconnected Power Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Lijuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG. The distri......The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG....... The distribution characteristics of blackouts in various sub-grids are demonstrated based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. The fractal dimensions (FDs) of the IPG and its sub-grids are then obtained by using the KS test and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The blackouts data in China were used...

  12. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers with through-wafer interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xuefeng

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) is a promising candidate for making ultrasound transducer arrays for applications such as 3D medical ultrasound, non-destructive evaluation and chemical sensing. Advantages of CMUTs over traditional piezoelectric transducers include low-cost batch fabrication, wide bandwidth, and ability to fabricate arrays with broad operation frequency range and different geometric configurations on a single wafer. When incorporated with through-wafer interconnects, a CMUT array can be directly integrated with a front-end integrated circuit (IC) to achieve compact packaging and to mitigate the effects of the parasitic capacitance from the connection cables. Through-wafer via is the existing interconnect scheme for CMUT arrays, and many other types of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) devices. However, to date, no successful through-wafer via fabrication technique compatible with the wafer-bonding method of making CMUT arrays has been demonstrated. The through-wafer via fabrication steps degrade the surface conditions of the wafer, reduce the radius of curvature, thus making it difficult to bond. This work focuses on new through-wafer interconnect techniques that are compatible with common MEMS fabrication techniques, including both surface-micromachining and direct wafer-to-wafer fusion bonding. In this dissertation, first, a through-wafer via interconnect technique with improved characteristics is presented. Then, two implementations of through-wafer trench isolation are demonstrated. The through-wafer trench methods differ from the through-wafer vias in that the electrical conduction is through the bulk silicon instead of the conductor in the vias. In the first implementation, a carrier wafer is used to provide mechanical support; in the second, mechanical support is provided by a silicon frame structure embedded inside the isolation trenches. Both implementations reduce fabrication complexity compared to the through

  13. Conductive polymer/metal composites for interconnect of flexible devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Jin; Hashimoto Shinoda, Yasuo; Shuto, Takanori; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2015-06-01

    An interconnect of flexible and foldable devices based on advanced electronics requires high electrical conductivity, flexibility, adhesiveness on a plastic substrate, and efficient productivity. In this study, we investigated the applicability of a conductive polymer/metal composite to the interconnect of flexible devices. By combining an inkjet process and a photochemical reaction, micropatterns of a polypyrrole/silver composite were formed on flexible plastic substrates with an average linewidth of approximately 70 µm within 10 min. The conductivity of the composite was improved to 6.0 × 102 Ω-1·cm-1. From these results, it is expected that the conducting polymer/metal composite can be applied to the microwiring of flexible electronic devices.

  14. Performance evaluation of two highly interconnected Data Center networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrus, Bogdan-Mihai; Mihai Poncea, Ovidiu; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the analysis of highly interconnected topologies like hypercube and torus and how they can be implemented in data centers in order to cope with the rapid increase and demands for performance of the internal traffic. By replicating the topologies and subjecting them to uni...... of the network was increased by a factor of 32. The performance measurements are supported by abstract metrics that also give a cost and complexity indication in choosing the right topology for the required application.......In this paper we present the analysis of highly interconnected topologies like hypercube and torus and how they can be implemented in data centers in order to cope with the rapid increase and demands for performance of the internal traffic. By replicating the topologies and subjecting them...

  15. Methodology for assessing the impacts of distributed generation interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Luna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology for identifying and assessing the impact of distributed generation interconnection on distribution systems using Monte Carlo techniques. This methodology consists of two analysis schemes: a technical analysis, which evaluates the reliability conditions of the distribution system; on the other hand, an economic analysis that evaluates the financial impacts on the electric utility and its customers, according to the system reliability level. The proposed methodology was applied to an IEEE test distribution system, considering different operation schemes for the distributed generation interconnection. The application of each one of these schemes provided significant improvements regarding the reliability and important economic benefits for the electric utility. However, such schemes resulted in negative profitability levels for certain customers, therefore, regulatory measures and bilateral contracts were proposed which would provide a solution for this kind of problem.

  16. Integrated optoelectronic materials and circuits for optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutcheson, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional interconnect and switching technology is rapidly becoming a critical issue in the realization of systems using high speed silicon and GaAs based technologies. In recent years clock speeds and on-chip density for VLSI/VHSIC technology has made packaging these high speed chips extremely difficult. A strong case can be made for using optical interconnects for on-chip/on-wafer, chip-to-chip and board-to-board high speed communications. GaAs integrated optoelectronic circuits (IOC's) are being developed in a number of laboratories for performing Input/Output functions at all levels. In this paper integrated optoelectronic materials, electronics and optoelectronic devices are presented. IOC's are examined from the standpoint of what it takes to fabricate the devices and what performance can be expected

  17. Electrical Interconnection Of Superconducting Strands By Electrolytic CU Deposition.

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Heck, S; Ams, A

    2011-01-01

    The electrical interconnection of Nb3Sn/Cu strands is a key issue for the construction of superconducting devices such as Nb3Sn based insertion devices for third generation light sources. As an alternative connection method for brittle superconducting strands like Nb3Sn/Cu, test joints have been produced by electrolytic deposition of Cu. The resistance of first test joints produced by electrolytic Cu deposition with a strand overlap length of 3 cm at 4.2 K is about 10 n$\\omega$, similar to the resistance measured for joints produced by soft soldering with the same strand overlap length. Interconnection by electrolytic Cu deposition can be done before or after the reaction heat treatment, and it produces a mechanically strong connection. Simulations have been performed with Comsol multiphysics in order to estimate the influence of deposit imperfections on the joint resistance, and to compare the resistance of joints made with different techniques

  18. Optimal interconnection trees in the plane theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brazil, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This book explores fundamental aspects of geometric network optimisation with applications to a variety of real world problems. It presents, for the first time in the literature, a cohesive mathematical framework within which the properties of such optimal interconnection networks can be understood across a wide range of metrics and cost functions. The book makes use of this mathematical theory to develop efficient algorithms for constructing such networks, with an emphasis on exact solutions.  Marcus Brazil and Martin Zachariasen focus principally on the geometric structure of optimal interconnection networks, also known as Steiner trees, in the plane. They show readers how an understanding of this structure can lead to practical exact algorithms for constructing such trees.  The book also details numerous breakthroughs in this area over the past 20 years, features clearly written proofs, and is supported by 135 colour and 15 black and white figures. It will help graduate students, working mathematicians, ...

  19. A reference model for space data system interconnection services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, John; Theis, Gerhard

    1993-01-01

    The widespread adoption of standard packet-based data communication protocols and services for spaceflight missions provides the foundation for other standard space data handling services. These space data handling services can be defined as increasingly sophisticated processing of data or information received from lower-level services, using a layering approach made famous in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). The Space Data System Interconnection Reference Model (SDSI-RM) incorporates the conventions of the OSIRM to provide a framework within which a complete set of space data handling services can be defined. The use of the SDSI-RM is illustrated through its application to data handling services and protocols that have been defined by, or are under consideration by, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).

  20. A reference model for space data system interconnection services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, John; Theis, Gerhard

    1993-03-01

    The widespread adoption of standard packet-based data communication protocols and services for spaceflight missions provides the foundation for other standard space data handling services. These space data handling services can be defined as increasingly sophisticated processing of data or information received from lower-level services, using a layering approach made famous in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). The Space Data System Interconnection Reference Model (SDSI-RM) incorporates the conventions of the OSIRM to provide a framework within which a complete set of space data handling services can be defined. The use of the SDSI-RM is illustrated through its application to data handling services and protocols that have been defined by, or are under consideration by, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).

  1. Reconfigurable optical interconnection network for multimode optical fiber sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. T.; Robinson, D.; Lu, H.; Wang, M. R.; Jannson, T.; Baumbick, R.

    1992-01-01

    A single-source, single-detector architecture has been developed to implement a reconfigurable optical interconnection network multimode optical fiber sensor arrays. The network was realized by integrating LiNbO3 electrooptic (EO) gratings working at the Raman Na regime and a massive fan-out waveguide hologram (WH) working at the Bragg regime onto a multimode glass waveguide. The glass waveguide utilized the whole substrate as a guiding medium. A 1-to-59 massive waveguide fan-out was demonstrated using a WH operating at 514 nm. Measured diffraction efficiency of 59 percent was experimentally confirmed. Reconfigurability of the interconnection was carried out by generating an EO grating through an externally applied electric field. Unlike conventional single-mode integrated optical devices, the guided mode demonstrated has an azimuthal symmetry in mode profile which is the same as that of a fiber mode.

  2. Studies of stainless steel exposed to sandblasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horodek Paweł

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sandblasting on surface and subsurface of stainless steel is investigated using variable energy positron beam (VEP, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Samples of stainless steel were blasted using 110 μm particles of Al2O3 under different pressure and time duration. In the case of sandblasting for 90 s, the reduction of positron diffusion length depending on the applied pressure was observed. Sandblasting during 30 s leads only to the reduction of positron diffusion length to about 60 nm for all samples. Positron lifetimes close to 170 ps measured using positrons emitted directly from the source point to the presence of vacancies on the dislocation lines. SEM and AFM images show that surface roughness depends rather on pressure of sandblasting than time of exposition.

  3. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  4. State on AISI 304 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fattah-alhosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The passivity and protective nature of the passive films are essentially related to ionic and electronic transport processes, which are controlled by the optical and electronic properties of passive films. In this study, the electrochemical behavior of passive films anodically formed on AISI 304 stainless steel in sulfuric acid solution has been examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. AISI 304 in sulphuric acid solution is characterized by high interfacial impedance, thereby illustrating its high corrosion resistance. Results showed that the interfacial impedance and the polarization resistance (pol initially increase with applied potential, within the low potential passive. However, at a sufficiently high potential passive (>0.4 V, the interfacial impedance and the polarization resistance decrease with increasing potential. An electrical equivalent circuit based on the impedance analysis, which describes the behavior of the passive film on stainless steel more satisfactorily than the proposed models, is presented.

  5. Evolution of stainless steels in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, Farhad

    2010-01-01

    Starting with the stainless steels used in the conventional industry, their adoption and successive evolutions in the nuclear industry, from one generation of nuclear reactors to another, is presented. Specific examples for several steels are given, covering fabrication procedures, qualification methods, property databases and design allowable stresses, to show how the ever-increasing demands for better performance and reliability, in particular under neutron irradiation, have been met. Particular attention is paid to the austenitic stainless steels types 304L, 316L, 316L(N), 316L(N)-IG, titanium stabilized grade 321, precipitation strengthened alloy 800, conventional and low activation ferritic/martensitic steels and their oxygen dispersion strengthening (ODS) derivatives. For each material, the evolution of the associated filler metal and welding techniques are also presented. (author)

  6. Microstructure of laser cladded martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available of austenitic solidification. Table 4 - Chemical composition of the laser cladded martensitic stainless steel in the dendritic and interdendritic areas Material Area C* Cr Ni Mn Si Mo Dendritic 0.3 12.8 0.15 0.7 0.65 0.02 Fe211-1 (420) Off... alloy steels and are shown in Table 4. Ms (ºC) = 550 – 350C – 40Mn - 20Cr – 10Mo – 17Ni – 8W – 35V – 10Cu + 15Co + 30Al (Eq 3) Table 5 - Ms temperatures of laser cladded martensitic stainless steel Material Ms Dendritic area (ºC) Ms...

  7. Diffraction study on aging duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, Toru; Miura, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hisashi; Torii, Syuuki; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    SUS329J2L duplex stainless steels exhibit high strength and resistance to corrosion, so widely used in piping of industrial plants. However, it is known that they are brought deterioration of strength using for long time. This reason of this deterioration is that ferrite decomposes to Fe-rich α phase and Cr-rich α' phase and, Cr-rich α' phase decreases mechanical properties and resistance for corrosion. In this experiment, we made neutron diffraction experiments on long time aging (625 K, 16000 h) duplex stainless steel to observe the behavior for α phase and α' phase, using Sirius diffractometer at KENS. The result shows, the lattice parameters in α phase were decreased. In contrast to, its in austenite (γ phase) were slightly increased. (author)

  8. Enabling Lead Free Interconnects in DoD Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Develop tailored Lead-free webinars for the Program Management and Systems Engineering. These webinars target interconnect reliability and whisker risk to...the needs of the weapon system program managers . Examples of risk will be given and information will be provided on where to access more detailed...Electronics Risk Mitigation: WP-201573T2 Summary Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Environmental Security Technology

  9. Optical-fiber-interconnected MEMS sensors and actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael B.; Meller, Scott A.; Wavering, Thomas A.; Greene, Jonathan A.; Murphy, Kent A.

    1998-07-01

    Microelectromechanical systems or MEMS are miniature devices that have several advantages over conventional sensing and actuating technology. MEMS devices benefit form well developed integrated circuit production methods which ensure high volume, high yield processes that create low-cost sensors and actuators. OPtical fiber interconnected MEMS will provide new functionality in MEMS devices such as multiplexed operation for distributed sensing applications. This paper presents approaches in optical fiber to MEMS interfacing and some preliminary results.

  10. The critical thickness of liners of Cu interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q; Zhang, S H; Li, J C

    2004-01-01

    A model for the size-dependence of activation energy is developed. With the model and Fick's second law, relationships among the liner thickness, the working life and the working temperature of a TaN liner for Cu interconnects are predicted. The predicted results of the TaN liner are in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the critical thicknesses of liners of some elements are calculated

  11. Overvoltages related to distributed generation-power system interconnection transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamanillo, G.R.; Gomez, J.C.; Florena, E.F. [Rio Cuarto National University (IPSEP/UNRC), Cordoba (Argentina). Electric Power Systems Protection Institute], Email: jcgomez@ing.unrc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    The energy crisis that experiences the world drives to carry to an extreme, the use of all energy sources which are available. The sources need to be connected to the electric network in their next point, requiring of electric-electronic interfaces. The traditional electric power systems are changing their characteristics, in what concerns to structure, operation and on overvoltage generation. This change is not taking place in coordinated form among the involved sectors. The interconnection of a Distributed Generator (DG) directly with the power system is objectionable and risky. It is required of an interconnection transformer which performs several functions. Rigid specifications do not exist in this respect, for the variety of systems in use in the world, nevertheless there are utilities recommendations. Overvoltages caused by the DG, which arise due to the change of structure of the electric system, are explained. The transformer connection selection, presents positive and negative aspects that impact the utility and the user in a different or many times in an antagonistic way. The phenomenon of balanced and unbalanced ferroresonance overvoltage is studied. This phenomenon can takes place when using DG, either with synchronous or asynchronous generator, and for any type of connection of the transformer. The necessary conditions so that the phenomenon appears are presented. Eight interconnection transformer connection ways were studied. It is concluded that the solutions to reach by means of the employment of the DG, offer technical-economic advantages so much to the utility as to the user. It is also concluded in this work that the more advisable interconnection type is function of the system connection type. (author)

  12. Interconnection France-England; Interconnexion France-Angleterre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    These documents defines the interconnection France-England rules for the 2000 MW DC submarine cable directly linking the transmission networks of England and Wales and France. Rights to use Interconnector capacity from 1 April 2001 are to be offered through competitive tenders and auctions, full details of which are set out in the Rules. The contract and a guide to the application form are provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Physical Properties of 3D Interconnected Graphite Networks - Aerographite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    networks: Aerographite Grant Number: FA8655-13-1-3058 Principal investigator: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karl Schulte Institute of Polymers & Composites Hamburg...step process: first, ZnO is manufactured, in a flame spray process forming a solid 3-D scaffold as template, followed by a CVD process in which the...tured graphitic scaffold , the so called Aerographite, in which the graphitic ligaments are directly interconnected by covalent bonds. This rare

  14. 76 FR 34964 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-533-810] Stainless Steel Bar From... the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India for the period of review February 1, 2010....; Outokumpu Stainless Bar, Inc.; Universal Stainless & Alloy Products, Inc.; and Valbruna Slater Stainless...

  15. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  16. Fatigue fracture modes of a stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, D.J.; Souza e Silva, A.S. de; Monteiro, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of strain hardening and martensite phase transformation on the fatigue fracture regions (pulsative tension) of a Stainless Steel type AISI 316 was investigated. This lead to the conclusion that the greater austenite strain hardening level only favours the occurrence of a brittle fracture. Also, in as much as the static induced martensite is concerned, a direct influence on the failure process was not observed, whereas, apparently, the one transformed under cyclic loading has no contribution to the rupture mechanisms. (author) [pt

  17. Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting...... temperature (CPT) test as corrosion test. The following welding parameters are varied: Welding speed, lsser power, focus point position and laser operation mode (CW or pulsed)....

  18. Ferritic stainless steels: corrosion resistance + economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remus, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steels provide corrosion resistance at lower cost. They include Type 409, Type 439, 18SR, 20-Mo (1.6 Mo), 18-2 (2 Mo), 26-1S, E-Brite 26-1, 29 Cr-4 Mo, and 29 Cr-4 Mo-2 Ni. Their corrosion and mechanical properties are examined. Resistance to stress-corrosion cracking is an advantage compared to austenitic types

  19. Interconnections and market integration in the Irish Single Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal, Rabindra; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2012-01-01

    Interconnections can be an effective way to increase competition and improve market integration in concentrated wholesale electricity markets with limited number of participants. This paper examines the potential for interconnections and increasing market integration in the Irish Single Electricity Market (SEM). We use a time-varying Kalman filter technique to assess the degree of market integration between SEM and other large, mature and interconnected wholesale electricity markets in Europe including Great Britain (GB). The results indicate no market integration between SEM and other European markets except for Elspot and GB. We show that the current state of market integration between SEM and GB is just 17% indicating potential to improve market integration via increased interconnector capacity. The results indicate that liquidity of wholesale markets might be a crucial factor in the market integration process while our results remain inconclusive in determining whether increased trade of renewables can improve market integration. - Highlights: ► We assess the degree of market integration between SEM and other EU electricity markets. ► Our results indicate no market integration between SEM and other European markets except for Elspot and GB. ► We show that the current state of market integration between SEM and GB is just 17%.

  20. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  1. Power System Study for Renewable Energy Interconnection in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar, O F; Ramachandaramurthy, V K

    2013-01-01

    The renewable energy (RE) sector has grown exponentially in Malaysia with the introduction of the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) by the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. Photovoltaic, biogas, biomass and mini hydro are among the renewable energy sources which offer a lucrative tariff to incite developers in taking the green technology route. In order to receive the FIT, a developer is required by the utility company to perform a power system analysis which will determine the technical feasibility of an RE interconnection to the utility company's existing grid system. There are a number of aspects which the analysis looks at, the most important being the load flow and fault levels in the network after the introduction of an RE source. The analysis is done by modelling the utility company's existing network and simulating the network with the interconnection of an RE source. The results are then compared to the values before an interconnection is made as well as ensuring the voltage rise or the increase in fault levels do not violate any pre-existing regulations set by the utility company. This paper will delve into the mechanics of performing a load flow analysis and examining the results obtained.

  2. Shuffle-exchange type interconnection networks for multiprocessor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    There are two major parts in this dissertation. In the first part, a new model, Finite Permutation Machine (FPM), and a set of theorems are developed to capture the theory of operations for the permutation networks used in SIMD mutliprocessor systems. Using this new framework, a long-lasting open problem is partially solved: Are 2n-1 passes of shuffle exchange necessary and sufficient to realize all permutations., where n = log/sub 2/N and N is the number of inputs and outputs interconnected by the network. In the second part, a solution is presented to the resource scheduling problem in large scale loosely coupled MIMD multiprocessor systems. First an interconnection network called circular shuffle network (CSN) is proposed. CSN is a circular form of shuffle-exchange type multistage interconnection network, with the switching node considered as processors. The author defines CSN with homogeneous switching nodes in the entire network as homogeneous CSN (HCSN). HCSN provides two important properties, namely, clustering of nodes in the entire network with respect to any node and efficient partial broadcast mechanisms. Second a distributed scheduling model is described that takes advantage of the above two properties that HCSN provides.

  3. Impact Testing of Stainless Steel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. K. Blandford; D. K. Morton; T. E. Rahl; S. D. Snow

    2005-01-01

    Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates (10 to 200 per second) during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these materials under dynamic (impact) loads in the strain rate range of concern are not well documented. The goal of the work presented in this paper was to improve understanding of moderate strain rate phenomena on these materials. Utilizing a drop-weight impact test machine and relatively large test specimens (1/2-inch thick), initial test efforts focused on the tensile behavior of specific stainless steel materials during impact loading. Impact tests of 304L and 316L stainless steel test specimens at two different strain rates, 25 per second (304L and 316L material) and 50 per second (304L material) were performed for comparison to their quasi-static tensile test properties. Elevated strain rate stress-strain curves for the two materials were determined using the impact test machine and a ''total impact energy'' approach. This approach considered the deformation energy required to strain the specimens at a given strain rate. The material data developed was then utilized in analytical simulations to validate the final elevated stress-strain curves. The procedures used during testing and the results obtained are described in this paper

  4. Colorimetric values of esthetic stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Omachi, Koichi; Staninec, Michal

    2002-01-01

    The colorimetric values of two different kinds of esthetic stainless steel crowns were measured and compared with the colorimetric values of primary anterior teeth in Japanese children. The colorimetric values of resin composite-faced stainless steel crowns (Kinder Krown) and epoxy-coated stainless steel crowns (White Steel Crown) were measured with a color difference meter. The Commission Internationale de Eclairage L*, a*, b*, and delta E*ab values and Munsell value, chroma, and hue were calculated. The data were compared with previously reported colorimetric values of Japanese primary anterior teeth measured with the same color difference meter used in this study. Compared to Japanese primary anterior teeth, Kinder Krown Pedo I and Pedo II showed much higher L* values and lower hue; on the other hand, White Steel Crown showed much higher L*, a*, b* values, much higher value and chroma, and much lower hue. Color analysis revealed that the colors of the White Steel Crown and Kinder Krown Pedo I were substantially different from the color of Japanese primary anterior teeth. The color difference between Pedo II crowns and Japanese primary anterior teeth was relatively high, but the color of Pedo II might be acceptable for clinical use.

  5. Computer simulation of sensitization in stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, R W

    1983-12-20

    Stainless steel containers are prime candidates for the containment of nuclear waste in tuff rock. The thermal history of a container involves exposure to temperatures of 500 to 600/sup 0/C when it is welded and possibly filled with molten waste glass, followed by hundreds of years exposure in the 100 to 300/sup 0/C range. The problems of short- and long-term sensitization in stainless steels have been addressed by two computer programs. The TTS program uses classical nucleation and growth theory plus experimental input to predict the onset of precipitation or sensitization under complex thermal histories. The FEMGB program uses quadratic finite-element methods to analyze diffusion processes and chromium depletion during precipitate growth. The results of studies using both programs indicate that sensitization should not be a problem in any of the austenitic stainless steels considered. However, more precise information on the process thermal cycles, especially during welding of the container, is needed. Contributions from dislocation pipe diffusion could promote long-term low-temperature sensitization.

  6. 14 CFR 121.1111 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems... Airworthiness and Safety Improvements § 121.1111 Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance... wiring interconnection systems (EWIS). (c) The proposed EWIS maintenance program changes must be based on...

  7. 77 FR 24646 - Open Access and Priority Rights on Interconnection Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... and AD11-11-000] Open Access and Priority Rights on Interconnection Facilities AGENCY: Federal Energy... seeks comment on open access and priority rights for capacity on interconnection facilities. DATES... ] 61,051 Docket Nos. Open Access and Priority Rights on Interconnection AD12-14-000 Facilities Priority...

  8. Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS): a modular open standards approach for high performance interconnects for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Charles Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Next Generation Space Interconnect Standard (NGSIS) effort is a Government-Industry collaboration effort to define a set of standards for interconnects between space system components with the goal of cost effectively removing bandwidth as a constraint for future space systems. The NGSIS team has selected the ANSI/VITA 65 OpenVPXTM standard family for the physical baseline. The RapidIO protocol has been selected as the basis for the digital data transport. The NGSIS standards are developed to provide sufficient flexibility to enable users to implement a variety of system configurations, while meeting goals for interoperability and robustness for space. The NGSIS approach and effort represents a radical departure from past approaches to achieve a Modular Open System Architecture (MOSA) for space systems and serves as an exemplar for the civil, commercial, and military Space communities as well as a broader high reliability terrestrial market.

  9. Characterization of thermal aging of duplex stainless steel by SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Y.; Kamimura, A.; Aoki, K.; Nakayasu, F.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal aging is a growing concern for long-term-aged duplex stainless steel piping in nuclear power plants. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) was used for the detection of thermal aging of SUS329 rolled duplex stainless steel and SCS16 cast duplex stainless steel. It was found that the SQUID output signal pattern in the presence of AC magnetic field applied to the specimen was sensitive to the changes in electromagnetic properties due to thermal aging

  10. Tritium distributing in stainless steel determined by chemical etchin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yifu; Luo Deli; Chen Changan; Chen Shicun; Jing Wenyong

    2009-01-01

    The depth distribution of tritium in stainless steel was measured by chemical etching. The results show that the method can more quantitatively evaluate the tritium distributing in stainless steel. The maximum amount of tritium which distributed in crystal lattice of stainless steel is limitted by its solubility at room temperature. The other form of tritium in stainless steel is gaseous tritium that are trapped by defects, impurities, fractures, etc. within it. The gaseous tritium is several times more than the solid-dissolved tritium. (authors)

  11. Stainless Steel Leaches Nickel and Chromium into Foods During Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerud, Kristin L.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Anderson, Kim A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicological studies show that oral doses of nickel and chromium can cause cutaneous adverse reactions such as dermatitis. Additional dietary sources, such as leaching from stainless steel cookware during food preparation, are not well characterized. This study examined stainless steel grades, cooking time, repetitive cooking cycles, and multiple types of tomato sauces for their effects on nickel and chromium leaching. Trials included three types of stainless steels and a stainless steel saucepan; cooking times of 2 to 20 hours, ten consecutive cooking cycles, and four commercial tomato sauces. After a simulated cooking process, samples were analyzed by ICP-MS for Ni and Cr. After six hours of cooking, Ni and Cr concentrations in tomato sauce increased up to 26- and 7-fold respectively, depending on the grade of stainless steel. Longer cooking durations resulted in additional increases in metal leaching, where Ni concentrations increased 34 fold and Cr increased approximately 35 fold from sauces cooked without stainless steel. Cooking with new stainless steel resulted in the largest increases. Metal leaching decreases with sequential cooking cycles and stabilized after the sixth cooking cycle, though significant metal contributions to foods were still observed. The tenth cooking cycle, resulted in an average of 88 μg of Ni and 86 μg of Cr leached per 126 g serving of tomato sauce. Stainless steel cookware can be an overlooked source of nickel and chromium, where the contribution is dependent on stainless steel grade, cooking time, and cookware usage. PMID:23984718

  12. Autoassociative memory design using interconnected generalized brain-state-in-a-box neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Cheolhwan; Zak, Stanislaw H; Zhai, Guisheng

    2005-06-01

    A class of interconnected neural networks composed of generalized Brain-State-in-a-Box (gBSB) neural subnetworks is considered. Interconnected gBSB neural network architectures are proposed along with their stability conditions. The design of the interconnected neural networks is reduced to the problem of solving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) to determine the interconnection parameters. A method for solving LMIs is devised generating the solutions that, in general, are further away from zero than the corresponding solutions obtained using MATLAB's LMI toolbox, thus resulting in stronger interconnections between the subnetworks. The proposed architectures are then used to construct neural associative memories. Simulations are performed to illustrate the results obtained.

  13. The effect of alloyed nitrogen or dissolved nitrate ions on the anodic behaviour of austenitic stainless steel in hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrabi, T.

    2004-01-01

    The anodic behaviour of high purity stainless steels, based on a 316L composition, has been studied at room temperature in HCl solutions from 1 to 6 M. For all acid concentrations, the presence of 0.22% nitrogen has little or no effect on the active dissolution kinetics at low over-potentials. The effect on the critical current density for passivation is also small for low HCl concentrations ( 4.5 M), no passivation occurs and again nitrogen has little effect. However, for HCl concentrations around 4 M nitrogen reversibly impedes active dissolution at a few hundred mA cm -2 . The effect does not appear to be an oxide passivation, but is more likely to be due to surface enrichment of nitrogen atoms. Implications for localized corrosion are discussed. An effect similar to that of nitrogen alloying is reproduced on a nitrogen free alloy by adding 2 M NaNO 3 to a 4M HCl solution. This effect is distinct from the passivation of salt-covered surfaces and may be preferable to the latter as an explanation of the increase in pitting potential by nitrate additions to NaCl solutions. Passivation under a salt film is retained to explain the passivation of growing pits above the inhibition potential. (authors)

  14. Stainless steel reinforcement as a replacement for epoxy coated steel in bridge decks : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The corrosion resistance of 2304 stainless steel reinforcement and stainless steel clad reinforcement was compared to conventional and epoxy-coated reinforcement (ECR). 2304 stainless steel was tested in both the as-received condition (dark mottled f...

  15. Low temperature surface hardening of stainless steel; the role of plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Jespersen, Freja Nygaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Thermochemical surface engineering by nitriding of austenitic stainless steel transforms the surface zone into expanded austenite, which improves the wear resistance of the stainless steel while preserving the stainless behavior. As a consequence of the thermochemical surface engineering, huge re...

  16. Modifying ferritic stainless steels for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Scot Jason

    2007-12-01

    One of the most important problem areas associated with the solid oxide fuel cells is selection of a cost effective material for use as the interconnect component of the cell. Metals are now being considered as materials for this component, with ferritic stainless steels being the leading candidate. This work evaluates methods to combat the problem areas, namely rapid growth rate and vaporization of the oxide scale, that hinder the use of these materials. Oxidation experiments have been performed in dry and wet single atmosphere exposures as well as a dual environment exposure to simulate the conditions in a working SOFC. Measurements of the electrical properties of the oxides that formed were also performed. Commercial alloys, E-Brite and Crofer 22APU, were tested to form a baseline and resultant oxidation and electrical behaviors match those found in the literature. Isothermal oxidation tests for short exposure times have also led to a possible mechanism for the formation of the MnCr2O4 layer on Crofer. All of these tests were then replicated on a series of experimental Fe-22Cr-XTi (X=0-4) alloys. These alloys are shown to form a rutile layer analogous to the MnCr2O4 layer on Crofer. While this layer does prevent some chromia vaporization, the consequences due to the presence of Ti in the chromia include increased growth rate, decreased resistivity, extensive internal oxidation and nitridation of Ti, and a change of the growth direction of the chromia. The alloys containing ˜2--3 wt%Ti appear to offer the best combination of oxidation, electrical, and mechanical properties. Coatings of lanthanum chromites and ferrites were also tested and shown to be very sensitive to exposure condition, resulting in the formation of pores, and to coating thickness, where thicker coatings are subject to cracking. Finally, reactive element oxide doping was attempted to slow the oxide growth rate for E-Brite (CeO2 doping) and for the Fe-Cr-Ti alloys (CeO 2 and La2O3 doping). A

  17. Exploring the interconnections between gender, health and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBride-Stewart, S; Gong, Y; Antell, J

    2016-12-01

    Public health has recognized that nature is good for health but there are calls for a review of its gendered aspects. This review attempts to develop and explore a broad analytical theme - the differing interconnections between gender, health and nature. The paper summarizes the interconnections that have been subject to extensive academic enquiry between gender and health, health and space, and gender and space. A combination of key terms including place; gender; health; outdoor space; green space; natural environment; national parks; femininity; masculinity; recreation; physical activity; sustainability; ecofeminism; feminism; environmental degradation; and environmental justice were used to search the electronic databases Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and Scopus to identify relevant articles. We took two approaches for this review to provide an overview and analysis of the range of research in the field, and to present a framework of research that is an analysis of the intersection of gender, health and nature. Four dimensions are distinguished: (1) evaluations of health benefits and 'toxicities' of nature; (2) dimensions and qualities of nature/space; (3) environmental justice including accessibility, availability and usability; and (4) identification of boundaries (symbolic/material) that construct differential relationships between nature, gender and health. This paper offers an understanding of how environmental and social conditions may differentially shape the health of women and men. The dimensions direct analytical attention to the diverse linkages that constitute overlapping and inseparable domains of knowledge and practice, to identify complex interconnections between gender, health and nature. This review therefore analyses assumptions about the health benefits of nature, and its risks, for gender from an in-depth, analytical perspective that can be used to inform policy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  18. Actual issues concerning nuclear power plants and interconnected grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medjimorec, D.; Brkic, S.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and transmission grid have always been mutually of special relevance. In countries and/or regions where nuclear power plants are located they are almost as a rule counted among strongest nodes of the grid. Hence, they are treated as such from grid point of view in various aspects (operational, planning). In interconnected high-voltage transmission grid of European mainland, usually called UCTE interconnected system, this importance could be shown in a range of issues and several cases, particularly under present situation in which there are numerous demanding and challenging tasks put on transmission system operators, largely due to the opening of electricity markets in the most of European countries. Among these issues definitely worth of mentioning is relevant influence to both commercial paths and physical power flows, and also to exchange programmes between control areas and blocks. In this context there is also relation to cross-border transactions and mechanism applied to them. In respect to security of supply issues and future of nuclear power generation under present regulative framework of most European countries it is needed to comply with connecting conditions (and other stipulations) from national grid codes where different approaches could be observed. Furthermore, nuclear issues significantly influence approach to extension of UCTE system. In certain extent this also applies to pending re-connection of present two synchronous zones of UCTE, particularly to area of broader region directly affected with this complex process. Some of these also reflect to Croatian high-voltage transmission grid as a part of UCTE interconnected system with certain peculiarities.(author)

  19. On some interconnections between combinatorial optimization and extremal graph theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoš M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniting feature of combinatorial optimization and extremal graph theory is that in both areas one should find extrema of a function defined in most cases on a finite set. While in combinatorial optimization the point is in developing efficient algorithms and heuristics for solving specified types of problems, the extremal graph theory deals with finding bounds for various graph invariants under some constraints and with constructing extremal graphs. We analyze by examples some interconnections and interactions of the two theories and propose some conclusions.

  20. Fractal Characteristics Analysis of Blackouts in Interconnected Power Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Feng; Li, Lijuan; Li, Canbing; Wu, Qiuwei; Cao, Yijia; Zhou, Bin; Fang, Baling

    2018-01-01

    The power failure models are a key to understand the mechanism of large scale blackouts. In this letter, the similarity of blackouts in interconnected power grids (IPGs) and their sub-grids is discovered by the fractal characteristics analysis to simplify the failure models of the IPG. The distribution characteristics of blackouts in various sub-grids are demonstrated based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test. The fractal dimensions (FDs) of the IPG and its sub-grids are then obtained by usin...

  1. A new method for energy accounting in interconnected operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navid, Taghizadegan; Navid, Taghizadegan; Naser, Tabatabaei; Ahmad Reza, Zentabchi; Majid, Mollazadeh

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The measurement of electrical energy supplied to customers or purchased from and delivered to interconnected power systems is of paramount importance in power system operations. Accurate measurement of energy delivered to customers or received from and delivered to other systems is necessary to ensure that billing is correct. energy transferred between systems also must be properly measured and accounted for to ensure that agreed-upon schedules are being met and that each system meets its obligation to match generation with load on a moment-to-moment basis

  2. Ring-array processor distribution topology for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Ha, Berlin; Wang, Ting; Wang, Sunyu; Katz, A.; Lu, X. J.; Kanterakis, E.

    1992-01-01

    The existing linear and rectangular processor distribution topologies for optical interconnects, although promising in many respects, cannot solve problems such as clock skews, the lack of supporting elements for efficient optical implementation, etc. The use of a ring-array processor distribution topology, however, can overcome these problems. Here, a study of the ring-array topology is conducted with an aim of implementing various fast clock rate, high-performance, compact optical networks for digital electronic multiprocessor computers. Practical design issues are addressed. Some proof-of-principle experimental results are included.

  3. Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP The Next Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Vasseur, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Smart object technology, sometimes called the Internet of Things, is having a profound impact on our day-to-day lives. Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP is the first book that takes a holistic approach to the revolutionary area of IP-based smart objects. Smart objects are the intersection of networked embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, ubiquitous and pervasive computing, mobile telephony and telemetry, and mobile computer networking. This book consists of three parts, Part I focuses on the architecture of smart objects networking, Part II covers the hardware, software, and protoco

  4. IIIV/Si hybrid integrated devices for optical interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaixuan; Zhu, Yuntao; Cheng, Jianxin; Huang, Qiangsheng; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Jianhao; Shi, Yaocheng; Liu, Jin; Roelkens, Günther; Liu, Liu

    2015-02-01

    We discuss our view of the on-chip optical interconnect infrastructure for future multi-core processers based on wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) and our recent results on some key devices for such structures. Cascading performance of various wavelength multiplexers and de-multiplexers including arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) and echelle gratings based on the silicon-on-insulator platform are discussed and compared. IIIV based electro-absorption (EA) modulators on silicon realized through benzocyclobutene (BCB) adhesive bonding are analyzed. Ultra short adiabatic taper based mode converters between passive and active structures are designed. The integration of multichannel modulators, detectors and wavelength de-multiplexers is realized.

  5. Ferroelectric devices, interconnects, and methods of manufacture thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-12-12

    A doped electroconductive organic polymer is used for forming the electrode of a ferroelectric device or an interconnect. An exemplary ferroelectric device is a ferrelectric capacitor comprising: a substrate (101); a first electrode (106) disposed on the substrate; a ferroelectric layer (112) disposed on and in contact with the first electrode; and a second electrode (116) disposed on and in contact with the ferroelectric layer, wherein at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode is an organic electrode comprising a doped electroconductive organic polymer, for example DMSO-doped PEDOT-PSS.

  6. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  7. DER Certification Laboratory Pilot, Accreditation Plan, and Interconnection Agreement Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T.; Sitzlar, H. E.; Ferraro, R.

    2003-11-01

    This report describes the first steps toward creating the organization, procedures, plans and tools for distributed energy resources (DER) equipment certification, test laboratory accreditation, and interconnection agreements. It covers the activities and accomplishments during the first period of a multiyear effort. It summarizes steps taken to outline a certification plan to assist in the future development of an interim plan for certification and accreditation activities. It also summarizes work toward a draft plan for certification, a beta Web site to support communications and materials, and preliminary draft certification criteria.

  8. Crosstalk in dynamic optical interconnects in photorefractive crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Petersen, Paul Michael; Buchhave, Preben

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the crosstalk between two neighboring gratings in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 optical interconnects. The gratings are induced by the interference between one reference beam and two object beams. By applying a suitable phase shift in one of the object beams, we can selectively...... switch off one of the gratings. The crosstalk between the two gratings is experimentally determined from the diffraction efficiency in the remaining grating before and after applying the phase shift. The magnitude of the crosstalk is determined by the intensity ratio between the reference beam intensity...

  9. 100 GHz Externally Modulated Laser for Optical Interconnects Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozolins, Oskars; Pang, Xiaodan; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    We report on a 116 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK), four pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and 105-Gb/s 8-PAM optical transmitter using an InP-based integrated and packaged externally modulated laser for high-speed optical interconnects with up to 30 dB static extinction ratio and over 100-GHz 3-d......B bandwidth with 2 dB ripple. In addition, we study the tradeoff between power penalty and equalizer length to foresee transmission distances with standard single mode fiber....

  10. Addendum to the 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This report serves as an addendum to the report 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report (Amidan, Follum, and Freeman, 2015). This addendum report investigates the following: the impact of shorter record lengths and of adding a daily regularization term to the date/time models for angle pair measurements, additional development of a method to monitor the trend in phase angle pairs, the effect of changing the length of time to determine a baseline, when calculating atypical events, and a comparison between quantitatively discovered atypical events and actual events.

  11. Investigating the Crevice Corrosion Behavior of Coated Stainless Steel in Seawater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kain, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... austenitic stainless steel. Testing in natural seawater has demonstrated that coatings can protect susceptible stainless steel from barnacle related crevice corrosion and localized corrosion at weldments...

  12. Antimicrobial Cu-bearing stainless steel scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Ren, Ling; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Shuyuan; Sercombe, Timothy B.; Yang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Copper-bearing stainless steel scaffolds with two different structures (Body Centered Cubic and Gyroid labyrinth) at two solid fractions (25% and 40%) were fabricated from both 316L powder and a mixture of 316L and elemental Cu powder using selective laser melting, and relative 316L scaffolds were served as control group. After processing, the antimicrobial testing demonstrated that the 316L-Cu scaffolds presented excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the cell viability assay indicated that there was no cytotoxic effect of 316L-Cu scaffolds on rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells. As such, these have the potential to reduce implant-associated infections. The Cu was also found to homogeneously distribute within the microstructure by scanning electronic microcopy. The addition of Cu would not significantly affect its strength and stiffness compared to 316L scaffold, and the stiffness of all the scaffolds (3-20GPa) is similar to that of bone and much less than that of bulk stainless steel. Consequently, fabrication of such low stiffness porous structures, especially coupled with the addition of antimicrobial Cu, may provide a new direction for medical stainless steels. - Highlights: • 316L-Cu scaffolds were fabricated by using selective laser melting (SLM). • 316L-Cu scaffolds showed satisfied antimicrobial activities. • 316L-Cu scaffolds have no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. • Other properties of 316L-Cu scaffolds were similar to 316L scaffolds. • 316L-Cu scaffolds have the potential to be used in orthopedic applications.

  13. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1986-10-01

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Microstructures of cast materials subjected to long-term aging either in reactor service or in the laboratory have been characterized by TEM, SANS, and APFIM techniques. Two precipitate phases, i.e., the Cr-rich α' and Ni- and Si-rich G phase, have been identified in the ferrite matrix of the aged steels. The results indicate that the low-temperature embrittlement is primarily caused by α' precipitates which form by spinodal decomposition. The relative contribution of G phase to loss of toughness is now known. Microstructural data also indicate that weakening of ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitates has a significant effect on the onset and extent of embrittlement of the high-carbon CF-8 and CF-8M grades of stainless steels, particularly after aging at 400 or 450 0 C. Data from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450 0 C are presented and correlated with the microstructural results. Thermal aging of the steels results in an increase in tensile strength and a decrease in impact energy, J/sub IC/, and tearing modulus. The fracture toughness results show good agreement with the Charpy-impact data. The effects of compositional and metallurgical variables on loss of toughness are discussed

  14. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, F.; Reinoso, M.; Huck, H.; Rosenbusch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp 2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  15. STRUCTURAL STRESS RELAXATION IN STAINLESS INSTABILITY STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lyabuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The approach to the description of conditions of martensitic transformation in austenitic steel is advanced. Transformation induced hardening is the result of Le Chatelier principle in instability alloys. The phase transformation in austenitic instability stainless steel is the cause of reduction of grain refining and increase of strength. It was experimentally shown that physical-mechanical characteristics of the prepared materials were defined by the structure and inhomogeneous distribution of the hardening phase within a grain. The reasons for high thermal stability of inverse austenitic were established. The factors determining the inverse austenitic relaxation resistibility and resources for its increasing were revealed.

  16. Static strain aging in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, S.N.

    1978-07-01

    The static strain aging effects were investigated in austenitic stainless steels by measuring the yield points developed in tensile tests following the arrest of the crosshead for some period of time. The results appear to indicate that the dragging of dislocations in the interval of temperatures from 100 to 300 0 C, where the strain aging is effective, does not apparently depend on the Cottrell's atmosphere. Moreover the influence of the pre-deformation and time on the yield point intensity displayed the existence of stages. The strain aging mechanics and the reasons for the stages were discussed. (Author) [pt

  17. 77 FR 23752 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... reason of imports from China of drawn stainless sinks, provided for in subheading 7324.10.00 of the... than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Government of China. \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207...

  18. Solidification cracking in austenitic stainless steel welds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solidification cracking is a significant problem during the welding of austenitic stainless steels, particularly in fully austenitic and stabilized compositions. Hot cracking in stainless steel welds is caused by low-melting eutectics containing impurities such as S, P and alloy elements such as Ti, Nb. The WRC-92 diagram can be ...

  19. Stress corrosion cracking of AISI 321 stainless steel in acidic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of AISI 321 stainless steel in acidic chloride solution was studied by slow strain rate (SSR) ... Stress corrosion cracking; chloride; stainless steel; inhibitor. 1. Introduction. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) ..... Xi'an Jiaotong University Press) (in Chinese). Huang Y L, Cao C N, Lu M and Lin ...

  20. Analysis of polypyrrole-coated stainless steel electrodes-Estimation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of polypyrrole-coated stainless steel electrodes - Estimation of specific capacitances and construction of equivalent circuits. R Ramya M V Sangaranarayanan ... The galvanostatic polymerization of pyrrole is carried out on stainless steel electrodes using -toluene sulphonic acid. The morphology of the film is ...

  1. Estimation of embrittlement during aging of AISI 316 stainless steel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Nitrogen additions to stainless steels have been found beneficial as it improves austenite stability and thereby ... selected keeping in mind the service conditions in the nuclear reactors where these steels are used. .... increases. δ-Ferrite in austenitic stainless steel weld met- als containing FN4–FN11 decomposes to α + α′ ...

  2. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  3. Stainless steels for seawater desalination plants; Nichtrostende Staehle fuer Meerwasserentsalzungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, G. [ThyssenKrupp Nirosta GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Seawater desalination plants can be used to produce drinking water with low chloride concentrations. Stainless steels are an elementary component of the various process technologies in such plants. Due to growing demand for drinking water - especially in the Arabian states, but also in southern Europe - seawater desalination plants represent a very interesting area of application with increasing economic importance for stainless steels. (orig.)

  4. Reliability and performance evaluation of stainless and mild steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliability and performance of stainless and mild steel products in methanolic and aqueous sodium chloride media have been investigated. Weight-loss and pre-exposure methods were used. There was a higher rate of weight-loss of mild steels and stainless steels in 1% HCl methanolic solution than in aqueous NaCl ...

  5. Effects of Thermocapillary Forces during Welding of 316L-Type Wrought, Cast and Powder Metallurgy Austenitic Stainless Steels

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). This 27 km long accelerator requires 1248 superconducting dipole magnets operating at 1.9 K. The cold mass of the dipole magnets is closed by a shrinking cylinder with two longitudinal welds and two end covers at both extremities of the cylinder. The end covers, for which fabrication by welding, casting or Powder Metallurgy (PM) was considered, are dished-heads equipped with a number of protruding nozzles for the passage of the different cryogenic lines. Structural materials and welds must retain high strength and toughness at cryogenic temperature. AISI 316L-type austenitic stainless steel grades have been selected because of their mechanical properties, ductility, weldability and stability of the austenitic phase against low-temperature spontaneous martensitic transformation. 316LN is chosen for the fabrication of the end covers, while the interconnection components to be welded on the protrud...

  6. Design rules for vertical interconnections by reverse offset printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Kanazawa, Shusuke; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2018-03-01

    Formation of vertical interconnections by reverse offset printing was investigated, particularly focusing on the transfer step, in which an ink pattern is transferred from a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheet for the step coverage of contact holes. We systematically examined the coverage of contact holes made of a tapered photoresist layer by varying the hole size, the hole depth, PDMS elasticity, PDMS thickness, printing speed, and printing indentation depth. Successful ink filling was achieved when the PDMS was softer, and the optimal PDMS thickness varied depending on the size of the contact holes. This behaviour is related to the bell-type uplift deformation of incompressible PDMS, which can be described by contact mechanics numerical simulations. Based on direct observation of PDMS/resist-hole contact behaviour, the step coverage of contact holes typically involves two steps of contact area growth: (i) the PDMS first touches the bottom of the holes and then (ii) the contact area gradually and radially widens toward the tapered sidewall. From an engineering perspective, it is pointed out that mechanical synchronisation mismatch in the roll-to-sheet type printing invokes the cracking of ink layers at the edges of contact holes. According to the above design rule, ink filling into a contact hole with thickness of 2.5 µm and radius of 10 µm was achieved. Contact chain patterns with 1386 points of vertical interconnections with the square hole size of up to 10 µm successfully demonstrated the validity of the technique presented herein.

  7. Security analysis of interconnected AC/DC systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses N-1 security in an interconnected ac/dc transmission system using power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). In the case of a dc converter outage the power needs to be redistributed among the remaining converter to maintain power balance and operation of the dc grid. The red......This paper analyses N-1 security in an interconnected ac/dc transmission system using power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). In the case of a dc converter outage the power needs to be redistributed among the remaining converter to maintain power balance and operation of the dc grid...... voltage control design consider the power distribution for a converter outage. By proper design and utilizing the proposed method increases the N-1 security and the secure transfer limits. This article proposes a method which minimizes the 2-norm of the sum of the PTDFs with constraints of not violating...... any line or transformer limits. Simulations were performed in a model of the Nordic power system where a dc grid is placed on top. The simulation supports the method as a tool to consider transfer limits in the grid to avoid violate the same and increase the security after a converter outage....

  8. Advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, M.; Yokoyama, R.; Yasuda, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Ogimoto, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews advanced methodology for generation expansion planning including interconnected systems developed in Japan, putting focus on flexibility and efficiency in a practical application. First, criteria for evaluating flexibility of generation planning considering uncertainties are introduced. Secondly, the flexible generation mix problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization with more than two objective functions. The multi-objective optimization problem is then transformed into a single objective problem by using the weighting method, to obtain the Pareto optimal solution, and solved by a dynamics programming technique. Thirdly, a new approach for electric generation expansion planning of interconnected systems is presented, based on the Benders Decomposition technique. That is, large scale generation problem constituted by the general economic load dispatch problem, and several sub problems which are composed of smaller scale isolated system generation expansion plans. Finally, the generation expansion plan solved by an artificial neural network is presented. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this method from the viewpoint of flexibility and applicability to practical generation expansion planning are presented. (author) 29 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Electromigration-induced plasticity and texture in Cu interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Light Source; Tamura, Nobumichi; Budiman, A. S.; Hau-Riege, C.S.; Besser, P. R.; Marathe, A.; Joo, Y.-C.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.; Nix, W. D.

    2007-01-01

    Plastic deformation has been observed in damascene Cu interconnect test structures during an in-situ electromigration experiment and before the onset of visible microstructural damage (ie. voiding) using a synchrotron technique of white beam X-ray microdiffraction. We show here that the extent of this electromigration-induced plasticity is dependent on the texture of the Cu grains in the line. In lines with strong textures, the extent of plastic deformation is found to be relatively large compared to our plasticity results in the previous study [1] using another set of Cu lines with weaker textures. This is consistent with our earlier observation that the occurrence of plastic deformation in a given grain can be strongly correlated with the availability of a direction of the crystal in the proximity of the direction of the electron flow in the line (within an angle of 10 o ). In out-of-plane oriented grains in a damascene interconnect scheme, the crystal plane facing the sidewall tends to be a {110} plane,[2-4] so as to minimize interfacial energy. Therefore, it is deterministic rather than probabilistic that the grains will have a direction nearly parallel to the direction of electron flow. Thus, strong textures lead to more plasticity, as we observe

  10. The Baltic interconnected power system; technical basement and development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreslinsh, V.; Pervushin, Yu.; Zeltinsh, N.

    1997-01-01

    Three Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are located on the Eastern shore of the Baltic Sea and to North-West of the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. The Baltic States were part of the SU for many years and consequently a part of a highly structured and centralised system. Prior to gaining independence in 1991, Baltic's power system had been planned and operated as a part of the North -West Interconnected Power Systems (Ips) of the former SU for 30 years. That is why the power systems of individual countries of the Baltic were not planned or operated as a independent systems but regionally, with the planning based on the optimisation of the whole Nord-West interconnected system. The Nord-West IPS included the power systems of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belarus, as well as six North-West regions of Russia: Leningrad, Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Pskov, Novgorod, and Kaliningrad. Analysis of the structure, conditions, loads, specifics technical features, basics operation data of the main power stations in the Baltic IPS is given

  11. Sound insulation performance of plates with interconnected distributed piezoelectric patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Kaijun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sound insulation performance of a thin plate with interconnected distributed piezoelectric patches. Piezoelectric patches are periodically bonded on the surfaces of the plate in a collocated fashion, and are interconnected via an inductive circuit network. This piezoelectric system is termed as piezo-electromechanical (PEM plate in the paper. Homogenization methods are involved under a sub-wavelength assumption to analytically develop the dynamical equations for the PEM plate. The dispersion relationships and energy densities of the wave modes propagating in the PEM plate are studied; the sub-wavelength assumption is verified for the simulations in this paper. The coincidence frequency of the PEM plate is researched, and results show that the coincidence frequency of the PEM plate will disappear at certain circumstances; mathematical and physical explanations are made for this phenomenon. The disappearance of the coincidence frequency is used to optimize the value of inductance, for the purpose of improving the sound transmission loss of the PEM plate.

  12. Uniform Microparticles with Controllable Highly Interconnected Hierarchical Porous Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mao-Jie; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Lan; Ma, Bing; Liu, Ying-Mei; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-07-01

    A simple and versatile strategy is developed for one-step fabrication of uniform polymeric microparticles with controllable highly interconnected hierarchical porous structures. Monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions, with methyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and glycidyl methacrylate as the monomer-containing oil phase, are generated from microfluidics and used for constructing the microparticles. Due to the partially miscible property of oil/aqueous phases, the monodisperse W/O/W emulsions can deform into desired shapes depending on the packing structure of inner aqueous microdrops, and form aqueous nanodrops in the oil phase. The deformed W/O/W emulsions allow template syntheses of highly interconnected hierarchical porous microparticles with precisely and individually controlled pore size, porosity, functionality, and particle shape. The microparticles elaborately combine the advantages of enhanced mass transfer, large functional surface area, and flexibly tunable functionalities, providing an efficient strategy to physically and chemically achieve enhanced synergetic performances for extensive applications. This is demonstrated by using the microparticles for oil removal for water purification and protein adsorption for bioseparation. The method proposed in this study provides full versatility for fabrication of functional polymeric microparticles with controllable hierarchical porous structures for enhancing and even broadening their applications.

  13. Electromigration of intergranular voids in metal films for microelectronic interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Averbuch, A; Ravve, I

    2003-01-01

    Voids and cracks often occur in the interconnect lines of microelectronic devices. They increase the resistance of the circuits and may even lead to a fatal failure. Voids may occur inside a single grain, but often they appear on the boundary between two grains. In this work, we model and analyze numerically the migration and evolution of an intergranular void subjected to surface diffusion forces and external voltage applied to the interconnect. The grain-void interface is considered one-dimensional, and the physical formulation of the electromigration and diffusion model results in two coupled fourth-order one-dimensional time-dependent PDEs. The boundary conditions are specified at the triple points, which are common to both neighboring grains and the void. The solution of these equations uses a finite difference scheme in space and a Runge-Kutta integration scheme in time, and is also coupled to the solution of a static Laplace equation describing the voltage distribution throughout the grain. Since the v...

  14. Cooperative behavior evolution of small groups on interconnected networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Keke; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Yang, Yeqing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Small groups are modeled on interconnected networks. • Players face different dilemmas inside and outside small groups. • Impact of the ratio and strength of link on the behavioral evolution are studied. - Abstract: Understanding the behavioral evolution in evacuation is significant for guiding and controlling the evacuation process. Based on the fact that the population consists of many small groups, here we model the small groups which are separated in space but linked by other methods, such as kinship, on interconnected networks. Namely, the players in the same layer belong to an identical small group, while the players located in different layers belong to different small groups. And the players of different layers establish interaction by edge crossed layers. In addition, players face different dilemmas inside and outside small groups, in detail, the players in the same layer play prisoner’s dilemma, but players in different layers play harmony game. By means of numerous simulations, we study the impact of the ratio and strength of link on the behavioral evolution. Because the framework of this work takes the space distribution into account, which is close to the realistic life, we hope that it can provide a new insight to reveal the law of behavioral evolution of evacuation population.

  15. Electromigration-induced plasticity and texture in Cu interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Tamura, Nobumichi; Budiman, A. S.; Hau-Riege, C.S.; Besser, P. R.; Marathe, A.; Joo, Y.-C.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.; Nix, W. D.

    2007-10-31

    Plastic deformation has been observed in damascene Cu interconnect test structures during an in-situ electromigration experiment and before the onset of visible microstructural damage (ie. voiding) using a synchrotron technique of white beam X-ray microdiffraction. We show here that the extent of this electromigration-induced plasticity is dependent on the texture of the Cu grains in the line. In lines with strong <111> textures, the extent of plastic deformation is found to be relatively large compared to our plasticity results in the previous study [1] using another set of Cu lines with weaker textures. This is consistent with our earlier observation that the occurrence of plastic deformation in a given grain can be strongly correlated with the availability of a <112> direction of the crystal in the proximity of the direction of the electron flow in the line (within an angle of 10{sup o}). In <111> out-of-plane oriented grains in a damascene interconnect scheme, the crystal plane facing the sidewall tends to be a {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane,[2-4] so as to minimize interfacial energy. Therefore, it is deterministic rather than probabilistic that the <111> grains will have a <112> direction nearly parallel to the direction of electron flow. Thus, strong <111> textures lead to more plasticity, as we observe.

  16. Middleware Architecture for the Interconnection of Distributed and Parallel Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Gherman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a fast evolving technology, bringing more computing power to its users. Two main directions are observable: creating dedicated supercomputers for scientific and commercial tasks and creating distributed commodity-based systems. The first ones are usually much expensive, but have the advantage of performance, better control and uniformity in platforms. The second one is more affordable but lacks in flexibility and easy maintenance. The computing necessities that often require supplementary computing power for certain time periods are better satisfied by interconnecting available resources than buying new, expensive ones. But interconnecting platforms – sometimes radically different – can be a difficult task. The proliferation of hybrid parallel computing systems can be even more complicated because it puts in contact systems with various operating flows at the parallelism level. In this frame, the present article proposes a new middleware architecture that can connect multiple parallel or distributed resources, of different types, allowing unitary resource utilization and reservation for the user’s jobs. The new architecture is described functionally and structurally.

  17. Zooplankton structure in two interconnected ponds: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špoljar Maria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of zooplankton diversity, abundance and trophic structure was conducted during the summer period in pelagial zone on the longitudinal profile of the Sutla River Backwater. Investigated site consists of two interconnected basins: transparent Upper Basin with submerged macrophytes and turbid Lower Basin without macrophytes in the littoral zone. In the Upper Basin, abundance and diversity of zooplankton in the pelagial was higher in comparison to the Lower Basin, with prevailing species of genus Keratella as microfilter-feeder, and genera of Polyartha and Trihocerca as macrofilter-feeder rotifers. On the contrary, in the Lower Basin, crustaceans dominated in abundance. Microfilter-feeder cladoceran (Bosmina longirostris and larval and adult stages of macrofilter-feeder copepod (Macrocyclops albidus prevailed in the Lower Basin. Fish predation pressure was more pronounced in the pelagial of the Upper Basin, indicated by low cladoceran abundance in the surface layer. Although the studied basins were interconnected, results indicate significant (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05 differences in the zooplankton structure as a potential result of the macrophyte impact on environmental conditions and fish predation pressure.

  18. High-speed VCSEL-based optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih S.

    2001-11-01

    Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) have made significant inroads into commercial realization especially in the area of data communications. Single VCSEL devices are key components in Gb Ethernet Transceivers. A multi-element VCSEL array is the key enabling technology for high-speed multi Gb/s parallel optical interconnect modules. In 1996, several companies introduced a new generation of fiber optic products based VCSEL technology such as multimode fiber transceivers for the ANSI Fiber Channel and Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3 standards. VCSELs offer unique advantages over its edge-emitting counterparts in several areas. These include low-cost (LED-like) manufacturability, low current operation and array integrability. As data rates continue to increase, VCSELs offer the advantage of being able to provide the highest modulation bandwidth per milliamp of modulation current. Currently, most of the VCSEL-based products use short (780 - 980 nm) wavelength lasers. However, significant research efforts are taking place at universities and industrial research labs around the world to develop reliable, manufacturable and high-power long (1300 - 1550 nm) wavelength VCSELs. These lasers will allow longer (several km) transmission distances and will help alleviate some of the eye-safety issues. Perhaps, the most important advantage of VCSELs is the ability to form two-dimensional arrays much easier than in the case of edge-emitting lasers. These arrays (single and two-dimensional) will allow a whole new family of applications, specifically in very high-speed computer and switch interconnects.

  19. Mechanics of ultra-stretchable self-similar serpentine interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yihui; Fu, Haoran; Su, Yewang; Xu, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We developed analytical models of flexibility and elastic-stretchability for self-similar interconnect. The analytic solutions agree very well with the finite element analyses, both demonstrating that the elastic-stretchability more than doubles when the order of self-similar structure increases by one. Design optimization yields 90% and 50% elastic stretchability for systems with surface filling ratios of 50% and 70% of active devices, respectively. The analytic models are useful for the development of stretchable electronics that simultaneously demand large coverage of active devices, such as stretchable photovoltaics and electronic eye-ball cameras. -- Abstract: Electrical interconnects that adopt self-similar, serpentine layouts offer exceptional levels of stretchability in systems that consist of collections of small, non-stretchable active devices in the so-called island–bridge design. This paper develops analytical models of flexibility and elastic stretchability for such structures, and establishes recursive formulae at different orders of self-similarity. The analytic solutions agree well with finite element analysis, with both demonstrating that the elastic stretchability more than doubles when the order of the self-similar structure increases by one. Design optimization yields 90% and 50% elastic stretchability for systems with surface filling ratios of 50% and 70% of active devices, respectively

  20. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinetta, L. C.; Hannon, M. H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products. Dual

  1. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinetta, L. C.; Hannon, M. H.

    1995-01-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products. Dual

  2. Management and use of electric interconnections in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    Major progress was made throughout 2008 in border congestion management and market integration. A number of projects were carried out, including the creation of a single auction platform for the Central-West region (CASC-CWE) and the first centre for regional coordination (Coreso SA) to better control real-time flow, thus laying the foundations for future network management on a regional scale. Such progress encourages more improvements still, which should take effect some time in 2009 and should constitute an important stage in creating an integrated European electricity market. The more significant expected advances notably include the implementation of a single, harmonised set of bidding rules covering the entire Central-West region, which would include introducing the principle of automatic resale of capacity (use-it-or-sell-it); the launch of the second phase of the BALIT project for reciprocal adjusting exchanges between France and England; the introduction of a compensation scheme for curtailments of capacity based on the differences in pricing at Power Exchanges over the France-Spain interconnection; and finally the elaboration of the very first regional reports by regulators on the management and use of interconnections. The launch of the market coupling in the Central-West region, planned for March 2010, will unquestionably be a key event in market integration. In addition to substantially improving the use of the region's interconnections, it will offer significant new perspectives in market organisation (such as the future role and status of organised markets as regards day-ahead activity). The work of network operators on the flow-based aspect of the project will also enable improvements in transparency and coordination when calculating interconnection capacities, and could, in the long-run, open debates on changing the market design. However, of the issues raised in CRE's second report on management and use of interconnections, several have

  3. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  4. Carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C. [Refineria Isla, Curazao, S.A., P.O. Box 3843. Curacao, (Netherlands Antilles); Hau, J.L.; Mayorga, A.G. [PDVSA-Intevep. P.O. Box 76343. Caracas 1070A, Venezuela (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    Stainless steel containing molybdenum are usually recommended to resist naphtenic acid corrosion in vacuum heaters. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316 Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service and just one year after undergoing the last inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 Centigrade. Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023%). Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur produced by asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures. (Author)

  5. Carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C.; Hau, J.L.; Mayorga, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Stainless steel containing molybdenum are usually recommended to resist naphtenic acid corrosion in vacuum heaters. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316 Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service and just one year after undergoing the last inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 Centigrade. Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023%). Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur produced by asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures. (Author)

  6. Single pit propagation on austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtault, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical characterization of metastable events such as pitting corrosion of stainless steel in chloride electrolyte remains complex because many individual processes may occur simultaneously on the alloy surface. To overcome these difficulties, an experimental setup, the flow micro-device, has been developed to achieve the initiation of a single pit and to propagate the single pit in three dimensions. In this work, we take advantage of such a device in order to revisit the pitting process on a 316L stainless steel in a chloride - sulphate bulk. In a first step, the time evolution of the pit geometry (depth, radius) and the chemical evolution of the pit solution investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy have shown that the pit depth propagation depends on the formation of a metal chloride and sulphate gel in the pit solution, and is controlled by the metallic cations diffusion from the pit bottom to the pit mouth. The pit radius growth is defined by the initial surface de-passivation, by the presence of a pit cover and by the gel development in the solution. all of these phenomena are function of applied potential and chemical composition of the solution. In a last step, it was demonstrated that a critical chloride concentration is needed in order to maintain the pit propagation. This critical concentration slightly increases with the pit depth. From statistical analysis performed on identical experiments, a zone diagram showing the pit stability as a function of the chloride concentration and the pit dimensions was built. (author) [fr

  7. Ion nitriding in 316=L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Calderon, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Ion nitriding is a glow discharge process that is used to induce surface modification in metals. It has been applied to 316-L austenitic stainless steel looking for similar benefits already obtained in other steels. An austenitic stainless steel was selected because is not hardenable by heat treatment and is not easy to nitride by gas nitriding. The samples were plastically deformed to 10, 20, 40, 50 AND 70% of their original thickness in order to obtain bulk hardening and to observe nitrogen penetration dependence on it. The results were: an increase of one to two rockwell hardness number (except in 70% deformed sample because of its thickness); an increase of even several hundreds per cent in microhardness knoop number in nitrided surface. The later surely modifies waste resistance which would be worth to quantify in further studies. Microhardness measured in an internal transversal face to nitrided surface had a gradual diminish in its value with depth. Auger microanalysis showed a higher relative concentration rate C N /C F e near the surface giving evidence of nitrogen presence till 250 microns deep. The color metallography etchant used, produced faster corrosion in nitrited regions. Therefore, corrosion studies have to be done before using ion nitrited 316-L under these chemicals. (Author)

  8. Characterization of friction stir welded joint of low nickel austenitic stainless steel and modified ferritic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Mounarik; Das, Hrishikesh; Ahn, Eun Yeong; Hong, Sung Tae; Kim, Moon-Jo; Han, Heung Nam; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar stainless steels, low nickel austenitic stainless steel and 409M ferritic stainless steel, is experimentally investigated. Process responses during FSW and the microstructures of the resultant dissimilar joints are evaluated. Material flow in the stir zone is investigated in detail by elemental mapping. Elemental mapping of the dissimilar joints clearly indicates that the material flow pattern during FSW depends on the process parameter combination. Dynamic recrystallization and recovery are also observed in the dissimilar joints. Among the two different stainless steels selected in the present study, the ferritic stainless steels shows more severe dynamic recrystallization, resulting in a very fine microstructure, probably due to the higher stacking fault energy.

  9. Comparison of frictional resistance between conventional stainless steel, metal insert ceramic, self ligating stainless steel and self ligating ceramic with stainless steel wire : invitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaram Subbiah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction is an integral part of fixed orthodontic treatment. Several innovations have been made to reduce friction and thereby get predictable and faster tooth movements. Self ligating brackets are one such innovation which is said to offer the possibility of a significant reduction in average treatment times and also in anchorage requirements. Ceramic Self ligating brackets introduce recently have the added advantage of aesthetics. This study was conducted to compare the frictional resistance of conventional stainless steel, metal insert ceramic, Self ligating stainless steel and Self ligating ceramic brackets against a common stainless steel wire. Fifteen premolar in each group (0.022 Roth prescription were tested against 0.019x0.025 stainless steel wire using Lloyd universal testing machine. The conventional stainless steel brackets showed a frictional resistance of 66.47±7.86g metal insert ceramic brackets showed a frictional resistance of 77.52± 8.59g . the Self ligating stainless steel brackets had a frictional resistance of 40.21±7.76g Self ligating ceramic brackets had a frictional resistance of 72.67±5.76 g Self ligating ceramic brackets do have slightly lesser friction than metal insert ceramic brackets but significantly more than metal brackets .

  10. Swarm Intelligence-Inspired Spontaneous Fabrication of Optimal Interconnect at the Micro/Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng; Huang, Zhandong; Huang, Yong; Chen, Shuoran; Qian, Xin; Li, Wenbo; Li, Yifan; Pei, Weihua; Chen, Hongda; Li, Fengyu; Song, Yanlin

    2017-02-01

    A spontaneous process is demonstrated to assemble nanoparticles into an optimal interconnect, as natural systems spontaneously figure out the shortest path. The optimal interconnect leads to a 65.9% decrease in electromagnetic interference, a 17.1% decrease in delay, and a 24.5% decrease in energy-delay. It will be of great significance for interconnect fabrication of versatile electronic circuits. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The high speed interconnect system architecture and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven C.

    The design and operation of a fiber-optic high-speed interconnect system (HSIS) being developed to meet the requirements of future avionics and flight-control hardware with distributed-system architectures are discussed. The HSIS is intended for 100-Mb/s operation of a local-area network with up to 256 stations. It comprises a bus transmission system (passive star couplers and linear media linked by active elements) and network interface units (NIUs). Each NIU is designed to perform the physical, data link, network, and transport functions defined by the ISO OSI Basic Reference Model (1982 and 1983) and incorporates a fiber-optic transceiver, a high-speed protocol based on the SAE AE-9B linear token-passing data bus (1986), and a specialized application interface unit. The operating modes and capabilities of HSIS are described in detail and illustrated with diagrams.

  12. Multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; Ingham, J. D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.; DeGroot, J. V.; Clapp, T. V.

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric multimode waveguides are of particular interest for optical interconnections in short-reach data links. In some applications, for example in space-borne systems, the use of advanced materials with outstanding performance in extreme environments is required (temperature and radiation). In this paper therefore, we present novel siloxane polymers suitable for these applications. The materials are used to form straight, 90° bent and spiral polymer waveguides by low-cost conventional photolithographic techniques on FR4 substrates. The samples have been tested to investigate their propagation characteristics and demonstrate their potential for high-speed data links. Overall, there is strong evidence that these multimode waveguides can be successfully employed as high-speed short-reach data links. Their excellent thermal properties, their low cost and the simple fabrication process indicate their suitability for a wide range of space applications.

  13. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  14. Two Component Injection Moulding for Moulded Interconnect Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The moulded interconnect devices (MIDs) contain huge possibilities for many applications in micro electro-mechanical-systems because of their potential in reducing the number of components, process steps and finally in miniaturization of the product. Among the available MID process chains, two...... component (2k) injection moulding is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However, the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in sub-millimeter range, is still a big challenge. This book searches for the technical difficulties associated...... which can effectively control the quality of 2k moulded parts and metallized MIDs. This book presents documented knowledge about MID process chains, 2k moulding and selective metallization which can be valuable source of information for both academic and industrial users....

  15. Stretchable microelectrode array using room-temperature liquid alloy interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, P; Ziaie, B; Taylor, R; Chung, C; Higgs, G; Pruitt, B L; Ding, Z; Abilez, O J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a stretchable microelectrode array for studying cell behavior under mechanical strain. The electrode array consists of gold-plated nail-head pins (250 µm tip diameter) or tungsten micro-wires (25.4 µm in diameter) inserted into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) platform (25.4 × 25.4 mm 2 ). Stretchable interconnects to the outside were provided by fusible indium-alloy-filled microchannels. The alloy is liquid at room temperature, thus providing the necessary stretchability and electrical conductivity. The electrode platform can withstand strains of up to 40% and repeated (100 times) strains of up to 35% did not cause any failure in the electrodes or the PDMS substrate. We confirmed biocompatibility of short-term culture, and using the gold pin device, we demonstrated electric field pacing of adult murine heart cells. Further, using the tungsten microelectrode device, we successfully measured depolarizations of differentiated murine heart cells from embryoid body clusters

  16. The GIOD Project-Globally Interconnected Object Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bunn, J J; Newman, H B; Wilkinson, R P

    2001-01-01

    The GIOD (Globally Interconnected Object Databases) Project, a joint effort between Caltech and CERN, funded by Hewlett Packard Corporation, has investigated the use of WAN-distributed Object Databases and Mass Storage systems for LHC data. A prototype small- scale LHC data analysis center has been constructed using computing resources at Caltechs Centre for advanced Computing Research (CACR). These resources include a 256 CPU HP Exemplar of ~4600 SPECfp95, a 600 TByte High Performance Storage System (HPSS), and local/wide area links based on OC3 ATM. Using the exemplar, a large number of fully simulated CMS events were produced, and used to populate an object database with a complete schema for raw, reconstructed and analysis objects. The reconstruction software used for this task was based on early codes developed in preparation for the current CMS reconstruction program, ORCA. (6 refs).

  17. Secure Precise Clock Synchronization for Interconnected Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure time synchronization is a paramount service for wireless sensor networks (WSNs constituted by multiple interconnected body area networks (BANs. We propose a novel approach to securely and efficiently synchronize nodes at BAN level and/or WSN level. Each BAN develops its own notion of time. To this effect, the nodes of a BAN synchronize with their BAN controller node. Moreover, controller nodes of different BANs cooperate to agree on a WSN global and/or to transfer UTC time. To reduce the number of exchanged synchronization messages, we use an environmental-aware time prediction algorithm. The performance analysis in this paper shows that our approach exhibits very advanced security, accuracy, precision, and low-energy trade-off. For comparable precision, our proposal outstands related clock synchronization protocols in energy efficiency and risk of attacks. These results are based on computations.

  18. The Quality Control of the LHC Continuous Cryostat Interconnections

    CERN Document Server

    Bertinelli, F; Bozzini, D; Cruikshank, P; Fessia, P; Grimaud, A; Kotarba, A; Maan, W; Olek, S; Poncet, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Savary, F; Sulek, Z; Tock, J P; Tommasini, D; Vaudaux, L; Williams, L

    2008-01-01

    The interconnections between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) magnets have required some 40 000 TIG welded joints and 65 000 electrical splices. At the level of single joints and splices, non-destructive techniques find limited application: quality control is based on the qualification of the process and of operators, on the recording of production parameters and on production samples. Visual inspection and process audits were the main techniques used. At the level of an extended chain of joints and splices - from a 53.5 m half-cell to a complete 2.7 km arc sector - quality control is based on vacuum leak tests, electrical tests and RF microwave reflectometry that progressively validated the work performed. Subsequent pressure tests, cryogenic circuits flushing with high pressure helium and cool-downs revealed a few unseen or new defects. This paper presents an overview of the quality control techniques used, seeking lessons applicable to similar large, complex projects.

  19. Efficient dual layer interconnect coating for high temperature electrochemical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palcut, Marián; Mikkelsen, Lars; Neufeld, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Effects of novel dual layer coatings Co3O4/La0.85Sr0.15MnO3−δ on high temperature oxidation behaviour of candidate steels for interconnects are studied at 1123 K in flowing simulated ambient air (air + 1% H2O) and oxygen. Four alloys are investigated: Crofer 22 APU, Crofer 22 H, E-Brite and AL 29......-4C. The reaction kinetics is followed by measuring the mass increase of the samples over time. The oxide scale microstructure and chemical composition are investigated by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy. The kinetic data follow the parabolic rate law. It is found...... that the oxidation reaction is limited by outward Cr3+ diffusion in the chromia scale. The coating effectively reduces the oxidation rate. Reactions and cation inter-diffusion between the coating and the oxide scale are observed. Long term effects of these interactions are discussed and practical implications...

  20. The (interconnected) reasons elder Americans file consumer bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    Since the early 1990s, the age distribution of the bankruptcy population has shifted. Specifically, the age distribution curve has flattened, due in large part to an increase in the number of elder Americans (65 and older) who are filing bankruptcy. To date, the reasons for elder bankruptcies have not been studied. Quantitative and qualitative data from 381 elder bankruptcy respondents who participated in the 2007 Consumer Bankruptcy Project suggest that overwhelming interest and fees on credit cards, illnesses and injuries, income problems, aggressive debt collectors, and housing problems are the leading reasons that elder debtors file bankruptcy. Further, the vast majority of elder bankruptcies result not from a single cause, but rather from multiple interconnected causes.

  1. New organization scheme for the energy supply in the not interconnected zones of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Josue; Bayona Lugdy

    2001-01-01

    The paper shows a new scheme of solutions in the financial institutional environment and regulatory, in this sense it thinks about the creation from a support unit to the rural energy administration that takes charge of to identify energy solutions and the technical and organizational support of the service of a foundation that manage the obtained resources and a interconnected scheme to the current conditions of the NIZ. In Colombia the not interconnected zones NIZ corresponds those of the country that don't receive electric power service through the national interconnected system, and who interconnection is not economically feasible

  2. Superconducting Thin-Film Interconnects for Cryogenic Photon Detector Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation astrophysical observatories need improvements in readout electronics and associated high density interconnects. In particular, advanced imaging...

  3. Optical interconnections and networks; Proceedings of the Meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 14, 15, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Hartmut (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The conference presents papers on interconnections, clock distribution, neural networks, and components and materials. Particular attention is given to a comparison of optical and electrical data interconnections at the board and backplane levels, a wafer-level optical interconnection network layout, an analysis and simulation of photonic switch networks, and the integration of picosecond GaAs photoconductive devices with silicon circuits for optical clocking and interconnects. Consideration is also given to the optical implementation of neural networks, invariance in an optoelectronic implementation of neural networks, and the recording of reversible patterns in polymer lightguides.

  4. Weaves as an Interconnection Fabric for ASIM's and Nanosatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlick, Michael M.

    1995-01-01

    Many of the micromachines under consideration require computer support, indeed, one of the appeals of this technology is the ability to intermix mechanical, optical, analog, and digital devices on the same substrate. The amount of computer power is rarely an issue, the sticking point is the complexity of the software required to make effective use of these devices. Micromachines are the nano-technologist's equivalent of 'golden screws'. In other words, they will be piece parts in larger assemblages. For example, a nano-satellite may be composed of stacked silicon wafers where each wafer contains hundreds to thousands of micromachines, digital controllers, general purpose computers, memories, and high-speed bus interconnects. Comparatively few of these devices will be custom designed, most will be stock parts selected from libraries and catalogs. The novelty will lie in the interconnections. For example, a digital accelerometer may be a component part in an adaptive suspension, a monitoring element embedded in the wrapper of a package, or a portion of the smart skin of a launch vehicle. In each case, this device must inter-operate with other devices and probes for the purposes of command, control, and communication. We propose a software technology called 'weaves' that will permit large collections of micromachines and their attendant computers to freely intercommunicate while preserving modularity, transparency, and flexibility. Weaves are composed of networks of communicating software components. The network, and the components comprising it, may be changed even while the software, and the devices it controls, are executing. This unusual degree of software plasticity permits micromachines to dynamically adapt the software to changing conditions and allows system engineers to rapidly and inexpensively develop special purpose software by assembling stock software components in custom configurations.

  5. INTERCONNECTION AND INTERACTION OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sklyarova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false RU X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This paper presents the results of research devoted to one of significant aspects of interrogative sentences. The precise definitions of interconnection and interaction and the application of these terms to the language units helped to distinguish between interconnection and interaction of interrogative sentences in English. The existence of two different kinds of relations in the language, namely paradigmatic and syntagmatic, provided the basis for singling out two corresponding forms of interaction of English interrogative sentences. Contextual and distributional analyses of the material from authentic sources enabled to characterize the range and degree of their paradigmatic and syntagmatic interaction. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Обычная таблица"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  6. Compressibility of 304 Stainless Steel Powder Metallurgy Materials Reinforced with 304 Short Stainless Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibo Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy (P/M technique is usually used for manufacturing porous metal materials. However, some P/M materials are limitedly used in engineering for their performance deficiency. A novel 304 stainless steel P/M material was produced by a solid-state sintering of 304 stainless steel powders and 304 short stainless steel fibers, which were alternately laid in layers according to mass ratio. In this paper, the compressive properties of the P/M materials were characterized by a series of uniaxial compression tests. The effects of fiber content, compaction pressure and high temperature nitriding on compressive properties were investigated. The results indicated that, without nitriding, the samples changed from cuboid to cydariform without damage in the process of compression. The compressive stress was enhanced with increasing fiber content ranging from 0 to 8 wt.%. For compaction pressure from 55 to 75 MPa, greater compaction pressure improved compressive stress. Moreover, high temperature nitriding was able to significantly improve the yield stress, but collapse failure eventually occurred.

  7. Overlaying of type 316 austenitic stainless steel with type 430 ferritic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujith, S.; Gill, T.P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Overlaying of type 316 austenitic stainless steel vessel with type 430 ferritic stainless is proposed for liquid magnesium service. The interface in this type of bimetallic configuration has been shown to be a cause for concern as it contains a hard and brittle martensite micro constituent which becomes susceptible to cracking under certain conditions. This study was carried out to standardize the welding conditions and characterise the interface in order to obtain sound overlay. Some tests were also conducted to simulate the elevated temperature service. The investigation has shown that the interface hardness approaches 400 VPN when no preheating is employed. However, in the preheated samples, appreciable reduction in the peak hardness was observed. This has been attributed to a decrease in the cooling rate of the clad metal with an increase in the preheating temperature which results in softening of the martensite. The minimum recommended preheat is 473 K. The samples exposed to thermal cycle tests to a peak temperature of 1223 K to simulate the service condition did not show any cracking at the interface after 20 cycles of testing. Therefore, this study has demonstrated the stability of the interface between type 316 and 430 stainless steels at the intended temperature of service. (author)

  8. Compressibility of 304 Stainless Steel Powder Metallurgy Materials Reinforced with 304 Short Stainless Steel Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bibo; Zhou, Zhaoyao; Duan, Liuyang; Xiao, Zhiyu

    2016-03-04

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) technique is usually used for manufacturing porous metal materials. However, some P/M materials are limitedly used in engineering for their performance deficiency. A novel 304 stainless steel P/M material was produced by a solid-state sintering of 304 stainless steel powders and 304 short stainless steel fibers, which were alternately laid in layers according to mass ratio. In this paper, the compressive properties of the P/M materials were characterized by a series of uniaxial compression tests. The effects of fiber content, compaction pressure and high temperature nitriding on compressive properties were investigated. The results indicated that, without nitriding, the samples changed from cuboid to cydariform without damage in the process of compression. The compressive stress was enhanced with increasing fiber content ranging from 0 to 8 wt.%. For compaction pressure from 55 to 75 MPa, greater compaction pressure improved compressive stress. Moreover, high temperature nitriding was able to significantly improve the yield stress, but collapse failure eventually occurred.

  9. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; steel alloys is also disclosed.

  10. Electrochemical decontamination of Pu contaminated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Pottinger, J.S.; Junkison, A.R.

    1983-08-01

    Electrochemical decontamination has been demonstrated to be very effective in removing plutonium nitrate contamination (0.5 μg cm -2 ) on stainless steels. The amount of metal dissolved to achieve a DF of 10 2 to 10 3 was 2 to 7 μm depending on the electrolyte used. In unstirred electrolytes 1M HNO 3 , 1M HNO 3 /0.1M NaF, 5M HNO 3 perform best. Under stirred electrolyte conditions, there is a general marginal fall in effectiveness except for 5M HNO 3 where there is a slight improvement. The optimum performance is a compromise between maximizing the electrolyte throwing power and minimizing substrate surface roughening during decontamination. (author)

  11. Stainless steels for cryogenic bolts and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, F.; Rabbe, P.; Odin, G.

    1975-01-01

    Stainless steel for cryogenic applications are generally austenitic steels which, under the effect of cold-drawing, can or cannot undergo a partial martensitic transformation according to their composition. It has been shown that very high ductility and endurance characteristics at low temperatures, together with very high yield strength and resistances values, can be attained with grades of nitrogenous steels of types Z2CN18-10N and Z3CMN18-8-6N. Optimum ductility values are obtained by employing to the best possible, the martensitic transformations which develop during cold-drawing. From the plotting of the rational traction curves, it is possible to analyse very simply the influence of the composition on the martensitic transformations [fr

  12. Phase identification in neutron irradiated stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques used for the identification of phases which develop in AISI 316 stainless steel which has been modified by the addition of Ti are described. Five major phases were identified in the alloy containing 0.2 wt % Ti after irradation by 7 x 10 22 n.cm -2 at temperatures ranging from 400 to 650 0 C. Once identification was established from diffraction pattern measurements, subsequent identification could be made by observation of the characteristic shape of each phase combined with the observation of certain characteristic features of te x-ray spectrum of each phase. This combination permitted rapid identification of large numbers of particles necessary for the elucidation of the role of phase instabilities in void swelling

  13. Complex Protection of Vertical Stainless Steel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrislamov Radik Zakievich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of fail-safe oil and oil products storage in stainless steel tanks and present the patented tank inner side protection technology. The latter provides process, ecological and fire safety and reducing soil evaporation of oil products, which is a specific problem. The above-mentioned technology includes corrosion protection and heat insulation protection providing increase of cover durability and RVS service life in general. The offered technological protection scheme is a collaboration of the author, Steel Paint GmbH firm and JSC “Koksokhimmontazhproyekt”. PU foam unicomponent materials of Steel Paint GmbH firm provide the protection of tank inner side and cover.

  14. Segregation effects in welded stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, J.I.; Shoaid, K.A.; Ahmed, M.; Malik, A.Q.

    1987-01-01

    Welding of steels causes changes in the microstructure and chemical composition which could adversely affect the mechanical and corrosion properties. The report describes the experimental results of an investigation of segregation effects in welded austenitic stainless steels of AISI type 304, 304L, 316 and 316L using the techniques of scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Considerable enhancement of chromium and carbon has been observed in certain well-defined zones on the parent metal and on composition, particularly in the parent metal, in attributed to the formation of (M 23 C 6 ) precipitates. The formation of geometrically well-defined segregation zones is explained on the basis of the time-temperature-precipitation curve of (M 23 C 6 ). (author)

  15. Hydrogenation of stainless steels implanted with nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Ramos, L.E. da.

    1989-01-01

    In the present work the effects of both ion implantation and hydrogenation on the fatigue behaviour of an AISI-304 type unstable stainless steel was studied. The material was tested under the following microstructural conditions: annealed; annealed plus hydrogenated; annealed plus ion-implanted; annealed, ion-implanted and hydrogeneted. The hydrogen induced phase transformations were also studied during the outgassing of the samples. The ion implanted was observed to retard the kinetics of the hydrogen induced phase transformations. It was also observed that the nitrogen ion implantation followed by both natural (for about 4 months) and artificial (100 0 C for 6 hours) aging treatments was beneficial to the fatigue life of both non hydrogenated and severely hydrogenated samples. (author) [pt

  16. [Study on biocompatibility of MIM 316L stainless steel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohui; Zhu, Shaihong; Li, Yiming; Zhao, Yanzhong; Zhou, Kechao; Huang, Boyun

    2007-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility of metal powder injection molding (MIM) 316L stainless steel. The percentage of S-period cells was detected by flow cytometry after L929 cells being incubated with extraction of MIM 316L stainless steel, and titanium implant materials for clinical application were used as control. In addition, both materials were implanted in animals and the histopathological evaluations were carried out. The statistical analyses show that there are no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05), which demonstrate that MIM 316L stainless steel has good biocompatibility.

  17. Kinetics of chemical interactions between zirconium alloys and stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frecska, J.; Maroti, L.; Matus, L.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical interaction kinetics of reactor core component zirconium alloys and stainless steels at high temperatures was examined. Interaction of as-received and preoxidized Zr1%Nb with X18H10T stainless steel used in WWER type nuclear reactors, and also that of Zircaloy-4 and AISI-316 stainless steel, for comparison, were investigated. The reaction rate measurements were supplemented with post-test metallographical examinations. Results are presented and evaluated, and compared with literature data. (author). 14 refs., 31 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Systemic hypersensitivity reaction to endovascular stainless steel stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Univers, Junior; Long, Chandler; Tonks, Stephen A; Freeman, Michael B

    2018-02-01

    Endovascular intervention has become the mainstay for treatment of most patients suffering from peripheral vascular disease. We describe a patient with a known nickel allergy who underwent placement of a stainless steel stent for aortoiliac occlusive disease. Despite our attempt to avoid a nickel-containing stent, the patient developed a diffuse rash consistent with a nickel or metal allergy. A review of stainless steel metallurgy revealed that nickel, cobalt, and titanium are frequently used to provide anticorrosive properties to stainless steel. The clinical significance of the use of nickel-alloy stents in the setting of patients with a nickel allergy is discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Structural Analysis of Cavitation for Different Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina-Elena Mânzână

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The cavitation phenomenon is currently approaching all areas of technology and modern industry, where are fluid in motion. In this paper cavitational erosion was conducted on different samples of stainless steels. The cavitation were performed in magnetostrictive vibrating apparatus at Cavitation Laboratory (Polytechnic University of Timisoara. The present paper intends to identify specific structural features in stainless steels. Several investigations were done: macrostructural analysis (Olympus SZX57, scaning electron microscope (Philips SEM and X-ray diffraction (D8 ADVANCE. After quantitative and qualitative investigations structural features were put in evidence on experimental stainless steels.

  20. Fireside carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C. [PDVSA-Refineria Isla, Curayao (Netherlands); Mayorga, A.; Hau, J.L. [PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-11-01

    Most heavy Venezuelan crudes are recognized for having a high total acid number (TAN) that is usually associated with a high tendency to produce naphthenic acid corrosion. To resist this type of corrosion in vacuum heaters, 9Cr-1Mo steel and stainless steels containing molybdenum are usually recommended. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service, and just one year after undergoing the last turnaround inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 C (1250 F). Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023 O/O).Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur due to asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures.

  1. Stainless steel-zirconium alloy waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, S.M.; Abraham, D.P.; Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Park, J.Y.

    1996-01-01

    An electrometallurgical treatment process has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory to convert various types of spent nuclear fuels into stable storage forms and waste forms for repository disposal. The first application of this process will be to treat spent fuel alloys from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Three distinct product streams emanate from the electrorefining process: (1) refined uranium; (2) fission products and actinides extracted from the electrolyte salt that are processed into a mineral waste form; and (3) metallic wastes left behind at the completion of the electrorefining step. The third product stream (i.e., the metal waste stream) is the subject of this paper. The metal waste stream contains components of the chopped spent fuel that are unaffected by the electrorefining process because of their electrochemically ''noble'' nature; this includes the cladding hulls, noble metal fission products (NMFP), and, in specific cases, zirconium from metal fuel alloys. The selected method for the consolidation and stabilization of the metal waste stream is melting and casting into a uniform, corrosion-resistant alloy. The waste form casting process will be carried out in a controlled-atmosphere furnace at high temperatures with a molten salt flux. Spent fuels with both stainless steel and Zircaloy cladding are being evaluated for treatment; thus, stainless steel-rich and Zircaloy-rich waste forms are being developed. Although the primary disposition option for the actinides is the mineral waste form, the concept of incorporating the TRU-bearing product into the metal waste form has enough potential to warrant investigation

  2. Effects of advanced process approaches on electromigration degradation of Cu on-chip interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.

    2007-07-12

    This thesis provides a methodology for the investigation of electromigration (EM) in Cu-based interconnects. An experimental framework based on in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations was developed for that purpose. It is capable to visualize the EM-induced void formation and evolution in multi-level test structures in real time. Different types of interconnects were investigated. Furthermore, stressed and unstressed samples were studied applying advanced physical analysis techniques in order to obtain additional information about the microstructure of the interconnects as well as interfaces and grain boundaries. These data were correlated to the observed degradation phenomena. Correlations of the experimental results to recently established theoretical models were highlighted. Three types of Cu-based interconnects were studied. Pure Cu interconnects were compared to Al-alloyed (CuAl) and CoWP-coated interconnects. The latter two represent potential approaches that address EM-related reliability concerns. It was found that in such interconnects the dominant diffusion path is no longer the Cu/capping layer interface for interconnects as in pure Cu interconnects. Instead, void nucleation occurs at the bottom Cu/barrier interface with significant effects from grain boundaries. Moreover, the in-situ investigations revealed that the initial void nucleation does not occur at the cathode end of the lines but several micrometers away from it. The mean times-to-failure of CuAl and CoWP-coated interconnects were increased by at least one order of magnitude compared to Cu interconnects. The improvements were attributed to the presence of foreign metal atoms at the Cu/capping layer interface. Post-mortem EBSD investigations were used to reveal the microstructure of the tested samples. The data were correlated to the in-situ observations. (orig.)

  3. A model-based prognostic approach to predict interconnect failure using impedance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Dae Il; Yoon, Jeong Ah [Dept. of System Design and Control Engineering. Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The reliability of electronic assemblies is largely affected by the health of interconnects, such as solder joints, which provide mechanical, electrical and thermal connections between circuit components. During field lifecycle conditions, interconnects are often subjected to a DC open circuit, one of the most common interconnect failure modes, due to cracking. An interconnect damaged by cracking is sometimes extremely hard to detect when it is a part of a daisy-chain structure, neighboring with other healthy interconnects that have not yet cracked. This cracked interconnect may seem to provide a good electrical contact due to the compressive load applied by the neighboring healthy interconnects, but it can cause the occasional loss of electrical continuity under operational and environmental loading conditions in field applications. Thus, cracked interconnects can lead to the intermittent failure of electronic assemblies and eventually to permanent failure of the product or the system. This paper introduces a model-based prognostic approach to quantitatively detect and predict interconnect failure using impedance analysis and particle filtering. Impedance analysis was previously reported as a sensitive means of detecting incipient changes at the surface of interconnects, such as cracking, based on the continuous monitoring of RF impedance. To predict the time to failure, particle filtering was used as a prognostic approach using the Paris model to address the fatigue crack growth. To validate this approach, mechanical fatigue tests were conducted with continuous monitoring of RF impedance while degrading the solder joints under test due to fatigue cracking. The test results showed the RF impedance consistently increased as the solder joints were degraded due to the growth of cracks, and particle filtering predicted the time to failure of the interconnects similarly to their actual timesto- failure based on the early sensitivity of RF impedance.

  4. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  5. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Type 304 Stainless Steel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Louthan, M

    1964-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of type 304 stainless steel exposed in dilute chloride solutions is being investigated at the Savannah River Laboratory in attempts to develop a fundamental understanding of the phenomenon...

  6. Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel Carburized at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F. J.; Natishan, P. M.; Lemieux, E. J.; Newbauer, T. M.; Rayne, R. J.; Bayles, R. A.; Kahn, H.; Michal, G. M.; Ernst, F.; Heuer, A. H.

    2009-08-01

    The pitting corrosion resistance of surface-modified 316L austenitic stainless steel and N08367 (a “superaustenitic” stainless steel) were evaluated in 0.6 M NaCl solutions and compared to untreated samples of the same materials. The surface modification process used to treat the surfaces was a low-temperature carburization technology termed “low-temperature colossal supersaturation” (LTCSS). The process typically produces surface carbon concentrations of ~15 at. pct without the formation of carbides. The pitting potential of the LTCSS-treated 316L stainless steel in the NaCl solution substantially increased compared to untreated 316L stainless steel, while the pitting behavior of the LTCSS-treated N08367 was unchanged compared to the untreated alloy.

  7. Controlled dissolution of colossal quantities of nitrogen in stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of nitrogen in austenitic stainless steel was investigated thermogravimetrically by equilibrating thin foils of AISI 304 and AISI 316 in ammonia/hydrogen gas mixtures. Controlled dissolution of colossal amounts of nitrogen under metastable equilibrium conditions was realized...

  8. Strengthening of stainless steel weldment by high temperature precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior and the strengthening mechanism of stainless steel welded joints at 600 °C have been investigated. The welds were composed of AISI 304 stainless steel, as base metal, and niobium containing AISI 347 stainless steel, as weld metal. The investigation was conducted by means of creep tests. The welded specimens were subjected to both high temperature (600 °C and long periods (up to 2000 h under constant load, and both mechanical properties and microstructural changes in the material were monitored. It was found that the exposure of the material at 600 °C under load contributes to a strengthening effect on the weld. The phenomenon might be correlated with an accelerated process of second phase precipitation hardening. Keywords: Stainless steel, Weld, AISI 304, Precipitation hardening

  9. Stainless steels in power plant and plant construction. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference report comprises 14 papers on the corrosion characteristics of stainless steels in power plant and plant engineering. 9 papers are available as separate records in the ENERGY database. (MM) [de

  10. Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Martensitic PH Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T.; Nelson, E.

    1984-01-01

    Precipitation-hardening alloys evaluated in marine environment tests. Report describes marine-environment stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) tests of three martensitic precipitation hardening (PH) stainless-steel alloys.

  11. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened 2205 duplex stainless steel composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladayo OLANIRAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Composites of duplex stainless steel were produced by oxide dispersion strengthening with comparatively improved mechanical properties by hot press sintering of partially stabilized Zirconia (PSZ, 3% yttria, mole fraction dispersion in 2205 duplex stainless steels. Ceramic oxide was added as reinforcement, while chromium (Cr and Nickel (Ni were incorporated to maintain the austenitic/ferritic phase balance of the duplex stainless steel. The powders and sintered were characterized in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The microstructural evolution and phase formation during oxide dispersion strengthening of duplex stainless steel composites were investigated. The influence of composition variation of the reinforcements on the microstructural and corrosion behaviour in simulated mine water of the composites were investigated. In this manuscript, it was established that composition has great influence on the structure/properties relationship of the composites developed.

  12. HIP bonding between niobium/copper/stainless steel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hitoshi; Fujino, Takeo; Hitomi, Nobuteru; Saito, Kenji; Yamada, Masahiro; Shibuya, Junichi; Ota, Tomoko

    2000-01-01

    We have used niobium flanges for the niobium bulk superconducting RF cavities, however, they are expensive. Stainless steel flanges instead of the niobium flanges will be used in the future large scale production of sc cavities like the KEK/JAERI joint project. For a future R and D of the vacuum sealing related to the clean horizontal assembly method or development of cavities welded a helium vessel in the KEK/JAERI joint project, a converter section of niobium material to stainless steel is required. From these requirements we need to develop the converter. We have tried a HIP bonding method between niobium materials and stainless steel or copper material. It was made clear that the technology could offer an enough bonding strength even higher than niobium tensile strength in the joined surface between niobium and stainless steel or copper. (author)

  13. 14 CFR 26.11 - Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS) maintenance program. 26.11 Section 26.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AIRPLANES Enhanced Airworthiness Program for Airplane Systems § 26.11 Electrical wiring interconnection...

  14. One-step fabrication of microfluidic chips with in-plane, adhesive-free interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Dufva, Martin; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2010-01-01

    A simple method for creating interconnections to a common microfluidic device material, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), is presented. A press-fit interconnection is created between oversized, deformable tubing and complementary, undersized semi-circular ports fabricated into PMMA bonding surfaces...

  15. Reliable, Low Cost Distributed Generator/Utility System Interconnect: 2001 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-08-01

    This report details a research program to develop requirements that support the definition, design, and demonstration of a distributed generation-electric power system interconnection interface concept that allows distributed generation to be interconnected to the electric power system in a manner that provides value to end users without compromising reliability and performance.

  16. 76 FR 42534 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits; System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Reliability Operating Limits; System Restoration Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... data necessary to analyze and monitor Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits (IROL) within its... Interconnection Reliability Operating Limits, Order No. 748, 134 FERC ] 61,213 (2011). \\2\\ The term ``Wide-Area...

  17. Technology alternatives towards low-cost and high-speed interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Kniknie, B.; Lankhorst, A.M.; Winands, G.; Poodt, P.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bressers, P.M.M.C.; Oosterhuis, G.; Mueller, M.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In this work we will review our recent work on novel alternative and disruptive technology concepts with industrial potential for cost-effective and high-speed interconnect manufacturing, in particular on the creation (drilling and filling) of advanced interconnects like TSVs. These technologies are

  18. Preparation of self-supporting mesostructured silica thin film membranes as gateable interconnects for microfluidics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Juez, R.; Boffa, V.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2008-01-01

    A methodology for the preparation of self-standing 100–200 nm thick mesoporous silica membrane interconnects is reported. Interconnects may become an important component in future microfluidic device technology since it allows extension of microfluidic architectures into the third dimension. The

  19. 77 FR 6549 - Notice of Availability for Public Comment of Interconnection Facilities Studies Prepared for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    .... DOE hereby announces the availability for public comment of the Interconnection Studies prepared for... availability for public comment of the Interconnection Facilities Studies prepared as part of the application... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. PP-334] Notice of Availability for Public Comment of...

  20. A Study of Localized Corrosion in Supermartensitic Stainless Steel Weldments

    OpenAIRE

    Enerhaug, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is concerned with pitting corrosion in super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) weldments in slightly sour service. Thee main objective with the present thesis has been to find out why pitting corrosion occurs in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at ambient rather than at elevated temperatures and how the corrosion mechanism depends on the welding process. The thesis is divided into six parts. Part I gives a general introduction to martensitic stainless steels, focusing on...

  1. Energy conservation through the implementation of cogeneration and grid interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashash, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    With increasing awareness of energy conservation and environmental protection, the Arab World is moving to further improve energy conversion efficiency. The equivalent of over 2.7 MM bbl is being daily burnt to fuel the thermal power plants that represent 92% of the total Arab power generation. This adds up to close to one billion barrels annually. At a conservative 30$ per barrel, this represents a daily cost of over $81 Million. This paper will introduce two strategies with the ultimate objective to cut-off up to half of the current fuel consumption. Firstly, Cogeneration Technology is able to improve thermal efficiency from the current average of less than 25% to up to 80%. Just 1% improvement in power plant thermal efficiency represents 3 million $/day in fuel cost savings. In addition, a well-designed and operated cogeneration plant will: - Reduce unfriendly emissions by burning less fuel as a result of higher thermal efficiency, - Increase the decentralization of electrical generation, - Improve the reliability of electricity supply. As an example, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's experience of implementing cogeneration will be presented, in particular within its hydrocarbon facilities and desalination plants. This will include the existing facilities and the planned and on-going projects. Secondly, by interconnecting the power networks of all the adjacent Arab countries, the following benefits could be reached: - Reduce generation reserves and enhance the system reliability, - Improve the economic efficiency of the electricity power systems, - Provide power exchange and strengthen the supply reliability, - Adopt technological development and use the best modern technologies. At least two factors plead for this direction. On one hand, the four-hour time zone difference from Eastern to Western Arab World makes it easy to exchange power. On the other hand, this will help to reduce the reserve capacity and save on corresponding Capital investment, fuel, and O and M

  2. Ultra-low energy photoreceivers for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Ryan Wayne

    Optical interconnects are increasingly important for our communication and data center systems, and are forecasted to be an essential component of future computers. In order to meet these future demands, optical interconnects must be improved to consume less power than they do today. To do this, both more efficient transmitters and more sensitive receivers must be developed. This work addresses the latter, focusing on device level improvements to tightly couple a low capacitance photodiode with the first stage transistor of the receiver as a single phototransistor device. First I motivate the need for a coupled phototransistor using a simple circuit model which shows how receiver sensitivity is determined by photodiode capacitance and the length of wire connecting it to the first transistor in a receiver amplifier. Then I describe our use of the unique rapid melt growth technique, which is used to integrate crystalline germanium on silicon photonics substrates without an epitaxial reactor. The resulting material quality is demonstrated with high quality (0.95 A/W, 40+ GHz) germanium photodiodes on silicon waveguides. Next I describe two germanium phototransistors I have developed. One is a germanium- gated MOSFET on silicon photonics which has up to 18 A/W gate-controlled responsivity at 1550 nm. Simulations show how MOSFET scaling rules can be easily applied to increase both speed and sensitivity. The second is a floating base germanium bipolar phototransistor on silicon photonics with a 15 GHz gain x bandwidth product. The photoBJT also has a clear scaling path, and it is proposed to create a separate gain and absorption region photoBJT to realize the maximum benefit of scaling the BJT without negatively affecting its absorption and photocarrier collection. Following this design a 120 GHz gain x bandwidth photoBJT is simulated. Finally I present a metal-cavity, which can have over 50% quantum efficiency absorption in sub-100 aF germanium photodiodes, which

  3. Thermo-electric Analysis of the Interconnection of the LHC main Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Casali, M; Bottura, L; Siemko, A

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by the question of the maximum allowable energy for the operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), we have progressed in the understanding of the thermo-electric behavior of the 13 kA superconducting bus bars interconnecting its main magnets. A deep insight of the underlying mechanisms is required to ensure the protection of the accelerator against undesired effects of resistive transitions. This is especially important in case of defective interconnections which can jeopardize the operation of the whole LHC. In this paper we present a numerical model of the interconnections between the main dipole and quadrupole magnets, validated against experimental tests of an interconnection sample with a purposely built-in defect. We consider defective interconnections featuring a lack of bonding among the superconducting cables and the copper stabilizer components, such as those that could be present in the machine. We evaluate the critical defect length limiting the maximum allowable current for powering th...

  4. Physically Based Simulation of Electromigration-Induced Degradation of Inlaid Copper Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukharev, Valeriy

    2004-01-01

    A novel physical model and a simulation algorithm capable of predicting electromigration (EM) induced void nucleation and growth in an arbitrary interconnect segment have been developed. EM-induced void nucleation and growth in dual damascene (DD) copper interconnect structures have been predicted with a developed physical model and a simulation algorithm. The incorporation of all important contributions to directed atom migration into the mass balance equation and its solution together with the solution of the corresponding electromagnetics, heat transfer and elasticity problems, in a coupled manner, allows to simulate EM-induced degradation in dual-inlaid copper interconnect segments characterized by different dominant channels for EM-induced mass transport. Model provides a capability for the EM design rules generation/optimization with the physically based simulations. A simulation-based optimization of interconnect architecture, segment geometry, material properties and some of the process parameters can generate on-chip interconnect systems with a high immunity to EM-induced failures

  5. Nickel release from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudrechy, P; Foussereau, J; Mantout, B; Baroux, B

    1994-10-01

    Nickel release from nickel-plated metals often induces allergic contact dermatitis, but, for nickel-containing stainless steels, the effect is not well-known. In this paper, AISI 304, 316L, 303 and 430 type stainless steels, nickel and nickel-plated materials were investigated. 4 tests were performed: patch tests, leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime (DMG) spot tests and electrochemical tests. Patch tests showed that 96% of the patients were intolerant to Ni-plated samples, and 14% to a high-sulfur stainless steel (303), while nickel-containing stainless steels with a low sulfur content elicited no reactions. Leaching experiments confirmed the patch tests: in acidic artificial sweat, Ni-plated samples released about 100 micrograms/cm2/week of nickel, while low-sulfur stainless steels released less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel, and AISI 303 about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week. Attention is drawn to the irrelevance of the DMG spot test, which reveals Ni present in the metal bulk but not its dissolution rate. Electrochemical experiments showed that 304 and 316 grades remain passive in the environments tested, while Ni-plated steels and AISI 303 can suffer significant cation dissolution. Thus, Ni-containing 304 and 316 steels should not induce contact dermatitis, while 303 should be avoided. A reliable nitric acid spot test is proposed to distinguish this grade from other stainless steels.

  6. Solidification behavior of austenitic stainless steel filler metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, S.A.; Goodwin, G.M.; Braski, D.N.

    1980-02-01

    Thermal analysis and interrupted solidification experiments on selected austenitic stainless steel filler metals provided an understanding of the solidification behavior of austenitic stainless steel welds. The sequences of phase separations found were for type 308 stainless steel filler metal, L + L + delta + L + delta + γ → γ + delta, and for type 310 stainless steel filler metal, L → L + γ → γ. In type 308 stainless steel filler metal, ferrite at room temperature was identified as either the untransformed primary delta-ferrite formed during the initial stages of solidification or the residual ferrite after Widmanstaetten austenite precipitation. Microprobe and scanning transmission electron microscope microanalyses revealed that solute extensively redistributes during the transformation of primary delta-ferrite to austenite, leading to enrichment and stabilization of ferrite by chromium. The type 310 stainless steel filler metal investigated solidifies by the primary crystallization of austenite, with the transformation going to completion at the solidus temperature. In our samples residual ferrite resulting from solute segregation was absent at the intercellular or interdendritic regions

  7. Anisotropy of low dielectric constant materials and reliability of copper/low-k interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Taiheui

    2000-10-01

    Cu/low-k material interconnects are a solution to overcome problems that occur in deep submicron Al/SiO2 based interconnects. Several challenges have to be resolved before successfully integrating copper and low-k dielectric materials into interconnects. In this work, Cu and several low-k polymers were used for interconnect applications and their effects on interconnect performance were investigated. Dielectric anisotropy is one of the factors that affect interconnect performance. Two fluorinated polymers, a rigid rod-like polyimide (Dupont FPI-136M) and a flexible poly(aryl ether) (Allied Signal FLARE 1.51) were used to investigate the relationship between dielectric anisotropy and molecular orientation. The dielectric anisotropy of the rigid rod-like polyimide was reduced relative to that in blanket films when it was confined in submicron trenches. Such a reduction was not observed in the flexible polymer. Polarized FTIR experiments showed that when rigid rod-like polymer was confined in submicron trenches polymer chains preferentially oriented parallel to metal lines. The preferential orientation reduced the in-plane dielectric constant of the polymer. A barrier layer has to be used to prevent Cu diffusion into an interlayer dielectric material. Ta, TaN, and TaSiN were used to investigate the relationship between barrier capability and microstructures using a bias temperature stress. TaSiN performed best because TaSiN was amorphous, followed by TaN then Ta because TaN had impurities segregated in grain boundaries. When Cu/BCB interconnects were fabricated and their reliability was investigated with the bias temperature stress, some of the interconnect structures performed properly and their life times were comparable to those of Cu/SiO2 interconnects, while other interconnect structures rapidly failed because the Cu readily diffused through defects in the barrier. The defects were introduced during chemical-mechanical polishing and plasma etching processes.

  8. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection, and the second is cross-sector interconnection, i.e., the integration between different parts of an energy system, for instance heat and electricity. This paper seeks to compare the types of interconnectivity and discuss to which extent they are mutually beneficial. To do this, the study investigates two energy systems that represent Northern and Southern Europe. Both systems go through three developmental steps that increase the cross-sector interconnectivity. At each developmental step an increasing level of transmission capacities is examined to identify the benefits of cross-border interconnectivity. The results show that while both measures increase the system utilisation of renewable energy and the system efficiency, the cross-sector interconnection gives the best system performance. To analyse the possible interaction between cross-sector and cross-border interconnectivity, two main aspects have to be clarified. The first part defines the approach and the second is the construction of the two archetypes. - Highlights: • A method to investigate system integration and system interconnection is suggested. • The implementation is investigated across a Northern and Southern energy system. • The study identifies benefits of system integration and system interconnection. • The performance of the energy system benefits most from system integration.

  9. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešnjak, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones

  10. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon-Jun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as σ and χ can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (σ + χ) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, σ was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and χ by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by

  11. Phase transformations in cast duplex stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Jun

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma (sigma) and chi (chi) can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (sigma + chi) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities, a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, a was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and chi by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in

  12. An efficient network for interconnecting remote monitoring instruments and computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Gainer, K.E.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    Remote monitoring instrumentation must be connected with computers and other instruments. The cost and intrusiveness of installing cables in new and existing plants presents problems for the facility and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The authors have tested a network that could accomplish this interconnection using mass-produced commercial components developed for use in industrial applications. Unlike components in the hardware of most networks, the components--manufactured and distributed in North America, Europe, and Asia--lend themselves to small and low-powered applications. The heart of the network is a chip with three microprocessors and proprietary network software contained in Read Only Memory. In addition to all nonuser levels of protocol, the software also contains message authentication capabilities. This chip can be interfaced to a variety of transmission media, for example, RS-485 lines, fiber topic cables, rf waves, and standard ac power lines. The use of power lines as the transmission medium in a facility could significantly reduce cabling costs

  13. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-23

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. It is intended for geothermal experts in either the private or public sector who are less familiar with how the electricity system operates beyond the geothermal plant. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this "big picture" three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology’s market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  14. Laser welding of copper and aluminium battery interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bono, Paola; Blackburn, Jon

    2015-07-01

    The adoption of lithium-ion and/or super-capacitor battery technologies is a current hot topic in the automotive industry. For both battery types, the terminals and busbars are manufactured from copper (Cu) and/or aluminium-based (Al-based) alloys, as a result of their high electrical and thermal conductivities. Laser welding is considered an attractive process to industry due to its easy automotability, high processing speed and highly repeatable cost-effective processing. However, laser welding of Cu-Cu and Al-Al joints presents several difficulties due to the high surface reflectivity at infrared (IR) wavelengths. This behaviour becomes even more critical when processing thin sheets and foils.This paper summarises recent work performed to develop laser welding techniques suitable for monometallic joining of Cu-Cu and Al-Al electrical interconnections. Laser welding of multiple overlapped foils (with thickness in the range of 17μm-100μm) were investigated.

  15. RapidIO as a multi-purpose interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baymani, Simaolhoda; Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Valat, Sébastien

    2017-10-01

    RapidIO (http://rapidio.org/) technology is a packet-switched high-performance fabric, which has been under active development since 1997. Originally meant to be a front side bus, it developed into a system level interconnect which is today used in all 4G/LTE base stations world wide. RapidIO is often used in embedded systems that require high reliability, low latency and scalability in a heterogeneous environment - features that are highly interesting for several use cases, such as data analytics and data acquisition (DAQ) networks. We will present the results of evaluating RapidIO in a data analytics environment, from setup to benchmark. Specifically, we will share the experience of running ROOT and Hadoop on top of RapidIO. To demonstrate the multi-purpose characteristics of RapidIO, we will also present the results of investigating RapidIO as a technology for high-speed DAQ networks using a generic multi-protocol event-building emulation tool. In addition we will present lessons learned from implementing native ports of CERN applications to RapidIO.

  16. Biwavelength transceiver module for parallel simultaneous bidirectional optical interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga T. H.; Ukaegbu, Ikechi A.; Sangirov, Jamshid; Cho, Mu-Hee; Lee, Tae-Woo; Park, Hyo-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    The design of a biwavelength transceiver (TRx) module for parallel simultaneous bidirectional optical interconnects is described. The TRx module has been implemented using two different wavelengths, 850 and 1060 nm, to send and receive signals simultaneously through a common optical interface while optimizing cost and performance. Filtering mirrors are formed in the optical fibers which are embedded on a V-grooved silicon substrate for reflecting and filtering optical signals from/to vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)/photodiode (PD). The VCSEL and PD are flip-chip bonded on individual silicon optical benches, which are attached on the silicon substrate for optical signal coupling from the VCSEL to fiber and from fiber to the PD. A high-speed and low-loss ceramic printed circuit board, which has a compact size of 0.033 cc, has been designed to carry transmitter and receiver chips for easy packaging of the TRx module. Applied for quad small form-factor pluggable applications at 40-Gbps operation, the four-channel biwavelength TRx module showed clear eye diagrams with a bit error rate (BER) of 10-12 at input powers of -5 and -5.8 dBm for 1060 and 850 nm operation modes, respectively.

  17. Pulsed laser planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckerman, D.B.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1985-05-01

    Multilevel interconnect schemes for integrated circuits generally require one or more planarization steps, in order to maintain an acceptably flat topography for lithography and thin-film step coverage on the higher levels. Traditional approaches have involved planarization of the interlevel insulation (dielectric) layers, either by spin-on application (e.g., polyimide), or by reflow (e.g., phosphosilicate glass). We have pursued an alternative approach, in which each metal level is melted (hence planarized) using a pulsed laser prior to patterning. Short (approx.1 μs) pulses are used to preclude undesirable metallurgical reactions between the film, adhesion or barrier layer, and dielectric layer. Laser planarization of metals is particularly well suited to multilevel systems which include ground or power planes. Results are presented for planarization of gold films on SiO 2 dielectric layers using a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. The pulse duration is approx.1 μs, which allows the heat pulse to uniformly penetrate the gold while not penetrating substantially through the underlying SiO 2 (hence not perturbing the lower levels of metal). Excellent planarization of the gold films is achieved (less than 0.1 μm surface roughness, even starting with extreme topographic variations), as well as improved conductivity. To demonstrate the process, numerous planarized two-layer structures (transmission lines under a ground plane) were fabricated and characterized. 9 refs., 2 figs

  18. Environmental benefits of electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    From an environmental perspective, electricity grid interconnections in Northeast Asia make sense. Cities in Northeast China, Mongolia, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), and the Republic of Korea (ROK) suffer from poor air quality due to the extensive use of coal-fired power generation. Rural communities suffer from a deficit of electricity, forcing reliance on coal and biofuels for cooking and heating in the home, which causes health-damaging indoor air pollution. Regional air pollution from acid rain and ozone is widespread. In addition, Japan is finding it hard to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, just across their borders in far eastern Russia are extensive, clean energy resources: hydroelectricity and natural gas, and (potentially) nuclear power and tidal power. It would be environmentally beneficial to generate electricity cleanly in far eastern Russia and transmit the electricity across the borders into China, Mongolia, the DPRK, the ROK, and Japan, thereby displacing coal-fired electricity generation. We estimate that currently planned projects could alleviate the problems of two to five Chinese cities, with the potential for much larger benefits in the future. (author)

  19. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  20. Financial Economy and Financial System: Basis of Structural Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorosheva Olena I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of grounds of interconnection of the financial economy and financial system. The study was conducted with consideration of main provisions of the theory of finance and concept of financial economy, which is a set of means used in the process of reproduction of finance by their owner for formation and / or maintenance of the own system of values in the viable state. For the first time ever the structure of the financial system is identified as an aggregate of financial economies and financial market. The article justifies a necessity of expansion of boundaries of perception of the state financial economy, which is offered to include public financial economy of the state level and the set of financial economies of the state as a subject of economic activity. Such an approach forms a base for justification of the synthesis of participation of the state in financial relations as the owner and as the basic macro-economic regulator. Prospects of further study in this direction are: development of classification of financial economies; revelation of specific features of impact of shadow finance on development of the national financial economy; and assessment of possibilities of inclusion of structured financial products into the system of values of financial economies in Ukraine.

  1. EFFECT OF INTERMETALLIC PHASES ON CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL AND SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu Paulraj; Rajnish Garg

    2015-01-01

    Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) and Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS) have excellent integration of mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the formation of intermetallic phases is a major problem in their usage. The mechanical and corrosion properties are deteriorated due to the presence of intermetallic phases. These phases are induced during welding, prolonged exposure to high temperatures, and improper heat treatments. The main emphasis of this review article is on intermetallic pha...

  2. Interconnect-integrated solid oxide fuel cell with high temperature sinter-joining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung-Wook [KAIST Institute (KI) for Eco-Energy, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea); Jeong, Jihoon; Bae, Joongmyeon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1 Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea); Kim, Jung Hyun [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Lee, Changbo [SAMSUNG Electro-Mechanics Co., 314 Maetan-3-Dong, Yeongtong-Gu, Suwon (Korea)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, a recently developed interconnect-integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is characterized in terms of cell components, cell area enlargement, potential cathode material and mechanical/electrochemical properties. First, a high temperature sinter-joining process is used to fabricate an interconnect-integrated SOFC. This manuscript describes the interconnect material and the slurry composition design for bonding the interconnect and ceramic cell. The oxidation and thermal expansion characteristics of the starting materials of the interconnect-integrated cell, including the interconnect, metal powder of the bonding layer and metal powder/8YSZ/NiO compositions, are investigated to enhance both cell joining performance and cell stability during operation. Cell area enlargements of 50 mm x 50 mm and 100 mm x 100 mm are successfully realized using the optimized cell processing conditions. The cathode of the interconnect-integrated cell cannot be sintered in an air atmosphere due to the oxidation of the interconnect. Accordingly, a Sm{sub 1.0}Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 2.0}O{sub 5-d}/Gd{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.9}O{sub 1.9} (50:50 wt%) (SBSCO50) composite cathode is selected and used as the potential in situ cathode for the interconnect-integrated SOFC. The in situ sintering properties of a conventional LSM82/8YSZ(6:4) composite cathode is also studied as the reference material. The mechanical and electrochemical performance of the resulting interconnect-integrated cell is tested. The mechanical strengths of the anode-supported cell and the interconnect-integrated cell are compared, and the electrochemical properties of the interconnect-integrated button cell and the large area (50 mm x 50 mm) interconnect-integrated cell are investigated. The button cell of a SBSCO50 composite cathode exhibits a maximum power density of 0.57 W cm{sup -2} at 800 C. The large area single repeat unit with an area of 50 mm x 50 mm with a SBSCO50 in situ cathode exhibits a maximum

  3. Martensite transformation in antimony implanted stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Littmark, U.; Johansen, A.; Christodoulides, C.

    1981-01-01

    The authors have used Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffraction to investigate austenitic stainless steel crystals implanted at room temperature with 80 keV Sb + ions to a fluence of 5 x 10 20 ions/m 2 , thus providing implantation with a heavy group V element. RBS channeling spectra from implanted crystals show a damage peak which approaches the height of the random level and therefore indicates a very high degree of disorder in the implanted layers. The distribution of the disorder extends to a depth 3-5 times the depth of the primary radiation damage. The Sb peaks under channeling as well as random conditions are indistinguishable, confirming that substitutionality during implantation is negligible. To establish the nature of the disorder which cannot be assessed from the RBS analysis alone, and in particular to assess whether an amorphous alloy is formed in the implanted layer as indicated from the RBS spectra, samples implanted under similar conditions were investigated in the TEM. Significant extra spots in the patterns can be ascribed to the presence of a radiation induced b.c.c. phase of martensitic origin. The result that a significant amount of martensite can be induced by antimony implantation seems to indicate that the main driving force for the transition is due to damage induced stress concentrations. (Auth.)

  4. Nonmetallic inclusions in JBK-75 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, A.W.; Krenzer, R.W.; Doyle, J.H.; Riefenberg, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    Stainless steel alloys that are chemically complex, such as A-286 or JBK-75, are designed to improve such high-temperature properties as strength. This is accomplished by precipitating secondary phases during aging. Such multicomponent systems, however, can also produce undesirable phases that are detrimental to forgeability and final mechanical properties. Cast segregation and numerous nonmetallic inclusions can have a degrading influence on the toughness and ductility of the alloy. Several different heats of A-286 and JBK-75 were studied, and titanium carbide and/or molybdenum carbide [(Ti, Mo)C] plus titanium carbide and/or titanium carbonitride Ti(C,N)-type phases were qualitatively identified as the major nonmetallic constituent in these alloys. The common procedure for rating the microcleanliness of steels does not classify such carbide or carbonitride phases and thus does not provide an appropriate means of controlling in-process inspection. The results of this study are discussed in terms of alternative methods for evaluating the microcleanliness of superalloys

  5. Austenitic stainless steel for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G. D.; Powell, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a composition for an austenitic stainless steel which has been found to exhibit improved high temperature stress rupture properties. The composition of this alloy is about (in wt. %): 12.5 to 14.5 Cr; 14.5 to 16.5 Ni; 1.5 to 2.5 Mo; 1.5 to 2.5 Mn; 0.1 to 0.4 Ti; 0.02 to 0.08 C; 0.5 to 1.0 Si; 0.01 maximum, N; 0.02 to 0.008 P; 0.002 to 0.008 B; 0.004-0.0010 S; 0.02-0.05 Nb; 0.01-0.05 V; 0.005-0.02 Ta; 0.02-0.05 Al; 0.01-0.04 Cu; 0.02-0.05 Co; 0.03 maximum, As; 0.01 maximum, O; 0.01 maximum, Zr; and with the balance of the alloy being essentially iron. The carbon content of the alloy is adjusted such that wt. % Ti/(wt. % C+wt. % N) is between 4 and 6, and most preferably about 5. In addition the sum of the wt. % P+wt. % B+wt. % S is at least 0.03 wt. %. This alloy is believed to be particularly well suited for use as fast breeder reactor fuel element cladding

  6. Plasticity of low carbon stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, S.I.; Fel'dgandler, Eh.G.; Kareva, E.N.

    1975-01-01

    In the temperature range 800-1200 0 C and with strain rates of from 10 -3 to 3 s -1 , austenitic (000Kh18N12) and austenitic-ferrite (000Kh26N6) very low carbon stainless steels containing 0.02-0.03% C exhibit no higher resilience than corresponding ordinary steels containing 0.10-0.12% C. However, the plasticity of such steels (particularly two-phase steels) at 900-1100 0 C is appreciably inferior owing to the development of intergranular brittle fracture. Pressure treatment preceded by partial cooling of the surface to 850 0 C yields rolled and forged products with acceptable indices but is inconvenient technically. At the Zlatoustovsk and Ashin metallurgical plants successful tests have been performed involving the forging and rolling of such steels heated to 1280-1300 0 C without partial cooling; it was necessary to improve the killing conditions, correct the chemical composition (increasing the proportion of ferrite) and take measures against heat loss. (author)

  7. New Economical 19Cr Duplex Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Zixing; Chen, Hong; Xiao, Xueshan; Zhao, Junliang; Jiang, Laizhu

    2012-02-01

    New economical duplex stainless steels (DSSs) containing 19Cr-6Mn- xNi-1.0Mo-0.5W-0.5Cu-0.2N ( x = 0.5 to 2.0) were developed, and the microstructure, impact property, and corrosion resistance of the alloys were studied. The ferrite content increases with the solution treatment temperature, but decreases with an increase in nickel. The sigma phase is not found precipitating in the alloys treated with solution from 1023 K to 1523 K (750 °C to 1250 °C). The low-temperature impact energy of the experimental alloys increases first and then decreases rapidly with an increase in nickel, which is mainly due to the martensite transformation with an increase in austenite. The alloys have a better mechanical property and pitting corrosion resistance than AISI 304. Among the designed DSS alloys, 19Cr-6Mn-1.3Ni-1.0Mo-0.5W-0.5Cu-0.2N is found to be an optimum alloy with proper phase proportion, a better combination of mechanical strength and elongation, and higher pitting corrosion resistance compared with those of the other alloys.

  8. Corrosion behaviour of sintered duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utrilla, M. Victoria; Urena, Alejandro; Otero, Enrique; Munez, Claudio Jose [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Duplex austenite-ferrite stainless steels were prepared by mixing austenitic (316L) and ferritic (434L) atomized powders. Although different 316L/434L ratios were prepared, present work centred its study on 50% ferrite - 50% austenite sintered steel. The powders were mixed and pressed at 700 MPa and sintered at 1250 deg. C for 30 min in vacuum. The cooling rate was 5 deg. C/min. Solution treatment was carried out to homogenize the microstructure at 1100 deg. C during 20 min. A microstructural study of the material in solution was performed, evaluating the microstructure, proportion and shape of porosity, and ferrite percentage. This last was measured by two methods, quantitative metallography and Fischer ferrito-metry. The materials were heat treated in the range of 700 to 1000 deg. C, for 10, 30 and 60 min and water quenched, to study the microstructural changes and the influence on the intergranular corrosion resistance. The method used to evaluate the sensitization to the intergranular corrosion was the electrochemical potentio-kinetic reactivation procedure (EPR). The test solution was 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0,01 M KSCN at 30 deg. C. The criterion used to evaluate the sensitization was the ratio between the maximum reactivation density (Ir) and the maximum activation density (Ia). The results of the electrochemical tests were discussed in relation with the microstructures observed at the different heat treatments. (authors)

  9. Fracture toughness of stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1985-11-01

    The effects of temperature, composition and weld-process variations on the fracture toughness behavior for Types 308 and 16-8-2 stainless steel (SS) welds were examined using the multiple-specimen J/sub R/-curve procedure. Fracture characteristics were found to be dependent on temperature and weld process but not on filler material. Gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welds exhibited the highest fracture toughness, a shielded metal-arc (SMA) weld exhibited an intermediate toughness and submerged-arc (SA) welds yielded the lowest toughness. Minimum-expected fracture properties were defined from lower-bound J/sub c/ and tearing modulus values generated here and in previous studies. Fractographic examination revealed that microvoid coalescence was the operative fracture mechanism for all welds. Second phase particles of manganese silicide were found to be detrimental to the ductile fracture behavior because they separated from the matrix during the initial stages of plastic straining. In SA welds, the high density of inclusions resulting from silicon pickup from the flux promoted premature dimple rupture. The weld produced by the SMA process contained substantially less manganese silicide, while GTA welds contained no silicide inclusions. Delta ferrite particles present in all welds were substantially more resistant to local failure than the silicide phase. In welds containing little or no manganese silicide, delta ferrite particles initiated microvoid coalescence but only after extensive plastic straining

  10. Material property evaluations of bimetallic welds, stainless steel saw fusion lines, and materials affected by dynamic strain aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudland, D.; Scott, P.; Marschall, C.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Pipe fracture analyses can often reasonably predict the behavior of flawed piping. However, there are material applications with uncertainties in fracture behavior. This paper summarizes work on three such cases. First, the fracture behavior of bimetallic welds are discussed. The purpose of the study was to determine if current fracture analyses can predict the response of pipe with flaws in bimetallic welds. The weld joined sections of A516 Grade 70 carbon steel to F316 stainless steel. The crack was along the carbon steel base metal to Inconel 182 weld metal fusion line. Material properties from tensile and C(T) specimens were used to predict large pipe response. The major conclusion from the work is that fracture behavior of the weld could be evaluated with reasonable accuracy using properties of the carbon steel pipe and conventional J-estimation analyses. However, results may not be generally true for all bimetallic welds. Second, the toughness of austenitic steel submerged-arc weld (SAW) fusion lines is discussed. During large-scale pipe tests with flaws in the center of the SAW, the crack tended to grow into the fusion line. The fracture toughness of the base metal, the SAW, and the fusion line were determined and compared. The major conclusion reached is that although the fusion line had a higher initiation toughness than the weld metal, the fusion-line J-R curve reached a steady-state value while the SAW J-R curve increased. Last, carbon steel fracture experiments containing circumferential flaws with periods of unstable crack jumps during steady ductile tearing are discussed. These instabilities are believed to be due to dynamic strain aging (DSA). The paper discusses DSA, a screening criteria developed to predict DSA, and the ability of the current J-based methodologies to assess the effect of these crack instabilities. The effect of loading rate on the strength and toughness of several different carbon steel pipes at LWR temperatures is also discussed.

  11. Determining optimal interconnection capacity on the basis of hourly demand and supply functions of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Meunier, William; Coquentin, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Interconnections for cross-border electricity flows are at the heart of the project to create a common European electricity market. At the time, increase in production from variable renewables clustered during a limited numbers of hours reduces the availability of existing transport infrastructures. This calls for higher levels of optimal interconnection capacity than in the past. In complement to existing scenario-building exercises such as the TYNDP that respond to the challenge of determining optimal levels of infrastructure provision, the present paper proposes a new empirically-based methodology to perform Cost-Benefit analysis for the determination of optimal interconnection capacity, using as an example the French-German cross-border trade. Using a very fine dataset of hourly supply and demand curves (aggregated auction curves) for the year 2014 from the EPEX Spot market, it constructs linearized net export (NEC) and net import demand curves (NIDC) for both countries. This allows assessing hour by hour the welfare impacts for incremental increases in interconnection capacity. Summing these welfare increases over the 8 760 hours of the year, this provides the annual total for each step increase of interconnection capacity. Confronting welfare benefits with the annual cost of augmenting interconnection capacity indicated the socially optimal increase in interconnection capacity between France and Germany on the basis of empirical market micro-data. (authors)

  12. The effect of long-distance interconnection on wind power variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertig, Emily; Apt, Jay; Jaramillo, Paulina; Katzenstein, Warren

    2012-01-01

    We use time- and frequency-domain techniques to quantify the extent to which long-distance interconnection of wind plants in the United States would reduce the variability of wind power output. Previous work has shown that interconnection of just a few wind plants across moderate distances could greatly reduce the ratio of fast- to slow-ramping generators in the balancing portfolio. We find that interconnection of aggregate regional wind plants would not reduce this ratio further but would reduce variability at all frequencies examined. Further, interconnection of just a few wind plants reduces the average hourly change in power output, but interconnection across regions provides little further reduction. Interconnection also reduces the magnitude of low-probability step changes and doubles firm power output (capacity available at least 92% of the time) compared with a single region. First-order analysis indicates that balancing wind and providing firm power with local natural gas turbines would be more cost-effective than with transmission interconnection. For net load, increased wind capacity would require more balancing resources but in the same proportions by frequency as currently, justifying the practice of treating wind as negative load. (letter)

  13. Welfare and competition effects of electricity interconnection between Ireland and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaguzzi Valeri, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of additional interconnection on welfare and competition in the Irish electricity market. I simulate the wholesale electricity markets of the island of Ireland and Great Britain for 2005. I find that in order for the two markets to be integrated in 2005, additional interconnection would have to be large. The amount of interconnection decreases for high costs of carbon, since this causes the markets to become more similar. This suggests that in the absence of strategic behavior of firms, most of the gains from trade derive not from differences in size between countries, but from technology differences and are strongly influenced by fuel and carbon costs. Social welfare increases with interconnection, although at a decreasing rate. As the amount of interconnection increases, there are also positive effects on competition in Ireland, the less competitive of the two markets. Finally, it is unlikely that private investors will pay for the optimal amount of interconnection since their returns are significantly smaller than the total social benefit of interconnection. (author)

  14. Effects of microstructure on ultrasonic examination of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of cast stainless steel components or stainless steel welds is difficult, and the results obtained are hard to interpret. The present study describes the effects of stainless steel microstructure on ultrasonic test results. Welded coupons, 2.5 and 5.0 cm thick, were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel, with Type 308 stainless steel as the weld material. Metallography of the base material shows grain sizes of 15 and 80 μm, and dendrites aligned from the top to the bottom surface in cast material. X-ray diffraction and ultrasonic velocity measurements indicate a random crystal orientation in the base material, but the cast sample had aligned dendrites. The weld material exhibits a dendritic structure with a preferred (100) direction perpendicular to the weld pass. Spectral analysis of ultrasonic broad-band signals through the base materials shows drastic attenuation of higher frequencies with increasing grain size (Rayleigh scattering). Annealing and recrystallization increases the ultrasonic attenuation and produces carbide precipitation at grain boundaries. The microstructural differences of the base metal, heat-affected zone, and weld metal affect the amplitude of ultrasonic reflections from artificial flaws in these zones. Data obtained from two samples of different grain sizes indicate that grain size has little effect when a 1-MHz transducer is used. When going from a 15 to an 80-μm crystalline structure, a 5-MHz unit suffers a 30-dB attenuation in the detection of a 1.2 mm deep notch. The anisotropy of the dendritic structure in stainless steel renewed the interest in the effect of shear-wave polarization. In the (110) crystallographic orientation of stainless steel, two modes of shear waves can be generated, which have velocities differing by a factor of two. This effect may be helpful in ''tuning'' of shear waves by polarization to obtain better penetration in large grain materials such as welds

  15. Religion, Science, and Culture: An Integrated, Interconnected Paradigm of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amin Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the paradigm of dialogue and integration in the Islamic science of religion is important since the practice of religious education still applies the paradigm of conflict and independence. These paradigms have a great influence on the formation of socio-religious and cultural ways of thinking. The relationship between Islamic religiousc and natural, social, as well as cultural sciences, needs patterns of integrated, interconnected relations and dialogues. Islamic Studies requires a multidisciplinary approach, that is, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. Scientific linearity, in which science is narrowly defined and mono-disciplinary, will lead to an understanding of religion and religious interpretations that has no contact with and relevance to the context in which it is studied. New types of religious thought that encourage independent discussion and dialogue on the subjective, objective and intersubjective aspects of science and religion will create the emergence of a new type of religiosity in the multicultural era. All of this requires more effort to undertake a serious reconstruction of scientific methodologies and the methodologies of scientific studies of religion.[Penerapan paradigma dialog dan integrasi dalam ilmu-ilmu keislaman masih penting untuk didiskusikan mengingat praktik pendidikan agama masih menerapkan paradigm konflik dan independen. Paradigma-paradigma ini memiliki pengaruh yang besar dalam pembentukan cara pandang keagamaan, baik sosial maupun kultural. Hubungan antara ilmu-ilmu keislaman di satu sisi dengan ilmu-ilmu alam, sosial, dan budaya di sisi lain, memerlukan pola hubungan dan dialog yang terintegrasi-interkoneksi. Studi Islam mensyaratkan pendekatan multi disiplin, baik interdisipliner maupun transdisipliner. Linearitas keilmuan yang membatasi bidang ilmu secara sempit dan mono-disiplin akan menggiring pemahaman agama dan tafsir keagamaan yang tidak terkait dan tidak relevan dengan konteks

  16. Agent-Based Simulation for Interconnection-Scale Renewable Integration and Demand Response Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Chassin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper collects and synthesizes the technical requirements, implementation, and validation methods for quasi-steady agent-based simulations of interconnection-scale models with particular attention to the integration of renewable generation and controllable loads. Approaches for modeling aggregated controllable loads are presented and placed in the same control and economic modeling framework as generation resources for interconnection planning studies. Model performance is examined with system parameters that are typical for an interconnection approximately the size of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC and a control area about 1/100 the size of the system. These results are used to demonstrate and validate the methods presented.

  17. Lateral buckling and mechanical stretchability of fractal interconnects partially bonded onto an elastomeric substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Haoran; Xu, Sheng; Rogers, John A.; Xu, Renxiao; Huang, Yonggang; Jiang, Jianqun; Zhang, Yihui

    2015-01-01

    Fractal-inspired designs for interconnects that join rigid, functional devices can ensure mechanical integrity in stretchable electronic systems under extreme deformations. The bonding configuration of such interconnects with the elastomer substrate is crucial to the resulting deformation modes, and therefore the stretchability of the entire system. In this study, both theoretical and experimental analyses are performed for postbuckling of fractal serpentine interconnects partially bonded to the substrate. The deformation behaviors and the elastic stretchability of such systems are systematically explored, and compared to counterparts that are not bonded at all to the substrate

  18. Abnormal contact resistance reduction of bonded copper interconnects in three-dimensional integration during current stressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. N.; Tan, C. S.; Fan, A.; Reif, R.

    2005-01-01

    Bonded copper interconnects were stressed with current to measure the specific contact resistance. For bonded copper interconnects without a prebonding HCl clean, the corresponding specific contact resistance did not change while increasing the stress current. However, for some interconnects with the prebonding HCl clean, an abnormal contact resistance reduction was observed during the increase of the stress current. The rise of temperature at the bonding interface area due to Joule heating under high current density may have caused the decrease of contact resistance. This behavior may be one option for quality enhancement in 3D integration at low temperature.

  19. Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III - Grid Interconnection System Evaluator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a Grid Interconnection System Evaluator (GISE) that leverages hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation techniques to rapidly evaluate the grid interconnection standard conformance of an ICS according to the procedures in IEEE Std 1547.1. The architecture and test sequencing of this evaluation tool, along with a set of representative ICS test results from three different photovoltaic (PV) inverters, are presented. The GISE adds to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) evaluation platform that now allows for rapid development of ICS control algorithms using controller HIL (CHIL) techniques, the ability to test the dc input characteristics of PV-based ICSs through the use of a PV simulator capable of simulating real-world dynamics using power HIL (PHIL), and evaluation of ICS grid interconnection conformance.

  20. Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III -- Grid Interconnection System Evaluator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper, presented at the IEEE Green Technologies Conference 2013, describes a Grid Interconnection System Evaluator (GISE) that leverages hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation techniques to rapidly evaluate the grid interconnection standard conformance of an ICS according to the procedures in IEEE Std 1547.1 (TM). The architecture and test sequencing of this evaluation tool, along with a set of representative ICS test results from three different photovoltaic (PV) inverters, are presented. The GISE adds to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) evaluation platform that now allows for rapid development of ICS control algorithms using controller HIL (CHIL) techniques, the ability to test the dc input characteristics of PV-based ICSs through the use of a PV simulator capable of simulating real-world dynamics using power HIL (PHIL), and evaluation of ICS grid interconnection conformance.

  1. Antibacterial effect of silver nanofilm modified stainless steel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F.; Kennedy, J.; Dhillon, M.; Flint, S.

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria can attach to stainless steel surfaces, resulting in the colonization of the surface known as biofilms. The release of bacteria from biofilms can cause contamination of food such as dairy products in manufacturing plants. This study aimed to modify stainless steel surfaces with silver nanofilms and to examine the antibacterial effectiveness of the modified surface. Ion implantation was applied to produce silver nanofilms on stainless steel surfaces. 35 keV Ag ions were implanted with various fluences of 1 × 1015 to 1 × 1017 ions•cm-2 at room temperature. Representative atomic force microscopy characterizations of the modified stainless steel are presented. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry spectra revealed the implanted atoms were located in the near-surface region. Both unmodified and modified stainless steel coupons were then exposed to two types of bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus thermophilus, to determine the effect of the surface modification on bacterial attachment and biofilm development. The silver modified coupon surface fluoresced red over most of the surface area implying that most bacteria on coupon surface were dead. This study indicates that the silver nanofilm fabricated by the ion implantation method is a promising way of reducing the attachment of bacteria and delay biofilm formation.

  2. Work of adhesion of dairy products on stainless steel surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Campos Bernardes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion of the solids presents in food can difficult the process of surface cleaning and promotes the bacterial adhesion process and can trigger health problems. In our study, we used UHT whole milk, chocolate based milk and infant formula to evaluate the adhesion of Enterobacter sakazakii on stainless steel coupons, and we determine the work of adhesion by measuring the contact angle as well as measured the interfacial tension of the samples. Inaddition we evaluated the hydrophobicity of stainless steel after pre-conditioning with milk samples mentioned. E. sakazakii was able to adhere to stainless steel in large numbers in the presence of dairy products. The chocolate based milk obtained the lower contact angle with stainless steel surface, higher interfacial tension and consequently higher adhesion work. It was verified a tendency of decreasing the interfacial tension as a function of the increasing of protein content. The pre-conditioning of the stainless steel coupons with milk samples changed the hydrophobic characteristics of the surfaces and became them hydrophilic. Therefore, variations in the composition of the milk products affect parameters important that can influence the procedure of hygiene in surface used in food industry.

  3. Optimization of the A-TIG welding for stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurica, M.; Kožuh, Z.; Garašić, I.; Bušić, M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the influence of the activation flux and shielding gas on tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding of the stainless steel. In introduction part, duplex stainless steel was analysed. The A-TIG process was explained and the possibility of welding stainless steels using the A-TIG process to maximize productivity and the cost-effectiveness of welded structures was presented. In the experimental part duplex, 7 mm thick stainless steel has been welded in butt joint. The influence of activation flux chemical composition upon the weld penetration has been investigated prior the welding. The welding process was performed by a robot with TIG equipment. With selected A-TIG welding technology preparation of plates and consumption of filler material (containing Cr, Ni and Mn) have been avoided. Specimens sectioned from the produced welds have been subjected to tensile strength test, macrostructure analysis and corrosion resistance analysis. The results have confirmed that this type of stainless steel can be welded without edge preparation and addition of filler material containing critical raw materials as Cr, Ni and Mn when the following welding parameters are set: current 200 A, welding speed 9,1 cm/min, heat input 1,2 kJ/mm and specific activation flux is used.

  4. Growth of MWCNTs on Flexible Stainless Steels without Additional Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udomdej Pakdee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were synthesized on austenitic stainless steel foils (Type 304 using a home-built thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD under atmospheric pressure of hydrogen (H2 and acetylene (C2H2. During the growth, the stainless steel substrates were heated at different temperatures of 600, 700, 800, and 900°C. It was found that MWCNTs were grown on the stainless steel substrates heated at 600, 700, and 800°C while amorphous carbon film was grown at 900°C. The diameters of MWCNTs, as identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM images together with ImageJ software program, were found to be 67.7, 43.0, and 33.1 nm, respectively. The crystallinity of MWCNTs was investigated by an X-ray diffractometer. The number of graphitic walled layers and the inner diameter of MWCNTs were investigated using a transmission electron microscope (TEM. The occurrence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles associated with carbon element can be used to reveal the behavior of Fe in stainless steel as catalyst. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the growth and quality of MWCNTs. The results obtained in this work showed that the optimum heated stainless steel substrate temperature for the growth of effective MWCNTs is 700°C. Chemical states of MWCNTs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS using synchrotron light.

  5. Precipitation reactions in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch, M.; Yung-Shih Chen

    1979-01-01

    The precipitation reactions for commercial austenitic stainless steels (AISI type 347, 321, 316, 316L, 304 and 304L) and Ti-modified AISI type 316 SS were studied in the temperature range of 750 0 C-1350 0 C. Specimens were held at the temperature for 15 to 25 hours to ensure that equilibrium conditions were reached and followed by a water quench to prevent further precipitation reactions during cooling process. The precipitates were extracted from bulk specimens by anodic dissolution and identified by x-ray diffraction analysis. In Ti-stabilized 321 SS, large TiN and Ti 2 S (Ti 4 C 2 S2) precipitates were present in solution treated and subsequent annealed specimens. Small TiC precipitates were present in specimens annealed below 1150 0 C. The M 23 C 6 precipitates were found to be present after annealing at 850 0 C for 25 hours. The amount of M 23 C 6 was found to increase with decreased Ti content as shown in the Ti-motified 316 SS. In Nb-stabilized 347 SS, Nb(CN) precipitates were present in solution treated as well as annealed specimens. The M 23 C 6 precipitates were detected at an annealing temperature of 1050 0 C, which is higher than the precipitation temperature detected in 321 SS. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to obtain the temperature where precipitation starts, and the temperatures where 50, 90 and 99% of the precipitates should be formed. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the calculations. (orig.) [de

  6. High cycle fatigue of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.P.; Lehmann, D.; Picker

    1990-01-01

    This study concerns the evaluation of material data to be used in LMFBR design codes. High cycle fatigue properties of three austenitic stainless steels are evaluated: type AISI 316 (UKAEA tests), type AISI 316L (CEA tests) and type AISI 304 (Interatom tests). The data on these steels comprised some 550 data points from 14 casts. This data set covered a wide range of testing parameters: temperature from 20-625 0 C, frequency from 1-20 000 Hz, constant amplitude and random fatigue loading, with and without mean stress, etc. However, the testing conditions chosen by the three partners differed considerably because they had been fixed independently and not harmonized prior to the tests. This created considerable difficulties for the evaluations. Experimental procedures and statistical treatments used for the three subsets of data are described and discussed. Results are presented in tables and graphs. Although it is often difficult to single out the influence of each parameter due to the different testing conditions, several interesting conclusions can be drawn: The HCF properties of the three steels are consistent with the 0.2% proof stress, the fatigue limit being larger than the latter at temperatures above 550 0 C. The type 304 steel has lower tensile properties than the two other steels and hence also lower HCF properties. Parameters which clearly have a significant effect of HCF behaviour are mean stress or R-ratio (less in the non-endurance region than in the endurance region), temperature, cast or product. Other parameters have probably a weak or no effect but it is difficult to conclude due to insufficient data: environment, specimen orientation, frequency, specimen geometry

  7. Low stress creep of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Clay, B.D.; Baker, C.

    1976-06-01

    The creep of 20%Cr, 25%Ni, Nb stainless steel has been examined at temperatures from 675 to 775 0 C at sheer stressed below 13 MPa and grain sizes from 6 to 20μm. The results have indicated that the initial creep rates were linearly dependent upon stress but with a threshold stress below which no creep occurred, i.e. Bingham behaviour; in addition, the creep activation energy at small strains was substantially lower than the lattice self-diffusion value and the initial creep rates were approximately related to the grain size through an inverse cube relation. It has been concluded that at low strains (approaching the initial elastic deflection) the creep mechanism was probably that of grain boundary diffusion creep (Coble, 1963) and this is further supported by the close agreement between the observed and theoretically predicted creep rate values. Steady-state creep rates were not observed; initially the creep rates fell rapidly with strain after which a more gradual decrease occurred. Whilst the creep rate - stress relationship continued to be of a Bingham form, the progressive reduction in creep rate with strain was found to be mainly attributable to an increase in the effective viscosity, threshold stress effects being generally of secondary importance. A model has been proposed which explains the initial creep rates as being due to Cable creep with elastic accommodation at grain boundary particles. At higher strains grain boundary collapse caused by vacancy sinking is accommodated at precipitate particles by plastic deformation of the adjacent matrix material. (author)

  8. Alberta interconnected electric system transmission development plan 2002 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-13

    Alberta's independent Transmission Administrator, ESBI Alberta Ltd., has committed to publish annually an updated 10-year plan for the development of the Alberta Interconnected Electric System transmission grid. This report is its fourth annual publication which provides valuable information for those wishing to enter the power generation market or for those interested in competing for the provision of new transmission facilities. From 2002-2011, peak demand is projected to increase from 8,000 MW to nearly 10,000 MW. Full competition in power generation came into effect in Alberta in 2001. This stimulated interest in developing new generation in the province, particularly in Lake Wabamun, Fort McMurray, and Southern Alberta. It was noted that the existing transmission infrastructure has performed well, but since there has been no major investment since 1985, it is time to seriously consider new major investments into the system in order to continue to provide secure, reliable service. In 2001 ESBI conducted a conceptual study of the transmission infrastructure that would be needed if Alberta were to export its power. This study is being expanded to include power generation additions. The variables are the location of generation additions and the amount of surplus generation available for export. In 2001, more than $200 M worth of transmission reinforcement projects were initiated. The same level of investment is expected in 2002. Close cooperation between the Transmission Administrator and project developers, regulators and government is needed now more than ever because of the deregulation in power generation. The role of ESBI is to continue the stakeholder consultation process that helps to ensure excellence in power transmission in the province. This report reviews 500 kV, 240 kV and 138/144 kV transmission system reinforcements. It presented an economic outlook for Alberta with reference to underlying economic assumptions, oil and natural gas prices, and

  9. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating...... renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection......, and the second is cross-sector interconnection, i.e., the integration between different parts of an energy system, for instance heat and electricity. This paper seeks to compare the types of interconnectivity and discuss to which extent they are mutually beneficial. To do this, the study investigates two energy...

  10. The Application of Free-Space Optical Interconnects to High Performance Communication Decoding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haney, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Development of the "Two-bounce" interconnection concept, that is based on topological transformations, and which minimizes the smart pixel resource required for the Viterbi architecture and has wider...

  11. A Numerical Method for Modeling the Effects of Irregular Shape on Interconnect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Jun; Tang, Zhen-An; Ju, Yan-Jie

    2014-05-01

    When clock frequencies exceed gigahertz, the skin depth in analog and digital circuits greatly decreases. The irregular shape of the cross section of the interconnect plays an increasingly important role in interconnect parasitic extraction. However, existing methods only focus on the rough surface of the interconnect, while ignoring other irregular shapes, such as the trapezoidal cross section. In this work, a new simulation method is proposed for irregular interconnects, which is applicable to arbitrary irregular shapes and to a wide range of frequencies. The method involves generating a mesh information file firstly and then extracting the frequency-dependent resistance based on a numerical solution of scalar wave modeling by using the method of moments. The singularity extraction method is used to calculate the self-inductors. The data from experiments verify the accuracy of our proposed method.

  12. Switching Fabric Based on Multi-Level LVDS Compatible Interconnect, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Switching fabric (SF) is the key component of the next generation of back plane interconnects. Low power, TID and SEU resistant and high bandwidth upgradeable...

  13. Joint Application Mapping/Interconnect Synthesis Techniques for Embedded Chip-Scale Multiprocessors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bambha, Neal K; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S

    2005-01-01

    .... In this paper, we present high-level scheduling and interconnect topology synthesis techniques for embedded multiprocessor systems-on-chip that are streamlined for one or more digital signal processing applications...

  14. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  15. Decomposition and Projection Methods for Distributed Robustness Analysis of Interconnected Uncertain Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Hansson, Anders; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    We consider a class of convex feasibility problems where the constraints that describe the feasible set are loosely coupled. These problems arise in robust stability analysis of large, weakly interconnected uncertain systems. To facilitate distributed implementation of robust stability analysis...

  16. Superconducting Thin-Film Interconnects for Cryogenic Photon Detector Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced imaging spectrometers for x-ray astronomy will require significant improvements in the high density interconnects between the detector arrays and the first...

  17. Optical Interconnects for Smart Antenna Driver-Receiver-Switch System for Wireless Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esener, Sadik

    2002-01-01

    ... at 0.3THz-30THz for telecommunication applications in general and for interconnects within the box, in particular, for example for Smart Antenna Driver-Receiver-Switch System for Wireless Communication...

  18. A novel monolithic fabrication method for a plastic microfluidic chip with liquid interconnecting ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong-Kee; Kwon, Tai Hun

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, a novel monolithic fabrication method was developed for the manufacturing of a plastic microfluidic chip with liquid interconnecting ports. As the present method can realize both interconnecting ports and through holes, which are essential components for the delivery of working fluids, in the plastic microfluidic chip, no additional processes and external ports are required. Furthermore, the connection of external silicone tubing can be simply achieved by utilizing an elastic deformation of the used tubing. As one representative example, a microinjection molding of a prototype microfluidic chip having two types of interconnecting ports was demonstrated. After obtaining upper and lower plates by the microinjection molding process utilizing mold cores with pin structures, the thermal bonding of the molded plates was carried out, resulting in the prototype plastic microfluidic chip with interconnecting ports. From microfluidic experiments using the fabricated prototype, it was found that the present method could be quite useful in various microfluidic applications.

  19. Back-end interconnection. A generic concept for high volume manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosman, J.; Budel, T.; De Kok, C.J.G.M.

    2013-10-15

    The general method to realize series connection in thin film PV modules is monolithical interconnection through a sequence of laser scribes (P1, P2 and P3) and layer depositions. This method however implies that the deposition processes are interrupted several times, an undesirable situation in high volume processing. In order to eliminate this drawback we focus our developments on the so called 'back-end interconnection concept' in which series interconnection takes place AFTER the deposition of the functional layers of the thin film PV device. The process of making a back-end interconnection combines laser scribing, curing, sintering and inkjet processes. These different processes interacts with each other and are investigated in order to create processing strategies that are robust to ensure high volume production. The generic approach created a technology base that can be applied to any thin film PV technology.

  20. A layered approach to model interconnected infrastructure and its significance for asset management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhamidipati, S.K.; Van der Lei, T.T.E.; Herder, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical infrastructures facilitate much of societal and economic wellbeing of countries, regions and urban areas. In our increasingly urbanizing world, infrastructures in urban areas are densely located and interconnected. The effects of this interconnectedness are being studied increasingly,

  1. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection......In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating......, and the second is cross-sector interconnection, i.e., the integration between different parts of an energy system, for instance heat and electricity. This paper seeks to compare the types of interconnectivity and discuss to which extent they are mutually beneficial. To do this, the study investigates two energy...

  2. 75 FR 27550 - Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Record...

  3. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  4. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  5. The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Sari [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Rogers, Jennifer [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  6. Switching Fabric based on Multi-Level LVDS Compatible Interconnect, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The switching fabric (SF) is a key component of the next generation back plane interconnects. Extremely low-power, radiation-hardened, high-bandwidth upgradeable...

  7. IC layout adjustment method and tool for improving dielectric reliability at interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahng, Andrew B.; Chan, Tuck Boon

    2018-03-20

    Method for adjusting a layout used in making an integrated circuit includes one or more interconnects in the layout that are susceptible to dielectric breakdown are selected. One or more selected interconnects are adjusted to increase via to wire spacing with respect to at least one via and one wire of the one or more selected interconnects. Preferably, the selecting analyzes signal patterns of interconnects, and estimates the stress ratio based on state probability of routed signal nets in the layout. An annotated layout is provided that describes distances by which one or more via or wire segment edges are to be shifted. Adjustments can include thinning and shifting of wire segments, and rotation of vias.

  8. Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

    2006-03-01

    The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

  9. Interconnection of Broadband Islands via Satellite-Experiments on the Race II Catalyst Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Z

    1996-01-01

    .... The purpose of the project was to develop an ATM satellite link for the future B-ISDN services, particularly for the interconnections of the ATM testbeds which are in the form of broadband islands...

  10. 47 CFR 69.155 - Per-minute residual interconnection charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... local exchange carrier cannot recover its full residual interconnection charge revenues through the PICC... the exemption established in paragraph (c)(1) of this section between the PICC and the per-minute...

  11. Corrosion-free precast prestressed concrete piles made with stainless steel reinforcement : construction, test and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The use of duplex high-strength stainless steel (HSSS) grade 2205 prestressing strand and : austenitic stainless steel (SS) grade 304 spiral wire reinforcement is proposed as a replacement of : conventional prestressing steel, in order to provide a 1...

  12. 77 FR 60673 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... without drain boards, whether finished or unfinished, regardless of type of finish, gauge, or grade of... the stainless steel, and then welding and finishing the vertical corners to form the bowls. Stainless...

  13. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Stainless Steel Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, William H [ORNL; Lou, Xiaoyuan [General Electric (GE); List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Webber, David [General Electric (GE)

    2016-09-01

    This collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and General Electric Company aimed to evaluate the mechanical properties, microstructure, and porosity of the additively manufactured 316L stainless steel by ORNL’s Renishaw AM250 machine for nuclear application. The program also evaluated the stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue crack growth rate of the same material in high temperature water environments. Results show the properties of this material to be similar to the properties of 316L stainless steel fabricated additively with equipment from other manufacturers with slightly higher porosity. The stress corrosion crack growth rate is similar to that for wrought 316L stainless steel for an oxygenated high temperature water environment and slightly higher for a hydrogenated high temperature water environment. Optimized heat treatment of this material is expected to improve performance in high temperature water environments.

  14. Boron effect on stainless steel plasticity under hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, S.I.; Kardonov, B.A.; Sorokina, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of boron on plasticity of stainless steels at temperatures of hot deformation has been studied at three levels of alloying, i.e. 0-0.01% (micro-alloying or modifying), 0.01-0.02% (low alloying) and 0.02-2.0% (high alloying). Introduction of 0.001-0.005% of boron increases hot plasticity of both low and high carbon stainless steels due to decrease in grain size and strengthening of grain boundaries. Microalloying by boron has a positive effect at temperatures below 1200-1220 deg C. At higher temperatures, particularly when its content exceeds 0.008%, boron deteriorates plasticity by increasing the size of grains and weakening their boundaries. 0.1-2% boron strengthen the stainless steel and dectease its plasticity

  15. Low-temperature creep of austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Walsh, R. P.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic deformation under constant load (creep) in austenitic stainless steels has been measured at temperatures ranging from 4 K to room temperature. Low-temperature creep data taken from past and unreported austenitic stainless steel studies are analyzed and reviewed. Creep at cryogenic temperatures of common austenitic steels, such as AISI 304, 310 316, and nitrogen-strengthened steels, such as 304HN and 3116LN, are included. Analyses suggests that logarithmic creep (creep strain dependent on the log of test time) best describe austenitic stainless steel behavior in the secondary creep stage and that the slope of creep strain versus log time is dependent on the applied stress/yield strength ratio. The role of cold work, strain-induced martensitic transformations, and stacking fault energy on low-temperature creep behavior is discussed. The engineering significance of creep on cryogenic structures is discussed in terms of the total creep strain under constant load over their operational lifetime at allowable stress levels.

  16. Depth distribution of martensite in xenon implanted stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Johnson, E.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Steenstrup, S.; Hayashi, N.; Sakamoto, I.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of stress-induced martensite and its distribution in depth in xenon implanted austenitic stainless steel poly- and single crystals have been measured by Rutherford backscattering and channeling analysis, depth selective conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. In low nickel 17/7, 304 and 316 commercial stainless steels and in 17:13 single crystals the martensitic transformation starts at the surface and develops towards greater depth with increasing xenon fluence. The implanted layer is nearly completely transformed, and the interface between martensite and austenite is rather sharp and well defined. In high nickel 310 commercial stainless steel and 15:19 and 20:19 single crystals, on the other hand, only insignificant amounts of martensite are observed. (orig.)

  17. Diffusionless bonding of aluminum to type 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1963-03-01

    High strength diffusionless bonds can be produced between 1S aluminum and oxidized 304 stainless steel by hot pressing and extrusion bonding. Both the hot pressing and extrusion bonding techniques have been developed to a point where consistently good bonds can be obtained. Although the bonding is performed at elevated temperatures (about 510 o C) a protective atmosphere is not required to produce strong bonds. The aluminum-stainless steel bonded specimens can be used to join aluminum and stainless steel by conventional welding. Welding close to the bond zone does not appear to affect the integrity of the bond. The extrusion bonding technique is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 26, 1965 and the hot press bonding technique by Canadian patent application 904,548 June 6, 1964. (author)

  18. Development of commercial nitrogen-rich stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljas, M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of nitrogen alloyed stainless steels. Nitrogen alloying of austenitic stainless steels started at an early stage and was to a large extent caused by nickel shortage. However, direct technical advantages such as increased strength of the nitrogen alloyed steels made them attractive alternatives to the current steels. It was not until the advent of the AOD (argon oxygen decarburisation) process in the late 1960s that nitrogen alloying could be controlled to such accuracy that it became successful commercially on a broader scale. The paper describes production aspects and how nitrogen addition influences microstructure and the resulting properties of austenitic and duplex stainless steels. For austenitic steels there are several reasons for nitrogen alloying. Apart from increasing strength nitrogen also improves structural stability, work hardening and corrosion resistance. For duplex steels nitrogen also has a decisive effect in controlling the microstructure during thermal cycles such as welding. (orig.)

  19. Enhancement of Stainless Steel's Mechanical Properties via Carburizing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Alias, S. K.; Abdullah, B.; Hafiz Mohd Bakri, Mohd.; Hafizuddin Jumadin, Muhammad; Mat Shah, Muhammad Amir

    2016-11-01

    Carburizing process is a method to disperse carbon into the steel surface in order to enhance its mechanical properties such as hardness and wear resistance. This paper study investigates the effect of carburizing temperature to the carbon dispersion layer in stainless steel. The standard AISI 304 stainless steel was carburized in two different temperatures which were 900°C and 950°C. The effect of carbon dispersion layers were observed and the results indicated that the increasing value of the average dispersion layer from 1.30 mm to 2.74 mm thickness was found to be related to increment of carburizing holding temperature . The increment of carbon thickness layer also resulted in improvement of hardness and tensile strength of carburized stainless steel.

  20. Corrosion in lithium-stainless steel thermal-convection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.; Selle, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The corrosion of types 304L and 316 austenitic stainless steel by flowing lithium was studied in thermal-convection loops operated at 500 to 650 0 C. Both weight and compositional changes were measured on specimens distributed throughout each loop and were combined with metallographic examinations to evaluate the corrosion processes. The corrosion rate and mass transfer characteristics did not significantly differ between the two austenitic stainless steels. Addition of 500 or 1700 wt ppM N to purified lithium did not increase the dissolution rate or change the attack mode of type 316 stainless steel. Adding 5 wt % Al to the lithium reduced the weight loss of this steel by a factor of 5 relative to a pure lithium-thermal-convection loop