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Sample records for stainless steel microstructure

  1. Microstructure of laser cladded martensitic stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available -steel substrate. A 4.4 kW Rofin DY044 diode pumped Nd:YAG laser coupled to a Kuka KR60L30 articulated arm robot and Precitec YW50 welding head with 300 mm focal length was used. Powder cladding was performed with Praxair Fe211-1 (420), Praxair Fe211-5 (400... dilution, low heat input, less distortion, increased mechanical and corrosion properties excellent repeatability and control of process parameters. Solidification of laser cladded martensitic stainless steel is primarily austenitic. Microstructures...

  2. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Solidified Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktaş Çelik G.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the family of stainless steels, cast austenitic stainless steels (CASSs are preferably used due to their high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. These steels owe their properties to their microstructural features consisting of an austenitic matrix and skeletal or lathy type δ-ferrite depending on the cooling rate. In this study, the solidification behavior of CASSs (304L and 316L grades was studied using ThermoCalc software in order to determine the solidification sequence and final microstructure during cooling. Theoretical findings were supported by the microstructural examinations. For the mechanical characterization, not only hardness measurements but also tribological studies were carried out under dry sliding conditions and worn surfaces were examined by microscopy and 3D profilometric analysis. Results were discussed according to the type and amount of microstructural features.

  3. Microstructural Characterization of Low Temperature Gas Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present work presents microstructural investigations of the surface zone of low temperature gas nitrided precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel AISI 630. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was applied to investigate the present phases after successive removal of very thin sectio...

  4. Microstructural characterisation of carbon implanted austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.E. [Scientific Affairs Research Group, Stryker Orthopaedics, Raheen Business Park, Limerick (Ireland)]. E-mail: matthew.murphy@stryker.com; Insley, G.M. [Scientific Affairs Research Group, Stryker Orthopaedics, Raheen Business Park, Limerick (Ireland); Laugier, M.T. [Department of Physics, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Newcomb, S.B. [Sonsam Ltd., Glebe Laboratories, Newport, Tipperary (Ireland)

    2005-06-01

    Low carbon (316L) austenitic stainless steel has been implanted with carbon ions with a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 17} C ions/cm{sup 2} using an ion energy of 75 keV. The effect of carbon ion implantation on the microstructure of the austenitic steel has been examined in cross-section using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) both before and after implantation, and the implantation data correlated with a computer based simulation, TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter). It has been found that the high-fluence carbon ion implantation modified the microstructure of the steel, as demonstrated by the presence of two amorphous layers separated by a layer of expanded austenite.

  5. Influence of laser power on microstructure of laser metal deposited 17-4 ph stainless steel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adeyemi, AA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of laser power on the microstructure of 17-4 PH stainless steel produced by laser metal deposition was investigated. Multiple-trackof 17-4 stainless steel powder was deposited on 316 stainless steel substrate using laser metal...

  6. Microstructural development during solidification of stainless steel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, J. W.; Allen, S. M.; Eagar, T. W.

    1989-10-01

    The microstructures that develop during the solidification of stainless steel alloys are related to the solidification conditions and the specific alloy composition. The solidification conditions are determined by the processing method, i.e., casting, welding, or rapid solidification, and by parametric variations within each of these techniques. One variable that has been used to characterize the effects of different processing conditions is the cooling rate. This factor and the chemical composition of the alloy both influence (1) the primary mode of solidification, (2) solute redistribution and second-phase formation during solidification, and (3) the nucleation and growth behavior of the ferrite-to-austenite phase transformation during cooling. Consequently, the residual ferrite content and the microstructural morphology depend on the cooling rate and are governed by the solidification process. This paper investigates the influence of cooling rate on the microstructure of stainless steel alloys and describes the conditions that lead to the many microstructural morphologies that develop during solidification. Experiments were performed on a series of seven high-purity Fe-Ni-Cr alloys that spanned the line of twofold saturation along the 59 wt pct Fe isopleth of the ternary alloy system. High-speed electron-beam surface-glazing was used to melt and resolidify these alloys at scan speeds up to 5 m/s. The resulting cooling rates were shown to vary from 7°C/s to 7.5×106°C/s, and the resolidified melts were analyzed by optical metallographic methods. Five primary modes of solidification and 12 microstructural morphologies were characterized in the resolidified alloys, and these features appear to be a complete “set” of the possible microstructures for 300-series stainless steel alloys. The results of this study were used to create electron-beam scan speed vs composition diagrams, which can be used to predict the primary mode of solidification and the

  7. Solidification microstructures in single-crystal stainless steel melt pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipf, J.B.; Boatner, L.A.; David, S.A.

    1994-03-01

    Development of microstructure of stationary melt pools of oriented stainless steel single crystals (70%Fe-15%Ni-15%Cr was analyzed. Stationary melt pools were formed by electron-beam and gas-tungsten-arc heating on (001), (011), and (111) oriented planes of the austenitic, fcc-alloy crystals. Characterization and analysis of resulting microstructure was carried out for each crystallographic plane and welding method. Results showed that crystallography which favors ``easy growth`` along the <100> family of directions is a controlling factor in the microstructural formation along with the melt-pool shape. The microstructure was found to depend on the melting method, since each method forms a unique melt-pool shape. These results are used in making a three-dimensional reconstruction of the microstructure for each plane and melting method employed. This investigation also suggests avenues for future research into the microstructural properties of electron-beam welds as well as providing an experimental basis for mathematical models for the prediction of solidification microstructures.

  8. Microstructural development during laser cladding of low-C martensitic stainless steel.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat input plays an important role in the microstructural development of 12%Cr martensitic stainless steel. The microstructure of low-C 12%Cr martensitic stainless steel resulting from laser cladding was investigated. For 410L a ferritic...

  9. Microstructural evolution in fast-neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, R.E.

    1987-12-01

    The present work has focused on the specific problem of fast-neutron-induced radiation damage to austenitic stainless steels. These steels are used as structural materials in current fast fission reactors and are proposed for use in future fusion reactors. Two primary components of the radiation damage are atomic displacements (in units of displacements per atom, or dpa) and the generation of helium by nuclear transmutation reactions. The radiation environment can be characterized by the ratio of helium to displacement production, the so-called He/dpa ratio. Radiation damage is evidenced microscopically by a complex microstructural evolution and macroscopically by density changes and altered mechanical properties. The purpose of this work was to provide additional understanding about mechanisms that determine microstructural evolution in current fast reactor environments and to identify the sensitivity of this evolution to changes in the He/dpa ratio. This latter sensitivity is of interest because the He/dpa ratio in a fusion reactor first wall will be about 30 times that in fast reactor fuel cladding. The approach followed in the present work was to use a combination of theoretical and experimental analysis. The experimental component of the work primarily involved the examination by transmission electron microscopy of specimens of a model austenitic alloy that had been irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. A major aspect of the theoretical work was the development of a comprehensive model of microstructural evolution. This included explicit models for the evolution of the major extended defects observed in neutron irradiated steels: cavities, Frank faulted loops and the dislocation network. 340 refs., 95 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Deformation Induced Martensitic Transformation and Its Initial Microstructure Dependence in a High Alloyed Duplex Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Lin; Huang, Tian Lin; Wang, Yu Hui

    2017-01-01

    Deformation induced martensitic transformation (DIMT) usually occurs in metastable austenitic stainless steels. Recent studies have shown that DIMT may occur in the austenite phase of low alloyed duplex stainless steels. The present study demonstrates that DIMT can also take place in a high alloyed...... Fe–23Cr–8.5Ni duplex stainless steel, which exhibits an unexpectedly rapid transformation from γ-austenite into α′-martensite. However, an inhibited martensitic transformation has been observed by varying the initial microstructure from a coarse alternating austenite and ferrite band structure...

  11. Investigation of Microstructure and Corrosion Propagation Behaviour of Nitrided Martensitic Stainless Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin Kamal Ariff Zainal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Martensitic stainless steels are commonly used for fabricating components. For many applications, an increase in surface hardness and wear resistance can be beneficial to improve performance and extend service life. However, the improvement in hardness of martensitic steels is usually accompanied by a reduction in corrosion strength. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of nitriding on AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, in terms of microstructure and corrosion propagation behavior. The results indicate that the microstructure and phase composition as well as corrosion resistance were influenced by nitriding temperatures.

  12. Influence of laser power on microstructure of laser metal deposited 17-4 ph stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, A. A.; Akinlabi, ET; Mahamood, R. M.; Sanusi, K. O.; Pityana, S.; Tlotleng, M.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of laser power on the microstructure of 17-4 PH stainless steel produced by laser metal deposition was investigated. Multiple-trackof 17-4 stainless steel powder was deposited on 316 stainless steel substrate using laser metal deposition, an additive manufacturing process. In this research, laser power was varied between 1.0 kW and 2.6 kW with scanning speed fixed at 1.2 m/s. The powder flow rate and the gas flow rate were also kept constant at values of 5 g/min and 2 l/min respectively. The microstructure was studied under optical microscope and it revealed that the microstructure was dendritic in structure with finer and lesser δ-ferriteat low laser power while the appearance of coarse and more δ-ferriteare seen at higher laser power.

  13. Microstructural characterization of AISI 431 martensitic stainless steel laser-deposited coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmati, I.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    High cooling rates during laser cladding of stainless steels may alter the microstructure and phase constitution of the claddings and consequently change their functional properties. In this research, solidification structures and solid state phase transformation products in single and multi layer

  14. Microstructure and properties of gravity sintered 316l stainless steel powder with nickel boride addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Dušan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work demonstrates a procedure for synthesis of stainless steel powder by gravity sintering method. As an additive to the basic powder, NiB powder was added in the amount of 0.2 - 1.0 wt.%. Gravity sintering was done in vacuum, at the temperatures of 1100°C-1250°C, in the course of 3 - 60 min, using ceramic mould. Structural characterization was conducted by XRD, and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mechanical properties were investigated by tensile tests with steel rings. Density and permeability were determined by standard techniques for porous samples. Gravity sintered stainless steel with NiB addition had more superior mechanical and physico-chemical properties compared to stainless steel obtained by standard powder metallurgy procedures - pressing and sintering. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172005

  15. Microstructure and Hardness of High Temperature Gas Nitrided AISI 420 Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Nor Nurulhuda Md.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the microstructure and hardness of as-received and nitrided AISI 420 martensitic stainless steels. High temperature gas nitriding was employed to treat the steels at 1200°C for one hour and four hours using nitrogen gas, followed by furnace cooled. Chromium nitride and iron nitride were formed and concentrated at the outmost surface area of the steels since this region contained the highest concentration of nitrogen. The grain size enlarged at the interior region of the nitrided steels due to nitriding at temperature above the recrystallization temperature of the steel and followed by slow cooling. The nitrided steels produced higher surface hardness compared to as-received steel due to the presence of nitrogen and the precipitation of nitrides. Harder steel was produced when nitriding at four hours compared to one hour since more nitrogen permeated into the steel.

  16. A Short review on wrought austenitic stainless steels at high temperatures: processing, microstructure, properties and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Lesley Plaut

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wrought austenitic stainless steels are widely used in high temperature applications. This short review discusses initially the processing of this class of steels, with emphasis on solidification and hot working behavior. Following, a brief summary is made on the precipitation behavior and the numerous phases that may appear in their microstructures. Creep and oxidation resistance are, then, briefly discussed, and finalizing their performance is compared with other high temperature metallic materials.

  17. Microstructural and thermal stability of selective laser melted 316L stainless steel single tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakhmalev, P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To remove residual stresses, an as-built SLM object is usually post- treated. This treatment can affect the microstructure, changing the final mechanical characteristics. This investigation is focused on the microstructural characterisation of 316L austenitic stainless steel in as-built and annealed conditions. The SLM microstructure was relatively stable up to 900°C, when cell boundaries start to disappear. At higher temperatures, an insignificant grain coarsening was detected. These microstructural changes caused a gradual drop in the hardness. The obtained result is background for the future development of post-treatment regimens to achieve a high level in the final mechanical properties of SLM objects.

  18. Effect of solution treatment on microstructure and properties of duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Y.; Luo, J. M.; Huang, L. Q.; Wang, H. B.; Ma, C. W.

    2017-09-01

    The influence of solution treatment on microstructure and properties of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) was studied. The microstructure, precipitates and corrosion resisting property were observed and analyzed by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical methods. The results showed that a large number of brittle σ-phase precipitates, which deteriorate the plasticity and corrosion resistance of the material, were easy to produce in the duplex stainless steel under the low temperature. The precipitation of σ-phase can be decreased and the plasticity and corrosion resistance can be improved by increasing solution temperature. In addition, the ferrite content increases with the increase of solution temperature, while less affected by cooling rate.

  19. Effect of Austenitizing Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Hardness of Martensitic Stainless Steel AISI 420

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, L. D.; Du Toit, M.

    2012-07-01

    The effect of austenitizing on the microstructure and hardness of two martensitic stainless steels was examined with the aim of supplying heat-treatment guidelines to the user that will ensure a martensitic structure with minimal retained austenite, evenly dispersed carbides and a hardness of between 610 and 740 HV (Vickers hardness) after quenching and tempering. The steels examined during the course of this examination conform in composition to medium-carbon AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, except for the addition of 0.13% vanadium and 0.62% molybdenum to one of the alloys. Steel samples were austenitized at temperatures between 1000 and 1200 °C, followed by oil quenching. The as-quenched microstructures were found to range from almost fully martensitic structures to martensite with up to 35% retained austenite after quenching, with varying amounts of carbides. Optical and scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructures, and X-ray diffraction was employed to identify the carbide present in the as-quenched structures and to quantify the retained austenite contents. Hardness tests were performed to determine the effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties. As-quenched hardness values ranged from 700 to 270 HV, depending on the amount of retained austenite. Thermodynamic predictions (using the CALPHAD™ model) were employed to explain these microstructures based on the solubility of the carbide particles at various austenitizing temperatures.

  20. Effect of Al on Microstructure and Properties of Hot-Rolled 2205 Dual Stainless Steel

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    Qian Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, mechanical properties, oxidation, and corrosion resistance of 2205 stainless steels without and with Al in a range of 0.5 to 2.5 wt.% were investigated in this paper. The results showed that the matrix phase transformed from austenite to ferrite. The volume fraction of the ferrite in the steels decreased at first and then increased and was the lowest in the steel with 0.5 wt.% Al. Most of the Al was dissolved in the ferrite and austenite phases in the steels. The ultimate tensile strength and elongation rate of the steels increased at first and then decreased with the increasing Al content, with the highest values in the steel with 0.5 wt.% Al. The yield strength of the steels slightly increased from 544 to 607 MPa due to the addition of Al. The oxidation rates of the steels with Al were much lower than that of the steel without Al, and the rate of the steel with 1.5 wt.% Al was the lowest, approximately 10 times lower than that of the steel without Al. The corrosion rates of the steels with 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% Al were slightly higher than that of the alloy without Al. In general, the steel with 1 wt.% Al had optimal properties.

  1. Microstructural changes due to laser surface melting of an AISI 304 stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.C.M. d’Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several techniques can be used to improve surface properties. These can involve changes on the surface chemical composition (such as alloying and surface welding processes or on the surface microstructure, such as hardening and melting. In the present work surface melting with a 3kW CO2 cw laser was done to alter surface features of an AISI 304 stainless steel. Microstructure characterisation was done by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Vickers and Knoop microhardness tests evaluated mechanical features after surface melting. Phase transformation during rapid solidification is analysed and discussed.

  2. Characterisation of microstructure and its effect on the strength and toughness of 17-4PH stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, C. R.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Albert, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of microstructure on the strength and toughness of 17-4 Precipitation-Hardened (PH) Stainless Steel (SS) was studied as a function of duration of ageing at 783 K. Lath martensite is formed in this steel in its solution-annealed condition. X-ray diffraction studies detected the forma......The influence of microstructure on the strength and toughness of 17-4 Precipitation-Hardened (PH) Stainless Steel (SS) was studied as a function of duration of ageing at 783 K. Lath martensite is formed in this steel in its solution-annealed condition. X-ray diffraction studies detected...

  3. Roles of microstructures on deformation response of 316 stainless steel made by 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh-Son; Hooper, Paul

    2017-10-01

    One of the main challenges in additive manufacturing (AM) of metals is to manufacture high quality materials and ensure the performance of AM materials in service duties. This challenge can only be solved when the relationships between build process parameters, microstructure and deformation behaviour are understood. This present study is part of holistic efforts at Imperial College to reveal such relationships. In this study, we present our study of porosity condition, grain morphology, texture and metastable phases in AM stainless steel 316. To provide samples for mechanical and microstructural study, cylindrical samples of stainless steel 316 were printed by powder-bed laser melting with a bi-directional hatch pattern. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction were used to investigate fine microstructures (such as grain morphology, texture and crystal phases) after 3D printing and deformation. Subsequently, a detailed 3D structure of columnar grains in as-printed 316 steel is constructed thanks to microscopic observation. Most of grains in as-built samples have a spherical bowl morphology, and being stacked on others to form the columnar structure. Examinations on microstructures show that the small sub-grains in as-printed samples is likely responsible for high yield strength at room temperature (significantly higher than that of conventional steel). In addition, residual stresses after rapid cooling probably promote the deformation-induced twinning that assists the plasticity during deformation, leading to a good ductility of the AM steel (almost as same as that of conventional 316 steel). Currently, a more detailed study is being undertaken to confirm this hypothesis.

  4. Effect of Microstructure on the Wear Behavior of Heat Treated SS-304 Stainless Steel

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    S. Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sliding wear characteristics of some heat treated SS-304 stainless steel against EN-8 steel in dry condition have been studied in the present experimental work. Samples of SS-304 stainless steel have been heated in a muffle furnace in desired temperature and allowed to dwell for two hours. The heated specimen are then cooled in different media namely inside the furnace, open air, cutting grade oil (grade 44 and water at room temperature to obtain different grades of heat treatment. Microstructures and corresponding micro hardness of the samples have been measured along with Feritscopic studies. Wear characteristics have been studied in a multi tribo-tester (Ducom in dry sliding condition against EN-8 steel roller. Speed, load on job and duration of test run have been considered as the experimental parameters. The wear of the samples have been obtained directly from ‘Winducom 2006’ software. Mass loss of the samples before and after operation has also been considered as the measure of wear in the present study. All the samples have been slid against EN-8 steel roller with fixed experimental parameters. The data have been plotted, compared and analyzed. Effect of microstructures as well as micro hardness on the wear behavior has been studied and concluded accordingly.

  5. X-ray diffraction study on microstructures of shot/laser-peened AISI316 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Masayoshi, E-mail: mkumagai@tcu.ac.jp [Tokyo City University, Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering (Japan); Akita, Koichi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Itano, Yuta [Tokyo City University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan); Imafuku, Muneyuki; Ohya, Shin-ichi [Tokyo City University, Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Microstructural features of AISI316 stainless steels processed by shot peening (SP) and laser peening (LP) were studied using X-ray diffraction line profile analyses. Both specimens exhibited similar compressive residual stress profiles. Although the number of dislocations was increased and the crystallites were refined with both processes, the dislocation density in the SP specimen was significantly greater than that in the LP specimen. The crystallite size in the SP specimen was one-third that in the LP specimen. The SP process induced martensite transformation. The variations in the microstructural features differed between samples subjected to the two processes. The SP process resulted in a greater variation in the microstructural features in a sample in which residual stresses similar to that induced by the LP process were induced. Thus, the variations in the microstructural features differed depending on the deformation process.

  6. Influence o the microstructure of duplex stainless steels on their failure characteristics during hot deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis G.S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of duplex stainless steels were deformed by torsion at a temperature range of 900 to 1200 °C and strain rate of 1.0 s-1 and their final microstructures were observed. The austenite volume fraction of steel A (26.5Cr - 4.9Ni - 1.6Mo is approximately 25% at room temperature, after conventional annealing, while that of steel B (24Cr - 7.5Ni - 2.3Mo is around 55%. Experimental data show that steel A is ductile at high temperatures and displays low ductility at low temperatures, while steel B has low ductility in the entire range of temperatures studied. At high temperatures, steel A is essentially ferritic and shows dynamic recrystallized grains after deformation. When steel A is strained at low temperatures and displays low austenite volume fraction, microstructural observations indicate that failure is triggered by grain boundary sliding due to the formation of an austenite net structure at the ferrite grain boundaries. At intermediate volume fraction, when austenite forms a dispersed second-phase in steels A and B, failure begins at the ferrite/ferrite boundaries since some of the new ferrite grains may become immobilized by the austenite particles. When steel B is strained at volume fraction of around 50% of austenite and both phases percolate the microstructure, failure occurs after low straining as a consequence of the different plastic behaviors of each of the phases. The failure characteristics of both steels are correlated not only with the volume fraction of austenite but also with its distribution within the ferrite matrix, which limits attainable strain without failure.

  7. The Effects of Helium Bubble Microstructure on Ductility in Annealed and HERF 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosten, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Morgan, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the effects of microstructure on the ambient temperature embrittlement from hydrogen isotopes and decay helium in 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel. Hydrogen and tritium-exposed 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel tensile samples were pulled to failure and then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy. This study determined that ductility differences between annealed and high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) stainless steel containing tritium and its decay product, helium, could be related to differences in the helium bubble microstructures. The HERF microstructures were more resistant to tritium-induced embrittlement than annealed microstructures because the high number density of helium bubbles on dislocations trap tritium within the matrix and away from the grain boundaries.

  8. Effect of Stress Relief Annealing on Microstructure & Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints Between Low Alloy Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivas, R.; Das, G.; Das, S. K.; Mahato, B.; Kumar, S.; Sivaprasad, K.; Singh, P. K.; Ghosh, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two types of welded joints were prepared using low alloy carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel as base materials. In one variety, buttering material and weld metal were Inconel 82. In another type, buttering material and weld metal were Inconel 182. In case of Inconel 82, method of welding was GTAW. For Inconel 182, welding was done by SMAW technique. For one set of each joints after buttering, stress relief annealing was done at 923 K (650 °C) for 90 minutes before further joining with weld metal. Microstructural investigation and sub-size in situ tensile testing in scanning electron microscope were carried out for buttered-welded and buttered-stress relieved-welded specimens. Adjacent to fusion boundary, heat-affected zone of low alloy steel consisted of ferrite-pearlite phase combination. Immediately after fusion boundary in low alloy steel side, there was increase in matrix grain size. Same trend was observed in the region of austenitic stainless steel that was close to fusion boundary between weld metal-stainless steel. Close to interface between low alloy steel-buttering material, the region contained martensite, Type-I boundary and Type-II boundary. Peak hardness was obtained close to fusion boundary between low alloy steel and buttering material. In this respect, a minimum hardness was observed within buttering material. The peak hardness was shifted toward buttering material after stress relief annealing. During tensile testing no deformation occurred within low alloy steel and failure was completely through buttering material. Crack initiated near fusion boundary between low alloy steel-buttering material for welded specimens and the same shifted away from fusion boundary for stress relieved annealed specimens. This observation was at par with the characteristics of microhardness profile. In as welded condition, joints fabricated with Inconel 82 exhibited superior bond strength than the weld produced with Inconel 182. Stress relief annealing

  9. Correlation Between Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Before and After Reversion of Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargas, Gemma; Zapata, Ana; Roa, Joan Josep; Sapezanskaia, Ina; Mateo, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Reversion treatments are a way to improve the mechanical response of metastable austenitic stainless steels by means of grain refinement. To effectively apply those treatments, the steel must be previously deformed to induce a significant amount of martensitic transformation. In this work, the effect of reversion treatments was studied on a commercial AISI 301LN grade subjected to an industrial cold rolling process, with thickness reductions not higher than 40 pct. Microstructural changes and evolution of both monotonic and cyclic mechanical properties were investigated after cold rolling and upon reversion treatments. Results revealed that the finer austenitic microstructure obtained after reversion leads to an interesting combination of properties, with strong increments in hardness and yield strength, and also fatigue limit improvement, as compared to the initial annealed condition.

  10. Laser etching of austenitic stainless steels for micro-structural evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghra, Chetan; Kumar, Aniruddha; Sathe, D. B.; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Afzal, Mohd

    2015-06-01

    Etching is a key step in metallography to reveal microstructure of polished specimen under an optical microscope. A conventional technique for producing micro-structural contrast is chemical etching. As an alternate, laser etching is investigated since it does not involve use of corrosive reagents and it can be carried out without any physical contact with sample. Laser induced etching technique will be beneficial especially in nuclear industry where materials, being radioactive in nature, are handled inside a glove box. In this paper, experimental results of pulsed Nd-YAG laser based etching of few austenitic stainless steels such as SS 304, SS 316 LN and SS alloy D9 which are chosen as structural material for fabrication of various components of upcoming Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam India were reported. Laser etching was done by irradiating samples using nanosecond pulsed Nd-YAG laser beam which was transported into glass paneled glove box using optics. Experiments were carried out to understand effect of laser beam parameters such as wavelength, fluence, pulse repetition rate and number of exposures required for etching of austenitic stainless steel samples. Laser etching of PFBR fuel tube and plug welded joint was also carried to evaluate base metal grain size, depth of fusion at welded joint and heat affected zone in the base metal. Experimental results demonstrated that pulsed Nd-YAG laser etching is a fast and effortless technique which can be effectively employed for non-contact remote etching of austenitic stainless steels for micro-structural evaluation.

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 21-6-9 Stainless Steel Electron Beam Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Ellsworth, G. Fred; Florando, Jeffrey N.; Golosker, Ilya V.; Mulay, Rupalee P.

    2017-04-01

    Welds can either be stronger or weaker than the base metals that they join depending on the microstructures that form in the fusion and heat-affected zones of the weld. In this paper, weld strengthening in the fusion zone of annealed 21-6-9 stainless steel is investigated using cross-weld tensile samples, hardness testing, and microstructural characterization. Due to the stronger nature of the weld, the cross-weld tensile tests failed in the base metal and were not able to generate true fusion zone mechanical properties. Nanoindentation with a spherical indenter was instead used to predict the tensile behavior for the weld metal. Extrapolation of the nanoindentation results to higher strains was performed using the Steinberg-Guinan and Johnson-Cook strength models, and the results can be used for weld strength modeling purposes. The results illustrate how microstructural refinement and residual ferrite formation in the weld fusion zone can be an effective strengthener for 21-6-9 stainless steel.

  12. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Joints of Titanium with Stainless Steel Performed using Nickel Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwed B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion brazing was performed between titanium (Grade 2 and stainless steel (X5CrNi18-10 using as a filler a nickel foil at the temperatures of 850, 900, 950 and 1000°C. The microstructure was investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray system (EDS. The structure of the joints on the titanium side was composed of the eutectoid mixture αTi+Ti2Ni and layers of intermetallic phases Ti2Ni, TiNi and TiNi3. The stainless steel-nickel interface is free from any reaction layer at 850°C, above this temperature thin layer of reaction appears. The microhardness measured across the joints reaches higher values than for titanium and stainless steel, and it achieves value from 260 to 446 HV. The highest shear strength (214 MPa was achieved for joints brazed at 900°C.

  13. Effect of Molybdenum on the Microstructures and Properties of Stainless Steel Coatings by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiming Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel powders with different molybdenum (Mo contents were deposited on the substrate surface of 45 steel using a 6 kW fiber laser. The microstructure, phase, microhardness, wear properties, and corrosion resistance of coatings with different Mo contents were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, microhardness tester, wear tester, and electrochemical techniques. The results show that good metallurgical bonding was achieved between the stainless steel coating and the substrate. The amount of M7(C, B3 type borocarbide decreases and that of M2B and M23(C, B6 type borocarbides increases with the increase of Mo content in the coatings. The amount of martensite decreases, while the amount of ferrite gradually increases with the increase of Mo content. When the Mo content is 4.0 wt. %, Mo2C phase appears in the coating. The microstructure of the coating containing Mo is finer than that of the Mo-free coating. The microhardness decreases and the wear resistance of the coating gradually improves with the increase of Mo content. The wear resistance of the 6.0 wt. % Mo coating is about 3.7 times that of the Mo-free coating. With the increase of Mo content, the corrosion resistance of the coating firstly increases and then decreases. When the Mo content is 2.0 wt. %, the coating has the best corrosion resistance.

  14. Enhanced field emission from nanosecond laser based surface micro-structured stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.K., E-mail: anilks@barc.gov.in [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085< p/ostalC> (India); Shinde, Deodatta; More, Mahendra A. [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune 411007 (India); Sinha, Sucharita [Laser & Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085< p/ostalC> (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Stainless steel (SS) sheets have been surface treated using a frequency doubled nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at laser fluence level ∼0.7 J/cm{sup 2} resulting in formation of micro protrusions. • In regions near periphery of the laser treated spot showed formation of micro-protrusions with density as high as ∼4.5 × 10{sup 7} cones/cm{sup 2}. • Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of untreated and laser treated samples reveals trend in change of elemental composition of the sample on laser treatment. • Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis of untreated and laser treated samples shows formation of oxides and nitrides of iron upon laser treatment. • Field emission study on the laser micro-structured (SS) sample has shown low turn on field in comparison to untreated stainless steel. • Parameters characterizing large area field emitters such as turn ON field, macroscopic field enhancement factor and pre exponential factor corresponding to the laser micro-structured steel surface have been estimated. • Field emission current has shown good stability when tested over a period of 140 min at a preset level of 4 μA. - Abstract: This paper presents results of field emission study of laser based surface micro-structured stainless steel (SS). Surface micro-structuring of SS samples has been performed by direct irradiation of sample surface with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG nanosecond (ns) laser in atmospheric ambience. Laser treated samples have been characterized in terms of their surface morphology, elemental composition and field emission properties. Our results reveal formation of micro-protrusions of varying height and tip diameter depending on incident laser fluence. Within the laser irradiated spot, regions near periphery showed formation of micro-protrusions with number density as high as 4.5 × 10{sup 7} protrusions/cm{sup 2}. Such laser micro-structured samples have shown much lower turn on electric field (7.5 V

  15. Welding of nickel free high nitrogen stainless steel: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High nitrogen stainless steel (HNS is a nickel free austenitic stainless steel that is used as a structural component in defence applications for manufacturing battle tanks as a replacement of the existing armour grade steel owing to its low cost, excellent mechanical properties and better corrosion resistance. Conventional fusion welding causes problems like nitrogen desorption, solidification cracking in weld zone, liquation cracking in heat affected zone, nitrogen induced porosity and poor mechanical properties. The above problems can be overcome by proper selection and procedure of joining process. In the present work, an attempt has been made to correlate the microstructural changes with mechanical properties of fusion and solid state welds of high nitrogen steel. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW, electron beam welding (EBW and friction stir welding (FSW processes were used in the present work. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction were used to characterize microstructural changes. Hardness, tensile and bend tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of welds. The results of the present investigation established that fully austenitic dendritic structure was found in welds of SMAW. Reverted austenite pools in the martensite matrix in weld zone and unmixed zones near the fusion boundary were observed in GTA welds. Discontinuous ferrite network in austenite matrix was observed in electron beam welds. Fine recrystallized austenite grain structure was observed in the nugget zone of friction stir welds. Improved mechanical properties are obtained in friction stir welds when compared to fusion welds. This is attributed to the refined microstructure consisting of equiaxed and homogenous austenite grains.

  16. Methods for the In-Situ Characterization of Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramuhalli, P.; Good, M. S.; Harris, R. J.; Bond, L. J.; Ruud, C. O.; Diaz, A. A.; Anderson, M. T.

    2011-06-01

    Cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) that was commonly used in U.S. nuclear power plants is a coarse-grained, elastically anisotropic material. Its engineering properties made it a material of choice for selected designs of nuclear power reactor systems. However, the material manufacturing and fabrication processes result in a variety of coarse-grain microstructures that make current ultrasonic in-service inspection of components quite challenging. To address inspection needs, new ultrasonic inspection approaches are being sought. However, overcoming the deleterious and variable effects of the microstructure on the interrogating ultrasonic beam may require knowledge of the microstructure, for potential optimization of inspection parameters to enhance the probability of detection (POD). The ability to classify microstructure type (e.g. polycrystalline or columnar) has the potential to guide selection of optimal NDE approaches. This paper discusses the application of ultrasonic and electromagnetic methods for classifying CASS microstructures, when making measurements from the outside surface of the component. Results to date demonstrate the potential of these measurements to discriminate between two consistent microstructures—equiaxed-grain material versus columnar-grain material. The potential for fusion of ultrasonic and electromagnetic measurements for in-situ microstructure characterization in CASS materials will be explored.

  17. Development of analytical method for microstructure observation of oxide film on stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiko; Tsuji, Hirokazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development and research about analytical method for the study of oxide film on austenitic stainless steel had been conducted from the point of view for basic study of IASCC (Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking). Nickel plating and copper plating had been compared as the oxide film protection while the fabrication for cross sectional observation. And thin film specimens for microstructural observation were fabricated using FIB (Focused Ion Beam) technique. Microstructure of oxide film on stainless steel had been observed with FE-TEM (Field Emission gun - Transmission Electron Microscope), and the chemical composition was analyzed with EDS (Energy dispersed X-ray Spectrometer). The oxide film had been formed in high pressure (8 MPa) and high temperature (288degC) water, contains saturated oxygen. The thickness of oxide film was about 1 {mu}m as maximum. Micro grains of Fe oxide with 100 nm in diameter were formed in the oxide film. On the boundary with alloy, there was about 10 nm thickness of passive film formed with Cr oxide. (author)

  18. Microstructural observations of HFIR-irratiated austenitic stainless steels including welds from JP9-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawai, T.; Shiba, K.; Hishinuma, A.

    1996-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steels, including specimens taken from various electron beam (EB) welds, have been irradiated in HFIR Phase II capsules, JP9-16. Fifteen specimens irradiated at 300, 400, and 500{degrees}C up to 17 dpa are so far examined by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In 300{degrees}C irradiation, cavities were smaller than 2nm and different specimens showed little difference in cavity microstructure. At 400{degrees}C, cavity size was larger, but still very small (<8 nm). At 500{degrees}C, cavity size reached 30 nm in weld metal specimens of JPCA, while cold worked JPCA contained a small (<5 nm) cavities. Inhomogeneous microstructural evolution was clearly observed in weld-metal specimens irradiated at 500{degrees}C.

  19. Microstructure characteristics of high borated stainless steel fabricated by hot-pressing sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Mingjia, E-mail: mingjiawangysu@126.com; Zhao, Hongchang

    2016-04-25

    The present study investigated the microstructure of powder metallurgy (P/M) high borated stainless steel through hot-pressing sintering in a temperature range of 1000–1150 °C within 30 min under 30 MPa. Microstructure and phase examinations were carried out by applying scanning electron microscope, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results of as-atomized powders demonstrated that many powders kept egg-type structure with an austenite outer layer and the eutectic borides were much finer than those in traditional cast products. Microstructure studies revealed that borides suffered Ostwald ripening and were significantly influenced by the sintering temperature. Orientation maps indicated that the inter-particle contact areas consisted of equiaxed grains and the regions consisting of large elongated grains partly inherited the microstructure characteristics of as-atomized powder particles. Furthermore, the mechanisms governing the morphological changes in microstructure were discussed. - Highlights: • Near-complete densification could be obtained through hot-pressing sintering. • There was no phase transformation and present phases were M{sub 2}B and austenite. • Borides suffered Ostwald ripening and were significantly influenced by temperature. • Inter-particle contact areas consisted of equiaxed grains for recrystallization. • Deformation-free zones exhibited elongated grains for dendritic arms coarsening.

  20. Cryogenic treatments on AISI 420 stainless steel: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, G., E-mail: german.prieto@uns.edu.ar [Tribology Group, Universidad Nacional del Sur/CONICET, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Ipiña, J.E. Perez [GMF UNComa/CONICET, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquén (Argentina); Tuckart, W.R. [Tribology Group, Universidad Nacional del Sur/CONICET, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina)

    2014-05-01

    Cryogenic treatments have been employed over the last three decades in both tool and high-alloy steels to improve wear resistance, mainly through the transformation of retained austenite and the precipitation of fine carbides. The application of these treatments to low-alloy steels and even to non-ferrous materials is becoming the subject of several investigations, due to their potentiality to reduce wear. This study was aimed at analyzing the microstructural changes and the effect of cryogenic treatments on hardness and impact toughness in martensitic AISI 420 stainless steel. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed for phase analysis and characterization, while carbide volume fraction, size and composition evaluation was measured by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS). Hardness was assessed with Vickers technique and the impact toughness was measured by means of Charpy's V-notch tests. Fracture surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the fracture micromechanisms. In this study, it has been experimentally demonstrated that cryogenic treatments favors the precipitation of small carbides, which also present a more homogeneous size distribution. It was observed that this microstructural feature is responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties of the material.

  1. Microstructural evolution at the overlap zones of 12Cr martensitic stainless steel laser alloyed with TiC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyi, DI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available & Laser Technology Volume 61, September 2014, Pages 15–23 Microstructural evolution at the overlap zones of 12Cr martensitic stainless steel laser alloyed with TiC D.I. Adebiyi, A.P.I. Popoola, S.L. Pityana Multiple track laser alloying...

  2. Microstructural characterization of autogenous laser welds on 316L stainless steel using EBSD and EDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, J; Tyrer, J R; Higginson, R L; Thomson, R C

    2005-02-01

    This research is concerned with autogenous welding of 316L stainless steel and the microstructure generated by such a process. Autogenous welding does not require a filler material and in this case relies on an initial shallow melt phase to maintain a conduction limited weld. Essentially, a high power laser beam traverses the substrate, with the beam shaped by conventional optics, which produces a Gaussian irradiance distribution; or with a diffractive optical element, used to produce a uniform irradiance distribution. Initial results have shown that due to the nature of the heating cycle, complex microstructures are developed. These fine, complicated microstructures cannot be satisfactorily resolved and quantified using standard optical microscopy techniques. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) have been carried out on a number of different microstructures prepared using a range of welding parameters. It is demonstrated that the simultaneous determination of the chemistry and crystallography is a very useful tool for rapid identification of the different phases formed on solidification as a consequence of varying welding procedures.

  3. Microstructural and Surface Texture Analysis due to Machining in Super Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanad Alabdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inferior surface quality is a significant problem faced by machinist. The purpose of this study is to present a surface texture analysis undertaken as part of machinability assessment of Super Austenitic Stainless Steel alloy-AL6XN. The surface texture analysis includes measuring the surface roughness and investigating the microstructural behaviour of the machined surfaces. Eight milling trials were conducted using combination of cutting parameters under wet machining. An optical profilometer (noncontact was used to evaluate the surface texture at three positions. The surface texture was represented using the parameter, average surface roughness. Scanning Electron Microscope was utilised to inspect the machined surface microstructure and correlate the microstructure with the surface roughness. Results showed that maximum roughness values recorded at the three positions in the longitudinal direction (perpendicular to the machining grooves were 1.21 μm (trial 1, 1.63 μm (trial 6, and 1.68 μm (trial 7, respectively, whereas the roughness values were greatly reduced in the lateral direction. Also, results showed that the feed rate parameter significantly influences the roughness values compared to the other cutting parameters. The microstructure of the machined surfaces was distorted by the existence of cracks, deformed edges, and bands and wear deposition due to machining process.

  4. Microstructure characterization and corrosion testing of MAG pulsed duplex stainless steel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitelea, Ion; Utu, Ion Dragos; Urlan, Sorin Dumitru; Karancsi, Olimpiu [Politehnica Univ. Timisoara (Romania). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-08-01

    Duplex stainless steels are extremely attractive construction materials for their usage in intense aggressive environments. They offer numerous advantages compared to the austenitic stainless steels having an excellent behavior to pitting and cavernous corrosion, and a high resistance to stress cracking corrosion in chlorides media. However, their corrosion properties are largely dependent on the microstructural factors such as: the quantitative ratio of the two phases ferrite/austenite (F/A), the presence of intermetallic compounds and the distribution of the alloying elements between the ferrite and austenite. As a result of the thermal cycles experienced by the base metal without a post-weld heat treatment, the mechanical properties are significantly different in the heat affected zone and the deposited metal compared with the properties of the base metal. The present paper highlights the effect of the post-weld solution treatment in order to restore the balance between austenite and ferrite in the welded joint areas and also to limit undesirable precipitation of secondary phases with implications for increasing the corrosion resistance.

  5. Laser Rapid Manufacturing of Stainless Steel 316L/Inconel718 Functionally Graded Materials: Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patterns of functionally graded materials (FGMs were successfully fabricated whose compositions gradually varied from 100% stainless steel 316L to 100% Inconel718 superalloy using laser engineered net shaping process. The microstructure characterization, composition analysis, and microhardness along the graded direction were investigated. The comparison revealed the distinctions in solidification behavior, microstructure evolution of two patterns. In the end, the abrasive wear resistance of the material was investigated.

  6. Surface microstructures and antimicrobial properties of copper plasma alloyed stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Jiang, Li; Ma, Yong; Fan, Ailan; Tang, Bin

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces is one of the major reason causing the cross-contamination and infection in many practical applications. An approach to solve this problem is to enhance the antibacterial properties on the surface of stainless steel. In this paper, novel antibacterial stainless steel surfaces with different copper content have been prepared by a plasma surface alloying technique at various gas pressures. The microstructure of the alloyed surfaces was investigated using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The viability of bacteria attached to the antibacterial surfaces was tested using the spread plate method. The antibacterial mechanism of the alloyed surfaces was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that gas pressure has a great influence on the surface elements concentration and the depth of the alloyed layer. The maximum copper concentration in the alloyed surface obtained at the gas pressure of 60 Pa is about 7.1 wt.%. This alloyed surface exhibited very strong antibacterial ability, and an effective reduction of 98% of Escherichia coli (E. coli) within 1 h was achieved by contact with the alloyed surface. The maximum thickness of the copper alloyed layer obtained at 45 Pa is about 6.5 μm. Although the rate of reduction for E. coli of this alloyed surface was slower than that of the alloyed surface with the copper content about 7.1 wt.% over the first 3 h, few were able to survive more than 12 h and the reduction reached over 99.9%. The XPS analysis results indicated that the copper ions were released when the copper alloyed stainless steel in contact with bacterial solution, which is an important factor for killing bacteria. Based on an overall consideration of bacterial killing rate and durability, the alloyed surface with the copper content of 2.5 wt.% and the thickness of about 6.5 μm obtained at the gas pressure of 45 Pa is expected

  7. Influence of the austenitic stainless steel microstructure on the void swelling under ion irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouxel Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the role of different metallurgical parameters on the void formation mechanisms, various austenitic stainless steels were elaborated and irradiated with heavy ions. Two alloys, in several metallurgical conditions (15Cr/15Ni–Ti and 15Cr/25Ni–Ti, were irradiated in the JANNUS-Saclay facility at 600 °C with 2 MeV Fe2+ ions up to 150 dpa. Resulting microstructures were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. Different effects on void swelling are highlighted. Only the pre-aged samples, which were consequently solute and especially titanium depleted, show cavities. The nickel-enriched matrix shows more voids with a smaller size. Finally, the presence of nano-precipitates combined with a dense dislocation network decreases strongly the number of cavities.

  8. Effects of Heat Input on Microstructure, Corrosion and Mechanical Characteristics of Welded Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghusoon Ridha Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of input heat of different welding processes on the microstructure, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics of welded duplex stainless steel (DSS are reviewed. Austenitic stainless steel (ASS is welded using low-heat inputs. However, owing to differences in the physical metallurgy between ASS and DSS, low-heat inputs should be avoided for DSS. This review highlights the differences in solidification mode and transformation characteristics between ASS and DSS with regard to the heat input in welding processes. Specifically, many studies about the effects of heat energy input in welding process on the pitting corrosion, intergranular stress, stresscorrosion cracking, and mechanical properties of weldments of DSS are reviewed.

  9. Microstructure, Hardness, and Corrosion Behavior of TiC-Duplex Stainless Steel Composites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Shicheng; Chen, Hua; Ran, Xu

    2017-08-01

    Duplex stainless steel composites with various weight fractions of TiC particles are prepared by spark plasma sintering. Ferritic 434L and austenitic 316L stainless steel powders are premixed in a 50:50 weight ratio and added with 3-9 wt.% TiC. The compacts are sintered in the solid state under vacuum conditions at 1223 K for 5 min. The effects of TiC content on the microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel composites fabricated by powder metallurgy are evaluated. The results indicate that the TiC particulates as reinforcements can be distributed homogeneously in the steel matrix. Densification of sintered composites decreases with increasing TiC content. M23C6 carbide precipitates along grain boundary, and its neighboring Cr-Mo-depleted region is formed in the sintered microstructure, which can be eliminated subsequently with appropriate heat treatment. With the addition of TiC, the hardness of duplex stainless steel fabricated by powder metallurgy can be markedly enhanced despite increased porosity in the composites. However, TiC particles increase the corrosion rate and degrade the passivation capability, particularly for the composite with TiC content higher than 6 wt.%. Weakened metallurgical bonding in the composite with high TiC content provides the preferred sites for pitting nucleation and/or dissolution.

  10. Characterization of microstructure and texture across dissimilar super duplex/austenitic stainless steel weldment joint by austenitic filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eghlimi, Abbas, E-mail: a.eghlimi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamanian, Morteza [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eskandarian, Masoomeh [Department of Materials Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabolian, Azam [Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Szpunar, Jerzy A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture across an as-welded dissimilar UNS S32750 super duplex/UNS S30403 austenitic stainless steel joint welded by UNS S30986 (AWS A5.9 ER309LMo) austenitic stainless steel filler metal using gas tungsten arc welding process was evaluated by optical micrography and EBSD techniques. Due to their fabrication through rolling process, both parent metals had texture components resulted from deformation and recrystallization. The weld metal showed the highest amount of residual strain and had large austenite grain colonies of similar orientations with little amounts of skeletal ferrite, both oriented preferentially in the < 001 > direction with cub-on-cube orientation relationship. While the super duplex stainless steel's heat affected zone contained higher ferrite than its parent metal, an excessive grain growth was observed at the austenitic stainless steel's counterpart. At both heat affected zones, austenite underwent some recrystallization and formed twin boundaries which led to an increase in the fraction of high angle boundaries as compared with the respective base metals. These regions showed the least amount of residual strain and highest amount of recrystallized austenite grains. Due to the static recrystallization, the fraction of low degree of fit (Σ) coincident site lattice boundaries, especially Σ3 boundaries, was increased in the austenitic stainless steel heat affected zone, while the formation of subgrains in the ferrite phase increased the content of < 5° low angle boundaries at that of the super duplex stainless steel. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Extensive grain growth in the HAZ of austenitic stainless steel was observed. • Intensification of < 100 > orientated grains was observed adjacent to both fusion lines. • Annealing twins with Σ3 CSL boundaries were formed in the austenite of both HAZ. • Cub-on-cube OR was observed between austenite and ferrite in the weld

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of stainless steel/calcium silicate composites manufactured by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeng; Wang, Lianfeng; Jia, Min; Cheng, Lingyu; Yan, Biao

    2017-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is raised as one kind of additive manufacturing (AM) which is based on the discrete-stacking concept. This technique can fabricate advanced composites with desirable properties directly from 3D CAD data. In this research, 316L stainless steel (316L SS) and different fractions of calcium silicate (CaSiO3) composites (weight fractions of calcium silicate are 0%, 5%,10% and 15%, respectively) were prepared by SLM technique with a purpose to develop biomedical metallic materials. The relative density, tensile, microhardness and elastic modulus of the composites were tested, their microstructures and fracture morphologies were observed using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the addition of CaSiO3 particles influenced the microstructure and mechanical properties of specimens significantly. The CaSiO3 precipitates from the overlap of adjacent tracks and became the origin of the defects. The tensile strength of specimens range 320-722MPa. The microhardness and elastic modulus are around 250HV and 215GPa respectively. These composites were ductile materials and the fracture mode of the composites was mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture. The 316L SS/CaSiO3 composites can be a potential biomedical metallic materials in the medical field. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Rapid Tempering of Martensitic Stainless Steel AISI420: Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Khazaei, Bijan; Mollaahmadi, Akbar

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the effect of rapid tempering on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel has been investigated. At first, all test specimens were austenitized at 1050 °C for 1 h and tempered at 200 °C for 1 h. Then, the samples were rapidly reheated by a salt bath furnace in a temperature range from 300 to 1050 °C for 2 min and cooled in air. The tensile tests, impact, hardness and electrochemical corrosion were carried out on the reheated samples. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure and fracture surface. To investigate carbides, transmission electron microscopy and also scanning electron microscopy were used. X-ray diffraction was used for determination of the retained austenite. The results showed that the minimum properties such as the tensile strength, impact energy, hardness and corrosion resistance were obtained at reheating temperature of 700 °C. Semi-continuous carbides in the grain boundaries were seen in this temperature. Secondary hardening phenomenon was occurred at reheating temperature of 500 °C.

  13. Microstructural Study of 17-4PH Stainless Steel after Plasma-Transferred Arc Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dewei; Chen, Rui; Sun, Qi; Li, Xiaona

    2015-01-29

    The improvement of the surface qualities and surface hardening of precipitation hardened martensitic stainless steel 17-4PH was achieved by the plasma-transferred arc welding (PTAW) process deposited with Co-based alloy. The microstructure of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal were characterized by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that there are obvious microstructural differences between the base metal and HAZ. For example, base material is transformed from lath martensite to austenite due to the heateffect of the welding process. On the other hand, the precipitate in the matrix (bar-like shape Cr₇C₃ phase with a width of about one hundred nanometres and a length of hundreds of nanometres) grows to a rectangular appearance with a width of about two hundred nanometres and a length of about one micron. Stacking fault could also be observed in the Cr₇C₃ after PTAW. The above means that welding can obviously improve the surface qualities.

  14. Microstructural Study of 17-4PH Stainless Steel after Plasma-Transferred Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewei Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of the surface qualities and surface hardening of precipitation hardened martensitic stainless steel 17-4PH was achieved by the plasma-transferred arc welding (PTAW process deposited with Co-based alloy. The microstructure of the heat affected zone (HAZ and base metal were characterized by optical microscope (OM, scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The results show that there are obvious microstructural differences between the base metal and HAZ. For example, base material is transformed from lath martensite to austenite due to the heateffect of the welding process. On the other hand, the precipitate in the matrix (bar-like shape Cr7C3 phase with a width of about one hundred nanometres and a length of hundreds of nanometres grows to a rectangular appearance with a width of about two hundred nanometres and a length of about one micron. Stacking fault could also be observed in the Cr7C3 after PTAW. The above means that welding can obviously improve the surface qualities.

  15. Microstructure, corrosion and tribological and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu coated stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaomin; Gao, Lizhen; Liu, Erqiang; Yu, Feifei; Shu, Xuefeng; Wang, Hefeng

    2015-10-01

    A Ti-Cu coated layer on 316L stainless steel (SS) was obtained by using the Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (CFUBMS) system to improve antibacterial activity, corrosion and tribological properties. The microstructure and phase constituents of Ti-Cu coated layer were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES). The corrosion and tribological properties of a stainless steel substrate, SS316L, when coated with Ti-Cu were investigated in a simulated body fluid (SBF) environment. The viability of bacteria attached to the antibacterial surface was tested using the spread plate method. The results indicate that the Ti-Cu coated SS316L could achieve a higher corrosion polarization resistance and a more stable corrosion potential in an SBF environment than the uncoated SS316L substrate. The desirable corrosion protection performance of Ti-Cu may be attributable to the formation of a Ti-O passive layer on the coating surface, protecting the coating from further corrosion. The Ti-Cu coated SS316L also exhibited excellent wear resistance and chemical stability during the sliding tests against Si3N4 balls in SBF environment. Moreover, the Ti-Cu coatings exhibited excellent antibacterial abilities, where an effective reduction of 99.9% of Escherichia coli (E.coli) within 12h was achieved by contact with the modified surface, which was attributed to the release of copper ions when the Ti-Cu coatings are in contact with bacterial solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of microstructure on the microbial corrosión behaviour of stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno, Diego Alejandro

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Several stainless steels (Types UNS S30300, S30400, S30403, S31600, S31603 and S42000 with different microstructural characteristics have been used to study the influence of heat treatments on microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC. Biocorrosion and accelerated electrochemical testing was performed in various microbiological media. Two species of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB have been used in order to ascertain the influence of microstructure. The morphology of corrosion pits produced in both chloride and chloride plus sulphide -SRB metabolites- was inspected by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM complemented with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. Results have shown different behaviours regarding corrosion resistance in each case studied. Sensitized austenitic stainless steels were more affected by the presence of aggressive anions and pitting potential (Ep values were more cathodic than those of as-received state. A corrosion enhancement is produced by the synergistic action of biogenic sulphides and chloride anions. Pitting corrosion in martensitic stainless Steel Type UNS S42000 was found in a- biocorrosion test. The pitting morphology is correlated to the chemical composition, the microstructure and the electrolyte.

    Se han utilizado aceros inoxidables de los tipos UNS S30300, S30400, S30403, S31600, S31603 y S42000, en diferentes estados microestructurales, para estudiar la influencia de los tratamientos térmicos sobre la corrosión microbiana. Para ello, se han realizado ensayos electroquímicos y ensayos de biocorrosión, en diferentes medios microbiológicos, utilizándose dos especies de bacterias reductoras de sulfatos (SRB. La morfología de las picaduras, producidas en presencia de cloruros y en presencia de cloruros más sulfuros -metabolitos de SRB-, se ha analizado por microscopía óptica y por microscopía electrónica de barrido (SEM complementada con análisis por energía dispersiva de rayos X

  17. Characteristics of vacuum sintered stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Brytan; L.A. Dobrzański; M. Actis Grande; M. Rosso

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study duplex stainless steels were sintered in vacuum. using rapid cooling form the mixture of prealloyed and alloying element powders The purpose of this paper was to describe the obtained microstructures after sintering as well as the main mechanical properties of sintered stainless steels.Design/methodology/approach: In presented work duplex stainless steels were obtained through powder metallurgy starting from austenitic 316L or ferritic 410L prealloyed stainless s...

  18. Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification on the Residual Stress, Microstructure, and Corrosion Resistance of 304 Stainless Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang; Telang, Abhishek; Gill, Amrinder; Wen, Xingshuo; Mannava, Seetha R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) of 304 stainless steel welds was carried out. UNSM effectively eliminates the tensile stress generated during welding and imparts beneficial compressive residual stresses. In addition, UNSM can effectively refine the grains and increase hardness in the near-surface region. Corrosion tests in boiling MgCl2 solution demonstrate that UNSM can significantly improve the corrosion resistance due to the compressive residual stresses and changes in the near-surface microstructure.

  19. Effect of Microstructure on the Localized Corrosion of Fe-Cr-Mn-N Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Park, Y.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University (Korea); Kim, Y.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Andong National University (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    This paper dealt with the effect of microstructure on the localized corrosion of Fe-Cr-Mn-N stainless steels. The experimental alloys were made by vacuum induction melting and then hot rolled. The alloys were designed by controlling Creq/Nieq ratio. Two alloys had austenitic phase and one alloy showed (austenite + ferrite) duplex phase. High nitrogen addition in austenitic alloys stabilized the austenitic structure and then suppressed the formations of ferrite and a' martensite, but martensite was formed in the case of large Creq/Nieq ratio and low nitrogen addition. Pitting initiation site was grain boundary in austenitic alloys and was ferrite / austenite phase boundary in duplex alloy in the HCl solution. In sulfuric acids, austenitic alloys showed uniform corrosion, but ferrite phase was preferentially corroded in duplex alloy. The preferential dissolution seems to be related with the distribution of alloying elements between ferrite and austenite. Intergranular corrosion test showed that corrosion rate by immersion Huey test had a linear relation with degree of sensitization by EPR test. 22 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  20. Reactive sintering and microstructure development of tungsten carbide-AISI 304 stainless steel cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, C.M. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CEMUC-Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Oliveira, F.J. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Senos, A.M.R., E-mail: anamor@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2017-06-01

    Sintering of WC-stainless steel (SS) composites within a typical binder range from 6 up to 15 wt% SS was investigated through constant heating rate dilatometry, in vacuum conditions, complemented by differential thermal analysis and by the study of the high temperature wetting behavior of SS on WC. The densification starts ∼900 °C with a typical densification curve for all compositions, where three distinct regions are discernible: the first one with a slow densification rate, followed by a second region where a sharp increase in the densification rate up to a maximum value dependent on the binder amount is observed and, finally, a third one with a slowdown of the densification rate until the end of the thermal cycle. The attained final density at 1450 °C is dependent on the binder amount, increasing proportionally to its initial content. The final microstructure presents a normal grain size distribution and appreciable amounts of eta-phase, besides the major WC phase and residual iron rich phase. The reactive densification behavior and the role of the liquid phase are interpreted accordingly with structural and kinetic data. - Highlights: • Sintering of WC-AISI304 composites starts ∼900 °C and involves three stages. • Densification is largely dominated by a reactive liquid phase sintering process. • Eta-phase constitutes a transient liquid phase during sintering. • Sintering cycles are dependent on the initial binder content.

  1. Evolutions of Microstructure and Properties During Cold Rolling of 19Cr Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Qingxuan; Xu, Wanjian; Wu, Zhaoyu; Li, Jun; Xu, Yulai; Xiao, Xueshan; Hu, Jincheng; Jiang, Laizhu

    2016-10-01

    Evolutions of microstructure, mechanical, and corrosion properties of 19Cr (Fe-18.9Cr-10.1Mn-0.3Ni-0.261N-0.030C-0.5Si) duplex stainless steel have been investigated during cold rolling at room temperature. Dislocation slip dominated deformation mode of ferrite phase. However, deformation mechanism of austenite phase was different with the increasing cold-rolling reductions. Dislocation slip and strengthening effect of twin boundaries caused pile-up phenomenon at the initial deformation stage. When the amount of cold-rolling reduction attained greater than 50 pct, induced α'-martensite appeared in deformed austenite phase. Hardness of austenite phase was higher than that of the deformed ferrite because of its higher strengthening effect during cold-rolling process. Cold-rolling deformation caused deterioration of the pitting corrosion resistance in 3.5 wt pct NaCl aqueous solution. Pitting corrosion always initiated in the ferrite phase and the phase boundary in the solution-treated alloy. Additional pitting holes appeared in deformed austenite phase because of the decrease in corrosion resistance caused by dislocation accumulation and induced α'-martensite.

  2. Effects of W on microstructure and high-temperature oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steel weldment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yijie; Xie, Yuye; Zhu, Shuangchun; Yan, Biao

    2017-07-01

    With the promotion of fuel economy policy and automobile lightweight concept, ferritic stainless steels applied in vehicles’ exhaust hot end systems have been developed. This paper simulated the high-temperature environment at which the automobile exhaust system serviced in for high-temperature corrosion. Kinetic curves were conducted in isothermal environments at 1000∘C. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer were used to study the oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steels and the effects of tungsten (W) addition. The results show that, with increasing oxidation time, the rate of weight gains increase and the main failure is spalling of surface oxide layer. The addition of W has a complicated effect on the oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steel weldment.

  3. Microstructural characterization and electron backscatter diffraction analysis across the welded interface of duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Xu, Lianyong, E-mail: xulianyong@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Han, Yongdian; Gao, Zhanqi; Zhao, Lei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhang, Jianli [Welding laboratory, Offshore Oil Engineering (Qing Dao) Company, Qing Dao 266520 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Apparent change in LTHAZ was the intergranular secondary austenite precipitation. • Ferrite in HAZ maintained same distribution as ferrite texture in base metal. • Different austenite in different zones showed different orientation with ferrite. • Ferrite and austenite grains exhibited different boundary characteristics. • Local deformations were generated in grain boundary and within deformed grain. - Abstract: The microstructural evolution, orientation relationships, boundary characteristics, grain type, local deformation, and microhardness across the welded interface of duplex stainless steel (DSS) were investigated. The DSS welded joint consisted of four typical zones: base metal (BM), low-temperature heat-affected zone (LTHAZ), high-temperature heat-affected zone (HTHAZ), and weld metal (WM). The apparent microstructural changes in the HTHAZ and LTHAZ were secondary austenite and Cr{sub 2}N precipitation. A modified cooperative precipitation mechanism of secondary austenite and Cr{sub 2}N at the interface was proposed. Furthermore, the ferrite in both the HTHAZ and LTHAZ maintained the same distribution as the ferrite texture in the BM, while this ferrite texture disappeared completely in the WM. Different austenite grains in the different zones exhibited different orientation relationships with the ferrite matrix. Special grain boundaries were mainly distributed between the austenite grains, while the ferrite grains primarily contained random grain boundaries. Austenite twins constituted the largest proportion of the special boundaries. The special austenite grain boundaries in the BM and LTHAZ were higher in relative frequency than those in the HTHAZ and WM. The ferrite grains in the HTHAZ and WM mainly consisted of substructured grains. In the BM, the recrystallization degree of ferrite was significantly lower than that of austenite grains. The local deformations were mainly generated in the grain boundaries and within the deformed

  4. Influence of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welding joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang; Xu, Lianyong; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Jianli

    2017-02-01

    The influences of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel joints welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with different shielding gas compositions were studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization methods The adding 2% N2 in shielding gas facilitated primary austenite formation in GTAW weld metal (WM) and suppressed Cr2N precipitation in GTAW weld root. In the HAZ, the banded microstructure disappeared while the coarse ferrite grains maintained same orientation as the banded ferrite in the BM. In the WM, the ferrite had one single orientation throughout a grain, whereas several families of austenite appeared. The austenite both in BM and WM enriched in Ni and nitro`gen, while Cr and Mo were concentrated in the ferrite and thus no element showed clear dendritic distribution in the WM (ER2209 and E2209T1). In addition, the secondary austenite had higher Ni content but lower Cr and Mo content than the primary austenite. The N2-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the primary and secondary austenite. Furthermore, the secondary austenite had relatively lower pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) than the ferrite and primary austenite, thereby resulting in its preferential corrosion. The Cr2N precipitation led to relatively poor resistance to pitting corrosion in three HAZs and pure Ar shielding GTAW weld root. The N2-supplemented shielding gas improved pitting corrosion resistance of GTAW joint by increasing PREN of secondary austenite and suppressing Cr2N precipitation. In addition, the FCAW WM had much poorer resistance to pitting corrosion than the GTAW WM due to many O-Ti-Si-Mn inclusions. In the BM, since the austenite with lower PREN compared

  5. Friction Welding For Cladding Applications: Processing, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inertia Friction Welds of Stainless Steel to Low Carbon Steel and Evaluation of Wrought and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steels for Cladding Applications in Acidchloride Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzner, Nathan

    Friction welding, a solid-state joining method, is presented as a novel alternative process step for lining mild steel pipe and forged components internally with a corrosion resistant (CR) metal alloy for petrochemical applications. Currently, fusion welding is commonly used for stainless steel overlay cladding, but this method is costly, time-consuming, and can lead to disbonding in service due to a hard martensite layer that forms at the interface due to partial mixing at the interface between the stainless steel CR metal and the mild steel base. Firstly, the process parameter space was explored for inertia friction butt welding using AISI type 304L stainless steel and AISI 1018 steel to determine the microstructure and mechanical properties effects. A conceptual model for heat flux density versus radial location at the faying surface was developed with consideration for non-uniform pressure distribution due to frictional forces. An existing 1 D analytical model for longitudinal transient temperature distribution was modified for the dissimilar metals case and to account for material lost to the flash. Microstructural results from the experimental dissimilar friction welds of 304L stainless steel to 1018 steel were used to discuss model validity. Secondly, the microstructure and mechanical property implications were considered for replacing the current fusion weld cladding processes with friction welding. The nominal friction weld exhibited a smaller heat softened zone in the 1018 steel than the fusion cladding. As determined by longitudinal tensile tests across the bond line, the nominal friction weld had higher strength, but lower apparent ductility, than the fusion welds due to the geometric requirements for neck formation adjacent to a rigid interface. Martensite was identified at the dissimilar friction weld interface, but the thickness was smaller than that of the fusion welds, and the morphology was discontinuous due to formation by a mechanism of solid

  6. Effect of Turning and Ball Burnishing on the Microstructure and Residual Stress Distribution in Stainless Steel Cold Spray Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, A.; Courbon, C.; Valiorgue, F.; Rech, J.; Bertrand, Ph.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of influence of machining by turning and ball burnishing on the surface morphology, structure and residual stress distribution of cold spray 17-4 PH stainless steel deposits is provided. It is shown that cold spray deposits could be machined by turning under parameters closed to turning of bulk 17-4 PH stainless steel. Ball burnishing process permits to decrease surface roughness. Cross-sectional observation revealed that the turning and ball burnishing process allowed microstructure changes in the coating near-surface zone. In particular, significant particle deformation and particle boundary fragmentation is observed. Measurements of residual stresses showed that residual stresses in the as-spray deposit are compressive. After machining by turning, tensile residual stresses in the near-surface zone were induced. Further surface finishing of turned coating by ball burnishing allowed the establishment of the compressive residual stresses in the coating.

  7. Effect of Turning and Ball Burnishing on the Microstructure and Residual Stress Distribution in Stainless Steel Cold Spray Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, A.; Courbon, C.; Valiorgue, F.; Rech, J.; Bertrand, Ph.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of influence of machining by turning and ball burnishing on the surface morphology, structure and residual stress distribution of cold spray 17-4 PH stainless steel deposits is provided. It is shown that cold spray deposits could be machined by turning under parameters closed to turning of bulk 17-4 PH stainless steel. Ball burnishing process permits to decrease surface roughness. Cross-sectional observation revealed that the turning and ball burnishing process allowed microstructure changes in the coating near-surface zone. In particular, significant particle deformation and particle boundary fragmentation is observed. Measurements of residual stresses showed that residual stresses in the as-spray deposit are compressive. After machining by turning, tensile residual stresses in the near-surface zone were induced. Further surface finishing of turned coating by ball burnishing allowed the establishment of the compressive residual stresses in the coating.

  8. Additive Manufacturing of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel: Post-processing Heat Treatment to Achieve Uniform Reproducible Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvathur, Sudha; Lass, Eric A.; Campbell, Carelyn E.

    2016-03-01

    17-4 precipitation hardenable (PH) stainless steel is a useful material when a combination of high strength and good corrosion resistance up to about 315°C is required. In the wrought form, this steel has a fully martensitic structure that can be strengthened by precipitation of fine Cu-rich face-centered cubic phase upon aging. When fabricated via additive manufacturing (AM), specifically laser powder-bed fusion, 17-4 PH steel exhibits a dendritic structure containing a substantial fraction of nearly 50% of retained austenite along with body centered cubic/martensite and fine niobium carbides preferentially aligned along interdendritic boundaries. The effect of post-build thermal processing on the material microstructure is studied in comparison to that of conventionally produced wrought 17-4 PH with the intention of creating a more uniform, fully martensitic microstructure. The recommended stress relief heat treatment currently employed in industry for post-processing of AM 17-4 PH steel is found to have little effect on the as-built dendritic microstructure. It is found that, by implementing the recommended homogenization heat treatment regimen of Aerospace Materials Specification 5355 for CB7Cu-1, a casting alloy analog to 17-4 PH, the dendritic solidification structure is eliminated, resulting in a microstructure containing about 90% martensite with 10% retained austenite.

  9. Detailed Microstructural Characterization and Restoration Mechanisms of Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steel Friction-Stir-Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T. F. A.; Torres, E. A.; Lippold, J. C.; Ramirez, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Duplex stainless steels are successfully used in a wide variety of applications in areas such as the food industry, petrochemical installations, and sea water desalination plants, where high corrosion resistance and high mechanical strength are required. However, during fusion welding operations, there can be changes to the favorable microstructure of these materials that compromise their performance. Friction stir welding with a non-consumable pin enables welded joints to be obtained in the solid state, which avoids typical problems associated with solidification of the molten pool, such as segregation of alloying elements and the formation of solidification and liquefaction cracks. In the case of superduplex stainless steels, use of the technique can avoid unbalanced proportions of ferrite and austenite, formation of deleterious second phases, or growth of ferritic grains in the heat-affected zone. Consolidated joints with full penetration were obtained for 6-mm-thick plates of UNS S32101 and S32205 duplex stainless steels, and S32750 and S32760 superduplex steels. The welding heat cycles employed avoided the conditions required for formation of deleterious phases, except in the case of the welded joint of the S32760 steel, where SEM images indicated the formation of secondary phases, as corroborated by decreased mechanical performance. Analysis using EBSD and transmission electron microscopy revealed continuous dynamic recrystallization by the formation of cellular arrays of dislocations in the ferrite and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization in the austenite. Microtexture evaluation indicated the presence of fibers typical of shear in the thermomechanically affected zone. These fibers were not obviously present in the stir zone, probably due to the intensity of microstructural reformulation to which this region was subjected.

  10. Assessment of elemental composition, microstructure, and hardness of stainless steel endodontic files and reamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabara, Myrsini; Bourithis, Lefteris; Zinelis, Spiros; Papadimitriou, George D

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the elemental composition, microstructure, and hardness of commercially available reamers, K files, and H files. Five instruments of each type from different manufacturers (Antaeos, FKG, Maillefer, Mani, and Micromega) were embedded in epoxy resin along their longitudinal axis. After metallographic grinding and polishing, the specimens were chemically etched and their microstructure investigated under an incident light microscope. The specimens were studied under a scanning electron microscope, and their elemental compositions were determined by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The same surfaces were repolished and X-ray diffraction was performed. The same specimen surface was used for the assessment of the Vickers hardness (HV200) by using a microhardness tester with a 200-g load and 20-s contact time. The hardness results were statistically analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a = 0.05). All files demonstrated extensively elongated grains parallel to longitudinal file axis because of cold drawing. The elemental composition of Maillefer and Mani reamers, Antaeos K files, and Mani H files were found in the range of AISI 303 SS, whereas all the rest were determined as AISI 304 SS. Two different phases (austenite SSt and martensite SSt) were identified with X-ray diffraction for all files tested. The results of hardness classified reamers in the following decreasing order (HMV200): Micromega = 673 +/- 29, Mani = 662 +/- 24, Maillefer = 601 +/- 34, Antaeos = 586 +/- 18, FKG = 557 +/- 19, and the K files (HV200): FKG = 673 +/- 16, Mani = 647 +/- 19, Maillefer = 603 +/- 41, Antaeos = 566 +/- 21, Micromega = 555 +/- 15, and the H files (HMV200): Mani = 640 +/- 12, FKG = 583 +/- 31, Maillefer = 581 +/- 5, Antaeos = 573 +/- 3, Micromega = 546 +/- 14. Although only two stainless steel alloys were used for the production of endodontic files, the differences in hardness are independent to the alloys used, implying that

  11. Influence of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel welding joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Xu, Lianyong, E-mail: xulianyong@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, Tianjin 300350 (China); Zhang, Jianli [Welding laboratory, Offshore Oil Engineering (Qing Dao) Company, Qing Dao 266520 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • N{sub 2}-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the austenite. • Secondary austenite had higher Ni but lower Cr and Mo than primary austenite. • Pitting corrosion preferentially occurred at secondary austenite and Cr{sub 2}N. • Adding N{sub 2} in shielding gas improved pitting corrosion resistance of GTAW joint. • E2209T{sub 1} weld metal had very poor pitting corrosion resistance due to inclusions. - Abstract: The influences of microstructure and elemental partitioning on pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel joints welded by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with different shielding gas compositions were studied by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization methods The adding 2% N{sub 2} in shielding gas facilitated primary austenite formation in GTAW weld metal (WM) and suppressed Cr{sub 2}N precipitation in GTAW weld root. In the HAZ, the banded microstructure disappeared while the coarse ferrite grains maintained same orientation as the banded ferrite in the BM. In the WM, the ferrite had one single orientation throughout a grain, whereas several families of austenite appeared. The austenite both in BM and WM enriched in Ni and nitrogen, while Cr and Mo were concentrated in the ferrite and thus no element showed clear dendritic distribution in the WM (ER2209 and E2209T{sub 1}). In addition, the secondary austenite had higher Ni content but lower Cr and Mo content than the primary austenite. The N{sub 2}-supplemented shielding gas promoted nitrogen solid-solution in the primary and secondary austenite. Furthermore, the secondary austenite had relatively lower pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) than the ferrite and primary austenite, thereby resulting in its preferential

  12. Classification of Induced Magnetic Field Signals for the Microstructural Characterization of Sigma Phase in Duplex Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard M. Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels present excellent mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. However, when heat treated at temperatures above 600 ∘ C, the undesirable tertiary sigma phase is formed. This phase presents high hardness, around 900 HV, and it is rich in chromium, the material toughness being compromised when the amount of this phase is not less than 4%. This work aimed to develop a solution for the detection of this phase in duplex stainless steels through the computational classification of induced magnetic field signals. The proposed solution is based on an Optimum Path Forest classifier, which was revealed to be more robust and effective than Bayes, Artificial Neural Network and Support Vector Machine based classifiers. The induced magnetic field was produced by the interaction between an applied external field and the microstructure. Samples of the 2205 duplex stainless steel were thermal aged in order to obtain different amounts of sigma phases (up to 18% in content. The obtained classification results were compared against the ones obtained by Charpy impact energy test, amount of sigma phase, and analysis of the fracture surface by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The proposed solution achieved a classification accuracy superior to 95% and was revealed to be robust to signal noise, being therefore a valid testing tool to be used in this domain.

  13. Femtosecond laser fabrication of highly hydrophobic stainless steel surface with hierarchical structures fabricated by combining ordered microstructures and LIPSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Calderon, M., E-mail: mmcalderon@ceit.es [CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain); Rodríguez, A.; Dias-Ponte, A.; Morant-Miñana, M.C.; Gómez-Aranzadi, M.; Olaizola, S.M. [CEIT-IK4 & Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo Manuel Lardizábal 15, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9 Polo Innovación Garaia, 20500 Arrasate-Mondragón (Spain)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Femtosecond laser treatment to achieve highly hydrophobic behavior on stainless steel. • Combination of micro-machined patterns with LIPSS into hierarchical structures. • Contact angles as high as 156° with only the femtosecond laser irradiation. - Abstract: In this work we have developed hierarchical structures that consist of micro-patterned surfaces covered by nanostructures with a femtosecond laser. The first part of this work is a study to determine the microscale modifications produced on a stainless steel alloy (AISI304) surface at high pulse energy, different velocities, and number of overscans in order to obtain microstructures with a selected depth of around 10 μm and line widths of 20 μm. The second part of the work is focused on finding the optimal irradiation parameters to obtain the nanostructure pattern. Nanostructures have been defined by means of Laser Induced Periodical Surface Structures (LIPSS) around 250 nm high and a period of 580 nm, which constitute the nanostructure pattern. Finally, dual scale gratings of 50 mm{sup 2} were fabricated with different geometries and their effect on the measured contact angle. Combining the micro-pattern with the LIPSS nano-pattern, highly hydrophobic surfaces have been developed with measured static contact angles higher than 150° on a stainless steel alloy.

  14. Hardness and microstructural studies of electron beam welded joints of Zircaloy-4 and stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M.; Akhter, J.I. E-mail: jiakhter@yahoo.comakhterji@hotmail.com; Shaikh, M.A.; Akhtar, M.; Iqbal, M.; Chaudhry, M.A

    2002-03-01

    Electron beam welded joints between Zircaloy-4 and stainless steel 304L are investigated due to their importance in the nuclear industry. The molten and heat affected zones (HAZs) are found to be free of defects. Diffusion of Fe, Cr and Ni is observed in Zircaloy-4 near the molten zone and of Zr and Sn in the stainless steel. A rod-shaped intermetallic compound Zr(Cr,Fe){sub 2} and eutectic phases ZrCr{sub 2}-liquid (Zr,Fe) and Zr{sub 2}Fe-Zr{sub 2}Ni are present in the molten zone. The hardness of the molten zone, containing Zr(Cr,Fe){sub 2,} is much higher than the rest of the molten zone and the HAZs.

  15. Effect of nitrogen addition on microstructure and erosion-corrosion behavior of stainless steel in acidic slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ping; Cai Qizhou; Wei Bo kang

    2009-01-01

    Effect of nitrogen content on the microstructure and erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of stainless steel (containing about 25%Cr, 5%–6%Ni, and 1%–2%Mo) was investigated by using optical microscope(OM),potentiodynamic polarization curve and immersion method, a self-made rotating disk apparatus and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and so on. The results show that with the increase of nitrogen content from 0 (no adding) to 0.485 wt.%, the Creq/Nieq ratio of the tested materials decreases from ...

  16. Effects of laser power on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel prepared by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeng; Wang, Lianfeng; Yan, Biao

    2017-07-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) was used to prepare 316L stainless steel parts and the effects of laser power on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the final products were studied. With increasing applied laser power, the defects of as-built parts were reduced greatly and the as-built parts presented a highest relative density of 99.1%. The tensile strength of samples was significantly improved from 321 ± 10 MPa to 722 ± 10 MPa. The microhardness was homogeneous; the residual stresses in the samples were tensile, which were higher in the section perpendicular to the laser scanning strategy. The probable reasons for this phenomenon were proposed.

  17. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of multiple-layer laser cladding coating of 308L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaibin; Li, Dong; Liu, Dongyu; Pei, Guangyu; Sun, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Multiple-layer laser cladding of 308L stainless steel was obtained by a fiber laser using a way of wire feeding to repair the surface scrapped or erosive parts of 316L stainless steel. The microstructure of the coating was measured by a metallographic microscope, and phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. The results show that good metallurgical bonding can be obtained between the 308L stainless steel coating and 316L stainless steel substrate. The coating is mainly composed of columnar dendrites, and there are also a few planar crystals and cellular dendrites distributed in the bonding zone. Meanwhile, some equiaxed grains and steering dendrites are distributed in the apex of the coating. Grains incorporate in epitaxial columnar dendrite's growth between different layers and tracks. It has been proved using XRD that the coating basically consists of austenite and a small amount of δ ferrite. The coating solidifies in FA mode according to the Creq/Nieq ratio and metallurgical analysis results. The average content of δ ferrite is about 10.48% and morphologies of the ferrite are mostly vermicular, skeletal and lathy. Due to heat treatment and different cooling rate, the δ ferrite content generally increases as the number of laser cladding layers increases. The coating and the substrate have equivalent microhardness, and softening zone does not appear in the heat affected zone. The tensile strength and elongation of the coating are 548 MPa and 40%, about 86% and 74% of the substrate, respectively. Ductile fracture is proved by the emergence of obvious dimples in the fracture surface.

  18. Synergistic Computational and Microstructural Design of Next- Generation High-Temperature Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaman, Ibrahim [Texas A& M Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States); Arroyave, Raymundo [Texas A& M Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to: 1) study deformation twinning, its evolution, thermal stability, and the contribution on mechanical response of the new advanced stainless steels, especially at elevated temperatures; 2) study alumina-scale formation on the surface, as an alternative for conventional chromium oxide, that shows better oxidation resistance, through alloy design; and 3) design new generation of high temperature stainless steels that form alumina scale and have thermally stable nano-twins. The work involved few baseline alloys for investigating the twin formation under tensile loading, thermal stability of these twins, and the role of deformation twins on the mechanical response of the alloys. These baseline alloys included Hadfield Steel (Fe-13Mn-1C), 316, 316L and 316N stainless steels. Another baseline alloy was studied for alumina-scale formation investigations. Hadfield steel showed twinning but undesired second phases formed at higher temperatures. 316N stainless steel did not show signs of deformation twinning. Conventional 316 stainless steel demonstrated extensive deformation twinning at room temperature. Investigations on this alloy, both in single crystalline and polycrystalline forms, showed that deformation twins evolve in a hierarchical manner, consisting of micron–sized bundles of nano-twins. The width of nano-twins stays almost constant as the extent of strain increases, but the width and number of the bundles increase with increasing strain. A systematic thermomechanical cycling study showed that the twins were stable at temperatures as high as 900°C, after the dislocations are annealed out. Using such cycles, volume fraction of the thermally stable deformation twins were increased up to 40% in 316 stainless steel. Using computational thermodynamics and kinetics calculations, we designed two generations of advanced austenitic stainless steels. In the first generation, Alloy 1, which had been proposed as an alumina

  19. Cracking behavior and microstructure of austenitic stainless steels and alloy 690 irradiated in BOR-60 reactor, phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Chopra, O. K.; Soppet, W. K.; Shack, W. J.; Yang, Y.; Allen, T. R.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison

    2010-02-16

    Cracking behavior of stainless steels specimens irradiated in the BOR-60 at about 320 C is studied. The primary objective of this research is to improve the mechanistic understanding of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of core internal components under conditions relevant to pressurized water reactors. The current report covers several baseline tests in air, a comparison study in high-dissolved-oxygen environment, and TEM characterization of irradiation defect structure. Slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests were conducted in air and in high-dissolved-oxygen (DO) water with selected 5- and 10-dpa specimens. The results in high-DO water were compared with those from earlier tests with identical materials irradiated in the Halden reactor to a similar dose. The SSRT tests produced similar results among different materials irradiated in the Halden and BOR-60 reactors. However, the post-irradiation strength for the BOR-60 specimens was consistently lower than that of the corresponding Halden specimens. The elongation of the BOR-60 specimens was also greater than that of their Halden specimens. Intergranular cracking in high-DO water was consistent for most of the tested materials in the Halden and BOR-60 irradiations. Nonetheless, the BOR-60 irradiation was somewhat less effective in stimulating IG fracture among the tested materials. Microstructural characterization was also carried out using transmission electron microscopy on selected BOR-60 specimens irradiated to {approx}25 dpa. No voids were observed in irradiated austenitic stainless steels and cast stainless steels, while a few voids were found in base and grain-boundary-engineered Alloy 690. All the irradiated microstructures were dominated by a high density of Frank loops, which varied in mean size and density for different alloys.

  20. Effect of Microstructure on Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabanowski Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the research on impact of microstructure of austenitic-ferritic steel of duplex type on its mechanical properties and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. As showed, improper processing technologies more and more often used in shipbuilding industry for plates and other half-finished products made of duplex steel may cause significant lowering their properties, which frequently makes their replacing necessary. Results of the tests on stress corrosion under tension with low strain rate (SSRT conducted in an inert and corrosion (boiling magnesium chloride environment, are presented. It was proved that even minor structural transformations taking place in 500°C ageing temperature lower corrosion resistance of the steel. Structural transformations occurring in 700°C temperature to a smaller extent influence susceptibility to stress corrosion of the steel, however they cause drastic drop in its plasticity.

  1. Study on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 304 Stainless Steel Joints by Tig-Mig Hybrid Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundimu, Emmanuel O.; Akinlabi, Esther T.; Erinosho, Mutiu F.

    Stainless steel is a family of Fe-based alloys having excellent resistance to corrosion and as such has been used imperatively for kitchen utensils, transportation, building constructions and much more. This paper presents the work conducted on the material characterizations of a tungsten inert gas (TIG)-metal inert gas (MIG) hybrid welded joint of type 304 austenitic stainless steel. The welding processes were conducted in three phases. The phases of welding employed are MIG welding using a current of 170A, TIG welding using a current of 190A, and a hybrid TIG-MIG welding with currents of 190/170A, respectively. The MIG, TIG, and hybrid TIG-MIG weldments were characterized with incomplete penetration, full penetration and excess penetration of weld. Intergranular austenite was created toward transition and heat affected zones. The thickness of the delta ferrite (δ-Fe) formed in the microstructures of the TIG weld is more than the thickness emerged in the microstructures of MIG and hybrid TIG-MIG welds. A TIG-MIG hybrid weld of specimen welded at the currents of 190/170A has the highest ultimate tensile strength value and percentage elongation of 397.72MPa and 35.7%. The TIG-MIG hybrid welding can be recommended for high-tech industrial applications such as nuclear, aircraft, food processing, and automobile industry.

  2. Heat input effect on the microstructural transformation and mechanical properties in GTAW welds of a 409L ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J. A.; Ambriz, R. R.; Cuenca-Alvarez, R.; Alatorre, N.; Curiel, F. F.

    2016-10-01

    Welds without filler metal and welds using a conventional austenitic stainless steel filler metal (ER308L) were performed to join a ferritic stainless steel with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process (GTAW). Welding parameters were adjusted to obtain three different heat input values. Microstructure reveals the presence of coarse ferritic matrix and martensite laths in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). Dilution between filler and base metal was correlated with the presence of austenite, martensite and ferrite in the weld metal. Weld thermal cycles were measured to correlate the microstructural transformation in the HAZ. Microhardness measurements (maps and profiles) allow to identify the different zones of the welded joints (weld metal, HAZ, and base metal). Comparing the base metal with the weld metal and the HAZ, a hardness increment (∼172 HV{sub 0}.5 to ∼350 HV{sub 0}.5 and ∼310 HV{sub 0}.5, respectively) was observed, which has been attributed to the martensite formation. Tensile strength of the welded joints without filler metal increased moderately with respect to base metal. In contrast, ductility was approximately 25% higher than base metal, which provided a toughness improvement of the welded joints. (Author)

  3. Effect of prior deformation on microstructural development and Laves phase precipitation in high-chromium stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Z-W; Chen, D; Kuo, J-C; Lin, D-Y

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of deformation on precipitation behaviour and microstructure change during annealing. Here, the prior deformation of high-chromium stainless steel was tensile deformation of 3%, 6% and 10%, and the specimens were then annealed at 700˚C for 10 h. The specimens were subsequently analyzed using backscattered electron image and electron backscattering diffraction measurements with SEM. Compared with the deformation microstructure, the grains revealed no preferred orientation. The precipitates of TiN and NbC were formed homogenously in the grain interior and at grain boundaries after annealing. Fine Laves phase precipitates were observed in grains and along subgrain boundaries as the deformation increased. Furthermore, the volume fraction of Laves phase increased, but the average particle diameter of precipitate was reduced as the deformation increased. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Mechanical and Microstructural Investigation of Dual Phase Stainless Steel (LDX2101) under a wide range of strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Ali; Escobedo-Diaz, Juan; Ashraf, Mahmud; Brown, Andrew; Hazell, Paul; Hutchison, Wayne; Quadir, Zakaria

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical response and the microstructural evolution of lean duplex stainless steel 2101 (LDSS 2101) under a wide range of strain rates has been investigated. Experimental testing spanned from quasistatic, high strain-rate (Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar) and shock loading. The microstructural changes, e.g. phase transformation and grain rotation, texture and substructure evolution, were investigated by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron-backscattered diffraction (EBSD). A significant increase in the yield stress with increasing strain rate was observed. The plastic deformation, e.g. work hardening rate, was also depended on the strain-rate. The threshold stress for the iron-epsilon phase transformation was obtained from free surface velocity measurements and the retained high pressure phase was assessed by XRD measurements.

  5. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of multiple-layer laser cladding coating of 308L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kaibin; Li, Dong, E-mail: lid@sues.edu.cn; Liu, Dongyu; Pei, Guangyu; Sun, Lei

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Grain morphology transformations of 308L stainless steel multiple-layer are studied. • The cladding metals solidify in AF mode and consist of austenite and about 10.48% δ ferrite. • The ferrite content distributes into an increasing trend as the number of layers increase. • The distribution of hardness from the substrate to the coating is relatively uniform. • The cladding tensile sample shows good tensile properties, and the fracture mode is the ductile fracture. - Abstract: Multiple-layer laser cladding of 308L stainless steel was obtained by a fiber laser using a way of wire feeding to repair the surface scrapped or erosive parts of 316L stainless steel. The microstructure of the coating was measured by a metallographic microscope, and phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. The results show that good metallurgical bonding can be obtained between the 308L stainless steel coating and 316L stainless steel substrate. The coating is mainly composed of columnar dendrites, and there are also a few planar crystals and cellular dendrites distributed in the bonding zone. Meanwhile, some equiaxed grains and steering dendrites are distributed in the apex of the coating. Grains incorporate in epitaxial columnar dendrite's growth between different layers and tracks. It has been proved using XRD that the coating basically consists of austenite and a small amount of δ ferrite. The coating solidifies in FA mode according to the Creq/Nieq ratio and metallurgical analysis results. The average content of δ ferrite is about 10.48% and morphologies of the ferrite are mostly vermicular, skeletal and lathy. Due to heat treatment and different cooling rate, the δ ferrite content generally increases as the number of laser cladding layers increases. The coating and the substrate have equivalent microhardness, and softening zone does not appear in the heat affected zone. The tensile strength and elongation of the coating are 548 MPa and 40

  6. Influence of Thermal Aging on the Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Dual Phase Precipitation Hardened Powder Metallurgy Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demand for high strength powder metallurgy (PM) steels has resulted in the development of dual phase PM steels. In this work, the effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of dual phase precipitation hardened powder metallurgy (PM) stainless steels of varying ferrite-martensite content were examined. Quantitative analyses of the inherent porosity and phase fractions were conducted on the steels and no significant differences were noted with respect to aging temperature. Tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation to fracture all increased with increasing aging temperature reaching maxima at 538°C in most cases. Increased strength and decreased ductility were observed in steels of higher martensite content. Nanoindentation of the individual microconstituents was employed to obtain a fundamental understanding of the strengthening contributions. Both the ferrite and martensite hardness values increased with aging temperature and exhibited similar maxima to the bulk tensile properties. Due to the complex non-uniform stresses and strains associated with conventional nanoindentation, micropillar compression has become an attractive method to probe local mechanical behavior while limiting strain gradients and contributions from surrounding features. In this study, micropillars of ferrite and martensite were fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) milling of dual phase precipitation hardened powder metallurgy (PM) stainless steels. Compression testing was conducted using a nanoindenter equipped with a flat punch indenter. The stress-strain curves of the individual microconstituents were calculated from the load-displacement curves less the extraneous displacements of the system. Using a rule of mixtures approach in conjunction with porosity corrections, the mechanical properties of ferrite and martensite were combined for comparison to tensile tests of the bulk material, and reasonable agreement was found for the ultimate tensile

  7. Effect of cooling rate on the microstructure and hardness of austenitic stainless steel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A. [ISEC - IPC, Quinta da Nora, Coimbra (Portugal); Loureiro, A. [DEM - FCTUC, Polo II, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of the cooling rate on the microstructure and hardness of the melted material of welds in steels AISI 304 and AISI 316L. The increase of weld heat input, consequently the decrease in the cooling rate, produces only a smooth increase of the ferrite content and a small decrease of hardness in the melted material of autogeneous TIG welds. (orig.)

  8. Predicting Microstructure Development During HighTemperature Nitriding of Martensitic Stainless SteelsUsing Thermodynamic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschiptschin André Paulo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations of the Fe-Cr-N System in the region of the Gas Phase Equilibria have been compared with experimental results of maximum nitrogen absorption during nitriding of two Martensitic Stainless Steels (a 6 mm thick sheet of AISI 410S steel and green powder compacts of AISI 434L steel under N2 atmospheres. The calculations have been performed combining the Fe-Cr-N System description contained in the SGTE Solid Solution Database and the gas phase for the N System contained in the SGTE Substances Database. Results show a rather good agreement for total nitrogen absorption in the steel and nitrogen solubility in austenite in the range of temperatures between 1273 K and 1473 K and in the range of pressures between 0.1 and 0.36 MPa. Calculations show that an appropriate choice of heat treatment parameters can lead to optimal nitrogen absorption in the alloy. It was observed in the calculations that an increased pressure stabilizes CrN at expenses of Cr2N - type nitrides.

  9. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present contribtion gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular......, the morphology, microstructure and characteristics of so-called expanded austenite "layers" on stainless steel are addressed....

  10. Low temperature gaseous surface hardening of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of some of the technological aspects of low temperature thermochemical treatment of stainless steel. Examples of low temperature gaseous nitriding, carburising and nitrocarburising of stainless steel are presented and discussed. In particular......, the morphology, microstructure and characteristics of so-called expanite “layers” on stainless steel are addressed....

  11. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Friction Stir Spot Welding Between St37 Steel and 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Ali; Shamanian, Morteza; Karimzadeh, Fathallah

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, St37 low-carbon steel and 304 stainless steel were welded successfully, with the thickness of 2 mm, by a friction stir spot welding process carried out at the tool dwell time of 6 s and two different tool rotational speeds of 630 and 1250 rpm. Metallographic examinations revealed four different zones including SZ and HAZ areas of St37 steel and SZ and TMAZ regions of 304 stainless steel in the weld nugget, except the base metals. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy experiments were used to investigate the possible formation of such phases as chromium carbide. Based on these experiments, no chromium carbide precipitation was found. The recrystallization of the weld nugget in the 304 steel and the phase transformations of the weld regions in the St37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld joint. Hardness changes of joint were acceptable and approximately uniform, as compared to the resistance spot weld. In this research, it was also observed that the tensile/shear strength, as a crucial factor, was increased with the rise in the tool rotational speed. The bond length along the interface between metals, as an effective parameter to increase the tensile/shear strength, was also determined. At higher tool rotational speeds, the bond length was found to be improved, resulting in the tensile/shear strength of 6682 N. Finally, two fracture modes were specified through the fracture mode analysis of samples obtained from the tensile/shear test consisting of the shear fracture mode and the mixed shear/tensile fracture mode.

  12. Effect of nitrogen addition on microstructure and erosion-corrosion behavior of stainless steel in acidic slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of nitrogen content on the microstructure and erosion-corrosion (E-C behavior of stainless steel (containing about 25%Cr, 5%–6%Ni, and 1%–2%Mo was investigated by using optical microscope(OM,potentiodynamic polarization curve and immersion method, a self-made rotating disk apparatus and scanning electron microscopy (SEM and so on. The results show that with the increase of nitrogen content from 0 (no adding to 0.485 wt.%, the Creq/Nieq ratio of the tested materials decreases from 4.14 to 1.23 and the ferrite volume percentage of the steel tested linearly decreases approximately from 90% to 10%. The effect of nitrogen content on polarization behavior of the studied steel was not signifi cant. All the passive current densities ( Ipand pure corrosion rates (Vc of the different N content specimens in the acidic solution (slurry containing 0.1 M H2SO4+0.06%Cl-+0.4%F-, the simplifi ed zinc hydrometallurgy slurry are too low and nearly negligible. Whereas the pure erosion rates (Ve of the four scenarios of the steels tested (N content, wt.%: N1, no adding; N2, 0.143%; N3, 0.289%; N4, 0485%, respectively are much higher than their Vc values. The V e values of the tested steels are in the order of N4 > N1 > N3 > N2, at the same time, the total weight loss rates (V t follow the order of N4 > N1 >N3 > N2, too. N2 steel consisting of pproximately equal volume fractions of ferrite (α and austenite (c exhibits the most excellent E-C resistance and erosion resistance, while the stainless steels possessing the big difference between α phase and c phase, such as N1 steel nearly possessing single ferrite or N4 steel nearly possessing single austenite, show poorer E-C resistance and erosion resistance.

  13. Ultrasonic Characterization of Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Microstructure: Discrimination between Equiaxed- and Columnar-Grain Material – An Interim Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Good, Morris S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.; Watson, Bruce E.; Peters, Timothy J.; Dixit, Mukul; Bond, Leonard J.

    2009-10-27

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and inspection of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) components used in the nuclear power industry is neither as effective nor reliable as is needed due to detrimental effects upon the interrogating ultrasonic beam and interference from ultrasonic backscatter. The root cause is the coarse-grain microstructure inherent to this class of materials. Some ultrasonic techniques perform better for particular microstructural classifications and this has led to the hypothesis that an ultrasonic inspection can be optimized for a particular microstructural class, if a technique exists to reliably classify the microstructure for feedback to the inspection. This document summarizes scoping experiments of in-situ ultrasonic methods for classification and/or characterization of the material microstructures in CASS components from the outside surface of a pipe. The focus of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic methods and provide an interim report that documents results and technical progress. An initial set of experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that in-service characterization of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) is feasible, and that, if reliably performed, such data would provide real-time feedback to optimize in-service inspections in the field. With this objective in mind, measurements for the experiment were restricted to techniques that should be robust if carried forward to eventual field implementation. Two parameters were investigated for their ability to discriminate between different microstructures in CASS components. The first parameter was a time-of-flight ratio of a normal incidence shear wave to that of a normal incidence longitudinal wave (TOFRSL). The ratio removed dependency on component thickness which may not be accurately reported in the field. The second parameter was longitudinal wave attenuation. The selected CASS specimens provided five equiaxed-grain material samples and five columnar

  14. Is stainless steel really "stainless"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Joan

    2011-06-01

    Initial purchase and replacement costs for surgical instrumentation are significant components in today's operating room budgets. OR staff and medical device reprocessing personnel work together as a team to ensure effective management of this valuable commodity. The purpose of this article is to discuss the composition of stainless steel surgical instruments, to identify processes to minimize damage to instruments caused by staining, corrosion, and pitting, and to utilize that information to describe effective measures to manage instrumentation in both the OR and reprocessing areas.

  15. Microstructure, crystallography of phase transformations and multiple precipitations in PH 15-7Mo stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongwei [The Australia Centre Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW, 2006 (Australia); Liu, Jiangwen, E-mail: mejwliu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Luo, Chengping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Liu, Zhijian [Guangdong Research Institute of Iron and Steel, Guangzhou, 510640 (China)

    2016-07-05

    The microstructure and crystallographic features of a semi-austenitic precipitation hardening steel PH 15-7Mo during solution treatment, roddrawing and aging were investigated by means of optical microscope, X-ray diffraction analyzer and transmission electron microscope. It was found that the microstructure of the steel was consist of dominant austenite, small amount of martensite and 10–15 vol.% δ-ferrite after solution treatment at 1050 °C followed by cooling in water at room temperature. The austenite transformed into lath martensite during tensile roddrawing about 60% deforming companied with some coherent fine β-NiAl particles precipitated within martensite. With higher aging temperature and longer holding time, tiny carbide M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles precipitated from martensite, which kept the cubic–cubic orientation relationship (OR) with austenite and G-T OR with martensite which is different with all the reported orientations. The OR between tiny carbide M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles G-T OR with martensite was discussed in terms of crystallography of phase transformations. - Highlights: • Microstructure changes of austenitic steel PH15-7Mo were due to alloying elements, service condition and carbide M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Lath-shape martensitic laths keep pseudo {112} twinning relationship. • β-NiAl particles hold a typical cubic-to-cubic orientation relationship with martensite. • M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide kept a cubic–cubic orientation relationship (OR) with austenite and an unusual G-T OR with martensite. • Multiple orientation relationship between M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and austenite is correlative with their structural similarity.

  16. Effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties and microstructure of selective laser melting 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamariah, M. S. I. N.; Harun, W. S. W.; Khalil, N. Z.; Ahmad, F.; Ismail, M. H.; Sharif, S.

    2017-10-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) has been one of the preferred Additive Manufacturing process to fabricate parts due to its merits in terms of design freedom, lower material waste and faster production when compare to the conventional manufacturing processes. However, due to the thermal gradient experienced during the process, the parts are exposed to the residual stress that leads to parts distortion. This work presents the effect of heat treatments on the micro-hardness of 316L stainless steel parts. In current study, SLM has been employed to fabricate 316L stainless steel compacts. Different heat treatments of 650°C, 950°C, and 1100°C for 2 hours were applied on the compacts. Hardness test were performed on the as-built and heat-treated compacts. The relationship between the microstructures and micro-hardness were discussed in this paper. The results revealed that the micro-hardness of the as-built compacts is between 209.0 and 212.2 HV, which is much higher than the heattreated compacts.

  17. Evolution of microstructure and residual stress under various vibration modes in 304 stainless steel welds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Wang, Peng-Shuen; Wang, Jia-Siang; Wu, Weite

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous vibration welding of 304 stainless steel was carried out with an eccentric circulating vibrator and a magnetic telescopic vibrator at subresonant (362 Hz and 59.3 Hz) and resonant (376 Hz and 60.9 Hz) frequencies. The experimental results indicate that the temperature gradient can be increased, accelerating nucleation and causing grain refinement during this process. During simultaneous vibration welding primary δ -ferrite can be refined and the morphologies of retained δ-ferrite become discontinuous so that δ-ferrite contents decrease. The smallest content of δ-ferrite (5.5%) occurred using the eccentric circulating vibrator. The diffraction intensities decreased and the FWHM widened with both vibration and no vibration. A residual stress can obviously be increased, producing an excellent effect on stress relief at a resonant frequency. The stress relief effect with an eccentric circulating vibrator was better than that obtained using a magnetic telescopic vibrator.

  18. Microstructural study of an ODS stainless steel obtained by Hot Uni-axial Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornin, D.; Grosdidier, T.; Malaplate, J.; Tiba, I.; Bonnaillie, P.; Allain-Bonasso, N.; Nunes, D.

    2013-08-01

    This study focuses on the consolidation of an ODS Fe-14Cr-1W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3 alloy obtained by powder metallurgy. The powder was sintered for 1 h at 1100 °C in a soft steel can and compacted by Hot Uni-axial Pressing (HUP) under 900 MPa within less than 5 s before air cooling. The HUPped material microstructure is prospected to determine relative density as well as microstructure and nano-precipitation. The HUP, which mimics the early stage of hot extrusion (HE), produces a fully dense metallurgical state. The HUPped microstructure is shown to be rather similar to the one obtained by HIPping for equivalent dwell time at high temperature. In both cases heterogeneous grain size microstructure was obtained. It is shown that the bigger grains come from static recrystallization occurring during the dwell time in furnace. Compared to HIP, the effect of the HUP is mainly to introduce intra-granular misorientations within these large recrystallized grains. During Hot Unidirectional Pressing the initially loose powder is fully consolidated. The relative density is rather similar to the HE and HIP process. Even with a uni-axial loading the HUPed material is homogeneous and does not presents any gradients of hardness. The obtained microstructure for the HUPed shows a bimodal grain size distribution and precipitates strings at grain boundaries. This material can be compared to HIP of similar composition grades [10]. Large grains are issued from an incomplete static recrystallization. Precipitation of nano-clusters is very similar for HUPed and HE materials. Nanometer scale precipitates are observed both within the large and small grains. One of the effects of the HUP compared to pure heat treatment is that the large grains that recrystallized during the early stages of the heat treatment present significant internal crystallographic misorientations. This is due to the plastic strain generated by the rapid compaction during HUP consolidation process.

  19. Microstructural, compositional and residual stress evaluation of CO{sub 2} laser welded superaustenitic AISI 904L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, A. [DIMEG, University of Padova, Via Marzolo, 9 I-35131 Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: a.zambon@unipd.it; Ferro, P. [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Str.lla S. Nicola, 3 I-36100 Vicenza (Italy); Bonollo, F. [Department of Management and Engineering, University of Padova, Str.lla S. Nicola, 3 I-36100 Vicenza (Italy)

    2006-05-25

    CO{sub 2} laser welding was performed on AISI 904L superaustenitic stainless steel sheets, with optimised processing parameters determined by means of melt run trial evaluations. X-ray diffraction phase identification and light microscopy confirmed that the weld structure is fully austenitic and dendritic. A hardness increase in the weld bead with respect to the parent metal occurred and was related to both the microstructural refinement induced by a rapid cooling of the fusion zone and the presence of nanometric scale precipitates observed by TEM in the weld bead. Residual stresses were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, exhibiting tensile stresses, close to the yield strength, in the longitudinal direction in the weld bead, while the stresses were compressive in the transverse direction and in the base material. Tensile tests showed that welded specimens retained strength and ductility values comparable to those of the base material.

  20. Joining of aluminum and stainless steel using AlSi10 brazing filler: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Vasilii; Uhlig, Thomas; Wagner, Guntram

    2017-07-01

    Joining of dissimilar materials like stainless steel and aluminum is of special interest for automotive applications. Due to the different properties of these materials, suitable joining techniques are required. Brazing offers the possibilities to manufacture high performance joints in one step and at low joining temperatures. However, these joints often need to withstand a high number of high cyclic loads during application. Therefore, in addition to the monotonic properties, the fatigue behavior of the produced joints must be considered and evaluated. In the present work, specimens are manufactured by induction brazing using an AlSi10 filler and a non-corrosive flux. The mechanical properties are determined by tensile shear tests as well as in fatigue tests at ambient and elevated temperatures. The microstructure of the brazed joints and the fracture surfaces of the tested samples are investigated by SEM.

  1. Microstructural, Micro-hardness and Sensitization Evaluation in HAZ of Type 316L Stainless Steel Joint with Narrow Gap Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Faisal Shafiqul; Jang, Changheui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shi Chull [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    From Micro-hardness measurement HAZ zone was found approximately 1-1.5 mm in NGW and DL-EPR test confirmed that 316L NGW HAZ was not susceptible to sensitization as DOS <1% according to sensitization criteria based on reference. In nuclear power plants 316L stainless steels are commonly used material for their metallurgical stability, high corrosion resistance, and good creep and ductility properties at elevated temperatures. Welding zone considered as the weakest and failure initiation source of the components. For safety and economy of nuclear power plants accurate and dependable structural integrity assessment of main components like pressure vessels and piping are need as it joined by different welding process. In similar and dissimilar metal weld it has been observed that weld microstructure cause the variation of mechanical properties through the thickness direction. In the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) relative to the fusion line face a unique thermal experience during welding.

  2. Cluster dynamics modeling of the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructure of austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brimbal, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.brimbal@areva.com [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Fournier, Lionel [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Barbu, Alain [Alain Barbu Consultant, 6 Avenue Pasteur Martin Luther King, 78230 Le Pecq (France)

    2016-01-15

    A mean field cluster dynamics model has been developed in order to study the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructural evolution of metals. In this model, self-interstitial clusters, stacking-fault tetrahedra and helium-vacancy clusters are taken into account, in a configuration well adapted to austenitic stainless steels. For small helium-vacancy cluster sizes, the densities of each small cluster are calculated. However, for large sizes, only the mean number of helium atoms per cluster size is calculated. This aspect allows us to calculate the evolution of the microstructural features up to high irradiation doses in a few minutes. It is shown that the presence of stacking-fault tetrahedra notably reduces cavity sizes below 400 °C, but they have little influence on the microstructure above this temperature. The binding energies of vacancies to cavities are calculated using a new method essentially based on ab initio data. It is shown that helium has little effect on the cavity microstructure at 300 °C. However, at higher temperatures, even small helium production rates such as those typical of sodium-fast-reactors induce a notable increase in cavity density compared to an irradiation without helium. - Highlights: • Irradiation of steels with helium is studied through a new cluster dynamics model. • There is only a small effect of helium on cavity distributions in PWR conditions. • An increase in helium production causes an increase in cavity density over 500 °C. • The role of helium is to stabilize cavities via reduced emission of vacancies.

  3. Mechanical property degradation and microstructural evolution of cast austenitic stainless steels under short-term thermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Timothy G.; Byun, Thak Sang; Leonard, Keith J.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical testing and microstructural characterization were performed on short-term thermally aged cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) to understand the severity and mechanisms of thermal-aging degradation experienced during extended operation of light water reactor (LWR) coolant systems. Four CASS materials – CF3, CF3M, CF8, and CF8M – were thermally aged for 1500 hours at 290 °C, 330 °C, 360 °C, and 400 °C. All four alloys experienced insignificant change in strength and ductility properties but a significant reduction in absorbed impact energy. The primary microstructural and compositional changes during thermal aging were spinodal decomposition of the δ-ferrite into α/ α`, precipitation of G-phase in the δ-ferrite, segregation of solute to the austenite/ ferrite interphase boundary, and growth of M23C6 carbides on the austenite/ferrite interphase boundary. These changes were shown to be highly dependent on chemical composition, particularly the concentration of C and Mo, and aging temperature. A comprehensive model is being developed to correlate the microstructural evolution with mechanical behavior and simulation for predictive evaluations of LWR coolant system components.

  4. Real Time Imaging of Deuterium in a Duplex Stainless Steel Microstructure by Time-of-Flight SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, O.; Straub, F.; Wirth, Th.; Holzlechner, G.; Boellinghaus, Th.; Unger, W. E. S.

    2016-02-01

    For more than one century, hydrogen assisted degradation of metallic microstructures has been identified as origin for severe technical component failures but the mechanisms behind have not yet been completely understood so far. Any in-situ observation of hydrogen transport phenomena in microstructures will provide more details for further elucidation of these degradation mechanisms. A novel experiment is presented which is designed to elucidate the permeation behaviour of deuterium in a microstructure of duplex stainless steel (DSS). A hydrogen permeation cell within a TOF-SIMS instrument enables electrochemical charging with deuterium through the inner surface of the cell made from DSS. The outer surface of the DSS permeation cell exposed to the vacuum has been imaged by TOF-SIMS vs. increasing time of charging with subsequent chemometric treatment of image data. This in-situ experiment showed evidently that deuterium is permeating much faster through the ferrite phase than through the austenite phase. Moreover, a direct proof for deuterium enrichment at the austenite-ferrite interface has been found.

  5. The Influence of Post-Build Microstructure on the Electrochemical Behavior of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoudt, M R; Ricker, R E; Lass, E A; Levine, L E

    2017-03-01

    The additive manufacturing (AM) build process produces a segregated microstructure with significant variations in composition and phases that are uncommon in traditional wrought materials. As such, the relationship between the post-build microstructure and the corrosion resistance is not well understood. Stainless steel alloy 17-4PH is an industrially-relevant alloy for applications requiring high-strength and good corrosion resistance. A series of potentiodynamic scans conducted in a deaerated 0.5 mol/L NaCl solution evaluated the influence of these microstructural differences on the pitting behavior of SS17-4. The pitting potentials were found to be higher in the samples of additively-processed material than in samples of the alloy in wrought form. This indicates that the additively-processed material is more resistant to localized corrosion and pitting in this environment than the wrought alloy. The results also suggest that after homogenization, the additively-produced SS17-4 could be more resistant to pitting than wrought SS17-4 in an actual service environment.

  6. Influence of Postbuild Microstructure on the Electrochemical Behavior of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoudt, M. R.; Ricker, R. E.; Lass, E. A.; Levine, L. E.

    2017-03-01

    The additive manufacturing build process produces a segregated microstructure with significant variations in composition and phases that are uncommon in traditional wrought materials. As such, the relationship between the postbuild microstructure and the corrosion resistance is not well understood. Stainless steel alloy 17-4 precipitation hardened (SS17-4PH) is an industrially relevant alloy for applications requiring high strength and good corrosion resistance. A series of potentiodynamic scans conducted in a deaerated 0.5-mol/L NaCl solution evaluated the influence of these microstructural differences on the pitting behavior of SS17-4. The pitting potentials were found to be higher in the samples of additively processed material than in the samples of the alloy in wrought form. This indicates that the additively processed material is more resistant to localized corrosion and pitting in this environment than is the wrought alloy. The results also suggest that after homogenization, the additively produced SS17-4 could be more resistant to pitting than the wrought SS17-4 is in an actual service environment.

  7. The Influence of Hydrogen on the Evolving Microstructure During Fatigue Crack Growth in Metastable and Stable Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Kelly Elizabeth

    The effect of high levels of internal hydrogen on the microstructure evolving during stage II fatigue crack growth was investigated through a series of tensile and fatigue studies in metastable (304) and stable (316, 316L) stainless steels. The first, a tensile study in 304 stainless steel, identified the underlying microstructure which resulted in the flat and quasi-cleavage features on the fracture surface of a hydrogen-charged tensile bar. The second study utilized single-edge notched tensile specimens loaded in fatigue, and compared the evolving microstructure ahead of a fatigue crack for cases of an uncharged, 10 wppm hydrogen-charged, and 104 wppm hydrogen-charged 304 and 316L alloy. The final fatigue study, a small fatigue crack growth study in round bars of 304 and 316, provided a contextual comparison of microstructures to previous results in literature. In the metastable 304 stainless steel, hydrogen is found to change the nature of the martensitic transformation and subsequent fracture path. This transformation is attributed to enhanced plasticity and hydrogen-dislocation interactions stabilizing the austenitic matrix and confining slip to particular close-packed planes. The martensite acts as a fast diffusion pathway for hydrogen, leading to final fracture along martensitic laths or cleavage planes. In 316L, the material deforms via slip and twinning and hydrogen does not induce a change in deformation mechanisms. Instead, the enhanced plasticity and hydrogen-dislocation interactions increase the degree of plasticity, leading to smaller dislocation cell sizes with thicker walls before the onset of twinning. The crack interacts with a heavily twinned structure superimposed on dislocation cells, resulting in a curvature of one twin-variant in the direction of crack growth and the formation of a refined region at the fracture surface. These structures are localized to the crack surface and limited in rotation in the presence of hydrogen. The presence of a

  8. Effects of Different Forging Processes on Microstructure Evolution for 316LN Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Dashan; Zhu, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Peipei; Cui, Zhenshan

    2017-10-01

    Forging experiments were designed and carried out on a 3150 kN hydraulic press to investigate the effects of different processes on the microstructure evolution for 316LN steel. The forging processes included single-pass (upsetting) and multipass (stretching) deformations, and the experimental results indicated that the average grain size varied with forging processes. Moreover, the size had distinct differences at different positions in the workpiece. Meanwhile, numerical simulations were implemented to study the influence of temperature, strain, and strain rate on microstructure evolution. The results of experiments and simulations comprehensively demonstrated that dynamic, static, and meta-dynamic recrystallization could coexist in the hot forging process and that the recrystallization process could easily occur under the conditions of higher temperature, larger strain, and higher strain rate. Moreover, the temperature had more significant influence on both recrystallization and grain growth. A higher temperature could not only promote the recrystallization but also speed up the grain growth. Therefore, a lower temperature is beneficial to obtain refinement grains on the premise that the recrystallization can occur completely.

  9. Intermediate layer, microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloy/stainless steel butt joint using laser-MIG hybrid welding-brazing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zongtao; Wan, Zhandong; Li, Yuanxing; Xue, Junyu; Hui, Chen

    2017-07-01

    Butt joining of AA6061 aluminum (Al) alloy and 304 stainless steel of 2-mm thickness was conducted using laser-MIG hybrid welding-brazing method with ER4043 filler metal. To promote the mechanical properties of the welding-brazing joints, two kinds of intermediate layers (Al-Si-Mg alloy and Ag-based alloy) are used to adjust the microstructures of the joints. The brazing interface and the tensile strength of the joints were characterized. The results showed that the brazing interface between Al alloy and stainless steel consisted of double layers of Fe2Al5 (near stainless steel) and Fe4Al13 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with a total thickness of 3.7 μm, when using Al-Si-Mg alloy as the intermediate layer. The brazing interface of the joints using Ag-based alloy as intermediate layer also consists of double IMC layers, but the first layer near stainless steel was FeAl2 and the total thickness of these two IMC layers decreased to 3.1 μm. The tensile strength of the joints using Al-Si-Mg alloy as the intermediate layer was promoted to 149 MPa, which was 63 MPa higher than that of the joints using Al-Si-Mg alloy as the intermediate layer. The fractures occurred in the brazing interface between Al alloy and stainless steel.

  10. Influence of ageing time on hardness, microstructure and wear behaviour of AISI2507 super duplex stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davanageri, Mahesh; Narendranath, S.; Kadoli, Ravikiran

    2017-08-01

    The effect of ageing time on hardness, microstructure and wear behaviour of super duplex stainless AISI 2507 is examined. The material was solution treated at 1050 °C and water quenched, further the ageing has been carried out at 850 °C for 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. The chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) enriched intermetallic sigma phase (σ) were found to precipitate at the ferrite/austenite interface and within the ferrite region. The concentration of intermetallic sigma phase (σ), which was quantified by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and image analysis, increases with increasing ageing time, leading to significant increase in the hardness. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) was employed to investigate the element distribution and phase identification. Wear characterstics of the aged super duplex stainless steel were measured by varying normal loads, sliding speeds, sliding distance and compared with solution treated (as-cast) specimens. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assist in analysis of worn out surfaces. The outcomes suggested that the increase in percentage of sigma phase increases hardness and wear resistance in heat-treated specimens compared to solution treated specimens (as-cast).

  11. Microstructure influence on fatigue behaviour of austenitic stainless steels with high molybdenum content; Influencia de la microestructura en el comportamiento a fatiga de aceros inoxidables austeniticos con alto contenido en molibdeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoro, J.; Gamboa, R.; Ranninger, C.

    2006-07-01

    Austenitic stainless steels with molybdenum present high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance to aggressive environments. These steels have been used to tank and vessel components for high liquids as phosphoric, nitric and sulphuric acids. These materials with low carbon and nitrogen addition have been proposed candidates as structural materials for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) in-vessel components. Molybdenum addition in austenitic stainless steel improves mechanical and corrosion properties, but with it can produce the presence of nitrogen microstructure modifications by presence or precipitation of second phases. This paper summarises the fatigue and corrosion fatigue behaviour of two 317LN stainless steels with different microstructure. Fully austenitic steel microstructure show better fatigue, corrosion fatigue resistance and better ductility than austenitic steel with delta ferrite microstructure, mainly at low stresses. (Author)

  12. The Microstructure and Pitting Resistance of Weld Joints of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingfang; Liu, Fei; Pu, Juan; Anderson, Neil E.; Li, Leijun; Liu, Dashuang

    2017-11-01

    2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) was welded by submerged arc welding. The effects of both heat input and groove type on the ferrite/austenite ratio and elemental diffusion of weld joints were investigated. The relationships among welding joint preparation, ferrite/austenite ratio, elemental diffusion, and pitting corrosion resistance of weld joints were analyzed. When the Ni content of the weld wire deposit was at minimum 2-4% higher than that of 2205 DSS base metal, the desired ratio of ferrite/austenite and elemental partitioning between the austenite and ferrite phases were obtained. While the pitting sensitivity of weld metal was higher than that of base metal, the self-healing capability of the passive film of weld metal was better than that of the base metal when a single V-type groove was used. Furthermore, the heat input should be carefully controlled since pitting corrosion occurred readily in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone near the fusion line of welded joints.

  13. Cavity microstructure and kinetics during gas tungsten arc welding of helium-containing stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H. T.; Grossbeck, M. L.; Chin, B. A.

    1990-09-01

    Helium was implanted in type 316 stainless steel, through tritium decay, to levels of 0. 18, 2. 5, 27, 105, and 256 atomic parts per million (appm). Bead-on-sheet welds were then made using the gas tungsten arc (GTA) process. Intergranular cracking occurred in the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of specimens with helium concentrations equal to or greater than 2.5 appm. No such cracking was observed in helium-free control specimens or in specimens containing the lowest helium concentration. In addition to the HAZ cracking, brittle, centerline cracking occurred in the fusion zone of specimens containing 105 and 256 appm helium. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy results indicated that both the HAZ cracking and centerline cracking in the fusion zone resulted from the stress-induced growth and coalescence of cavities initiated at helium bubbles on interfaces. For the HAZ case, the cavity growth rate is modeled and shown to predict the experimentally measured 1-second time lag between peak weld temperature and the onset of cracking.

  14. Effect of silver on microstructure and antibacterial property of 2205 duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Min; Chen, Yi-Chun; Pan, Yeong-Tsuen; Lin, Dong-Yih

    2016-06-01

    In this study, 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) was employed to enhance the antibacterial properties of material through silver doping. The results demonstrated that silver-doped 2205 DSS produces an excellent bacteria-inhibiting effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial rates were 100% and 99.5%, respectively. Because the mutual solubility of silver and iron is very low in both the solid and liquid states, a silver-rich compound solidified and dispersed at the ferrite/austenite interface and the ferrite, austenite, and secondary austenite phases in silver-doped 2205 DSS. Doping 2205 DSS with silver caused the Creq/Nieq ratio of ferrite to decrease; however, the lower Creq/Nieq ratio promoted the rapid nucleation of γ2-austenite from primary α-ferrite. After 12h of homogenisation treatment at 1200 °C, the solubility of silver in the γ-austenite and α-ferrite phases can be increased by 0.10% and 0.09%, respectively. Moreover, silver doping was found to accelerate the dissolution of secondary austenite in a ferrite matrix during homogenisation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steel irradiated with triple-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Shozo; Miwa, Yukio; Yamaki, Daiju [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Zhang Yichuan

    1997-03-01

    An austenitic stainless steel was simultaneously irradiated with nickel, helium and hydrogen ions at the temperature range of 573-673 K. The damage level and injected concentration of He and H ions in the triple-beam irradiated region are 57 dpa, 19000 and 18000 at.ppm, respectively. Following to irradiation, the cross sectional observation normal to the incident surface of the specimen was carried out with a transmission electron microscope. Two bands parallel to the incident surface were observed in the irradiated specimen, which consist of dislocation loops and lines of high number density. These locate in the range of the depth of 0.4 to 1.3 {mu}m and 1.8 to 2.4 {mu}m from the incident surface, respectively. The region between two bands, which corresponds to the triple beam irradiated region, shows very low number density of dislocations than that in each band. Observation with higher magnification of this region shows that fine cavities with high number density uniformly distribute in the matrix. (author)

  16. Mechanical and microstructural integrity of nickel-titanium and stainless steel laser joined wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannod, J., E-mail: jonas.vannod@a3.epfl.ch [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Microscopie Electronique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Laboratoire de Simulation des Materiaux, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bornert, M. [Laboratoire Navier, Universite Paris Est, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Bidaux, J.-E. [University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, CH-1950 Sion (Switzerland); Bataillard, L. [Heraeus Medical Components Division, CH-1400 Yverdon-les-bains (Switzerland); Karimi, A. [Institut de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Drezet, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Simulation des Materiaux, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rappaz, M., E-mail: michel.rappaz@epfl.ch [Laboratoire de Simulation des Materiaux, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Hessler-Wyser, A., E-mail: aicha.hessler@epfl.ch [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Microscopie Electronique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    The biomedical industry shows increasing interest in the joining of dissimilar metals, especially with the aim of developing devices that combine different mechanical and corrosive properties. As an example, nickel-titanium shape memory alloys joined to stainless steel are very promising for new invasive surgery devices, such as guidewires. A fracture mechanics study of such joined wires was carried out using in situ tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy imaging combined with chemical analysis, and revealed an unusual fracture behaviour at superelastic stress. Nanoindentation was performed to determine the mechanical properties of the welded area, which were used as an input for mechanical computation in order to understand this unexpected behaviour. Automated image correlation allowed verification of the mechanical modelling and a reduced stress-strain model is proposed to explain the special fracture mechanism. This study reveals the fact that tremendous property changes at the interface between the NiTi base wire and the weld area have more impact on the ultimate tensile strength than the chemical composition variation across the welded area.

  17. Deformation Behavior and Evolution of Microstructure and Texture During Hot Compression of AISI 304LN Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Matruprasad; Biswas, Somjeet; Ranjan, Ravi; Pal, Surjya Kanta; Singh, Shiv Brat

    2017-12-01

    Deformation behavior of hot-rolled AISI 304 LN austenitic stainless steel was studied by hot axisymmetric compression tests at 1173 K, 1273 K, and 1373 K (900 °C, 1000 °C, and 1100 °C) at strain rates of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 s-1. The flow curves were examined to understand the deformation characteristics. The influence of Zener-Holloman parameter was analyzed using appropriate constitutive models. The activation energy for deformation was found to be 473 kJ/mol. Quantitative microstructural analysis was carried out using Electron backscattered diffraction. Compression at 1173 K (900 °C) at all true strain rates gave rise to partially dynamic recrystallized microstructure with strong α-fiber texture. The deformation texture is characterized by the formation of Brass component, and partial dynamic recrystallization (DRX) led to the development of Goss, S, and ube components. Necklace structure of small equiaxed recrystallized grains could be observed surrounding the large, elongated deformed grains. Compressions at 1273 K and 1373 K (1000 °C and 1100 °C) resulted in fully recrystallized microstructure consisting of mostly Σ3 and Σ9 coincidence site lattice high-angle boundaries. Compression at 1273 K (1000 °C) leads to the formation of low-intensity diffused α-fiber. DRX was confirmed by the presence of Goss, S, Cube, and rotated Cube components. Compression performed at 1373 K (1100 °C) resulted in nearly random texture with traces of α-fiber and prominent Cube/rotated Cube components. The microstructures of the 1173 K (900 °C)-compressed samples were partitioned using grain size and misorientation criteria to quantify DRX.

  18. Classification of Induced Magnetic Field Signals for the Microstructural Characterization of Sigma Phase in Duplex Stainless Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Edgard M. Silva; Leandro B. Marinho; Pedro P. Rebouças Filho; Leite, João P.; Josinaldo P. Leite; Walter M. L. Fialho; Victor Hugo C. de Albuquerque; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels present excellent mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. However, when heat treated at temperatures above 600 ∘ C, the undesirable tertiary sigma phase is formed. This phase presents high hardness, around 900 HV, and it is rich in chromium, the material toughness being compromised when the amount of this phase is not less than 4%. This work aimed to develop a solution for the detection of this phase in duplex stainless steels through the computational ...

  19. Effect of Rolling and Subsequent Annealing on Microstructure, Microtexture, and Properties of an Experimental Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arka; Patra, Sudipta; Chakrabarti, Debalay; Singh, Shiv Brat

    2017-12-01

    A lean duplex stainless steel (LDSS) has been prepared with low-N content and processed by different thermo-mechanical schedules, similar to the industrial processing that comprised hot-rolling, cold-rolling, and annealing treatments. The microstructure developed in the present study on low-N LDSS has been compared to that of high-N LDSS as reported in the literature. As N is an austenite stabilizer, lower-N content reduced the stability of austenite and the austenite content in low-N LDSS with respect to the conventional LDSS. Due to low stability of austenite in low-N LDSS, cold rolling resulted in strain-induced martensitic transformation and the reversion of martensite to austenite during subsequent annealing contributed to significant grain refinement within the austenite regions. δ-ferrite grains in low-N LDSS, on the other hand, are refined by extended recovery mechanism. Initial solidification texture (mainly cube texture) within the δ-ferrite region finally converted into gamma-fiber texture after cold rolling and annealing. Although MS-brass component dominated the austenite texture in low-N LDSS after hot rolling and cold rolling, that even transformed into alpha-fiber texture after the final annealing. Due to the significant grain refinement and formation of beneficial texture within both austenite and ferrite, good combination of strength and ductility has been achieved in cold-rolled and annealed sample of low-N LDSS steel.

  20. Effect of Rolling and Subsequent Annealing on Microstructure, Microtexture, and Properties of an Experimental Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arka; Patra, Sudipta; Chakrabarti, Debalay; Singh, Shiv Brat

    2017-10-01

    A lean duplex stainless steel (LDSS) has been prepared with low-N content and processed by different thermo-mechanical schedules, similar to the industrial processing that comprised hot-rolling, cold-rolling, and annealing treatments. The microstructure developed in the present study on low-N LDSS has been compared to that of high-N LDSS as reported in the literature. As N is an austenite stabilizer, lower-N content reduced the stability of austenite and the austenite content in low-N LDSS with respect to the conventional LDSS. Due to low stability of austenite in low-N LDSS, cold rolling resulted in strain-induced martensitic transformation and the reversion of martensite to austenite during subsequent annealing contributed to significant grain refinement within the austenite regions. δ-ferrite grains in low-N LDSS, on the other hand, are refined by extended recovery mechanism. Initial solidification texture (mainly cube texture) within the δ-ferrite region finally converted into gamma-fiber texture after cold rolling and annealing. Although MS-brass component dominated the austenite texture in low-N LDSS after hot rolling and cold rolling, that even transformed into alpha-fiber texture after the final annealing. Due to the significant grain refinement and formation of beneficial texture within both austenite and ferrite, good combination of strength and ductility has been achieved in cold-rolled and annealed sample of low-N LDSS steel.

  1. Characterization of Microstructure and Texture of 13Cr4Ni Martensitic Stainless Steel Weld Before and After Tempering =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtabad Amrei, Mohsen

    13Cr4Ni martensitic stainless steels are known for their outstanding performances in the hydroelectric industry, where they are mainly used in the construction of turbine components. Considering the size and geometry of turbine runners and blades, multi-pass welding procedures are commonly used in the fabrication and repair of such turbines. The final microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld are sensitive to the welding process parameters and thermal history. In the case of 13Cr4Ni steel, the thermal cycles imposed by the multi-pass welding operation have significant effects on the complex weld microstructure. Additionally, post-weld heat treatments are commonly used to reduce weld heterogeneity and improve the material's mechanical properties by tempering the microstructure and by forming a "room-temperature-stable austenite." In the first phase of this research, the microstructures and crystallographic textures of aswelded single-pass and double-pass welds were studied as a basis to studying the more complex multi-pass weld microstructure. This study found that the maximum hardness is obtained in high temperature heat affected zone inside the base metal. In particular, the results showed that the heat cycle exposed by the second pass increases the hardness of the previous pass because it produces a finer martensite microstructure. In areas of heat affected zone, a tempering effect is reported from 3 up to 6 millimeters far from the fusion line. Finding austenite phase in these areas are matter of interest and it can be indicative of the microstructure complexity of multi-pass welds. In the second phase of research, the microstructure of multi-pass welds was found to be more heterogeneous than that of single- and double-pass welds. Any individual pass in a multi-pass weld consists of several regions formed by adjacent weld passes heat cycle. Results showed that former austenite grains modification occurred in areas close to the subsequent weld passes

  2. Rolling and Annealing Effects on Microstructure and Hardness of Commercial 405 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Jahja

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The "cold-rolling" experiments for several values of true strain namely 5 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent respectively have been carried out on commercial SS-405 steel samples at 350oC; the as-rolled samples were cut into several pieces in size of 10 x 10 x 5 mm3, and some pieces were annealed to 550oC for 24 hours. All samples were then mounted and polished before etching in order to observe the grain boundaries. The microstructure observation on all samples was carried out by using optical microscope (MO, meanwhile X-ray diffraction technique was employed in order to support the identification of the existing phases and to verify changes with respect to crystal orientation; the hardness tests were carried out by using Vickers micro hardness tester. The microstructure observation supported by X-ray diffraction results shows that the phase grains of rolled sample tends to take the oblong-shape, accompanied by a preferred orientation predominantly inclined toward the (110 plane. The microhardness testing results show that there has been an increase in the hardness of the as-rolled samples; Mainly because of the nearly negligible thickness of the original sample (being only 5 mm in size, the 15 percent as-rolled samples exhibits only a slight reduction in hardness compared to the 10 percent as-rolled samples; The main cause of this effect is the movement of some dislocations infiltrating the surface resulting in the reduction of the inner-stress in the bulk of the samples. In the rolled-annealed samples there is a very significant reduction in hardness compared to the as-rolled samples. Here the main cause is the recrystallization process taking place during annealing, which tends to significantly reduce the dislocations.

  3. Microstructure and hardness investigation of 17-4PH stainless steel by laser quenching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhaoyun, E-mail: zhaoyunchenlaoshi@126.com [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Nantong ST 145, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou Guijuan, E-mail: zgjghpx@126.com [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Nantong ST 145, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen Zhonghua, E-mail: jickdahua@163.com [College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Nantong ST 145, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface hardening of 17-4PH is highly achieved by laser transformation hardening. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A hardened layer with a thickness of 1.75 mm is formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase similar to {epsilon}-Cu precipitates re-segregation after dissolved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strengthening phase is composed of classic lath martensite, coarse NbC and a lot of finer fcc copper-rich phases. - Abstract: Surface hardening of 17-4PH was achieved by laser transformation hardening using 5 kW continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser system. The microstructure of the laser-quenched sample was investigated by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscope and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectrometer. The hardness profile was determined by a Vickers hardness tester. The hardened layer with a thickness of 1.75 mm was formed, and it was composed of classic lath martensite, coarse NbC and a lot of finer fcc copper-rich phases which were similar to {epsilon}-Cu precipitates. The maximal hardness value of hardened zone is 446 HV which is 50 HV higher than that of the substrate (386-397 HV). The higher hardness in laser transformation layer of the 17-4PH steel could be attributed to the following aspects: the matrix with a high dislocation density; the fine microstructure; the finer fcc copper-rich phases that were similar to the {epsilon}-Cu precipitates as well as the transforming of retained austenite into lath martensite.

  4. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of shielded metal arc welded high nitrogen stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at studying the microstructure and pitting corrosion behaviour of shielded metal arc welded high nitrogen steel made of Cromang-N electrode. Basis for selecting this electrode is to increase the solubility of nitrogen in weld metal due to high chromium and manganese content. Microscopic studies were carried out using optical microscopy (OM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. Energy back scattered diffraction (EBSD method was used to determine the phase analysis, grain size and orientation image mapping. Potentio-dynamic polarization testing was carried out to study the pitting corrosion resistance in aerated 3.5% NaCl environment using a GillAC electrochemical system. The investigation results showed that the selected Cr–Mn–N type electrode resulted in a maximum reduction in delta-ferrite and improvement in pitting corrosion resistance of the weld zone was attributed to the coarse austenite grains owing to the reduction in active sites of the austenite/delta ferrite interface and the decrease in galvanic interaction between austenite and delta-ferrite.

  5. Heat input effect on the microstructural transformation and mechanical properties in GTAW welds of a 409L ferritic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado, Jorge A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Welds without filler metal and welds using a conventional austenitic stainless steel filler metal (ER308L were performed to join a ferritic stainless steel with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process (GTAW. Welding parameters were adjusted to obtain three different heat input values. Microstructure reveals the presence of coarse ferritic matrix and martensite laths in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ. Dilution between filler and base metal was correlated with the presence of austenite, martensite and ferrite in the weld metal. Weld thermal cycles were measured to correlate the microstructural transformation in the HAZ. Microhardness measurements (maps and profiles allow to identify the different zones of the welded joints (weld metal, HAZ, and base metal. Comparing the base metal with the weld metal and the HAZ, a hardness increment (~172 HV0.5 to ~350 HV0.5 and ~310 HV0.5, respectively was observed, which has been attributed to the martensite formation. Tensile strength of the welded joints without filler metal increased moderately with respect to base metal. In contrast, ductility was approximately 25% higher than base metal, which provided a toughness improvement of the welded joints.Se llevaron a cabo soldaduras sin material de aporte y empleando un electrodo convencional (ER308L para unir un acero inoxidable ferrítico, empleando el proceso de soldadura de arco con electrodo de tungsteno (GTAW. Los parámetros de soldadura fueron ajustados para obtener tres valores diferentes de calor de aporte. La microestructura revela la presencia de una matriz ferrítica gruesa y placas de martensita en la Zona Afectada por el Calor (ZAC. La dilución entre el metal base y de aporte fue correlacionada con la presencia de austenita, martensita y ferrita en el metal de soldadura. Los ciclos térmicos de la soldadura fueron medidos para correlacionar la transformación microestrutural en la ZAC. Mediciones de microdureza (mapas y perfiles, permitieron identificar las

  6. Microstructure Evolution During Stainless Steel-Copper Vacuum Brazing with a Ag/Cu/Pd Filler Alloy: Effect of Nickel Plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, R. K.; Laik, A.; Mishra, P.

    2017-03-01

    Vacuum brazing of stainless steel and copper plates was done using a silver-based filler alloy. In one set of experiments, around 30-µm-thick nickel coatings were electrochemically applied on stainless steel plates before carrying out the brazing runs and its effect in making changes in the braze-zone microstructure was studied. For brazing temperature of 830 °C, scanning electron microscopy examination of the braze-zone revealed that relatively sound joints were obtained when brazing was done with nickel-coated stainless steel than with uncoated one. However, when brazing of nickel-coated stainless steel and copper plates was done at 860 °C, a wide crack appeared in the braze-zone adjacent to copper side. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis and electron microprobe analysis confirmed that at higher temperature, the diffusion of Cu atoms from copper plate towards the braze-zone was faster than that of Ni atoms from nickel coating. Helium leak rate of the order 10-11 Pa m3/s was obtained for the crack-free joint, whereas this value was higher than 10-4 Pa m3/s for the joint having crack. The shear strength of the joint was found to decrease considerably due to the presence of crack.

  7. Corrosion and microstructural analysis data for AISI 316L and AISI 347H stainless steels after exposure to a supercritical water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, A; Timke, T; van de Sande, A; Heftrich, T; Novotny, R; Austin, T

    2016-06-01

    This article presents corrosion data and microstructural analysis data of austenitic stainless steels AISI 316L and AISI 347H exposed to supercritical water (25 MPa, 550 °C) with 2000 ppb of dissolved oxygen. The corrosion tests lasted a total of 1200 h but were interrupted at 600 h to allow measurements to be made. The microstructural data have been collected in the grain interior and at grain boundaries of the bulk of the materials and at the superficial oxide layer developed during the corrosion exposure.

  8. Corrosion and microstructural analysis data for AISI 316L and AISI 347H stainless steels after exposure to a supercritical water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents corrosion data and microstructural analysis data of austenitic stainless steels AISI 316L and AISI 347H exposed to supercritical water (25 MPa, 550 °C with 2000 ppb of dissolved oxygen. The corrosion tests lasted a total of 1200 h but were interrupted at 600 h to allow measurements to be made. The microstructural data have been collected in the grain interior and at grain boundaries of the bulk of the materials and at the superficial oxide layer developed during the corrosion exposure.

  9. Effect of Isothermal Hold on the Microstructural Evolution of the Stainless Steel 304L/Zircaloy-4 Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaili, A.; Taouinet, M.; Nibou, D.; Lebaili, S.; Hodaj, F.

    2017-07-01

    The transition from solid-state bonding of the stainless steel 304L/Zircaloy-4 diffusion couple to a partial liquid-phase bonding is important for the bonding process at temperatures ranging from 950 to 1050 °C. In this study, the temperature at which a melting process occurs at the interface after 45 min of isothermal holdings is determined experimentally. This melting process leads to a drastic change in the thickness of the reaction products zone (RPZ) as well as on its microstructure. Diffusion couples were characterized by SEM-EDS, and quantitative chemical analyses of different phases are performed by EPMA. The RPZ consists of three layers: the (α-Fe-Cr) phase layer and two layers consisting of Zr(Fe,Cr)2 (ɛ), Zr2(Fe,Ni) and (α-Zr) phases. The thickness of these layers strongly depends on the holding temperature. The analysis allowed the description of the physicochemical phenomena occurring during isothermal holding as well as during cooling. The solidification paths are determined at 1000, 1020 and 1050 °C. Hardness tests are performed on the bonded samples in order to qualify the mechanical properties of different phases of the RPZ. This study leads to a better understanding of the complex phenomena intervening in the joining process which is very useful for applications in industrial scale.

  10. Microstructural changes of a thermally aged stainless steel submerged arc weld overlay cladding of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T.; Kameda, J.; Nagai, Y.; Toyama, T.; Matsukawa, Y.; Nishiyama, Y.; Onizawa, K.

    2012-06-01

    The effect of thermal aging on microstructural changes in stainless steel submerged arc weld-overlay cladding of reactor pressure vessels was investigated using atom probe tomography (APT). In as-received materials subjected to post-welding heat treatments (PWHTs), with a subsequent furnace cooling, a slight fluctuation of the Cr concentration was observed due to spinodal decomposition in the δ-ferrite phase but not in the austenitic phase. Thermal aging at 400 °C for 10,000 h caused not only an increase in the amplitude of spinodal decomposition but also the precipitation of G phases with composition ratios of Ni:Si:Mn = 16:7:6 in the δ-ferrite phase. The degree of the spinodal decomposition in the submerged arc weld sample was similar to that in the electroslag weld one reported previously. We also observed a carbide on the γ-austenite and δ-ferrite interface. There were no Cr depleted zones around the carbide.

  11. Microstructural evolution and examination of α'-martensite during a multi-pass dissimilar stainless steel GTAW process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Dong-Yih; Wu, Weite

    2008-10-01

    This study discusses the microstructural evolution and examination of α'-martensite in fusion zones and heat-affected zones under multi-pass dissimilar stainless steels welding. The morphology, quantity, grain size, and chemical composition of the α'-martensite and δ-ferrite were analyzed using optical microscopy (OM), an image analyzer (IA), a ferritscope (FS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively. Recrystallization induced grain refinement of α'-martensite in over-lapping heat-affected zones (HAZ1 > 2 and HAZ2 > 3) after the second and third pass of welding. The Creq, Nieq, and K-factor values were calculated in an elemental analysis according to the Kaltenhauser equation. The higher Nieq (8.0-9.26) and lower K-factor (7.73-9.50) were examined for α'-martensite in the second pass fusion zone (FZ-2) as opposed to δ-ferrite. Comparatively, the ä-ferrite indicated higher Creq (22.30-22.91) and K-factor (15.72-16.68) values.

  12. Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Friction Stir Welding High Nitrogen Martensitic Stainless Steel 30Cr15Mo1N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Geng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High nitrogen martensitic stainless steel 30Cr15Mo1N plates were successfully welded by friction stir welding (FSW at a tool rotation speed of 300 rpm with a welding speed of 100 mm/min, using W-Re tool. The sound joint with no significant nitrogen loss was successfully produced. Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of an FSW joint were investigated. The results suggest that the grain size of the stir zone (SZ is larger than the base metal (BM and is much larger the case in SZ-top. Some carbides and nitrides rich in chromium were found in BM while not observed in SZ. The martensitic phase in SZ could transform to austenite phase during the FSW process and the higher peak temperature, the greater degree of transformation. The hardness of SZ is significantly lower than that of the BM. An abrupt change of hardness defined as hard zone (HZ was found in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ on the advancing side (AS, and the HZ is attributed to a combination result of temperature, deformation, and material flow behavior. The corrosion resistance of SZ is superior to that of BM, which can be attributed to less precipitation and lower angle boundaries (LABs. The corrosion resistance of SZ-bottom is slight higher than that of SZ-top because of the finer grained structure.

  13. Effect of electropulsing on surface mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel during ultrasonic surface rolling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haibo [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Guolin [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tang, Guoyi, E-mail: tanggy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-26

    The present work integrates 3D digital optical microscopy (OM), nano-indentation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to systematically investigate the effect of electropulsing on the surface mechanical properties and microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel during the ultrasonic surface rolling process (USRP). Compared with the original USRP, the introduction of electropulsing with optimal parameters can effectively facilitate surface crack healing and improve surface hardness and wear resistance dramatically, and the residual compressive stress is further enhanced. Meanwhile, more martensite phase and fewer deformation twins can be found in the strengthened layer. Rapid improvement of the surface mechanical properties should be attributed to the ultra-refined grains, accelerated martensitic phase transformation and suppressed deformation twining induced by the coupling effect of USRP and electropulsing. The high strain rate given by USRP, increased stacking fault energy and accelerated dislocation mobility caused by electropulsing are likely the primary intrinsic reasons for the observed phenomena.

  14. Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructures and hardness of stainless steel weld-overlay cladding of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, T., E-mail: takeuchi.tomoaki@jaea.go.jp [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kakubo, Y.; Matsukawa, Y.; Nozawa, Y.; Toyama, T.; Nagai, Y. [The Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nishiyama, Y.; Katsuyama, J.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Onizawa, K. [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The microstructures and the hardness of stainless steel weld overlay cladding of reactor pressure vessels subjected to neutron irradiation at a dose of 7.2 × 10{sup 19} n cm{sup −2} (E > 1 MeV) and a flux of 1.1 × 10{sup 13} n cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} at 290 °C were investigated by atom probe tomography and by a nanoindentation technique. To isolate the effects of the neutron irradiation, we compared the results of the measurements of the neutron-irradiated samples with those from a sample aged at 300 °C for a duration equivalent to that of the irradiation. The Cr concentration fluctuation was enhanced in the δ-ferrite phase of the irradiated sample. In addition, enhancement of the concentration fluctuation of Si, which was not observed in the aged sample, was observed. The hardening in the δ-ferrite phase occurred due to both irradiation and aging; however, the hardening of the irradiated sample was more than that expected from the Cr concentration fluctuation, which suggested that the Si concentration fluctuation and irradiation-induced defects were possible origins of the additional hardening.

  15. Effects of thermal aging on microstructure and hardness of stainless steel weld-overlay claddings of nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, T., E-mail: takeuchi.tomoaki@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kakubo, Y.; Matsukawa, Y.; Nozawa, Y.; Toyama, T.; Nagai, Y. [The Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nishiyama, Y.; Katsuyama, J.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Onizawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Suzuki, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The effects of thermal aging of stainless steel weld-overlay claddings of nuclear reactor pressure vessels on the microstructure and hardness of the claddings were investigated using atom probe tomography and nanoindentation testing. The claddings were aged at 400 °C for periods of 100–10,000 h. The fluctuation in Cr concentration in the δ-ferrite phase, which was caused by spinodal decomposition, progressed rapidly after aging for 100 h, and gradually for aging durations greater than 1000 h. On the other hand, NiSiMn clusters, initially formed after aging for less than 1000 h, had the highest number density after aging for 2000 h, and coarsened after aging for 10,000 h. The hardness of the δ-ferrite phase also increased rapidly for short period of aging, and saturated after aging for longer than 1000 h. This trend was similar to the observed Cr fluctuation concentration, but different from the trend seen in the formation of the NiSiMn clusters. These results strongly suggest that the primary factor responsible for the hardening of the δ-ferrite phase owing to thermal aging is Cr spinodal decomposition.

  16. Effects of nitrogen in shielding gas on microstructure evolution and localized corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel welding joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Jing, Hongyang; Xu, Lianyong; Han, Yongdian; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Chao

    2017-05-01

    The effects of nitrogen addition in shielding gas on microstructure evolution and localized corrosion behavior of duplex stainless steel (DSS) welds were studied. N2-supplemented shielding gas facilitated the primary austenite formation, suppressed the Cr2N precipitation in weld root, and increased the microhardnesses of weld metal. Furthermore, N2-supplemented shielding gas increased pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN) of austenite, but which decreased slightly PREN of ferrite. The modified double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation in 2 M H2SO4 + 1 M HCl was an effective method to study the localized corrosion of the different zones in the DSS welds. The adding 2% N2 to pure Ar shielding gas improved the localized corrosion resistance in the DSS welds, which was due to compensation for nitrogen loss and promoting nitrogen further solution in the austenite phases, suppression of the Cr2N precipitation in the weld root, and increase of primary austenite content with higher PREN than the ferrite and secondary austenite. Secondary austenite are prone to selective corrosion because of lower PREN compared with ferrite and primary austenite. Cr2N precipitation in the pure Ar shielding weld root and heat affected zone caused the pitting corrosion within the ferrite and the intergranular corrosion at the ferrite boundary. In addition, sigma and M23C6 precipitation resulted in the intergranular corrosion at the ferrite boundary.

  17. Influence of temperature histories during reactor startup periods on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Shigeki; Kitsunai, Yuji; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Chatani, Kazuhiro; Koshiishi, Masato; Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses influence of two different temperature profiles during startup periods in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor and a boiling water reactor upon microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons to about 1 dpa and 3 dpa. One of the temperature profiles was that the specimens experienced neutron irradiation in both reactors, under which the irradiation temperature transiently increased to 290 °C from room temperature with increasing reactor power during reactor startup periods. Another was that the specimens were pre-heated to about 150 °C prior to the irradiation to suppress the transient temperature increase. Tensile tests at 290 °C and Vickers hardness tests at room temperature were carried out, and their microstructures were observed by FEG-TEM. Difference of the temperature profiles was observed obviously in interstitial cluster formation, in particular, growth of Frank loops. Although influence of neutron irradiation involving transient temperature increase to 290 °C from room temperature on the yield strength and the Vickers hardness is buried in the trend curves of existing data, the influence was also found certainly in increment of in yield strength, existence of modest yield drop, and loss of strain hardening capacity and ductility. As a result, Frank loops, which were observed in austenitic stainless steel irradiated at doses of 1 dpa or more, seemed to have important implications regarding the interpretation of not irradiation hardening, but deformation of the austenitic stainless steel.

  18. Microstructure and microhardness of 17-4 PH stainless steel made by laser metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bayode, A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available of the fast solidification. The microstructure of the sample is martensitic with a dendritic grain structure and the dendritic growth is parallel to direction of the heat flow, this dendritic microstructure is common in laser processed 17-4 PH [15...], [2]. AM refers to a group of processes that manufacture fully dense and functional components directly layer by layer using a three dimensional (3D) model data. AM comprises of several technologies, these different technologies generally have...

  19. Ne Implantation Induced Transformation in Stainless Steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordhuis, J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a microstructural investigation of the changes induced by Ne implantation in stainless steel of the austenitic type. At a critical dose of 2.3 · 10^17/cm^2 a martensitic phase transformation was observed. In particular, attention has been paid to the effect of the stress held of

  20. Austenitic stainless steels for cryogenic service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E.N.C.; Juhas, M.C.

    1985-09-19

    Presently available information on austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel plate, welds, and castings for service below 77 K are reviewed with the intent (1) of developing systematic relationships between mechanical properties, composition, microstructure, and processing, and (2) of assessing the adequacy of these data bases in the design, fabrication, and operation of engineering systems at 4 K.

  1. Effect of Titanium on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High-Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steel 8Cr13MoV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tao Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of titanium on the carbides and mechanical properties of martensitic stainless steel 8Cr13MoV was studied. The results showed that TiCs not only acted as nucleation sites for δ-Fe and eutectic carbides, leading to the refinement of the microstructure, but also inhibited the formation of eutectic carbides M7C3. The addition of titanium in steel also promoted the transformation of M7C3-type to M23C6-type carbides, and consequently more carbides could be dissolved into the matrix during hot processing as demonstrated by the determination of extracted carbides from the steel matrix. Meanwhile, titanium suppressed the precipitation of secondary carbides during annealing. The appropriate amount of titanium addition decreased the size and fraction of primary carbides in the as-cast ingot, and improved the mechanical properties of the annealed steel.

  2. Microstructure of reaction zone in WCp/duplex stainless steels matrix composites processing by laser melt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do Nascimento, A. M.; Ocelik, V.; Ierardi, M. C. F.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    The laser melt injection (LMI) process has been used to create a metal matrix composite consisting of 80gm sized multi-grain WC particles embedded in three cast duplex stainless steels. The microstruture was investigated by scanning electron microscopy with integrated EDS and electron back-scatter

  3. Corrosion behavior of sensitized duplex stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F J; Panyayong, W; Rogers, W; Velasquez-Plata, D; Oshida, Y; Moore, B K

    1998-01-01

    The present work investigates the corrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel in 0.9% NaCl solution after various heat-treatments, and compares it to that of 316L austenitic stainless steel. Both stainless steels were heat-treated at 500, 650, and 800 degrees C in air for 1 h, followed by furnace cooling. Each heat-treated sample was examined for their microstructures and Vickers micro-hardness, and subjected to the X-ray diffraction for the phase identification. Using potentiostatic polarization method, each heat-treated sample was corrosion-tested in 37 degrees C 0.9% NaCl solution to estimate its corrosion rate. It was found that simulated sensitization showed an adverse influence on both steels, indicating that corrosion rates increased by increasing the sensitization temperatures.

  4. Brazing titanium to stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

  5. Effect of Sintering Atmosphere and Solution Treatment on Density, Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Duplex Stainless Steels Developed from Pre-alloyed Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Arun Prasad; Mahendran, Sudhahar; Ramajayam, Mariappan; Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Chinnaraj, Raj Kumar

    2017-10-01

    In this research, Powder Metallurgy (P/M) of Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) of different compositions were prepared through pre-alloyed powders and elemental powders with and without addition of copper. The powder mix was developed by pot mill for 12 h to obtain the homogeneous mixture of pre-alloyed powder with elemental compositions. Cylindrical green compacts with the dimensions of 30 mm diameter and 12 mm height were compacted through universal testing machine at a pressure level of 560 ± 10 MPa. These green compacts were sintered at 1350 °C for 2 h in hydrogen and argon atmospheres. Some of the sintered stainless steel preforms were solution treated at 1050 °C followed by water quenching. The sintered as well as solution treated samples were analysed by metallography examination, Scanning Electron Microscopy and evaluation of mechanical properties. Ferrite content of sintered and solution treated DSS were measured by Fischer Ferritoscope. It is inferred that the hydrogen sintered DSS depicted better density (94% theoretical density) and tensile strength (695 MPa) than the argon sintered steels. Similarly the microstructure of solution treated DSS revealed existence of more volume of ferrite grains than its sintered condition. Solution treated hydrogen sintered DSS A (50 wt% 316L + 50 wt% 430L) exhibited higher tensile strength of 716 MPa and elongation of 17%, which are 10-13% increment than the sintered stainless steels.

  6. Microstructure Anisotropy Effect on Stress and Hydrogen Distribution in Micro Area for Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHONG Zhen-qian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Elastic stiffness distribution of martensite microstructure was analyzed by using Electron Back Scatter Diffraction(EBSD experiment, based on which the coupled finite element model of stress-hydrogen interaction was established to study the influence of martensitic microstructure anisotropy on the micro local stress and hydrogen distribution. The results show that misorientation between adjacent Block Laths is 60°, and different Block Laths have different elastic stiffness in the same loading direction, which resulted in the heterogeneous distribution of micro stress and hydrogen, and micro stress can be characterized by microstructure element of Block Lath.Elastic stiffness gradient and Block size play a significant role in stress concentration among microstructures, and while stress concentration can affect hydrogen distribution. High elastic stiffness gradient and large size of Block Lath cause high stress concentration, accumulate high concentration of hydrogen, which initiate crack of hydrogen embrittlement in the end. The above results are consistent with micro fracture morphology and EBSD experiment on crack region.

  7. An Analysis of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties on Friction Stir Welded Joint of Dissimilar 304 Stainless Steel and Commercially Pure Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamagendiravarman M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, friction stir welding of dissimilar 304 stainless steel and commercially pure aluminium was performed under the following condition of tool rotational speed 1000 rpm, traverse speed 60 mm/min and tool tilt angle 2 degree. Microstructural characterisation was carried out by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM. Optical images shows that the microstructural change is very minimum in steel side when compared to aluminium side due to the difference in mechanical and thermal properties. The intermetallic compound Al3Fe was observed at the interfacial region and stir region of the welded joint. The maximum ultimate tensile strength is 78% of commercially pure aluminium base metal. Microhardness profile was measured across the weld interface and the maximum value reaches at the stir zone due to the formation of intermettalics.

  8. The influence of cooling rate on the microstructure of stainless steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmer, J.W.

    1988-09-01

    The emergence of high energy density welding, laser surface modification and rapid solidification as commonly used metallurgical processing techniques has greatly increased the range of cooling rates that can be accessed during the solidification of metals and alloys. The microstructures which develop during these rapid cooling conditions may be significantly different from those which develop during low cooling rate conditions as the result of access to new metastable phases with the additional kinetic limitations that accompany rapid solidification. This investigation explores the influence of cooling rate on a series of seven ternary alloys which span the line of two-fold saturation in the Fe-Ni-Cr system. High speed electron beam surface melting was used to resolidify these alloys at scan speeds up to 5 m/s. The resulting cooling rates were estimated from dendrite arm spacing measurements and were confirmed by heat flow modeling to vary from 7 /times/ 10/sup 0/ /degree/C/s to 8 /times/ 10/sup 6/ /degree/C/s. The microstructures that developed from each solidification condition were examined using optical metallography, electron microprobe analysis, scanning electron microscopy and a vibrating sample magnetometer. These results were used to create diagrams to predict the primary mode of solidification, the ferrite content and the complex microstructural morphologies which develop as a function of interface velocity and composition. 158 refs., 90 figs., 45 tabs.

  9. The Effect of Si and Mn on Microstructure and Selected Properties of Cr-Ni Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandyk B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cast stainless steel of the Cr-Ni duplex type is used, among others, for the cast parts of pumps and valves handling various chemically aggressive media. Therefore, the main problem discussed in this article is the problem of abrasion wear resistance in a mixture of SiC and water and resistance to electrochemical corrosion in a 3% NaCl-H2O solution of selected cast steel grades, i.e. typical duplex cast steel, high silicon and manganese duplex cast steel, and Cr-Ni austenitic cast steel (type AISI 316L. The study shows that the best abrasion wear resistance comparable to Ni-Hart cast iron was obtained in the cast duplex steel, where Ni was partially replaced with Mn and N. This cast steel was also characterized by the highest hardness and matrix microhardness among all the tested cast steel grades. The best resistance to electrochemical corrosion in 3% NaCl-H2O solution showed the cast duplex steel with high content of Cr, Mo and N. The addition of Ni plays rather insignificant role in the improvement of corrosion resistance of the materials tested.

  10. Influence of Thermal Aging on the Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Dual-Phase, Precipitation-Hardened, Powder Metallurgy Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J. L.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, N.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of thermal aging on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of dual-phase, precipitation-hardened, powder metallurgy (PM) stainless steels of varying ferrite-martensite content were examined. Quantitative analyses of the inherent porosity and phase fractions were conducted on the steels, and no significant differences were noted with respect to aging temperature. Tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation to fracture all increased with increasing aging temperature reaching maxima at 811 K (538 °C) in most cases. Increased strength and decreased ductility were observed in steels of higher martensite content. Nanoindentation of the individual microconstituents was employed to obtain a fundamental understanding of the strengthening contributions. Both the ferrite and martensite nanohardness values increased with aging temperature and exhibited similar maxima to the bulk tensile properties.

  11. Corrosion-induced microstructural developments in 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li2BeF4(FLiBe) salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guiqiu; He, Lingfeng; Carpenter, David; Sridharan, Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The microstructural developments in the near-surface regions of AISI 316 stainless steel during exposure to molten Li2BeF4 (FLiBe) salt have been investigated with the goal of using this material for the construction of the fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR), a leading nuclear reactor concept for the next generation nuclear plants (NGNP). Tests were conducted in molten FLiBe salt (melting point: 459 °C) at 700 °C in graphite crucibles and 316 stainless steel crucibles for exposure duration of up to 3000 h. Corrosion-induced microstructural changes in the near-surface regions of the samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with EDS capabilities. Intergranular corrosion attack in the near-surface regions was observed with associated Cr depletion along the grain boundaries. High-angle grain boundaries (15-180°) were particularly prone to intergranular attack and Cr depletion. The depth of attack extended to the depths of 22 μm after 3000-h exposure for the samples tested in graphite crucible, while similar exposure in 316 stainless steel crucible led to the attack depths of only about 11 μm. Testing in graphite crucibles led to the formation of nanometer-scale Mo2C, Cr7C3 and Al4C3 particle phases in the near-surface regions of the material. The copious depletion of Cr in the near-surface regions induced a γ-martensite to α-ferrite phase (FeNix) transformation. Based on the microstructural analysis, a thermal diffusion controlled corrosion model was developed and experimentally validated for predicting long-term corrosion attack depth.

  12. PREDICTION OF LONG-TERM CREEP-FATIGUE LIFE OF STAINLESS STEEL WELDMENT BASED ON MICROSTRUCTURE DEGRADATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, ASAYAMA; Shinichi, HASEBE; Oarai Engineering Center, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a newly developed analytical method for the evaluation of creep-fatigue strength for stainless weld metal. Based on the observation that creep-fatigue crack initiated adjacent to the interface of σ-phase/δ-ferrite and matrix, a mechanical model, which allowed the evaluation of micro stress/strain concentration adjacent to the interface, was developed. Fatigue and creep damages were evaluated, using the model which described the microstructure after long time exposure to h...

  13. Effect of Dynamic Reheating Induced by Weaving on the Microstructure of GTAW Weld Metal of 25% Cr Super Duplex Stainless Steel Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Joon Sung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the additional growth and/or transformation of the austenite phase that occurs in weld metals of super duplex stainless steel upon reheating is known. However, the effects have not been fully investigated, especially with respect to reheating induced by weaving during single-pass welding. In this work, bead-on-pipe gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW was conducted on super duplex stainless steel to understand the effect of weaving on the microstructure of weld metal. Microstructural analysis, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD, and focused ion beam transmission electron microscopy (FIB-TEM were carried out to investigate the relationship between weaving and microstructural change. The weaving of GTAW produced a dynamic reheated area just before the weld bead during welding. It was revealed that extensive reheated weld existed even after one welding pass, and that the content of the austenite phase in the reheated area was higher than that in the non-reheated area, indicating the existence of a large quantity of intragranular austenite phase. In addition, the Cr2N content in the reheated area was lower than that in the non-reheated area. This reduction of Cr2N was closely related to the reheating resulting from weaving. TEM analysis revealed that Cr2N in the non-reheated area was dispersed following heating and transformed to secondary austenite.

  14. Microstructural, Mechanical, and Electrochemical Analysis of Duplex and Superduplex Stainless Steels Welded with the Autogenous TIG Process Using Different Heat Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucio Soares da Fonseca

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS and Superduplex Stainless Steels (SDSS have a strong appeal in the petrochemical industry. These steels have excellent properties, such as corrosion resistance and good toughness besides good weldability. Welding techniques take into account the loss of alloying elements during the process, so this loss is usually compensated by the addition of a filler metal rich in alloying elements. A possible problem would be during the welding of these materials in adverse conditions in service, where the operator could have difficulties in welding with the filler metal. Therefore, in this work, two DSS and one SDSS were welded, by autogenous Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG, i.e., without addition of a filler metal, by three different heat inputs. After welding, microstructural, mechanical, and electrochemical analysis was performed. The microstructures were characterized for each welding condition, with the aid of optical microscopy (OM. Vickers hardness, Charpy-V, and cyclic polarization tests were also performed. After the electrochemical tests, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SDSS welded with high heat input kept the balance of the austenite and ferrite, and toughness above the limit value. The hardness values remain constant in the weld regions and SDSS is the most resistant to corrosion.

  15. Gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding of ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel: Microstructural and mechanical behavior characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabooni, S., E-mail: s.sabooni@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ngan, A.H.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Jabbari, H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In the present study, an ultrafine grained (UFG) AISI 304L stainless steel with the average grain size of 650 nm was successfully welded by both gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and friction stir welding (FSW). GTAW was applied without any filler metal. FSW was also performed at a constant rotational speed of 630 rpm and different welding speeds from 20 to 80 mm/min. Microstructural characterization was carried out by High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) with Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Nanoindentation, microhardness measurements and tensile tests were also performed to study the mechanical properties of the base metal and weldments. The results showed that the solidification mode in the GTAW welded sample is FA (ferrite–austenite) type with the microstructure consisting of an austenite matrix embedded with lath type and skeletal type ferrite. The nugget zone microstructure in the FSW welded samples consisted of equiaxed dynamically recrystallized austenite grains with some amount of elongated delta ferrite. Sigma phase precipitates were formed in the region ahead the rotating tool during the heating cycle of FSW, which were finally fragmented into nanometric particles and distributed in the weld nugget. Also there is a high possibility that the existing delta ferrite in the microstructure rapidly transforms into sigma phase particles during the short thermal cycle of FSW. These suggest that high strain and deformation during FSW can promote sigma phase formation. The final austenite grain size in the nugget zone was found to decrease with increasing Zener–Hollomon parameter, which was obtained quantitatively by measuring the peak temperature, calculating the strain rate during FSW and exact examination of hot deformation activation energy by considering the actual grain size before the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. Mechanical properties observations showed that the welding

  16. Optimum design of a hot extrusion process for AISI type 304L stainless steel using a model for the evolution of microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, S.; Mannan, S. L.; Rodriguez, P.

    2002-05-01

    The deformation behaviour of 304L stainless steel was evaluated, under compression in the temperature range of 600-1200 °C and strain-rate range of 0.001-100 s-1 from the viewpoint of establishing processing-microstructure relationships during hot working. Ferrite forms at temperatures above 1150 °C during deformation. The material exhibits a dynamic recrystallization (DRX) domain in the temperature range of 1000-1200 °C and strain-rate range of 0.01-5 s-1, which is the optimum one for hot working. The development of microstructure in 304L stainless steel during industrial hot-forming operations such as press forging, rolling, extrusion, and hammer forging at different temperatures in the range 600-1200 °C, was studied and compared with the results of the laboratory tests for assessing the applicability of simulative tests in the optimization of processing parameters. In order to control the final microstructure of the product, an analytical model for the evolution of microstructure during hot working (in the DRX domain) was obtained. Using the above model, the optimum strain, strain-rate, and temperature trajectories were arrived at for obtaining a grain size of 35 µm in an extruded product. Process control parameters, such as ram velocity, die profile, and billet temperature, which achieve the optimal trajectories were calculated using a process model. Extrusion trials were conducted at optimal conditions and a good agreement with those results predicted in the design stage has been achieved.

  17. Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Friction Welded AISI 304 Stainless Steel to AISI 1060 Steel AISI 1060

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ates H.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rotary Friction welding is one of the most popular methods of joining similar and dissimilar materials. It is widely used with metals and thermoplastics in a wide variety of aviation, transport and aerospace industrial component designs. This study investigates the influence of friction and upsetting pressures on the hardness, tensile properties and microstructure of the welds. The experimental results showed that as the friction and upsetting pressures increased, the hardness and tensile strength values increased, as well. The tensile fracture of welded joint occurred in the AISI 1060 side. The friction processed joints were evaluated for their integrity and quality aspects by optical and scanning electron microscopy. For the perfect interfacial bonding, sufficient upsetting and friction pressures are necessary to reach the optimal temperature and severe plastic deformation to bring these materials within the attraction range.

  18. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Phillips, Nathaniel Steven [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  19. Influence of Mode of Metal Transfer on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Gas Metal Arc-Welded Modified Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Manidipto; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-06-01

    This article describes in detail the effect of the modes of metal transfer on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas metal arc-welded modified ferritic stainless steel (SSP 409M) sheets (as received) of 4 mm thickness. The welded joints were prepared under three modes of metal transfer, i.e., short-circuit (SC), spray (S), transfer, and mix (M) mode transfer using two different austenitic filler wires (308L and 316L) and shielding gas composition of Ar + 5 pct CO2. The welded joints were evaluated by means of microstructural, hardness, notched tensile strength, Charpy impact toughness, and high cycle fatigue. The dependence of weld metal microstructure on modes of metal transfer and filler wires has been determined by dilution calculation, WRC-1992 diagram, Creq/Nieq ratio, stacking fault energy (SFE), optical microscopy (OM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed that the microstructure as well as the tensile, Charpy impact, and high cycle fatigue of weld metal is significantly affected by the mode of metal transfer and filler wire used. However, the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is affected only by the modes of metal transfer. The results have been correlated with the microstructures of weld and HAZ developed under different modes of metal transfer.

  20. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  1. Chromium-Makes stainless steel stainless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Chromium, a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point, is a silvery white, hard, and bright metal plating on steel and other material. Commonly known as chrome, it is one of the most important and indispensable industrial metals because of its hardness and resistance to corrosion. But it is used for more than the production of stainless steel and nonferrous alloys; it is also used to create pigments and chemicals used to process leather.

  2. Effects of Induction Heat Bending Process on Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of ASME SA312 Gr.TP304 Stainless Steel Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam In; Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Soo; Chang, Hyun Young; Park, Heung Bae; Sung, Gi Ho [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi Ho [R and D Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The usage of bending products recently have increased since many industries such as automobile, aerospace, shipbuilding, and chemical plants need the application of pipings. Bending process is one of the inevitable steps to fabricate the facilities. Induction heat bending is composed of compressive bending process by local heating and cooling. This work focused on the effect of induction heat bending process on the properties of ASME SA312 Gr. TP304 stainless steel pipes. Tests were performed for base metal and bended area including extrados, intrados, crown up, and down parts. Microstructure was analyzed using an optical microscope and SEM. In order to determine intergranular corrosion resistance, Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (DL-EPR) test and ASTM A262 practice A and C tests were done. Every specimen revealed non-metallic inclusion free under the criteria of 1.5i of the standard and the induction heat bending process did not affect the non-metallic inclusion in the alloys. Also, all the bended specimens had finer grain size than ASTM grain size number 5 corresponding to the grain sizes of the base metal and thus the grain size of the pipe bended by induction heat bending process is acceptable. Hardness of transition start, bend, and transition end areas of ASME SA312 TP304 stainless steel was a little higher than that of base metal. Intergranular corrosion behavior was determined by ASTM A262 practice A and C and DL-EPR test, and respectively step structure, corrosion rate under 0.3 mm/y, and Degree of Sensitization (DOS) of 0.001 - 0.075 % were obtained. That is, the induction heat bending process didn't affect the intergranular corrosion behavior of ASME SA312 TP304 stainless steel.

  3. Effect of Long-Term Thermal Exposures on Microstructure and Impression Creep in 304HCu Grade Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Manmath Kumar; Karthikeyan, T.; Mythili, R.; Vijayanand, V. D.; Saroja, S.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the results of microstructural evolution and mechanical properties in 304H Cu grade austenite stainless (SS 304HCu) during long-term exposure at high temperatures. The predicted phase composition as a function of temperature obtained using JMatPro® software was confirmed in conjunction with the microstructural evolution characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microstructures revealed primary Nb(C,N), M23C6 precipitates at γ-grain boundaries, fine secondary Nb(C,N) intragranular carbides, and a uniform precipitation of <40-nm-sized spherical Cu-rich phase after thermal aging for 10,000 hours at 903 K (630 °C). The impression creep rate at 300 MPa increased by a factor of 20 between 873 K and 923 K (600 °C and 650 °C). The creep rate at 903 K (630 °C) was found to moderately reduce with aging time, signifying the role of Cu-rich phase in improving the creep resistance. The deformation zones and the recrystallization behavior of the plastic zone in creep tested specimen was assessed using Electron backscatter diffraction technique.

  4. Effects of reversion and recrystallization on microstructure and mechanical properties of Nb-alloyed low-Ni high-Mn austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisko, A., E-mail: anna.kisko@oulu.fi [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Hamada, A.S. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez University, P.O. Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Talonen, J. [Outokumpu Oyj, P.O. Box 140, FI-02201 Espoo (Finland); Porter, D.; Karjalainen, L.P. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2016-03-07

    The influence of reversion annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an austenitic high-Mn low-Ni 15Cr–9Mn–1.1Ni–1.7Cu stainless steel with and without Nb alloying was investigated. The steel sheets were cold rolled to a 60% thickness reduction to obtain about 60% of strain-induced α'-martensite and subsequently annealed at temperatures between 700 and 1100 °C for 0.1–1000 s in order to revert the α'-martensite back to austenite and recrystallize the retained austenite. Microstructure evolution was studied using X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements, optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction techniques. Mechanical properties were determined using microhardness measurements and tensile tests at room temperature. It was observed that reversion could be completed at 700 °C but then recrystallization of the retained austenite remained partial. At 800 °C, a non-uniform grain structure was obtained consisting of ultrafine-grained areas formed via α'-martensite reversion and coarser ones by recrystallization of the retained austenite, whereas at 900 °C a uniform austenite grain size in the range of 1–2 μm was obtained for all the steels. The non-uniform grain structures exhibited excellent combinations of strength and ductility. The major contribution to the strength is attributed to the refined grain size. The strain hardening rate was higher for the Nb-free steel, even though strain-induced α'-martensite fractions after fracture were slightly lower than in the Nb-alloyed steels.

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminum alloys and austenitic stainless steel 304 after being exposed to hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, Nofrijon Bin Imam

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide used as a decontaminant agent on selected aircraft metallic materials has been investigated. The work is divided into three sections; bacterial attachment behavior onto an austenitic stainless steel 304 surface; effect of decontamination process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aircraft metallic structural materials of two aluminum alloys, i.e. 2024-T3 and 7075-T6, and an austenitic stainless steel 304 as used in galley and lavatory surfaces; and copper dissolution rate into hydrogen peroxide. With respect to bacterial attachment, the results show that surface roughness plays a role in the attachment of bacteria onto metallic surfaces at certain extent. However, when the contact angle of the liquid on a surface increased to a certain degree, detachment of bacteria on that surface became more difficult. In its relation to the decontamination process, the results show that a corrosion site, especially on the austenitic stainless steel 304 weld and its surrounding HAZ area, needs more attention because it could become a source or a harborage of bio-contaminant agent after either incidental or intentional bio-contaminant delivery. On the effect of the decontamination process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aircraft metallic structural materials, the results show that microstructural effects are both relatively small in magnitude and confined to a region immediately adjacent to the exposed surface. No systematic effect is found on the tensile properties of the three alloys under the conditions examined. The results of this investigation are promising with respect to the application of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide as a decontaminant agent to civilian aircraft, in that even under the most severe circumstances that could occur; only very limited damage was observed. The results from the dissolution of copper by concentrated liquid hydrogen peroxide showed that the rate of copper dissolution increased for

  6. Evolution of microstructures and mechanical properties during dissimilar electron beam welding of titanium alloy to stainless steel via copper interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomashchuk, I., E-mail: iryna.tomashchuk@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 12 rue de la Fonderie, F-71200 Le Creusot (France); Sallamand, P. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 12 rue de la Fonderie, F-71200 Le Creusot (France); Belyavina, N. [Department of Physics, Taras Shevchenko University, 2, Glushkov Avenue, 03022 Kiev (Ukraine); Pilloz, M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 12 rue de la Fonderie, F-71200 Le Creusot (France)

    2013-11-15

    The influence of operational parameters on the local phase composition and mechanical stability of the electron beam welds between titanium alloy and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel with a copper foil as an intermediate layer has been studied. It was shown that two types of weld morphologies could be obtained depending on beam offset from the center line. Beam shift toward the titanium alloy side results in formation of a large amount of the brittle TiFe{sub 2} phase, which is located at the steel/melted zone interface and leads to reducing the mechanical resistance of the weld. Beam shift toward the steel side inhibits the melting of titanium alloy and, so, the formation of brittle intermetallics at the titanium alloy/melted zone interface. Mechanical stability of the obtained junctions was shown to depend on the thickness of this intermetallic layer. The fracture zone of the weld was found to be a mixture of TiCu (3–42 wt%), TiCu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (x=0.72–0.84) (22–68 wt%) and TiCu{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x} (x=0.09–0.034) (0–22 wt%). In order to achieve the maximal ultimate tensile strength (350 MPa), the diffusion path length of Ti in the melted zone should be equal to 40–80 µm.

  7. Long term properties and microstructural evolution of 18Cr-10Ni-3Cu-Ti-Nb austenitic stainless steel for boiler tube application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Y.; Fukui, T.; Ono, T. [TenarisNKK Tubes, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Caminada, S. [TenarisDalmine, Dalmine, BG (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The allowable tensile stress of 0.1C-18Cr-10Ni-3Cu-Ti-Nb steel (TEMPALOY AA-1; ASME C.C. 2512) is more than 30% higher compared with that of ASME SA-213 Grade TP347H in the temperature range 600-700 C. This high creep rupture strength is obtained by the precipitation of MC and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides, and Cu-rich phase. Long term creep rupture tests over 10{sup 5}h enabled to verify the superior creep rupture strength of this steel. The investigation of microstructural evolution on the creep ruptured and aged specimens has shown the high structural stability of this material. Hardness and impact properties after high temperature aging reveal similar performance as conventional 18-8 stainless steels. Excellent steam oxidation resistance can be achieved by a shot-blasting method. The scale thickness of shot-blasted tube after 1000h at 750 C is below a few micron meters. These results have revealed that the mechanical properties and environmental resistance of this steel enable the use of TEMPALOY AA-1 in the latest generation of advanced USC boiler. (orig.)

  8. Microstructural evolution in the partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Zircaloy-4 to stainless steel 321 using active titanium filler metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atabaki, M. Mazar, E-mail: m.mazaratabaki@gmail.co [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, 81310 (Malaysia); Institute for Materials Research, the School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-30

    Microstructural evolution of the partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonded Zircaloy-4 and stainless steel 321 using an active Ti-base interlayer were studied at different temperatures. Additionally, simple analytical models were developed to predict the evolution of the interlayer and intermetallics during the bonding operation. Bonds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Precision measurement of the interlayer width was made as a function of the bonding temperature. The liquid film migration occurred as a result of chemical solubility differences between the stable and metastable phases. The formation and growth model of the intermetallic compounds at the interfaces of Zircaloy-4/Ti-base interlayer and stainless steel 321/Ti-base interlayer for controlling the bonding process was studied considering the diffusion kinetics and the thermodynamics. The evolution of the interlayer thickness indicated a good agreement between the calculation and experimental measurement. It was also demonstrated that the low isothermal solidification kinetic was not only due to the enrichment of the liquid phase with the base alloying elements such as Ti and Zr, but also the reduction of solid solubility limit of Cu in the base alloys contributed to the reduction of isothermal solidification kinetic.

  9. Microstructural evolution in the partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Zircaloy-4 to stainless steel 321 using active titanium filler metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, M. Mazar

    2010-11-01

    Microstructural evolution of the partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonded Zircaloy-4 and stainless steel 321 using an active Ti-base interlayer were studied at different temperatures. Additionally, simple analytical models were developed to predict the evolution of the interlayer and intermetallics during the bonding operation. Bonds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Precision measurement of the interlayer width was made as a function of the bonding temperature. The liquid film migration occurred as a result of chemical solubility differences between the stable and metastable phases. The formation and growth model of the intermetallic compounds at the interfaces of Zircaloy-4/Ti-base interlayer and stainless steel 321/Ti-base interlayer for controlling the bonding process was studied considering the diffusion kinetics and the thermodynamics. The evolution of the interlayer thickness indicated a good agreement between the calculation and experimental measurement. It was also demonstrated that the low isothermal solidification kinetic was not only due to the enrichment of the liquid phase with the base alloying elements such as Ti and Zr, but also the reduction of solid solubility limit of Cu in the base alloys contributed to the reduction of isothermal solidification kinetic.

  10. The Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Diffusion-Bonded Joints of 316L Stainless Steel and the 4J29 Kovar Alloy Using Nickel as an Interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingfeng Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 316L stainless steel (Fe–18Cr–11Ni and a Kovar (Fe–29Ni–17Co or 4J29 alloy were diffusion-bonded via vacuum hot-pressing in a temperature range of 850–950 °C with an interval of 50 °C for 120 min and at 900 °C for 180 and 240 min, under a pressure of 34.66 MPa. Interfacial microstructures of diffusion-bonded joints were characterized by optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The inter-diffusion of the elements across the diffusion interface was revealed via electron probe microanalysis (EPMA. The mechanical properties of the joints were investigated via micro Vickers hardness and tensile strength. The results show that an Ni interlayer can serve as an effective diffusion barrier for the bonding of 316L stainless steel and the 4J29 Kovar alloy. The composition of the joints was 316L/Ni s.s (Fe–Cr–Ni/remnant Ni/Ni s.s (Fe–Co–Ni/4J29. The highest tensile strength of 504.91 MPa with an elongation of 38.75% was obtained at 900 °C for 240 min. After the width of nickel solid solution (Fe–Co–Ni sufficiently increased, failure located at the 4J29 side and the fracture surface indicated a ductile nature.

  11. Friction Stir Welding of Stainless Steel to Al Alloy: Effect of Thermal Condition on Weld Nugget Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, M.; Gupta, R. K.; Husain, M. M.

    2014-02-01

    Joining of dissimilar materials is always a global challenge. Sometimes it is unavoidable to execute multifarious activities by a single component. In the present investigation, 6061 aluminum alloy and 304 stainless steel were joined by friction stir welding (FSW) at different tool rotational rates. Welded joints were characterized in optical and scanning electron microscopes. Reaction products in the stirring zone (SZ) were confirmed through X-ray diffraction. Joint strength was evaluated by tensile testing. It was found that the increment in average heat input and temperature at the weld nugget (WN) facilitated iron enrichment near the interface. Enhancement in the concentration of iron shifted the nature of intermetallics from the Fe2Al5 to Fe-rich end of the Fe-Al binary phase diagram. The peak microhardness and ultimate tensile strength were found to be maxima at the intermediate tool rotational rate, where Fe3Al and FeAl2 appeared along with Fe2Al5.

  12. Effect of Laves Phase on High-Temperature Deformation and Microstructure Evolution in an 18Cr-2Mo-0.5Nb Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Yamoah, Nana Kwame Gyan; Reynolds, William T.; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Murayama, Mitsuhiro

    2015-08-01

    Niobium-containing ferritic stainless steels are finding new applications in automotive exhaust components because of their oxidation resistance, thermal fatigue resistance, and high-temperature strength. The mechanical behavior of Nb-containing ferritic steels at service temperatures of 973 K (700 °C) and higher results from the convolution of dynamic microstructural changes including precipitation, precipitate coarsening, strain hardening, recovery, and recrystallization. The relative contributions of these competing processes have yet to be clarified. In this study, the high-temperature flow strength of an 18Cr-2Mo-0.5Nb ferritic stainless steel (SUS 444) was correlated with microstructure under different strain and initial precipitate distributions to clarify the relative role of the strengthening and softening processes. High-temperature tensile tests at 1023 K (750 °C) of un-aged (initial microstructure is precipitate-free) and pre-aged (initial microstructure contains precipitates) samples were carried out and transmission electron microscopy was used to assess dislocation distributions and precipitate morphology. The difference in the stress-strain curves between un-aged and pre-aged samples was drastic; the yield strength of the un-aged sample was twice that of the pre-aged sample, and the un-aged sample exhibits a noticeable yield drop. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a Laves phase nucleated and grew during the high-temperature tensile test in the un-aged sample and the majority of the precipitates in the pre-aged sample were the same Laves phase. Furthermore, a strain effect on precipitate growth was recognized in un-aged and pre-aged conditions by comparing grip (no strain) and gage (strained) sections of tensile samples. The dominant strengthening contribution in un-aged samples is initially the precipitate shearing mechanism and it changes to Orowan strengthening beyond the ultimate tensile strength, whereas the dominant contribution in

  13. Simulation and experimental comparison of the thermo-mechanical history and 3D microstructure evolution of 304L stainless steel tubes manufactured using LENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kyle L.; Rodgers, Theron M.; Underwood, Olivia D.; Madison, Jonathan D.; Ford, Kurtis R.; Whetten, Shaun R.; Dagel, Daryl J.; Bishop, Joseph E.

    2017-12-01

    Additive manufacturing enables the production of previously unachievable designs in conjunction with time and cost savings. However, spatially and temporally fluctuating thermal histories can lead to residual stress states and microstructural variations that challenge conventional assumptions used to predict part performance. Numerical simulations offer a viable way to explore the root causes of these characteristics, and can provide insight into methods of controlling them. Here, the thermal history of a 304L stainless steel cylinder produced using the Laser Engineered Net Shape process is simulated using finite element analysis (FEA). The resultant thermal history is coupled to both a solid mechanics FEA simulation to predict residual stress and a kinetic Monte Carlo model to predict the three-dimensional grain structure evolution. Experimental EBSD measurements of grain structure and in-process infrared thermal data are compared to the predictions.

  14. Combination Effects of Nocolok Flux with Ni Powder on Properties and Microstructures of Aluminum-Stainless Steel TIG Welding-Brazing Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huan; Lin, Sanbao; Yang, Chunli; Fan, Chenglei; Chen, Zhe

    2013-11-01

    A flux consisting of Nocolok and nickel powder was first applied for TIG welding-brazing of aluminum-stainless steel. Results of tensile and impact tests illustrated that a significant improvement in mechanical properties of the butt joint was obtained with the flux, tensile strength increased from 116 to 158 MPa, and impact energy increased from 3.2 to 6.7 J. Investigation results on microstructures of interfaces and seams suggested that Ni addition significantly decreased the thickness of intermetallic compound (IMC) layer on the interfaces, but did not change the phase structure of Al13Fe4. Furthermore, precipitate phase in the welded seams changed from Al6Fe to Al9FeNi, and the quantity of precipitate phases decreased from 12 to 9% approximately. Finally, effect of Ni powder's addition on the joint was analyzed and discussed. The reduction in the thickness of IMC and quantity of precipitate phases are beneficial to joint properties.

  15. Microstructural characterization and model of hardening for the irradiated austenitic stainless steels of the internals of pressurized water reactors; Caracterisation microstructurale et modelisation du durcissement des aciers austenitiques irradies des structures internes des reacteurs a eau pressurisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokor, C

    2003-07-01

    The core internals of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) are composed of SA 304 stainless steel plates and CW 316 stainless steel bolts. These internals undergo a neutron flux at a temperature between 280 deg C and 380 deg C which modifies their mechanical properties. These modifications are due to the changes in the microstructure of these materials under irradiation which depend on flux, dose and irradiation temperature. We have studied, by Transmission Electron Microscopy, the microstructure of stainless steels SA 304, CW 316 and CW 316Ti irradiated in a mixed flux reactor (OSIRIS at 330 deg C between 0,8 dpa et 3,4 dpa) and in a fast breeder reactor at 330 deg C (BOR-60) up to doses of 40 dpa. Moreover, samples have been irradiated at 375 deg C in a fast breeder reactor (EBR-II) up to doses of 10 dpa. The microstructure of the irradiated stainless steels consists in faulted Frank dislocation loops in the [111] planes of austenitic, with a Burgers vector of [111]. It is possible to find some voids in the solution annealed samples irradiated at 375 deg C. The evolution of the dislocations loops and voids has been simulated with a 'cluster dynamic' model. The fit of the model parameters has allowed us to have a quantitative description of our experimental results. This description of the microstructure after irradiation was coupled together with a hardening model by Frank loops that has permitted us to make a quantitative description of the hardening of SA 304, CW 316 and CW 316Ti stainless steels after irradiation at a certain dose, flux and temperature. The irradiation doses studied grow up to 90 dpa, dose of the end of life of PWR internals. (author)

  16. Microstructures and High-Temperature Mechanical Properties of a Martensitic Heat-Resistant Stainless Steel 403Nb Processed by Thermo-Mechanical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liqing; Zeng, Zhouyu; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Fuxian; Liu, Xianghua

    2013-11-01

    Thermo-mechanical treatments (TMT) at different rolling deformation temperatures were utilized to process a martensitic heat-resistant stainless steel 403Nb containing 12 wt pct Cr and small additions of Nb and V. Microstructures and mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and hardness, tensile, and creep tests. The results showed that high-temperature mechanical behavior after TMT can be greatly improved and microstructures with refined martensitic lath and finely dispersed nanosized MX carbides could be produced. The particle sizes of M23C6 and MX carbides in 403Nb steel after conventional normalizing and tempering (NT) treatments are about 50 to 160 and 10 to 20 nm, respectively, while those after TMT at 1123 K (850 °C) and subsequent tempering at 923 K (650 °C) for 2 hours reach about 25 to 85 and 5 to 10 nm, respectively. Under the condition of 260 MPa and 873 K (600 °C), the tensile creep rupture life of 403Nb steel after TMT at 1123 K (850 °C) is 455 hours, more than 3 times that after conventional NT processes. The mechanisms for improving mechanical properties at elevated temperature were analyzed in association with the existence of finely dispersed nanosized MX particles within martensitic lath. It is the nanosized MX particles having the higher stability at elevated temperature that assist both dislocation hardening and sub-grain hardening for longer duration by pinning the movement of dislocations and sub-grain boundary migration.

  17. Preformed posterior stainless steel crowns: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1999-02-01

    For almost 50 years, dentists have used stainless steel crowns for primary and permanent posterior teeth. No other type of restoration offers the convenience, low cost, durability, and reliability of such crowns when interim full-coronal coverage is required. Preformed stainless steel crowns have improved over the years. Better luting cements have been developed and different methods of crown manipulation have evolved. This article reviews stainless steel crown procedures for primary and permanent posterior teeth. Step-by-step placement of a primary molar stainless steel crown is documented and permanent molar stainless steel crown restoration is described. A method for repairing a worn-through crown also is reviewed.

  18. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot-welding. Th...

  19. Systematic Microstructural and Corrosion Performance Evaluation of CK-3MCuN and CN-3MN High Molybdenum Stainless Steel Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.D. Lundin; S. Wen; W. Liu; G. Zhou

    2001-10-01

    High molybdenum austenitic stainless steel castings are widely accepted for their high strength, excellent weldability, and good corrosion resistance over a wide range of temperatures in highly oxidizing aqueous and gaseous media in chemical processing and other environments. With their desirable performance, high molybdenum austenitic stainless steel castings are increasingly applied in industry in a similar manner as wrought materials. In general, cast and wrought stainless and high alloy steels are anticipated to possess equivalent resistance to corrosive media, and they are frequently used in conjunction with each other. However, alloying element segregation usually is more evident in castings than in wrought counterparts. Segregation of alloying elements can lead to the formation of secondary phases, such as sigma. Mechanical properties and especially the corrosion resistance of castings may be affected by the secondary phases. In addition, improper heat treatment procedures c an also lead to the formation of carbides and secondary phases in high alloy and austenitic stainless steels.

  20. DE-NE0000724 - Research Performance Final Report - Investigation of Thermal Aging Effects on the Evolution of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankem, Sreeramamurthy [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Perea, Daniel E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kolli, R. Prakash [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Mburu, Sarah [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Schwarm, Samuel C. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-12-11

    This report details the research activities carried out under DOE-NEUP award number DE-NE0000724 concerning the evolution of structural and mechanical properties during thermal aging of CF–3 and CF–8 cast duplex stainless steels (CDSS). The overall objective of this project was to use state-of-the-art characterization techniques to elucidate trends and phenomena in the mechanical and structural evolution of cast duplex stainless steels (CDSS) during thermal aging. These steels are commonly used as structural materials in commercial light water nuclear power plants, undergoing aging for decades in operation as cooling water pipes, pump casings, valve bodies, etc. During extended exposure to these conditions, CDSS are known to undergo a change in mechanical properties resulting in a loss of ductility, i.e. embrittlement. While it is generally accepted that structural changes within the ferrite phase, such as decomposition into iron (Fe)-rich and chromium (Cr)-rich domains, lead to the bulk embrittlement of the steels, many questions remain as to the mechanisms of embrittlement at multiple length scales. This work is intended to shed insight into the atomic level composition changes, associated kinetic mechanisms, and effects of changing phase structure on micro- and nano-scale deformation that lead to loss of impact toughness and tensile ductility in these steels. In general, this project provides a route to answer some of these major questions using techniques such as 3-dimensional (3-D) atom probe tomography (APT) and real-microstructure finite element method (FEM) modeling, which were not readily available when these steels were originally selected for service in light water reactors. Mechanical properties evaluated by Charpy V-notch impact testing (CVN), tensile testing, and microhardness and nanohardness measurements were obtained for each condition and compared with the initial baseline properties to view trends in deformation behavior during aging

  1. Morphologies, microstructures, and mechanical properties of samples produced using laser metal deposition with 316 L stainless steel wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Mi, Gaoyang; Luo, Yuanqing; Jiang, Ping; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming

    2017-07-01

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) with a filler has been demonstrated to be an effective method for additive manufacturing because of its high material deposition efficiency, improved surface quality, reduced material wastage, and cleaner process environment without metal dust pollution. In this study, single beads and samples with ten layers were successfully deposited on a 316 L stainless steel surface under optimized conditions using a 4000 W continuous wave fibre laser and an arc welding machine. The results showed that satisfactory layered samples with a large deposition height and smooth side surface could be achieved under appropriate parameters. The uniform structures had fine cellular and network austenite grains with good metallurgical bonding between layers, showing an austenite solidification mode. Precipitated ferrite at the grain boundaries showed a subgrain structure with fine uniform grain size. A higher microhardness (205-226 HV) was detected in the middle of the deposition area, while the tensile strength of the 50 layer sample reached 669 MPa. In addition, ductile fracturing was proven by the emergence of obvious dimples at the fracture surface.

  2. Effect of annealing temperature on microstructure of ferritic stainless steels with high Mo content; Efeito da temperatura de recozimento na microestrutura em acos inoxidaveis ferriticos com alto teor de Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, H.F.G.; Miranda, H.C. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Herculano, L.F.G. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza (Brazil). Lab. de Caracterizacao de Materiais; Tavares, S.S.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    The petroleum refined in Brazilian refining plants is characterized by its high content of sulphur. This fact has increased problems related to naphtenic corrosion. It is known by the experience in refining that steels with high contents of Mo present good naphtenic corrosion resistance. This papers studied aspects referring to mechanical properties and microstructure of high Mo ferritic stainless steels developed in laboratory as a function of annealing temperature. Results showed that temperatures between 1000 and 1050 deg C were more suitable to the steels studied. (author)

  3. Influence of noble metal fission products and uranium on the microstructure and corrosion behaviour of D9 stainless steel-zirconium metal waste form alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairi, Lipika Rani; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2014-05-01

    Metal waste form (MWF) alloys of composition D9SS-8.5Zr, D9SS-10Zr-1NMFP and D9SS-10Zr-1NMFP-10U were prepared by casting of D9SS (Ti-modified austenitic 316 stainless steel), zirconium, NMFPs (noble metal fission products) and uranium for evaluating the influence of NMFPs and U on the microstructure and corrosion resistance of MWF alloys. Gradual increase in the hardness value was observed with the addition of NMFPs and uranium. Microstructural characterisation revealed the formation of Zr-rich intermetallic phases in these alloys which act as hosts for NMFPs and U. Fe-Zr and Ni-Zr based intermetallics were identified in D9SS-Zr and D9SS-Zr-NMFP alloys by XRD technique. In the U added alloy, UZrO2 and NiU2 were observed along with Fe-Zr and Ni-Zr intermetallics. Electrochemical corrosion monitoring confirmed active corrosion potential and higher passive current density with the addition of NMFPs and U. The MWF alloy with NMFPs showed higher break down potential with high polarization resistance revealing stable passive film.

  4. Corrosion behaviour of sintered duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utrilla, M. Victoria; Urena, Alejandro; Otero, Enrique; Munez, Claudio Jose [Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnologia, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Duplex austenite-ferrite stainless steels were prepared by mixing austenitic (316L) and ferritic (434L) atomized powders. Although different 316L/434L ratios were prepared, present work centred its study on 50% ferrite - 50% austenite sintered steel. The powders were mixed and pressed at 700 MPa and sintered at 1250 deg. C for 30 min in vacuum. The cooling rate was 5 deg. C/min. Solution treatment was carried out to homogenize the microstructure at 1100 deg. C during 20 min. A microstructural study of the material in solution was performed, evaluating the microstructure, proportion and shape of porosity, and ferrite percentage. This last was measured by two methods, quantitative metallography and Fischer ferrito-metry. The materials were heat treated in the range of 700 to 1000 deg. C, for 10, 30 and 60 min and water quenched, to study the microstructural changes and the influence on the intergranular corrosion resistance. The method used to evaluate the sensitization to the intergranular corrosion was the electrochemical potentio-kinetic reactivation procedure (EPR). The test solution was 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0,01 M KSCN at 30 deg. C. The criterion used to evaluate the sensitization was the ratio between the maximum reactivation density (Ir) and the maximum activation density (Ia). The results of the electrochemical tests were discussed in relation with the microstructures observed at the different heat treatments. (authors)

  5. Strengthening of stainless steel weldment by high temperature precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior and the strengthening mechanism of stainless steel welded joints at 600 °C have been investigated. The welds were composed of AISI 304 stainless steel, as base metal, and niobium containing AISI 347 stainless steel, as weld metal. The investigation was conducted by means of creep tests. The welded specimens were subjected to both high temperature (600 °C and long periods (up to 2000 h under constant load, and both mechanical properties and microstructural changes in the material were monitored. It was found that the exposure of the material at 600 °C under load contributes to a strengthening effect on the weld. The phenomenon might be correlated with an accelerated process of second phase precipitation hardening. Keywords: Stainless steel, Weld, AISI 304, Precipitation hardening

  6. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Syed Altaf; Kumar, Vadivel; Jayaram, Prithviraj

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires. Materials and Methods: We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets - titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel - using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated ca...

  7. Investigation of the Microstructural, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Grade A Ship Steel-Duplex Stainless Steel Composites Produced via Explosive Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yakup; Kahraman, Nizamettin; Durgutlu, Ahmet; Gülenç, Behçet

    2017-08-01

    Grade A ship-building steel-AISI 2304 duplex stainless steel composite plates were manufactured via explosive welding. The AISI 2304 plates were used to clad the Grade A plates. Optical microscopy studies were conducted on the joining interface for characterization of the manufactured composite plates. Notch impact, tensile-shear, microhardness, bending and twisting tests were carried out to determine the mechanical properties of the composites. In addition, the surfaces of fractured samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and neutral salt spray (NSS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to examine corrosion behavior. Near the explosion zone, the interface was completely flat, but became wavy as the distance from the explosion zone increased. The notch impact tests indicated that the impact strength of the composites decreased with increasing distance from the explosion zone. The SEM studies detected brittle behavior below the impact transition temperature and ductile behavior above this temperature. Microhardness tests revealed that the hardness values increased with increasing distance from the explosion zone and mechanical tests showed that no visible cracking or separation had occurred on the joining interface. The NSS and potentiodynamic polarization tests determined that the AISI 2304 exhibited higher corrosion resistance than the Grade A steel.

  8. Microstructural study of thermally aged duplex stainless steel deformation and fracture modes; Etude microstructurale des modes de deformation et de rupture d`un acier austenoferritique vieilli thermiquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaeghe, B. [Institut national polytechnique, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this work is to study the micro mechanisms of deformation and rupture of an austeno ferritic stainless steel (Z 3 CND 22-10 M) with 33 % of ferrite. It is studied after ageing 1 000 h at 400 deg. C and 8 000 h at 350 deg. C and compared to the `as received` state. During ageing the ferritic phase undergoes microstructural evolutions which affects its properties. The two ageing treatments lead to roughly the same level of embrittlement. Microstructural characterisation shows that both phases percolate and exhibit orientation relationships close to Kurdjumov-Sachs ones. Mechanical properties of the steel were characterised for different ageing treatments at room temperature and at 320 deg. C. The interface is particularly strong and ensures the load transfer to ferrite even if this phase contains cleavage cracks. Moreover the interface does not oppose slip transmission which is instead controlled by localised glide in the ferritic phase. If activated slip systems of austenite are common with ferrite, slip transmission from austenite to ferrite indeed occurs through the=e interface. If they are not common, dislocations cross-slip back into the austenite. At 320 deg. C cross-slip occurs even far from the interface. Damage starts by nucleation in ferrite of cleavage cracks which propagate between austenite islands. Crack propagation is controlled by stretching of austenite ligaments. The material breaks by ductile tearing of austenite islands when the crack eventually percolates in the ferritic phase. The ductility of the material can be correctly describer using a simple model that takes into account the tearing-off the ductile-phase. (author). 153 refs.

  9. Nano-composite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  10. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  11. Performance Evaluation of 316L-Q345R Stainless Steel Clad Plate

    OpenAIRE

    JIN He-rong; YANG Xu-kun; YI Ya-li

    2016-01-01

    Performance of 316L-Q345R stainless steel clad plate prepared by vacuum hot-rolling was evaluated from two aspects of the microstructure and micro-hardness. Microstructure topography and constituent of clad plate were investigated by scanning electron microscope and energy spectrum analysis, and changing rules of phase structure and constituent were also studied. Relationship between microstructure and hardness was studied by testing the hardness of interface between stainless steel and carbo...

  12. An investigation on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties during transient liquid phase bonding of stainless steel 316L to Ti–6Al–4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakipour, Shahrokh [Department of Materials Engineering, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Halvaee, Ayoub; Amadeh, Ahmad Ali [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Samavatian, Majid, E-mail: m.samavatian@srbiau.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodabandeh, Alireza [Department of Materials Engineering, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Transient liquid phase bonding of SS316L to Ti–6Al–4V was studied. • A vacuum furnace was used to prevent oxidation during the bonding process. • Diffusion of Fe, Cu and Ti at the interface led to formation of eutectic phases. • The maximum shear strength reached to 220 MPa for the bond with 50 μm thick interlayer at 900 °C. - Abstract: Transient liquid phase bonding mechanism of two dissimilar alloys stainless steel 316L and Ti–6Al–4V using pure Cu interlayer with different thicknesses was studied. In order to characterize the microstructure and compositional changes in the joint zone, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction have been applied. Microhardness and shear strength tests have been performed to investigate mechanical properties of the joints. The results showed that there are various intermetallic compounds at the interface caused by interdiffusion of Ti, Fe and Cu across the joint zone. Furthermore, increasing the interlayer thickness led to incompletion of bonding process in 60 min. The maximum shear strength of 220 MPa has been attained for the bond made at 900 °C. With the rise in bonding temperature to 960 °C, a reduction in bond strength occurs attributed to increase in width of joint zone and formation of more brittle intermetallic compounds at the interface.

  13. Influence of M-TIG and A-TIG Welding Process on Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of 409 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthy, R. S.; Dwivedi, D. K.; Vasudevan, M.

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigates the effects of activating flux tungsten inert gas welding (A-TIG) and multipass tungsten inert gas welding (M-TIG) on the weld morphology, angular distortion, microstructures and mechanical properties when welding 8-mm-thick 409 ferritic stainless steel (FSS). SiO2 was used as activating flux for A-TIG welding, while SUPERTIG ER309L was used as filler for M-TIG welding. Bead-on-plate weld trials were carried out to obtain the full penetration by using different combinations of flux coating density, welding speed and welding current. An optical microscope, field emission scanning microscope (FESEM), and x-ray diffractometer were used for the metallurgical characterizations. Vickers hardness, tensile test, Charpy toughness test, and creep behavior test were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of the base and weld metals. Experimental results indicate that the A-TIG process can increase the joint penetration and tends to reduce the angular distortion of the 409 FSS weldment. The A-TIG welded joint also exhibited greater mechanical strength. However, a critically low Charpy toughness was measured for the A-TIG weld fusion zone, which was later sufficiently improved after post weld heat treatment (PWHT). It was concluded that PWHT is mandatory for A-TIG welded 409 FSS.

  14. Investigation of micro-structure and micro-hardness properties of 304L stainless steel treated in a hot cathode arc discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Hitendra K., E-mail: hkmalik@physics.iitd.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi – 110016 (India); Singh, Omveer [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi – 110016 (India); Dahiya, Raj P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi – 110016 (India); Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal–131039 (India)

    2015-08-28

    We have established a hot cathode arc discharge plasma system, where different stainless steel samples can be treated by monitoring the plasma parameters and nitriding parameters independently. In the present work, a mixture of 70% N{sub 2} and 30% H{sub 2} gases was fed into the plasma chamber and the treatment time and substrate temperature were optimized for treating 304L Stainless Steel samples. Various physical techniques such as x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and micro-vickers hardness tester were employed to determine the structural, surface composition and surface hardness of the treated samples.

  15. Liquid Phase Sintering of Highly Alloyed Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Troels

    1996-01-01

    of boride to AISI 316L type steels have previously been studied, but were found to be sensitive to intergranular corrosion due to formation of intermetallic phases rich in chromium and molybdenum. In order to improve this system further, new investigations have focused on the use of higher alloyed stainless......Liquid phase sintering of stainless steel is usually applied to improve corrosion resistance by obtaining a material without an open pore system. The dense structure normally also give a higher strength when compared to conventional sintered steel. Liquid phase sintrering based on addition...... steel as base material. The stainless base powders were added different amounts and types of boride and sintered in hydrogen at different temperatures and times in a laboratory furnace. During sintering the outlet gas was analyzed and subsequently related to the obtained microstructure. Thermodynamic...

  16. Microstructural evolution at the overlap zones of 12Cr martensitic stainless steel laser alloyed with TiC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebiyi, DI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple track laser alloying is characterised by additional heat treatment and differences in the amount of powder deposited at the overlap regions. These result in different microstructural and phase evolution at these regions, which...

  17. Diffusion brazing nickel-plated stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    To bond parts, sandwich assembly is made up of aluminum core, aluminum face sheet with brazing alloy interface, and nickel plated stainless steel part. Sandwich is placed between bottom and top glide sheet that is placed in stainless steel retort where assembly is bonded at 580 C.

  18. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

  19. Effect of Carbonitriding in a Salt Bath by a QPQ Scheme on Stainless Steel 321 Microstructure and Service Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, L.; Castro, G.; Mera, L.; Mier, J. L.; García, A.; Varela, A.

    2016-09-01

    Wear resistance, corrosion properties and structure of reinforced layers deposited on steel AISI 321 with carbonitriding by the quench-polish-quench (QPQ) Tennifer® process with subsequent oxidation are studied. The structure of the layers is investigated by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive local analysis and x-ray diffractometry. Steel wear resistance is determined by a pin-on disk test, and oxide layer adhesion is determined by a scratch method. Pitting corrosion resistance is determined by plotting cyclic polarization curves.

  20. Corrosion of annealed AISI 316 stainless steel in sodium environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Vaidehi; Ganesan, Vedaraman

    1998-07-01

    Solution annealed AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel specimens were exposed in static sodium at 773 and 873 K for durations ranging from 500 to 2000 h. The results, i.e, weight loss data, hardness values, carburisation, depletion rates, sigma phase formation from the ferrite layer, corrosion morphology, roughness values etc. are analysed and discussed in the paper. Corrosion data such as the weight loss/depleted layer thickness and microstructure of fully annealed stainless steel specimens at 773 and 873 K under static sodium conditions (present study) are comparable to those of 20% cold worked stainless steel type 316 specimens at temperatures 973 K and above under dynamic sodium conditions. Annealed specimens leach out at a faster rate than cold worked specimens exposed to sodium.

  1. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Stainless Steel Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, William H [ORNL; Lou, Xiaoyuan [General Electric (GE); List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Webber, David [General Electric (GE)

    2016-09-01

    This collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and General Electric Company aimed to evaluate the mechanical properties, microstructure, and porosity of the additively manufactured 316L stainless steel by ORNL’s Renishaw AM250 machine for nuclear application. The program also evaluated the stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue crack growth rate of the same material in high temperature water environments. Results show the properties of this material to be similar to the properties of 316L stainless steel fabricated additively with equipment from other manufacturers with slightly higher porosity. The stress corrosion crack growth rate is similar to that for wrought 316L stainless steel for an oxygenated high temperature water environment and slightly higher for a hydrogenated high temperature water environment. Optimized heat treatment of this material is expected to improve performance in high temperature water environments.

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a Ti-microalloyed low-carbon stainless steel treated by quenching-partitioning-tempering process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, S.T., E-mail: xst-2007@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Z.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Z. [Research Institute, Baoshan Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Shanghai 201900 (China); Wang, G.D. [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) process was used to treat a Ti-microalloyed low-carbon stainless steel after cold rolling. In addition to martensite, ferrite and retained austenite, TiN, coarse TiC, fine TiC, (Fe,Cr){sub 3}C and ultra-fine TiC precipitates were formed after the Q-P-T treatment. Based on field emission-scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations, thermodynamic, crystallographic and statistical analyses were used to reveal the precipitation behaviors of these particles. The effects of partitioning-tempering (P-T) temperature and time on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Q-P-T treated specimens were specially studied. The coarsening and spheroidization of (Fe,Cr){sub 3}C particles during P-T stage were obviously retarded by large Cr addition. The retained austenite was obtained significantly with appropriate P-T parameters. The precipitation of ultra-fine TiC particles in the martensite during the P-T stage at 500 °C induced a secondary hardening. - Highlights: • Some fine TiC with 30–70 nm precipitated in austenite during partial austenization. • A part of fine TiC had K-S OR with martensite after Q-P-T treatment. • A part of fine TiC had a OR specially deviating from K-S OR with martensite. • Coarsening and spheroidization of (Fe,Cr){sub 3}C were retarded during P-T stage. • Ultra-fine TiC with < 10 nm precipitated in martensite during P-T stage at 500 °C.

  3. Relationship between Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Martensitic High Nitrogen Stainless Steel 30Cr15Mo1N at Different Austenitizing Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhouhua; Feng, Hao; Li, Huabing; Zhu, Hongchun; Zhang, Shucai; Zhang, Binbin; Han, Yu; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Dake

    2017-07-27

    The relationship between microstructure and corrosion behavior of martensitic high nitrogen stainless steel 30Cr15Mo1N at different austenitizing temperatures was investigated by microscopy observation, electrochemical measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and immersion testing. The results indicated that finer Cr-rich M₂N dispersed more homogeneously than coarse M 23 C₆, and the fractions of M 23 C₆ and M₂N both decreased with increasing austenitizing temperature. The Cr-depleted zone around M 23 C₆ was wider and its minimum Cr concentration was lower than M₂N. The metastable pits initiated preferentially around coarse M 23 C₆ which induced severer Cr-depletion, and the pit growth followed the power law. The increasing of austenitizing temperature induced fewer metastable pit initiation sites, more uniform element distribution and higher contents of Cr, Mo and N in the matrix. In addition, the passive film thickened and Cr₂O₃, Cr 3+ and CrN enriched with increasing austenitizing temperature, which enhanced the stability of the passive film and repassivation ability of pits. Therefore, as austenitizing temperature increased, the metastable and stable pitting potentials increased and pit growth rate decreased, revealing less susceptible metastable pit initiation, larger repassivation tendency and higher corrosion resistance. The determining factor of pitting potentials could be divided into three stages: dissolution of M 23 C₆ (below 1000 °C), dissolution of M₂N (from 1000 to 1050 °C) and existence of a few undissolved precipitates and non-metallic inclusions (above 1050 °C).

  4. Microstructure Characterization and Hardness Evaluation of Alloy 52 Welded Stainless Steel 316 Subjected to Ultrasonic Nanocyrtal Surface Modification Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. D.; Amanov, A.; Pyun, Y. S. [Sun Moon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. S.; Choi, Y. S. [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, an ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) technique was applied to dissimilar weld point between STS316L and Alloy 52. This UNSM technique is a patented technology, which can be described as a type of ultrasonic cold-forging technology. It has been demonstrated that the UNSM technique is a simple method to produce a nanocrystalline surface layer at the top surface of metallic materials. Microstructure and hardness of STS316L and Alloy 52 are investigated before and after UNSM treatment. It is expected according to the previous study that the UNSM technique is able to release the residual stress which delays PWSCC. In this study, microstructural characterization and hardness evaluation of STS316L and welded Alloy 52 subjected to UNSM technique were investigated.

  5. Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science

    1989-11-15

    This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Phase transformations evaluation on a UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel based on nondestructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo Silva, Edgard de, E-mail: edgard@cefetpb.edu.br [Centro federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Paraiba (CEFET PB), Area da Industria, Avenida 1o de Maio, 720 - 58015-430 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Costa de Albuquerque, Victor Hugo, E-mail: victor.albuquerque@fe.up.pt [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Cidade Universitaria, S/N - 58059-900 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Pereira Leite, Josinaldo, E-mail: josinaldo@ct.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Cidade Universitaria, S/N - 58059-900 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Gomes Varela, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: varela@cefetpb.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica (DEM), Cidade Universitaria, S/N - 58059-900 - Joao Pessoa/PB (Brazil); Pinho de Moura, Elineudo, E-mail: elineudo@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Campus do Pici, Bloco 715, 60455-760 - Fortaleza/CE (Brazil); Tavares, Joao Manuel R.S., E-mail: tavares@fe.up.pt [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial (DEMEGI)/Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica e Gestao Industrial - INEGI, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-08-15

    Duplex stainless steel presents special mechanical properties such as, for example, mechanical and corrosion strength, becoming competitive in relation to the other types of stainless steel. One of the great problems of duplex stainless steel microstructural changes study is related to embrittlement above 300 deg. C, with the precipitation of the {alpha}' phase occurring over the ferritic microstructure. Aiming to characterise embrittlement of duplex stainless steel, hardening kinetics, from 425 to 475 deg. C, was analysed through the speed of sound, Charpy impact energy, X-ray diffraction, hardness and microscopy parameters. The presence of two hardening stages, detected through the speed of sound, was observed, one being of brittle characteristic and the other ductile. Moreover, the speed of sound showed a direct correlation with the material's hardness. Thus, it is concluded that the speed of sound is a promising nondestructive parameter to follow-up embrittlement in duplex stainless steel.

  7. Influence of silver additions to type 316 stainless steels on bacterial inhibition, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tseng, I-Sheng; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    techniques. The microstructure of these 316 stainless steels was examined, and the influences of silver additions to 316 stainless steels on bacterial inhibition, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance were investigated. This study suggested that silver-bearing 316 stainless steels could be used......Bacterial contamination is a major concern in many areas. In this study, silver was added to type 316 stainless steels in order to obtain an expected bacteria inhibiting property to reduce the occurrence of bacterial contamination. Silver-bearing 316 stainless steels were prepared by vacuum melting...

  8. Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-05-01

    Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.

  9. Correlation of microstructure with hardness and wear resistance in Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}/stainless steel surface composites fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Eunsub [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr

    2005-09-25

    Correlation of microstructure with hardness and wear resistance in Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}/stainless steel surface composites fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation was investigated in the present study. Three kinds of powder mixtures, i.e., 50Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-50CaF{sub 2}(flux), 100Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} and 87.5Cr-12.5C (wt.%), were placed on an AISI 316L stainless steel substrate, which was then irradiated with electron beam. In the specimens fabricated without the flux addition, the surface composite layer of 3.5-4.8 mm in thickness was successfully formed without defects by the self-fluxing effect, and contained a large amount (up to 18 vol.%) of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides in the austenite matrix. The composite layer fabricated with Cr + C powders having lower melting points than Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} powders was thicker than that fabricated with Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} powders because of more effective melting of Cr + C powders during electron beam irradiation. The hardness and wear resistance of the surface composite layer were directly influenced by hard Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides, and thus were about two times greater than those of the stainless steel substrate.

  10. Study of Stainless Steel Resistance in Conditions of Tribocorrosion Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rozing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed was the influence of tribocorrosion wear due to effects of fatty acids present in the processed medium. The analysis was conducted on samples made of two austenitic and two martensitic stainless steels. Austenitic steels were tested in their nitrided state and martensitic in their induction hardened state. Conducted were laboratory tests of corrosion resistance of samples, analysis of the microstructure and hardness. To see how the applied processes for modifying the surface of stainless steels behave in realistic conditions, it was conducted the examination of samples/parts of a sunflower cake chain conveyer. Based on the comparison of results obtained in the laboratory and in real conditions, it was estimated that steels AISI 420 and AISI 431 with induction hardened surfaces have a satisfactory resistance to abrasive-adhesive wear in the presence of fatty acids.

  11. Decomposition of ferrite in commercial superduplex stainless steel weld metals; microstructural transformations above 700 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, A.; Nilsson, J.-O.

    2002-04-01

    The microstructural stability at temperatures above 700 °C of weld metal of type 29Cr-8Ni-2Mo-0.39N and weld metal of type 25Cr-10Ni-4Mo-0.28N has been compared. Multipass welding was employed using the gas tungsten arc welding technique with a shielding gas of Ar+2 pct N2. The quantitative assessment of the intermetallic phase was performed using automatic image analysis in the light optical microscope (LOM). Detailed microanalysis was also performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A computer program developed by the authors was used to calculate a continuous cooling-temperature (CCT) diagram on the basis of the experimentally determined time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram. Thermodynamic calculations for estimating phase stabilities and for interpreting experimental observations were performed. It was found that weld metal of type 29Cr-8Ni-2Mo-0.39N was microstructurally more stable than weld metal of type 25Cr-10Ni-4Mo-0.28N. A lower molybdenum concentration and a higher nitrogen concentration in the former alloy could explain the higher stability with respect to the intermetallic phase. The higher nitrogen concentration also provides a rationale for the higher stability against the formation of secondary austenite in weld metal of type 29Cr-8Ni-2Mo-0.39N. This effect, which is associated with a lower thermodynamic driving force for precipitation of secondary austenite during multipass welding, can be explained by nitrogen-enhanced primary austenite formation.

  12. Stainless steel reinforcement as a replacement for epoxy coated steel in bridge decks : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The corrosion resistance of 2304 stainless steel reinforcement and stainless steel clad reinforcement was compared to conventional and epoxy-coated reinforcement (ECR). 2304 stainless steel was tested in both the as-received condition (dark mottled f...

  13. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of nitrogen-rich surface layers on AISI 304 stainless steel by rapid nitriding in a hollow cathode discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Yongyong; Zhang, Shangzhou; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yijie

    2018-01-01

    Nitriding treatments have been successfully applied to austenitic stainless steels to improve their hardness and tribological properties. However, at temperatures above 450 °C, conventional plasma nitriding processes decrease the corrosion resistance due to the formation of CrN phases within the modified layer. In this work, AISI 304 austenitic stainless steels were efficiently treated by rapid plasma nitriding at a high temperature of 530 °C in a hollow cathode discharge. The enhanced ionization obtained in the hollow cathode configuration provided a high current density and, consequently, a high temperature could be attained in a short time. The nitrided layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the dual-layer structure of the nitrided layer consists of a high-N face-centered cubic structure with a free CrN precipitate outer (top) layer and a nitrogen-expanded austenite S-phase bottom layer. The rapid nitriding-assisted hollow cathode discharge technique permits the use of high temperatures, as high as 530 °C, without promoting degradation in the corrosion resistance of stainless steel.

  14. Consitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih

    2008-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels combine high formability and high strength, which are generally opposing properties in materials. This property is a consequence of the martensitic phase transformation that takes place during deformation. This transformation is purely mechanically induced

  15. Wear and repair of stainless steel crowns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yilmaz, Y; Kara, N Belduz; Yilmaz, A; Sahin, H

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the wear of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in children, and compare the extent of microleakage in SSCs that had been repaired using either a cermet glass-ionomer cement...

  16. Constitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Khan, A.

    2010-01-01

    A physically based, macroscale constitutive model has been developed that can describe the complex mechanical behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steels. In the developed model a generalized model for the mechanically induced martensitic transformation is introduced. Mechanical tests have

  17. Ferrite Quantification Methodologies for Duplex Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Forgas Júnior

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify ferrite content, three techniques, XRD, ferritoscope and optical metallography, were applied to a duplex stainless steel UNS S31803 solution-treated for 30 min at 1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 °C, and then compared to equilibrium of phases predicted by ThermoCalc® simulation. As expected, the microstructure is composed only by austenite and ferrite phases, and ferrite content increases as the solution treatment temperature increases. The microstructure presents preferred grains orientation along the rolling directions even for a sample solution treated for 30 min at 1,200 °C. For all solution treatment temperatures, the ferrite volume fractions obtained by XRD measurements were higher than those achieved by the other two techniques and ThermoCalc® simulation, probably due to texturing effect of previous rolling process. Values obtained by quantitative metallography look more assertive as it is a direct measurement method but the ferritoscope technique should be considered mainly for in loco measurement.

  18. 77 FR 28568 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; North American Stainless, (Stainless Steel), Ghent, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; North American Stainless, (Stainless... authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the stainless steel mill of North American Stainless... subzone status for activity related to the manufacturing and distribution of stainless steel at the...

  19. Study of irradiation damage structures in austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Shozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-08-01

    The irradiation damage microstructures in austenitic stainless steels, which have been proposed to be a candidate of structural materials of a fusion reactor, under ions and neutrons irradiation have been studied. In ion irradiation experiments, cross-sectional observation of the depth distribution of damage formed due to ion irradiation became available. Comparison and discussion between experimental results with TEM and the calculated ones in the depth profiles of irradiation damage microstructures. Further, dual-phase stainless steels, consisted of ferritic/austenitic phases, showed irradiation-induced/enhanced precipitation during ion irradiation. High Flux Isotope Reactor with high neutron fluxes was employed in neutron-irradiation experiments. Swelling of 316 steel showed irradiation temperature dependence and this had strong correlation with phase instability under heavy damage level. Swelling resistance of Ti-modified austenitic stainless steel, which has good swelling resistance, decreased during high damage level. This might be caused by the instability of Ti-carbide particles. The preparation method to reduce higher radioactivity of neutron-irradiated TEM specimen was developed. (author). 176 refs.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Thermally Aged Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds and Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sunghoon; Seo, Myeong-Gyu; Jang, Changheui [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Conventional test methods for tensile and J-R properties of such weld require large size specimens. Meanwhile, small punch (SP) test has advantages of using small size samples at specific location. In this study, the mechanical property changes caused by the thermal aging were evaluated for the stainless steel welds and CASSs using tensile, J-R, and SP test. Based on the results, correlations were developed to estimate the fracture toughness using the load-displacement curve of SP tests. Finally, the fracture surfaces of compact tension (CT) and SP test specimens are compared and discussed in view of the effect of thermal aging on microstructure. Stainless steel welds of ER316L and ER347 as well as CASS (CF8M) were thermally aged at 400 .deg. C for 5,000 h. So far, tensile properties and fracture toughness of un-aged materials were carried out at room temperature and 320 .deg. C as a reference data. In order to evaluate the effect of thermal aging on mechanical properties, aged specimens are being tested and the changes in these properties will be discussed. In addition, correlations will be developed to estimate the fracture toughness in between J-R curve and SP curve.

  1. Fatigue behavior of welded austenitic stainless steel in different environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Yawas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue behavior of welded austenitic stainless steel in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid and wet steam corrosive media has been investigated. The immersion time in the corrosive media was 30 days to simulate the effect on stainless steel structures/equipment in offshore and food processing applications and thereafter annealing heat treatment was carried out on the samples. The findings from the fatigue tests show that seawater specimens have a lower fatigue stress of 0.5 × 10−5 N/mm2 for the heat treated sample and 0.1 × 10−5 N/mm2 for the unheat-treated sample compared to the corresponding hydrochloric acid and steam samples. The post-welding heat treatment was found to increase the mechanical properties of the austenitic stainless steel especially tensile strength but it reduces the transformation and thermal stresses of the samples. These findings were further corroborated by the microstructural examination of the stainless steel specimen.

  2. Development of nano-structured duplex and ferritic stainless steels by pulverisette planetary milling followed by pressureless sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R, Shashanka, E-mail: shashankaic@gmail.com; Chaira, D., E-mail: chaira.debasis@gmail.com

    2015-01-15

    Nano-structured duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders are prepared by planetary milling of elemental Fe, Cr and Ni powder for 40 h and then consolidated by conventional pressureless sintering. The progress of milling and the continuous refinement of stainless steel powders have been confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Activation energy for the formation of duplex and ferritic stainless steels is calculated by Kissinger method using differential scanning calorimetry and is found to be 159.24 and 90.17 KJ/mol respectively. Both duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders are consolidated at 1000, 1200 and 1400 °C in argon atmosphere to study microstructure, density and hardness. Maximum sintered density of 90% and Vickers microhardness of 550 HV are achieved for duplex stainless steel sintered at 1400 °C for 1 h. Similarly, 92% sintered density and 263 HV microhardness are achieved for ferritic stainless steel sintered at 1400 °C. - Highlights: • Synthesized duplex and ferritic stainless steels by pulverisette planetary milling • Calculated activation energy for the formation of duplex and ferritic stainless steels • Studied the effect of sintering temperature on density, hardness and microstructure • Duplex stainless steel exhibits 90% sintered density and microhardness of 550 HV. • Ferritic stainless steel shows 92% sintered density and 263 HV microhardness.

  3. Additively manufactured hierarchical stainless steels with high strength and ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Morris; Voisin, Thomas; McKeown, Joseph T.; Ye, Jianchao; Calta, Nicholas P.; Li, Zan; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Wen; Roehling, Tien Tran; Ott, Ryan T.; Santala, Melissa K.; Depond, Philip J.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Hamza, Alex V.; Zhu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Many traditional approaches for strengthening steels typically come at the expense of useful ductility, a dilemma known as strength-ductility trade-off. New metallurgical processing might offer the possibility of overcoming this. Here we report that austenitic 316L stainless steels additively manufactured via a laser powder-bed-fusion technique exhibit a combination of yield strength and tensile ductility that surpasses that of conventional 316L steels. High strength is attributed to solidification-enabled cellular structures, low-angle grain boundaries, and dislocations formed during manufacturing, while high uniform elongation correlates to a steady and progressive work-hardening mechanism regulated by a hierarchically heterogeneous microstructure, with length scales spanning nearly six orders of magnitude. In addition, solute segregation along cellular walls and low-angle grain boundaries can enhance dislocation pinning and promote twinning. This work demonstrates the potential of additive manufacturing to create alloys with unique microstructures and high performance for structural applications.

  4. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon-Jun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as σ and χ can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (σ + χ) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, σ was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and χ by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by

  5. HTPro: Low-temperature Surface Hardening of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance.......Low-temperature surface hardening of stainless steel provides the required performance properties without affecting corrosion resistance....

  6. The evolution of microstructure of austenitic stainless steels OH18N10T and OOH17N14M2 irradiated with high energy ions; Ewolucja mikrostruktury stali austenitycznych OH18N10T i OOH17N14M2 w wyniku napromienienia wysokoenergetycznymi jonami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, A.; Kochanski, T.; Krasnowski, M. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1993-02-01

    The microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels irradiated with heavy-ions to a dose of <5 dpa at temperature <100 C has been investigated. The transmission electron microscopy has been used to characterize the microstructural changes and the dependence of density the radiation defects on the dose of irradiation. The data obtained in the experiment were compared with results after neutron irradiation (E > 0.1 MeV). (author). 21 refs, 13 figs, 3 tabs.

  7. 21 CFR 878.4495 - Stainless steel suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stainless steel suture. 878.4495 Section 878.4495...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4495 Stainless steel suture. (a) Identification. A stainless steel suture is a needled or unneedled nonabsorbable surgical suture composed of 316L...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or alloys...

  9. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India...

  10. In Situ Neutron Diffraction Study of the Influence of Microstructure on the Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured 304L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. W.; Adams, D. P.; Balogh, L.; Carpenter, J. S.; Clausen, B.; King, G.; Reedlunn, B.; Palmer, T. A.; Maguire, M. C.; Vogel, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    In situ neutron diffraction measurements were completed during tensile and compressive deformation of stainless steel 304L additively manufactured (AM) using a high power directed energy deposition process. Traditionally produced wrought 304L material was also studied for comparison. The AM material exhibited roughly 200 MPa higher flow stress relative to the wrought material. Crystallite size, crystallographic texture, dislocation density, and lattice strains were all characterized to understand the differences in the macroscopic mechanical behavior. The AM material's initial dislocation density was about 10 times that of the wrought material, and the flow strength of both materials obeyed the Taylor equation, indicating that the AM material's increased yield strength was primarily due to greater dislocation density. Also, a 50 MPa flow strength tension/compression asymmetry was observed in the AM material, and several potential causes were examined.

  11. In Situ Neutron Diffraction Study of the Influence of Microstructure on the Mechanical Response of Additively Manufactured 304L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. W.; Adams, D. P.; Balogh, L.; Carpenter, J. S.; Clausen, B.; King, G.; Reedlunn, B.; Palmer, T. A.; Maguire, M. C.; Vogel, S. C.

    2017-10-01

    In situ neutron diffraction measurements were completed during tensile and compressive deformation of stainless steel 304L additively manufactured (AM) using a high power directed energy deposition process. Traditionally produced wrought 304L material was also studied for comparison. The AM material exhibited roughly 200 MPa higher flow stress relative to the wrought material. Crystallite size, crystallographic texture, dislocation density, and lattice strains were all characterized to understand the differences in the macroscopic mechanical behavior. The AM material's initial dislocation density was about 10 times that of the wrought material, and the flow strength of both materials obeyed the Taylor equation, indicating that the AM material's increased yield strength was primarily due to greater dislocation density. Also, a 50 MPa flow strength tension/compression asymmetry was observed in the AM material, and several potential causes were examined.

  12. Laser Rewelding of 304L Stainless Steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Michael Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodelas, Jeffrey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Laser welding of 304L stainless steel during component fabrication has been found to alter the chemical composition of the steel due to material evaporation. During repair or rework, or during potential reuse/ rewelding of certain components, the potential exists to alter the composition to the extent that the material becomes prone to solidification cracking. This work aims to characterize the extent of this susceptibility in order to make informed decisions regarding rewelding practice and base metal chemistry allowances.

  13. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang and Yibin Ren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels.

  14. Effect of continuous and pulsed currents on microstructural evolution of stainless steel joined by TIG welding; Einfluss des Einsatzes von Dauerstrom und Impulsstrom auf die Mikrostrukturentwicklung bei durch das WIG-Schweissverfahren gefuegtem rostfreiem Stahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgutlu, Ahmet; Findik, Tayfun; Guelenc, Behcet [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Cevik, Bekir [Duezce Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Welding Technology; Kaya, Yakup; Kahraman, Nizamettin [Karabuek Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Manufacturing Engineering

    2015-07-01

    In this study, AISI 316L series austenitic stainless steel sheets were joined by tungsten inert gas welding method in continuous and pulsed currents. Regarding microstructural investigation and hardness values of weld metal, samples were welded to investigate the effect of current type on grain structures of weld metal. Results showed that samples welded by using pulsed current had considerable different properties compared to the samples welded by using continuous current. While the weld metals of joinings obtained by using continuous current displayed a coarse-grained and columnar structure, weld metals obtained by using pulsed current had a finer-grained structure. It was also found that hardness values of samples, which were welded with continuous and pulsed current, were quite different.

  15. Colorimetric values of esthetic stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Omachi, Koichi; Staninec, Michal

    2002-01-01

    The colorimetric values of two different kinds of esthetic stainless steel crowns were measured and compared with the colorimetric values of primary anterior teeth in Japanese children. The colorimetric values of resin composite-faced stainless steel crowns (Kinder Krown) and epoxy-coated stainless steel crowns (White Steel Crown) were measured with a color difference meter. The Commission Internationale de Eclairage L*, a*, b*, and delta E*ab values and Munsell value, chroma, and hue were calculated. The data were compared with previously reported colorimetric values of Japanese primary anterior teeth measured with the same color difference meter used in this study. Compared to Japanese primary anterior teeth, Kinder Krown Pedo I and Pedo II showed much higher L* values and lower hue; on the other hand, White Steel Crown showed much higher L*, a*, b* values, much higher value and chroma, and much lower hue. Color analysis revealed that the colors of the White Steel Crown and Kinder Krown Pedo I were substantially different from the color of Japanese primary anterior teeth. The color difference between Pedo II crowns and Japanese primary anterior teeth was relatively high, but the color of Pedo II might be acceptable for clinical use.

  16. Effects of Cr2N Precipitation on the Antibacterial Properties of AISI 430 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Kang Du

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on their mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, some commercial Ni-Cr stainless steels have been widely applied as biomaterials, including the austenitic 304 stainless steel, the austenitic 316 stainless steel, the duplex 2205 stainless steel, and the ferritic 430 stainless steel. In order to reduce the occurrence of infections resulting from biomaterial implants, instruments, and medical devices, Cu2+ and Ag2+ ions have been added onto biomaterials for increasing the antibacterial properties, but they are known to damage biofilm. The occurrence of nanoparticles can also improve the antibacterial properties of biomaterials through various methods. In this study, we used Escherichia coli and analyzed the microstructures of American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 430 stainless steel with a 0.18 mass % N alloy element. During a lower temperature aging, the microstructure of the as-quenched specimen is essentially a ferrite and martensite duplex matrix with some Cr2N precipitates formed. Additionally, the antibacterial properties of the alloy for E. coli ranged from 3% to 60%, consistent with the presence of Cr2N precipitates. When aged at a lower temperature, which resulted in nano-Cr2N precipitation, the specimen possessed the highest antibacterial activity.

  17. Attenuation capability of low activation-modified high manganese austenitic stainless steel for fusion reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissa, M.M. [Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan (Egypt); El-kameesy, S.U.; El-Fiki, S.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Ghali, S.N. [Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan (Egypt); El Shazly, R.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Saeed, Aly, E-mail: aly_8h@yahoo.com [Nuclear Power station Department, Faculty of Engineering, Egyptian-Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Improvement stainless steel alloys to be used in fusion reactors. • Structural, mechanical, attenuation properties of investigated alloys were studied. • Good agreement between experimental and calculated results has been achieved. • The developed alloys could be considered as candidate materials for fusion reactors. - Abstract: Low nickel-high manganese austenitic stainless steel alloys, SSMn9Ni and SSMn10Ni, were developed to use as a shielding material in fusion reactor system. A standard austenitic stainless steel SS316L was prepared and studied as a reference sample. The microstructure properties of the present stainless steel alloys were investigated using Schaeffler diagram, optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction pattern. Mainly, an austenite phase was observed for the prepared stainless steel alloys. Additionally, a small ferrite phase was observed in SS316L and SSMn10Ni samples. The mechanical properties of the prepared alloys were studied using Vickers hardness and tensile tests at room temperature. The studied manganese stainless steel alloys showed higher hardness, yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength than SS316L. On the other hand, the manganese stainless steel elongation had relatively lower values than the standard SS316L. The removal cross section for both slow and total slow (primary and those slowed down in sample) neutrons were carried out using {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source. Gamma ray attenuation parameters were carried out for different gamma ray energy lines which emitted from {sup 60}Co and {sup 232}Th radioactive sources. The developed manganese stainless steel alloys had a higher total slow removal cross section than SS316L. While the slow neutron and gamma rays were nearly the same for all studied stainless steel alloys. From the obtained results, the developed manganese stainless steel alloys could be considered as candidate materials for fusion reactor system with low activation based on the short life

  18. CASE-HARDENING OF STAINLESS STEEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to case-hardening of a stainless steel article by means of gas including carbon and/or nitrogen, whereby carbon and/or nitrogen atoms diffuse through the surface into the article. The method includes activating the surface of the article, applying a top layer on the activated...

  19. Granulate of stainless steel as compensator material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.C. van Santvoort (J. P C)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCompensators produced with computer controlled milling devices usually consist of a styrofoam mould, filled with an appropriate material. We investigated granulate of stainless steel as filling material. This cheap, easy to use, clean and re-usable material can be obtained with an

  20. Aging and Embrittlement of High Fluence Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, gary; Jiao, Zhijie; der ven, Anton Van; Bruemmer, Stephen; Edwards, Dan

    2012-12-31

    Irradiation of austenitic stainless steels results in the formation of dislocation loops, stacking fault tetrahedral, Ni-Si clusters and radiation-induced segregation (RIS). Of these features, it is the formation of precipitates which is most likely to impact the mechanical integrity at high dose. Unlike dislocation loops and RIS, precipitates exhibit an incubation period that can extend from 10 to 46 dpa, above which the cluster composition changes and a separate phase, (G-phase) forms. Both neutron and heavy ion irradiation showed that these clusters develop slowly and continue to evolve beyond 100 dpa. Overall, this work shows that the irradiated microstructure features produced by heavy ion irradiation are remarkably comparable in nature to those produced by neutron irradiation at much lower dose rates. The use of a temperature shift to account for the higher damage rate in heavy ion irradiation results in a fairly good match in the dislocation loop microstructure and the precipitate microstructure in austenitic stainless steels. Both irradiations also show segregation of the same elements and in the same directions, but to achieve comparable magnitudes, heavy ion irradiation must be conducted at a much higher temperature than that which produces a match with loops and precipitates. First-principles modeling has confirmed that the formation of Ni-Si precipitates under irradiation is likely caused by supersaturation of solute to defect sinks caused by highly correlated diffusion of Ni and Si. Thus, the formation and evolution of Ni-Si precipitates at high dose in austenitic stainless steels containing Si is inevitable.

  1. Aluminum nanocomposites having wear resistance better than stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Linan [University of Central Florida; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Luo, Jinsong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fan, Yi [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhang, Ligong [University of Central Florida; Liu, Jinling [University of Central Florida; Xu, Chengying [University of Central Florida; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Tribological behavior of alumina-particle-reinforced aluminum composites made by powder metallurgy process has been investigated. The nanocomposite containing 15 vol% of Al2O3 nanoparticles exhibits excellent wear resistance by showing significantly low wear rate and abrasive wear mode. The wear rate of the nanocomposite is even lower than stainless steel. We have also demonstrated that such excellent wear resistance only occurred in the composite reinforced with the high volume fraction of nanosized reinforcing particles. The results were discussed in terms of the microstructure of the nanocomposite.

  2. Vapor deposition of copper on stainless steel 304L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasofsky, R.W.

    1993-08-17

    Y-12 Plant is seeking to minimize the generation of hazardous wastes in its operations. The standard procedure for electroplating a thin layer of copper on type 304L stainless steel requires several aqueous pretreatment steps which generate Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous wastes. We have evaluated a more environmentally acceptable procedure. Copper was vacuum deposited onto 304L coupons under differing deposition conditions and properties of coatings produced, including microstructure and adhesive strength, were examined. Results indicated that a noncolumnar, fine grain copper coating with high adhesion can be produced using this environmentally more acceptable approach.

  3. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.

    2010-06-29

    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to 800.degree. C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  4. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ke; Ren, Yibin

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainl...

  5. Study of biocompatibility of medical grade high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menghua; Yin, Tieying; Wang, Yazhou; Du, Feifei; Zou, Xingzheng; Gregersen, Hans; Wang, Guixue

    2014-10-01

    Adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the living organism have resulted in development of high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also improves steel properties. The cell cytocompatibility, blood compatibility and cell response of high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel were studied in vitro. The mechanical properties and microstructure of this stainless steel were compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel. It was shown that the new steel material had comparable basic mechanical properties to 316L stainless steel and preserved the single austenite organization. The cell toxicity test showed no significant toxic side effects for MC3T3-E1 cells compared to nitinol alloy. Cell adhesion testing showed that the number of MC3T3-E1 cells was more than that on nitinol alloy and the cells grew in good condition. The hemolysis rate was lower than the national standard of 5% without influence on platelets. The total intracellular protein content and ALP activity and quantification of mineralization showed good cell response. We conclude that the high nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel is a promising new biomedical material for coronary stent development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stainless steel corrosion scale formed in reclaimed water: Characteristics, model for scale growth and metal element release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Hu, Hongying; Tang, Fusheng; Li, Yuhong; Yu, Kanghua

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steels generally have extremely good corrosion resistance, but are still susceptible to pitting corrosion. As a result, corrosion scales can form on the surface of stainless steel after extended exposure to aggressive aqueous environments. Corrosion scales play an important role in affecting water quality. These research results showed that interior regions of stainless steel corrosion scales have a high percentage of chromium phases. We reveal the morphology, micro-structure and physicochemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scales. Stainless steel corrosion scale is identified as a podiform chromite deposit according to these characteristics, which is unlike deposit formed during iron corrosion. A conceptual model to explain the formation and growth of stainless steel corrosion scale is proposed based on its composition and structure. The scale growth process involves pitting corrosion on the stainless steel surface and the consecutive generation and homogeneous deposition of corrosion products, which is governed by a series of chemical and electrochemical reactions. This model shows the role of corrosion scales in the mechanism of iron and chromium release from pitting corroded stainless steel materials. The formation of corrosion scale is strongly related to water quality parameters. The presence of HClO results in higher ferric content inside the scales. Cl- and SO42- ions in reclaimed water play an important role in corrosion pitting of stainless steel and promote the formation of scales. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Metallographic screening of grain boundary engineered type 304 austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanning, F., E-mail: Fabian.Hanning@googlemail.com; Engelberg, D.L., E-mail: Dirk.engelberg@manchester.ac.uk

    2014-08-15

    An electrochemical etching method for the identification of grain boundary engineered type 304 austenitic stainless steel microstructures is described. The method can be applied for rapid microstructure screening to complement electron backscatter diffraction analysis. A threshold parameter to identify grain boundary engineered microstructure is proposed, and the application of metallographic etching for characterising the degree of grain boundary engineering discussed. - Highlights: • As-received (annealed) and grain boundary engineered microstructures were compared. • Electro-chemical polarisation in nitric acid solutions was carried out. • A metallographic screening method has been developed. • The screening method complements EBSD analysis for microstructure identification.

  8. Fracture toughness of irradiated wrought and cast austenitic stainless steels in BWR environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O. K.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    In light water reactors, austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in reactor core internal components because of their high strength, ductility, and fracture toughness. Exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods degrades the fracture properties of these steels by changing the material microstructure (e.g., radiation hardening) and microchemistry (e.g., radiation-induced segregation). We look at the results of a study of simulated light-water reactor coolants, material chemistry, and irradiation damage and their effects on the susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of various commercially available and laboratory-melted stainless steels.

  9. Modelling of microstructural creep damage in welded joints of 316L stainless steel; Modelisation de l'endommagement a haute temperature dans le metal d'apport des joints soudes d'acier inoxydable austenitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouche, G

    2000-07-01

    Welded joints of 316L stainless steel under service conditions at elevated temperature are known to be preferential sites of creep damage, as compared to the base material. This damage results in the formation of cavities and the development of creep cracks which can lead to a premature failure of welded components. The complex two-phase microstructure of 316L welds was simulated by manually filling a mould with longitudinal deposited weld beads. The moulded material was then aged during 2000 hours at 600 deg. C. High resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy was largely used to examine the microstructure of the simulated material before and after ageing. Smooth and notched creep specimens were cut from the mould and tested at 600 deg. C under various stress levels. A comparison of the lifetime versus nominal stress curves for the base and welded materials shows a greater dependence of the welded material to creep phenomena. Observation and EBSD analysis show that damage is preferentially located along the austenite grain boundaries. The stress and strain fields in the notched specimens were calculated by finite element method. A correlation of this field to the observed damage was made in order to propose a predictive law relating the creep damage to the mechanical conditions applied locally. Further mechanical tests and simulation on CT specimens and mode II tubular specimens allowed validating the model under various multiaxial loading conditions. (author)

  10. Studies of stainless steel exposed to sandblasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horodek Paweł

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sandblasting on surface and subsurface of stainless steel is investigated using variable energy positron beam (VEP, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Samples of stainless steel were blasted using 110 μm particles of Al2O3 under different pressure and time duration. In the case of sandblasting for 90 s, the reduction of positron diffusion length depending on the applied pressure was observed. Sandblasting during 30 s leads only to the reduction of positron diffusion length to about 60 nm for all samples. Positron lifetimes close to 170 ps measured using positrons emitted directly from the source point to the presence of vacancies on the dislocation lines. SEM and AFM images show that surface roughness depends rather on pressure of sandblasting than time of exposition.

  11. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

  12. Weldability of Additive Manufactured Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Salminen, Antti

    Part size in additive manufacturing is limited by the size of building area of AM equipment. Occasionally, larger constructions that AM machines are able to produce, are needed, and this creates demand for welding AM parts together. However there is very little information on welding of additive manufactured stainless steels. The aim of this study was to investigate the weldability aspects of AM material. In this study, comparison of the bead on plate welds between AM parts and sheet metal parts is done. Used material was 316L stainless steel, AM and sheet metal, and parts were welded with laser welding. Weld quality was evaluated visually from macroscopic images. Results show that there are certain differences in the welds in AM parts compared to the welds in sheet metal parts. Differences were found in penetration depths and in type of welding defects. Nevertheless, this study presents that laser welding is suitable process for welding AM parts.

  13. State on AISI 304 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fattah-alhosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The passivity and protective nature of the passive films are essentially related to ionic and electronic transport processes, which are controlled by the optical and electronic properties of passive films. In this study, the electrochemical behavior of passive films anodically formed on AISI 304 stainless steel in sulfuric acid solution has been examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. AISI 304 in sulphuric acid solution is characterized by high interfacial impedance, thereby illustrating its high corrosion resistance. Results showed that the interfacial impedance and the polarization resistance (pol initially increase with applied potential, within the low potential passive. However, at a sufficiently high potential passive (>0.4 V, the interfacial impedance and the polarization resistance decrease with increasing potential. An electrical equivalent circuit based on the impedance analysis, which describes the behavior of the passive film on stainless steel more satisfactorily than the proposed models, is presented.

  14. STRUCTURAL STRESS RELAXATION IN STAINLESS INSTABILITY STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lyabuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The approach to the description of conditions of martensitic transformation in austenitic steel is advanced. Transformation induced hardening is the result of Le Chatelier principle in instability alloys. The phase transformation in austenitic instability stainless steel is the cause of reduction of grain refining and increase of strength. It was experimentally shown that physical-mechanical characteristics of the prepared materials were defined by the structure and inhomogeneous distribution of the hardening phase within a grain. The reasons for high thermal stability of inverse austenitic were established. The factors determining the inverse austenitic relaxation resistibility and resources for its increasing were revealed.

  15. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  16. Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting...... temperature (CPT) test as corrosion test. The following welding parameters are varied: Welding speed, lsser power, focus point position and laser operation mode (CW or pulsed)....

  17. Marginal adaptation of stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Theodore P; Epstein, David W; Castaldi, Cosmo R

    2003-01-01

    The chief goal of full coronal restoration using preformed stainless steel crowns (SSC) is replication of normal crown form and function. Marginal adaptation of SSCs involves appropriate crown size selection, trimming the crown form to achieve proper length, crimping crown edges to proximate the prepared tooth, and finishing and polishing the crown form. This report about SSC restoration focuses on the procedure of adapting, finishing, and polishing crown margins.

  18. Estimation of embrittlement during aging of AISI 316 stainless steel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Stainless steel; TIG welds; aging; Charpy impact; lower shelf energy; embrittlement. 1. Introduction. Austenitic stainless steels have high ductility, low yield strength, high tensile strength, are easy to fabricate and have good corrosion resistance (Harvey 1979). In welding of these steels there are some difficulties including hot.

  19. Reliability and performance evaluation of stainless and mild steel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliability and performance of stainless and mild steel products in methanolic and aqueous sodium chloride media have been investigated. Weight-loss and pre-exposure methods were used. There was a higher rate of weight-loss of mild steels and stainless steels in 1% HCl methanolic solution than in aqueous NaCl ...

  20. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  1. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  2. The use of stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, N Sue

    2002-01-01

    The stainless steel crown (SSC) is an extremely durable restoration with several clear-cut indications for use in primary teeth including: following a pulpotomy/pulpectomy; for teeth with developmental defects or large carious lesions involving multiple surfaces where an amalgam is likely to fail; and for fractured teeth. In other situations, its use is less clear cut, and caries risk factors, restoration longevity and cost effectiveness are considerations in decisions to use the SSC. The literature on caries risk factors in young children indicates that children at high risk exhibiting anterior tooth decay and/or molar caries may benefit by treatment with stainless steel crowns to protect the remaining at-risk tooth surfaces. Studies evaluating restoration longevity, including the durability and lifespan of SSCs and Class II amalgams demonstrate the superiority of SSCs for both parameters. Children with extensive decay, large lesions or multiple surface lesions in primary molars should be treated with stainless steel crowns. Because of the protection from future decay provided by their feature of full coverage and their increased durability and longevity, strong consideration should be given to the use of SSCs in children who require general anesthesia. Finally, a strong argument for the use of the SSC restoration is its cost effectiveness based on its durability and longevity.

  3. SCC of stainless steel under evaporative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, H.; Arnvig, P.E.; Wasielewska, W.; Wegrelius, L.; Wolfe, C. [Avesta Sheffield AB, Avesta (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    Three different test methods have been used to assess the susceptibility of different stainless steel grades to SCC under evaporative and immersed conditions. The methods employed were the drop evaporation test, the wick test and a high temperature, high pressure test simulating a feedwater heater tubing application in power plants. The alloys investigated were commercially produced austenitic and duplex stainless steels varying in chemical composition, plus one copper-nickel alloy. The resistance of austenitic stainless steels towards SCC increased by increasing the content of Ni, Mo and Cr, thus the super austenitic 654SMO{reg_sign} (uns32654) did not show any cracking in any of the three tests. The super austenitic 254SMO{reg_sign} (UNS31254) revealed only slight SCC in the simulated feed water heater tubing application while the equivalent N08367 revealed severe pitting and cracking. The drop evaporation test exhibited the most severe test conditions characterized by thermally induced fatigue effects, sensibility to onset of corrosion and severe acidic conditions generated under deposits on the test specimen. Some factors in stress corrosion cracking tests such as thermal fatigue, diffusion, heat transfer and stress condition, are discussed with regard to their influence on the test results.

  4. Corrosion fatigue behaviour of 317LN austenitic stainless steel in phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoro, J. [Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: javier.onoro@upm.es

    2009-10-15

    The corrosion fatigue crack-growth behaviour of AISI 317LN stainless steel was evaluated in air and in 85% phosphoric acid at 20 deg. C. Austenitic stainless steels with high molybdenum content have high corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. However, this increase in the molybdenum content and other elements such as nitrogen can also modify the microstructure. This leads to a modification of its mechanical properties. The corrosion fatigue crack-growth rate was higher in phosphoric acid immersion than in air. Austenitic stainless steels with a fully austenitic microstructure were more ductile, tough, and behave better against corrosion fatigue. The higher resistance to corrosion fatigue was directly associated to its higher resistance to corrosion.

  5. EBSD study of a hot deformed austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadeh, H., E-mail: h-m@gmx.com [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cabrera, J.M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundacio CTM Centre Tecnologic, Av. Bases de Manresa 1, 08242 Manresa (Spain); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Calvillo, P.R. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fundacio CTM Centre Tecnologic, Av. Bases de Manresa 1, 08242 Manresa (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural characterization of an austenitic stainless steel by EBSD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of twins in the nucleation and growth of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain refinement through the discontinuous dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determination of recrystallized fraction using the grain average misorientation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relationship between recrystallization and the frequency of high angle boundaries. - Abstract: The microstructural evolution of a 304 H austenitic stainless steel subjected to hot compression was studied by the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. Detailed data about the boundaries, coincidence site lattice (CSL) relationships and grain size were acquired from the orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) maps. It was found that twins play an important role in the nucleation and growth of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) during hot deformation. Moreover, the conventional discontinuous DRX (DDRX) was found to be in charge of grain refinement reached under the testing conditions studied. Furthermore, the recrystallized fraction (X) was determined from the grain average misorientation (GAM) distribution based on the threshold value of 1.55 Degree-Sign . The frequency of high angle boundaries showed a direct relationship with X. A time exponent of 1.11 was determined from Avrami analysis, which was related to the observed single-peak behavior in the stress-strain flow curves.

  6. Magnetic anisotropy of ultrafine 316L stainless steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyr, Tien-Wei, E-mail: twshyr@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shih-Ju [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wur, Ching-Shuei [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-12-01

    An as-received 316L stainless steel fiber with a diameter of 20 μm was drawn using a bundle drawing process at room temperature to form ultrafine stainless steel fibers with diameters of 12, 8, and 6 μm. The crystalline phases of the fibers were analyzed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile fitting technique. The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to nanoscale sizes after the drawing process. XRD analysis and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope observations showed that the newly formed α′-martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. The magnetic property was measured using a superconducting quantum interference device vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic anisotropy of the fibers was observed by applying a magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The results showed that the microstructure anisotropy including the shape anisotropy, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and the orientation of the crystalline phases strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy. - Highlights: • The martensitic transformation of the 316L SS fiber occurred during the cold drawn. • The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to the nanoscale. • The newly formed martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. • The drawing process caused the magnetic easy axis to be aligned with the fiber axis. • The microstructure anisotropy strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy.

  7. Abnormal grain growth in AISI 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirdel, M., E-mail: mshirdel1989@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzadeh, H., E-mail: hmirzadeh@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Parsa, M.H., E-mail: mhparsa@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for High Performance Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Advanced Metalforming and Thermomechanical Processing Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The microstructural evolution during abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in 304L stainless steel was studied in a wide range of annealing temperatures and times. At relatively low temperatures, the grain growth mode was identified as normal. However, at homologous temperatures between 0.65 (850 °C) and 0.7 (900 °C), the observed transition in grain growth mode from normal to abnormal, which was also evident from the bimodality in grain size distribution histograms, was detected to be caused by the dissolution/coarsening of carbides. The microstructural features such as dispersed carbides were characterized by optical metallography, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and microhardness. Continued annealing to a long time led to the completion of secondary recrystallization and the subsequent reappearance of normal growth mode. Another instance of abnormal grain growth was observed at homologous temperatures higher than 0.8, which may be attributed to the grain boundary faceting/defaceting phenomenon. It was also found that when the size of abnormal grains reached a critical value, their size will not change too much and the grain growth behavior becomes practically stagnant. - Highlights: • Abnormal grain growth (secondary recrystallization) in AISI 304L stainless steel • Exaggerated grain growth due to dissolution/coarsening of carbides • The enrichment of carbide particles by titanium • Abnormal grain growth due to grain boundary faceting at very high temperatures • The stagnancy of abnormal grain growth by annealing beyond a critical time.

  8. Rapid solidification in laser welding of stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, A. (Univ. di Padova (Italy)); Bonollo, F.

    1994-04-30

    The microstructural characterization of both weld beads and heat affected zones (HAZ) was carried out on austenitic (AISI 304, 316) and duplex (UNS 31803) stainless steels, laser welded under various working parameters (power, traverse speed, shielding gas), by means of light microscopy, SEM, TEM, and image analysis, with the aim of pointing out changes in the amounts of the present phases, with respect to those predicted by equilibrium diagrams. Moreover, an analytical thermal model of laser beam welding was employed in order to evaluate the cooling rates involved in the process. The thermal field analysis, checked by comparing the calculated and the actual weld beads, has been used as a tool aimed at correlating cooling rates and microstructural characteristics. (orig.)

  9. Electromagnetic non-destructive technique for duplex stainless steel characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João Vicente; Camerini, Cesar; Pereira, Gabriela

    2016-02-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is a two-phase (ferrite and austenite) material, which exhibits an attractive combination of mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance, being commonly employed for equipment of petrochemical plants, refining units and oil & gas platforms. The best properties of DSS are achieved when the phases are in equal proportions. However, exposition to high temperatures (e.g. welding process) may entail undesired consequences, such as deleterious phases precipitation (e.g. sigma, chi) and different proportion of the original phases, impairing dramatically the mechanical and corrosion properties of the material. A detailed study of the magnetic behavior of DSS microstructure with different ferrite austenite ratios and deleterious phases content was accomplished. The non destructive method evaluates the electromagnetic properties changes in the material and is capable to identify the presence of deleterious phases into DSS microstructure.

  10. 2014 Accomplishments-Tritium aging studies on stainless steel: Fracture toughness properties of forged stainless steels-Effect of hydrogen, forging strain rate, and forging temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-02-01

    Forged stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. During service, tritium diffuses into the reservoir walls and radioactively decays to helium-3. Tritium and decay helium cause a higher propensity for cracking which could lead to a tritium leak or delayed failure of a tritium reservoir. The factors that affect the tendency for crack formation and propagation include: Environment; steel type and microstructure; and, vessel configuration (geometry, pressure, residual stress). Fracture toughness properties are needed for evaluating the long-term effects of tritium on their structural properties. Until now, these effects have been characterized by measuring the effects of tritium on the tensile and fracture toughness properties of specimens fabricated from experimental forgings in the form of forward-extruded cylinders. A key result of those studies is that the long-term cracking resistance of stainless steels in tritium service depends greatly on the interaction between decay helium and the steels’ forged microstructure. New experimental research programs are underway and are designed to measure tritium and decay helium effects on the cracking properties of stainless steels using actual tritium reservoir forgings instead of the experimental forgings of past programs. The properties measured should be more representative of actual reservoir properties because the microstructure of the specimens tested will be more like that of the tritium reservoirs. The programs are designed to measure the effects of key forging variables on tritium compatibility and include three stainless steels, multiple yield strengths, and four different forging processes. The effects on fracture toughness of hydrogen and crack orientation were measured for type 316L forgings. In addition, hydrogen effects on toughness were measured for Type 304L block forgings having two different yield strengths. Finally, fracture toughness properties of type 304L

  11. Compresibility and sinterability of HCx PM steel diluted with stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gordo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available HCx powder metallurgy steel contains in its composition high contents of Cr and C, and significant quantities of alloy elements typical of tool steels (Mo, V, W, to provide the corrosion resistance of stainless steel with wear resistance of tool steels. HCx appears to be a suitable material for applications in aggressive environments, as valve seat inserts in automotive engines. However, this steel presents a low compressibility leading to high production costs. In this work, some results carried out to improve the compressibility of HCx are presented. The way to attempt this improvement is the dilution of base material with two stainless steels, the ferritic 430LHC and the austenitic 316L. The powder mixes prepared were uniaxially pressed to study the compressibility. The sinterability was study by determining of density, hardness, transverse rupture strength (TRS and microstructural evolution after vacuum sintering at different temperatures. As a result, better compressibility is observed in the mixes although not all of them present the properties required.

  12. Complex Protection of Vertical Stainless Steel Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrislamov Radik Zakievich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the problem of fail-safe oil and oil products storage in stainless steel tanks and present the patented tank inner side protection technology. The latter provides process, ecological and fire safety and reducing soil evaporation of oil products, which is a specific problem. The above-mentioned technology includes corrosion protection and heat insulation protection providing increase of cover durability and RVS service life in general. The offered technological protection scheme is a collaboration of the author, Steel Paint GmbH firm and JSC “Koksokhimmontazhproyekt”. PU foam unicomponent materials of Steel Paint GmbH firm provide the protection of tank inner side and cover.

  13. Cold Spray Repair of Martensitic Stainless Steel Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccoli, M.; Cornacchia, G.; Maestrini, D.; Marconi, G. P.; Roberti, R.

    2014-12-01

    The possibility of using cold spray as repair technique of martensitic stainless steel components was evaluated through laboratory investigations. An austenitic stainless steel feedstock powder was chosen, instead of soft metals powders like nickel, copper, or aluminum, used for repairing components made in light alloy or cast iron. The present study directly compares the microstructure, the residual stresses, and the micro-hardness of repairs obtained by cold spray and by TIG welding, that is commonly used as repair technique in large steel components. XRD and optical metallographic analysis of the repairs showed that cold spray offers some advantages, inducing compressive residual stresses in the repair and avoiding alterations of the interface between repair and base material. For these reasons, a heat treatment after the cold spray repair is not required to restore the base material properties, whereas a post-weld heat treatment is needed after the welding repair. Cold spray repair also exhibits a higher micro-hardness than the welding repair. In addition, the cavitation erosion resistance of a cold spray coating was investigated through ultrasonic cavitation tests, and the samples worn surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Environmental cracking behavior of submerged arc-welded supermartensitic stainless steel weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P. Bala; Sharkawy, S. W.; Dietzel, W.

    2004-04-01

    Supermartensitic stainless steel welds produced by submerged are welding were assessed for their microstructure and properties. Slow strain rate tests conducted on these specimens revealed that both the parent material and the weld metals are susceptible to cracking under conditions of hydrogen (H) charging.

  15. Laser surface alloying of 316L stainless steel with Ru and Ni mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lekala, MB

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The surfaces of AISI 316L stainless steel were laser alloyed with ruthenium powder and a mixture of ruthenium and nickel powders using a cw Nd:YAG laser set at fixed operating parameters. The microstructure, elemental composition, and corrosion...

  16. Microstructural evaluation of stainless alloys irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Allen, T.R. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Chen, Y.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, Illinois (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The microstructures of austenitic stainless steels, cast steels, and nickel-base alloys irradiated at PWR-relevant dose and temperature have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The samples had varied chemical composition, heat treatment, and cold working with associated initial variations in microstructure. They were irradiated at 325{sup o}C to approximately 25 dpa with a dose rate of {approx} 9.4E-7 dpa/s. No voids and no precipitates with sufficient concentration or size for diffraction characterization were observed in the austenitic stainless steels and cast steels, while some voids were found in the nickel-base alloys. The irradiated microstructures were dominated by a high density of dislocation loops. The sizes and densities of the dislocation loops were measured by means of relrod dark field images. The results varied for different heats and were consistent with other published data. The lack of swelling in the irradiated austenitic stainless steels was attributed to the low irradiation temperature and relatively high dose rate. (author)

  17. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY... countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and antidumping duty orders on stainless... on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and/or the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel...

  18. Effects of heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of Ni60/h-BN self-lubricating anti-wear composite coatings on 304 stainless steel by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Long; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Yu, Peng-Cheng; Zhai, Yong-Jie; Qiao, Shi-Jie; Wang, Ming-Di; Wang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Yao

    2015-11-01

    Laser clad Ni60/h-BN self-lubricating anti-wear composite coating on 304 stainless steel were heat treated at 600 °C (stress relief annealing) for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. Effects of the phase compositions, microstructure, microhardness, nano-indentation and tribological properties of the composite coatings with and without heat treatment had been investigated systemically. Results indicated that three coatings mainly consist of the matrix γ-(Ni, Fe) solid solution, the CrB ceramic phases and the h-BN lubricating phases. The maximum microhardness of the coatings was first increased from 667.7 HV0.5 to 765.0 HV0.5 after heat treatment for 1 h, and then decreased to 698.3 HV0.5 after heat treatment for 2 h. The hardness of γ-(Ni, Fe) solid solution without heat treatment and after heat treatment 1 h and 2 h were 5.09 GPa, 7.20 GPa and 3.77 GPa, respectively. Compared with the coating without heat treatment, the friction coefficients of the coating after heat treatment were decreased obviously. Effects of the heat treatment time on friction coefficient were negligible, but were significant on wear volume loss. Comparatively speaking, the laser clad self-lubricating anti-wear composite coating after heat treatment for 1 h presented the best anti-wear and friction reduction properties.

  19. Solidification cracking in austenitic stainless steel welds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solidification cracking is a significant problem during the welding of austenitic stainless steels, particularly in fully austenitic and stabilized compositions. Hot cracking in stainless steel welds is caused by low-melting eutectics containing impurities such as S, P and alloy elements such as Ti, Nb. The WRC-92 diagram can be ...

  20. Large strain cyclic behavior of metastable austenic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Hilkhuijsen, P.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2015-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steel will transform to martensite when subjected to mechanical working. In this research an austenitic stainless steel has been subjected to large amplitude strain paths containing a strain reversal. During the tests, apart from the stress and the strain also

  1. J-controlled crack growth as an indicator of hydrogen-stainless steel compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, M.R.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Donovan, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The J-integral was evaluated as a parameter to characterize fracture of stainless steels and as a measure of hydrogen damage. C-shaped specimens of type 304L, 316, and 21-6-9 stainless steels were tested in high pressure helium and hydrogen. The critical force for crack initiation (Jm), and tearing resistance (dJ/da) were decreased by hydrogen in all three alloys. The J-integral appears useful as a measure of hydrogen compatibility because it is sensitive to both test environment and microstructure.

  2. Comparison of Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Laser Machined and Milled 304 L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Kumar, Aniruddha; Nagpure, D. C.; Rai, S. K.; Singh, M. K.; Khooha, Ajay; Singh, A. K.; Singh, Amrendra; Tiwari, M. K.; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, R.; Singh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Machining of austenitic stainless steel components is known to introduce significant enhancement in their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. The paper compares stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of laser machined 304 L stainless steel specimens with conventionally milled counterpart in chloride environment. With respect to conventionally milled specimens, laser machined specimens displayed more than 12 times longer crack initiation time in accelerated stress corrosion cracking test in boiling magnesium chloride as per ASTM G36. Reduced stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of laser machined surface is attributed to its predominantly ferritic duplex microstructure in which anodic ferrite phase was under compressive stress with respect to cathodic austenite.

  3. Identification of sigma and chi phases in duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca-Isern, Núria, E-mail: nullorca@ub.edu [Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica, Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti-Franqués 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); López-Luque, Héctor, E-mail: hlopezlu7@alumnes.ub.edu [Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica, Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti-Franqués 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); López-Jiménez, Isabel, E-mail: ilopezji9@alumnes.ub.edu [Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallurgica, Facultat de Química, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti-Franqués 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Biezma, Maria Victoria, E-mail: maria.biezma@unican.es [Department of Earth, Materials Science and Engineering, University of Cantabria - UC, Gamazo, 1, 39004 Santander (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this work is to find out the most suitable method for detecting and analyzing accurately the formation conditions of secondary phases, particularly Sigma-phase (σ-phase) and Chi-phase (χ-phase) in duplex stainless steels (UNS S32205 and UNS S32750). The microstructure was characterized after a solution annealing at 1080 °C followed by an isothermal heating at 830 °C for different time ranges, ranging from 1 min to 9 h, in order to enlighten the controversial point concerning the mechanism of χ-phase nucleation in relation with the σ-phase. Etched samples were observed using optical microscopy (MO), and scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with a backscattered electron detector (BSE) was used on unetched samples. Compositional microanalysis (EDS) was carried out for identifying the different phases present in the steels. Sigma phase was easily observed using different etching procedures, whereas χ-phase was only clearly detected with FESEM–BSE on unetched samples. The compositional analyses showed that the molybdenum content in χ-phase almost doubles the content of this element in σ-phase, and as a result the kinetics of nucleation and growth were also found to be remarkably faster when the alloy content in the steel is higher. In addition, chromium nitrides and carbides were also observed to precipitate as a result of the heat treatments and, in the case of the chromium nitrides, they act as a favorable site for the nucleation of σ-phase and χ-phase. - Highlights: • Microscopy was used on heat treated duplex steels for microstructure identification. • FESEM–BSE observation on unetched samples provided the best contrast between phases. • Analyses of carbides, nitrides, chi and sigma phases were possible by EDS and WDS. • Chromium nitrides act as favorable site for the nucleation of chi and sigma phases. • Secondary phases nucleation kinetics are faster in superduplex than in duplex steels.

  4. Surface composition effect of nitriding Ni-free stainless steel as bipolar plate of polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nakatsuyama, Kunio [Nakatsuyama Heat Treatment Co., Ltd., 1-1089-10, Nanyou, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-1164 (Japan); Souma, Kenichi [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Hitachi Industrial Equipment Systems Co., Ltd., 3 Kanda Neribei, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0022 (Japan); Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: The anodic current densities in the passive region of nitrided SUS445-N stainless steel are lower than those of a non heat-treated SUS445 stainless steel and heat-treated SUS445-Ar stainless steel under an Ar atmosphere. It shows a better corrosion resistance for the SUS445 stainless steel after the nitriding heat treatment. - Highlights: • The nitriding heat treatment was carried out using Ni-free SUS445 stainless steel. • The corrosion resistance of the nitrided SUS445-N stainless steel was improved. • The structure of the nitrided SUS445-N stainless steel changed from α-Fe to γ-Fe. • The surface elemental components present in the steels affect the corrosion resistance. - Abstract: In order to increase the corrosion resistance of low cost Ni-free SUS445 stainless steel as the bipolar plate of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, a nitriding surface treatment experiment was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere under vacuum conditions, while an Ar atmosphere was used for comparison. The electrochemical performance, microstructure, surface chemical composition and morphology of the sample before and after the electrochemical measurements were investigated using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), X-ray diffraction (XRD), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDS) and laser scanning microscopy (LSM) measurements. The results confirmed that the nitriding heat treatment not only increased the corrosion resistance, but also improved the surface conductivity of the Ni-free SUS445 stainless steel. In contrast, the corrosion resistance of the SUS445 stainless steel decreased after heat treatment in an Ar atmosphere. These results could be explained by the different surface compositions between these samples.

  5. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  6. Deformasi Slot Beberapa Produk Braket Stainless Steel Akibat Gaya Torque Pada Kawat Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Zairina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deformasi slot braket dapat mengurangi besar gaya torque  yang akan dihantarkan ke gigi dan jaringan pendukungnya. Beberapa braket stainless steel yang beredar dipasaran belum pernah diteliti kualitasnya dalam perawatan ortodonsi. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk membandingkan besar gaya torque akibat sudut puntir 30° 45°  kawat stainless steel dan deformasi slot permanen akibat gaya torque tersebut antara kelompok merk braket (3M, Biom, Versadent, Ormco dan Shinye. Penelitian dilakukan pada lima puluh braket stainless steel edgewise dari lima kelompok merk braket (n=10 di lem ke akrilik. Masing-masing braket dilakukan pengukuran tinggi slot dengan mikroskop stereoskopi lalu dipasang ke alat uji torque yang sudah dibuat untuk penelitian ini. Setelah dilakukan uji torque, braket di ukur kembali tinggi slotnya dan dibandingkan dengan pengukuran sebelumnya untuk mengetahui adanya deformasi slot. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna besar gaya torque pada sudut puntir 30° dan 45° antara Biom dan Shinye dengan Omrco. Gaya torque paling besar yaitu pada merk braket 3M (30°= 442,12 gmcm dan 45°= 567,99 gmcm, sedangkan yang terkecil adalah Biom (30°= 285,50 gmcm, 45°=361,38 gmcm. Perbedaan deformasi slot braket terjadi hampir pada semua kelompok merk braket. Deformasi slot braket hanya terjadi pada merk braket Biom (2,82 µm dan Shinye (2,52 µm. Kesimpulan, salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi besar gaya torque dan terjadinya deformasi slot yaitu komposisi dan proses manufaktur dari braket stainless steel. Proses manufaktur yang tidak sesuai standar dapat menyebabkan kualitas braket yang buruk. Deformasi slot permanen dalam penelitian ini terjadi pada merek braket Biom dan Shinye. Slot Deformation of Various Stainless Steel Bracket Due to Torque Expression On The Wire. Bracket slot deformation can reduce the amount of torque that will be transmitted to teeth and supporting tissues. The quality of some stainless steel

  7. Porous stainless steel for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina de Fátima Ferreira Mariotto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous 316L austenitic stainless steel was synthesized by powder metallurgy with relative density of 0.50 and 0.30 using 15 and 30 wt. (% respectively of ammonium carbonate and ammonium bicarbonate as foaming agents. The powders were mixed in a planetary ball mill at 60 rpm for 10 minutes. The samples were uniaxially pressed at 287 MPa and subsequently vacuum heat treated in two stages, the first one at 200 ºC for 5 hours to decompose the carbonate and the second one at 1150 ºC for 2 hours to sinter the steel. The sintered samples had a close porous structure and a multimodal pore size distribution that varied with the foaming agent and its concentration. The samples obtained by addition of 30 wt. (% of foaming agents had a more homogeneous porous structure than that obtained with 15 wt. (%. The MTT cytotoxicity test (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was used to evaluate the mitochondrial activity of L929 cells with samples for periods of 24, 48, and 72 hours. The cytotoxicity test showed that the steel foams were not toxic to fibroblast culture. The sample with the best cellular growth, therefore the most suitable for biomedical applications among those studied in this work, was produced with 30 wt. (% ammonium carbonate. In this sample, cell development was observed after 48 hours of incubation, and there was adhesion and spreading on the material after 72 hours. Electrochemical experiments using a chloride-containing medium were performed on steel foams and compared to massive steel. The massive steel had a better corrosion performance than the foams as the porosity contributes to increase the surface area exposed to the corrosive medium.

  8. Long-Term Effects of Temperature Exposure on SLM 304L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Tarak; Kriewall, Caitlin S.; Newkirk, Joseph W.

    2017-11-01

    Austenitic stainless steel is extensively used in industries that operate at elevated temperatures. This work investigates the high-temperature microstructure stability as well as elevated-temperature properties of 304L stainless steel fabricated using the selective laser melting (SLM) process. Significant microstructural changes were seen after a 400°C aging process for as little as 25 h. This dramatic change in microstructure would not be expected based on the ferrite decomposition studied in conventional 304L materials. The as-built additively manufactured alloy has much faster kinetic response to heat treatment at 400°C. An investigation of the structures which occur, the kinetics of the various transformations, and the mechanical properties is presented. The impact of this on the application of SLM 304L is discussed.

  9. Effect of carbon dioxide and temperature on passive film parametersof superduplex stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emandro Vieira da Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superduplex stainless steel has been frequently employed in new sites of Brazilian Pre-Salt. In these environments, chloride concentration, temperature and carbon dioxide are normally present in higher levels than those at sea water at room temperature. In these conditions, it is expected that the passive films of stainless steel also show modifications. To better understand such modifications, samples of superduplex stainless steel UNS S32750 were submitted to electrochemical impedance measurements in brine media, at two temperatures and under presence/absence of carbon dioxide. The electrochemical impedance results were initially tested using the Kramers-Kronig transform and subsequently fitted by equivalent circuit employing constant phase elements - CPE. Moreover, to quantify the effect of each factor (temperature, chloride, carbon dioxide and microstructure on the equivalent circuit, their parameters were tested applying statistical analysis. Significant effect of carbon dioxide and temperature was found on related parameters of passive film for heat-treated samples.

  10. Influence of high temperature on corrosion behavior of 304 stainless steel in chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad R. Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the excellent performance of stainless steel in diverse application, there are media of exposure may accelerate failure of several stainless steel alloys. The possibility of this failure has to be examined by measuring the effective parameters that may result in corrosion at different rates. The present study has been conducted to examine the effect of exposing specimens of 304 stainless steel to 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 M chloride concentration and 70, 80, and 90 °C. Electrochemical technique of measuring the potentials and currency of the examined system has been used to collect the corrosion data. Microstructure of the specimens is examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X- Ray Diffraction. Both of these tests revealed no serious phase change due to exposure even at severe conditions. The potentials gained show significant effect of the operation conditions.

  11. Low temperature mechanical properties of 316L type stainless steel after hydrostatic extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarkowski, P., E-mail: paczar@gmail.com [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, Warsaw 02-507 (Poland); Krawczynska, A.T.; Slesinski, R.; Brynk, T.; Budniak, J.; Lewandowska, M.; Kurzydlowski, K.J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, Warsaw 02-507 (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    316L-type stainless steel is commonly used in fusion devices. Its mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures, for rolled or forged products possessing a grain size of tens of micrometers have been widely reported. In this paper we present the properties of this steel after multi-pass hydrostatic extrusion (HE), which brought about significant grain refinement to the nanometer scale. Such grain refinement of 316L-type stainless steel would be expected to improve the yield and ultimate tensile strength and may also result in a better resistance to irradiation. The microstructure of the HE processed samples was determined by electron microscopy and the mechanical properties evaluated by its microhardness under a load of 200 g and by tensile tests at room temperature and after immersion in liquid nitrogen. The observed improvements of the mechanical properties are discussed in terms of the microstructural changes arising from the hydrostatic extrusion.

  12. Optimizing Heat Treatment Process of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni Martensitic Stainless of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. S.; Prifiharni, S.; Mabruri, E.

    2017-05-01

    The Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels are modified into martensitic stainless steels for steam turbine blades application. The working temperature of steam turbine was around 600 - 700 °C. The improvement properties of turbine blade material is necessary to maintain steam turbine work. The previous research revealed that it has corrosion resistance of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni which is better than 13Cr stainless steels in the chloride environment. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels has been studied. The steel was prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging. The steels were austenitized at 1000, 1050, and 1100 °C for 1 hour and were tempered at 600, 650, and 700 °C for 1 hour. The steels were then subjected to metallographic observation and hardness test of Rockwell C. The optimal heat treatment of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni was carried out austenitized in 1050 °C and tempered in 600 - 700 °C.

  13. Weld Properties of a Free Machining Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Brooks; S. H. Goods; C. V. Robino

    2000-08-01

    The all weld metal tensile properties from gas tungsten arc and electron beam welds in free machining austenitic stainless steels have been determined. Ten heats with sulfur contents from 0.04 to 0.4 wt.% and a wide range in Creq/Nieq ratios were studied. Tensile properties of welds with both processes were related to alloy composition and solidification microstructure. The yield and ultimate tensile strengths increased with increasing Creq/Nieq ratios and ferrite content, whereas the ductility measured by RA at fracture decreased with sulfur content. Nevertheless, a range in alloy compositions was identified that provided a good combination of both strength and ductility. The solidification cracking response for the same large range of compositions are discussed, and compositions identified that would be expected to provide good performance in welded applications.

  14. Behavior of cold-worked AISI-304 steel in stress-corrosion cracking process: Microstructural aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, A.; Novotny, R.; Uca, O.; Krsjak, V.; Macak, J.; Debarberis, L.

    2008-10-01

    Austenitic stainless steel is one of the key structural materials for a wide-range of components for present nuclear power plants. Moreover, this type of steel is also foreseen as a key structural material in future reactor systems, the so-called Generation IV. However, for the successful application of these materials in new environmental conditions an integrated Research and Development program needs to be successfully completed. This work is focused to the evaluation of cold-worked AISI-304 stainless steel from 20 to 45% of cold-worked deformation by different spectroscopic techniques within the aim to study the microstructural characteristics. In particular, positron annihilation spectroscopy and small angle neutron scattering have been used for characterization of phase transformation and microstructural behavior. Furthermore, outcomes of corrosion properties of cold-worked AISI-304 stainless steel exposed for 100 and 500 h in super-critical water reactor conditions are correlated with the obtained results.

  15. Characterization and analyses on micro-hardness, residual stress and microstructure in laser cladding coating of 316L stainless steel subjected to massive LSP treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.Y.; Jing, X.; Sheng, J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Sun, G.F. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Yan, Z. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Lu, J.Z., E-mail: jzlu@ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The effects of massive laser shock peening (LSP) treatment on micro-hardness, residual stress and microstructure in four different zones of laser cladding coating was investigated. Furthermore, micro-hardness curves and residual stress distributions with and without massive LSP treatment were presented and compared, and typical microstructure in different zones of both coatings were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cross-sectional optical microscope (OM) observations. Results and analyses showed that massive LSP treatment had an important influence on micro-hardness and residual stress of the cladding coating. Special attempt was made to the effects of massive LSP treatment on microstructure in three zones of the cladding coating. In addition, the underlying mechanism of massive LSP treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of the cladding coating was revealed clearly. - Highlights: • Micro-hardness and residual stress curves of both coatings were presented and compared. • Typical microstructure in different zones of both coatings were characterized and analyzed. • LSP causes increased micro-activities, and induces plastic deformation layer in three zones. • Underlying mechanism of LSP on mechanical properties of cladding coating was revealed.

  16. Study on wear resistant cast B-containing 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Jiacai

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The developed 1Cr18Ni9Ti austenitic stainless steel containing 1.63 wt.%B have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA, optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and Vickers microhardness measurement. The microstructural evolution and property of high boron stainless steel after solution treatment at the temperature of 1050℃ are also investigated. The results show that the main compositions of borides are Fe, Cr and B, and with small amount of Ni, Mn and C elements. Silicon is insoluble in the borides. The hardness of borides is over 1,500 HV. It has been found that borides do not decompose during solution treatment, but part of borides dissolves into the matrix. The effect of increasing the solubility of boron element in the austenitic matrix favours the hardness enhancement by 8.54%. High boron stainless steel has excellent wear resistance in corrosive environment. Lifetime of transfer pipe made of high boron-containing stainless steel is 1.5-1.8 times longer than that of boron-free 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel.

  17. Advanced manufacturing technologies of large martensitic stainless steel castings with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Yanchun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The key manufacturing technologies associated with composition, microstructure, mechanical properties, casting quality and key process control for large martensitic stainless steel castings are involved in this paper. The achievements fully satisfied the technical requirements of the large 700 MW stainless steel hydraulic turbine runner for the Three Gorges Hydropower Station, and become the major technical support for the design and manufacture of the largest 700 MW hydraulic turbine generator unit in the world developed through our own efforts. The characteristics of a new high yield to tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel with ultra low carbon and high cleanliness are also described. Over the next ten years, the large martensitic stainless steel castings and advanced manufacturing technologies will see a huge demand in clean energy industry such as nuclear power, hydraulic power at home and abroad. Therefore, the new high yield o tensile strength (Rp0.2/Rm ratio and high obdurability martensitic stainless steel materials, the fast and flexible manufacturing technologies of large size castings, and new environment friendly sustainable process will face new challenges and opportunities.

  18. Mechanical properties of duple stainless steels laser joints; Propiedades mecanicas de las uniones por laser de aceros inoxidables duplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amigo, V.; Bonache, V.; Teruel, L.; Vicente, A.

    2005-07-01

    The welded joints of stainless steels always present problems for the microstructural modifications that occur in the heat affected zone. Particularly, duplex stainless steels present very important changes when the weld pool solidifies forming fundamentally ferritic structures with some austenite in grain boundaries. These microstructural modifications, and those which occur in the HAZ, justify the mechanical properties of the joint and mainly those of plasticity, being all of them influenced by the processing conditions. In this work the influence of the laser welding speed on the tensile behaviour od duplex stainless steel welded joints is presented. The microstructure of the obtained seams and of the heat affected zone will be evaluated by means of optic and scanning electron microscopy. Also, different microhardness profiles have been obtained to evaluate the modifications in the mechanical properties both in the seam and the zone of thermal affection. (Author) 23 refs.

  19. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  20. Effects of Dynamic Impact Loading on Microstructure of FCC (TWIP) Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    experimental development and fundamental studies into weld metal solidification cracking in steels and stainless steels. He has also undertaken...strength of 940 MPa .Composition (in mass %) Mn Al C Cr Si Ni Fe 17.85 1.31 0.592 0.368 0.223 0.101 Bal. The chemical composition of the TWIP steel...transverse directions of the specimens were determined by the charge position. The microstructure was analyzed by both scanning electron microscope

  1. 76 FR 1599 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... results of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from Brazil. The... stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of...

  2. Low temperature surface hardening of stainless steel; the role of plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Jespersen, Freja Nygaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Thermochemical surface engineering by nitriding of austenitic stainless steel transforms the surface zone into expanded austenite, which improves the wear resistance of the stainless steel while preserving the stainless behavior. As a consequence of the thermochemical surface engineering, huge re...

  3. Characteristics of modified martensitic stainless steel surfaces under tribocorrosion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozing, Goran [Osijek Univ. (Croatia). Chair of Mechanical Engineering; Marusic, Vlatko [Osijek Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Engineering Materials; Alar, Vesna [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. Materials

    2017-04-01

    Stainless steel samples were tested in the laboratory and under real conditions of tribocorrosion wear. Electrochemical tests were also carried out to verify the corrosion resistance of modified steel surfaces. Metallographic analysis and hardness testing were conducted on stainless steel samples X20Cr13 and X17CrNi16 2. The possibilities of applications of modified surfaces of the selected steels were investigated by testing the samples under real wear conditions. The results have shown that the induction hardened and subsequently nitrided martensitic steels achieved an average wear resistance of up to three orders of magnitude higher as compared to the delivered condition.

  4. Development of Creep-Resistant and Oxidation-Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Philip J.

    2017-11-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are cost-effective materials for high-temperature applications if they have the oxidation and creep resistance to withstand prolonged exposure at such conditions. Since 1990, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed advanced austenitic stainless steels with creep resistance comparable to Ni-based superalloy 617 at 800-900°C based on specially designed "engineered microstructures" utilizing a microstructure/composition database derived from about 20 years of radiation effect data on steels. The wrought high temperature-ultrafine precipitate strengthened (HT-UPS) steels with outstanding creep resistance at 700-800°C were developed for supercritical boiler and superheater tubing for fossil power plants in the early 1990s, the cast CF8C-Plus steels were developed in 1999-2001 for land-based gas turbine casing and diesel engine exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications at 700-900°C, and, in 2015-2017, new Al-modified cast stainless steels with oxidation and creep resistance capabilities up to 950-1000°C were developed for automotive exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications. This article reviews and summarizes their development and their properties and applications.

  5. Development of Creep-Resistant and Oxidation-Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are cost-effective materials for high-temperature applications if they have the oxidation and creep resistance to withstand prolonged exposure at such conditions. Since 1990, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed advanced austenitic stainless steels with creep resistance comparable to Ni-based superalloy 617 at 800-900°C based on specially designed "engineered microstructures" utilizing a microstructure/composition database derived from about 20 years of radiation effect data on steels. The wrought high temperature-ultrafine precipitate strengthened (HT-UPS) steels with outstanding creep resistance at 700-800°C were developed for supercritical boiler and superheater tubing for fossil power plants in the early 1990s, the cast CF8C-Plus steels were developed in 1999-2001 for land-based gas turbine casing and diesel engine exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications at 700-900°C, and, in 2015-2017, new Al-modified cast stainless steels with oxidation and creep resistance capabilities up to 950-1000°C were developed for automotive exhaust manifold and turbocharger applications. This article reviews and summarizes their development and their properties and applications.

  6. Effect of neutron irradiation on the microstructure and the mechanical and corrosion properties of the ultrafine-grained stainless Cr-Ni steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimkin, O. P.; Gusev, M. N.; Tsai, K. V.; Yarovchuk, A. V.; Rybalchenko, O. V.; Enikeev, N. A.; Valiev, R. Z.; Dobatkin, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    It has been revealed that the neutron irradiation of ultrafine-grained (UFG) 08Kh18N10T steel after severe plastic deformation (SPD) does not lead to the appearance of defects of radiation origin up to a fluence of 2 × 1020 n/cm2 (~0.05 dpa) and that the strength properties of the material are retained after irradiation. At the same time, this irradiation reduces the corrosion resistance of the steel in a chlorine-containing medium, especially after heating at 550°C with a holding for 1 h after SPD.

  7. Compressibility of 304 Stainless Steel Powder Metallurgy Materials Reinforced with 304 Short Stainless Steel Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bibo; Zhou, Zhaoyao; Duan, Liuyang; Xiao, Zhiyu

    2016-03-04

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) technique is usually used for manufacturing porous metal materials. However, some P/M materials are limitedly used in engineering for their performance deficiency. A novel 304 stainless steel P/M material was produced by a solid-state sintering of 304 stainless steel powders and 304 short stainless steel fibers, which were alternately laid in layers according to mass ratio. In this paper, the compressive properties of the P/M materials were characterized by a series of uniaxial compression tests. The effects of fiber content, compaction pressure and high temperature nitriding on compressive properties were investigated. The results indicated that, without nitriding, the samples changed from cuboid to cydariform without damage in the process of compression. The compressive stress was enhanced with increasing fiber content ranging from 0 to 8 wt.%. For compaction pressure from 55 to 75 MPa, greater compaction pressure improved compressive stress. Moreover, high temperature nitriding was able to significantly improve the yield stress, but collapse failure eventually occurred.

  8. Compressibility of 304 Stainless Steel Powder Metallurgy Materials Reinforced with 304 Short Stainless Steel Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibo Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Powder metallurgy (P/M technique is usually used for manufacturing porous metal materials. However, some P/M materials are limitedly used in engineering for their performance deficiency. A novel 304 stainless steel P/M material was produced by a solid-state sintering of 304 stainless steel powders and 304 short stainless steel fibers, which were alternately laid in layers according to mass ratio. In this paper, the compressive properties of the P/M materials were characterized by a series of uniaxial compression tests. The effects of fiber content, compaction pressure and high temperature nitriding on compressive properties were investigated. The results indicated that, without nitriding, the samples changed from cuboid to cydariform without damage in the process of compression. The compressive stress was enhanced with increasing fiber content ranging from 0 to 8 wt.%. For compaction pressure from 55 to 75 MPa, greater compaction pressure improved compressive stress. Moreover, high temperature nitriding was able to significantly improve the yield stress, but collapse failure eventually occurred.

  9. Design and construction of precast piles with stainless reinforcing steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The service life of prestressed concrete piles is, in part, dictated by the time required to corrode the steel once : chloride ions are at the surface of the steel. Stainless steel materials, although limited in availability in strand : form, have a ...

  10. Automatic welding of stainless steel tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of automatic welding for making girth welds in stainless steel tubing was investigated as well as the reduction in fabrication costs resulting from the elimination of radiographic inspection. Test methodology, materials, and techniques are discussed, and data sheets for individual tests are included. Process variables studied include welding amperes, revolutions per minute, and shielding gas flow. Strip chart recordings, as a definitive method of insuring weld quality, are studied. Test results, determined by both radiographic and visual inspection, are presented and indicate that once optimum welding procedures for specific sizes of tubing are established, and the welding machine operations are certified, then the automatic tube welding process produces good quality welds repeatedly, with a high degree of reliability. Revised specifications for welding tubing using the automatic process and weld visual inspection requirements at the Kennedy Space Center are enumerated.

  11. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1987-02-11

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01 to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties. 4 figs.

  12. Ductility of stabilized ferritic stainless steel welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. B.; Eagar, T. W.

    1980-02-01

    An investigation was made into the mechanism of ductility loss in low interstitial 18 Cr-2Mo ferritic stainless steel welds stabilized with Ti and Nb. It was found that stabilizing TiN or Nb(C,N) precipitates are dissolved during the welding process, resulting in a finer distribution of precipitates in the weld metal than in the base metal. Furthermore, the FATT was found to increase by more than 200°C, leading to decreased room temperature ductility. Such an increase in FATT may not be explained solely in terms of grain growth. Internal friction measurements indicate that no free nitrogen is present in the weld metal, yet wet chemical analysis reveals that the nitrogen is present in a soluble form. Kinetic arguments suggest that the stabilized nitrogen dissolved during welding tends to reprecipitate during solidification in the form of a chromium rich nitride phase.

  13. Thermodynamic calculation of phase equilibria in stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klančnik G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two examples of thermodynamic investigation of stainless steels using both, experimental and modeling approach are described. The ferritic-austenitic duplex stainless steel and austenitic stainless steel were investigated using thermal analysis. The complex melting behavior was evident for both alloy systems. Experimentally obtained data were compared with the results of the thermodynamic calculations using the CALPHAD method. The equilibrium thermal events were also described by the calculated heat capacity. In spite of the complexity of both selected real alloy systems a relative good agreement was obtained between the thermodynamic calculations and experimental results.

  14. New Stainless Steel Alloys for Low Temperature Surface Hardening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present contribution showcases the possibility for developing new surface hardenable stainless steels containing strong nitride/carbide forming elements (SNCFE). Nitriding of the commercial alloys, austenitic A286, and ferritic AISI 409 illustrates the beneficial effect of having SNCFE present...... in the stainless steel alloys. The presented computational approach for alloy design enables “screening” of hundreds of thousands hypothetical alloy systems by use of Thermo-Calc. Promising compositions for new stainless steel alloys can be selected based on imposed criteria, i.e. facilitating easy selection...... of candidate alloys designed for low temperature surface hardening....

  15. EXAFS investigation of low temperature nitrided stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Christiansen, Thomas; Ståhl, Kenny

    2008-01-01

    Low temperature nitrided stainless steel AISI 316 flakes were investigated with EXAFS and X-ray diffraction analysis. The stainless steel flakes were transformed into a mixture of nitrogen expanded austenite and nitride phases. Two treatments were carried out yielding different overall nitrogen...... contents: (1) nitriding in pure NH3 and (2)nitriding in pure NH3 followed by reduction in H2. The majority of the Cr atoms in the stainless steel after treatment 1 and 2 was associated with a nitrogen–chromium bond distance comparable to that of the chemical compound CrN. The possibility of the occurrence...

  16. 76 FR 87 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; ThyssenKrupp Steel and Stainless USA, LLC; (Stainless and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; ThyssenKrupp Steel and Stainless USA, LLC; (Stainless and Carbon Steel Products) Calvert, AL Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act... establish a special- purpose subzone at the stainless and carbon steel products manufacturing facility of...

  17. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sunniva R; Heuer, Arthur H; Sikka, Vinod K

    2007-12-07

    Low-temperature colossal supersaturation (LTCSS) is a novel surface hardening method for carburization of austenitic stainless steels (SS) without the precipitation of carbides. The formation of carbides is kinetically suppressed, enabling extremely high or colossal carbon supersaturation. As a result, surface carbon concentrations in excess of 12 at. % are routinely achieved. This treatment increases the surface hardness by a factor of four to five, improving resistance to wear, corrosion, and fatigue, with significant retained ductility. LTCSS is a diffusional surface hardening process that provides a uniform and conformal hardened gradient surface with no risk of delamination or peeling. The treatment retains the austenitic phase and is completely non-magnetic. In addition, because parts are treated at low temperature, they do not distort or change dimensions. During this treatment, carbon diffusion proceeds into the metal at temperatures that constrain substitutional diffusion or mobility between the metal alloy elements. Though immobilized and unable to assemble to form carbides, chromium and similar alloying elements nonetheless draw enormous amounts of carbon into their interstitial spaces. The carbon in the interstitial spaces of the alloy crystals makes the surface harder than ever achieved before by more conventional heat treating or diffusion process. The carbon solid solution manifests a Vickers hardness often exceeding 1000 HV (equivalent to 70 HRC). This project objective was to extend the LTCSS treatment to other austenitic alloys, and to quantify improvements in fatigue, corrosion, and wear resistance. Highlights from the research include the following: • Extension of the applicability of the LTCSS process to a broad range of austenitic and duplex grades of steels • Demonstration of LTCSS ability for a variety of different component shapes and sizes • Detailed microstructural characterization of LTCSS-treated samples of 316L and other alloys

  18. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  19. Effect of heat treatment on an AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel evaluated by the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghanizadeh, Abbas; Farzi, Abolfazl [Islamic Azad Univ., Esfarayen (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2016-07-01

    The properties of metals can be substantially changed by various methods, one of them is using heat treatment processes. Moreover, ultrasonic testing is the most preferred and effective, nondestructive testing technique for characterization of mechanical material properties. Austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 serves in many applications due to high strength and corrosion resistance. In certain applications, it is important to evaluate the mechanical properties of AISI 304 stainless steel. In this study, the ultrasonic method (attenuation measurement technique) is used to evaluate the hardness of AISI 304 stainless steel samples which were heat treated at different levels. Due to the heat treatment process, each sample has its specific microstructure and hardness which attenuate ultrasonic waves appropriately. The ultrasonic and hardness test show that it is possible to evaluate the hardness of AISI 304 stainless steel by ultrasonic attenuation coefficient. In addition, the relationship between ultrasonic attenuation coefficients and time of heat treatment is investigated.

  20. Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: q.zhao@dundee.ac.uk; Liu, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Peng, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-31

    Stainless steel disks were implanted with N{sup +}, O{sup +} and SiF{sub 3} {sup +}, respectively at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The surface properties of the implanted surfaces were analyzed, including surface chemical composition, surface topography, surface roughness and surface free energy. Bacterial adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, which frequently cause medical device-associated infections was evaluated under static condition and laminar flow condition. The effect of contact time, growth media and surface properties of the ion-implanted steels on bacterial adhesion was investigated. The experimental results showed that SiF{sub 3} {sup +}-implanted stainless steel performed much better than N{sup +}-implanted steel, O{sup +}-implanted steel and untreated stainless steel control on reducing bacterial attachment under identical experimental conditions.

  1. Fracture-tough, high hardness stainless steel and method of making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.B.

    1993-06-22

    A cyrogenically-formed and tempered stainless steel having improved fracture toughness and corrosion resistance at a given hardness level, said steel including at least about 11 weight % Cr for corrosion resistance, at least about 0.28 weight % C for hardness, one or more refractory metal carbide formers in an amount selected to form M2C-type carbides, where M is the refractory metal(s), Cr and/or Fe, Co and Ni in amounts selected to provide an as-quenched austenitic microstructure cryogenically-deformable to a martensitic microstructure including a minor amount of post deformation retained austenite, and the balance essentially Fe, said steel having a cyrogenically-formed martensitic microstructure tempered to include a minor, controlled amount of post-deformation retained austenite and dispersed M[sub 2]C-type carbides.

  2. Microstructure and transformation kinetics in bainitic steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzginova, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of reaching a better understanding of the microstructure evolution and the overall phase transformation kinetics in hyper-eutectoid steels a commercial SAE 52100 bearing steel and 7 model alloys with different concentrations of chromium, cobalt and aluminum have been studied in this

  3. The possibility of tribopair lifetime extending by welding of quenched and tempered stainless steel with quenched and tempered carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marušić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of tribocorrosion wear, extending of parts lifetime could be achieved by using stainless steel,which is hardened to sufficiently high hardness. In the tribosystem bolt/ bushing shell/link plate of the bucket elevator transporter conveyor machine, the previously quenched and tempered martensitic stainless steel for bolts is hardened at ≈47 HRC and welded with the quenched and tempered high yield carbon steel for bolts. Additional material, based on Cr-Ni-Mo (18/8/6 is used. The microstructure and hardness of welded samples are tested. On the tensile tester, resistance of the welded joint is tested with a simulated experiment. Dimensional control of worn tribosystem elements was performed after six months of service.

  4. Corrosion of mild steel and stainless steel by marine Vibrio sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wagh, A.B.

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of stainless steel and mild steel coupons exposed to media with and without a bacterial culture Vibrio sp. was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Pitting type of corrosion was noticed which was more...

  5. Corrosion-free precast prestressed concrete piles made with stainless steel reinforcement : construction, test and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The use of duplex high-strength stainless steel (HSSS) grade 2205 prestressing strand and : austenitic stainless steel (SS) grade 304 spiral wire reinforcement is proposed as a replacement of : conventional prestressing steel, in order to provide a 1...

  6. Dynamic Material Flow Analysis for Stainless Steels in Japan-Reductions Potential of CO2 Emissions by Promoting Closed Loop Recycling of Stainless Steels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Igarashi, Yuma; Daigo, Ichiro; Matsuno, Yasunari; Adachi, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    ...". The objective of this study is to analyze the dynamic substance flow of stainless steels in Japan and assess the potential for reducing CO2 emissions by promoting closed loop recycling of stainless steels in the future...

  7. Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel Made by Additive Manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luecke, William E; Slotwinski, John A

    2014-01-01

    Using uniaxial tensile and hardness testing, we evaluated the variability and anisotropy of the mechanical properties of an austenitic stainless steel, UNS S17400, manufactured by an additive process...

  8. Finite Element Stress Analysis of Stainless Steel Crowns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Attiguppe Prabhakar; Chandrashekar Yavagal; Amrita Chakraborty; S Sugandhan

    2015-01-01

      Background: Though stainless steel crowns (SSCs) have often been stated as the best restorative modality, there are limited studies demonstrating its efficacy in restoring the functional integrity of the primary dentition...

  9. Eddy sensors for small diameter stainless steel tubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Jack L.; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Grant, J. Brian; Korellis, Henry James; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth; Van Blarigan, Benjamin; Andersen, Lisa E.

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this project was to develop non-destructive, minimally disruptive eddy sensors to inspect small diameter stainless steel metal tubes. Modifications to Sandia's Emphasis/EIGER code allowed for the modeling of eddy current bobbin sensors near or around 1/8-inch outer diameter stainless steel tubing. Modeling results indicated that an eddy sensor based on a single axial coil could effectively detect changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tubing. Based on the modeling results, sensor coils capable of detecting small changes in the inner diameter of a stainless steel tube were designed, built and tested. The observed sensor response agreed with the results of the modeling and with eddy sensor theory. A separate limited distribution SAND report is being issued demonstrating the application of this sensor.

  10. Damage evolution and failure mechanisms in additively manufactured stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, Holly D., E-mail: carlton4@llnl.gov [Materials Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Haboub, Abdel [Lincoln University, Life and Physical Sciences Department, 820 Chestnut St, Jefferson City, MO 65101 (United States); Gallegos, Gilbert F. [Materials Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; MacDowell, Alastair A. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    In situ tensile tests were performed on additively manufactured austenitic stainless steel to track damage evolution within the material. For these experiments Synchrotron Radiation micro-Tomography was used to measure three-dimensional pore volume, distribution, and morphology in stainless steel at the micrometer length-scale while tensile loading was applied. The results showed that porosity distribution played a larger role in affecting the fracture mechanisms than measured bulk density. Specifically, additively manufactured stainless steel specimens with large inhomogeneous void distributions displayed a flaw-dominated failure where cracks were shown to initiate at pre-existing voids, while annealed additively manufactured stainless steel specimens, which contained low porosity and randomly distributed pores, displayed fracture mechanisms that closely resembled wrought metal.

  11. Pitting corrosion protection of low nickel stainless steel by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PoPD) were electropolymerized by cyclic voltammetric technique on low nickel stainless steel ... Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 020, India ...

  12. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  13. Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Martensitic PH Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T.; Nelson, E.

    1984-01-01

    Precipitation-hardening alloys evaluated in marine environment tests. Report describes marine-environment stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) tests of three martensitic precipitation hardening (PH) stainless-steel alloys.

  14. Nafion coated stainless steel for anti-biofilm application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li Juan; Pang, Li Qing; Che, Li Ming; Wu, Xue E; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2013-11-01

    Biofilms can adhere to most surfaces and have caused a wide range of problems in various industrial processes as well as daily life activities. In this work, the anti-biofilm ability of Nafion-coated stainless steel surface was investigated and our results showed that stainless steel discs coated with 1% Nafion can significantly reduce E. coli adhesion. Nafion has a large amount of negatively charged sulphonate groups, and the findings of this study suggest that the negative surface charge can greatly reduce bacterial adhesion through increasing the electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged bacterial cells and Nafion coated stainless steel surface. The roughness of coated and uncoated stainless steel discs made no significant differences while the hydrophobic of the discs increased after coated with Nafion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Stainless Steel Cellular Materials with Polyurethane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KISHIMOTO, Satoshi; SHIMIZU, Toru; NAITO, Kimiyoshi; KAGAWA, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    .... The mechanical properties of this material were measured. The results of the compressive tests showed that the stainless steel cellular material containing the polyurethane has different stress-strain curves from that without any polymer...

  16. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    KAUST Repository

    Serdar, Marijana

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide-hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from the surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel.

  17. Stainless steel in contact with food and bevarage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveto Cvetkovski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steels are probably the most important materials in the food and beverage industries. The main reason for such broad implementation of stainless steel in contact with food are excellent properties which they possess such as corrosion resistance, resistance to high and low temperatures, very good mechanical and physical properties, aesthetic appeal, inertness of surface, durability, easy cleaning and recycling. Low thermal conductivity of these steels produces steeper temperature coefficient provoking an increased distortion, shrinkage and stresses compared with carbon steel.

  18. Assessment of nickel release from stainless steel crowns.

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Ramazani; Rahil Ahmadi; Mansure Darijani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adverse effects of dental materials, especially metals, have been an important issue in recent decades. Purpose of Study: The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of nickel released from stainless steel crowns in artificial saliva. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 270 stainless steel crowns were divided into five groups, each with nine subgroups. Each group (I to V) was comprised of four, five, six, seven and eight crowns, respectively. Each subgroup was ...

  19. Yb-fibre Laser Welding of 6 mm Duplex Stainless Steel 2205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolut, M.; Kong, C. Y.; Blackburn, J.; Cashell, K. A.; Hobson, P. R.

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is one of the materials of choice for structural and nuclear applications, having high strength and good corrosion resistance when compared with other grades of stainless steel. The welding process used to join these materials is critical as transformation of the microstructure during welding directly affects the material properties. High power laser welding has recently seen an increase in research interest as it offers both speed and flexibility. This paper presents an investigation into the important parameters affecting laser welding of DSS grade 2205, with particular focus given to the critical issue of phase transformation during welding. Bead-on-plate melt-run trials without filler material were performed on 6mm thick plates using a 5 kW Yb-fibre laser. The laser beam was characterized and a Design of Experiment approach was used to quantify the impact of the process parameters. Optical metallographic methods were used to examine the resulting microstructures.

  20. Deposition of DLC Film on Stainless Steel Substrates Coated by Nickel Using PECVD Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Zahra; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Vaghri, Elnaz; Saghaleini, Amir; Diudea, Mircea V

    2012-06-01

    Research on diamond-like carbon (DLC) films has been devoted to find both optimized conditions and characteristics of the deposited films on various substrates. In the present work, we investigate the quality of the DLC films grown on stainless steel substrates using different thickness of the nickel nanoparticle layers on the surface. Nickel nanoparticles were sputtered on the stainless steel substrates at 200 °C by a DC-sputtering system to make a good adherence between DLC coating and steel substrates. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to characterize the surface roughness and distribution function of the nickel nanoparticles on the substrate surface. Diamond like carbon films were deposited on stainless steel substrates coated by nickel using pure acetylene and C2H2/H2 with 15% flow ratio by DC-Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) systems. Microstructural analysis by Raman spectroscopy showed a low intensity ratio ID/IG for DLC films by increasing the Ni layer thickness on the stainless steel substrates. Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) evidenced the peaks attributed to C-H bending and stretching vibration modes in the range of 1300-1700 cm-1 and 2700-3100 cm-1, respectively, in good agreement with the Raman spectroscopy and confirmed the DLC growth in all samples.

  1. Highly porous, low elastic modulus 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Jaroslav; Machová, Markéta; Fousová, Michaela; Kubásek, Jiří; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Fojt, Jaroslav; Jablonská, Eva; Lipov, Jan; Ruml, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    Recently, porous metallic materials have been extensively studied as candidates for use in the fabrication of scaffolds and augmentations to repair trabecular bone defects, e.g. in surroundings of joint replacements. Fabricating these complex structures by using common approaches (e.g., casting and machining) is very challenging. Therefore, rapid prototyping techniques, such as selective laser melting (SLM), have been investigated for these applications. In this study, we characterized a highly porous (87 vol.%) 316L stainless steel scaffold prepared by SLM. 316L steel was chosen because it presents a biomaterial still widely used for fabrication of joint replacements and, from the practical point of view, use of the same material for fabrication of an augmentation and a joint replacement is beneficial for corrosion prevention. The results are compared to the reported properties of two representative nonporous 316L stainless steels prepared either by SLM or casting and subsequent hot forging. The microstructural and mechanical properties and the surface chemical composition and interaction with the cells were investigated. The studied material exhibited mechanical properties that were similar to those of trabecular bone (compressive modulus of elasticity ~0.15GPa, compressive yield strength ~3MPa) and cytocompatibility after one day that was similar to that of wrought 316L stainless steel, which is a commonly used biomaterial. Based on the obtained results, SLM is a suitable method for the fabrication of porous 316L stainless steel scaffolds with highly porous structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of (Mn,Co)3O4 Protection Layers for Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Simner, Steven P.; Singh, Prabhakar; Xia, Guanguang; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2005-07-05

    A spinel-based surface protection layer has been developed for alloy SOFC current collectors and bi-polar gas separators. The (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel with a nominal composition of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 demonstrates an excellent electrical conductivity and thermal expansion match to ferritic stainless steel interconnects. A slurry-coating technique provides a viable approach for fabricating protective layers of the spinel onto the steel interconnects. Thermally grown protection layers of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 have been found not only to significantly decrease the contact resistance between a LSF cathode and stainless steel interconnect, but also inhibits the sub-scale growth on the stainless steel. The combination of the inhibited sub-scale growth, good thermal expansion matching between the spinel and the stainless steel, and the closed-pore structure contribute to the excellent structural and thermomechanical stability of these spinel protection layers, which was verified by a long-term thermal-cycling test. The spinel protection layers can also act effectively to prevent outward diffusion of chromium from the interconnect alloy, preventing subsequent chromium migration into the cathode and contact materials. PNNL is currently engaged in studies intended to optimize the composition, microstructure, and fabrication procedure for the spinel protection layers.

  3. Characterization of a Laser Surface-Treated Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Al-Sayed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface treatment was carried out on AISI 416 machinable martensitic stainless steel containing 0.225 wt.% sulfur. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used. The aim was to compare the physical and chemical properties achieved by this type of selective surface treatment with those achieved by the conventional treatment. Laser power of different values (700 and 1000 W with four corresponding different laser scanning speeds (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 m•min−1 was adopted to reach the optimum conditions for impact toughness, wear, and corrosion resistance for laser heat treated (LHT samples. The 0 °C impact energy of LHT samples indicated higher values compared to the conventionally heat treated (CHT samples. This was accompanied by the formation of a hard surface layer and a soft interior base metal. Microhardness was studied to determine the variation of hardness values with respect to the depth under the treated surface. The wear resistance at the surface was enhanced considerably. Microstructure examination was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The corrosion behavior of the LHT samples was also studied and its correlation with the microstructures was determined. The corrosion data was obtained in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature by means of a potentiodynamic polarization technique.

  4. Characterization of a Laser Surface-Treated Martensitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, S. R.; Hussein, A. A.; Nofal, A. A.; Hassab Elnaby, S. I.; Elgazzar, H.

    2017-01-01

    Laser surface treatment was carried out on AISI 416 machinable martensitic stainless steel containing 0.225 wt.% sulfur. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used. The aim was to compare the physical and chemical properties achieved by this type of selective surface treatment with those achieved by the conventional treatment. Laser power of different values (700 and 1000 W) with four corresponding different laser scanning speeds (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 m·min−1) was adopted to reach the optimum conditions for impact toughness, wear, and corrosion resistance for laser heat treated (LHT) samples. The 0 °C impact energy of LHT samples indicated higher values compared to the conventionally heat treated (CHT) samples. This was accompanied by the formation of a hard surface layer and a soft interior base metal. Microhardness was studied to determine the variation of hardness values with respect to the depth under the treated surface. The wear resistance at the surface was enhanced considerably. Microstructure examination was characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The corrosion behavior of the LHT samples was also studied and its correlation with the microstructures was determined. The corrosion data was obtained in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature by means of a potentiodynamic polarization technique. PMID:28772955

  5. Influence of electrical Field on Pulsed Laser beam welding of Stainless Steel (304)

    OpenAIRE

    FAWZİ, Salah A. H.; ARİF, RAZ N.

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed laser beam welding experiment were carried out on stainless steel (SUS 304), using vertical and horizontal electric fields of different intensities to study its effectiveness on the welding process, regarding depth and weld quality. Pulsed Nd: YAG laser emitting 10 ms pulses in the TEM00 mode at 1.06 m m wave length was employed, microstructure of welded zone and defect were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Tensile test and microhardness measuremen...

  6. Influence of microscopic strain heterogeneity on the formability of martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettanini, Alvise Miotti; Delannay, Laurent; Jacques, Pascal J.; Pardoen, Thomas; Badinier, Guillaume; Mithieux, Jean-Denis

    2017-10-01

    Both finite element modeling and mean field (Mori-Tanaka) modeling are used to predict the strain partitioning in the martensite-ferrite microstructure of an AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel. Numerical predictions reproduce experimental trends according to which macroscopic strength is increased when the dissolution of carbides leads to carbon enrichment of martensite. However, the increased strength contrast of ferrite and martensite favours strain localization and high stress triaxiality in ferrite, which in turn promotes ductile damage development.

  7. Low-temperature creep of austenitic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R. P.; Walsh, R. P.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic deformation under constant load (creep) in austenitic stainless steels has been measured at temperatures ranging from 4 K to room temperature. Low-temperature creep data taken from past and unreported austenitic stainless steel studies are analyzed and reviewed. Creep at cryogenic temperatures of common austenitic steels, such as AISI 304, 310 316, and nitrogen-strengthened steels, such as 304HN and 3116LN, are included. Analyses suggests that logarithmic creep (creep strain dependent on the log of test time) best describe austenitic stainless steel behavior in the secondary creep stage and that the slope of creep strain versus log time is dependent on the applied stress/yield strength ratio. The role of cold work, strain-induced martensitic transformations, and stacking fault energy on low-temperature creep behavior is discussed. The engineering significance of creep on cryogenic structures is discussed in terms of the total creep strain under constant load over their operational lifetime at allowable stress levels.

  8. Effect of shot peening on metastable austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargas, G., E-mail: gemma.fargas@upc.edu [CIEFMA - Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Centre de Recerca en Nanoenginyeria, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Roa, J.J.; Mateo, A. [CIEFMA - Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Centre de Recerca en Nanoenginyeria, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-08-12

    In this work, shot peening was performed in a metastable austenitic stainless steel EN 1.4318 (AISI 301LN) in order to evaluate its effect on austenite to martensite phase transformation and also the influence on the fatigue limit. Two different steel conditions were considered: annealed, i.e., with a fully austenitic microstructure, and cold rolled, consisting of a mixture of austenite and martensite. X-ray diffraction, electron back-scattered diffraction and focus ion beam, as well as nanoindentation techniques, were used to elucidate deformation mechanisms activated during shot peening and correlate with fatigue response. Results pointed out that extensive plastic deformation and phase transformation developed in annealed specimens as a consequence of shot peening. However, the increase of roughness and the generation of microcracks led to a limited fatigue limit improvement. In contrast, shot peened cold rolled specimens exhibited enhanced fatigue limit. In the latter case, the main factor that determined the influence on the fatigue response was the distance from the injector, followed successively by the exit speed of the shots and the coverage factor.

  9. Crack propagation during fatigue in cast duplex stainless steels: influence of the microstructure, of the aging and of the test temperature; Propagation de fissure par fatigue dans les aciers austeno-ferritiques moules: influence de la microstructure, du vieillissement et de la temperature d'essai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, V

    2001-07-15

    Duplex stainless steels are used as cast components in nuclear power plants. At the service temperature of about 320 C, the ferrite phase is thermally aged and embrittled. This induces a significant decrease in fracture properties of these materials. The aim of this work consists in studying Fatigue Crack Growth Rates (FCGR) and Fatigue Crack Growth Mechanisms (FCGM) as a function of thermal ageing and test temperature (20 C/320 C). Two cast duplex stainless steels (30% ferrite) are tested. In order to better understand the influence of the crystallographic orientation of the phases on the FCGM, the solidification structure of the material is studied by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) and by Unidirectional Solidification Quenching. Fatigue crack growth tests are also performed in equiaxed and basaltic structures. Microstructure, fatigue crack growth mechanical properties and mechanisms are thus studied in relation to each other. In the studied range of delta K, the crack propagates without any preferential path by successive ruptures of phase laths. The macroscopic crack propagation plane, as determined by EBSD, depends on the crystallographic orientation of the ferrite grain. So, according to the solidification structure, secondary cracks can appear, which in turn influences the FCGR. Fatigue crack closure, which has to be determined to estimate the intrinsic FCGR, decreases with increasing ageing. This can be explained by a decrease in the kinematic cyclic hardening. The Paris exponent as determined from intrinsic FCGR increases with ageing. Intrinsic FCGR can then be separated in two ranges: one with lower FCGR in aged materials than in un-aged and one with the reversed tendency. (author)

  10. 75 FR 81309 - Stainless Steel Plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate...(c)(5)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the countervailing duty orders on stainless...

  11. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešnjak, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones

  12. EFFECT OF INTERMETALLIC PHASES ON CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL AND SUPER-DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu Paulraj; Rajnish Garg

    2015-01-01

    Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) and Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS) have excellent integration of mechanical and corrosion properties. However, the formation of intermetallic phases is a major problem in their usage. The mechanical and corrosion properties are deteriorated due to the presence of intermetallic phases. These phases are induced during welding, prolonged exposure to high temperatures, and improper heat treatments. The main emphasis of this review article is on intermetallic pha...

  13. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Spray-Formed Boron-Modified Supermartensitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepon, Guilherme; Nogueira, Ricardo P.; Kiminami, Claudio S.; Botta, Walter J.; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2017-04-01

    Spray-formed boron-modified supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) grades are alloys developed to withstand severe wear conditions. The addition of boron to the conventional chemical composition of SMSS, combined with the solidification features promoted by the spray forming process, leads to a microstructure composed of low carbon martensitic matrix reinforced by an eutectic network of M2B-type borides, which considerably increases the wear resistance of the stainless steel. Although the presence of borides in the microstructure has a very beneficial effect on the wear properties of the alloy, their effect on the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel was not comprehensively evaluated. The present work presents a study of the effect of boron addition on the corrosion resistance of the spray-formed boron-modified SMSS grades by means of electrochemical techniques. The borides fraction seems to have some influence on the repassivation kinetics of the spray-formed boron-modified SMSS. It was shown that the Cr content of the martensitic matrix is the microstructural feature deciding the corrosion resistance of this sort of alloys. Therefore, if the Cr content in the alloy is increased to around 14 wt pct to compensate for the boron consumed by the borides formation, the corrosion resistance of the alloy is kept at the same level of the alloy without boron addition.

  14. Welding Behavior of Free Machining Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKS,JOHN A.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; HEADLEY,THOMAS J.; MICHAEL,JOSEPH R.

    2000-07-24

    The weld solidification and cracking behavior of sulfur bearing free machining austenitic stainless steel was investigated for both gas-tungsten arc (GTA) and pulsed laser beam weld processes. The GTA weld solidification was consistent with those predicted with existing solidification diagrams and the cracking response was controlled primarily by solidification mode. The solidification behavior of the pulsed laser welds was complex, and often contained regions of primary ferrite and primary austenite solidification, although in all cases the welds were found to be completely austenite at room temperature. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) pattern analysis indicated that the nature of the base metal at the time of solidification plays a primary role in initial solidification. The solid state transformation of austenite to ferrite at the fusion zone boundary, and ferrite to austenite on cooling may both be massive in nature. A range of alloy compositions that exhibited good resistance to solidification cracking and was compatible with both welding processes was identified. The compositional range is bounded by laser weldability at lower Cr{sub eq}/Ni{sub eq} ratios and by the GTA weldability at higher ratios. It was found with both processes that the limiting ratios were somewhat dependent upon sulfur content.

  15. Micro-Abrasion Wear Resistance of Borided 316L Stainless Steel and AISI 1018 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reséndiz-Calderon, C. D.; Rodríguez-Castro, G. A.; Meneses-Amador, A.; Campos-Silva, I. E.; Andraca-Adame, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M. E.; Gallardo-Hernández, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The 316L stainless steel has high corrosion resistance but low tribological performance. In different industrial sectors (biomedical, chemical, petrochemical, and nuclear engineering), improvement upon wear resistance of 316L stainless steel components using accessible and inexpensive methods is critical. The AISI 1018 steel is widely used in industry, but its tribological performance is not the best among steels. Therefore, in this study the behavior of the borided 316L stainless steel and 1018 steel is evaluated under micro-abrasion wear. The boriding was carried out at 1223 K over 6 h of exposure time, resulting in a biphase layer composed of FeB/Fe2B phases. In order to evaluate Fe2B phase with no influence from FeB phase, AISI 1018 steel samples were borided at 1273 K for over 20 min and then diffusion annealed at 1273 K over 2 h to obtain a Fe2B mono-phase layer. Micro-abrasion wear resistance was evaluated by a commercial micro-abrasion testing rig using a mix of F-1200 SiC particles with deionized water as abrasive slurry. The obtained wear rates for FeB and Fe2B phases and for the 316L stainless steel were compared. Wear resistance of 316L stainless steel increases after boriding. The wear mechanisms for both phases and for the stainless steel were identified. Also, transient conditions for rolling and grooving abrasion were determined for the FeB and Fe2B phases.

  16. Micro-Abrasion Wear Resistance of Borided 316L Stainless Steel and AISI 1018 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reséndiz-Calderon, C. D.; Rodríguez-Castro, G. A.; Meneses-Amador, A.; Campos-Silva, I. E.; Andraca-Adame, J.; Palomar-Pardavé, M. E.; Gallardo-Hernández, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    The 316L stainless steel has high corrosion resistance but low tribological performance. In different industrial sectors (biomedical, chemical, petrochemical, and nuclear engineering), improvement upon wear resistance of 316L stainless steel components using accessible and inexpensive methods is critical. The AISI 1018 steel is widely used in industry, but its tribological performance is not the best among steels. Therefore, in this study the behavior of the borided 316L stainless steel and 1018 steel is evaluated under micro-abrasion wear. The boriding was carried out at 1223 K over 6 h of exposure time, resulting in a biphase layer composed of FeB/Fe2B phases. In order to evaluate Fe2B phase with no influence from FeB phase, AISI 1018 steel samples were borided at 1273 K for over 20 min and then diffusion annealed at 1273 K over 2 h to obtain a Fe2B mono-phase layer. Micro-abrasion wear resistance was evaluated by a commercial micro-abrasion testing rig using a mix of F-1200 SiC particles with deionized water as abrasive slurry. The obtained wear rates for FeB and Fe2B phases and for the 316L stainless steel were compared. Wear resistance of 316L stainless steel increases after boriding. The wear mechanisms for both phases and for the stainless steel were identified. Also, transient conditions for rolling and grooving abrasion were determined for the FeB and Fe2B phases.

  17. Investigation of the diffusion kinetics of borided stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, Yusuf

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the kinetics of borides formed on AISI 420, AISI 304 and AISI 304L stainless steels was investigated. Boronizing treatment was carried out using Ekabor-II powders at the processing temperatures of 1123, 1173 and 1223 K for 2, 4 and 6 h. The phases of the boride layers of borided AISI 420, AISI 304 and AISI 304L stainless steels were FeB, Fe2B, CrB and NiB, respectively. The thickness of the boride layer formed on the borided steels ranged from 4.6 to 64 μm depending on the boriding temperature, boriding time and alloying elements of the stainless steels. Depending on the chemical composition, temperature and layer thickness, the activation energies of boron in AISI 420, AISI 304 and AISI 304L stainless steels were found to be 206.161, 234.641 and 222.818 kJ/mol, respectively. The kinetics of growth of the boride layers formed on the AISI 420, AISI 304 and AISI 304L stainless steels and the thickness of the boride layers were investigated.

  18. Stainless steel tube-based cell cryopreservation containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wei-Hung; Yu, Zong-Yan; Wu, Wei-Te

    2013-12-01

    This study focused on increasing the freezing rate in cell vitrification cryopreservation by using a cryopreservation container possessing rigid mechanical properties and high heat-transfer efficiency. Applying a fast freezing rate in vitrification cryopreservation causes a rapid temperature change in the cryopreservation container and has a substantial impact on mechanical properties; therefore, a highly rigid cryopreservation container that possesses a fast freezing rate must be developed. To produce a highly rigid cryopreservation container possessing superior heat transfer efficiency, this study applies an electrochemical machining (ECM) method to an ANSI 316L stainless steel tube to treat the surface material by polishing and roughening, thereby increasing the freezing rate and reducing the probability of ice crystal formation. The results indicated that the ECM method provided high-quality surface treatment of the stainless steel tube. This method can reduce internal surface roughness in the stainless steel tube, thereby reducing the probability of ice crystal formation, and increase external surface roughness, consequently raising convection heat-transfer efficiency. In addition, by thinning the stainless steel tube, this method reduces heat capacity and thermal resistance, thereby increasing the freezing rate. The freezing rate (3399 ± 197 °C/min) of a stainless steel tube after interior and exterior polishing and exterior etching by applying ECM compared with the freezing rate (1818 ± 54 °C/min) of an original stainless steel tube was increased by 87%, which also exceeds the freezing rate (2015 ± 49 °C/min) of an original quartz tube that has a 20% lower heat capacity. However, the results indicated that increasing heat-transferring surface areas and reducing heat capacities cannot effectively increase the freezing rate of a stainless steel tube if only one method is applied; instead, both techniques must be implemented concurrently to improve the

  19. Corrosion Behavior of the Stressed Sensitized Austenitic Stainless Steels of High Nitrogen Content in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Almubarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of high nitrogen content on corrosion behavior of austenitic stainless steels in seawater under severe conditions such as tensile stresses and existence of sensitization in the structure. A constant tensile stress has been applied to sensitized specimens types 304, 316L, 304LN, 304NH, and 316NH stainless steels. Microstructure investigation revealed various degrees of stress corrosion cracking. SCC was severe in type 304, moderate in types 316L and 304LN, and very slight in types 304NH and 316NH. The electrochemical polarization curves showed an obvious second current peak for the sensitized alloys which indicated the existence of second phase in the structure and the presence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking. EPR test provided a rapid and efficient nondestructive testing method for showing passivity, degree of sensitization and determining IGSCC for stainless steels in seawater. A significant conclusion was obtained that austenitic stainless steels of high nitrogen content corrode at a much slower rate increase pitting resistance and offer an excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking in seawater.

  20. Application Feasibility of PRE 50 grade Super Austenitic Stainless Steel as a Steam Generator Tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taek Jun; Kim, Sun Tae; Park, Hui Sang [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the properties of the super austenitic stainless steel, SR-50A for application as steam generator tubing material. The microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion properties, were analyzed and the results were compared between super austenitic stainless steel and Alloy 600 and Alloy 690. Super austenitic stainless steel, SR-50A is superior to Alloy 600, Alloy 690 and Alloy 800 in the mechanical properties(tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation). It was investigated that thermal conductivity of SR-50A was higher than Alloy 600. As a result of thermal treatment on super stainless steel, SR-50A, caustic SCC resistance was increased and its resistance was as much as Alloy 600TT and Alloy 690TT. In this study, optimum thermal treatment condition to improve the caustic corrosion properties was considered as 650 deg C or 550 deg C 15 hours. However, it is necessary to verify the corrosion mechanism and to prove the above results in the various corrosive environments. 27 refs., 6 tabs., 59 figs. (author)

  1. Effect of A-TIG Welding Process on the Weld Attributes of Type 304LN and 316LN Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, M.

    2017-03-01

    The specific activated flux has been developed for enhancing the penetration performance of TIG welding process for autogenous welding of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels through systematic study. Initially single-component fluxes were used to study their effect on depth of penetration and tensile properties. Then multi-component activated flux was developed which was found to produce a significant increase in penetration of 10-12 mm in single-pass TIG welding of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels. The significant improvement in penetration achieved using the activated flux developed in the present work has been attributed to the constriction of the arc and as well as reversal of Marangoni flow in the molten weld pool. The use of activated flux has been found to overcome the variable weld penetration observed in 316LN stainless steel with TIG welds compared to that of the welds produced by conventional TIG welding on the contrary the transverse strength properties of the 304LN and 316LN stainless steel welds produced by A-TIG welding exceeded the minimum specified strength values of the base metals. Improvement in toughness values were observed in 316LN stainless steel produced by A-TIG welding due to refinement in the weld microstructure in the region close to the weld center. Thus, activated flux developed in the present work has greater potential for use during the TIG welding of structural components made of type 304LN and 316LN stainless steels.

  2. Electrochemical testing of passivity state and corrosion resistance of supermartensitic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lasek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On low interstitial - supermartensitic stainless steels (X1CrNiMo 12-5-1, X2CrNiMo 13-6-2, X1CrNiMo 12-6-2 the electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out and the passive state stability and localized corrosion resistance were compared and evaluated. The effect of quenching and tempering as well as the changes in microstructure on polarisation curves and corrosion properties at room temperature were established. Small differences in chemical composition of steels were also registered on their corrosion parameters changes and resistance.

  3. Comparison of Hydrogen Embrittlement Resistance between 2205 Duplex Stainless Steels and type 316L Austenitic Stainless Steels Under the Cathodic Applied Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Il; Lee, Jae-Bong [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    2205 duplex stainless steels have been used for the construction of the marine environment, because of their excellent corrosion resistance and high strength. However, the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) may be less than that of 316L austenitic stainless steel. The reason why 316L stainless steels have better resistance to HE is associated with crystal structure (FCC, face centered cubic) and the higher stacking faults energy than 2205 duplex stainless steels. Furthermore 2205 stainless steels with or without tungsten were also examined in terms of HE. 2205 stainless steels containing tungsten is less resistible to HE. It is because dislocation tangle was formed in 2205 duplex stainless steels. Slow strain-rate tensile test (SSRT) was conducted to measure the resistance to HE under the cathodic applied potential. Hydrogen embrittlement index (HEI) was used to evaluate HE resistance through the quantitative calculation.

  4. Development of a Nitrogen-Modified Stainless-Steel Hardfacing Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan Thomas

    A 2nd generation hardfacing alloy, Nitromaxx, has been designed though an integrated approach of chemical modification, characterization, and testing. Nitromaxx is a stainless-steel alloy modified with 0.5wt% nitrogen which has improved elevated temperature properties and wear performance. This is achieved by changing both the microstructure phase balance and inherent deformation characteristics of the metal. The alloy is fabricated by a powder metallurgy-hot isostatic pressing (PM-HIP) method, rather than traditional cladding methods. This allows for alloy property modification by equilibrium heat treatment while eliminating significant fabrication defects, so that component life is extended wear and galling performance is improved. The design approach involved extensive characterization of severely worn and galled surfaces of the 1st generation of hardfacing alloys. Observation of samples after galling testing showed highly inhomogeneous deformation in regions of the gall scar, leading to the design hypothesis that strain-localization is a controlling mechanism in severe wear of stainless-steels. Additionally, the presence and subsequent loss was investigated and correlated microstructurally to the transition to poor galling behavior in the existing stainless steel hardfacing NOREM02. This provided new insight and identification of key microstructural and mechanical properties that improve galling performance: 1) increased strain-hardening rate in the metal matrix at elevated temperature, 2) increased yield strength in the matrix leading to higher hardness, and 3) increased volume fraction of hard, non-deforming phases. All of these alloy design goals can be realized by the addition of nitrogen, which 1) at high concentration is shown to lower the stacking fault energy in the stainless steel matrix, 2) increases interstitial matrix strengthening, and 3) increases the volume fraction of nitride phases. These observations have been confirmed qualitatively and

  5. Fracture-tough, high hardness stainless steel and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gregory B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A cryogenically-formed and tempered stainless steel is provided having improved fracture toughness and corrosion resistance at a given hardness level, such as, for example, of at least about Rc 60 for bearing applications. The steel consists essentially of, in weight %, about 21 to about 24% Co, about 11 to about 13% Cr, about 7 to about 9% Ni, about 0.1 to about 0.5% Mo, about 0.2 to about 0.3% V, about 0.28 to about 0.32% C, and the balance iron. The steel includes a cryogenically-formed martensitic microstructure tempered to include about 5 to about 10 volume % post-deformation retained austenite dispersed therein and M.sub.2 C-type carbides, where M is Cr, Mo, V, and/or Fe, dispersed in the microstructure.

  6. Mechanical characteristics of welded joints between different stainless steels grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, S.; Łabanowski, J.

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of mechanical characteristics of welded joints is one of the most important tasks that allow determining their functional properties. Due to the very high, still rising, cost of some stainless steels it is justified, on economic grounds, welding austenitic stainless steel with steels that are corrosion-resistant like duplex ones. According to forecasts the price of corrosion resistant steels stil can increase by 26 ÷ 30%. For technical reasons welded joints require appropriate mechanical properties such as: tensile strength, bending, ductility, toughness, and resistance to aggressive media. Such joints are applied in the construction of chemical tankers, apparatus and chemical plants and power steam stations. Using the proper binder makes possible the welds directly between the elements of austenitic stainless steels and duplex ones. It causes that such joits behave satisfactorily in service in such areas like maritime constructions and steam and chemical plants. These steels have high mechanical properties such as: the yield strength, the tensile strength and the ductility as well as the resistance to general corrosion media. They are resistant to both pitting and stress corrosions. The relatively low cost of production of duplex steels, in comparison with standard austenitic steels, is inter alia, the result of a reduced amount of scarce and expensive Nickel, which is seen as a further advantage of these steels.

  7. Work of adhesion of dairy products on stainless steel surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Campos Bernardes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion of the solids presents in food can difficult the process of surface cleaning and promotes the bacterial adhesion process and can trigger health problems. In our study, we used UHT whole milk, chocolate based milk and infant formula to evaluate the adhesion of Enterobacter sakazakii on stainless steel coupons, and we determine the work of adhesion by measuring the contact angle as well as measured the interfacial tension of the samples. Inaddition we evaluated the hydrophobicity of stainless steel after pre-conditioning with milk samples mentioned. E. sakazakii was able to adhere to stainless steel in large numbers in the presence of dairy products. The chocolate based milk obtained the lower contact angle with stainless steel surface, higher interfacial tension and consequently higher adhesion work. It was verified a tendency of decreasing the interfacial tension as a function of the increasing of protein content. The pre-conditioning of the stainless steel coupons with milk samples changed the hydrophobic characteristics of the surfaces and became them hydrophilic. Therefore, variations in the composition of the milk products affect parameters important that can influence the procedure of hygiene in surface used in food industry.

  8. Electrochemical Micromachining with Fiber Laser Masking for 304 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohai; Wang, Shuming; Wang, Dong; Tong, Han

    2017-10-01

    In order to fabricate micro structure, the combined machining of electrochemical micro machining (EMM) and laser masking for 304 stainless steel was studied. A device of composite machining of EMM with laser masking was developed, and the experiments of EMM with laser masking were carried out. First, by marking pattern with fiber laser on the surface of 304 stainless steel, the special masking layer can be formed. Through X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the corrosion resistance of laser masking layer was analyzed. It is proved by XPS that the iron oxide and chromium oxide on the surface of stainless steel generates due to air oxidation when laser scanning heats. Second, the localization and precision of EMM are improved, since the marking patterns forming on the surface of stainless steel by laser masking play a protective role in the process of subsequent EMM when the appropriate parameters of EMM are selected. At last, the shape and the roughness of the machined samples were measured by SEM and optical profilometer and analyzed. The results show that the rapid fabrication of micro structures on the 304 stainless steel surface can be achieved by EMM with fiber laser masking, which has a good prospect in the field of micro machining.

  9. Microbial electrocatalysis with Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilm on stainless steel cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, Claire; Basseguy, Regine [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP 1301, 31106 Toulouse (France); Bergel, Alain [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique CNRS-INPT, 5 rue Paulin Talabot, BP 1301, 31106 Toulouse (France)], E-mail: Alain.Bergel@ensiacet.fr

    2008-01-01

    Stainless steel and graphite electrodes were individually addressed and polarized at -0.60 V vs. Ag/AgCl in reactors filled with a growth medium that contained 25 mM fumarate as the electron acceptor and no electron donor, in order to force the microbial cells to use the electrode as electron source. When the reactor was inoculated with Geobacter sulfurreducens, the current increased and stabilized at average values around 0.75 A m{sup -2} for graphite and 20.5 A m{sup -2} for stainless steel. Cyclic voltammetry performed at the end of the experiment indicated that the reduction started at around -0.30 V vs. Ag/AgCl on stainless steel. Removing the biofilm formed on the electrode surface made the current totally disappear, confirming that the G.sulfurreducens biofilm was fully responsible for the electrocatalysis of fumarate reduction. Similar current densities were recorded when the electrodes were polarized after being kept in open circuit for several days. The reasons for the bacteria presence and survival on non-connected stainless steel coupons were discussed. Chronoamperometry experiments performed at different potential values suggested that the biofilm-driven catalysis was controlled by electrochemical kinetics. The high current density obtained, quite close to the redox potential of the fumarate/succinate couple, presents stainless steel as a remarkable material to support biocathodes.

  10. Antibacterial effect of silver nanofilm modified stainless steel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F.; Kennedy, J.; Dhillon, M.; Flint, S.

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria can attach to stainless steel surfaces, resulting in the colonization of the surface known as biofilms. The release of bacteria from biofilms can cause contamination of food such as dairy products in manufacturing plants. This study aimed to modify stainless steel surfaces with silver nanofilms and to examine the antibacterial effectiveness of the modified surface. Ion implantation was applied to produce silver nanofilms on stainless steel surfaces. 35 keV Ag ions were implanted with various fluences of 1 × 1015 to 1 × 1017 ions•cm-2 at room temperature. Representative atomic force microscopy characterizations of the modified stainless steel are presented. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry spectra revealed the implanted atoms were located in the near-surface region. Both unmodified and modified stainless steel coupons were then exposed to two types of bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus thermophilus, to determine the effect of the surface modification on bacterial attachment and biofilm development. The silver modified coupon surface fluoresced red over most of the surface area implying that most bacteria on coupon surface were dead. This study indicates that the silver nanofilm fabricated by the ion implantation method is a promising way of reducing the attachment of bacteria and delay biofilm formation.

  11. Tensile properties of shielded metal arc welded dissimilar joints of nuclear grade ferritic steel and austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, K.; Malarvizhi, S.; Balasubramanian, V.; Krishnan, S. A.; Sasikala, G.; Albert, Shaju K.

    2016-12-01

    In nuclear power plants, modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel (Grade 91 or P91) is used for constructing steam generators (SG's) whereas austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316LN) is a major structural member for intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). Therefore, a dissimilar joint between these materials is unavoidable. In this investigation, dissimilar joints were fabricated by Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process with Inconel 82/182 filler metals. Transverse tensile properties and Charpy V-notch impact toughness for different regions of dissimilar joints of modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel and AISI 316LN austenitic stainless steel were evaluated as per the standards. Microhardness distribution across the dissimilar joint was recorded. Microstructural features of different regions were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The transverse tensile properties of the joint is found to be inferior to base metals. Impact toughness values of different regions of dissimilar metal weld joint (DMWJ) is slightly higher than the prescribed value. Formation of a soft zone at the outer edge of the HAZ will reduce the tensile properties of DMWJ. The complex microstructure developed at the interfaces of DMWJ will reduce the impact toughness values.

  12. Wear and repair of stainless steel crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Y; Kara, N Belduz; Yilmaz, A; Sahin, H

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the wear of stainless steel crowns (SSCs) in children, and compare the extent of microleakage in SSCs that had been repaired using either a cermet glass-ionomer cement (GIC) or a packable composite resin (CR). For the first aim, the occlusal surface thickness of 31 harvested SSCs (21 primary first and 10 second molars) and 18 unused SSCs was measured, and then examined under scanning electron microscopy. For the second aim, standardised holes were prepared on the occlusal surfaces of 20 SSCs, and then repaired using either a cermet GIC or packable CR. After their repair, the extent of microleakage was determined using 0.5% basic fuchsin and stereomicroscopy. The thickness of all the harvested SCCs was 5.3 μm less than that of the unused SCCs (p<0.02), and there were no significant differences between the thickness and occlusal wear rates of harvested SSCs from the first and second primary molars. Although neither of the two repair materials completely prevented microleakage, the number of specimens in which microleakage occurred after repair with a cermet GIC was significantly lower than the number of specimens in which a packable CR was used (p<0.05). We concluded that the occlusal surfaces of SSCs for first and second primary molars display wear. Although perforated SSCs can be repaired using either a cermet GIC or a packable CR, less microleakage occurs in SSCs that were repaired with a cermet GIC than those with a packable CR.

  13. Physical and Tribological Properties of Nitrided AISI 316 Stainless Steel Balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shicai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel balls (diameters 5.0 and 12.0 mm, typical hardness 250 HV0.3 and flat samples (20×20×2.0 mm were nitrided by a pulsed glow discharge Ar/N2 plasma. Hardness of the ball surfaces was analysed using Vickers indentation. Thermal stability of the nitrided balls (diameter 12.0 mm was studied using a furnace to heat them in air for 8 hours at temperatures up to 700.0°C and then, after cooling to room temperature, the surface hardness of the heated balls was re-measured. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to study the microstructures, composition and phase formation of the nitrided sublayers. Unlubricated pin-on-disc wear testing was used to evaluate the wear resistance of nitrided stainless steel balls (5.0 mm diameter and the results were compared with similar testing on hardened Cr-Steel balls (5 mm diameter with hardness of about 650 HV0.3. All the test results indicated that the nitrided AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel balls have advantages over the hardened Cr-Steel balls in terms of retaining high hardness after heat treatment and high resistance to sliding wear at room temperature under higher counterpart stress. These properties are expected to be beneficial for wide range of bearing applications.

  14. Effect of Grain Refinement on Deformation Mechanism and Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAN Xiang-liang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of phase reversion involving cold deformation of metastable austenite to generate strain-induced martensite, followed by temperature-time annealing sequence, was used to obtain grain size of nanograined/ultrafine-grained and coarse-grained austenitic stainless steels. The mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels with different grain sizes were obtained by tensile testing, the deformation microstructure and fracture surface were analyzed by TEM and SEM observations, respectively. The results indicate that deformation twins contribute to excellent ductility in high yield strength nanograined/ultrafine-grained steel, while in the low yield strength coarse-grained steel, the high ductility is due to strain-induced martensite transformation. Interestingly, the tensile fracture of the two austensite stainless steels with different deformation mechanism is ductile fracture. The deformation mechanism from deformation twins to strain-induced martensite in the coarse-grained structure in nanograined/ultrafine-grained structures is owing to the increased stability of austenite with grain refining.

  15. Evaluation of Direct Diode Laser Deposited Stainless Steel 316L on 4340 Steel Substrate for Aircraft Landing Gear Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2010-4149 EVALUATION OF DIRECT DIODE LASER DEPOSITED STAINLESS STEEL 316L ON 4340 STEEL SUBSTRATE FOR AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR...March 2010 – 01 March 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EVALUATION OF DIRECT DIODE LASER DEPOSITED STAINLESS STEEL 316L ON 4340 STEEL SUBSTRATE FOR...Code) N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Evaluation of Direct Diode Laser Deposited Stainless Steel 316L on

  16. Microstructure of the Transitional Area of the Connection of a High-temperature Ni-based Brazing Alloy and Stainless Steel AISI 321 (X6CrNiTi 18–10)

    OpenAIRE

    R. Augustin; R. Koleňák

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed examination of the structure of the transitional area between a brazing alloy and the parent material, the dimensions of the diffusion zones that are created, and the influence on them of a change in the brazing parameters. Connections between Ni-based brazing alloys (NI 102) with a small content of B and AISI 321 stainless steel (X6CrNiTi 18–10) were created in a vacuum (10−2 Pa) at various brazing temperatures and for various holding times at the brazing tempe...

  17. High temperature deformation behavior of a stainless steel fiber-reinforced copper matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, A.S., E-mail: atef.hamada@suezuniv.edu.eg [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum & Mining Engineering, Suez University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Khosravifard, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz Branch, IAU, Box 71993-1, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kisko, A.P. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Ahmed, E. [Metallurgy and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Petroleum & Mining Engineering, Suez University, Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Porter, D.A. [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2016-07-04

    Hot deformation behavior of stainless steel fiber-reinforced copper matrix composite and the associated microstructural changes have been investigated using compression tests in the temperature range 700–1000 °C and strain rate range 0.001–1 s{sup −1}. The metallographic observations by electron-backscattered diffraction revealed that dynamic recrystallization of stainless steel fibers is the dominant mechanism with inducing ultrafine-grained structures. Deformation bending and cracking through stainless steel fibers and the interfaces were observed to be the hot deformation-induced microstructural features in the concerned composite. The hot deformation behavior was modeled using the dislocation density based Bergstrom's equation which could be applied up to the peak strain. After the peak strain, Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation could successfully predict the hot flow stresses of the studied composite. At different test conditions (temperatures and strain rates), slight variations in Avrami exponent were observed which could be related to transition from cyclic to single peak recrystallization.

  18. Corrosion behavior of a superduplex stainless steel in chloride aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabalà, Manuele; Calliari, Irene; Variola, Alessandra

    2004-04-01

    Super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) have been widely used as structural materials for chemical plants (especially in those engaged in phosphoric acid production), in the hydrometallurgy industries, and as materials for offshore applications due to their excellent corrosion resistance in chloride environments, compared with other commercial types of ferritic stainless steels. These alloys also possess superior weldability and better mechanical properties than austenitic stainless steels. However, due to their two-phase structure, the nature of which is very dependent on their composition and thermal history, the behavior of SDSS regarding localized corrosion appears difficult to predict, especially in chloride environments. To improve their final properties, the effect of the partition of the alloying elements between the two phases, and the composition and microstructure of each phase are the key to understanding the localized corrosion phenomena of SDSS. This paper concerns the effects of the SDSS microstructure and heat treatment on the SDSS corrosion resistance in aqueous solutions, containing different amounts of NaCl at room temperature.

  19. Characterization of duplex stainless steel weld metals obtained by hybrid plasma-gas metal arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koray Yurtisik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its high efficiency, autogenous keyhole welding is not well-accepted for duplex stainless steels because it causes excessive ferrite in as-welded duplex microstructure, which leads to a degradation in toughness and corrosion properties of the material. Combining the deep penetration characteristics of plasma arc welding in keyhole mode and metal deposition capability of gas metal arc welding, hybrid plasma - gas metal arc welding process has considered for providing a proper duplex microstructure without compromising the welding efficiency. 11.1 mm-thick standard duplex stainless steel plates were joined in a single-pass using this novel technique. Same plates were also subjected to conventional gas metal arc and plasma arc welding processes, providing benchmarks for the investigation of the weldability of the material. In the first place, the hybrid welding process enabled us to achieve less heat input compared to gas metal arc welding. Consequently, the precipitation of secondary phases, which are known to be detrimental to the toughness and corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels, was significantly suppressed in both fusion and heat affected zones. Secondly, contrary to other keyhole techniques, proper cooling time and weld metal chemistry were achieved during the process, facilitating sufficient reconstructive transformation of austenite in the ferrite phase.

  20. Is cell viability always directly related to corrosion resistance of stainless steels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahinejad, E., E-mail: salahinejad@kntu.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaffari, M. [Bruker AXS Inc., 5465 East Cheryl Parkway, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Vashaee, D. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Tayebi, L. [Department of Developmental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    It has been frequently reported that cell viability on stainless steels is improved by increasing their corrosion resistance. The question that arises is whether human cell viability is always directly related to corrosion resistance in these biostable alloys. In this work, the microstructure and in vitro corrosion behavior of a new class of medical-grade stainless steels were correlated with adult human mesenchymal stem cell viability. The samples were produced by a powder metallurgy route, consisting of mechanical alloying and liquid-phase sintering with a sintering aid of a eutectic Mn–Si alloy at 1050 °C for 30 and 60 min, leading to nanostructures. In accordance with transmission electron microscopic studies, the additive particles for the sintering time of 30 min were not completely melted. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic experiments suggested the higher corrosion resistance for the sample sintered for 60 min; however, a better cell viability on the surface of the less corrosion-resistant sample was unexpectedly found. This behavior is explained by considering the higher ion release rate of the Mn–Si additive material, as preferred sites to corrosion attack based on scanning electron microscopic observations, which is advantageous to the cells in vitro. In conclusion, cell viability is not always directly related to corrosion resistance in stainless steels. Typically, the introduction of biodegradable and biocompatible phases to biostable alloys, which are conventionally anticipated to be corrosion-resistant, can be advantageous to human cell responses similar to biodegradable metals. - Highlights: • Cell viability vs. corrosion resistance for medical-grade stainless steels • The stainless steel samples were prepared by powder metallurgy. • Unpenetrated additive played a critical role in the correlation.

  1. Hybrid/Tandem Laser-Arc Welding of Thick Low Carbon Martensitic Stainless Steel Plates =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhorli, Fatemeh

    High efficiency and long-term life of hydraulic turbines and their assemblies are of utmost importance for the hydropower industry. Usually, hydroelectric turbine components are made of thick-walled low carbon martensitic stainless steels. The assembly of large hydroelectric turbine components has been a great challenge. The use of conventional welding processes involves typical large groove design and multi-pass welding to fill the groove which exposes the weld to a high heat input creating relatively large fusion zone and heat affected zone. The newly-developed hybrid/tandem laser-arc welding technique is believed to offer a highly competitive solution to improve the overall hydro-turbine performance by combining the high energy density and fast welding speed of the laser welding technology with the good gap bridging and feeding ability of the gas metal arc welding process to increase the productivity and reduce the consumable material. The main objective of this research work is to understand different challenges appearing during hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) of thick gauge assemblies of low carbon 13%Cr- 4%Ni martensitic stainless steel and find a practical solution by adapting and optimizing this relatively new welding process in order to reduce the number of welding passes necessary to fill the groove gap. The joint integrity was evaluated in terms of microstructure, defects and mechanical properties in both as-welded and post-welded conditions. A special focus was given to the hybrid and tandem laser-arc welding technique for the root pass. Based on the thickness of the low carbon martensitic stainless steel plates, this work is mainly focused on the following two tasks: • Single pass hybrid laser-arc welding of 10-mm thick low carbon martensitic stainless steel. • Multi-pass hybrid/tandem laser-arc welding of 25-mm thick martensitic stainless steel.

  2. PITTING CORROSION OF TYPE 430 STAINLESS STEEL UNDER CHLORIDE SOLUTION FILMS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Van, Nam; Tran Van, Nam

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, ferritic stainless steel is promoting to use than other stainless steels such as austenitic, duplex stainless steels owning to affordable cost. Unfortunately, this material has moderate corrosion resistance. Therefore, both understanding corrosion process and improving corrosion resistance of this material will be important issues. In this study, the corrosion behavior of type 430 stainless steel under solution layers containing chloride is investigated. Effects of the thin-f...

  3. Biomaterial Studies on AISI 316L Stainless Steel after Magnetoelectropolishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Filippi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The polarisation characteristics of the electropolishing process in a magnetic field (MEP – magnetoelectropolishing, in comparison with those obtained under standard/conventional process (EP conditions, have been obtained. The occurrence of an EP plateau has been observed in view of the optimization of MEP process. Up-to-date stainless steel surface studies always indicated some amount of free-metal atoms apart from the detected oxides and hydroxides. Such a morphology of the surface film usually affects the thermodynamic stability and corrosion resistance of surface oxide layer and is one of the most important features of stainless steels. With this new MEP process we can improve metal surface properties by making the stainless steel more resistant to halides encountered in a variety of environments. Furthermore, in this paper the stainless steel surface film study results have been presented. The results of the corrosion research carried out by the authors on the behaviour of the most commonly used material - medical grade AISI 316L stainless steel both in Ringer’s body fluid and in aqueous 3% NaCl solution have been investigated and presented earlier elsewhere, though some of these results, concerning the EIS Nyquist plots and polarization curves are also revealed herein. In this paper an attempt to explain this peculiar performance of 316L stainless steel has been undertaken. The SEM studies, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS were performed on 316L samples after three treatments: MP – abrasive polishing (800 grit size, EP – conventional electrolytic polishing, and MEP – magnetoelectropolishing. It has been found that the proposed magnetoelectropolishing (MEP process considerably modifies the morphology and the composition of the surface film, thus leading to improved corrosion resistance of the studied 316L SS.

  4. Biomaterial Studies on AISI 316L Stainless Steel after Magnetoelectropolishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicz, Tadeusz; Rokosz, Krzysztof; Filippi, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    The polarisation characteristics of the electropolishing process in a magnetic field (MEP – magnetoelectropolishing), in comparison with those obtained under standard/conventional process (EP) conditions, have been obtained. The occurrence of an EP plateau has been observed in view of the optimization of MEP process. Up-to-date stainless steel surface studies always indicated some amount of free-metal atoms apart from the detected oxides and hydroxides. Such a morphology of the surface film usually affects the thermodynamic stability and corrosion resistance of surface oxide layer and is one of the most important features of stainless steels. With this new MEP process we can improve metal surface properties by making the stainless steel more resistant to halides encountered in a variety of environments. Furthermore, in this paper the stainless steel surface film study results have been presented. The results of the corrosion research carried out by the authors on the behaviour of the most commonly used material − medical grade AISI 316L stainless steel both in Ringer’s body fluid and in aqueous 3% NaCl solution have been investigated and presented earlier elsewhere, though some of these results, concerning the EIS Nyquist plots and polarization curves are also revealed herein. In this paper an attempt to explain this peculiar performance of 316L stainless steel has been undertaken. The SEM studies, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on 316L samples after three treatments: MP – abrasive polishing (800 grit size), EP – conventional electrolytic polishing, and MEP – magnetoelectropolishing. It has been found that the proposed magnetoelectropolishing (MEP) process considerably modifies the morphology and the composition of the surface film, thus leading to improved corrosion resistance of the studied 316L SS.

  5. Analysis of features of stainless steels in dissimilar welded joints in chloride inducted corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolska, S.; Łabanowski, J.

    2017-08-01

    Stainless steels of femtic-austenitic microstructure that means the duplex Cr-Ni-Mo steels, in comparison with austenitic steel includes less expensive nickel and has much better mechanical properties with good formability and corrosion resistance, even in environments containing chloride ions. Similar share of high chromium ferrite and austenite, which is characterized by high ductility, determines that the duplex steels have good crack resistance at temperatures up to approximately -40°C. The steels containing approximately 22% Cr, 5% Ni, 3% Mo and 0.2% N crystallizes as a solid solution δ, partially transforming from the temperature of about 1200°C to 850°C into the phase α. The stable structure of considered steels, at temperatures above 850°C, is ferrite, and at lower temperatures the mixture of phase γ+α +σ. The two-phase structure α+γ the duplex steel obtains after hyperquenching at the temperature of stability of the mixture of α+γ phases, and the share of the phases depends on the hyper quenching attributes. Hyperquenching in water, with a temperature close to 1200°C, ensures the instance in the microstructure of the steel a large share of ferrite and a small share of the high chromium austenite. This causes the increase of strength properties and reducing the plasticity of the steel and its resistance ability to cracking and corrosion. Slower cooling from the mentioned temperature, for example in the air, enables the partial transformation of the a phase into the γ one (α → γ) and increasing the share of austenite in the steel structure. It leads to improvement of plasticity properties. In the paper are presented the results of investigations of heteronymous welded joints of duplex steel and austenitic one. The results include the relation between the chemical composition of steels and their weldability.

  6. Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless-Steel Pipes Welded by TIG Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Albdiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel (type 204 pipes welded by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG welding process. Testing of hardness (HRC, tensile strength and bending strength was performed for the steel pipes welded at two different welding temperatures (700 °C and 900 °C with and without using the weld filler wire. The microstructure of the welding regions was examined by using an optical microscopy. The properties showed that the steel pipes welded by 900 °C with using the weld filler obtained the highest tensile strength and bending strength versus these welded by 700 °C without the use of the weld filler. This is attributed to the weld filler heated and melt at sufficient temperature (900 °C and compensate losing in the Ni metal occurred in the base steel metal during the welding process.

  7. Influence of Residual Stress on Fatigue Design of AISI 304 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steel cannot be hardened by any form of heat treatment, in fact, quenching from 10000C merely softens them. They are usually cold worked to increase the hardness. Shot peening is a cold working process that changes micro-structure as well as residual stress in the surface layer. In the present work, the compressive residual stress and fatigue strength of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel have been evaluated at various shot peening conditions. The improvement in various mechanical properties such as hardness, damping factors and fatigue strength was noticed. Compressive residual stress induced by shot peening varies with cyclic loading due to relaxation of compressive residual stress field. The consideration of relaxed compressive residual stress field instead of original compressive residual stress field provides reliable fatigue design of components. In this paper, the exact reductions in weight and control of mechanical properties due to shot peening process are discussed.

  8. Characterisation of creep cavitation damage in a stainless steel pressure vessel using small angle neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, P J; Treimer, W

    2002-01-01

    Grain-boundary cavitation is the dominant failure mode associated with initiation of reheat cracking, which has been widely observed in austenitic stainless steel pressure vessels operating at temperatures within the creep range (>450 C). Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments at the LLB PAXE instrument (Saclay) and the V12 double-crystal diffractometer of the HMI-BENSC facility (Berlin) are used to characterise cavitation damage (in the size range R=10-2000 nm) in a variety of creep specimens extracted from ex-service plant. Factors that affect the evolution of cavities and the cavity-size distribution are discussed. The results demonstrate that SANS techniques have the potential to quantify the development of creep damage in type-316H stainless steel, and thereby link microstructural damage with ductility-exhaustion models of reheat cracking. (orig.)

  9. Simultaneous surface engineering and bulk hardening of precipitation hardening stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Berg; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses simultaneous bulk precipitation hardening and low temperature surface engineering of two commercial precipitation hardening stainless steels: Sandvik Nanoflex® and Uddeholm Corrax®. Surface engineering comprised gaseous nitriding or gaseous carburising. Microstructural....... The duration and temperature of the nitriding/carburising surface hardening treatment can be chosen in agreement with the thermal treatment for obtaining optimal bulk hardness in the precipitation hardening stainless steel....... characterisation of the cases developed included X-ray diffraction analysis, reflected light microscopy and micro-hardness testing. It was found that the incorporation of nitrogen or carbon resulted in a hardened case consisting of a combination of (tetragonal) martensite and expanded (cubic) austenite...

  10. A New Maraging Stainless Steel with Excellent Strength–Toughness–Corrosion Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Tian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new maraging stainless steel with superior strength–toughness–corrosion synergy has been developed based on an innovative concept of alloy design. The high strength–toughness combination is achieved by forming dispersive nano-sized intermetallic compounds in the soft lath martensitic matrix with a slight amount of residual austenite. The good corrosion resistance is guaranteed by exactly controlling the Co content based on understanding the synergistic effect between Co and Cr. The fine structure characteristics of two dominant strengthening precipitations including Ni3Ti and Mo-rich phases were finely characterized associated with transmission electron microscope (TEM and atom probe tomography (APT analyses. The relationship among microstructure, strength and toughness is discussed. The precipitation mechanism of different precipitates in the new maraging stainless steel is revealed based on the APT analysis.

  11. Final Report, Volume 1, Metallurgical Evaluation of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels and their Weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Songqing; Lundin, Carl, W.; Batten, Greg, W.

    2005-09-30

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are being specified for chloride containing environments due to their enhanced pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance. They exhibit improved corrosion performance over the austenitic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels also offer improved strength properties and are available in various wrought and cast forms. Selected grades of duplex stainless steel castings and their welds, in comparison with their wrought counterparts, were evaluated, regarding corrosion performance and mechanical properties and weldability. Multiple heats of cast duplex stainless steel were evaluated in the as-cast, solution annealed (SA) static cast and SA centrifugal cast conditions, while their wrought counterparts were characterized in the SA condition and in the form of as-rolled plate. Welding, including extensive assessment of autogenous welds and a preliminary study of composite welds (shielded metal arc weld (SMAW)), was performed. The evaluations included critical pitting temperature (CPT) testing, intergranular corrosion (IGC) testing, ASTM A923 (Methods A, B and C), Charpy impact testing, weldability testing (ASTM A494), ferrite measurement and microstructural evaluations. In the study, the corrosion performances of DSS castings were characterized and assessed, including the wrought counterparts for comparison. The evaluation filled the pore of lack of data for cast duplex stainless steels compared to wrought materials. A database of the pitting corrosion and IGC behavior of cast and wrought materials was generated for a greater depth of understanding for the behavior of cast duplex stainless steel. In addition, improved evaluation methods for DSS castings were developed according to ASTM A923, A262, G48 and A494. The study revealed that when properly heat treated according to the specification, (1) DSS castings have equal or better pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance than their wrought counterparts; (2) Welding reduces the

  12. Final Report, Volume 1, Metallurgical Evaluation of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels and their Weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Songqing; Lundin, Carl, W.; Batten, Greg, W.

    2005-09-30

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are being specified for chloride containing environments due to their enhanced pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance. They exhibit improved corrosion performance over the austenitic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels also offer improved strength properties and are available in various wrought and cast forms. Selected grades of duplex stainless steel castings and their welds, in comparison with their wrought counterparts, were evaluated, regarding corrosion performance and mechanical properties and weldability. Multiple heats of cast duplex stainless steel were evaluated in the as-cast, solution annealed (SA) static cast and SA centrifugal cast conditions, while their wrought counterparts were characterized in the SA condition and in the form of as-rolled plate. Welding, including extensive assessment of autogenous welds and a preliminary study of composite welds (shielded metal arc weld (SMAW)), was performed. The evaluations included critical pitting temperature (CPT) testing, intergranular corrosion (IGC) testing, ASTM A923 (Methods A, B and C), Charpy impact testing, weldability testing (ASTM A494), ferrite measurement and microstructural evaluations. In the study, the corrosion performances of DSS castings were characterized and assessed, including the wrought counterparts for comparison. The evaluation filled the pore of lack of data for cast duplex stainless steels compared to wrought materials. A database of the pitting corrosion and IGC behavior of cast and wrought materials was generated for a greater depth of understanding for the behavior of cast duplex stainless steel. In addition, improved evaluation methods for DSS castings were developed according to ASTM A923, A262, G48 and A494. The study revealed that when properly heat treated according to the specification, (1) DSS castings have equal or better pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance than their wrought counterparts; (2) Welding reduces the

  13. Corrosion behaviour of some conventional stainless steels in electrolyzing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal NASSAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempts were made to increase the amount of hydrogen generated from the water electrolysis process. Some conventional stainless steels (316; 409; 410 and 430 were used as anode and cathode in electrolysis process. Further study was carried out on the corrosion trend in all the investigated metals. It is observed that the electrode material can effect on the amount of hydrogen generate by electrolyzing process and metal composition of the stainless steels effects on the rate of corrosion.

  14. Application of dynamic milling in stainless steel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wenju

    2017-09-01

    This paper mainly introduces the method of parameter setting for NC programming of stainless steel parts by dynamic milling. Stainless steel is of high plasticity and toughness, serious hard working, large cutting force, high temperature in cutting area and easy wear of tool. It is difficult to process material. Dynamic motion technology is the newest NC programming technology of Mastercam software. It is an advanced machining idea. The tool path generated by the dynamic motion technology is more smooth, more efficient and more stable in the machining process. Dynamic motion technology is very suitable for cutting hard machining materials.

  15. Anisotropy of nickel release and corrosion in austenitic stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reclaru, L; Lüthy, H; Ziegenhagen, R; Eschler, P-Y; Blatter, A

    2008-05-01

    The study of 316L-type stainless steel reveals a significant anisotropy of nickel release that is dependent on the orientation of the test surface with respect to the casting and rolling direction. Cross-sectional specimens (transversal cuts with respect to the rolling direction) show a substantially higher sensitivity to corrosion phenomena compared with longitudinal cuts and they release nickel ions at rates 10-100 times higher. These findings indicate that orientation needs to be taken into account when interpreting test results, in particular when comparing different grades of austenitic stainless steel, as well as in product and production design.

  16. Topographical Anisotropy and Wetting of Ground Stainless Steel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Bellmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic and physico-chemical methods were used for a comprehensive surface characterization of different mechanically modified stainless steel surfaces. The surfaces were analyzed using high-resolution confocal microscopy, resulting in detailed information about the topographic properties. In addition, static water contact angle measurements were carried out to characterize the surface heterogeneity of the samples. The effect of morphological anisotropy on water contact angle anisotropy was investigated. The correlation between topography and wetting was studied by means of a model of wetting proposed in the present work, that allows quantifying the air volume of the interface water drop-stainless steel surface.

  17. 76 FR 74831 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY...- ISG-2011-01, ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water... management of stainless steel structures and components exposed to treated borated water. In response to a...

  18. 77 FR 27815 - Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY..., ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water.'' This LR-ISG... stainless steel structures and components exposed to treated borated water. The NRC published Revision 2 of...

  19. 76 FR 50495 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel plate from South Africa and revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Korea, South...

  20. 76 FR 18518 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Rescission of... stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from Mexico. The period of review is July 1, 2009, through June 30... American Stainless, and AK Steel Corporation (collectively ``petitioners''), we are now rescinding this...

  1. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... 564 (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...

  2. 78 FR 21596 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China... duty order on drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC....\\2\\ \\1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

  3. 77 FR 58355 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China... Department'') initiated antidumping and countervailing duty investigations of drawn stainless steel sinks... countervailing duty determination.\\2\\ \\1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China...

  4. 76 FR 31588 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Rescission of Countervailing... countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium. See Antidumping or... initiating an administrative review of the CVD order on stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium covering...

  5. 78 FR 4383 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. The period of review (POR) is... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil'' dated concurrently with this notice...

  6. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The...

  7. 77 FR 39467 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty... the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India. The review..., 2012, the Department published Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results and Partial...

  8. 78 FR 13017 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Final... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of drawn stainless steel sinks (``SS sinks...\\ \\1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative...

  9. 75 FR 67689 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/ exporter of... Department published in the Federal Register an antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from...

  10. 77 FR 45653 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination Determination On... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel bar from Brazil... (July 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Investigation Nos. 731...

  11. 75 FR 30437 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The...

  12. 75 FR 39663 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil... results of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from...

  13. 76 FR 46323 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... U.S.C.1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip... revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and revocation of...

  14. 75 FR 12514 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/ exporter of... Department published in the Federal Register an antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from...

  15. 75 FR 32503 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, and Taiwan Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel wire rod from Italy, Japan, Korea... contained in USITC Publication 4154 (May 2010), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, Korea...

  16. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan...

  17. 77 FR 18211 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...'') petition concerning imports of drawn stainless steel sinks from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Antidumping and Countervailing Duties Against Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of China...

  18. 75 FR 54090 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...] Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (``SSB'') from India for the period February 1, 2008, through January 31, 2009. See Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  19. 78 FR 7395 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (SSB) from India. The period of review (POR) is... Review: Stainless Steel Bar from India'' dated concurrently with this notice (``Preliminary Decision...

  20. 76 FR 54207 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Italy: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Italy: Revocation of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Italy. See Initiation of Five-Year... in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. See Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium...

  1. 77 FR 41969 - Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from Japan (the... review of the Order with respect to Misumi. See Letter from Suruga to the Secretary, ``Stainless Steel...

  2. 75 FR 30434 - Stainless Steel Plate From Belgium, Italy, Korea, South Africa, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-376 and 379 and 731-TA-788, 790-793 (Second Review)] Stainless Steel... Commission. ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty orders on stainless steel plate from Belgium and South Africa and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel plate from...

  3. Accelerated corrosion of stainless steel in thiocyanate-containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistorius, P Chris; Li, Wen

    2012-09-19

    It is known that reduced sulfur compounds (such as thiocyanate and thiosulfate) can accelerate active corrosion of austenitic stainless steel in acid solutions, but before we started this project the mechanism of acceleration was largely unclear. This work combined electrochemical measurements and analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS), which provided a comprehensive understanding of the catalytic effect of reduced sulfur species on the active corrosion of stainless steel. Both the behavior of the pure elements and the steel were studied and the work focused on the interaction between the pure elements of the steel, which is the least understood area. Upon completion of this work, several aspects are now much clearer. The main results from this work can be summarized as follows: The presence of low concentrations (around 0.1 mM) of thiocyanate or tetrathionate in dilute sulfuric acid greatly accelerates the anodic dissolution of chromium and nickel, but has an even stronger effect on stainless steels (iron-chromium-nickel alloys). Electrochemical measurements and surface analyses are in agreement with the suggestion that accelerated dissolution really results from suppressed passivation. Even well below the passivation potential, the electrochemical signature of passivation is evident in the electrode impedance; the electrode impedance shows clearly that this pre-passivation is suppressed in the presence of thiocyanate. For the stainless steels, remarkable changes in the morphology of the corroded metal surface and in the surface concentration of chromium support the suggestion that pre-passivation of stainless steels is suppressed because dissolution of chromium is accelerated. Surface analysis confirmed that adsorbed sulfur / sulfide forms on the metal surfaces upon exposure to solutions containing thiocyanate or thiosulfate. For pure nickel, and steels containing nickel (and residual copper), bulk sulfide

  4. Bactericidal behavior of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Ma, Yong; Lin, Naiming; Fan, Ailan; Tang, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Stainless steels are one of the most common materials used in health care environments. However, the lack of antibacterial advantage has limited their use in practical application. In this paper, antibacterial stainless steel surfaces with different Cu contents have been prepared by plasma surface alloying technology (PSAT). The steel surface with Cu content 90 wt.% (Cu-SS) exhibits strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) within 3 h. Although the Cu-containing surface with Cu content 2.5 wt.% (CuNi-SS) can also kill all tested bacteria, this process needs 12 h. SEM observation of the bacterial morphology and an agarose gel electrophoresis were performed to study the antibacterial mechanism of Cu-containing stainless steel surfaces against E. coli. The results indicated that Cu ions are released when the Cu-containing surfaces are in contact with bacterial and disrupt the cell membranes, killing the bacteria. The toxicity of Cu-alloyed surfaces does not cause damage to the bacterial DNA. These results provide a scientific explanation for the antimicrobial applications of Cu-containing stainless steel. The surfaces with different antibacterial abilities could be used as hygienic surfaces in healthcare-associated settings according to the diverse requirement of bactericidal activities.

  5. Nitriding Process Characterization of Cold Worked AISI 304 and 316 Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Alfredo Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitriding behavior of austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304 and 316 was studied by different cold work degree (0% (after heat treated, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% before nitride processing. The microstructure, layer thickness, hardness, and chemical microcomposition were evaluated employing optical microscopy, Vickers hardness, and scanning electron microscopy techniques (WDS microanalysis. The initial cold work (previous plastic deformations in both AISI 304 and 306 austenitic stainless steels does not show special influence in all applied nitriding kinetics (in layer thicknesses. The nitriding processes have formed two layers, one external layer formed by expanded austenite with high nitrogen content, followed by another thinner layer just below formed by expanded austenite with a high presence of carbon (back diffusion. An enhanced diffusion can be observed on AISI 304 steel comparing with AISI 316 steel (a nitrided layer thicker can be noticed in the AISI 304 steel. The mechanical strength of both steels after nitriding processes reveals significant hardness values, almost 1100 HV, on the nitrided layers.

  6. Semen quality and sex hormones among mild steel and stainless steel welders: a cross sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, J P

    1990-01-01

    Welding may be detrimental to the male reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, semen quality was examined in 35 stainless steel welders, 46 mild steel welders, and 54 non-welding metal workers and electricians. These figures represent a participation rate of 37.1% in welders and 36.7% in non-welding subjects. The mean exposure to welding fume particulates was 1.3 mg/m3 (SD 0.8) in stainless steel welders using tungsten inert gas, 3.2 mg/m3 (SD 1.0) in low exposed mild steel welders usin...

  7. Nanotribological behavior of deep cryogenically treated martensitic stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Germán; Bakoglidis, Konstantinos D; Tuckart, Walter R; Broitman, Esteban

    2017-01-01

    Cryogenic treatments are increasingly used to improve the wear resistance of various steel alloys by means of transformation of retained austenite, deformation of virgin martensite and carbide refinement. In this work the nanotribological behavior and mechanical properties at the nano-scale of cryogenically and conventionally treated AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel were evaluated. Conventionally treated specimens were subjected to quenching and annealing, while the deep cryogenically treated samples were quenched, soaked in liquid nitrogen for 2 h and annealed. The elastic-plastic parameters of the materials were assessed by nanoindentation tests under displacement control, while the friction behavior and wear rate were evaluated by a nanoscratch testing methodology that it is used for the first time in steels. It was found that cryogenic treatments increased both hardness and elastic limit of a low-carbon martensitic stainless steel, while its tribological performance was enhanced marginally.

  8. Irradiation performance of 9--12 Cr ferritic/martensitic stainless steels and their potential for in-core application in LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H.; Gelles, D.S.

    1993-08-01

    Ferritic-martensitic stainless steels exhibit radiation stability and stress corrosion resistance that make them attractive replacement materials for austenitic stainless steels for in-core applications. Recent radiation studies have demonstrated that 9% Cr ferritic/martensitic stainless steel had less than a 30C shift in ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) following irradiation at 365C to a dose of 14 dpa. These steels also exhibit very low swelling rates, a result of the microstructural stability of these alloys during radiation. The 9 to 12% Cr alloys to also exhibit excellent corrosion and stress corrosion resistance in out-of-core applications. Demonstration of the applicability of ferritic/martensitic stainless steels for in-core LWR application will require verification of the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking behavior, measurement of DBTT following irradiation at 288C, and corrosion rates measurements for in-core water chemistry.

  9. Phase transformations in a manganese-alloyed austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jargelius-Pettersson, R.F.A. (Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1994-05-01

    The increasing demands placed on the corrosion resistance of stainless steels has led to the successive development of more highly alloyed materials. In this context nitrogen has shown considerable value as an alloying element but its use is restricted by a solubility limit of approximately 0.2 wt% in conventional austenitic stainless steel grades. Manganese increases the nitrogen solubility appreciably and for this reason there has also been an increased interest in its use as an alloying addition but numerous questions remain to be answered about the effect of both nitrogen and manganese on structural stability. Although much work has been published on the precipitation of secondary phases in CrNi(Mo) stainless steels, there is a relative paucity of information available on manganese-alloyed steels. Brandis et al. investigated precipitation in a 25Cr 17Ni 3Mo 6Mn 0.2Nb steel and found no manganese-enriched phases to occur. Sigma phase was the predominant intermetallic precipitate at low nitrogen contents while higher nitrogen contents retarded the onset of sigma phase precipitation but caused the appearance of chi phase. Boothby et al. investigated a 12Cr 11-35Ni (3Mo) steel in which the nickel was partially replaced by 20 or 30% manganese and found the precipitation of the intermetallic sigma, chi and Laves phases to be promoted by manganese, although again no manganese-enriched phases were observed. Fritscher demonstrated however the existence in the Fe-Cr-Ni system of a brittle ternary Y phase containing 30--60% manganese which was destabilized by nitrogen. The present work represents part of a study designed to gain greater understanding of the precipitation and sensitization behavior of highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels and concentrates on the influence of nitrogen additions up to 0.5wt% on precipitation of secondary phases in a 20Cr 18Ni 4.5Mo 10Mn steel.

  10. Pitting Corrosion Susceptibility of AISI 301 Stainless Steel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions - 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.5M and 0.7M and 1.0M. Tensile tests and microscopic examinations were performed on samples prepared from the steel after exposure in the various environments.

  11. Characterization of Stainless Steel Welding Fume Particles : Influence of Stainless Steel Grade, Welding Parameters and Particle Size

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Nanxuan

    2016-01-01

    Welding is a widely used method to join two pieces of stainless steel. Since it produces a large amount of fume during the process, it can cause adverse health effects. The welding fume particles contain many elements. Among them Cr, Mn and Ni are of concern. These three elements can cause diseases if inhaled by humans, especially Cr(VI). In this project, welding fume particles are collected during welding of different stainless steel grades (austenitic AISI 304L and duplex LDX2101). Furtherm...

  12. Transuranic contamination of stainless steel in nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Timothy; Banford, Anthony W.; Thompson, Olivia R.; Carey, Thomas; Schild, Dieter; Geist, Andreas; Sharrad, Clint A.

    2017-09-01

    Stainless steels coupons have been exposed to transuranic species in conditions representative of those found in a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Stainless steel was prepared to different surface finishes and exposed to nitric acid of varying concentrations containing 237Np, 239Pu or 243Am for one month at 50 °C. Contamination by these transuranics has been observed on all surfaces exposed to the solution through the use of autoradiography. This technique showed that samples held in 4 M HNO3 bind 2-3 times as much radionuclide as those held in 10.5 M HNO3. It was also found that the polished steel surfaces generally took up more transuranic contamination than the etched and ;as received; steel finishes. The extent of corrosion on the steel surfaces was found, by scanning electron microscopy, to be greater in solutions containing Np and Pu in comparison to that observed from contact with Am containing solutions, indicating that redox activity of transuranics can influence the mechanism of stainless steel corrosion.

  13. Influence of Austenitizing Heat Treatment on the Properties of the Tempered Type 410-1Mo Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabruri, E.; Syahlan, Z. A.; Sahlan; Prifiharni, S.; Anwar, M. S.; Chandra, S. A.; Romijarso, T. B.; Adjiantoro, B.

    2017-05-01

    The modified 410-1Mo stainless steel has been developed with higher tensile strength and elongation compared to the standard 410 stainless steel. This paper reports the influence of austenitizing temperature on the microstructure, hardness, impact resistance and corrosion resistance of the modified 410-1Mo steel. The steel samples were prepared by a process sequence of induction melting, hot forging, annealing, hardening, and tempering. The microstructure of the tempered steels revealed additional phase of delta ferrite at pre-austenitizing temperatures of 950 to 1050 °C and disappeared at a temperature of 1100 °C. The steels which underwent pre-austenitizing at 1100 °C showed the largest sized lath martensite and the largest amount of retained austenite. The tempered steels maintained hardness at austenitizing temperatures of 950 °C to 1000 °C and showed an increasing hardness at austenitizing temperatures from 1000 to 1100 °C. At a range of austenitizing temperatures, it was investigated that the steels exhibited higher impact resistance at 1050 °C. The tempered steels that were pre-austenitized at 950 °C and 1100 °C showed the lowest pitting potential due to the existence of carbides and coarse-high carbon martensite, respectively.

  14. Monitoring of occupational exposure in manufacturing of stainless steel constructions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Bencko, V.; Pápayová, A.; Šaligová, D.; Tejral, J.; Borská, L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2001), s. 171-175 ISSN 1210-7778 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : occupational exposure * stainless steel construction industry * instrumental neutron activation analysis Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines

  15. Electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide on stainless steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide is studied on a sand-blasted stainless steel (SSS) electrode in an aqueous solution of NaClO4. The cyclic voltammetric reduction of H2O2 at low concentrations is characterized by a cathodic peak at -0.40 V versus standard calomel electrode (SCE). Cyclic voltammetry is ...

  16. 77 FR 64545 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... shipped with or entered with drawn stainless steel sinks.) For purposes of this scope definition, the term...), strainers, strainer sets, rinsing baskets, bottom grids, or other accessories. Excluded from the scope of.... By order of the Commission. Lisa R. Barton, Acting Secretary to the Commission. BILLING CODE 7020-02...

  17. Analysis of polypyrrole-coated stainless steel electrodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    of this Communication are (i) to prepare polypyrrole coated stainless steel electrodes using p-toluene sul- phonic acid as dopant; (ii) to analyse the perform- ance of ..... roughness of the electrode and dynamic disorder re- lated with diffusion. Since the best set of parameters arise from the built-in function of MATLAB, these.

  18. Pitting corrosion protection of low nickel stainless steel by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pitting corrosion protection of low nickel stainless steel by electropolymerized conducting polymer coating in 0·5 M NaCl solution. T DHANABAL, G AMIRTHAGANESAN. ∗ and J RAVICHANDRAN. Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science,.

  19. Analysis of polypyrrole-coated stainless steel electrodes-Estimation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of polypyrrole-coated stainless steel electrodes - Estimation of specific capacitances and construction of equivalent circuits ... The morphology of the film is studied from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements while the nature of the substrate is analysed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy ...

  20. Failure Assessment Diagram for Brazed 304 Stainless Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Yory

    2011-01-01

    Interaction equations were proposed earlier to predict failure in Albemet 162 brazed joints. Present study demonstrates that the same interaction equations can be used for lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in 304 stainless steel joints brazed with silver-based filler metals as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagrams (FAD).

  1. Immobilization of mesoporous silica particles on stainless steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqua, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.pasqua@unical.it [University of Calabria, Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (Italy); Morra, Marco, E-mail: mmorra@nobilbio.com [Via Valcastellana 26 (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    A preliminary study aimed to the nano-engineering of stainless steel surface is presented. Aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silica is covalently and electrostatically anchored on the surface of stainless steel plates. The anchoring is carried out through the use of a nanometric spacer, and two different spacers are proposed (both below 2 nm in size). The first sample is obtained by anchoring to the stainless steel amino functionalized, a glutaryl dichloride spacer. This specie forms an amide linkage with the amino group while the unreacted acyl groups undergo hydrolysis giving a free carboxylic group. The so-obtained functionalized stainless steel plate is used as substrate for anchoring derivatized mesoporous silica particles. The second sample is prepared using 2-bromo-methyl propionic acid as spacer (BMPA). Successively, the carboxylic group of propionic acid is condensed to the aminopropyl derivatization on the external surface of the mesoporous silica particle through covalent bond. In both cases, a continuous deposition (coating thickness is around 10 μm) is obtained, in fact, XPS data do not reveal the metal elements constituting the plate. The nano-engineering of metal surfaces can represent an intriguing opportunity for producing long-term drug release or biomimetic surface.

  2. Lithium wetting of stainless steel for plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; Koel, B. E.

    2014-10-01

    Ensuring continuous wetting of a solid container by the liquid metal is a critical issue in the design of liquid metal plasma facing components foreseen for NSTX-U and FNSF. Ultrathin wetting layers may form on metallic surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions if material reservoirs are present from which spreading and wetting can start. The combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and ion beam etching capabilities of a Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM) have been used to study the spreading of lithium films on stainless steel substrates. A small (mm-scale) amount of metallic lithium was applied to a stainless steel surface in an argon glove box and transferred to the SAM. Native impurities on the stainless steel and lithium surfaces were removed by Ar+ ion sputtering. Elemental mapping of Li and Li-O showed that surface diffusion of Li had taken place at room temperature, well below the 181°C Li melting temperature. The influence of temperature and surface oxidation on the rate of Li spreading on stainless steel will be reported. Support was provided through DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Cobalt chromium stents versus stainless steel stents in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ahmed Tantawy

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: We concluded that no significant statistical difference was found between the two stents (cobalt-chromium alloy bare metal stent versus conventional bare metal stainless steel stent in diabetic patients regarding (initial procedural success, in-hospital complications, the incidence of ISR at follow up, event-free survival at follow up.

  4. Materials data handbook: Stainless steel alloy A-286

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraca, R. F.; Whittick, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the materials property information for stainless steel alloy A-286 is presented. The scope of the information includes physical and mechanical properties at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Information on material procurement, metallurgy of the alloy, corrosion, environmental effects, fabrication, and bonding is developed.

  5. Alternative to Nitric Acid for Passivation of Stainless Steel Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L.; Kolody, Mark; Curran, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. Consequently, it is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The DoD and NASA have numerous structures and equipment that are fabricated from stainless steel. The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits including increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and reduced operational cost. DoD and NASA agreed to collaborate to validate citric acid as an acceptable passivating agent for stainless steel. This paper details our investigation of prior work developing the citric acid passivation process, development of the test plan, optimization of the process for specific stainless steel alloys, ongoing and planned testing to elucidate the process' resistance to corrosion in comparison to nitric acid, and preliminary results.

  6. Cyclic shear behavior of austenitic stainless steel sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Bor, Teunis Cornelis; Hilkhuijsen, P.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2015-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel has been subjected to large amplitude strain paths containing a strain reversal. During the tests, apart from the stress and the strain also magnetic induction was measured to monitor the transformation of austenite to martensite. From the in-situ magnetic induction

  7. Transformation in austenitic stainless steel sheet under different loading directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Krauer, J.; Hora, P.

    2011-01-01

    The stress-strain relation for austenitic stainless steels is based on 2 main contributions: work hardening and a phase transformation from austenite to martensite. The transformation is highly temperature dependent. In most models for phase transformation from austenite to martensite, the stress

  8. Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Sheet under Different Loading Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Krauer, J.; Hora, P.

    2011-01-01

    The stress-strain relation for austenitic stainless steels is based on 2 main contributions: work hardening and a phase transformation from austenite to martensite. The transformation is highly temperature dependent. In most models for phase transformation from austenite to martensite, the stress

  9. Stress corrosion cracking of AISI 321 stainless steel in acidic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    YANLIANG HUANG. Marine Corrosion and Protection Laboratory, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road,. Qingdao 266071, China. MS received 21 August 2001; revised 21 November 2001. Abstract. The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of AISI 321 stainless steel in acidic chloride solution ...

  10. Resistance microwelding of 316L stainless steel wire to block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Storgaard; Khan, M.I.; Bay, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The excellent corrosion resistance of low carbon vacuum melted 316 stainless steel coupled with its non-magnetic properties makes it ideal for biomedical applications. The typical joint geometry for microcomponents, such as medical implants, includes joining of fine wire to a larger block. However...

  11. Page 1 Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels 691 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels 691 and crack growth per event computed from acoustic emission and crack growth data are presented in table 3. The crack growth per event varies from less than a micron for a solution annealed material to 15 pm for 10% cold worked material. 4.4 Fractographic ...

  12. Low temperature gaseous nitriding and carburising of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The response of various austenitic and duplex stainless steel grades to low temperature gaseous nitriding and carburising was investigated. Gaseous nitriding was performed in ammonia/hydrogen mixtures at temperatures ,723 K; gaseous carburising was carried out in carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures...

  13. Stress corrosion cracking of AISI 321 stainless steel in acidic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of AISI 321 stainless steel in acidic chloride solution was studied by slow strain rate (SSR) technique and fracture mechanics method. The fractured surface was characterized by cleavage fracture. In order to clarify the SCC mechanism, the effects of inhibitor KI on SCC behaviour were ...

  14. A study of DLC coatings for ironing of stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Hafis Bin; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    severe lubrication conditions by adopting strip reduction testing to replicate industrial ironing production of deep drawn, stainless steel cans. Three DLC coatings are investigated; multi-layer, double layer and single layer. Experiments revealed that the double layer coating worked successful, i...

  15. Towards commercialization of fast gaseous nitrocarburising stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    A novel method for fast and versatile low temperature nitrocarburising of stainless steel has recently been invented by the present authors. Selected results obtained with this new surface hardening process are presented. It is shown that it is possible to obtain a case thickness of 20 μm...

  16. Developments of New Lubricants for Cold Forging of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Thomas; Christensen, Erik; Olesen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Two new lubricant systems for cold forging of stainless steel have been developed. The main component of these systems are FeCl3 and ZnCa2(PO4)2, respectively. Both lubricant systems have been tested using a backward extrusion test. The results show excellent lubricating properties with respect...

  17. Chemical coloring on stainless steel by ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zuohui; Xue, Yongqiang; Ju, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    To solve the problems of high temperature and non-uniformity of coloring on stainless steel, a new chemical coloring process, applying ultrasonic irradiation to the traditional chemical coloring process, was developed in this paper. The effects of ultrasonic frequency and power density (sound intensity) on chemical coloring on stainless steel were studied. The uniformity of morphology and colors was observed with the help of polarizing microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), meanwhile, the wear resistance and the corrosion resistance were investigated, and the effect mechanism of ultrasonic irradiation on chemical coloring was discussed. These results show that in the process of chemical coloring on stainless steel by ultrasonic irradiation, the film composition is the same as the traditional chemical coloring, and this method can significantly enhance the uniformity, the wear and corrosion resistances of the color film and accelerate the coloring rate which makes the coloring temperature reduced to 40°C. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation on the chemical coloring can be attributed to the coloring rate accelerated and the coloring temperature reduced by thermal-effect, the uniformity of coloring film improved by dispersion-effect, and the wear and corrosion resistances of coloring film enhanced by cavitation-effect. Ultrasonic irradiation not only has an extensive application prospect for chemical coloring on stainless steel but also provides an valuable reference for other chemical coloring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Formation and stabilization of reversed austenite in supermartensitic stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nießen, Frank; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg; Hald, John

    2017-01-01

    The formation and stabilization of reversed austenite upon inter-critical annealing was investigated in a X4CrNiMo16-5-1 (EN 1.4418) supermartensitic stainless steel by means of scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter-diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X...

  19. Cutting of Stainless Steel With Fiber and Disk Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandera, Catherine; Salminen, Antti; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2006-01-01

    , the new laser types with a high beam quality, in cutting of austenitic stainless steel. The performance of these new lasers at power level of 4 kW was compared with CO2-laser in respect of cutting speed, kerf width, kerf edge roughness and perpendicularity (squarness) in order to validate the potential...

  20. Controlled dissolution of colossal quantities of nitrogen in stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of nitrogen in austenitic stainless steel was investigated thermogravimetrically by equilibrating thin foils of AISI 304 and AISI 316 in ammonia/hydrogen gas mixtures. Controlled dissolution of colossal amounts of nitrogen under metastable equilibrium conditions was realized, with ...

  1. Adsorption Behavior of Amino Acids on a Stainless Steel Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura; Mimura; Okamoto; Sakiyama; Nakanishi

    2000-09-01

    The adsorption behavior of various amino acids on a stainless steel surface was investigated at 30 degrees C and over a pH range of 3-10. Acidic and basic amino acids except histidine adsorbed remarkably at pH 3-4 and 7-10, respectively, and showed Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. The effects of pH and ionic strength on the adsorption isotherms were investigated to analyze the interactions between amino acids and adsorption sites on the stainless steel. Hydrophobic amino acids and glycine showed only small adsorbed amounts at all pHs tested. For the acidic and basic amino acids, reversibility of the absorption and the influence of the ionic strength on the adsorption behavior were examined. The adsorption isotherms of the derivatives of aspartic acid were also measured in order to examine the contribution of the carboxylic groups of acidic amino acids to the adsorption. Furthermore, a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic analysis and semiempirical molecular orbital calculation were carried out to analyze the ionization states and the configuration of the amino acids adsorbed on a stainless steel surface. These investigations suggest that the acidic and basic amino acids adsorb through two electrostatic interactions of two ionized groups in the amino acid with a stainless steel surface. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. Graphene Nanoplatelets Based Protective and Functionalizing Coating for Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Jayanta; Kozlova, Jekaterina; Sammelselg, Väino

    2015-09-01

    Stainless steel is the most widely used alloy for many industrial and everyday applications, and protection of this alloy substrate against corrosion is an important industrial issue. Here we report a promising application of graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets as effective corrosion inhibitors for AISI type 304 stainless steel alloy. The graphene oxide and graphene coatings on the stainless steel substrates were prepared using spin coating techniques. Homogeneous and complete surface coverage by the graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets were observed with a high-resolution scanning electron microscope. The corrosion inhibition ability of these materials was investigated through measurement of open circuit potential and followed by potentiodymamic polarization analysis in aqueous sodium chloride solution before and after a month of immersion. Analyzed result exhibits effective corrosion inhibition for both substrates coated with graphene oxide or graphene nanoplatelets by increasing corrosion potential, pitting potential and decreasing passive current density. The corrosion inhibition ability of the coated substrates has not changed even after the long-term immersion. The result showed both graphene materials can be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor for the stainless steel substrates, which would certainly increase lifetime the substrate. However, long-term protection ability of the graphene coated susbtsrate showed somewhat better inhibition performance than the ones coated with graphene oxide.

  3. Static friction of stainless steel wire rope–rubber contacts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, A.J.; Krijger, T.; Mugge, W.; Breedveld, P.; Dodou, D.; Dankelman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about static friction of stainless-steel wire ropes ('cables') in contact with soft rubbers, an interface of potential importance for rigidifiable medical instruments. Although friction theories imply that the size and profile of the cables affect static friction, there are no

  4. Welding Characteristics of Nitrogen Added Stainless Steels for Nuclear Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. D. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Characteristics of properties and manufacturing process was evaluated in development of high strength and corrosion resistant stainless steel. The continuous cast structure of STS 316L was similar to that of STS 304. The most of residual {delta}-ferrite of STS 316L was vermicular type. The residual {delta}-ferrite content increased from the surface towards the center of the slab and after reaching a maximum value at about 50mm distance from surface and steeply decreased towards the center itself. Hot ductility of STS 304L and STS 316L stainless steels containing below 1000 ppm N was appeared to be reasonably good in the range of hot rolling temperature. In case of the steels containing over 1000 ppm N, the hot ductility was decreased rapidly when sulfur content of the steel was above 20 ppm. Therefore, to achieve good hot ductility of the high nitrogen containing steel, reduction of sulfur contents is required as low as possible. The inter granular corrosion resistance and impact toughness of STS 316L were increased with increasing the nitrogen contents. Yield strength and tensile strength of 304 and 316 stainless steels are increased linearly with increasing the nitrogen contents but their elongations are decreased with increasing the nitrogen contents. Therefore, the mechanical properties of these stainless steels could be controlled with variation of nitrogen. The effects of nitrogen on the resistance of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) can be explained by improvement of the load bearing capacity with increasing tensile strength rather than inhibition of trans granular SCC crack generation and propagation. 101 refs., 17 tabs., 105 figs. (author)

  5. Effect of Post-weld Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Supermartensitic Stainless Steel Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Sebastián; Svoboda, Hernán; Surian, Estela

    2017-02-01

    Supermartensitic stainless steels have good weldability and adequate tensile property, toughness and corrosion resistance. They have been developed as an alternative technology, mainly for oil and gas industries. The final properties of a supermartensitic stainless steel deposit depend on its chemical composition and microstructure: martensite, tempered martensite, ferrite, retained austenite and carbides and/or nitrides. In these steels, the post-weld heat treatments (PWHTs) are usually double tempering ones, to ensure both complete tempering of martensite and high austenite content, to increase toughness and decrease hardness. The aim of this work was to study the effect of post-weld heat treatments (solution treatment with single and double tempering) on the mechanical properties of a supermartensitic stainless steel deposit. An all-weld metal test coupon was welded according to standard ANSI/AWS A5.22-95 using a GMAW supermartensitic stainless steel metal cored wire, under gas shielding. PWHTs were carried out varying the temperature of the first tempering treatment with and without a second tempering one, after solution treatment. All-weld metal chemical composition analysis, metallurgical characterization, hardness and tensile property measurements and Charpy-V tests were carried out. There are several factors which can be affected by the PWHTs, among them austenite content is a significant one. Different austenite contents (0-42%) were found. Microhardness, tensile property and toughness were affected with up to 15% of austenite content, by martensite tempering and carbide precipitation. The second tempering treatment seemed not to have had an important effect on the mechanical properties measured in this work.

  6. 76 FR 13357 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Correction Notice to Amended Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Correction Notice to... administrative review for stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from Mexico. See Stainless Steel Sheet and.... See Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

  7. Compatibility of stainless steel with Pb-17 AT. % Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The corrosion of type 316 stainless steel and Sandvik HT9 by static Pb-17 at. % Li between 300 and 500/sup 0/C was studied. The resulting weight losses were significantly greater than those of these steels in lithium. The corrosive attack was very uniform, and the room-temperature tensile properties of the steels were unaffected by the exposure. The application of molten Pb-17 at. % Li as a tritium-breeding fluid in conjunction with ferrous alloys in a fusion reactor may be limited to 400/sup 0/C or below.

  8. Nickel alloys and high-alloyed special stainless steels. Properties, manufacturing, applications. 4. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubner, Ulrich; Kloewer, Jutta; Alves, Helena; Behrens, Rainer; Schindler, Claudius; Wahl, Volker; Wolf, Martin

    2012-07-01

    This book contains the following eight topics: 1. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels - Material overview and metallurgical principles (U. Heubner); 2. Corrosion resistance of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (U. Heubner); 3. Welding of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (T. Hoffmann, M. Wolf); 4. High-temperature materials for industrial plant construction (J. Kloewer); 5. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels as hot roll clad composites-a cost-effective alternative (C. Schindler); 6. Selected examples of the use of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels in chemical plants (H. Alves); 7. The use of nickel alloys and stainless steels in environmental engineering (V. Wahl); 8: Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels for the oil and gas industry (R. Behrens).

  9. Brazing of Stainless Steels to Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Using Silver -Base Brazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Asthana, Rajiv

    2005-01-01

    Three silver-base brazes containing either noble metal palladium (Palcusil-10 and Palcusil-15) or active metal titanium (Ticusil) were evaluated for high-temperature oxidation resistance, and their effectiveness in joining yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to a corrosion-resistant ferritic stainless steel. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and optical- and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were used to evaluate the braze oxidation behavior and the structure and chemistry of the YSZ/braze/steel joints. The effect of the braze type and processing conditions on the interfacial microstructure and composition of the joint regions is discussed with reference to the chemical changes that occur at the interface. It was found that chemical interdiffusion of the constituents of YSZ, steel and the brazes led to compositional changes and/or interface reconstruction, and metallurgically sound joints.

  10. Characterization of Surface Modification of 347 Stainless Steel upon Shot Peening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic deformations, such as those obtained by shot peening on specimen surface, are an efficient way to improve the mechanical behavior of metals. Generally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD are commonly used to observe the complex microstructural evolutions, such as grain refinement and phase transformation, induced by the surface treatment. In this work, the microstructure of 347 stainless steel, after ultrasonic shot peening (USP treatments, was investigated. SEM, EBSD, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used to observe the microstructural evolutions, such as grain refinement and phase transformation. Deformation depth after the USP treatment was about 200 μm. Grain size on the treated surface layer was about 100 nm, with two phases: austenite and α′-martensite. The percentages of the austenite and α′-martensite phases were 54% and 46%, respectively, which constitute an exact expression of the degree of plastic deformation on austenitic stainless steel.

  11. Investigations on structure–property relationships of activated flux TIG weldments of super-duplex/austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devendranath Ramkumar, K., E-mail: ramdevendranath@gmail.com; Bajpai, Ankur; Raghuvanshi, Shubham; Singh, Anshuman; Chandrasekhar, Aditya; Arivarasu, M.; Arivazhagan, N.

    2015-06-25

    This research work articulated the effect of SiO{sub 2} flux assisted tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding on the microstructure and mechanical properties of marine grade stainless steel weldments, such as super-duplex stainless steel (UNS S32750) and austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316L). The studies showed that the use of flux decreased the heat input required to obtain complete penetration. Microstructure studies revealed the presence of ferrite at the heat affected zone of AISI 316L and the fusion zone which obviated the hot cracking tendency. Tensile studies corroborated that the joint strength was sufficiently greater than that of the parent metals. Impact toughness slightly impoverished owing to the presence of large platelets of Widmanstätten austenite in the fusion zone. The study also explored the structure–property relationships of the flux assisted weldments using the combined techniques of optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis. Owing to the better metallurgical and mechanical properties, this study recommends the use of SiO{sub 2} flux for joining the dissimilar metals involving austenitic and super-duplex stainless steels.

  12. Stress corrosion cracking behaviour of gas tungsten arc welded super austenitic stainless steel joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vinoth Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Super 304H austenitic stainless steel with 3% of copper posses excellent creep strength and corrosion resistance, which is mainly used in heat exchanger tubing of the boiler. Heat exchangers are used in nuclear power plants and marine vehicles which are intended to operate in chloride rich offshore environment. Chloride stress corrosion cracking is the most likely life limiting failure with austenitic stainless steel tubing. Welding may worsen the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the material. Stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Super 304H parent metal and gas tungsten arc (GTA welded joints were studied by constant load tests in 45% boiling MgCl2 solution. Stress corrosion cracking resistance of Super 304H stainless steel was deteriorated by GTA welding due to the formation of susceptible microstructure in the HAZ of the weld joint and the residual stresses. The mechanism of cracking was found to be anodic path cracking, with transgranular nature of crack propagation. Linear relationships were derived to predict the time to failure by extrapolating the rate of steady state elongation.

  13. Characterization of Electron Beam Free-Form Fabricated 2219 Aluminum and 316 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrami, Yasamin; Forth, Scott C.; Waid, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed an additive manufacturing technology for ground and future space based applications. The electron beam free form fabrication (EBF3) is a rapid metal fabrication process that utilizes an electron beam gun in a vacuum environment to replicate a CAD drawing of a part. The electron beam gun creates a molten pool on a metal substrate, and translates with respect to the substrate to deposit metal in designated regions through a layer additive process. Prior to demonstration and certification of a final EBF3 part for space flight, it is imperative to conduct a series of materials validation and verification tests on the ground in order to evaluate mechanical and microstructural properties of the EBF3 manufactured parts. Part geometries of EBF3 2219 aluminum and 316 stainless steel specimens were metallographically inspected, and tested for strength, fatigue crack growth, and fracture toughness. Upon comparing the results to conventionally welded material, 2219 aluminum in the as fabricated condition demonstrated a 30% and 16% decrease in fracture toughness and ductility, respectively. The strength properties of the 316 stainless steel material in the as deposited condition were comparable to annealed stainless steel alloys. Future fatigue crack growth tests will integrate various stress ranges and maximum to minimum stress ratios needed to fully characterize EBF3 manufactured specimens.

  14. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of AISI 304 to AISI 420 stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, José Roberto; de Rossi, Wagner; David Martins das Neves, Maurício; Alves de Almeida, Ivan; Dias Vieira Junior, Nilson

    2007-09-01

    The technique to weld AISI 304 stainless steel to AISI 420 stainless steel with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser has been investigated. The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of the laser beam position, with respect to the joint, on weld characteristics. Specimens were welded with the laser beam incident on the joint and moved 0.1 and 0.2 mm on either side of the joint. The joints were examined in an optical microscope for cracks, pores and to determine the weld geometry. The microstructure of the weld and the heat affected zones were observed in a scanning electron microscope. An energy dispersive spectrometer, coupled to the scanning electron microscope, was used to determine variations in (weight %) the main chemical elements across the fillet weld. Vickers microhardness testing and tensile testing were carried out to determine the mechanical properties of the weld. The results of the various tests and examinations enabled definition of the best position for the incident laser beam with respect to the joint, for welding together the two stainless steels.

  15. Pitting and Intergranular Corrosion Resistance of AISI Type 301LN Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningshen, S.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2010-03-01

    The pitting and intergranular corrosion (IGC) resistance of AISI type 301LN stainless steels were evaluated using ASTM methods, anodic polarization, and electrochemical impedance techniques. The IGC results indicated that the microstructure of the samples after sensitization heat treatment at 675 °C for 1 h shows step or dual structure for both imported and indigenous materials indicating insignificant Cr23C6 precipitation. The results of immersion tests in boiling 6% copper sulfate + 16% sulfuric acid + copper solution for 24 h followed by the bend test (ASTM A262 Practice-E method) indicated no crack formation in any of the tested specimens. Pitting corrosion resistance carried out in 6% FeCl3 solution at different temperatures of 22 ± 2 and 50 ± 2 °C (ASTM G 48) up to the period of 72 h revealed pitting corrosion attack in all the investigated alloys. The potentiodynamic anodic polarization results in 0.5 M NaCl revealed variation in passive current density and pitting potential depending on the alloy chemistry and metallurgical condition. The passive film properties studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) correlated well with the polarization results. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed the presence of austenite (γ) and martensite (α') phases depending on the material condition. The suitability of three indigenously developed AISI type 301LN stainless steels were compared with imported type 301LN stainless steel and the results are highlighted in this article.

  16. Nitride alloy layer formation of duplex stainless steel using nitriding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleque, M. A.; Lailatul, P. H.; Fathaen, A. A.; Norinsan, K.; Haider, J.

    2018-01-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) shows a good corrosion resistance as well as the mechanical properties. However, DSS performance decrease as it works under aggressive environment and at high temperature. At the mentioned environment, the DSS become susceptible to wear failure. Surface modification is the favourable technique to widen the application of duplex stainless steel and improve the wear resistance and its hardness properties. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to nitride alloy layer on the surface of duplex stainless steel by the nitriding process temperature of 400°C and 450°C at different time and ammonia composition using a horizontal tube furnace. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyzer are used to analyse the morphology, composition and the nitrided alloy layer for treated DSS. The micro hardnesss Vickers tester was used to measure hardness on cross-sectional area of nitrided DSS. After nitriding, it was observed that the hardness performance increased until 1100 Hv0.5kgf compared to substrate material of 250 Hv0.5kgf. The thickness layer of nitride alloy also increased from 5μm until 100μm due to diffusion of nitrogen on the surface of DSS. The x-ray diffraction results showed that the nitride layer consists of iron nitride, expanded austenite and chromium nitride. It can be concluded that nitride alloy layer can be produced via nitriding process using tube furnace with significant improvement of microstructural and hardness properties.

  17. The Effect of Welding Current and Composition of Stainless steel on the Panetration in GTAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Yılmaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, welding was performed on the plates of two different types of AISI 316 and AISI 316Ti austenitic stainless steels by GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding without using welding consumable in flat position. Automatic GTAW welding machine was used to control and obtain the exact values. The effects of welding currents used in welding process and the compositions of the stainless steels materials on the penetration were investigated. Weld bead size and shape such as bead width and dept were important considerations for penetration. Welding process was performed using various welding current values. The study showed that both welding parameters and composition of the stainless steels has influence on the penetration and It is increased with increasing of welding current. Besides, P/W rate of the weldments were influenced by the current and hardness values of the weld metal decrease with increasing welding current. The microstructure of the weld metal was also changed by variation of welding current.

  18. Influence of Co content on the biocompatibility and bio-corrosion of super ferritic stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Y. R.; Jang, S. G.; Nam, H. S.; Shim, G. T.; Cho, H. H.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, Y. S.

    2008-12-01

    Bio-metals require high corrosion resistance, because their biocompatibility is closely related to this parameter. Bio-metals release metal ions into the human body, leading to deleterious effects. Allergies, dermatitis, and asthma are the predominant systemic effects resulting in the human body. In particular, Ni is one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. In the present work, we designed new ferritic stainless steels wherein Ni is replaced with Co under consideration of allergic respondes and microstructural stability. This work focuses on the effect of Co content on the biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of high PRE super ferritic stainless steels in bio-solution and acidic chloride solution. In the case of the acidic chloride solution, with increasing Co content in the ferritic stainless steels, passive current density increased and critical pitting temperature (CPT) decreased. Also, in the passive state, AC impedance and repassivation rate were reduced. These results are attributed to the thermodynamic stability of cobalt ions, as indicated in the EpH diagram for a Co-H2O system. However, in the case of bio-solutions, with increasing Co content of the alloys, the passive current density decreased. AC impedance and repassivation rate meanwhile increased in the passive state. This is due to the increased ratios of Cr2O3/Cr(OH)3 and [Metal Oxide]/Metal + Metal Oxide] of the passive film formed in bio-solution.

  19. [Corrosion of stainless steel 201, 304 and 316L in the simulated sewage pipes reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Guo-Dong; Zuo, Jian-E; Wang, Ya-Jiao; Gan, Li-Li

    2014-08-01

    The corrosion behavior of stainless steel 201, 304 and 316L which would be used as sewer in-situ rehabilitation materials was studied in the simulated sewage pipes reactor. The corrosion potential and corrosion rate of these three materials were studied by potentiodynamic method on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 56th day under two different conditions which were full immersion condition or batch immersion condition with a 2-day cycle. The electrode process was studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) on the 56th day. The microstructure and composition of the corrosion pitting were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) on the 56th day. The results showed that 304 and 316L had much better corrosion resistance than 201 under both conditions. 304 and 316L had much smaller corrosion rate than 201 under both conditions. The corrosion resistance of all three kinds of stainless steel under the batch immersion condition was much better than those under the full immersion condition. The corrosion rate of all three kinds of stainless steel under the batch immersion condition was much smaller than those under the full immersion condition. Point pitting corrosion was formed on the surfaces of 304 and 316L. In comparison, a large area of corrosion was formed in the surface of 201.

  20. Plasma debinding and sintering of metal injection moulded 17-4PH stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Schroeder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, 17-4PH stainless steel parts processed in a Plasma Assisted Debinding and Sintering (PADS furnace were characterised in terms of microstructure, final density, microhardness, carbon content and tensile behaviour. To determine whether these properties were satisfactory, the same characterisation procedure was conducted on the parts processed by conventional batch furnaces that are normally employed in Metal Injection Moulding industrial plants. The properties were in good agreement, and only slight differences like an extremely low carbon content (0.003% w/o were observed. It has been seen that not only economical advances but also intricate materials with suitable responses may be obtained using PADS.

  1. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Low Temperature Surface Hardening of Austenitic Stainless Steel by Gaseous Nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses an investigation of the influence of plastic deformation on low temperature surface hardening by gaseous nitriding of two commercial austenitic stainless steels: AISI 304 and EN 1.4369. The materials were plastically deformed to different equivalent strains by uniaxial...... tension. Gaseous nitriding of the strained material was performed in ammonia gas at atmospheric pressure at 703 K. Microstructural characterization of the as-deformed states and the nitrided case produced included X-ray diffraction analysis, reflected light microscopy, microhardness testing. The results...

  2. A new ultrahigh-strength stainless steel strengthened by various coexisting nanoprecipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W., E-mail: w.xu@m2i.nl [Materials Innovation Institute M2i, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands)] [Novel Aerospace Materials (NovAM) Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J. [Novel Aerospace Materials (NovAM) Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Yan, W.; Yang, K. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); San Martin, D. [Materalia Group, Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kestens, L.A.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Zwaag, S. van der [Novel Aerospace Materials (NovAM) Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    A general computational alloy design approach based on thermodynamic and physical metallurgical principles and coupled with a genetic optimization scheme is presented. The model is applied to develop a new ultrahigh-strength maraging stainless steel. The alloy composition and heat treatment parameters are integrally optimized so as to achieve microstructures of fully lath martensite matrix strengthened by multiple precipitates of MC carbides, Cu particles and Ni{sub 3}Ti intermetallics. The combined mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and identification of actual strengthening precipitates in the experimental prototype produced on the basic of the model predictions provide a strong justification for the alloy design approach.

  3. Biaxial fatigue tests of notched specimens for AISI 304L stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Beretta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High cycle fatigue tests were conducted for stainless steel AISI 304L. The geometry was a thin walled tube with a passing through hole. The tests were axial, torsional and in-phase axial-torsional, all of them under load control with R = −1. The S-N curves were constructed following the ASTM E739 standard and the fatigues limits were calculated following the method of maximum likelihood proposed by Bettinelli. The crack direction along the surface was analysed, with especial attention to the crack initiation zones. The notch fatigue limits for different hole diameters were compared with the predictions done with a microstructural fracture mechanics model.

  4. Influence of electrical Field on Pulsed Laser beam welding of Stainless Steel (304)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzý, Salah A. H.; Arýf, Raz N.

    1999-06-01

    Pulsed laser beam welding experiment were carried out on stainless steel (SUS 304), using vertical and horizontal electric fields of different intensities to study its effectiveness on the welding process, regarding depth and weld quality. Pulsed Nd: YAG laser emitting 10 ms pulses in the TEM00 mode at 1.06 m m wave length was employed, microstructure of welded zone and defect were investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Tensile test and microhardness measurements were carried out to evaluate the weld quality. Welding by this method increased the efficiency tremendously and a depth increase of 85% was achieved.

  5. Interface behavior of tungsten coating on stainless steel by electro spark deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuangang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of electro spark deposition method was put forward, which was based on the theory of electro spark deposition by changing the polarity in the liquid. Tungsten coating layers was produced on surface of Stainless Steel by electro spark deposition. The micro hardness, microstructure, chemical composition and phases of the coating layer were examined by means of hardness test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS analysis. The results showed that there was tungsten coating in the surface, which was discontinuous. Microhardness of the coating layer was about 3 times more than that of the substrate. The combination between coating layer and substrate was metallurgical bond.

  6. The relation between experiments and modeling of rapidly solidified 12Cr-Mo-V stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    1998-01-01

    Solidification during melt spinning of a 12Cr-Mo-V stainless steel has been experimentally studied and numerically simulated. The resulting microstructures have been related to the unknown parameter h, i.e. the heat transfer coefficient between the substrate and the melt, by fitting the heat flow...... of metastable austenite as the primary phase near the chill side of the ribbon. Upon quenching to room temperature, this austenite transformed into martensite. At a distance of about 15 mu m from the chill surface, the growth velocity of the solid/liquid interface decreased (

  7. Analisa Hasil Pengelasan Smaw Pada Stainless Steel Aisi 304 Dengan Variasi Arus dan Diameter Elektroda

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Esta Karina

    2016-01-01

    Construction using metal at the present time involves many elements, especially the field of welding engineering for welded joints is one of making connections that technically requires a high skill for welding, in order to obtain a connection with good quality. This study aims to determine the effect of variations in flow and the electrode on the distribution of hardness and microstructure in welding Stainless Steel AISI 304. seam type used is a double hem V with an angle 45. In this study u...

  8. Weld solidification cracking in 304 to 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochanadel, Patrick W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lienert, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jesse N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Raymond J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Matthew Q [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    A series of annulus welds were made between 304 and 304L stainless steel coaxial tubes using both pulsed laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this application, a change in process from pulsed LBW to pulsed gas tungsten arc welding was proposed to limit the possibility of weld solidification cracking since weldability diagrams developed for GTAW display a greater range of compositions that are not crack susceptible relative to those developed for pulsed LBW. Contrary to the predictions of the GTAW weldability diagram, cracking was found. This result was rationalized in terms of the more rapid solidification rate of the pulsed gas tungsten arc welds. In addition, for the pulsed LBW conditions, the material compositions were predicted to be, by themselves, 'weldable' according to the pulsed LBW weldability diagram. However, the composition range along the tie line connecting the two compositions passed through the crack susceptible range. Microstructurally, the primary solidification mode (PSM) of the material processed with higher power LBW was determined to be austenite (A), while solidification mode of the materials processed with lower power LBW apparently exhibited a dual PSM of both austenite (A) and ferrite-austenite (FA) within the same weld. The materials processed by pulsed GT A W showed mostly primary austenite solidification, with some regions of either primary austenite-second phase ferrite (AF) solidification or primary ferrite-second phase austenite (FA) solidification. This work demonstrates that variations in crack susceptibility may be realized when welding different heats of 'weldable' materials together, and that slight variations in processing can also contribute to crack susceptibility.

  9. Weld solidification cracking in 304 to 204L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochanadel, Patrick W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lienert, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jesse N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Matthew Q [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-15

    A series of annulus welds were made between 304 and 304L stainless steel coaxial tubes using both pulsed laser beam welding (LBW) and pulsed gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this application, a change in process from pulsed LBW to pulsed gas tungsten arc welding was proposed to limit the possibility of weld solidification cracking since weldability diagrams developed for GTAW display a greater range of compositions that are not crack susceptible relative to those developed for pulsed LBW. Contrary to the predictions of the GTAW weldability diagram, cracking was found.This result was rationalized in terms of the more rapid solidification rate of the pulsed gas tungsten arc welds. In addition, for the pulsed LBW conditions, the material compositions were predicted to be, by themselves, 'weldable' according to the pulsed LBW weldability diagram. However, the composition range along the tie line connecting the two compositions passed through the crack susceptible range. Microstructurally, the primary solidification mode (PSM) of the material processed with higher power LBW was determined to be austenite (A), while solidification mode of the materials processed with lower power LBW apparently exhibited a dual PSM of both austenite (A) and ferrite-austenite (FA) within the same weld. The materials processed by pulsed GTAW showed mostly primary austenite solidification, with some regions of either primary austenite-second phase ferrite (AF) solidification or primary ferrite-second phase austenite (FA) solidification. This work demonstrates that variations in crack susceptibility may be realized when welding different heats of 'weldable' materials together, and that slight variations in processing can also contribute to crack susceptibility.

  10. Neutron irradiation creep in stainless steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuele, Wolfgang (Commission of the European Union, Institute for Advanced Materials, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy)); Hausen, Hermann (Commission of the European Union, Institute for Advanced Materials, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy))

    1994-09-01

    Irradiation creep elongations were measured in the HFR at Petten on AMCR steels, on 316 CE-reference steels, and on US-316 and US-PCA steels varying the irradiation temperature between 300 C and 500 C and the stress between 25 and 300 MPa. At the beginning of an irradiation a type of primary'' creep stage is observed for doses up to 3-5 dpa after which dose the secondary'' creep stage begins. The primary'' creep strain decreases in cold-worked steel materials with decreasing stress and decreasing irradiation temperature achieving also negative creep strains depending also on the pre-treatment of the materials. These primary'' creep strains are mainly attributed to volume changes due to the formation of radiation-induced phases, e.g. to the formation of [alpha]-ferrite below about 400 C and of carbides below about 700 C, and not to irradiation creep. The secondary'' creep stage is found for doses larger than 3 to 5 dpa and is attributed mainly to irradiation creep. The irradiation creep rate is almost independent of the irradiation temperature (Q[sub irr]=0.132 eV) and linearly dependent on the stress. The total creep elongations normalized to about 8 dpa are equal for almost every type of steel irradiated in the HFR at Petten or in ORR or in EBR II. The negative creep elongations are more pronounced in PCA- and in AMCR-steels and for this reason the total creep elongation is slightly smaller at 8 dpa for these two steels than for the other steels. ((orig.))

  11. The role of dislocation channeling in IASCC initiation of neutron irradiated austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kale Jennings

    The objective of this study was to understand the role of dislocation channeling in the initiation of irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of neutron irradiated austenitic stainless steel using a novel four-point bend test. Stainless steels used in this study were irradiated in the BOR-60 fast reactor at 320 °C, and included a commercial purity 304L stainless steel irradiated to 5.5, 10.2, and 47.5 dpa, and two high purity stainless steels, Fe-18Cr-12Ni and Fe-18Cr-25Ni, irradiated to ~10 dpa. The four-point bend test produced the same relative IASCC susceptibility as constant extension rate tensile (CERT) experiments performed on the same irradiated alloys in boiling water reactor normal water chemistry. The cracking susceptibility of the CP 304L alloy was high at all irradiation dose levels, enhanced by the presence of MnS inclusions in the alloy microstructure, which dissolve in the NWC environment. Dissolution of the MnS inclusion results in formation of an oxide cap that occludes the inclusion site, creating a crevice condition with a high propensity for crack initiation. Crack initiation at these locations was induced by stress concentration at the intersecting grain boundary, resulting from the intersection of a discontinuous dislocation channels (DC). Stress to initiate an IASCC crack decreased with dose due earlier DC initiation. The HP Fe-18Cr-12Ni alloy had low susceptibility to IASCC, while the high Ni alloy exhibited no cracking susceptibility. The difference in susceptibility among these conditions was attributed to the propensity for DCs to transmit across grain boundaries, which controls stress accumulation at DC -- grain boundary intersections.

  12. The effect of microstructure on abrasive wear of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kešner, A.; Chotëborský, R.; Linda, M.

    2017-09-01

    Abrasive wear of agricultural tools is one of the biggest problems in currently being. The amount of abrasive wear, depending on the microstructure, has been investigated in this work. Steels 25CrMo4 and 51CrV4 were used in this work to determine the effect of the microstructure on the abrasive wear. These steels are commonly used for components that have to withstand abrasive wear.SEM analysis was used to detect the microstructure. The standardized ASTM G65 method was used to compare the abrasive wear of steels. The results show that the abrasive wear depends on the microstructure of steels.

  13. Tribological Properties of Stainless Steels Treated by Colossal Carbon Supersaturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    A promising, alternative surface treatment to traditional case carburizing was recently developed. It enables extremely high ('colossal') super-saturation of carbon (up to 12 at%) in austenitic stainless steel surfaces. This new treatment offers the advantage of hardening the surface while still retaining the corrosion resistance of stainless steels. In this study, the tribological properties of the colossal supersaturation carburized Type 316 stainless steel were investigated and benchmarked against non-treated steel. The carburized surfaces exhibited higher hardness, higher elastic modulus, and higher corrosion resistance to acid etching than non-treated surfaces. Hot hardness measurements were conducted and linear relations between the hardness and temperature had been observed for both treated and non-treated specimens. The friction and wear characteristics were evaluated at both room and elevated temperatures (200 and 400 oC) under non-lubricated sliding conditions (pin-on-disk). Additional room-temperature tests were performed in salt water. Improved wear-resistance was observed on the treated surfaces at all test conditions, though less benefit was observed at elevated temperatures or in salt water.

  14. High specialty stainless steels and nickel alloys for FGD dampers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herda, W.R.; Rockel, M.B.; Grossmann, G.K. [Krupp VDM GmbH, Werdohl (Germany); Starke, K. [Mannesmann-Seiffert GmbH, Beckum (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Because of process design and construction, FGD installations normally have bypass ducts, which necessitates use of dampers. Due to corrosion from acid dew resulting from interaction of hot acidic flue gases and colder outside environments, carbon steel cannot be used as construction material under these specific conditions. In the past, commercial stainless steels have suffered by pitting and crevice corrosion and occasionally failed by stress corrosion cracking. Only high alloy specialty super-austenitic stainless steels with 6.5% Mo should be used and considered for this application. Experience in Germany and Europe has shown that with regard to safety and life cycle cost analysis as well as providing a long time warranty, a new specialty stainless steel, alloy 31--UNS N08031--(31 Ni, 27 Cr, 6.5 Mo, 0.2 N) has proven to be the best and most economical choice. Hundreds of tons in forms of sheet, rod and bar, as well as strip (for damper seals) have been used and installed in many FGD installations throughout Europe. Under extremely corrosive conditions, the new advanced Ni-Cr-Mo alloy 59--UNS N06059--(59 Ni, 23 Cr, 16 Mo) should be used. This paper describes qualification and workability of these alloys as pertains to damper applications. Some case histories are also provided.

  15. Modelling of composition and stress profiles in low temperature surface engineered stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Freja Nygaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Thermochemical surface engineering by nitriding/carburizing of stainless steel causes a surface zone of expanded austenite, which improves the wear resistance of the stainless steel while preserving the stainless behavior. As a consequence of the thermochemical surface engineering, huge residual ...

  16. 77 FR 46717 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... determines that countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of drawn stainless... of the notice of initiation in the Federal Register.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the...

  17. 76 FR 34964 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty... opportunity to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from... Corp.; Electralloy Co., a division of G.O. Carlson, Inc.; Outokumpu Stainless Bar, Inc.; Universal...

  18. 77 FR 60673 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...'') preliminarily determines that drawn stainless steel sinks (``drawn sinks'') from the People's Republic of China...: Scope of the Investigation The products covered by the scope of this investigation are drawn stainless...

  19. 75 FR 81217 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Full Sunset Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Preliminary Results of Full... review of the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on certain stainless steel plate in coils from Belgium... the domestic interested parties and adequate substantive responses from ArcelorMittal Stainless...

  20. 75 FR 64709 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Notice of Rescission of... ``Opportunity to Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel plate in coils... Department received a timely request from ArcelorMittal Stainless Belgium N.V. (``AMS Belgium'') to conduct...