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Sample records for staining demonstrated qualitatively

  1. Modified Bismarck brown staining for demonstration of soft tissue mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tomov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bismarck brown staining is a suitable method for demonstration of mast cells in peripheral tissues. However, apart from the intensive color of the mast cell granules, almost no other structures are visible after this staining, which may compromise the results and discourage the investigator. In the present report, we validate the applicability of the Bismarck brown staining of soft tissue and introduce a modification of the method to improve the quality of the histological preparation. Counterstaining with haematoxylin produces specimens with superb contrast and high analytical value. We consider our method involving counterstaining to be superior to the classical Toluidine blue staining, because of the greater contrast of mast cells, which makes evaluation easier, while the preparations are suitable for automated image analysis as well

  2. A comparative study of the efficiency of acridine orange and some Romanowsky staining procedures in the demonstration of Haemobartonella felis in feline blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobade, P A; Nash, A S

    1987-12-01

    A comparison of the relative efficiency of acridine orange with some Romanowsky staining procedures indicated that acridine orange is superior in demonstrating the presence of Haemobartonella felis in feline blood. Of the Romanowsky staining procedures, that of May-Grunwald-Giemsa was at least one and a half and about twice as efficient as the Giemsa and Leishman methods, respectively.

  3. Demonstration of different endocervical staining methods and their usefulness in the diagnosis of the chlamydial infection in exfoliated cells advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmutović, Sabina; Beslagić, Edina; Hamzić, Sadeta; Aljicević, Mufida

    2004-02-01

    Microscopic demonstration of chlamydial inclusions within cells offered the first laboratory procedure supporting the clinical diagnosis of chlamydial infection. Our aim is to evaluate the usefulness of different endocervical staining methods in diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection within exfoliated cells of the endocervix. The cytological test for the detection of chlamydial inclusions in genital tract infection, though not as sensitive and specific as isolation in the cell culture monolayers, is still of the diagnostic value. The present study discusses the collection of clinical smears for microscopic examination, their preparation; fixation and staining of slides by a variety of staining methods that have been used to detect Chlamydia in clinical smears and biopsies. Most of these methods such as Giemsa stain, Papanicolaou, iodine, and immunofluorescence (IF) using monoclonal antibodies, are based on the combination of dyes designed to obtain optimum differentiation of the various structures. The utilization of different endocervical smear stains together with the clinical information can be used to identify women at high risk for CT infection.

  4. Gram staining.

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    Coico, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Named after Hans Christian Gram who developed the method in 1884, the Gram stain allows one to distinguish between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria on the basis of differential staining with a crystal violet-iodine complex and a safranin counterstain. The cell walls of Gram-positive organisms retain this complex after treatment with alcohol and appear purple, whereas gram-negative organisms decolorize following such treatment and appear pink. The method described here is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures.

  5. Residual tumor after laser ablation of human non-small-cell lung cancer demonstrated by ex vivo staining: correlation with invasive temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian Oliver Martin; Rosenberg, Christian; Linder, Albert; Hosten, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    Histology is the gold standard for confirming thermally induced necrosis. Generally, however, no specimen is obtained from thermal ablation therapy for pathological examination. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for the relationship between temperatures reached and resulting tissue coagulation during laser ablation in a near-physiological ex vivo lung tumor model by combining viability staining and direct temperature measurement. In all, 17 human lung specimens with primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were examined in this study. Organs were resected with curative intent from patients of either gender (5 female, 12 male) with an average age of 65 years (51-78). Here, 11/17 specimens were subjected to interstitial laser thermal ablation in an ex vivo lung perfusion and ventilation model after surgery. A control group of 6/17 specimens was tested for viability without laser ablation. Tissue temperature was measured invasively in real-time during the ablation process using thermocouples. Afterwards, representative slices of all 17 specimens were tested for viability with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). Maximum tissue temperature Tmax[°C] measured at a distance of 10 and 20 mm from the laser tip and time of temperature exposure were correlated with the diameter of the induced coagulation as ascertained with viability staining. CH evaluated the results. Mean maximum temperature was 75.9°C ± 14.4°C at a distance of 10 mm from the laser tip and 50.3°C ± 14.6°C at a distance of 20 mm, respectively. The mean distance between the coagulation margin and the laser tip was 17.8 mm ± 7.3 mm. We found that coagulation size correlated positively with temperature. There was a clear trend towards the correlation of time over 44°C and ablation depth. Maximum temperatures did not significantly correlate with coagulation size. Laser ablation of lung tumors using the IHLP (isolated human lung perfusion) model represents a possible method for evaluating

  6. In vivo detection of amyloid plaques by gadolinium-stained MRI can be used to demonstrate the efficacy of an anti-amyloid immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu D. Santin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular deposition of β amyloid plaques is an early event associated to Alzheimer's disease. Here we have used in vivo gadolinium-stained high resolution (29*29*117µm3 MRI to follow-up in a longitudinal way individual amyloid plaques in APP/PS1 mice and evaluate the efficacy of a new immunotherapy (SAR255952 directed against protofibrillar and fibrillary forms of Aβ. APP/PS1 mice were treated for 5 months between the age of 3.5 and 8.5 months. SAR255952 reduced amyloid load in 8.5-month-old animals, but not in 5.5-month animals compared to mice treated with a control antibody (DM4. Histological evaluation confirmed the reduction of amyloid load and revealed a lower density of amyloid plaques in 8.5-month SAR255952-treated animals. The longitudinal follow-up of individual amyloid plaques by MRI revealed that plaques that were visible at 5.5 months were still visible at 8.5 months in both SAR255952 and DM4-treated mice. This suggests that the amyloid load reduction induced by SAR255952 is related to a slowing down in the formation of new plaques rather than to the clearance of already formed plaques.

  7. Pleural fluid Gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram stain of pleural fluid ... mixing it with a violet stain (called a Gram stain). A laboratory specialist uses a microscope to ... reveals an abnormal collection of pleural fluid. The Gram stain can help identify the bacteria that might ...

  8. Differential staining of bacteria: gram stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Rita B; Reynolds, Jackie; Breakwell, Donald P

    2009-11-01

    In 1884, Hans Christian Gram, a Danish doctor, developed a differential staining technique that is still the cornerstone of bacterial identification and taxonomic division. This multistep, sequential staining protocol separates bacteria into four groups based on cell morphology and cell wall structure: Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative cocci, Gram-positive rods, and Gram-negative rods. The Gram stain is useful for assessing bacterial contamination of tissue culture samples or for examining the Gram stain status and morphological features of bacteria isolated from mixed or isolated bacterial cultures. (c) 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Port-Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Port-Wine Stains KidsHealth / For Parents / Port-Wine Stains What's ... Manchas de vino de oporto What Are Port-Wine Stains? A port-wine stain is a type ...

  10. Use of the REVERT®total protein stain as a loading control demonstrates significant benefits over the use of housekeeping proteins when analyzing brain homogenates by Western blot: An analysis of samples representing different gonadal hormone states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Z Z; Gibbs, R B

    2018-01-30

    Western blot is routinely used to quantify differences in the levels of target proteins in tissues. Standard methods typically use measurements of housekeeping proteins to control for variations in loading and protein transfer. This is problematic, however, when housekeeping proteins also are affected by experimental conditions such as injury, disease, and/or gonadal hormone manipulations. Our goal was to evaluate an alternative and perhaps superior method for conducting Western blot analysis of brain tissue homogenates from rats with distinct physiologically relevant gonadal hormone states. Tissues were collected from the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and striatum of young adult female rats that either were ovariectomized to model surgical menopause, or were treated with the ovatotoxin 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) to model transitional menopause. Tissues also were collected from rats with a normal estrous cycle killed at proestrus when estradiol levels are high, and at diestrus when estradiol levels are low. Western blot detection of α-tubulin, β-actin, and GAPDH was performed and were compared for sensitivity and reliability with a fluorescent total protein stain (REVERT ® ). Results show that the total protein stain was much less variable across samples and had a greater linear range than α-tubulin, β-actin, or GAPDH. The stain was stable and easy to use, and did not interfere with the immunodetection or multiplexed detection of the housekeeping proteins. In addition, we show that normalization of our data to total protein, but not to GAPDH, revealed significant differences in α-tubulin expression in the hippocampus as a function of treatment, and that gel-to-gel consistency in measuring differences between paired samples run on multiple gels was significantly better when data were normalized to total protein than when normalized to GAPDH. These results demonstrate that the REVERT ® total protein stain can be used in Western blot analysis of brain

  11. Comparison of immunohistochemical and modified Giemsa stains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2 cases immunostain could not demonstrate the bacteria but they were identified with modified Giemsa stain while in 5 cases the bacteria were identified by immunostain but not with modified Giemsa stain. The sensitivity of modified Giemsa stain was 85% (CI 66.5-98.8) while the specificity was 89% (CI 60.4 – 97.8).

  12. Acid-fast stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  13. Stabilized Romanowsky blood stain.

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    Gilliland, J W; Dean, W W; Stastny, M; Lubrano, G J

    1979-05-01

    It has been shown that the degradation of thiazine dyes which normally occurs in methanolic solution, as in the case of Romanowsky blood stains, can be prevented by making the solution acidic. In a certain range of acidity, the stain precipitates in the form of monothiazine eosinate, but by making the solution sufficiently acidic, eosin is protonated and the precipitate cannot form. These observations have been used to develop a blood stain which is stable, even at elevated temperatures, for several months. For use the stain is neutralized by a specially formulated fixative solution.

  14. Demonstrating the Qualitative Differences between Semantic Aphasia and Semantic Dementia: A Novel Exploration of Nonverbal Semantic Processing

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    Krist A. Noonan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic dementia (SD implicates the anterior temporal lobes (ATL as a critical substrate for semantic memory. Multi-modal semantic impairment can also be a feature of post-stroke aphasia (referred to here as “semantic aphasia” or SA where patients show impaired regulatory control accompanied by lesions to the frontal and/or temporo-parietal cortices, and thus the two patient groups demonstrate qualitatively different patterns of semantic impairment [1]. Previous comparisons of these two patient groups have tended to focus on verbal receptive tasks. Accordingly, this study investigated nonverbal receptive abilities via a comparison of reality decision judgements in SD and SA. Pictures of objects were presented alongside non-real distracters whose features were altered to make them more/less plausible for the semantic category. The results highlighted a number of critical differences between the two groups. Compared to SD patients, SA patients: (1 were relatively unimpaired on the two alternative forced choice (2AFC decisions despite showing a comparable degree of semantic impairment on other assessments; (2 showed minimal effects of the plausibility manipulation; (3 were strongly influenced by variations in the regulatory requirements of tasks; and (4 exhibited a reversed effect of familiarity–i.e., better performance on less commonly encountered items. These results support a distinction between semantic impairments which arise from impaired regulatory processes (e.g., SA versus those where degraded semantic knowledge is the causal factor (e.g., SD. SA patients performed relatively well because the task structure reduced the requirement for internally generated control. In contrast, SD patients performed poorly because their degraded knowledge did not allow the fine-grained distinctions required to complete the task.

  15. Histological stain evaluation for machine learning applications

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    Jimmy C Azar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: A methodology for quantitative comparison of histological stains based on their classification and clustering performance, which may facilitate the choice of histological stains for automatic pattern and image analysis. Background: Machine learning and image analysis are becoming increasingly important in pathology applications for automatic analysis of histological tissue samples. Pathologists rely on multiple, contrasting stains to analyze tissue samples, but histological stains are developed for visual analysis and are not always ideal for automatic analysis. Materials and Methods: Thirteen different histological stains were used to stain adjacent prostate tissue sections from radical prostatectomies. We evaluate the stains for both supervised and unsupervised classification of stain/tissue combinations. For supervised classification we measure the error rate of nonlinear support vector machines, and for unsupervised classification we use the Rand index and the F-measure to assess the clustering results of a Gaussian mixture model based on expectation-maximization. Finally, we investigate class separability measures based on scatter criteria. Results: A methodology for quantitative evaluation of histological stains in terms of their classification and clustering efficacy that aims at improving segmentation and color decomposition. We demonstrate that for a specific tissue type, certain stains perform consistently better than others according to objective error criteria. Conclusions: The choice of histological stain for automatic analysis must be based on its classification and clustering performance, which are indicators of the performance of automatic segmentation of tissue into morphological components, which in turn may be the basis for diagnosis.

  16. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  17. Endocervical gram stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... no symptoms. Alternative Names Gram stain of cervix; Gram stain of cervical secretions References Marrazzo JM, Apicella MA. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition . 8th ...

  18. Dramatic Stained Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that is appropriate for students in fifth through twelfth grade in which they create Gothic-style stained-glass windows. Discusses how college students majoring in elementary education created stained-glass windows. Addresses how to adapt this lesson for younger students. (CMK)

  19. Stool Gram stain

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    ... of stool; Feces Gram stain References Allos BM. Campylobacter infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman- ... Bacterial Infections Read more Foodborne Illness Read more Gastroenteritis Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  20. Standard specimens for stain calibration: application to Romanowsky-Giemsa staining.

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    Turner, J N; Weir, B; Collins, D N

    1990-01-01

    Standardized specimens with reproducible staining properties were fabricated from extracts of biological objects (bovine liver, nucleoprotamine and defatted muscle). The standard specimens were stained with two formulations of the Romanowsky-Giemsa stain (RG), using the same azure B and eosin Y. One formulation used methanol and Sorensen's buffer and the other DMSO and Hepes buffer as solvents. The standard specimens were stained either in the composite stain or in the individual dyes dissolved in the same solvents and at the same concentration as the composite stain. Solution spectroscopy demonstrated different spectra for the two formulations with some wavelength regions varying by more than an order of magnitude. The RG spectra were also very different from those of the individual dyes dissolved at the RG concentration in the respective solvents. The stained standard specimens were analyzed by microspectrophotometry and were found to have spectra similar to those of cell smears. Furthermore, the standard specimens were shown to be a repeatable substrate for stain uptake. The transmitted light intensity from random fields of the same standardized specimen varied +/- 5%. When specimens were stained at the same time, the specimen-to-specimen variation depended on preparation conditions and the measurement wavelength, but was as good as +/- 5% for some conditions. The quantitative stain performance of both formulations was studied and compared. The standardized specimens provide a tool for the quantitative study of staining processes and specimen preparation procedures and for stain calibration.

  1. Comparison between Giemsa and Van Geison stains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichrome stain (such as Van Geison) is usually used in histopathology laboratory for demonstration of collagenic fibers. Lack of selectivity and tendency of stain to fade makes van Gieson not ideal for collagen demonstration. This study was aimed to compare between Giemsa's and van Gieson's stains in collagen fibers ...

  2. Comparison between Giemsa and Van Geison stains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka

    2016-09-14

    Sep 14, 2016 ... Trichrome stain (such as Van Geison) is usually used in histopathology laboratory for demonstration of collagenic fibers. Lack of selectivity and tendency of stain to fade makes van Gieson not ideal for collagen demonstration. This study was aimed to compare between Giemsa's and van Gieson's stains.

  3. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  4. Stained Glass and Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-01

    Dr. Robert Webster, an Emeritus member of the Department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, discusses his cover art story on stained glass and influenza.  Created: 2/1/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/1/2017.

  5. Port-wine stain

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    ... About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Port-wine stain URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ...

  6. Multicenter Assessment of Gram Stain Error Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Linoj P; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Harrington, Amanda; Cavagnolo, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Gram stains remain the cornerstone of diagnostic testing in the microbiology laboratory for the guidance of empirical treatment prior to availability of culture results. Incorrectly interpreted Gram stains may adversely impact patient care, and yet there are no comprehensive studies that have evaluated the reliability of the technique and there are no established standards for performance. In this study, clinical microbiology laboratories at four major tertiary medical care centers evaluated Gram stain error rates across all nonblood specimen types by using standardized criteria. The study focused on several factors that primarily contribute to errors in the process, including poor specimen quality, smear preparation, and interpretation of the smears. The number of specimens during the evaluation period ranged from 976 to 1,864 specimens per site, and there were a total of 6,115 specimens. Gram stain results were discrepant from culture for 5% of all specimens. Fifty-eight percent of discrepant results were specimens with no organisms reported on Gram stain but significant growth on culture, while 42% of discrepant results had reported organisms on Gram stain that were not recovered in culture. Upon review of available slides, 24% (63/263) of discrepant results were due to reader error, which varied significantly based on site (9% to 45%). The Gram stain error rate also varied between sites, ranging from 0.4% to 2.7%. The data demonstrate a significant variability between laboratories in Gram stain performance and affirm the need for ongoing quality assessment by laboratories. Standardized monitoring of Gram stains is an essential quality control tool for laboratories and is necessary for the establishment of a quality benchmark across laboratories. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Ghost mycobacteria on Gram stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiro, S; Bourgault, A M; Lebel, F; René, P

    1990-01-01

    The Gram stain is a key tool in diagnostic microbiology. Its usefulness with respect to mycobacteria is undefined. The neutrality of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Gram staining of various clinical specimens is described. Images PMID:1688872

  8. Ghost mycobacteria on Gram stain.

    OpenAIRE

    Trifiro, S; Bourgault, A M; Lebel, F; René, P

    1990-01-01

    The Gram stain is a key tool in diagnostic microbiology. Its usefulness with respect to mycobacteria is undefined. The neutrality of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Gram staining of various clinical specimens is described.

  9. Gram stain of urethral discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urethral discharge Gram stain; Urethritis - Gram stain ... Augenbraun MH, McCormack WM. Urethritis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition . ...

  10. New Grocott Stain without Using Chromic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiogama, Kazuya; Kitazawa, Kayo; Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Onouchi, Takanori; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established a new “ecological” Grocott stain for demonstrating fungi, based upon a 4R principle of refusal, reduction, reuse, and recycle of waste management. Conventional Grocott stain employs environmentally harsh 5% chromic acid for oxidization. Initially, we succeeded in reducing the concentration of chromic acid from 5% to 1% by incubating the solution at 60°C and using five-fold diluted chromic acid solution at which point it was reusable. Eventually, we reached the refusal level where 1% periodic acid oxidization was efficient enough, when combined with preheating of sections in the electric jar, microwave oven, or pressure pan. For convenience sake, we recommend pressure pan heating in tap water for 10 min. Stainability of fungi in candidiasis and aspergillosis was comparable with conventional Grocott stain, while Mucor hyphae showed enhanced staining. The modified sequence was further applicable to detecting a variety of mycotic pathogens in paraffin sections. Our environmentally-friendly Grocott stain also has the advantage of avoiding risk of human exposure to hexavalent chromium solution in the histopathology laboratory. The simple stain sequence is can be easily applied worldwide

  11. Staining properties and stability of a standardised Romanowsky stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P N; Bentley, S A; Lewis, S M

    1978-03-01

    An evaluation of the standardised Romanowsky stain of Marshall et al. has been made in a routine haematology laboratory. It was noted that this stain had several advantages over the May-Grünwald Giemsa stain used in most British laboratories. These advantages include ease and speed of preparation, a shorter staining time, and reproducibility of results. These results are described in detail. The stability of the stock stain solution and of the 'working' stain (stock + buffer) has been studied by, respectively, thin-layer chromatography and visible spectroscopy. No change was detected in the composition of the stock solution at ambient temperature over a period of six months. Stability was unaffected by the composition of the container (polyethylene, PyrexTM, or soda-glass) or by daylight. The 'working' solution was stable for 3 hours. Thereafter a precipitate is formed, consisting of thiazine dyes and eosin in a molar ratio of approximately 2:1.

  12. Novel fusion proteins for the antigen-specific staining and elimination of B cell receptor-positive cell populations demonstrated by a tetanus toxoid fragment C (TTC) model antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Diana; Saunders, Ute; Barth, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer; Jacobi, Annett Marita; Nachreiner, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    In an earlier study we developed a unique strategy allowing us to specifically eliminate antigen-specific murine B cells via their distinct B cell receptors using a new class of fusion proteins. In the present work we elaborated our idea to demonstrate the feasibility of specifically addressing and eliminating human memory B cells. The present study reveals efficient adaptation of the general approach to selectively target and eradicate human memory B cells. In order to demonstrate the feasibility we engineered a fusion protein following the principle of recombinant immunotoxins by combining a model antigen (tetanus toxoid fragment C, TTC) for B cell receptor targeting and a truncated version of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA') to induce apoptosis after cellular uptake. The TTC-ETA' fusion protein not only selectively bound to a TTC-reactive murine B cell hybridoma cell line in vitro but also to freshly isolated human memory B cells from immunized donors ex vivo. Specific toxicity was confirmed on an antigen-specific population of human CD27(+) memory B cells. This protein engineering strategy can be used as a generalized platform approach for the construction of therapeutic fusion proteins with disease-relevant antigens as B cell receptor-binding domains, offering a promising approach for the specific depletion of autoreactive B-lymphocytes in B cell-driven autoimmune diseases.

  13. A new bacterial staining method involving Gram stain with theoretical considerations of the staining mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Y; Tôei, K

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of Gram staining of bacteria, tests with anionic dyes followed by treatment with cationic octyltrimethylammonium (OTMA) were carried out. The study revealed that tetrabromophenolphthalein ethylester (TBPE) gave the most reliable staining of Gram-negative bacteria with negative staining of Gram-positive bacteria. Tests on many species of bacteria showed that TBPE positive bacteria were Gram-negative and vice versa, without exception.

  14. Studies on the blue-staining fungi of pine wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Strzelczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this was were to examine associations of bule-staining fungi which occur on pine wood to determine the interactions between fungi and to check the suscebility of these fungi to commonly used fungieides. The stron antagonism of members of the Trichoderma genus against the blue-staining fungi was demonstrated, Members of genera Pullularia, Hormiscium and Hormodendrum were strongy inhibited by stains of Trichoderma Ophiostoma strains were less susceptible to inhibition by this antagonist.

  15. An evaluation of some commerical Romanowsky stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P N; Bentley, S A; Lewis, S M

    1975-08-01

    The staining properties of 43 commerical Romanowsky-type stains have been studied. Considerable differences in the appearance of stained blood films were observed with different batches of these stains, the staining of red cells being particularly variable. Attempts have been made to correlate staining patterns with stain composition as revealed by thin-layer chromatography and sulphated ash analyses. In this way it has been possible to define some essential requirements for satisfactory staining.

  16. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojilla, J. Carlo; Koester, Kimberly A.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP Demonstration Project to assess how men who have sex with men (MSM) used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was ‘seasonal’ and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts. PMID:25835463

  17. Lawsonia inermis And Hibiscus sabdariffa : Posible Histological Stains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of various concentrations of aqueous extracts of Lawsonia inermis and Hibiscus sabdariffa to stain histological tissues was demonstrated. The results with sections of tongue and kidney of the laboratory rat, cut at 6microns thickness showed that only the cellular cytoplasm was stained. However, combinations of ...

  18. Image-based stained glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    We present a method of restyling an image so that it approximates the visual appearance of a work of stained glass. To this end, we develop a novel approach which involves image warping, segmentation, querying, and colorization along with texture synthesis. In our method, a given input image is first segmented. Each segment is subsequently transformed to match real segments of stained glass queried from a database of image exemplars. By using real sources of stained glass, our method produces high quality results in this nascent area of nonphotorealistic rendering. The generation of the stained glass requires only modest amounts of user interaction. This interaction is facilitated with a unique region-merging tool.

  19. Refractile mycobacteria in Romanowsky-stained bone marrow smears. A comparison of acid-fast-stained tissue sections and Romanowsky-stained smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakovic, E; Clayton, F; Ames, E D

    1992-03-01

    The appearance of mycobacteria was studied in Wright-stained bone marrow preparations of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and compared with acid-fast-stained trephine biopsy sections and culture results. Mycobacterium avium complex in Romanowsky-stained preparations may be seen as extracellular and intracellular clear or red refractile beaded rods and nonrefractile "negative images." Refractile mycobacteria were seen in 17 of 20 culture-positive cases. Acid-fast stain of the trephine biopsy demonstrated organisms in only 11 of the 20 cases. Thus, six cases were culture positive and contained refractile rods but had no acid-fast organisms on the trephine biopsy. No false-positive results were seen with Romanowsky stain; the three false-negative results for refractility also were negative with acid-fast stain. Examination of Romanowsky-stained smears or imprints for refractile mycobacteria provides a reliable and sensitive method to identify mycobacteria in this population. Romanowsky-stained bone marrow aspirate and imprint smears should be examined for refractile bacilli when mycobacterial infection is suspected.

  20. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric assay to determine the viability of sperm cells for several mammalian species. It was the objective of the present study to visualize microscopically the location of the formazan in boar sperm cells. The MTT staining process of boar sperm cells can be divided into a series of morphological events. Incubation of the sperm cells in the presence of MTT resulted after a few min in a diffuse staining of the midpiece of the sperm cells. Upon further incubation the staining of the midpiece became more intense, and gradually the formation of packed formazan granules became more visible. At the same time, a small formazan stained granule appeared medially on the sperm head, which increased in size during further incubation. After incubation for about 1 h the midpiece granules were intensely stained and more clearly distinct as granules, while aggregation of sperm cells occurred. Around 90% of the sperm cells showed these staining events. At the end of the staining the formazan granules have disappeared from both the sperm cells and medium, whereas formazan crystals appeared as thin crystal threads, that became heavily aggregated in the incubation medium. It was concluded that formazan is taken up by lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. Further, the use of the MTT assay to test for sperm viability should be regarded as a qualitative assay, whereas its practical use at artificial insemination (AI Stations is limited.

  1. Technique and Feasibility of a Dual Staining Method for Estrogen Receptors and AgNORs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Günther

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A new staining method for dual demonstration of Estrogen receptors (ER and argyrophilc Nucleolus‐Organizer Regions (AgNORs was developed. To rule out possible reciprocal effects, serial slides of 10 invasive ductale breast cancers were stained with either the single staining method or the simultaneous ER/AgNOR‐staining method and investigated comparatively. By measuring the slides with the image analysis system AMBA, reciprocal effects could be excluded. It was proven that dual staining of both markers results in a reproducible and specific staining result. We concluded that it is justified to measure AgNORs in immunohistochemically stained cells.

  2. Salt stains from evaporating droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahidzadeh, N.; Schut, M.F.L.; Desarnaud, J.; Prat, M.; Bonn, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the behavior of sessile droplets on solid substrates is not only associated with common everyday phenomena, such as the coffee stain effect, limescale deposits on our bathroom walls, but also very important in many applications such as purification of pharmaceuticals, deicing of

  3. Etika Berbusana Mahasiswa Stain Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Suryani Wijaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is about behavior of human being, such as which one is right or wrong. The ethics is always affecting the human life. The ethics gives people orientation how he/she do manything every time every day. Islamic ethics consists of the way how someone interact each other; how someone should do or not to do, how to sit, how to walk, how to eat or drink, how to sleep, or how to get dressed. Al-Qur’an uses three terms to define about dressing, they are: libas, tsiyah, and sarahi. Dressing has a function as covering the body, as assessoris, as the way to do Islamic taqwa, and as an identiy. Dressing ethics of the female students of STAIN Samarinda has been regulated by the rector regulation No 19 of the year 2002 about relation and dressing ethics for the students of STAIN Samarinda.

  4. Microwave-stimulated staining of plastic embedded bone marrow sections with the Romanowsky-Giemsa stain: improved staining patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, M E; Kok, L P; Moorlag, H E; Gerrits, P O; Suurmeijer, A J

    1987-07-01

    Staining plastic sections with the Romanowsky-Giemsa method is both time-consuming and difficult. This paper reports how the staining time can be reduced to 25 min using microwave irradiation of the staining solution. It is shown that staining results depend on the fixative used, staining temperature, dye concentration and pH of the staining solution as well as on several parameters of the microwave irradiation technique. The staining patterns are improved when compared with those obtained by conventional staining of plastic sections. The colors are more brilliant and greater contrasts are observed. Basophilia, polychromasia, and orthochromasia accompanying red cell maturation are more pronounced. For white cell maturation the initial appearance of specific granules (neutrophil, basophil, and eosinophil) is more evident. Thus, cell classification is easily accomplished using the described technique. It is suggested that microwave-stimulated staining be considered for routine use.

  5. Standardization of the Romanowsky-Giemsa stain: the influence of staining time on the RG-staining pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, E

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the influence of staining time on the staining pattern of Romanowsky-Giemsa (RG) type stains is investigated. Smears of rabbit bone marrow and of human venous blood were stained with azure B-eosin Y, azure A-eosin Y and with the cationic dyes alone under varying conditions of staining time and dye concentration. The stained smears were investigated by integrating microdensitometry. DNA-polyacrylamide (PAA) model films were stained with azure A-eosin Y, the extinction of the stained model films was determined by spectrophotometry. With increasing staining time the color of the cell nuclei changed from blue to an intense purple, the texture of the nuclear chromatin became more prominent. Prolonged staining resulted in over-staining of the cell nuclei with loss of a distinct chromatin texture. Besides such factors as dye concentration and pH of the staining solution standardization of staining time may be considered necessary for the reproducibility of the RG staining pattern.

  6. DNA Comet Giemsa Staining for Conventional Bright-Field Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreyan Osipov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977. The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2-fold higher slope coefficient (method sensitivity compared to the Giemsa results. The unexpectedly high sensitivity of Giemsa staining for the comet assay is due to the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect, the stain photo-stability and the higher resolution of bright-field imaging compared to fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that Giemsa staining can effectively be used for measuring DNA damage by the comet assay. The low cost and availability of Giemsa stain makes this method affordable for any low budget research and will facilitate new applications of the comet assay in biology and medicine.

  7. DNA Comet Giemsa Staining for Conventional Bright-Field Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Andreyan; Arkhangelskaya, Ekaterina; Vinokurov, Alexei; Smetanina, Nadezhda; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Klokov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977). The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2-fold higher slope coefficient (method sensitivity) compared to the Giemsa results. The unexpectedly high sensitivity of Giemsa staining for the comet assay is due to the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect, the stain photo-stability and the higher resolution of bright-field imaging compared to fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that Giemsa staining can effectively be used for measuring DNA damage by the comet assay. The low cost and availability of Giemsa stain makes this method affordable for any low budget research and will facilitate new applications of the comet assay in biology and medicine. PMID:24727376

  8. LANTHANUM STAINING OF THE SURFACE COAT OF CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Stephen M.

    1971-01-01

    Among the techniques which have been reported to stain the surface coat of cells, for electron microscopy, is lanthanum staining en bloc. Similarly, the presence of the cationic dye, Alcian blue 8GX, in a primary glutaraldehyde fixative has been reported to improve the preservation of the surface coat of cells of many types; however, the preserved coat is not very electron opaque unless thin sections are counterstained. The present paper shows that for several rat tissues lanthanum staining en bloc is an effective electron stain for the cell surface, giving excellent contrast, if combined sequentially with prefixation in an aldehyde fixative containing Alcian blue. The cationic substance cetylpyridinium chloride was found to have a similar effect to that of Alcian blue in enhancing the lanthanum staining of the surface coat material of the brush border of intestinal epithelial cells. The patterns of lanthanum staining obtained for the tissues studied strikingly resemble those reported in the literature where tissues are stained by several standard methods for demonstrating mucosubstances at the ultrastructural level. This fact and the reproduction of the effect of Alcian blue by cetylpyridinium chloride constitute a persuasive empirical argument that the material visualized is a mucopolysaccharide or mucopolysaccharide-protein complex. PMID:4108476

  9. Accelerated staining technique using kitchen microwave oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Mukunda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Histopathological diagnosis of specimens is greatly dependent on good sample preparation and staining. Both of these processes is governed by diffusion of fluids and dyes in and out of the tissue, which is the key to staining. Diffusion of fluids can be accelerated by the application of heat that reduces the time of staining from hours to the minute. We modified an inexpensive model of kitchen microwave oven for staining. This study is an attempt to compare the reliability of this modified technique against the tested technique of routine staining so as to establish the kitchen microwave oven as a valuable diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: Sixty different tissue blocks were used to prepare 20 pairs of slides for 4 different stains namely hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson′s, 0.1% toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff. From each tissue block, two bits of tissues were mounted on two different slides. One slide was stained routinely, and the other stained inside a microwave. A pathologist evaluated the stained slides and the results so obtained were analyzed statistically. Results: Microwave staining considerably cut down the staining time from hours to seconds. Microwave staining showed no loss of cellular and nuclear details, uniform-staining characteristics and was of excellent quality. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cellular details, nuclear details and staining characteristics of microwave stained tissues were better than or equal to the routine stained tissue. The overall quality of microwave-stained sections was found to be better than the routine stained tissue in majority of cases.

  10. Microdissection of stained archival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Douglas-Jones, A G; Morgan, J M

    1997-08-01

    In many tissues the preinvasive stage of neoplastic progression can be identified histologically as dysplasia or in situ disease. There is much interest in defining the molecular events associated with the early stages of neoplasia. Retrieval of histologically recognisable preinvasive neoplastic tissue uncontaminated by inflammatory or stromal cells is important for genetic studies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. A novel method for microdissection is described in which 10 microns sections are dewaxed, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, dried, covered with Sellotape, and the tissue cut out using a scalpel blade under direct visual control. The method is quick, eliminates problems of operator tremor, preserves the architecture of the micro-dissected tissue (for photographic documentation) and requires no special equipment. The presence of Sellotape and adhesive in the reaction mixture has no detrimental effect on the ability to extract DNA or to perform PCR.

  11. [Diagnostic stain of helminth eggs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L

    1976-12-01

    A description is given of a diagnostic method for the staining of eggs and larvae of intestinal helminth in smears of both fresh and fixed stool samples. The contents of the eggs and larvae stain red, the background various shades of blue. The most contrasting staining was obtained with thin-walled eggs.

  12. The value of intraoperative Gram stain in revision spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Grant D; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Bjerke-Kroll, Benjamin T; Kueper, Janina; Koltsov, Jayme B; Sama, Andrew A; Girardi, Federico P; Cammisa, Frank P; Hughes, Alexander P

    2015-10-01

    diagnosis (total cost/number discrepant) was $172.10. This study demonstrates that while very specific for infection, the sensitivity of intraoperative Gram staining is low, and agreement between positive cultures and Gram stains is very poor. Gram staining demonstrated limited cost-effectiveness because of the low prevalence of findings that altered patient management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Standardization of Romanowsky stains. The relationship between stain composition and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P N; Bentley, S A; Lewis, S M

    1978-03-01

    A panel of 17 eminent haematologists has assessed the performance of 5 Romanowsky stains prepared from pure component dyes, comparing the suitability and acceptability of these stains for the preparation of routine blood and bone-marrow films. It was found that the results obtained using the stain described by Marshall et al (1975) were comparable to those obtained using a modification of the stain described by Wittekind et al (1976). The performance of the 3 other stains was less acceptable. Variations in stain formulation have been correlated with stain performance.

  14. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of cultured neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbierato, Massimo; Argentini, Carla; Skaper, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Immunofluorescence is a technique allowing the visualization of a specific protein or antigen in cells or tissue sections by binding a specific antibody chemically conjugated with a fluorescent dye such as fluorescein isothiocyanate. There are two major types of immunofluorescence staining methods: (1) direct immunofluorescence staining in which the primary antibody is labeled with fluorescence dye and (2) indirect immunofluorescence staining in which a secondary antibody labeled with fluorochrome is used to recognize a primary antibody. This chapter describes procedures for the application of indirect immunofluorescence staining to neural cells in culture.

  15. Stain-free histopathology by programmable supercontinuum pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; Liu, Yuan; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Marjanovic, Marina; Lyngsø, Jens K.; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Chaney, Eric J.; Zhao, Youbo; You, Sixian; Wilson, William L.; Xu, Bingwei; Dantus, Marcos; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-08-01

    The preparation, staining, visualization and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods have a long history of development, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time- and labour-intensive. Here, we introduce a unique optical imaging platform and methodology for label-free multimodal multiphoton microscopy that uses a novel photonic-crystal fibre source to generate tailored chemical contrast based on programmable supercontinuum pulses. We demonstrate the collection of optical signatures of the tumour microenvironment, including evidence of mesoscopic biological organization, tumour cell migration and (lymph-) angiogenesis collected directly from fresh ex vivo mammary tissue. Acquisition of these optical signatures and other cellular or extracellular features, which are largely absent from histologically processed and stained tissue, combined with an adaptable platform for optical alignment-free programmable-contrast imaging, offers the potential to translate stain-free molecular histopathology into routine clinical use.

  16. A novel contrast stain for the rapid diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor: A comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B stain, potassium hydroxide mount and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Lodha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1 KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2 culture using Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen′s Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%, 92 (92% and 56 (56% patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%. Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001. Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001 as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107. Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  17. A Novel Contrast Stain for the Rapid Diagnosis of Pityriasis Versicolor: A Comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B Stain, Potassium Hydroxide Mount and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Nikita; Poojary, Shital Amin

    2015-01-01

    The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB) is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain) with KOH mount and culture. Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1) KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2) culture using Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen's Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement) among the different modalities. Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%), 92 (92%) and 56 (56%) patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%). Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001). Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001) as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107). CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  18. Hyperspectral imaging of the crime scene for detection and identification of blood stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, G. J.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Aalders, M. C. G.

    2013-05-01

    Blood stains are an important source of information in forensic investigations. Extraction of DNA may lead to the identification of victims or suspects, while the blood stain pattern may reveal useful information for the reconstruction of a crime. Consequently, techniques for the detection and identification of blood stains are ideally non-destructive in order not to hamper both DNA and the blood stain pattern analysis. Currently, forensic investigators mainly detect and identify blood stains using chemical or optical methods, which are often either destructive or subject to human interpretation. We demonstrated the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging of the crime scene to detect and identify blood stains remotely. Blood stains outside the human body comprise the main chromophores oxy-hemoglobin, methemoglobin and hemichrome. Consequently, the reflectance spectra of blood stains are influenced by the composite of the optical properties of the individual chromophores and the substrate. Using the coefficient of determination between a non-linear least squares multi-component fit and the measured spectra blood stains were successfully distinguished from other substances visually resembling blood (e.g. ketchup, red wine and lip stick) with a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 85 %. The practical applicability of this technique was demonstrated at a mock crime scene, where blood stains were successfully identified automatically.

  19. Intrapartum amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, J; Matchaba, P; Payne, A J

    1998-01-01

    Intrapartum amnioinfusion (AI) has been reported to decrease perinatal mortality and morbidity in women with meconium-stained liquor. Such work has not previously been performed at King Edward VIII Hospital (KEH), in a developing country, where the incidence of meconium-stained liquor is said to be extremely high. To establish whether AI during the intrapartum period for meconium-stained liquor decreases Caesarean section rates for fetal distress and decreases perinatal morbidity. Informed consent was obtained from patients in labour who were 3-8 cm dilated, with meconium-staining of the liquor, grades I to III inclusive, and who had a normal cardiotocograph on presentation at term. Sixty patients were included in the trial; 30 had AI. The control group was managed by standard methods. The study group had an amnioinfusion of 0.9% normal saline at 15 ml/min under continuous cardiotocographic monitoring, until a volume of 11 was completed. This was repeated if delivery did not occur within 4 h. The mean pH of umbilical arterial blood was significantly higher in the AI group (7.30 versus 7.23; P = 0.0029). In addition fewer patients in this group developed hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (0 versus 2 controls) or meconium aspiration syndrome (1 versus 4 controls). This was not statistically significant. Caesarean section for fetal distress was performed on fewer patients in the AI group (3 versus 7 controls), although this was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that amnioinfusion is an effective technique for improving the perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated by meconium-stained liquor in labour. The decrease in Caesarean sections for fetal distress, though not statistically significant in this study, has clinical relevance. Furthermore, this study suggests that amnioinfusion is cost effective in a busy, high-risk labour ward unit and consequently should become standard practice in the management of meconium-stained liquor in labour.

  20. Purified azure B as a reticulocyte stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P N; Bentley, S A; Lewis, S M

    1976-01-01

    A comparison has been made between reticulocyte preparations stained with purified azure B and with several commerically available batches of brilliant cresyl blue and new methylene blue. Marked variations were observed in the composition and staining performances of the various batches of the two commerically available dyes. Although there were no significant differences in reticulocyte counts obtained with these two dyes, varying amounts of an extraneous, particulate dye deposit were present in these preparations, making accuracte counting both tedious and timeconsuming. Purified azure B, on the other hand, gave reproducibly stained, deposit-free preparations. Reticulocyte counts obtained from azure B preparations correlated almost exactly with those determined using new methylene blue. Purified azure B is therefore recommended as a convenient reticulocyte stain for routine use. Images PMID:64475

  1. Research on pre-staining gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Ruibo; Liu Yushuang; Zhang Ping; Liu Jingran; Zhao Guofen; Zhang Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gel electrophoresis is a powerful biochemical separation technique. Most biological molecules are completely transparent in the visible region of light, so it is necessary to use staining to show the results after gel electrophoresis, and the general steps of conventional staining methods are time-consuming. Purpose: We try to develop a novel approach to simplify the gel electrophoresis: Pre-Staining Gel Electrophoresis (PSGE), which can make the gel electrophoresis results monitored in real time. Methods: Pre-stain the protein samples with Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) for 30 min before loading the sample into the gel well. Results and Conclusion: PSGE can be successfully used to analyze the binding efficiency of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and amphiphilic polymer via chemical coupling and physical absorption, and the double PSGE also shows a great potential in bio-analytical chemistry. (authors)

  2. Gram's Stain Does Not Cross the Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Michael J; Sheffield, Joel B; Sharifian Gh, Mohammad; Wu, Yajing; Spahr, Christian; Gonella, Grazia; Xu, Bolei; Dai, Hai-Lung

    2015-07-17

    For well over a century, Hans Christian Gram's famous staining protocol has been the standard go-to diagnostic for characterizing unknown bacteria. Despite continuous and ubiquitous use, we now demonstrate that the current understanding of the molecular mechanism for this differential stain is largely incorrect. Using the fully complementary time-resolved methods: second-harmonic light-scattering and bright-field transmission microscopy, we present a real-time and membrane specific quantitative characterization of the bacterial uptake of crystal-violet (CV), the dye used in Gram's protocol. Our observations contradict the currently accepted mechanism which depicts that, for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, CV readily traverses the peptidoglycan mesh (PM) and cytoplasmic membrane (CM) before equilibrating within the cytosol. We find that not only is CV unable to traverse the CM but, on the time-scale of the Gram-stain procedure, CV is kinetically trapped within the PM. Our results indicate that CV, rather than dyes which rapidly traverse the PM, is uniquely suited as the Gram stain.

  3. Stain Removal Assessment of Two Manual Toothbrushes with an Interproximal Tooth Stain Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Svetlana; Grender, Julie M; Terézhalmy, Geza; Archila, Luis R

    2015-01-01

    To assess a newly developed index to measure interproximal stain and evaluate the stain removal efficacy of two commercially available manual toothbrushes. This was a randomized, examiner-blind, parallel-group, two-treatment clinical trial of two weeks' duration. Subjects qualified for the study if they had an average Modified Lobene Stain Index of ≥ 1.5 from two anterior teeth. At baseline, subjects brushed in front of a mirror for one minute under supervision. All subjects were provided with a standard 0.243% sodium fluoride dentifrice and were randomly assigned either an Oral-B Pulsar manual brush (OBP) or a Colgate Whitening manual brush (CW) to use for two weeks. Stain was reassessed after two weeks of product use. Stain measurements were conducted using the Modified Lobene Stain Index and the new Interproximal Modified Lobene Stain Index, which allows for assessment of stain in hard-to-reach areas using the same area and intensity scales as the Modified Lobene Stain Index. Use of the two manual brushes resulted in statistically significant reductions in surface stain relative to baseline after two weeks of use. Median stain reductions were 78% and 60% for the OBP and CW, respectively, as measured by the Modified Lobene Stain Index. The mean changes in the composite scores from baseline to week two were 1.85 and 1.57 for the two treatment groups, respectively. Statistically significant reductions from baseline were also found for the intensity and extent of stain measures (p brush and 83% reduction with the CW brush. For the gingival sites, the median stain removal percentages were 83% and 50%, respectively For the body region, a median stain removal of 100% was found for both treatment groups. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups for the mean composite scores for either index. Both manual brushes showed effective stain removal, including interproximal hard-to-reach sites. The Interproximal Modified Lobene Stain Index

  4. Simulation of color of port wine stain skin and its dependence on skin variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkruysse, W.; Lucassen, G. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    The understanding of why Port Wine Stain (PWS) skin is redder and darker as compared to normal skin has so far been based on qualitative analysis. This study aims at quantitatively analyzing the influence of skin anatomy variables on perceived skin color. Reflectance spectra for visible light from

  5. Lugol staining for esophageal carcinoma and influence of radiotherapy on it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Hideo; Adachi, Wataru; Koike, Shoichiro; Koide, Naohiko; Iida, Futoshi

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the endoscopic staining of esophageal carcinoma with lugol solution, 50 patients who underwent esophagectomy for carcinoma were subjected to this study. Among the 50 patients, 21 received irradiation before surgery. The findings of the lugol staining were compared between endoscopic staining and staining on removed specimens. Non-staining area demonstrated by endoscopic procedure almost agreed with that by the procedure on removed specimen in the non-irradiated group, but both areas of 28.6% cases disagreed in the irradiated group. The extent of non-staining area demonstrated by the procedure of removed specimen was compared with histological extent of carcinoma. The non-staining area on the removed specimen was more extended than histological extent of carcinoma; 10.3% in the non-irradiated group and 71.4% in the irradiated group. As one of the causes of the large non-corresponding rate in the irradiated group, radiation esophagitis was demonstrated. It can be finally concluded that the reliability of endoscopic lugol staining is reduced by preoperative irradiation. (author)

  6. Potential Value of YAP Staining in Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Atif A; Habeebu, Sultan S; Sherman, Ashley K; Ye, Shui Q; Wood, Nicole; Chastain, Katherine M; Tsokos, Maria G

    2018-03-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a common malignancy of soft tissue, subclassified as alveolar (ARMS), pleomorphic (PRMS), spindle cell/sclerosing (SRMS), and embryonal (ERMS) types. The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a member of the Hippo pathway and a transcriptional regulator that controls cell proliferation. We have studied the immunohistochemical expression of YAP in different RMSs, arranged in tissue microarray (TMA) and whole slide formats. Pertinent clinical data including patient age, gender, tumor location, and clinical stage were collected. Out of 96 TMA cases, 30 cases (31%) were pleomorphic, 27 (28%) were embryonal, 24 (25%) alveolar, and 15 (16%) spindle cell. Positive nuclear YAP staining was seen in the PRMS (17/30, 56.7%), SRMS (7/15, 46.7%), ERMS (19/27 or 70%), and less in ARMS (37.5%). YAP nuclear staining was significantly more prevalent in ERMS than ARMS ( p=0.02). Of the 41 whole slide cases, nuclear staining was detected in all ARMS but was restricted in distribution to 30% staining. These results highlight the role of YAP in RMS tumorigenesis, a fact that can be useful in engineering targeted therapy. Restricted nuclear YAP staining (<30% of cells) may be of value in the diagnosis of ARMS.

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  9. Adversarial Stain Transfer for Histopathology Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentaieb, Aicha; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2018-03-01

    It is generally recognized that color information is central to the automatic and visual analysis of histopathology tissue slides. In practice, pathologists rely on color, which reflects the presence of specific tissue components, to establish a diagnosis. Similarly, automatic histopathology image analysis algorithms rely on color or intensity measures to extract tissue features. With the increasing access to digitized histopathology images, color variation and its implications have become a critical issue. These variations are the result of not only a variety of factors involved in the preparation of tissue slides but also in the digitization process itself. Consequently, different strategies have been proposed to alleviate stain-related tissue inconsistencies in automatic image analysis systems. Such techniques generally rely on collecting color statistics to perform color matching across images. In this work, we propose a different approach for stain normalization that we refer to as stain transfer. We design a discriminative image analysis model equipped with a stain normalization component that transfers stains across datasets. Our model comprises a generative network that learns data set-specific staining properties and image-specific color transformations as well as a task-specific network (e.g., classifier or segmentation network). The model is trained end-to-end using a multi-objective cost function. We evaluate the proposed approach in the context of automatic histopathology image analysis on three data sets and two different analysis tasks: tissue segmentation and classification. The proposed method achieves superior results in terms of accuracy and quality of normalized images compared to various baselines.

  10. Validation of Romanowsky staining as a novel screening test for the detection of faecal cryptosporidial oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, A P S; Sood, N K; Singla, L D; Kaur, P; Gupta, K; Sandhu, B S

    2017-03-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne protozoan disease and one of the major causes of neonatal diarrhea in humans and animals. But the disease remains under diagnosed due to lack of availability of special stains in majority of laboratories at primary health centers. Therefore, it requires a rapid screening test for routine diagnosis in conventional laboratory set up. In this pursuit, the present study was planned. During this study, fecal samples from 100 representative animals randomly selected from 17 out breaks of bovine calf diarrhea, were stained with modified Ziehl Neelsen staining (mZN) and Leishman's stain to demonstrate cryptosporidial oocysts and for routine fecal examination, respectively. By mZN staining, 25 cases confirmed the presence of cryptosporidial oocysts. However, examination of Leishman's stained fecal smears revealed round hollow unstained bodies resembling cryptosporidia in 20 cases. Therefore, a comparative morphometric analysis was made between the two techniques to determine their relative efficacy in demonstrating cryptosporidia in the feces of affected animals. The analyses showed that the Leishman's stain can be effective in making a presumptive diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis with a little experience. Confirmation of cryptosporidiosis was done by histopathological examination of intestinal sections of calves died during these out breaks. The findings appear to have great clinical value for routine laboratory screening of fecal samples for cryptosporidiosis as conventional Romanowsky stains are readily available and used for multipurpose examination in most of the laboratories at grass root level. Perusal of literature proved this to be the first attempt at easy diagnostics for cryptosporidiosis.

  11. Detection Of Concrete Deterioration By Staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Jr., George D.; Carey, J. William

    1999-09-21

    A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobaltinitrite and a rhodamine dye is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR), and to identify degraded concrete which results in a porous or semi-permeable paste due to carbonation or leaching. These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na--K--Ca--Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca--Si gels are identified by pink staining.

  12. News from the biological stain commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiernan, J.A.; Lyon, Hans Oluf

    2008-01-01

    In the three earlier editions of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of "Regulatory affairs," the BSC's International Affairs Committee reported on the work of Technical Committee 212, Clinical Laboratory Testing and in Vitro Diagnostic Test Systems of the Internati......In the three earlier editions of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of "Regulatory affairs," the BSC's International Affairs Committee reported on the work of Technical Committee 212, Clinical Laboratory Testing and in Vitro Diagnostic Test Systems...

  13. Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudiger, Christian W; Pfannl, Rolf; Orringer, Daniel A; Saar, Brian G; Ji, Minbiao; Zeng, Qing; Ottoboni, Linda; Wei, Ying; Ying, Wei; Waeber, Christian; Sims, John R; De Jager, Philip L; Sagher, Oren; Philbert, Martin A; Xu, Xiaoyin; Kesari, Santosh; Xie, X Sunney; Young, Geoffrey S

    2012-10-01

    Conventional histopathology with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) has been the gold standard for histopathological diagnosis of a wide range of diseases. However, it is not performed in vivo and requires thin tissue sections obtained after tissue biopsy, which carries risk, particularly in the central nervous system. Here we describe the development of an alternative, multicolored way to visualize tissue in real-time through the use of coherent Raman imaging (CRI), without the use of dyes. CRI relies on intrinsic chemical contrast based on vibrational properties of molecules and intrinsic optical sectioning by nonlinear excitation. We demonstrate that multicolor images originating from CH(2) and CH(3) vibrations of lipids and protein, as well as two-photon absorption of hemoglobin, can be obtained with subcellular resolution from fresh tissue. These stain-free histopathological images show resolutions similar to those obtained by conventional techniques, but do not require tissue fixation, sectioning or staining of the tissue analyzed.

  14. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia developing within a port wine stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Robert N; Itinteang, Tinte; de Jong, Sophie; Brasch, Helen D; Tan, Swee T

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old male with a port wine stain on the base of his neck presented with a 5-month history of gradual thickening of the involved skin which interfered with clothing and caused repeated bleeding. The lesion was excised and histopathologic examination revealed angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) arising from the pre-existing port wine stain - a rare finding with only one previously reported case. Additionally the lesion was associated with elevated serum renin levels which virtually normalized following excision of the lesion. We further demonstrated the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptors 1 and 2 by the lesion and discuss the possible role of the renin-angiotensin system in this condition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Identification of Cyclospora cayetanensis in stool using different stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, A Y

    1998-08-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis, a newly emerging coccidian protozoa is world-wide in distribution. In the present study, different concentrations and staining techniques were used for identification of Cyclospora. Formol-ether sedimentation and Sheather's sugar flotation were used as concentration techniques and the different stains used were: the modified Ziehl-Neelsen, Giemsa, safranin-methylene blue, modifications of trichrome stain, calcoflour white and finally phenol-auramine. The safranin stain was the best, as it stained all the oocysts of Cyclospora uniformly, besides being rapid and easily applicable in the laboratories. Phenol-auramine stained the oocysts well, where both the wall and internal contents fluoresced brightly. With the calcoflour white stain, only the wall of oocysts took that fluorescent stain. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained some of the oocysts well, yet great variability in the staining pattern was noticed. Cyclospora oocysts were not efficiently stained with either trichrome modifications or Giemsa stains.

  16. Photoacoustic imaging of port-wine stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Roy G. M.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: PAI uses pulsed

  17. Photoacoustic Imaging of Port-Wine Stains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Mulder, M.J.; Mulder, Miranda J.; Glade, Conrad P.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective: To optimize laser therapy of port-wine stains (PWSs), information about the vasculature as well as lesion depth is valuable. In this study we investigated the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) to obtain this information. - Study Design/Materials and Methods: PAI uses

  18. A comparative assessment of commonly employed staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following an increase in the number of reports of Cryptosporidium infections and the problems encountered in detecting these organisms in faecal smears, a comparative assessment of a modification of the Sheather's flotation technique and other commonly employed staining procedures proved the modified Sheather's ...

  19. A comparative assessment of commonly employed staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-16

    Mar 16, 1991 ... methylene blue;8 fluorescence (auramine-phenoI9 and direct immunofluorescence1o. • ll. ); negative staining (periodic acid-. Schiff12. ); and flotation (Sheather's ..... using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Pediatr Infect Dis 1986; 5: 139-142. 12. Horen WP. Detection of Cryptosporidium in human faecal ...

  20. The Language of Stained-Glass Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Charl Anne

    2010-01-01

    The splendor and beauty of stained glass punctuates any room. In this article, the author describes a cross-curriculum project which incorporated the French classes' research and written study of France in the Middle Ages. For the project the author suggested Sainte-Chapelle which is considered a reliquary and was built by Louis IX to house the…

  1. Corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Slomovic, Allan R.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to report a case of corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline. METHODS: A patient with crystalline keratopathy caused by Streptococcus viridans after corneal transplantation was treated topically with tetracycline eye drops, based on results of

  2. Comparison of routine urinalysis and urine Gram stain for detection of bacteriuria in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Leilani Ireland; Sullivan, Lauren A; Johnson, Valerie; Morley, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    To determine the utility of performing urine Gram stain for detection of bacteriuria compared to routine urine sediment examination and bacterial aerobic urine culture. Prospective, observational study. University teaching hospital. Urine samples acquired via cystocentesis through convenience sampling from 103 dogs presenting to a tertiary referral institution. All samples underwent routine urinalysis, including sediment examination, as well as urine Gram stain and quantitative bacterial aerobic urine culture. The urine Gram stain demonstrated improved sensitivity (96% versus 76%), specificity (100% versus 77%), positive predictive value (100% versus 83%), and negative predictive value (93% versus 69%) when identifying bacteriuria, compared to routine urine sediment examination. The urine Gram stain is highly sensitive and specific when detecting the presence of bacteria in canine urine samples. Gram staining should be considered when bacteriuria is highly suspected and requires rapid identification while bacterial culture is pending. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  3. Romanowsky staining, the Romanowsky effect and thoughts on the question of scientific priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukov, A V

    2017-01-01

    I give an historical account and analysis of the scientific priority of the discovery of the polychrome staining of microscopic biological preparations provided by mixtures of eosin plus methylene blue and its derivatives, especially azure B. I maintain that both the formal priority for the discovery of the polychrome staining phenomenon and credit for initiating the development of a technique of polychrome staining properly belong to D. L. Romanowsky. His scientific work demonstrated the possibility of using a simple technique to stain hematological preparations selectively to give good contrast, high resolution and the ability to identify malaria parasites. Romanowsky's approach constituted the starting point for the development of a family of polychrome stains for microscopic investigation of hematological preparations by a number of his contemporaries.

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  6. Proposal of a simplified technique for staining bacterial spores without applying heat--successful modification of Moeller's method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, M; Oana, K; Kozakai, T; Umeda, S; Fujimoto, J; Ota, H; Kawakami, Y

    2007-08-16

    As the bacterial spores are difficult to stain, a number of staining techniques including their modifications have been proposed to date. Most of the conventional staining procedures unexceptionally contain the step of staining with steamed dye reagent in order to increase the stainability of the spores. We made an attempt to improve the conventional Moeller's methods for staining bacterial spores. Spores of Bacillus species were stained with our modified Moeller's spore stain and evaluated for its staining properties. We investigated the stainability of both of the conventional and the modified Moeller's methods and the evaluation was made whether or not the step of steaming of Kinyoun's carbol-fuchsine dye reagent could be omitted by adding to aliquots of Tergitol 7, in place of the conventional dye solution steamed for some interval over hot blue flame of a Bunsen burner. We successfully omitted the heating step of steaming the Kinyoun's carbol fuchsine dye solution in the Moeller's method of bacterial spore stain, by the replacement of Kinyoun's carbol-fuchsine dye solution involving 2 drops of Tergitol 7, nonionic polyglycol ether surfactants type NP-7 (Sigma-Aldrich Japan, Tokyo, Japan) per 10 ml of Kinyoun's carbol-fuchsine dye solution. Bacillus spores stained pink to red and vegetative bacterial cells stained blue, although without applying any heating step during the whole course of staining processes including the fixation process. The novel staining method of our proposal resulted in far better satisfactory stainability in comparison with the conventional Moeller's method with the steaming dye solution. The modified spore stain without applying any heating step using the Kinyoun's carbol-fuchsine dye solution with an addition of Tergitol 7 aliquots was demonstrated to be reproducible and yielded consistent and satisfactory stainability. This simplified staining procedure is rapid to perform and found to be applicable to detect the bacterial spores in

  7. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of...

  8. Laser Treatment of Port Wine Stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J. Stuart

    Port wine stain (PWS), also called nevus flammeus, is a congenital, cutaneous vascular malformation involving post-capillary venules which produce a light pink to red to dark-red-violet discoloration of human skin [1]. PWS occurs in an estimated 3 children per 1000 live births, affecting males and females and all racial groups equally [2]. There appears to be no hereditary predilection for PWS within families. There are no known risk factors or ways to prevent PWS.

  9. Diagnosis of Blastocystis hominis by different staining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, A M

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and fifty stool samples were collected from diarrheic patients of different ages, and examined for Blastocystis hominis by direct smears and concentrated by Sheather's sugar flotation. Staining was done by: Giemsa, two modifications of trichrome stain, modified Ziehl-Neelsen, safranin-methylene blue and two-auramine stains. Out of the 150 cases nine were positive for blastocystosis. The best stains were safranin-methylene blue and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. They had the advantage of staining cysts and amoeboid forms besides being rapid and easy to perform. The modified trichrome stains identified 8 ie, less specific and were time consuming. The auramine dyes stained the cyst, both the wall and internal body fluoresced brightly. Giemsa stain was not an efficient stain. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) were performed to study the fine ultrastructure.

  10. Combined epiretinal and internal limiting membrane peeling facilitated by high dilution indocyanine green negative staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M Kaehr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the utilization of indocyanine green (ICG dye to facilitate combined/en bloc removal of epiretinal membranes (ERM along with internal limiting membranes (ILM. The method utilizes a highly diluted preparation of ICG in dextrose water solvent (D5W. Elimination of fluid air exchange step facilitating staining in the fluid phase and low intensity lighting help minimize potential ICG toxicity. The technique demonstrates how ICG facilitates negative staining of ERMs and how ILM peeling concomitantly can allow complete and efficient ERM removal minimizing surgical time and the necessity for dual or sequential staining.

  11. The Role of Hemiwicking on the Shape of a Blood Drop Stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Samira; Martin, Kenneth; Bird, James

    2017-11-01

    Blood pattern analysis (BPA) typically assumes that an elliptical stain is due to oblique drop impact. From the eccentricity of the elliptical stain - while also accounting for gravity and drag - the source and trajectory of the blood drops can be estimated. Yet, these models generally neglect any fluid motion following impact that could influence the shape of the stain. Here we demonstrate that under certain conditions on certain materials, a blood drop will undergo anisotropic hemiwicking. Through systemic experiments and modeling, we aim to better understand this phenomenon with the goal of ultimately decreasing the uncertainty in crime scene reconstruction.

  12. Demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of some of the projects in Canada planned to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of processes using waste heat. Most of the studies are in the planning stage; few field demonstrations are yet in operation in any of the three arbitrary categories of waste heat - high-grade heat (100-200 deg C), medium-grade heat (30-100 deg C), and low-grade heat (below 30 deg C). The survey indicates that, while there is long-term potential in several of the approaches, the time has arrived to start finding some hard facts. (author)

  13. Microspectrophotometric studies of Romanowsky stained blood cells. II. Comparison of the performance of two standardized stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, P N; Galbraith, W; Navarro, E F; Bacus, J W

    1981-11-01

    This paper describes a comparison of the performance of two standardized Romanowsky blood stains, namely those of Marshall et al. and Wittekind et al., both containing azure B and eosin alone. Stain performance is assessed objectively by the use of three complementary techniques, all based on the visible absorbance spectra of stained cellular substrates. The first of these techniques is a simple comparison of the shapes and heights of the absorbance spectra. The second technique uses the CIE Colorimetric System, and thus permits the quantitation of colour in a manner that agrees with human observation. CIE co-ordinates (chromaticity points, luminance) are calculated directly from absorbance spectra. The third technique is that of spectral subtraction, which yields a set of factors which describe the quantities of component dyes which are bound by the object. This technique, unlike the other two, requires a priori knowledge of the dyes used in the stains, and their spectra when bound to cellular substrates. Although the differences between the two methods are subtle, and hard for the subjective observer to define, the objective methods described here do show statistically significant differences. Wittekind's stain produces less intense staining, except for lymphocyte and monocyte cytoplasms. To the human eye, the differential coloration of these two substrates is more pronounced, but the difference between all nuclei and cytoplasm is less marked. The major difference in the uptake of dye components is in the small quantities of eosin dimer that are bound in this technique.

  14. Comparison of methylene blue/gentian violet stain to Gram's stain for the rapid diagnosis of gonococcal urethritis in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie N; DiCarlo, Richard P; Martin, David H

    2011-11-01

    We compared a simple, one-step staining procedure using a mixture of methylene blue and gentian violet to Gram stain for the detection of gonococcal urethritis. The sensitivity and specificity of both Gram stain and methylene blue/gentian violet stain were 97.3% and 99.6%, respectively. There was a 100% correlation between the 2 methods.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate Extrinsic Stain Removal of a Whitening Dentifrice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terézhalmy, Géza; He, Tao; Anastasia, Mary Kay; Eusebio, Rachelle

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the extrinsic stain removal efficacy of a new whitening dentifrice containing sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) over a two-week period. This study used a controlled and randomized, examiner-blind, single-center, two-treatment, parallel group design. Subjects with visible extrinsic dental stain on facial surfaces of their anterior teeth, and meeting all study criteria, were entered into the trial. The test group received the whitening dentifrice with sodium fluoride and SHMP and an ADA reference soft manual toothbrush. Subjects in the control group received a dental prophylaxis after the initial examination at Baseline and were instructed to use their usual oral hygiene products at home. Subjects returned at Day 3 and Week 2 for re-evaluation of extrinsic dental stain. Extrinsic stain was measured using the Interproximal Modified Lobene (IML) Stain Index; safety was assessed based on clinical examination. Fifty subjects (mean age 32.0 years) completed the study, with 25 in each group. Statistically significant reductions in composite stain for whole tooth, as well as interproximal, gingival, and body surfaces were observed for both groups at Day 3 and Week 2 (p 0.3). At Day 3, median percent reductions in composite IML stain from Baseline were 98% for the prophylaxis group and 100% for the test dentifrice group. At Week 2, median percent reductions in composite IML stain were 100% compared to Baseline for both groups. No adverse events were reported for either group. The whitening dentifrice demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in IML stain after three days and two weeks of use relative to baseline. Stain reduction with the toothpaste was comparable to a dental prophylaxis.

  16. Should gram stains have a role in diagnosing hip arthroplasty infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron J; Zywiel, Michael G; Stroh, D Alex; Marker, David R; Mont, Michael A

    2010-09-01

    The utility of Gram stains in diagnosing periprosthetic infections following total hip arthroplasty has recently been questioned. Several studies report low sensitivity of the test, and its poor ability to either confirm or rule out infection in patients undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty. Despite this, many institutions including that of the senior author continue to perform Gram stains during revision total hip arthroplasty. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of Gram stains from surgical-site samplings taken from procedures on patients with both infected and aseptic revision total hip arthroplasties. A review was performed on patients who underwent revision total hip arthroplasty between 2000 and 2007. Eighty-two Gram stains were performed on patients who had infected total hip arthroplasties and underwent revision procedures. Additionally, of the 410 revision total hip arthroplasties performed on patients who were confirmed infection-free, 120 Gram stains were performed. Patients were diagnosed as infected using multiple criteria at the time of surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were calculated from these Gram stain results. The Gram stain demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 9.8% and 100%, respectively. In this series, the Gram stain had a negative predictive value of 62%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and an accuracy of 63%. Gram stains obtained from surgical-site samples had poor sensitivity and poor negative predictive value. Based on these findings, as well as those of other authors, we believe that Gram stains should no longer be considered for diagnosing infections in revision total hip arthroplasty. Level III, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. Fluorescent in situ hybridization employing the conventional NBT/BCIP chromogenic stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Le A; McCutchen, Marshall D; Bonner-Fraser, Marianne; Fraser, Scott E; Bumm, Lloyd A; McCauley, David W

    2007-06-01

    In situ hybridization techniques typically employ chromogenic staining by enzymatic amplification to detect domains of gene expression. We demonstrate the previously unreported near infrared (NIR) fluorescence of the dark purple stain formed from the commonly used chromogens, nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) and 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (BCIP). The solid reaction product has significant fluorescence that enables the use of confocal microscopy to generate high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of gene expression.

  18. [Detection and documentation of masked blood stains with infrared technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Chesne, A; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    1993-01-01

    On dark textiles the visualization of blood stains with the naked eye is either difficult or impossible. In experimental stains and in case work stains we have applied an infrared (IR) video camera in combination with a video printer. As an alternative, an IR goggle was used which could also be connected with a video printer. The results obtained on a variety of different stains and stain carriers are encouraging. Stains showing poor contrast usually become more contrasted. Stains which are partly masked can become complete. Masked stains can become visible. The system is not effective in all combinations of stains and carriers. But it solves a great proportion of formerly problematic cases. Documentation of results is quite easy if a videoprinter is used.

  19. Fetal Outcome in Meconium Stained Deliveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhra, Rajlaxmi; Agarwal, Manika

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the foetal outcome in Meconium Stained Amniotic Fluid (MSAF). Material and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health And Medical Sciences, Shillong, India, over a period of eighteen months, from January 2010 to June 2011. A total of 355 pregnant women who had completed more than 37 weeks of gestation, with singleton pregnancies and cephalic presentations were included in this study. One hundred and sixty five cases with MSAF, were thus selected and they were compared with 190 randomly selected controls. Results: Among 165 cases, 27.88 % of the cases had regular visits to the Institute at least 3 times previously, 72.12% cases had no previous visit at all. Primigravidas accounted for a majority of cases and approximately 50% cases had gestational ages of more than 40 weeks Pregnancies complicated with pregnancy induced hypertension had statistically significant higher rates of meconium staining among cases (16.97%), as compared to those among controls (7.89%). 21.81% cases had foetal heart rate abnormalities, as were detected by electronic foetal monitoring and presence of foetal bradycardia was statistically higher in cases compared to that in controls. Casearean section rates were nearly double in cases (49.09%). Neonatal outcome was poor in terms of low Apgar score at birth, birth asphyxia, Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) and increased neonatal admission among cases as compared to that among controls. Conclusion: Meconium stained amniotic fluid is really worrisome from both, obstetrician’s and paediatrician’s points of view, as it increases the caesarean rates, causes birth asphyxia, MAS and increases neonatal intensive care unit admissions. PMID:24551662

  20. Robust fadeout profile of an evaporation stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, T. A.

    2009-06-01

    We propose an explanation for the commonly seen fading in the density of a stain remaining after a droplet has dried on a surface. The density decreases as a power p of the distance from the edge. For thin, dilute drops of general shape this power is determined by a flow stagnation point in the distant interior of the drop. The power p depends on the local evaporation rate J(0) at the stagnation point and the liquid depth h(0) there: p = 1 - 2~ (h(0)/\\bar h)(\\bar J/J(0)) , where \\bar h and \\bar J are averages over the drop surface.

  1. A procedure for Alcian blue staining of mucins on polyvinylidene difluoride membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2012-10-16

    The isolation and characterization of mucins are critically important for obtaining insight into the molecular pathology of various diseases, including cancers and cystic fibrosis. Recently, we developed a novel membrane electrophoretic method, supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME), which separates mucins on a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane impregnated with a hydrophilic polymer. Alcian blue staining is widely used to visualize mucopolysaccharides and acidic mucins on both blotted membranes and SMME membranes; however, this method cannot be used to stain mucins with a low acidic glycan content. Meanwhile, periodic acid-Schiff staining can selectively visualize glycoproteins, including mucins, but is incompatible with glycan analysis, which is indispensable for mucin characterizations. Here we describe a novel staining method, designated succinylation-Alcian blue staining, for visualizing mucins on a PVDF membrane. This method can visualize mucins regardless of the acidic residue content and shows a sensitivity 2-fold higher than that of Pro-Q Emerald 488, a fluorescent periodate Schiff-base stain. Furthermore, we demonstrate the compatibility of this novel staining procedure with glycan analysis using porcine gastric mucin as a model mucin.

  2. Romanowsky staining in cytopathology: history, advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafts, K P; Pambuccian, S E

    2011-04-01

    If the entire discipline of diagnostic cytopathology could be distilled into a single theme, it would be the Papanicolaou stain. Yet it was the Romanowsky stain upon which the discipline of cytopathology was founded. Both stains are used today in the cytopathology laboratory, each for a different and complementary purpose. We trace the history of cytopathological stains and discuss the advantages and limitations of Romanowsky-type stains for cytological evaluation. We also provide suggestions for the advantageous use of Romanowsky-type stains in cytopathology.

  3. An optimized staining technique for the detection of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria within tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Sandra C; Roy, Daniel C; Sanchez, Carlos J; Christy, Robert J; Burmeister, David M

    2016-04-12

    tissue. The samples used in this study demonstrate that this staining technique has laboratory and clinical applicability. This modification only adds minutes to traditional Gram stain with reusable reagents, and results in a cost- and time-efficient technique for identifying bacteria in any clinical biopsy containing connective tissue.

  4. Sperm viability assessment in marine invertebrates by fluorescent staining and spectrofluorimetry: A promising tool for assessing marine pollution impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra; Boni, Raffaele; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2018-01-01

    The viability of spermatozoa is a crucial parameter to evaluate their quality that is an important issue in ecotoxicological studies. Here, a new method has been developed to rapidly determine the viability of spermatozoa in three marine invertebrates: the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis. This method employed the dual DNA fluorescent staining coupled with spectrofluorimetric analysis. The dual fluorescent staining used the SYBR-14 stained live spermatozoa and propidium iodide stained degenerated cells that had lost membrane integrity. Stain uptake was assessed by confocal microscopy and then the percentage of live and dead spermatozoa was quantified by spectrofluorimetric analysis. The microscopic examination revealed three populations of spermatozoa: living-SYBR-14 stained, dead-PI stained, and dying-doubly stained spermatozoa. The fluorescence emission peak values recorded in a spectrofluorimeter provide the portion of live and dead spermatozoa showing a significant negative correlation. The stain combination was further validated using known ratios of live and dead spermatozoa. The present study demonstrated that the dual DNA staining with SYBR-14 and propidium iodide was effective in assessing viability of spermatozoa in marine invertebrates and that spectrofluorimetric analysis can be successfully employed to evaluate the percentage of live and dead spermatozoa. The method develop herein is simple, accurate, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective, so it could be a useful tool by which marine pollutants may be screened for spermiotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ICT Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    , formulating a research problem as well as writing techniques as deeply integrated elements of the academic work process. The importance of creating an engaging and supportive learning environment: When teaching subjects such as plagiarism and study skills, the student can easily be constructed as a cheater...... and a poor student by discourse that emphasizes rule-breaking or which highlights poor study skills rather than focusing on knowledge building. This view of the student as “untrustworthy” (McGregor, 1960) can be communicated not only through explicit discourse; it can be implicit in the design of learning......In this demonstration we present and discuss two interrelated on-line learning resources aimed at supporting international students at Danish universities in building study skills (the Study Metro) and avoiding plagiarism (Stopplagiarism). We emphasize the necessity of designing online learning...

  6. Quantitative comparison of immunohistochemical staining measured by digital image analysis versus pathologist visual scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzardi Anthony E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Immunohistochemical (IHC assays performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue sections traditionally have been semi-quantified by pathologist visual scoring of staining. IHC is useful for validating biomarkers discovered through genomics methods as large clinical repositories of FFPE specimens support the construction of tissue microarrays (TMAs for high throughput studies. Due to the ubiquitous availability of IHC techniques in clinical laboratories, validated IHC biomarkers may be translated readily into clinical use. However, the method of pathologist semi-quantification is costly, inherently subjective, and produces ordinal rather than continuous variable data. Computer-aided analysis of digitized whole slide images may overcome these limitations. Using TMAs representing 215 ovarian serous carcinoma specimens stained for S100A1, we assessed the degree to which data obtained using computer-aided methods correlated with data obtained by pathologist visual scoring. To evaluate computer-aided image classification, IHC staining within pathologist annotated and software-classified areas of carcinoma were compared for each case. Two metrics for IHC staining were used: the percentage of carcinoma with S100A1 staining (%Pos, and the product of the staining intensity (optical density [OD] of staining multiplied by the percentage of carcinoma with S100A1 staining (OD*%Pos. A comparison of the IHC staining data obtained from manual annotations and software-derived annotations showed strong agreement, indicating that software efficiently classifies carcinomatous areas within IHC slide images. Comparisons of IHC intensity data derived using pixel analysis software versus pathologist visual scoring demonstrated high Spearman correlations of 0.88 for %Pos (p  Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1649068103671302

  7. Detecting mycobacteria in Romanowsky-stained cytologic smears. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debdatta; Nilkund, Jeevana

    2003-01-01

    Cytologic features of mycobacterial infections are granulomatous inflammation with or without caseous necrosis and the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli with special stains. However, immuno-compromised patients might not mount the expected response. A routinely used Romanowsky (Leishman) stain was used for the presumptive diagnosis of mycobacterial infection in a 30-year-old man with AIDS. The mycobacteria were identified as inclusions, described as "negative images," in the cytoplasm of macrophages in smears of bone marrow aspirate. They were then confirmed to be acid-fast bacilli with Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Negative images of mycobacteria may be seen in Romanowsky-stained cytologic smears from patients with immunodeficiency. This is a rapid and cost-effective way of detecting the mycobacteria before more specific results are available. Such a search should be undertaken routinely in all patients suspected to have such infections.

  8. Laser therapy in plastic surgery: decolorization in port wine stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peszynski-Drews, Cezary; Wolf, Leszek

    1996-03-01

    For the first time laserotherapy is described as a method of port wine stain decolorization in plastic surgery. The authors present their 20-year experience in the treatment of port wine stains with the argon laser and dye laser.

  9. Port wine stain on a child's face (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port wine stains are always present at birth. In an infant, they are flat, pink, vascular lesions. Common locations ... may be present anywhere on the body. Port wine stains may appear in association with other syndromes.

  10. The degradation of Romanowsky-type blood stains in methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, W W; Stastny, M; Lubrano, G J

    1977-01-01

    The oxidative demethylation of Romanowsky-type stains in methanol has been examined quantitatively with respect to its effect upon the staining of blood smears. Spectral changes in bound dye, observed through two color filters, have been measured for the nuclei and cytoplasm of segmented neutrophils and monocytes utilizing the LARC automated differential analyzer. Stain decomposition in methanol results in a large loss in staining intensity with little change in color. The loss in intensity has been correlated with the observed spectral changes in the degraded stain. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of degraded stain samples has shown the products of methanolic degradation to be different from those obtained in aqueous polychroming reactions. To maintain a stain of defined thiazine dye composition and thus defined staining properties, refrigeration is recommended.

  11. Crossover clinical investigation of a whitening chewing gum for inhibiting dental stain formation in conjunction with tooth brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleman, Jeffery L; Milleman, Kimberly R; Kleber, Carl J; Proskin, Howard M; Dodds, Michael; Kelley, Michael; Ramirez, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a marketed whitening chewing gum compared to a no-gum control in preventing the formation of extrinsic stains on the teeth of stain-forming subjects when chewed over a 12-week period of regular unsupervised use in conjunction with daily tooth brushing. This was a single-center, examiner-blind, randomized, 12-week crossover clinical trial. Stain-forming (after smoking or drinking coffee or tea) adults, starting with a stain-free baseline, either chewed the test gum (Orbit White) unsupervised four times per day, 15 minutes/chew, or used no gum along with daily brushing with a commercially available toothbrush and dentifrice for 12 weeks. At the crossover, all procedures were repeated with subjects assigned the opposite treatment. Extrinsic stain was measured at six and 12 weeks by both the Lobene Stain Index (LSI) and the Modified Lobene Stain Index (MLSI) using separate experienced examiners. After 12 weeks, LSI stain scores showed a significant 25% reduction (p = 0.0008) in new stain formation for subjects using the test chewing gum along with tooth brushing versus tooth brushing alone (no-gum control). The corresponding MLSI stain scores demonstrated a 36% reduction (p stain on the teeth. The overall findings of this clinical study demonstrated that regular use of Orbit White chewing gum, soon after smoking or drinking coffee or tea, will supplement daily tooth brushing in preventing unsightly stains from forming on the anterior teeth compared to brushing alone.

  12. Several staining techniques to enhance the visibility of Acanthamoeba cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Hikal, Wafaa Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Acanthamoeba is one of the most common free-living amoebae. It is widespread in the environment and can infect humans causing keratitis. Delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis leads to extensive corneal inflammation and profound visual loss. Therefore, accurate and rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis is essential for successful treatment and good prognosis. This study was designed to use different staining techniques to facilitate the identification of Acanthamoeba cysts. Acanthamoeba cysts were isolated by cultivation of either corneal scraping specimens or tap water samples onto non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Escherichia coli. Subcultures were done from positive cultures until unique cysts were isolated. Acanthamoeba cysts were stained temporarily using iodine, eosin, methylene blue, and calcofluor white (CFW) stains and as permanent slides after processing for mounting using modified trichrome, Gimenez and Giemsa staining. These stains were compared on the basis of staining quality including clarity of morphological details, differentiation between cytoplasm and nuclei, color and contrast, and also other characteristics of the staining techniques, including ease of handling, time taken for the procedure, and cost effectiveness. The cysts of Acanthamoeba were recognized in the form of double-walled cysts: the outer wall (ectocyst) that was being differentiated from the variably stained surrounding background and the inner wall (endocyst) that was sometimes stellated, polygonal, round, or oval and visualized as separate from the spherical, sometimes irregular, outline of the ectocyst. Regarding the temporary stains, it was found that they were efficient for visualizing the morphological details of Acanthamoeba cysts. In CFW staining, Acanthamoeba cysts appeared as bluish-white or turquoise oval halos although the internal detail was not evident. On the other hand, the results of permanent-stained slides showed the most consistent stain for identification of

  13. Dye purity and dye standardization for biological staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2002-01-01

    for separating, identifying and assaying dye components. In the second part of the review, descriptions are given of the standardized staining method approach using standard staining methods for assessing stains, and practical responses to stain impurity including commercial quality control, third-party quality...... control and standardization of reagents, protocols and documentation. Finally, reference is made to the current state of affairs in the dye field....

  14. Modified ultrafast Papanicolaou staining technique: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Moni; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Ultrafast Papanicolaou stain (UFP) was introduced as a hybrid of Romanowsky and Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. It enhances the quality and reduces the time. In the present study, a modified staining technique was adapted where Gill's Hematoxylin was replaced by Harris Hematoxylin. Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the use of the modified ultrafast Papanicolaou (MUFP) stain for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of head and neck swellings in comparison with the routine PAP stain, hematoxylin and eosin (H and E), and Giemsa. Materials and Methods: Forty FNACs of head and neck swellings were collected. FNAC procedure was performed by standard method; two smears were fixed in 95% propanol and stained with PAP and H and E. Two smears were air dried, 1 was stained with Giemsa, and 1 was rehydrated with normal saline, fixed in alcoholic formalin, and stained with MUFP. Four parameters were considered and scored background, cell morphology, nuclear staining, and overall staining pattern). Results: The quality of MUFP smears were better when compared to routine PAP, H and E, and Giemsa, and was statistically significant by Wilcoxon matched pair test. Conclusions: MUFP stain in comparison to routine PAP, H and E, and Giemsa provides an excellent and suitable alterative in cytological staining for the study of various organs. PMID:28701828

  15. Modified ultrafast Papanicolaou staining technique: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Thakur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ultrafast Papanicolaou stain (UFP was introduced as a hybrid of Romanowsky and Papanicolaou (PAP stain. It enhances the quality and reduces the time. In the present study, a modified staining technique was adapted where Gill's Hematoxylin was replaced by Harris Hematoxylin. Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the use of the modified ultrafast Papanicolaou (MUFP stain for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of head and neck swellings in comparison with the routine PAP stain, hematoxylin and eosin (H and E, and Giemsa. Materials and Methods: Forty FNACs of head and neck swellings were collected. FNAC procedure was performed by standard method; two smears were fixed in 95% propanol and stained with PAP and H and E. Two smears were air dried, 1 was stained with Giemsa, and 1 was rehydrated with normal saline, fixed in alcoholic formalin, and stained with MUFP. Four parameters were considered and scored background, cell morphology, nuclear staining, and overall staining pattern. Results: The quality of MUFP smears were better when compared to routine PAP, H and E, and Giemsa, and was statistically significant by Wilcoxon matched pair test. Conclusions: MUFP stain in comparison to routine PAP, H and E, and Giemsa provides an excellent and suitable alterative in cytological staining for the study of various organs.

  16. 7 CFR 28.442 - Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.442 Section 28.442... Stained Color. Middling Yellow Stained Color is American Upland cotton which in color is deeper than Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] below color grade cotton ...

  17. 7 CFR 28.441 - Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. 28.441 Section... Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color. Strict Middling Yellow Stained Color is color which is deeper than that of Strict Middling Tinged Color. [57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992] ...

  18. Visual Electricity Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2017-09-01

    The Visual Electricity Demonstrator (VED) is a linear diode array that serves as a dynamic alternative to an ammeter. A string of 48 red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) blink one after another to create the illusion of a moving current. Having the current represented visually builds an intuitive and qualitative understanding about what is happening in a circuit. In this article, I describe several activities for this device and explain how using this technology in the classroom can enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics.

  19. Cell wall staining with Trypan Blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eLiesche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yeast cells are protected by a cell wall that plays an important role in the exchange of substances with the environment. The cell wall structure is dynamic and can adapt to different physiological states or environmental conditions. For the investigation of morphological changes, selective staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain Calcofluor White. Trypan Blue staining facilitated quantification of cell size and cell wall volume when utilizing the optical sectioning capacity of a confocal microscope. This enabled the quantification of morphological changes during growth under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of chemicals, demonstrating the potential of this approach for morphological investigations or screening assays.

  20. Direct Blue 71 staining as a destaining-free alternative loading control method for Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Guo, Jing; Xu, Hong-Bo; Huang, Rongzhong; Shao, Weihua; Yang, Liu; Wang, Mingju; Chen, Jianjun; Xie, Peng

    2013-08-01

    In Western blotting, a suitable loading control is indispensable for correcting errors in the total amount of loaded protein. Immunodetection of housekeeping proteins and total protein staining have traditionally been used as loading control methods. Direct Blue 71 (DB71) staining-a novel, sensitive, dye-binding staining method compatible with immunodetection-may offer advantages over these traditional loading control methods. Three common neuroscientific samples (human plasma, human oligodendrocytes, and rat brain) were employed to assess DB71 staining as a loading control method for Western blotting. DB71, CBB, one traditional housekeeping protein, and one protein of interest were comparatively assessed for reliability and repeatability and linear dynamic range over 2.5-40 μg of protein loaded. DB71's effect on the reliability and repeatability and linear dynamic range of immunoreaction were also assessed. Across all three sample types, DB71 was either equivalent or superior to CBB and housekeeping protein-based methods in terms of reliability and repeatability and linear dynamic range. Across all three sample types, DB71 staining did not impair the reliability and repeatability or linear dynamic range of immunoreaction. Our results demonstrate that the DB71 staining can be used as a destaining-free alternative loading control method for Western blotting. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Myeloperoxidase staining in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhdeep; Acharya, Anirudh B; Kumar, S C Veerendra

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining procedure as a reliable, affordable and easily available diagnostic assay for aggressive periodontitis. Fifteen subjects were recruited in the study wherein five each were diagnosed as aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis respectively, and five were periodontally healthy. Three millilitres (ml) of venous blood was collected using Vacutainers containing ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA) and was subjected to MPO staining procedure. Histological picture was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). MPO stained specimen of all the patients showed positive MPO staining of the neutrophils. The intensity of the stain of MPO granules was more in aggressive periodontitis specimen as compared to the chronic periodontitis patient specimen and healthy subject specimen. The staining characteristics were comparable for chronic periodontitis patients and healthy subject. This study shows that there is a potential and probable place for MPO staining as an economical, relatively convenient and easily available assay in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis.

  2. Erbium doped stain etched porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Rodriguez, V.D.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C.; Martinez-Duart, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work a simple erbium doping process applied to stain etched porous silicon layers (PSLs) is proposed. This doping process has been developed for application in porous silicon solar cells, where conventional erbium doping processes are not affordable because of the high processing cost and technical difficulties. The PSLs were formed by immersion in a HF/HNO 3 solution to properly adjust the porosity and pore thickness to an optimal doping of the porous structure. After the formation of the porous structure, the PSLs were analyzed by means of nitrogen BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) area measurements and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the PSLs were immersed in a saturated erbium nitrate solution in order to cover the porous surface. Then, the samples were subjected to a thermal process to activate the Er 3+ ions. Different temperatures and annealing times were used in this process. The photoluminescence of the PSLs was evaluated before and after the doping processes and the composition was analyzed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy

  3. Quantitative determination of superoxide in plant leaves using a modified NBT staining method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournonville, Carlos F Grellet; Díaz-Ricci, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In plants, the ROS (reactive oxygen species) level is tightly regulated because their accumulation produces irreversible damage leading to cell death. However, ROS accumulation plays a key role in plant signaling under biotic or abiotic stress. Although various methods were reported to evaluate ROS accumulation, they are restricted to model plants or provide only qualitative information. Develop a simple method to quantify superoxide radicals produced in plant tissues, based on the selective extraction of the formazan produced after nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction in histochemical staining. Plant leaves were stained with a standard NBT method and the formazan precipitated in tissues was selectively extracted using chloroform. The organic phase was dried and formazan residue dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide-potassium hydroxide and quantified by spectrophotometry. The method was tested in strawberry plant leaves under different stressing conditions. Formazan extracted from leaves subjected to stress conditions showed similar absorption spectra to those obtained from standard solutions using pure formazan. Calibration curves showed a linear relationship between absorbance and formazan amounts, within the range 0.5-8 µg. Outcomes suggested that formazan was retained in the solid residue of leaf tissues. This protocol allowed us to quantify superoxide radicals produced under different stress conditions. Chloroform allowed a selective formazan extraction and removal of potential endogenous, exogenous or procedural artefacts that may interfere with the quantitative determination. This protocol can be used to quantify the superoxide produced in plant tissues using any traditional qualitative NBT histochemical staining method. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Quantitative comparison of immunohistochemical staining measured by digital image analysis versus pathologist visual scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Immunohistochemical (IHC) assays performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections traditionally have been semi-quantified by pathologist visual scoring of staining. IHC is useful for validating biomarkers discovered through genomics methods as large clinical repositories of FFPE specimens support the construction of tissue microarrays (TMAs) for high throughput studies. Due to the ubiquitous availability of IHC techniques in clinical laboratories, validated IHC biomarkers may be translated readily into clinical use. However, the method of pathologist semi-quantification is costly, inherently subjective, and produces ordinal rather than continuous variable data. Computer-aided analysis of digitized whole slide images may overcome these limitations. Using TMAs representing 215 ovarian serous carcinoma specimens stained for S100A1, we assessed the degree to which data obtained using computer-aided methods correlated with data obtained by pathologist visual scoring. To evaluate computer-aided image classification, IHC staining within pathologist annotated and software-classified areas of carcinoma were compared for each case. Two metrics for IHC staining were used: the percentage of carcinoma with S100A1 staining (%Pos), and the product of the staining intensity (optical density [OD] of staining) multiplied by the percentage of carcinoma with S100A1 staining (OD*%Pos). A comparison of the IHC staining data obtained from manual annotations and software-derived annotations showed strong agreement, indicating that software efficiently classifies carcinomatous areas within IHC slide images. Comparisons of IHC intensity data derived using pixel analysis software versus pathologist visual scoring demonstrated high Spearman correlations of 0.88 for %Pos (p < 0.0001) and 0.90 for OD*%Pos (p < 0.0001). This study demonstrated that computer-aided methods to classify image areas of interest (e.g., carcinomatous areas of tissue specimens) and

  5. [The application of Gallyas-Braak stainings in pathologic diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luning; Zhu, Mingwei; Li, Xianghong; Gui, Qiuping

    2002-02-01

    To evaluate the role of Gallyas silver staining in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Modified Gallyas-Braak staining method was used to investigate samples of the brain and spinal cord of 22 cases with neurodegenerative disease including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's diseas (PD), Pick's disease, diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), diagnosed by clinical and routine pathologic method. 10 cases without clinical symptoms and pathologic abnormalities of the nervous system served as control. As compared with Bodian staining, Gallyas-Braak staining demonstrated clearly neurofibrillary tangles in the hippocampus and the cortex of frontal and temperal lobe in all the cases with Alzheimer's disease, 6 cases with dementia of other causes and 3 normal aged. However, global neurofibrillary tangles in the midbrain and the basal ganglia were found only with Gallyas-Braak staining in 4 cases with both dementia and extrapyramidal features. In addition, tuft-shaped astrocytes were shown with this method in the motor cortex, basal ganglia, midbrain of the above 4 cases and astrocytic plaques in the same area in 2 cases of the 4 cases. In this connexion, pathologic findings in 2 of the 4 cases corresponded to PSP and those of the other two cases fufiled the diagnostic criteria of corticobasal degeneration (CBD) Oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions in the white matter of the brain and the spinal cord were founded in 3 of the 4 cases with multiple system atrophy (MSA). This silver staining demonstrated as well a lot of argyrophilic grains in the neuropil of the temporal lobe and the hippocampus in one case with AD. Gallyas silver staining could better reveal not only Alzheimer-like neurofibrillary tangles but also different glial inclusions in other neurodegenerative diseases such as PSP, CBD and MSA. Consequently, it is of great value in the pathologic diagnosis and study of such degenerative diseases.

  6. Visual detection of trace lead ion based on aptamer and silver staining nano-metal composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Hong; Wang, Hai-Bo; Fang, Bi-Yun; Tan, Fang; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, visual detection of trace lead ion was established by aptamer and silver staining. The basic strategy was that aminated PS2.M aptamer was immobilized onto slide and formed stable G-quadruplex structure. PbS was generated by adding S 2- , and it catalyzed subsequent silver staining reaction, through the silver staining amplification effect, the slide presented visible ash black. The gray value of slide after silver staining was analyzed and the semi-quantitative detection of Pb 2+ in solution was realized. The results showed that optical darkness ratio (ODR) and logarithmic value of Pb 2+ concentration had a good linear relationship (R 2  = 0.951) over the range of 0.5-10 μM. In addition, there was no obvious interference of other common metal ions for the detection, indicating that this method presented outstanding selectivity. And it was also used for qualitative and semi-quantitative determination of Pb 2+ in soil sample successfully. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in modified Romanowsky staining solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Richard; Wong, Hui-San; Trott, Darren J; Hill, Peter B

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that rapid staining solutions can become contaminated with micro-organisms, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To determine whether inoculation of rapid Romanowsky-type stains with P. aeruginosa results in viable bacterial contamination, which could lead to cross-contamination of slides during cytological staining. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inoculated into clean and organically contaminated staining solutions (fixative, eosin and methylene blue) and positive (broth) and negative (bleach) control solutions. Subsequent viability and survival were detected by measuring colony-forming units per millilitre at various time points up to 2 weeks. Each sample was stained and microscopically examined to determine whether bacteria were visible. No bacteria could be cultured at any time point from the bleach or fixative solution. In clean eosin and methylene blue staining solutions, viable bacteria were recovered for up to 1 h, but by 24 h all bacteria were dead. In staining solutions contaminated with hair and dead skin cells, bacteria survived in methylene blue for up to 1 h, and viable bacteria persisted in the eosin stain for 2 weeks. In solutions containing viable organisms, the bacteria could be observed by microscopic examination; no bacteria were visible when the solutions contained no viable organisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive in commonly used staining solutions for variable periods of time, but is unable to proliferate. Although theoretically this might complicate cytological interpretation and subsequent diagnosis, the likelihood of this in clinical practice appears remote when the correct staining technique is used. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Harmonization of the intracellular cytokine staining assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welters, Marij J P; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H; Letsch, Anne; Ottensmeier, Christian H; Britten, Cedrik M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2012-07-01

    Active immunotherapy for cancer is an accepted treatment modality aiming to reinforce the T-cell response to cancer. T-cell reactivity is measured by various assays and used to guide the clinical development of immunotherapeutics. However, data obtained across different institutions may vary substantially making comparative conclusions difficult. The Cancer Immunotherapy Immunoguiding Program organizes proficiency panels to identify key parameters influencing the outcome of commonly used T-cell assays followed by harmonization. Our successes with IFNγ-ELISPOT and peptide HLA multimer analysis have led to the current study on intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). We report the results of three successive panels evaluating this assay. At the beginning, 3 out of 9 participants (33 %) were able to detect >6 out of 8 known virus-specific T-cell responses in peripheral blood of healthy individuals. This increased to 50 % of the laboratories in the second phase. The reported percentages of cytokine-producing T cells by the different laboratories were highly variable with coefficients of variation well over 60 %. Variability could partially be explained by protocol-related differences in background cytokine production leading to sub-optimal signal-to-noise ratios. The large number of protocol variables prohibited identification of prime guidelines to harmonize the assays. In addition, the gating strategy used to identify reactive T cells had a major impact on assay outcome. Subsequent harmonization of the gating strategy considerably reduced the variability within the group of participants. In conclusion, we propose that first basic guidelines should be applied for gating in ICS experiments before harmonizing assay protocol variables.

  9. A useful single-solution polychrome stain for plant material...Brook Cyte-Chrome I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley L Krugman; Julia F. Littlefield

    1968-01-01

    Fresh and chemically fixed sectioned plant material can be quickly stained by applying a Brook Cyte Chrome I polychrome stain. Staining time averaged only about 10 minutes. And exact timing of staining and de-staining is not as critical as with most of the commonly used stains. The overall quality is comparable to that of the traditional stains.

  10. Autoantibodies in anti-p200 pemphigoid stain skin lacking laminin 5 and type VII collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zillikens, D; Ishiko, A; Jonkman, MF; Chimanovitch, [No Value; Shimizu, H; Hashimoto, T; Brocker, EB

    2000-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a widespread bullous skin disease and linear deposits of IgG and C3 at the dermal-epidermal junction using direct immunofluorescence microscopy. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated circulating IgG autoantibodies that stained, like autoantibodies to

  11. Hoffman's violet and dahlia as specific stains for animal chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, M K

    1979-03-01

    The paper deals with staining of the chromosomes of animal testicular materials with two basic dyes, Hoffman's violet and dahlia of the triphenylmethane group, following iodine-dye procedure. The important finding, as presented herein, is that iodinated alcohol after staining can be substituted with various acids, both organic as well as inorganic, all of which act as trapping agent preventing leaching of the dye that binds with the chromosomal DNA. It is clear from this study that RNA is not involved by this process of staining, since treatment of stained sections with cold phosphoric acid at 5 degrees C for 20--25 min and then stained also reveals perfect colouration of the chromosomes without any cytoplasmic staining. The in vitro absorption properties of Hoffman's violet have also been presented herein. The probable mechanism of action of these dyes has been suggested.

  12. Efficacy test of a toothpaste in reducing extrinsic dental stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustanti, A.; Ramadhani, S. A.; Adiatman, M.; Rahardjo, A.; Callea, M.; Yavuz, I.; Maharani, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    This clinical trial compared the external dental stain reduction achieved by tested toothpaste versus placebo in adult patients. In this double-blind, parallel, randomised clinical trial, 45 female volunteers with a mean age of 20 years old were included. All study subjects front teeth were topically applicated with Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) to create external dental stains. Subjects were randomized into test (n=22) and control (n=23) groups. Toothpastes were used for two days to analyse the effects of removing external stains on the labial surfaces of all anterior teeth. VITA Easyshade Advance 4.0 was used to measure dental extrinsic stains changes. The analysis showed statistically significant efficacy of the tested toothpaste in reducing external dental stain caused by SDF, comparing to the placebo toothpaste, after one and two days of usage. The tested toothpaste was effective in reducing dental stain.

  13. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M J; Thatcher, E; Cox, M E

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram-positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative; Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Eubacterium plautii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collection strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fixing and staining techniques within a gloveless anaerobic chamber. Under anaerobic conditions, gram-positive staining occurred in all test organisms with "quick" fixing techniques with both absolute methanol and formalin. The results support the hypothesis that, when anaerobic bacteria are exposed to oxygen, a breakdown of the physical integrity of the cell wall occurs, introducing Gram stain variability in gram-positive anaerobes. PMID:7538512

  14. Factors influencing extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa staining of rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, R B; Bakare, A A; Peter, A I; Oremosu, A A; Osinubi, A A

    2012-08-01

    Some plant extracts can be used in biology and medicine to reveal or identify cellular components and tissues. We investigated the effects of time and concentration on staining of histological sections of rat testes by an acidified extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. An ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa was diluted using 1% acetic acid in 70% ethanol to stain histological sections of testes at concentrations of 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/ml for 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. The sections of testes were stained deep red. The staining efficiency of H. sabdariffa was greater at a high concentration and required less time to achieve optimal staining. H. sabdariffa is a strongly basic dye that can be used for various diagnostic purposes. Staining time and concentration must be considered to achieve optimal results.

  15. Adaptive segmentation of nuclei in H&S stained tendon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Bo-I.; Wu, Po-Ting; Hsu, Jian-Han; Jou, I.-Ming; Su, Fong-Chin; Sun, Yung-Nien

    2015-12-01

    Tendiopathy is a popular clinical issue in recent years. In most cases like trigger finger or tennis elbow, the pathology change can be observed under H and E stained tendon microscopy. However, the qualitative analysis is too subjective and thus the results heavily depend on the observers. We develop an automatic segmentation procedure which segments and counts the nuclei in H and E stained tendon microscopy fast and precisely. This procedure first determines the complexity of images and then segments the nuclei from the image. For the complex images, the proposed method adopts sampling-based thresholding to segment the nuclei. While for the simple images, the Laplacian-based thresholding is employed to re-segment the nuclei more accurately. In the experiments, the proposed method is compared with the experts outlined results. The nuclei number of proposed method is closed to the experts counted, and the processing time of proposed method is much faster than the experts'.

  16. Diagnosing periprosthetic infection: false-positive intraoperative Gram stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oethinger, Margret; Warner, Debra K; Schindler, Susan A; Kobayashi, Hideo; Bauer, Thomas W

    2011-04-01

    Intraoperative Gram stains have a reported low sensitivity but high specificity when used to help diagnose periprosthetic infections. In early 2008, we recognized an unexpectedly high frequency of apparent false-positive Gram stains from revision arthroplasties. The purpose of this report is to describe the cause of these false-positive test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of all intraoperative Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasty cases during a 3-month interval using microbiologic cultures of the same samples as the gold standard. Methods of specimen harvesting, handling, transport, distribution, specimen processing including tissue grinding/macerating, Gram staining, and interpretation were studied. After a test modification, results of specimens were prospectively collected for a second 3-month interval, and the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative Gram stains were calculated. The retrospective review of 269 Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasties indicated historic sensitivity and specificity values of 23% and 92%, respectively. Systematic analysis of all steps of the procedure identified Gram-stained but nonviable bacteria in commercial broth reagents used as diluents for maceration of periprosthetic membranes before Gram staining and culture. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing showed mixed bacterial DNA. Evaluation of 390 specimens after initiating standardized Millipore filtering of diluent fluid revealed a reduced number of positive Gram stains, yielding 9% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Clusters of false-positive Gram stains have been reported in other clinical conditions. They are apparently rare related to diagnosing periprosthetic infections but have severe consequences if used to guide treatment. Even occasional false-positive Gram stains should prompt review of laboratory methods. Our observations implicate dead bacteria in microbiologic reagents as potential sources of false-positive Gram

  17. TREATMENTS TO MINIMIZE EXTRACTIVES STAIN IN WESTERN RED CEDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Rod Stirling,; Paul I. Morris

    2012-01-01

    Under certain conditions involving uneven exposure to weather, stains related to the extractives can reduce the aesthetic appeal of western red cedar in exterior applications such as fence boards, siding, and sidewall shingles. Selected chemical treatments were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the formation of extractives stain. DDACarbonate, alkyl amine oxide, and combinations thereof delayed extractives stain formation in an accelerated field test, with higher loadings having greater ...

  18. Near-UV laser treatment of extrinsic dental enamel stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, J E; Seka, W; Featherstone, J D B; Rechmann, P

    2012-04-01

    The selective ablation of extrinsic dental enamel stains using a 400-nm laser is evaluated at several fluences for completely removing stains with minimal damage to the underlying enamel. A frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser (400-nm wavelength, 60-nanosecond pulse duration, 10-Hz repetition rate) was used to treat 10 extracted human teeth with extrinsic enamel staining. Each tooth was irradiated perpendicular to the surface in a back-and-forth motion over a 1-mm length using an ∼300-µm-diam 10th-order super-Gaussian beam with fluences ranging from 0.8 to 6.4 J/cm(2) . Laser triangulation determined stain depth and volume removed by measuring 3D surface images before and after irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy evaluated the surface roughness of enamel following stain removal. Fluorescence spectroscopy measured spectra of unbleached and photobleached stains in the spectral range of 600-800 nm. Extrinsic enamel stains are removed with laser fluences between 0.8 and 6.4 J/cm(2) . Stains removed on sound enamel leave behind a smooth enamel surface. Stain removal in areas with signs of earlier cariogenic acid attacks resulted in isolated and randomly located laser-induced, 50-µm-diam enamel pits. These pits contain 0.5-µm diam, smooth craters indicative of heat transfer from the stain to the enamel and subsequent melting and water droplet ejection. Ablation stalling of enamel stains is typically observed at low fluences (<3 J/cm(2) ) and is accompanied by a drastic reduction in porphyrin fluorescence from the Soret band. Laser ablation of extrinsic enamel stains at 400 nm is observed to be most efficient above 3 J/cm(2) with minimal damage to the underlying enamel. Unsound underlying enamel is also observed to be selectively removed after irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Histochemical stains for minerals by hematoxylin-lake method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the experimental animal model by histological staining methods for minerals. After intraperitoneal injections of minerals, precipitates deposited on the surface of the liver. Liver tissues were fixed in paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and cut into thin sections which were used as minerals containing standard section. Several reagents for histological stains and spectrophotometry for minerals were applied in both test-tube experiments and stainings of tissue sections to test for minerals. Hematoxylin-lake was found of capable of staining minerals in tissue. A simple technique used was described for light microscopic detection of minerals.

  20. Histopathological evaluation of ocular microsporidiosis by different stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savitri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited data on comparing stains in the detection of microsporidia in corneal biopsies. Hence we wanted to evaluate various stains for their ability to detect microsporidia in corneal tissue sections. Methods Four cases diagnosed with microsporidiosis on Hematoxylin and Eosin and Periodic Acid Schiff's stained sections of the corneal button between January 2002 and December 2004, were included. Further sections were prospectively stained with calcofluor white, Gram, Giemsa, Masson's trichrome, acridine orange, Gomori's methenamine silver, Gram's chromotrope and modified acid fast stain. The stained sections were analyzed for the spore characteristics in terms of size, shape, color contrast, cell wall morphology, waist band in cytoplasm and ease of detection. Results All sections showed microsporidial spores as 3 – 5 μm, oval bodies. 1% acid fast, Gram's chromotrope and GMS stains provided a reliable diagnosis of microsporidia as diagnostic waist band could be identified and good contrast helped distinguish the spores from inflammatory debris. Conclusion Considering the ease of performance, cost effectiveness and rapidity of the technique, 1% acid fast stain and Gram's chromotrope stain are ideal for the detection of microsporidia.

  1. Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Jéssica; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Rocha, Cristiane Cinara; Ferreira, Samira Cardoso; Zimmermann, Célia Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik). Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls). From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two w...

  2. Black stain and dental caries in Filipino schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Monse, Bella; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim

    2009-04-01

    Black stain is defined as dark pigmented exogenous substance in lines or dots parallel to the gingival margin and firmly adherent to the enamel at the cervical third of the tooth crowns in the primary and permanent dentition. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of black stain on teeth of Filipino children and to determine a possible association between black stain and caries levels. The study was designed to test the following hypotheses: (i) the prevalence of black stain does not differ between children from schools with oral health intervention programs and those from schools without an intervention program, (ii) the prevalence of black stain does not differ in children attending easily accessible and remote schools, (iii) caries prevalence and caries experience do not differ in children with and without black stain and (iv) the caries distribution at the surface level does not differ in children with and without black stain. In total, 32 elementary schools were included. 19 schools with a comprehensive school-based preventive oral health program, seven schools with a basic preventive program and six control schools. All sixth graders of these schools (n=1748) aged 11.7+/-1.1 years were clinically examined for black stain. DMFT was assessed in 1121 children by seven calibrated dentists using WHO criteria. DMFS was scored in 627 children by two calibrated dentists. Black stain was found in 16% of this population. The prevalence of black stain did not differ significantly between children attending schools with different oral health intervention programs. Thus, hypothesis 1 was accepted. The prevalence of black stain was significantly higher (Pcaries prevalence and caries experience than children without black stain. Thus, hypothesis 3 was rejected. No difference was found in the DMFS pattern of occlusal, smooth and proximal surfaces between children with and without black stain. Thus hypothesis 4 was accepted. The presence of black stain is

  3. Gram stains: a resource for retrospective analysis of bacterial pathogens in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Usha; Ponnaluri, Sreelatha; Villareal, Lisa; Gillespie, Brenda; Wen, Ai; Miles, Arianna; Bucholz, Brigette; Marrs, Carl F; Iyer, Ram K; Misra, Dawn; Foxman, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using qPCR on DNA extracted from vaginal Gram stain slides to estimate the presence and relative abundance of specific bacterial pathogens. We first tested Gram stained slides spiked with a mix of 10(8) cfu/ml of Escherichia coli and 10(5) cfu/ml of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Primers were designed for amplification of total and species-specific bacterial DNA based on 16S ribosomal gene regions. Sample DNA was pre-amplified with nearly full length 16S rDNA ribosomal gene fragment, followed by quantitative PCR with genera and species-specific 16S rDNA primers. Pre-amplification PCR increased the bacterial amounts; relative proportions of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus recovered from spiked slides remained unchanged. We applied this method to forty two archived Gram stained slides available from a clinical trial of cerclage in pregnant women at high risk of preterm birth. We found a high correlation between Nugent scores based on bacterial morphology of Lactobacillus, Gardenerella and Mobiluncus and amounts of quantitative PCR estimated genus specific DNA (rrn copies) from Gram stained slides. Testing of a convenience sample of eight paired vaginal swabs and Gram stains freshly collected from healthy women found similar qPCR generated estimates of Lactobacillus proportions from Gram stained slides and vaginal swabs. Archived Gram stained slides collected from large scale epidemiologic and clinical studies represent a valuable, untapped resource for research on the composition of bacterial communities that colonize human mucosal surfaces.

  4. A Flow-Cytometric Gram-Staining Technique for Milk-Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Claus; Jespersen, Lene

    2003-01-01

    A Gram-staining technique combining staining with two fluorescent stains, Oregon Green-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and hexidium iodide (HI) followed by flow-cytometric detection is described. WGA stains gram-positive bacteria while HI binds to the DNA of all bacteria after permeabilization by EDTA and incubation at 50°C for 15 min. For WGA to bind to gram-positive bacteria, a 3 M potassium chloride solution was found to give the highest fluorescence intensity. A total of 12 strains representing some of the predominant bacterial species in bulk tank milk and mixtures of these were stained and analyzed by flow cytometry. Overall, the staining method showed a clear differentiation between gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial populations. For stationary-stage cultures of seven gram-positive bacteria and five gram-negative bacteria, an average of 99% of the cells were correctly interpreted. The method was only slightly influenced by the growth phase of the bacteria or conditions such as freezing at −18°C for 24 h. For any of these conditions, an average of at least 95% of the cells were correctly interpreted. When stationary-stage cultures were stored at 5°C for 14 days, an average of 86% of the cells were correctly interpreted. The Gram-staining technique was applied to the flow cytometry analysis of bulk tank milk inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. These results demonstrate that the technique is suitable for analyzing milk samples without precultivation. PMID:12732558

  5. AUTHENTIC MATERIALS IN EXTENSIVE READING CLASS AT STAIN PONOROGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhinuk Puspita Kirana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that English Foreign Language (EFL learners need to develop their language proficiency by getting so much input. Moreover, students need to be familiarized with the real English us­age where real forms of communication and cultural knowledge are crucially exposed. Teaching through authentic materials will make the learners feel that they are learning a real language which is used by the real native speakers for real communication. incorporating au­thentic materials helps students acquire an effective communicative competence in the language focus. The research intended to describe the implementation of authentic materials in extensive reading class, the problems arise and the students’ responses toward the authen­tic materials in extensive reading class. The design of the research was Descriptive Qualitative method and the research subject was the lecturer of Extensive Reading class and 33 students in B class of the fourth semester of STAIN Ponorogo who took Extensive Read­ing subject. The instruments used were in the form of observation sheet, interview guideline and questionnaire. The implementation of authentic materials in extensive reading class covered some procedures into three main phases namely (1 Pre­ Activity, (2 Main­ Activity and (3 Post­Activity. The activities in main activity are as follows: (a Pre­ Activity; (b Whilst ­Activity; and (3 The language focus stage. There were problems arose during the implementation in terms of complicated planning, more time allocation and some disinterested students. Finally, the students showed significantly positive attitude toward the implementation of authentic materials in extensive reading class.

  6. Effect of toothbrushing on shade and surface roughness of extrinsically stained pressable ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Lessly A; Thompson, Geoffrey; Cho, Seok-Hwan; Berzins, David W

    2016-04-01

    The effect of toothbrushing on extrinsically stained pressable ceramic materials is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of toothbrushing on the shade and surface roughness of extrinsically stained, pressable ceramics. Two materials, leucite-based (IPS Empress Esthetic [EE]; Ivoclar Vivadent AG) and lithium disilicate-based ceramic (IPS e.max Press [EP]; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), were studied. For each material, 24 disk-shaped specimens, 10 mm (diameter)×3 mm (height) were fabricated. Three different methods (n=8) of applying extrinsic stains were performed on each material: glazed only (G, control group); stained then glazed (SG); and stained and glazed together (T). The specimens were brushed with a multistation brushing machine under a load of 1.96 N at a rate of 90 strokes per minute with a soft and straight toothbrush (Oral-B #35) and a 1:1 toothpaste and distilled water slurry. Shade and roughness were measured at baseline and at 72, 144, 216, and 288 hours, which is equivalent to 3, 6, 9, and 12 years of simulated toothbrushing for 2 minutes twice a day. A repeated measures ANOVA with staining technique as a fixed factor was used to evaluate shade and roughness (α=.05). For EE groups, no significant change was found after 12 years of simulated toothbrushing regarding shade and surface roughness, irrespective of staining techniques (P>.05). However, EP groups demonstrated a significant shade change and an increase in surface roughness after 12 years of simulated toothbrushing. Shade change was found to depend on the method of applying stain. For the EP-SG technique, a significant shade change was observed only at the 9- to 12-year interval (P=.047). However, the EP-T technique demonstrated a significant difference in shade between baseline and 3 years (P=.005) and in the 6- to 9-year interval (P=.005). Surface roughness was only significantly affected at baseline and 3 years for the EP-T group (P=.005). For the shade and

  7. Autometallographic (AMG) technique used for enhancement of the Golgi-Cox staining gives good contrast andhigh resolution of dendrites and spines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowski, Dariusz

    flexible than conventional enhancement proceduresperformed with commercial photographic developers. The staining procedure is thoroughly described and wedemonstrate with qualitative and quantitative data, how Golgi-Cox immersion time and different AMGenhancement length may influence the staining...... of dendrites and spines in the rat hippocampus. The describedmethod will be of value for future behavioural-anatomical studies, examining changes in dendrite branching andspine density caused by brain diseases and their subsequent treatment....

  8. Quantitative toxoplasma gondii oocyst detection by a modified Kato Katz test using Kinyoun staining (KKK) in ME49 strain experimentally infected cats

    OpenAIRE

    Meireles, Luciana Regina; Tsutsui, Vinícius Suehiro; Carmo, Claudia Villano do; Galisteo Jr., Andrés Jimenez; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Terentowicz, Henrique César Katsumi; Andrade Júnior, Heitor Franco de

    2008-01-01

    We detected Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in feces of experimentally infected cats, using a Kato Katz approach with subsequent Kinyoun staining. Animals serologically negative to T. gondii were infected orally with 5x10² mice brain cysts of ME49 strain. Feces were collected daily from the 3rd to the 30th day after challenge. Oocysts were detected by qualitative sugar flotation and the quantitative modified Kato Katz stained by Kinyoun (KKK). In the experimentally infected cats, oocysts were detec...

  9. Facile method to stain the bacterial cell surface for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsolus, Ian L.; Hu, Dehong; Mihai, Cosmin; Lohse, Samuel E.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Torelli, Marco; Hamers, Robert J.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Haynes, Christy L.

    2014-01-01

    A method to fluorescently stain the surfaces of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cells compatible with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is presented. This method utilizes a commercially-available fluorescent probe to label primary amines at the surface of the cell. We demonstrate efficient staining of two bacterial strains, the Gram-negative Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis 168. Using structured illumination microscopy and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, which require high quantum yield or specialized dyes, we show that this staining method may be used to resolve the bacterial cell surface with sub-diffraction-limited resolution. We further use this method to identify localization patterns of nanomaterials, specifically cadmium selenide quantum dots, following interaction with bacterial cells.

  10. Confusion over live/dead stainings for the detection of vital microorganisms in oral biofilms--which stain is suitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netuschil, Lutz; Auschill, Thorsten M; Sculean, Anton; Arweiler, Nicole B

    2014-01-11

    There is confusion over the definition of the term "viability state(s)" of microorganisms. "Viability staining" or "vital staining techniques" are used to distinguish live from dead bacteria. These stainings, first established on planctonic bacteria, may have serious shortcomings when applied to multispecies biofilms. Results of staining techniques should be compared with appropriate microbiological data. Many terms describe "vitality states" of microorganisms, however, several of them are misleading. Authors define "viable" as "capable to grow". Accordingly, staining methods are substitutes, since no staining can prove viability.The reliability of a commercial "viability" staining assay (Molecular Probes) is discussed based on the corresponding product information sheet: (I) Staining principle; (II) Concentrations of bacteria; (III) Calculation of live/dead proportions in vitro. Results of the "viability" kit are dependent on the stains' concentration and on their relation to the number of bacteria in the test. Generally this staining system is not suitable for multispecies biofilms, thus incorrect statements have been published by users of this technique.To compare the results of the staining with bacterial parameters appropriate techniques should be selected. The assessment of Colony Forming Units is insufficient, rather the calculation of Plating Efficiency is necessary. Vital fluorescence staining with Fluorescein Diacetate and Ethidium Bromide seems to be the best proven and suitable method in biofilm research.Regarding the mutagenicity of staining components users should be aware that not only Ethidium Bromide might be harmful, but also a variety of other substances of which the toxicity and mutagenicity is not reported. - The nomenclature regarding "viability" and "vitality" should be used carefully.- The manual of the commercial "viability" kit itself points out that the kit is not suitable for natural multispecies biofilm research, as supported by an

  11. Anolyte as an alternative bleach for stained cotton fabrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as the two- and three-factor interactions. The results from the study indicated that Anolyte was less effective than sodium hypochlorite as a stain remover for blood, tea, soot/mineral oil and blackcurrant juice. It was noted that the temperature of bleach liquids had an influence on the removal of stains by both bleach liquids.

  12. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2011-01-01

    In the 10th issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the meeting of ISO/TC 212/WG 1 held in London, UK, on 16-17 November 2009. Furthermore...

  13. News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2012-01-01

    In this 12(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the meetings of ISO/TC 212/WG 1 Quality and competence in the medical laboratory and ISO...

  14. News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O

    2013-01-01

    In the 13(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the first plenary meeting of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Clinical lab...... laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems held on 17-19 October 2011 in Las Vegas, Nevada....

  15. Alcian blue-stained particles in a eutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, J.; Søndergaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    We used a neutral solution of Alcian Blue to stain transparent particles in eutrophic Lake Frederiksborg Slotss0, Denmark. Alcian Blue-stained particles (ABSP) appeared to be similar to the so-called transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) identified with an acidic solution of Alcian Blue. Our...

  16. The use of special stains in liver biopsy interpretation: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks of liver biopsies reported in two histopathology laboratories between 2008 and 2013 were retrieved. These were stained with H and E and the following standard special stains for liver tissue histology – Perl's Prussian blue, reticulin, Sirius red, Shikata ...

  17. anolyte as an alternative bleach for stained cotton fabrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Serowe College of Education. Private Bag 009. Serowe. Botswana ... and cons that may affect the environment as well as the quality of the final ..... improved as the pH became higher. Effects of anolyte, sodium hypochlorite and distilled water on the removal of tea stain on cotton. Leverette (2013:1) describes a tea stain as a.

  18. Lasers or light sources for treating port-wine stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Olesen, Anne Braae; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Port-wine stains are birthmarks caused by malformations of blood vessels in the skin. Port-wine stains manifest themselves in infancy as a flat, red mark and do not regress spontaneously but may, if untreated, become darker and thicker in adult life. The profusion of various lasers and light...

  19. Decreased mortality associated with prompt Gram staining of blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfanger, Joan; Graham, Donald R; Kolluri, Lavanya; Sangwan, Gaurav; Lawhorn, Jerry; Drake, Cheryl A; Verhulst, Steven J; Peterson, Ryan; Moja, Lauren B; Ertmoed, Matthew M; Moja, Ashley B; Shevlin, Douglas W; Vautrain, Robert; Callahan, Charles D

    2008-12-01

    Gram stains of positive blood cultures are the most important factor influencing appropriate therapy. The sooner appropriate therapy is initiated, the better. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that the sooner Gram stains are performed, the better. To determine the value of timely Gram stains and whether improvement in Gram stain turnaround time (TAT) is feasible, we compared data for matched pairs of patients with cultures processed promptly ( or =1 hour TAT) and then monitored TAT by control charting.In 99 matched pairs, average difference in time to detection of positive blood cultures within a pair of patients was less than 0.1 hour. For the less than 1 hour TAT group, the average TAT and crude mortality were 0.1 hour and 10.1%, respectively; for the 1 hour or longer TAT group, they were 3.3 hours and 19.2%, respectively (P Gram stains.

  20. Mapping stain distribution in pathology slides using whole slide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Cheng Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole slide imaging (WSI offers a novel approach to digitize and review pathology slides, but the voluminous data generated by this technology demand new computational methods for image analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report a method that recognizes stains in WSI data and uses kernel density estimator to calculate the stain density across the digitized pathology slides. The validation study was conducted using a rat model of acute cardiac allograft rejection and another rat model of heart ischemia/reperfusion injury. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was conducted to label ED1 + macrophages in the tissue sections and the stained slides were digitized by a whole slide scanner. The whole slide images were tessellated to enable parallel processing. Pixel-wise stain classification was conducted to classify the IHC stains from those of the background and the density distribution of the identified IHC stains was then calculated by the kernel density estimator. Results: The regression analysis showed a correlation coefficient of 0.8961 between the number of IHC stains counted by our stain recognition algorithm and that by the manual counting, suggesting that our stain recognition algorithm was in good agreement with the manual counting. The density distribution of the IHC stains showed a consistent pattern with those of the cellular magnetic resonance (MR images that detected macrophages labeled by ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide or micron-sized iron-oxide particles. Conclusions: Our method provides a new imaging modality to facilitate clinical diagnosis. It also provides a way to validate/correlate cellular MRI data used for tracking immune-cell infiltration in cardiac transplant rejection and cardiac ischemic injury.

  1. A sensitive cytochemical staining method for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in individual erythrocytes. I. Optimalization of the staining procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Vogels, I. M.; James, J.; Tas, J.

    1982-01-01

    A sensitive cytochemical staining method for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in individual human erythrocytes is described. This staining method can be used for the rapid routine discrimination of patients with a deficiency of the enzyme in its homozygote or heterozygote form, but also

  2. Novel Process for Laser Stain Removal from Archaeological Oil Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nadi, Lotfia; El-Feky, Osama; Abdellatif, Galila; Darwish, Sawsan

    2013-03-01

    Some samples of oil paintings (5 × 5 cm) were prepared on wooden panel with four types of fungi commonly encountered on oil paintings were selected for this study. Each of the fungi is associated with different colored stains. Fungus Alternaria tenuis is associated by a dense black stain, Chetomium globosum by a brownish gray stain, Aspergillus flavus by a yellowish stain, and Fusaruim oxysporum by a pinkish stain. Fungi growing on oil paintings affect the surface characteristics by forming a variety of colored patches typically composed of many complex chemical substances that are produced during metabolic processes. These colored stains may be encrusted in spores, present in mycelium or secreted to a substance such as oil paintings surfaces. While the fungal stains can sometimes be extracted with appropriate solvents, there are some stains that resist solvent extraction entirely. Developing new solvent system that might attack the paint structure, and is time consuming and requires a great deal of trial and error. Mechanical stain removal is also problematic in that it often produces abrasion of the surface, markedly deteriorating the artwork, and is extra ordinarily fine and tedious. For these reasons, we decided to examine an alternative physical technique as a new approach to deal with stain removal. Since the stains are due to the existence of fungi, we thought it a good idea to remove them by singlet oxygen. We applied the photo dynamic process through which the fungi stains were covered with organic dye derivatives in solution under controlled illumination in the lab. The samples were then irradiated by low power Laser light from a He-Ne laser, the dye will be photodecomposed and produce singlet oxygen. We report in this work the results obtained as a function of: - The concentration and types of the organic dye in solution, - The presence of certain amounts of liquids added to the solution, - The scanning speed of the laser beam on the sample surface

  3. Rapid staining techniques in cytopathology: a review and comparison of modified protocols for hematoxylin and eosin, Papanicolaou and Romanowsky stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörundsson, Einar; Lumsden, John H.; Jacobs, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review and compare rapid protocols for fixation and staining of cytologic smears. We used fresh surgical specimens from dogs and horses to evaluate and modify, if necessary, previously described rapid staining protocols. Slides were wet-fixed, rehydrated or air-dried. Rapid Papanicolaou, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), and Romanowsky stains were applied, including modification of Diff-Quick stain. The modified rapid staining protocols were simple to use and gave results within 5 minutes that were comparable to those obtained with traditional methods. Advantages of rehydrated vs wet-fixed smears included consistent preparations, a clean background, and equally good or superior nuclear detail.

  4. Effect of Melamine Sponge on Tooth Stain Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Takero; Kawata, Toshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stain removal ability of melamine sponge before aesthetic tooth whitening in extracted teeth. Melamine sponge of thickness 40 mm was compressed and the destruction of the partition wall structure during the compression process was examined under a stereoscopic microscope. An extracted human tooth was cleaned by normal polishing or with melamine sponge for 90 s. To evaluate the stain level, the tooth surfaces were photographed under a stereoscopic microscope at 0, 30, 60 and 90 s. The residual stained region was traced in a high-magnification photograph, and the stain intensity was presented as a change, relative to the intensity before the experiment (0 s). Mechanical cleaning by toothbrushing produced polishing scratches on the tooth surface, whereas use of the melamine sponge resulted in only minimal scratches. As the compression level increased, the stain-removing effect tended to become stronger. Melamine sponge can remove stains from the tooth surface more effectively and less invasively compared to a conventional toothbrush. As no new scratches are made on the tooth surface when using a melamine sponge brush, the risk of re-staining is reduced. Cleaning using a melamine sponge brush can be easily and effectively performed at home and in a dental office.

  5. Are there metallic traces in black extrinsic dental stain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, Limor; Chevion, Mordechai; Berenshtein, Eduard; Faibis, Sarit; Moskovitz, Moti

    2013-05-01

    The detection of ferric ions in samples of black extrinsic dental stain led to the idea that it is comprised of insoluble ferric compounds. The present study examined the chemical composition of black extrinsic dental stain. Plaque was collected from 17 children with black extrinsic dental stain (study group A) and from 15 children without black extrinsic stain (control group), using sterile graphite curettes; and from 4 children with black extrinsic stain (study group B), using a standard sterile metal curette. Samples were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and subjected to quantitative chemical analysis (energy dispersive spectrometry). Except for calcium and phosphorus levels, no significant differences were found between the chemical composition of black extrinsic dental stain and dental plaque. Metallic ions were not detected in samples collected with a graphite curette (study group A), but were detected in samples collected with a metal curette (study group B). Metallic ions do not seem to be the origin of black extrinsic dental stain. Previous reports of the presence of metallic ions are probably due to contamination of the samples by the collection method.

  6. A novel washing algorithm for underarm stain removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikgoz Tufan, H.; Gocek, I.; Sahin, U. K.; Erdem, I.

    2017-10-01

    After contacting with human sweat which comprise around 27% sebum, anti-perspirants comprising aluminium chloride or its compounds form a jel-like structure whose solubility in water is very poor. In daily use, this jel-like structure closes sweat pores and hinders wetting of skin by sweat. However, when in contact with garments, they form yellowish stains at the underarm of the garments. These stains are very hard to remove with regular machine washing. In this study, first of all, we focused on understanding and simulating such stain formation on the garments. Two alternative procedures are offered to form jel-like structures. On both procedures, commercially available spray or deo-stick type anti-perspirants, standard acidic and basic sweat solutions and artificial sebum are used to form jel-like structures, and they are applied on fabric in order to get hard stains. Secondly, after simulation of the stain on the fabric, we put our efforts on developing a washing algorithm specifically designed for removal of underarm stains. Eight alternative washing algorithms are offered with varying washing temperature, amounts of detergent, and pre-stain removal procedures. Better algorithm is selected by comparison of Tristimulus Y values after washing.

  7. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  8. Silver and Cyanine Staining of Oligonucleotides in Polyacrylamide Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weizhong; Zhou, Huafu; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To explore why some oligonucleotides in denaturing polyacrylamide gel could not be silver-stained, 134 different oligonucleotides were analyzed using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis stained with silver and asymmetric cyanine. As a result, we found that the sensitivity of oligos (dA), (dC), (dG) and (dT) to silver staining could be ranged as (dA) > (dG) > (dC) > (dT) from high to low. It was unexpected that oligo (dT) was hard to be silver-stained. Moreover, the silver staining of an oligonucleotide containing base T could be partially or completely inhibited by base T. The inhibition of silver staining by base T was a competitive inhibition which could be affected by the amounts of the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, the cis-distance between the argyrophil nucleobase and base T, and the gel concentration. The changes of the intensity of an oligonucleotide band caused by the changes of DNA base composition were diverse and interesting. The intensity of some oligonucleotide bands would significantly change when the changes of DNA base composition accumulated to a certain extent (usually ≥ 4 nt). The sensitivity of cyanine staining of ≤ 11-nt long oligonucleotides could be enhanced about 250-fold by fixing the gels with methanol fixing solution.

  9. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; Horobin, R W

    2012-01-01

    The 11th issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) provides our first impressions of the REACH and ECHA programs. We intend to give a more thorough account of what these important programs actually mean in later editions of News from the Biological Stain Commission. Under the heading...... of Regulatory Affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the opening session of the meeting of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems held on 2-4 June 2010 in Seoul, Republic...

  10. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  11. The Gram stain after more than a century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, A; Doyle, R J

    1996-05-01

    The Gram stain, the most important stain in microbiology, was described more than a century ago. Only within the past decade, however, has an understanding of its mechanism emerged. It now seems clear that the cell wall of Gram-positive microorganisms is responsible for retention of a crystal violet:iodine complex. In Gram-negative cells, the staining procedures damage the cell surface resulting in loss of dye complexes. Gram-positive microorganisms require a relatively thick cell wall, irrespective of composition, to retain the dye. Therefore, Gram-stainability is a function of the cell wall and is not related to chemistry of cell constituents. This review provides a chronology of the Gram stain and discusses its recently discovered mechanism.

  12. Standardization of the Romanowsky staining procedure: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, S A; Marshall, P N; Trobaugh, F E

    1980-01-01

    Commerically available Romanowsky blood stains are variable mixtures of thiazein dyes and brominated fluorescein derivatives with varying degrees of metallic salt contamination in a number of different solvent systems. There is a need for standardized Romanowsky stains of constant composition, which, when used in conjunction with a carefully controlled specimen preparation technique, should give consistent performance. Such a preparation system would be of great value to hematologists in general and would be essential to the validity of data obtained by the digital processing of blood cell images. It is possible to prepare standardized Romanowsky stains as mixtures of two or three dye components, namely, eosin Y, azure B and methylene blue, although azure B has only recently become commercially available at an acceptable degree of purity. The logistic problems of stain standardization are discussed.

  13. The effect of decalcifying solutions on hemosiderin staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Bellis, Maria

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether routine decalcification may reduce the amount of stainable iron that is visible on tissue sections, samples of liver and lung tissue with excessive iron stores were placed in three standard decalcifying solutions (i) formic acid [33%], formaldehyde [4%], and NaCl [0.85%]; (ii) formic acid [30%], formaldehyde [4%], and water; and (iii) nitric acid [5%] for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. After exposure to the decalcifying solutions, the tissues were stained with Perls stain. The slides were examined blind and the intensity of iron staining was scored semiquantitatively from 0 to 3+. The trend in all samples over the course of the experiment (96 h) was for reduction in the intensity of hemosiderin staining. As the amount of stainable hemosiderin in tissues may be significantly altered by decalcification, the absence of hemosiderin in tissues adjacent to a fracture site does not necessarily indicate that the injury was acute. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. NEONATAL OUTCOME IN MECONIUM STAINED DELIVERIES — A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    RAMAN, TS RAGHU; JAYAPRAKASH, DG

    1997-01-01

    This prospective study analyzes the neonatal outcome in deliveries complicated by meconium stained amniotic fluid. In a study of 1000 live born deliveries, meconium staining of amniotic fluid was seen in 50 (5%) deliveries. Out of these, 20 newborns (40%) developed classical signs of meconium aspiration syndrome and were managed according to a predetermined protocol. Multiparity, term deliveries, use of sedatives in mother, intrauterine growth retardation and prolonged labour were some of the...

  15. News from the Biological Stain Commission no. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; Horobin, R W

    2014-01-01

    In the 15(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of Regulatory affairs, the Biological Stain Commission's International Affairs Committee presents information from the plenary meetings of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Clinical laborat...... laboratory testing and in vitro diagnostic test systems held on August 22-24, 2012 in Berlin, Germany. An additional discussion of the use of food dyes in India also is included....

  16. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2007-06-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we compared the colony staining efficiencies of the widely used methylene blue, and Ethidium bromide (ETeB) stains. Results show that the ETeB protocol works well on plastic and is extremely effective for staining colonies on collagen when compared to methylene blue. The key features and advantages of ETeB technique are; (a) reduction in background for colonies grown on collagen and possibly other substrates, (b) the whole procedure takes less than a minute, (c) no post-stain washing step is required which eliminates colony losses for cell lines that are loosely adherent, (d) colony visualization and counting can be done immediately following the staining procedure using a standard UV illuminator and software, and (e) the method works across a wide variety of cell lines. The simplicity and robustness of this procedure should warrant its usage in both small and large-scale clonogenic experiments.

  17. Hierarchical patch-based co-registration of differently stained histopathology slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigitsoy, Mehmet; Schmidt, Günter

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decades, digital pathology has emerged as an alternative way of looking at the tissue at subcellular level. It enables multiplexed analysis of different cell types at micron level. Information about cell types can be extracted by staining sections of a tissue block using different markers. However, robust fusion of structural and functional information from different stains is necessary for reproducible multiplexed analysis. Such a fusion can be obtained via image co-registration by establishing spatial correspondences between tissue sections. Spatial correspondences can then be used to transfer various statistics about cell types between sections. However, the multi-modal nature of images and sparse distribution of interesting cell types pose several challenges for the registration of differently stained tissue sections. In this work, we propose a co-registration framework that efficiently addresses such challenges. We present a hierarchical patch-based registration of intensity normalized tissue sections. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the potential of the proposed technique for the fusion of multi-modal information from differently stained digital histopathology sections.

  18. Immunocytochemical distinction between primary and secondary granule formation in developing human neutrophils: correlations with Romanowsky stains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryzwansky, K.B.; Rausch, P.G.; Spitznagel, J.K.; Herion, J.C.

    1979-02-01

    Electron-microscopic studies with peroxidase cytochemistry have shown that primary (azurophilic) granules in human neutrophils are synthesized in promyelocytes, while secondary (specific) granules are formed in myelocytes. However, these studies were limited by the lack of specific markers for secondary granules and by the inability to make direct comparisons of electron-microscopic morphology with the light-microscopic appearance of the same cell. Thus secondary granules cannot be identified reliably and the relevance of these findings to the light-microscopic interpretation of clinical bone marrow specimens cannot be evaluated. To circumvent these problems, we developed a method to permit immunofluorescent demonstration of primary and secondary granule markers in cells stained with Romanowsky agents. Normal human marrow cells were stained with May-Gruenwald-Giemsa and photographed. The slides were decolorized in buffered glycerine and saline for 24 hr and then stained with fluorescein- and rhodamine-conjugated monospecific antisera to human granulocyte myeloperoxidase, cathepsin G, elastas, lysozyme, and lactoferrin. The same cells were then located and examined for conjugate binding. Double stains with fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled antisera offered the additional advantage of simultaneous identification of primary and secondary granules. This approach confirmed the partition of primary and secondary granule proteins and related their appearance to the maturation of developing neutrophils in normal human bone marrow.

  19. Mast Cell Density in Oral Lesions using Metachromatic Stains: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Chirappurath Natesan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mast Cells (MCs are bone marrow derived granular cells, distributed throughout the body near blood vessels, nerves and subepithelial areas. MC granules stain by basic dyes but are most readily demonstrated by metachromatic dyes such as toluidine blue and azure A. Aim: This study focuses on evaluating and comparing the count of MCs by identification and staining of these cells by azure A with toluidine blue as a control, in normal oral mucosa and in various other oral pathologies. Materials and Methods: Five cases each of Normal Oral Mucosa (NOM, Inflammatory Fibrous Hyperplasia (IFH, Oral Pyogenic Granuloma (OPG, Oral Lichen Planus (OLP and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC were stained with 1% toluidine blue and azure A. Results: Mean MC count was higher in all four lesions when compared to normal oral mucosa with both stains. OLP exhibited the maximum amount of mean MC count when compared to other pathologies under study. With all four lesions, toluidine blue exhibited higher number of MC density (count/high power field compared to azure A. Conclusion: Higher count of MCs was noticed in all four lesions indicating a possible role of MCs in their pathogenesis either directly or indirectly. Also, the number of degranulated MCs was more in OLP followed by OSCC, IFH and OPG.

  20. Highlighting nuclear membrane staining in thyroid neoplasms with emerin: review and diagnostic utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Mary D; Hinrichs, Benjamin; Cohen, Cynthia; Siddiqui, Momin T

    2013-06-01

    Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) with emerin, an integral inner nuclear membrane protein, highlights nuclear membrane details in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We evaluated emerin for highlighting nuclear shape, grooves, inclusions, circumferential nuclear membrane irregularities ("garlands"), deep "stellate" membrane invaginations, and crescents in 34 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cell blocks, PTC (n = 24) and follicular neoplasms (FN) (n = 10). Tissue microarrays were also examined for 182 cases, PTC (n = 95) and non-PTC (n = 87). Emerin IHC of PTC revealed a predominantly oval nuclear shape in the majority of cases, with FN demonstrating round nuclei and FV of PTC showing a roughly equal distribution of round and oval shapes. In addition to oval nuclear shape, the presence of emerin-positive nuclear grooves, circumferential emerin nuclear "garlands," nuclear crescent shapes, and chromatin clearing on cell block H&E staining were significant predictors of PTC by regression analysis. Emerin IHC of thyroid FNA and surgical specimens serves as a useful adjunct to conventional H&E staining in the diagnosis of PTC and its distinction from FN by delineating diagnostic nuclear membrane irregularities ("garlands" and crescents), nuclear grooves, and a characteristic oval nuclear shape. In diagnostically challenging cases with limited cellularity, emerin staining can help to provide a more definitive diagnosis of PTC. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Study of sideroblasts and iron stores in bone marrow aspirates using Perls′ stain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Dharwadkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A bone marrow examination is a critical part of the evaluation of patients with a variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic diseases. A Perls′ or Prussian blue stain demonstrates hemosiderin in bone marrow macrophages and iron within sideroblasts. Examination of iron stain allows detection not only of an increased or decreased proportion of sideroblasts but also of abnormal sideroblasts. We undertook this study to evaluate the iron stores in bone marrow as judged by Perls′ stain. Materials and Methods: A Prospective analysis of 55 bone marrow aspirates in a tertiary care center. Results: Sideroblasts were present in all the cases. They were decreased in iron deficiency anemia (IDA, and few other chronic diseases whereas normal to increase in megaloblastic anemia. According to Gale′s method, cases of IDA had absent or decreased iron stores while those of megaloblastic anemia or normoblastic marrows showed normal to increased stores. Grading by the recent intensive method showed combined functional and iron stores deficiency. Conclusion: Perls′ stain on bone marrow aspirates is an important tool not only for assessing the iron stores, increased or decreased but also to study abnormal sideroblasts.

  2. Non-surgical transfer of 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained equine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HUHTINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI is a fluorescent dye that binds only to the DNA of dead blastomeres of an embryo. The use of DAPI for assessing viabilities of equine Day 6 to 7 embryos was studied. The pregnancy and normal development of the embryo until 20 days after transfer (day of pregnancy termination was used as an indicator of embryonic viability. Eleven embryos were stained with DAPI at room temperature for 15 min. They were then exposed to UV light to visualize staining, and cultured for 2 h before non-surgical transfer to recipient mares. Eight control embryos were cultured for 2 h before transfer to recipient mares. The recipient mares were scanned for pregnancies every other day starting 6 days after transfer. Twenty days after the transfer the pregnant recipient mares received luprostiol to induce abortion of the foetus. The pregnancy rate 6 days after transfer was 82% in the treatment group, and 75% in the control group (P>0.05. One DAPI-stained embryo resorbed and was no longer visible 12 days after transfer. However, this particular recipient mare had a uterine inflammation as shown by examination in the oestrus following embryo transfer. Although the number of embryos is insufficient to demonstrate lack of treatment effect, the high pregnancy rates following DAPI staining should encourage further studies on this subject.;

  3. Quantitative TLC-Image Analysis of Urinary Creatinine Using Iodine Staining and RGB Values

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Emily; West, Caroline; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn

    2015-01-01

    Digital image analysis of the separation results of colorless analytes on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates usually involves using specially tailored software to analyze the images generated from either a UV scanner or UV lamp station with a digital camera or a densitometer. Here, a low-cost alternative setup for quantitative TLC-digital image analysis is demonstrated using a universal staining reagent (iodine vapor), an office scanner and a commonly available software (Microsoft Paint) ...

  4. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  5. The influence of Romanowsky-Giemsa type stains on nuclear and cytoplasmic features of cytological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, E; Wittekind, D

    1989-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the staining pattern of the standard azure B-eosin Y stain with commercial May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stains on cytological specimens by means of high resolution image analysis. Several cytological specimens (blood smears, abdominal serous effusions, bronchial scrape material) were air dried, methanol fixed and stained with the standard azure B-eosin Y stain and with commercial May-Grünwald-Giemsa stains. Integrated optical density (IOD) and colour intensities of cell nuclei and cytoplasm were measured with the IBAS 2000 image analyser. Commercial MGG stains gave much higher coefficients of variation for all parameters than the standard stain. Reproducibility of cell nuclei segmentation versus cytoplasm was significantly better for the standard stain. Contamination of the standard stain with methylene blue partly copied the staining pattern of commercial stains. The standard azure B-eosin Y stain is recommended for high resolution image analysis (HRIA) of cytological samples.

  6. Quantitative TLC-Image Analysis of Urinary Creatinine Using Iodine Staining and RGB Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Emily; West, Caroline; Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn

    2016-04-01

    Digital image analysis of the separation results of colorless analytes on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates usually involves using specially tailored software to analyze the images generated from either a UV scanner or UV lamp station with a digital camera or a densitometer. Here, a low-cost alternative setup for quantitative TLC-digital image analysis is demonstrated using a universal staining reagent (iodine vapor), an office scanner and a commonly available software (Microsoft Paint) for analysis of red, green and blue colors (RGB values). Urinary creatinine is used as a model analyte to represent a sample in complicated biological matrices. Separation was carried out on a silica gel plate using a butanol-NH4OH-H2O (40 : 10 : 50, v/v) mobile phase with a 6-cm solvent front. It is important that the TLC plate be stained evenly and with sufficient staining time. Staining the TLC plate in a 23.4 × 18.8 × 6.8 cm chamber containing about 70 g iodine crystals yielded comparable results for the staining times of 30-60 min. The Green value offered the best results in the linear working range (0.0810-0.9260 mg/mL) and precision (2.03% RSD, n = 10). The detection limit was found to be 0.24 µg per 3 µL spot. Urinary creatinine concentrations determined by TLC-digital image analysis using the green value calibration graph agree well with results obtained from high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Leishman-Giemsa Cocktail - Is it an Effective Stain for Air Dried Cytology Smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddagowda, Shilpa Manigatta; Shashidhar, Hemalatha Anantharamaiah; Prasad, Chinaiah Subramanyam Babu Rajendra

    2017-03-01

    Air dried cytology smears are stained routinely with Romanowsky stains so that the relative cell size, nuclear size, cytoplasmic details, smear background elements and intercellular matrix components are better appreciated. A variety of modified Romanowsky stains are used in cytology. Leishman-Giemsa (LG) cocktail is one of the new staining techniques which can be used for staining the air dried cytology smears. To evaluate the quality of staining of LG cocktail on air dried smears and to compare the quality of staining of LG cocktail with May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) which is the most commonly used stain in cytology. The present prospective comparative study was carried out with 100 cases and two extra smears were prepared for each case and stained with MGG and LG cocktail stains. The stained slides were blinded and were evaluated for the staining characteristics of the nucleus, cytoplasm and background staining. Based on this, scoring was done by two pathologists independently. Quality Index (QI) was calculated by dividing the scores obtained with the total score possible. LG cocktail stained slides were excellent in cytoplasmic staining, granularity, nuclear morphology, background material staining and overall staining characteristics. QI of LG cocktail was 0.8 while that of MGG was 0.59. Staining of air dried smears by LG cocktail has a good QI. It is also cheaper, requires short duration for staining as compared to MGG. Hence, LG cocktail can be an effective replacement for MGG for staining the air dried cytology smears.

  8. The standard Romanowsky-Giemsa stain in histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, D; Schulte, E; Schmidt, G; Frank, G

    1991-01-01

    A new and technically simple Romanowsky-Giemsa (RG) stain is proposed as a standardized technique for use in histology. An RG stock solution (pure azure B 7.5 g/l, eosin Y as eosinic acid 1.2 g/l in dimethylsulfoxide) is diluted to form the working solution with HEPES-buffer, pH 6. Staining time is 30-90 min after formol-calcium solution (or 2-4 hr after formaldehyde-organic acid mixtures). The resulting overstained sections are to be differentiated. A tannic acid-acetic acid combination in an isopropanol-water mixture was found to give optimum results within 100 sec. Subsequent dehydration is in isopropanol only. The staining pattern obtained is polychrome. The distribution of colors in detail is influenced by the modes of pre- and posttreatment. Of practical interest is the development of green and greenish blue colors on collagen fibrils which contrast strongly against the pink of sarcoplasm. For this and other reasons, this RG stain version seems suitable to replace the trichrome Gomori-type trichrome stains under appropriate processing conditions.

  9. ‘Resurrecting Harry Clarke’: Breathing life into stained glass tourism in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Kiely

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, the exponential demand for ‘cultural/heritage’ tourism is increasingly being viewed by tourism stakeholders as an opportunity for value adding revenue generation, wherein both specialist and ‘media programmed’ tourists can seek out designated cultural attractions to satisfy their respective quests for authentic, and/or emotionally charged experiences. Indeed, this international ‘demand’ re-alignment is exemplified in the growth of churches and cathedrals who openly promote their artistic content as ‘must see attractions’. However, despite such utilitarian attractiveness, one wonders if the counter-influences of indifference, protectionism, or fear of heritage commodification, might act to scupper an opportunity to re-envision Harry Clarke’s iconic stained glass church windows as tourist attractions in Ireland? Born in Dublin in 1889, into a city consumed with the heady mix of Catholic Emancipation and artistic rebirth, Harry Clarke grew to pre-eminence among international stained glass artists at the turn of the twentieth century. Yet, despite being universally acclaimed as a master of stained glass creativity, his oeuvre, from a tourism perspective, has been sadly overlooked, with most promotion of Ireland’s twentieth century cultural renaissance being focused both on its literary giants (Joyce, Wilde, Swift, Beckett, Yeats and Stoker, and its traditional music culture. However, with the attendant economic spinoff offered by religious and cultural tourism growth, one wonders if the ubiquitous presence in Irish churches of Harry Clarke’s ecclesiastical stained glass windows might be re-imagined by core and peripheral stakeholders as marketable tourist attractions? Employing a qualitative methodology, involving semi structured interviews with key informants, this paper explores stakeholder awareness of Clarke’s significance as a potential tourist attractor, in addition to the appropriateness of promoting

  10. A staining protocol for identifying secondary compounds in Myrtaceae1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamales, Hernan A.; Scharaschkin, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Here we propose a staining protocol using toluidine blue (TBO) and ruthenium red to reliably identify secondary compounds in the leaves of some species of Myrtaceae. • Methods and Results: Leaves of 10 species representing 10 different genera of Myrtaceae were processed and stained using five different combinations of ruthenium red and TBO. Optimal staining conditions were determined as 1 min of ruthenium red (0.05% aqueous) and 45 s of TBO (0.1% aqueous). Secondary compounds clearly identified under this treatment include mucilage in the mesophyll, polyphenols in the cuticle, lignin in fibers and xylem, tannins and carboxylated polysaccharides in the epidermis, and pectic substances in the primary cell walls. • Conclusions: Potential applications of this protocol include systematic, phytochemical, and ecological investigations in Myrtaceae. It might be applicable to other plant families rich in secondary compounds and could be used as a preliminary screening method for extraction of these elements. PMID:25309840

  11. A staining protocol for identifying secondary compounds in Myrtaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamales, Hernan A; Scharaschkin, Tanya

    2014-10-01

    Here we propose a staining protocol using toluidine blue (TBO) and ruthenium red to reliably identify secondary compounds in the leaves of some species of Myrtaceae. • Leaves of 10 species representing 10 different genera of Myrtaceae were processed and stained using five different combinations of ruthenium red and TBO. Optimal staining conditions were determined as 1 min of ruthenium red (0.05% aqueous) and 45 s of TBO (0.1% aqueous). Secondary compounds clearly identified under this treatment include mucilage in the mesophyll, polyphenols in the cuticle, lignin in fibers and xylem, tannins and carboxylated polysaccharides in the epidermis, and pectic substances in the primary cell walls. • Potential applications of this protocol include systematic, phytochemical, and ecological investigations in Myrtaceae. It might be applicable to other plant families rich in secondary compounds and could be used as a preliminary screening method for extraction of these elements.

  12. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced...... a number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay...... may itself kill sperm, which is likely to confound many common experimental designs in addition to producing artificially low estimates of sperm viability. I further suggest that sperm number should be routinely measured in sperm viability studies, as it may be an important but overlooked source...

  13. Direct gram stain and urease test to detect Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, K G; Dworkin, B M

    1990-01-01

    Antral biopsies were obtained by gastrointestinal endoscopy on 143 adult patients with dyspeptic symptoms of gastritis or peptic ulcer disease. A direct Gram stain and a direct urease test were performed on each biopsy in addition to culture. Forty-three biopsies (30%) were considered positive for Helicobacter pylori based on culture or histologic examination, or both. Thirty-one biopsies (72% sensitivity) were positive for both direct tests, whereas 95 of 100 negative cultures were negative for both tests. Thirty-eight of the 43 positive biopsies were Gram stain positive (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 100%). The direct urease test alone was positive at 4 hr for 29 biopsies (sensitivity, 67%; specificity, 100%) and at 24 hr for 38 biopsies (sensitivity, 74%; specificity, 95%). Rapid presumptive diagnosis of H. pylori in antral biopsies was obtained when at least one direct test, Gram stain or urease, was positive.

  14. Vital staining of coronal dentin in monkey teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronstad, L

    1978-04-01

    Vital staining of monkey incisor teeth with the incisal dentin exposed to the oral environment by attrition was carried out, with the use of a number of dyes (pH and redox indicators). There was a distinct staining of the coronal dentin, regardless of which dye was introduced into the pulpal cavity. The exposed dentin was stained like the unaffected dentin, with the exception of a narrow centrally located zone that extended from the tip of the original pulp horn to the incisal edge of the tooth. The suggestion is that this zone is not unstained because of exposure of the dentin to the oral environment, but because it coincides with an area of the tissue where the pulpal ends of the dentinal tubules are blocked by atubular hard tissue normally laid down in the pulp horn of incisor teeth.

  15. Chromosome-specific staining to detect genetic rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas; Westbrook, Carol

    2013-04-09

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  16. Fully automated registration of vibrational microspectroscopic images in histologically stained tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Niedieker, Daniel; Grosserüschkamp, Frederik; Horn, Melanie; Tannapfel, Andrea; Kallenbach-Thieltges, Angela; Gerwert, Klaus; Mosig, Axel

    2015-11-25

    In recent years, hyperspectral microscopy techniques such as infrared or Raman microscopy have been applied successfully for diagnostic purposes. In many of the corresponding studies, it is common practice to measure one and the same sample under different types of microscopes. Any joint analysis of the two image modalities requires to overlay the images, so that identical positions in the sample are located at the same coordinate in both images. This step, commonly referred to as image registration, has typically been performed manually in the lack of established automated computational registration tools. We propose a corresponding registration algorithm that addresses this registration problem, and demonstrate the robustness of our approach in different constellations of microscopes. First, we deal with subregion registration of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microscopic images in whole-slide histopathological staining images. Second, we register FTIR imaged cores of tissue microarrays in their histopathologically stained counterparts, and finally perform registration of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopic (CARS) images within histopathological staining images. Our validation involves a large variety of samples obtained from colon, bladder, and lung tissue on three different types of microscopes, and demonstrates that our proposed method works fully automated and highly robust in different constellations of microscopes involving diverse types of tissue samples.

  17. FISH and Calcofluor staining techniques to detect in situ filamentous fungal biofilms in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana B; Santos, Isabel M; Paterson, R Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2006-09-01

    Filamentous fungi are a ubiquitous and diverse group of eukaryotic organisms and may contribute, along with bacteria, yeasts, protozoa and viruses, to the formation of biofilms in water distribution systems. However, fungal involvement in biofilms has not been demonstrated unambiguously. Furthermore, these fungi may be responsible for the production of tastes, odours and mycotoxins in drinking water making their early detection important. The detection of fme these problems a combination of two fluorescent techniques for direct detection was tested: (a) Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) employing the universal rRNA probe EUK516, labelled with the red Cy3, followed by (b) staining with Calcofluor White MR2 fluorescent dye which stains fungal cell walls blue. Pure cultures of Penicillium brevicompactum were used to establish the methods followed by separate experiments with real water biofilm samples in PVC-C and cast iron coupons. FISH demonstrated eukaryotic microrganisms after approximately 5 h while the calcofluor method revealed chitinous filamentous structures in less than one hour. When the two methods were combined, additional resolution was obtained from the images of filamentous walls (blue) with intact protoplasm (red). In conclusion, FISH and Calcofluor staining provide rapid, direct and unambiguous information on the involvement of ff in biofilms which form in water.

  18. Automatic analysis of silver-stained comets by CellProfiler software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J E; Romero, I; Barquinero, J F; García, O

    2012-10-09

    The comet assay is one of the most widely used methods to evaluate DNA damage and repair in eukaryotic cells. The comets can be measured by software, in a semi-automatic or automatic process. In this paper, we apply the CellProfiler open-source software for automatic analysis of comets from digitized images, reporting the percentage of tail DNA. A side-by-side comparison of CellProfiler with CASP software demonstrated good agreement between the two packages. Our work demonstrates that automatic measurement of silver-stained comets with open-source software is possible, providing significant time savings. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optical Monte Carlo modeling of a true portwine stain anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Welch, Ashley J.; Smithies, Derek J.; Nelson, Jerry; van Gemert, Martin J.

    1998-04-01

    A unique Monte Carlo program capable of accommodating an arbitrarily complex geometry was used to determine the energy deposition in a true port wine stain anatomy. Serial histologic sections taken from a biopsy of a dark red, laser therapy resistant stain were digitized and used to create the program input for simulation at wavelengths of 532 and 585 nm. At both wavelengths, the greatest energy deposition occurred in the superficial blood vessels, and subsequently decreased with depth as the laser beam was attenuated. However, more energy was deposited in the epidermis and superficial blood vessels at 532 nm than at 585 nm.

  20. DETECTION OF TISSUE MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS BY DIFFERENTIATING IMMUNOPEROXIDASE STAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Lysenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Staining impression smears from organ and tissues with peroxidase conjugated antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex antigens, followed by visualization with diaminobenzidine and Kinyoun stains, ensured the painting of acid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis forms to rubin red, acid-susceptible ones to brown, and tissue cells and microorganisms of other species to blue. Typical bacilli were absent in the lymph nodes of patients and animals with latent infection, but acid-resistant (rubin-red granular forms were encountered in the granulomatous masses. Brown fat cells containing mycobacterial antigens, as well as acid-susceptible granular, reticular, fungoid, and rod-like forms were also found in considerable quantities.

  1. Evaluation Method of Accumulated Cooking Oil Stains in Room

    OpenAIRE

    五十嵐, 由利子; 中村, 和吉; 萬羽, 郁子; Igarashi, Yuriko; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Banba, Ikuko

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion of the oil mist while cooking affects the entire room, leaving stains on the ceiling and walls. The validity of measuring the color difference of stains was examined by installing teflon plates in the kitchen and the adjacent space with a view to assessing the oil diffusion. Four houses were designated for the examination. In each house, four teflon plates (20×40mm) were installed on the ceiling and walls of the kitchen and the space adjacent to it. Then, one plate was removed a...

  2. Image processing techniques for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Ziehl-Neelsen stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaphal, P.; Rao, J.; Comstock, G. W.; Beg, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, laboratory technicians tediously read sputum smears for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. We demonstrate proof of principle of an innovative computational algorithm that successfully recognizes Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in digital images. Automated, multi-stage, color-based Bayesian segmentation identified possible ‘TB objects’, removed artifacts by shape comparison and color-labeled objects as ‘definite’, ‘possible’ or ‘non-TB’, bypassing photomicrographic calibration. Superimposed AFB clusters, extreme stain variation and low depth of field were challenges. Our novel method facilitates electronic diagnosis of TB, permitting wider application in developing countries where fluorescent microscopy is currently inaccessible and unaffordable. We plan refinement and validation in the future. PMID:18419897

  3. Real-time histological imaging of kidneys stained with food dyes using multiphoton microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yasuaki; Kimura, Kazushi; Wang, Shujie; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Akira

    2015-10-01

    We have developed a real-time imaging technique for diagnosis of kidney diseases which is composed of two steps, staining renal cells safely with food dyes and optical sectioning of living renal tissue to obtain histological images by multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Here, we demonstrated that the MPM imaging with food dyes, including erythrosine and indigo carmine, could be used as fluorescent agents to visualize renal functions and structures such as glomerular bloodstreams, glomerular filtration, and morphology of glomeruli and renal tubules. We also showed that the kidneys of IgA nephropathy model-mice stained with the food dyes presented histopathological characteristics different from those observed in normal kidneys. The use of the food dyes enhances the quality of tissue images obtained by MPM and offers the potential to contribute to a clinical real-time diagnosis of kidney diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. EFFECTS OF THE GRAM STAIN ON MICROSPHERES FROM THERMAL POLYAMINO ACIDS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sidney W.; Yuyama, Shuhei

    1963-01-01

    Fox, Sidney W. (The Florida State University, Tallahassee) and Shuhei Yuyama. Effects of the Gram stain on microspheres from thermal polyamino acids. J. Bacteriol. 85:279–283. 1963.—Microspheres produced from acid proteinoid accept the Gram stain. The stain is negative, but microspheres produced from mixtures containing a sufficient proportion of lysine proteinoid stain positive. Microspheres produced from mixtures containing the appropriate proportions contain individuals which stain positive and others which stain negative. Images PMID:13959050

  5. Comparative assessment of seller's staining test (SST) and direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion:The relatively low sensitivity of the SST observed in this study calls for its replacement with the dFAT for accurate ... seller's staining test (SST) and direct fluorescent antibody test for rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies. Afri Health Sci. 2016 ... lack of laboratory equipment and reliable reagents16,17.

  6. Interlaboratory variability of Ki67 staining in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, Cornelia M; Bürger, Horst; van Diest, Paul J; Finsterbusch, Kai; Gläser, Doreen; Korsching, Eberhard; Decker, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Postanalytic issues of Ki67 assessment in breast cancers like counting method standardisation and interrater bias have been subject of various studies, but little is known about analytic variability of Ki67 staining between pathology labs. Our aim was to study interlaboratory variability of Ki67 staining in breast cancer using tissue microarrays (TMAs) and central assessment to minimise preanalytic and postanalytic influences. Thirty European pathology labs stained serial slides of a TMA set of breast cancer tissues with Ki67 according to their routine in-house protocol. The Ki67-labelling index (Ki67-LI) of 70 matched samples was centrally assessed by one observer who counted all cancer cells per sample. We then tested for differences between the labs in Ki67-LI medians by analysing variance on ranks and in proportions of tumours classified as luminal A after dichotomising oestrogen receptor-positive cancers into cancers showing low (Ki67-LI using Cochran's Q. Substantial differences between the 30 labs were indicated for median Ki67-LI (0.65%-33.0%, p cancers classified as luminal A (17%-57%, p Ki67 staining of breast cancer tissue was found between 30 routine pathology labs. Clinical use of the Ki67-LI for therapeutic decisions should be considered only fully aware of lab-specific reference values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative assessment of seller's staining test (SST) and direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rabies causes 55, 000 annual human deaths globally and about 10,000 people are exposed annually in Nigeria. Diagnosis of animal rabies in most African countries has been by direct microscopic examination. In Nigeria, the Seller's stain test (SST) was employed until 2009. Before then, both SST and dFAT ...

  8. The gram stain smear: A screening test for genital mycoplasmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result of 168 vaginal specimens from women examined for genital mycoplasmas showed that more of these organisms were isolated from specimens whose Gram stain smears were devoid of Gram positive bacilli (GPB) (43%) as against those whose smears contain GPB (22.1%). This result was found to be statistically ...

  9. A comparision of modified and standard papanicolaou staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare modified and standard Papanicolaou (Pap) staining methods in the assessment of the cervical smears. Design: A descriptive cross sectional study. setting: Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: One hundred and sixty two women who were eligible for a pap smear and met the inclusion criteria.

  10. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, Hans O

    2013-01-01

    In the 14(th) issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC) the BSC's International Affairs Committee presents information from the meetings of ISO/TC 212/WG 3, In vitro diagnostic products, and from the final plenary meeting of ISO/TC 212, Clinical laboratory testing and in vitro...

  11. News from the Biological Stain Commission No. 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; Dapson, R W

    2009-01-01

    In this fifth issue of News from the Biological Stain Commission (BSC), under the heading of Regulatory Affairs, the BSC's International Affairs Committee provides more information from the meeting of the International Standards Organization ISO/TC 212 Committee that took place on June 2-4, 2008...

  12. Comparison of Giemsa Staining, Intraperitoneal Injection and Oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Rashidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites in humans and animals in all countries of the world. The aim of this study was to detect Toxoplasma parasite in the brain of wild rats in Tehran using smear preparation, Giemsa staining, Intraperitoneal injection and oral administration to Souri mice. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were collected from different areas of Tehran. Smears were prepared from rat brains on glass slides and stained using Giemsa. In the second method, a cell suspension was prepared from rat brain and was given orally and injected intraperitoneally into Souri mice. In peritoneal method, peritoneum of the mice was examined for parasites. In oral method, the titer of Toxoplasma antibody in sera of Souri mice was determined using Toxoplasma IgG antibody kit and anti-mouse conjugate of Sigma company. Results: All results were negative in Giemsa staining method. In the second method, the results were negative and no parasites were observed in peritoneum of Souri mice. In oral administration method, after ingestion of suspensions by Souri mice and measuring the IgG titer, 50% of them showed a positive titer after one month. Conclusion: In detection of Toxoplasma gondii, the method of smear preparation on glass slides followed by Giemsa staining, and intraperitoneal injection of brain suspensions to Souri mice are of less value in comparison with oral administration of suspensions and determining the titer of IgG in sera of Souri mice.

  13. a comparison of modified and standard papanicolaou staining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-07

    Jul 7, 2011 ... Corporation, Hollywood, Florida Gynecologic. Seminars in Surgical Oncology 1999; 16: 217–221. Gupta, S., Chachra, K. L., Bhadola, P. 7. et al. Modified. Papanicolaou staining protocol with minimum alcohol use: a cost-cutting measure for resource limited. Division of Cytopathology, Institute of Cytology ...

  14. Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    2015-06-08

    Jun 8, 2015 ... Microscopic analysis of MTT stained boar sperm cells. B.M. van den Berg*. Barex Biochemical Products, Seb. Centenweg 45, 1602ML Enkhuizen, The Netherlands. Abstract. The ability of sperm cells to develop colored formazan by reduction of MTT was used earlier to develop a spectrophotometric.

  15. Amalgam stained dentin: a proper substrate for bonding resin composite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtanus, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the use of dental amalgam is mostly abandoned and substituted by tooth colored resin composites that can be bonded to teeth tissues by adhesive techniques. The aim of this thesis was to find out whether dark stained dentin, as often observed after removal of amalgam restorations and

  16. The Stained Glass Paintings of Nigeria's Prime Artists, YCA Grillo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Abstract. Many lamps same Light' investigates the place of agency in the transmutation of indigenous imageries in the art works of the pictorial turn. Through an investigation that entailed an empirical analysis of the works of two Nigerian prime stained glass artists, Yusuf Grillo and David Dale, this study established that in ...

  17. Borax methylene blue: a spectroscopic and staining study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P T; Russo, A; Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-07-01

    Borax methylene blue is quite stable at room temperatures of 22-25 C. At 30 C polychroming is slow; during 50 days in a water bath at this temperature the absorption peak moves from 665 to 656 nm. At 35 C, the absorption peak reaches 660 nm in 7 days, 654 nm in 14. At 60 C polychroming is rapid, the absorption peak reaching 640-620 nm in 3 days. When the pH of the borax methylene blue solutions, normally about 9.0, is adjusted to pH 6.5, the absorption peak remains at 665 nm even when incubated at 60 C for extended periods. When used as a blood stain 0.4 ml borax methylene blue (1% methylene blue in 1% borax), 4 ml acetone, 2 ml borax-acid phosphate buffer to bring the solution to pH 6.5, and distilled water to make 40 ml, with 0.2 ml 1% eosin added just before using, an excellent Nocht-Giemsa type stain is achieved after 30 minutes staining. The material plasmodia P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei stain moderate blue with dark red chromatin and green to black pigment granules. The study confirms Malachowski's 1891 results and explains Gautier's 1896-98 failure to duplicate it.

  18. Christendom's Narratives and the Stained Glass Designs of Yusuf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts a recast of Christendom's narratives in the stained glass designs of Yusuf Cameron Adebayo Grillo as the distinctive overarching mechanism of the evangelisation paradigm of the post Vatican II Church. It, therefore, draws attention to the delimitation of time frames in the history of the art form. Using the ...

  19. A generally applicable sequential alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical double staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, Chris M.; Teeling, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A universal type of sequential double alkaline phosphatase immunohistochemical staining is described that can be used for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and cryostat tissue sections from human and mouse origin. It consists of two alkaline phosphatase detection systems including enzymatic

  20. Color and dichroism of silver-stained glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Gloria; Murcia, Sonia; Molera, Judit; Roldan, Clodoaldo; Crespo, Daniel; Pradell, Trinitat

    2013-01-01

    Yellow decorations in glasses have been produced since the beginning of the fourteenth century by incorporating metallic silver nanoparticles into the glass (from a few to some tens of nanometers). The optical response of the glass-particles composite is determined by the surface plasmon resonance absorption and scattering of the nanometric metallic particles. Generally, the same color is perceived in reflection and in transmission although dichroic effects are occasionally observed. As silver-stained glasses were designed to be observed in transmission, tuning the transmission color from yellow to red was of technological interest. The relationship between the color observed both in transmission and reflection and the composition and nanostructure of regular (yellow) and dichroic (yellow and red) silver stains from the Renaissance (late fifteenth and sixteenth century, respectively) is related to the presence of a layer (of about 10–20 μm thick) of metallic silver nanoparticles (from few to 100 nm in size). The correlation between the colors observed and the silver stain nanostructure is studied with particular emphasis on the origin of the dichroic behavior. The optical response is computed and compared to the experimental data. Differences in the synthesis parameters responsible for the colors and for the dichroic behavior of the silver stain glasses are proposed. This is essential for the replication of the glass pieces which are required as replacements in the restoration/conservation of the windows but is also of broader interest

  1. [Pnemocystis jiroveci pneumonia: Comparison between conventional PCR and staining techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouech, E; Kallel, K; Anane, S; Belhadj, S; Abdellatif, S; Mnif, K; Ben Othmane, T; Ben Lakhal, S; Kilani, B; Ben Châabane, T; Chaker, E

    2009-07-01

    Diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia is usually based on clinical features and X-rays photography and confirmed in the laboratory by visualisation of Pneumocystis organisms in stained preparations of respiratory specimens using several techniques (Gomori-Grocott, May-Grünwald Giemsa, bleu de toluidine O). Actually, PCR has considerably increased sensitivity of detection of Pneumocystis. The aim of this study is to compare conventional PCR results to those of staining techniques (Gomori-Grocott, May-Grünwald Giemsa) in addition to the X-ray and clinical findings in order to evaluate the contribution of each method. Sixty-four respiratory specimens were collected from 54 immuno-compromised patients with clinical symptoms of pulmonary infection. We diagnosed pneumocystis pneumonia in 16 patients according to staining techniques and/or typical clinical and radiological findings and/or response to treatment. Of the 15 patients, 14 were positive by PCR and only five were positive by direct examination, yielding a sensitivity and specificity of 93.3 and 87.1% for PCR and 33.3 and 100% for staining techniques. Conventional PCR provides a sensitive and objective method for the detection Pneumocystis jiroveci from less invasive sample.

  2. Black stain and dental caries in Filipino schoolchildren.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Monse, B.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Black stain is defined as dark pigmented exogenous substance in lines or dots parallel to the gingival margin and firmly adherent to the enamel at the cervical third of the tooth crowns in the primary and permanent dentition. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of black

  3. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid – what is the evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opinions regarding the significance of meconium-stained liquor detected during labour have varied although there is consensus that meconium aspirated into the lungs of the neonate may lead to meconium aspiration syndrome. The efficacy of various interventions designed to prevent meconium aspiration syndrome are ...

  4. Image analysis of dye stained patterns in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Christina; Trancón y Widemann, Baltasar; Lange, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Quality of surface water and groundwater is directly affected by flow processes in the unsaturated zone. In general, it is difficult to measure or model water flow. Indeed, parametrization of hydrological models is problematic and often no unique solution exists. To visualise flow patterns in soils directly dye tracer studies can be done. These experiments provide images of stained soil profiles and their evaluation demands knowledge in hydrology as well as in image analysis and statistics. First, these photographs are converted to binary images classifying the pixels in dye stained and non-stained ones. Then, some feature extraction is necessary to discern relevant hydrological information. In our study we propose to use several index functions to extract different (ideally complementary) features. We associate each image row with a feature vector (i.e. a certain number of image function values) and use these features to cluster the image rows to identify similar image areas. Because images of stained profiles might have different reasonable clusterings, we calculate multiple consensus clusterings. An expert can explore these different solutions and base his/her interpretation of predominant flow mechanisms on quantitative (objective) criteria. The complete workflow from reading-in binary images to final clusterings has been implemented in the free R system, a language and environment for statistical computing. The calculation of image indices is part of our own package Indigo, manipulation of binary images, clustering and visualization of results are done using either build-in facilities in R, additional R packages or the LATEX system.

  5. Comparison of various staining techniques in the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant moderate level of agreement between the staining methods though trichrome showed a stronger agreement than auramine when compared with Modified ZN in test (κ value 0.569 and 0.553 respectively), and a significant, fair level of agreement between the methods with Auramine showing a ...

  6. Comparism of Various Staining Techniques in the Diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    value of 69.9%, negative predictive value of 85.2% in test subjects. There was a significant moderate level of agreement between the staining methods though. Trichrome showed a stronger agreement than Auramine when compared with Modified ZN in test (к value 0.569 and 0.553 respectively), and a significant, fair level ...

  7. Standardization in biological staining. The influence of dye manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of biological staining is to obtain specimens of biological material that can be assessed in the microscope. These specimens are influenced by all processes from removal from the intact organism to mounting on the microscopic slide. To achieve comparable results with various techniques...

  8. Interlaboratory variability of Ki67 staining in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, Cornelia M.; Bürger, Horst; van Diest, Paul J.; Finsterbusch, Kai; Gläser, Doreen; Korsching, Eberhard; Decker, Thomas; Anders, M.; Bollmann, R.; Eiting, Fr; Friedrich, K.; Habeck, J. O.; Haroske, G.; Hinrichs, B.; Behrens, A.; Krause, Lars Udo; Braun-Lang, U.; Lorenzen, J.; Minew, N.; Mlynek-Kersjes, M.; Nenning, H.; Packeisen, J.; Poche-de Vos, F.; Reyher-Klein, S.; Rothacker, D.; Schultz, M.; Sturm, U.; Tawfik, M.; Berghäuser, K. H.; Böcker, W; Cserni, G.; Habedank, S.; Lax, S.; Moinfar, F.; Regitnig, P.; Reiner-Concin, A.; Rüschoff, J.; Varga, Z.; Woziwodski, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Postanalytic issues of Ki67 assessment in breast cancers like counting method standardisation and interrater bias have been subject of various studies, but little is known about analytic variability of Ki67 staining between pathology labs. Our aim was to study interlaboratory variability

  9. Hydrochloric vs. sulphuric acid in water for Ziehl-Neelsen staining of acid-fast bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, K J M; Nandi, P; Hamid Salim, A; Hossain, A; Van Deun, A

    2011-07-01

    Damien Foundation Bangladesh tuberculosis (TB) control projects. To compare 25% sulphuric acid in water (H(2)SO(4)) with hydrochloric acid in water (HCl) to differentiate acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears stained with 1% carbolfuchsin. For 1 year, all 158 microscopy laboratories used either H(2)SO(4) or 3%/6%/10% HCl for their routine work, alternating monthly between H(2)SO(4) and HCl. Each month a sample of five smears per laboratory was rechecked blind. After recording qualitative staining aspects, all sample smears were restained before rechecking, using H(2)SO(4) for destaining. A total of 368,059 H(2)SO(4) and 335,436 HCl smears were routinely read, yielding 7.2% positive or scanty results in both groups. Of these, 9492 were rechecked. There was no difference in false-negatives detected (0.66%, 95%CI 0.44-0.95 for H(2)SO(4) vs. 0.68%, 95%CI 0.46-0.98 for HCl), but apparently there were more false-positives with H(2)SO(4) (2.12%, 95%CI 0.92-4.14 vs. 0.28%, 95%CI 0.00-1.54, P = 0.05). Qualitatively, only 3% HCl yielded significantly inferior differentiation results. HCl 6-10% in water can be recommended for Ziehl-Neelsen destaining above H(2)SO(4). Diluting is easier and safer, and it may cause less confusion with false-positives during rechecking, including a restaining step.

  10. Standardization of reagents and methods used in cytological and histological practice with emphasis on dyes, stains and chromogenic reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; De Leenheer, A P; Horobin, R W

    1994-01-01

    The need for the standardization of reagents and methods used in the histology laboratory is demonstrated. After definitions of dyes, stains, and chromogenic reagents, existing standards and standards organizations are discussed. This is followed by practical instructions on how to standardize dyes...

  11. Development of a preparation and staining method for fetal erythroblasts in maternal blood : Simultaneous immunocytochemical staining and FISH analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; van den Burg, MJM; Beverstock, GC; Bernini, LF; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Kanhai, HHH; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    In order to detect fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) in maternal blood, a protocol was developed which aimed at producing a reliable staining method for combined immunocytochemical and FISH analysis. The technique had to be suitable for eventual automated screening of slides. Chorionic villi

  12. Detection of stain formation on teeth by oral antiseptic solution using fiber optic displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, H. A.; Rahim, H. R. A.; Harun, S. W.; Yasin, M.; Apsari, R.; Ahmad, H.; Wan Abas, W. A. B.

    2013-02-01

    The application of a simple intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor for the detection of stain formation on human teeth is demonstrated. The proposed sensor uses a concentric type bundled plastic optical fiber (POF) as a probe in conjunction with the surfaces of five human teeth as the reflecting targets. Prior to the experiment, the stains were produced extrinsically by soaking the teeth in different concentrations of oral antiseptic solution containing hexetidine. The concentration of the oral antiseptic solution is measured in volume%. For a concentration change from 0% to 80%, the peak voltage decreases exponentially from 1.15 mV to 0.41 mV with a measured resolution of 0.48% and 1.75% for concentration ranges of 0-40% and 40-80%, respectively. The correlation between the detector output and variation in the color of human tooth surface has successfully been examined. Simple in design and low in cost, this sensor can detect color changes due to hexetidine-induced stain on a tooth surface in a fast and convenient way. Thus, this sensor will be very promising in esthetic dentistry, dental color matching techniques, chemical and biomedical applications.

  13. [The adhesive properties of two bonding systems to tetracycline stained dentin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H L; Liang, K N; Cheng, L; Li, J Y; He, L B

    2016-01-01

    To investigate and compare the bonding properties of Single Bond 2 and SE Bond to tetracycline stained dentin in vitro. Ten extracted tetracycline stained human teeth and ten extracted normal human teeth were collected and the occlusal dentin surfaces of all extracted teeth were exposed. The tetracycline stained teeth and normal teeth were divided into two groups, respectively and randomly, based on the adhesives applied. Total-etch adhesive(Single Bond 2) and self-etch adhesive(SE Bond) were used. After application of the adhesives to the dentin surfaces, composite crowns were built up. After 24 h water storage, the teeth were sectioned longitudinally into sticks(0.9 mm×0.9 mm bonding area) for micro tensile testing or micro Raman spectroscopy detection. Bonding strength(μTBS) and resin conversion rate were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The tetracycline Single Bond 2 group presented lower bonding strength[(16.17 ± 3.16) MPa] than the tetracycline SE Bond group[(25.82 ± 2.62) MPa], and also demonstrated lower bonding strength than the normal Single Bond 2 group[(29.13 ± 2.44) MPa] and the normal SE Bond group[(24.29±2.83) MPa] (P0.05). The resin conversion rate of tetracycline Single Bond 2 group[(55±6)%] was significantly lower than the tetracycline SE Bond group[(66±3)% ](P0.05). The bonding strength of total-etch adhesive system to the tetracycline stained dentin was significantly lower than that to the normal dentin.

  14. Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, David L

    2012-09-01

    The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis.

  15. The accuracy of Gram stain of respiratory specimens in excluding Staphylococcus aureus in ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Tamar; Yossepowitch, Orit; Lerner, Evgenia; Schwartz-Harari, Orna; Soroksky, Arie; Yekutieli, Daniel; Dan, Michael

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the Gram stain of deep tracheal aspirate as a tool to direct empiric antibiotic therapy, and more specifically as a tool to exclude the need for empiric antibiotic coverage against Staphylococcus aureus in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). A prospective, single-center, observational, cohort study. All wards at a community hospital. Adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation, identified as having VAP in a 54-month prospective surveillance database. Sampling of lower airway secretions by deep endotracheal aspiration was taken from each patient who developed VAP. Samples were sent immediately for Gram stain and qualitative bacterial cultures. Demographic and relevant clinical data were collected; Gram stain, culture, and antibiotic susceptibility results were documented; and outcome was followed prospectively. The analysis included 114 consecutive patients with 115 episodes of VAP from June 2007 to January 2012. Sensitivity of Gram stain compared with culture was 90.47% for gram-positive cocci, 69.6% for gram-negative rods, and 50% for sterile cultures. Specificity was 82.5%, 77.8%, and 79%, respectively. Negative predictive value was high for gram-positive cocci (97%) and sterile cultures (96%) but low for gram-negative rods (20%). Acinetobacter baumanii (45%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (38 %) were the prevailing isolates. S aureus was found in 18.3% of the patients. Most isolates were multiresistant. Absence of gram-positive bacteria on Gram stain had a high negative predictive value. These data can be used to narrow the initial empiric antibiotic regimen and to avoid unnecessary exposure of patients to vancomycin and other antistaphyloccocal agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression analysis of polyphenol oxidase isozymes by active staining method and tissue browning of head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takahiro; Iimure, Kazuhiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Saito, Akira

    2017-08-01

    Browning of plant tissue is generally considered attributable to enzymatic oxidation by polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Electrophoresis followed by activity staining has been used as an effective procedure to visually detect and isolate isozymes; however, it has not been applied for examination of various PPO isozymes in lettuce. Our study demonstrated that different lettuce PPO isozymes could be detected at different pH in active staining, and multiple isozymes were detected only under alkaline conditions. As a result, we concluded that activity staining with approximately pH 8 enabled to detect various PPO isozymes in lettuce. By expression analysis of the PPO isozymes after wounding, PPO isozymes that correlated with time-course of tissue browning were detected. The wound-induced PPO may play a key role in enzymatic browning.

  17. Wheat germ agglutinin staining as a suitable method for detection and quantification of fibrosis in cardiac tissue after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Emde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of fibrotic tissue is an important task in the analysis of cardiac remodeling. The use of established fibrosis staining techniques is limited on frozen cardiac tissue sections due to a reduced color contrast compared to paraffin embedded sections. We therefore used FITC-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, which marks fibrotic tissue in comparable quality as the established picrosirius red (SR staining, for the staining of post myocardial infarction scar tissue. The fibrosis amount was quantified in a histogram-based approach using the non-commercial image processing program ImageJ. Our results clearly demonstrate that WGA-FITC is a suitable marker for cardiac fibrosis in frozen tissue sections. In combination with the histogram-based analysis, this new quantification approach is i easy and fast to perform; ii suitable for raw frozen tissue sections; and iii allows the use of additional antibodies in co-immunostaining. 

  18. Morin Stain Detects Aluminum-Containing Macrophages in Macrophagic Myofasciitis and Vaccination Granuloma With High Sensitivity and Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkheidze, Rati; Burns, Dennis K; White, Charles L; Castro, Diana; Fuller, Julie; Cai, Chunyu

    2017-04-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an inflammatory condition associated with the intramuscular (i.m.) injection of aluminum adjuvant-containing vaccines. It is clinically characterized by myalgia, weakness, and chronic fatigue and histologically by aggregates of cohesive macrophages with abundant basophilic, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant granules that percolate through the peri- and endomysium without eliciting substantial myofiber damage. The definitive diagnosis of MMF requires demonstration of aluminum within these macrophages. We evaluated the Morin stain, a simple, 2-step histochemical stain for aluminum, as a confirmatory diagnostic tool for MMF. Among 2270 muscle biopsies processed at UTSW between 2010 and 2015, a total of 12 MMF cases and 1 subcutaneous vaccination granuloma case were identified (11 pediatric, 2 adults). With the Morin stain, all 13 cases showed strong granular reactivity within the cytoplasm of macrophages but not in myofibers or connective tissue. Three cases of inflammatory myopathy with abundant macrophages (IMAM), 8 cases of granulomatous inflammation and 23 other deltoid muscle biopsies used as controls were all negative. Morin stain could be used in both formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and cryostat sections. Thus, Morin stain detects aluminum with high sensitivity and specificity in human muscle and soft tissue and may improve the diagnostic yield of MMF and vaccination granuloma. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.

  19. Combined in situ zymography, immunofluorescence, and staining of iron oxide particles in paraffin-embedded, zinc-fixed tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, Akvile; Schoenzart, Lena; Appler, Franziska; Schnorr, Joerg; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles are used as potent contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In histology, these particles are frequently visualized by Prussian blue iron staining of aldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Recently, zinc salt-based fixative was shown to preserve enzyme activity in paraffin-embedded tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that zinc fixation allows combining in situ zymography with fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC) and iron staining for advanced biologic investigation of iron oxide particle accumulation. Very small iron oxide particles, developed for magnetic resonance angiography, were applied intravenously to BALB/c nude mice. After 3 hours, spleens were explanted and subjected to zinc fixation and paraffin embedding. Cut tissue sections were further processed to in situ zymography, IHC, and Prussian blue staining procedures. The combination of in situ zymography as well as IHC with subsequent Prussian blue iron staining on zinc-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues resulted in excellent histologic images of enzyme activity, protease distribution, and iron oxide particle accumulation. The combination of all three stains on a single section allowed direct comparison with only moderate degradation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled substrate. This protocol is useful for investigating the biologic environment of accumulating iron oxide particles, with excellent preservation of morphology.

  20. PENGARUH SPIRITUALITAS, INTELEKTUALITAS, DAN PROFESIONALISME TERHADAP KINERJA DOSEN STAIN SALATIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Aziz Nugraha Pratama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of each variable spirituality, intellect, and professionalism of the lecturers performance STAIN Salatiga. The population of this study are all tenured State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN Salatiga as many as 107 people. The sampling technique used in this study using simple random sampling and 65 were taken as respondents. With quantitative methods and analysis techniques that use moderated regression analysis (MRA, it can be concluded that (1 spirituality is partially not significantly affect the performance of the faculty; (2 the partial intellect does not significantly affect the performance of the faculty; (3 professionalism partially positive and significant effect on the performance of the lecturer. (4 spirituality, intellect and professionalism of lecturers jointly affect the performance of the lecturer. The study also found that the majority of respondents aged very productive, but they are staying at very far away from the campus.

  1. Selection of Ovine Oocytes by Brilliant Cresyl Blue Staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep oocytes derived from the ovaries collected from the slaughterhouse are often used for research on in vitro embryo production, animal cloning, transgenesis, embryonic stem cells, and other embryo biotechnology aspects. Improving the in vitro culture efficiency of oocytes can provide more materials for similar studies. Generally, determination of oocyte quality is mostly based on the layers of cumulus cells and cytoplasm or cytoplasm uniformity and colors. This requires considerable experience to better identify oocyte quality because of the intense subjectivity involved (Gordon (2003, Madison et al. (1992 and De Loos et al. (1992. BCB staining is a function of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD activity, an enzyme synthesized in developing oocytes, which decreases in activity with maturation. Therefore, unstained oocytes (BCB− are high in G6PD activity, while the less mature oocytes stains are deep blue (BCB+ due to insuffcient G6PD activity to decolorize the BCB dye.

  2. Selection of Ovine Oocytes by Brilliant Cresyl Blue Staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqin; Lin, Jiapeng; Huang, Juncheng; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Yuncheng; Chen, Tong

    2012-01-01

    Sheep oocytes derived from the ovaries collected from the slaughterhouse are often used for research on in vitro embryo production, animal cloning, transgenesis, embryonic stem cells, and other embryo biotechnology aspects. Improving the in vitro culture efficiency of oocytes can provide more materials for similar studies. Generally, determination of oocyte quality is mostly based on the layers of cumulus cells and cytoplasm or cytoplasm uniformity and colors. This requires considerable experience to better identify oocyte quality because of the intense subjectivity involved (Gordon (2003), Madison et al. (1992) and De Loos et al. (1992)). BCB staining is a function of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, an enzyme synthesized in developing oocytes, which decreases in activity with maturation. Therefore, unstained oocytes (BCB−) are high in G6PD activity, while the less mature oocytes stains are deep blue (BCB+) due to insuffcient G6PD activity to decolorize the BCB dye. PMID:22675245

  3. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays

    OpenAIRE

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D.

    2007-01-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we ...

  4. Solid-Color Stains on Western Redcedar and Redwood Siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    You have decided to put wood siding on your new house. Several questions are probably going through your mind: “What’s the best type of wood?” “Should I use paint or stain?” “Should I apply the finish before or after I install the siding?”

  5. Myeloperoxidase staining in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sukhdeep; Acharya, Anirudh B.; Kumar, S. C. Veerendra

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) staining procedure as a reliable, affordable and easily available diagnostic assay for aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Fifteen subjects were recruited in the study wherein five each were diagnosed as aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis respectively, and five were periodontally healthy. Three millilitres (ml) of venous blood was collected using Vacutainers containing ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA) and was...

  6. Comparative analysis of direct fluorescence, Zenon labeling, and quantum dot nanocrystal technology in immunofluorescence staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoling; He, Ju; Partin, James; Vafai, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    A comparative analysis was performed to determine the sensitivity and efficiency of three fluorescent labeling techniques, including direct fluorescent-antibody staining (FA), Zenon labeling, and quantum dot (QD) nanocrystal technology. Two varicella-zoster virus immunoglobin (Ig) G forms, mAb 4F9 and mAb g62, were selected for these studies. The results indicated that: (1) All three methods demonstrated similar brightness and photostability; (2) the time required to conjugate the antibody varied, with Zenon labeling being the quickest; and (3) the stability of each conjugated complex was different, with FITC/rhodamine-conjugated antibody being the most stable.

  7. Meibomian orifices and Marx's line. Studied by triple vital staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, M

    1985-12-01

    The ciliary margins of the lower lids have been vital stained by the lipid-specific Sudan III powder, fluorescein 0.1% and the bottom of the lacrimal river (Marx's line) by lissamine green 1% in 100 cases. The Meibomian orifices are situated in a straight row just in front of the Marx's line in the lipid phase. With increasing age (greater than 50 years) the orifices are more often displaced and also discharge their lipid in the depth of the aqueous phase. The number averaged 21.5 in the lipid phase and 1.7 in the aqueous phase. Active orifices staining with lipid were found in 45% of all orifices in normals, independent of age, and were increased in conjunctivitis in the lipid phase. Lissamine green-stained orifices were independent of age, phase and diagnosis. The anterior edge of Marx's line may run an irregular course in elderly normals (greater than 50 years), significantly more often in conjunctivitis and blepharitis.

  8. Survival of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in modified Romanowsky staining solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misan, Angus; Chan, Wei Yee; Trott, Darren; Hill, Peter B

    2017-08-01

    Stains that are used regularly for patient-side diagnosis to rapidly identify bacterial and fungal infections could become contaminated by common pathogens, such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, during slide immersion. To determine whether the inoculation of S. pseudintermedius into modified Romanowsky type stains (Quick Dip ® ) results in viable bacterial contamination and whether this is influenced by the addition of organic debris (canine hair and skin). A clinical isolate of S. pseudintermedius was inoculated into clean and organically contaminated Quick Dip ® solutions (methanol fixative, eosin, methylene blue), and positive (broth) and negative (bleach) controls. Each solution was tested for the presence of viable bacteria by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL) at various time points. Solutions also were examined under high power microscopy to count the number of visible bacteria at each time point. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was able to survive in the clean and contaminated Quick Dip ® stains for at least one hour, but by 24 h no viable bacteria remained. Survival of the bacteria was not supported in the fixative at any time point. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius remained visible under high power microscopy for up to 2 weeks in all organically contaminated solutions of the Quick Dip ® set. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius only remains viable in eosin and methylene blue for short periods of time, but the prolonged visibility of dead organisms could theoretically lead to the misdiagnosis of cytology samples. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Novel dual-function CellDetect® staining technology: wedding morphology and tinctorial discrimination to detect cervical neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Pavel; Elkeles, Adi; Okon, Elimelech; Kristt, Don; Terkieltaub, Dov; Rivkin, Ilia; Bruchim, Ilan; Fishman, Ami

    2010-11-11

    A persistent goal of oncologic histochemistry is to microscopically identify neoplasia tinctorially. Consequently, the newly developed CellDetect® staining technology, that appears to exhibit this property, warrants clinical evaluation. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic results using CellDetect® to the outcomes of standard microscopic examination based on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining for the recognition of different squamous epithelial phenotypes of the uterine cervix. Pairs of adjacent sections were made from 60 cervical biopsy cases that were diagnosed originally as either normal or neoplastic (CIN, SCC). One section of the pair was stained for H&E; the second section, with CellDetect®. Based on the examination of these pairs by two experienced pathologists, we investigated the following issues:(1) diagnostic agreement between the pathologists on each pair; (2) agreement between H&E and CellDetect® for each pair (3) tinctorial characteristics in micro-regions (n = 130) evaluated as either normal, reactive or neoplastic. Qualitatively, CellDetect®-stained preparations displayed cyto-morphological detail comparable to H&E images. Tinctorially, non-neoplastic cells appeared green/blue when stained withCellDetect®, contrasting with cytologically neoplastic foci, where cells of every grade were red/magenta in color. Due to these tinctorial characteristics, even small foci of neoplasia could be readily distinguished that were inconspicuous on H&E at low magnification. In some instances, this prompted re-examination of the H&E and revision of the diagnosis. Quantitatively, we found that despite diagnostic variation between pathologists, in about 3% of the cases, each pathologist made the same diagnosis regardless of whether CellDetect® or H&E was used, i.e. there was 100% self-agreement for each pathologist between stains. Particularly noteworthy was the finding of a 0% false negative rate, coupled with a 10-15% false positive rate

  10. Comparative study of the efficacy of Wright-Giemsa stain and Liu's stain in the detection of Auer rods in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qing Fang; Xiong, Bei; Chen, Wan Xin; Liu, Xin Yue

    2014-07-01

    In view of the importance of Auer rods in the rapid diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia, we compared the results of Wright-Giemsa stain and Liu's stain (a rapid and simple stain, which is also a kind of modified Romanowsky stain) in the detection of Auer rods. This study was based on 53 cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Two staining methods were respectively performed on the bone marrow smears of these cases, and presence of Auer rods as well as nuclear features, cytoplasmic features and the degree of granularity of the cytoplasm were compared in each case. Our results showed that the occurrence of Auer rods as well as faggots in leukemic promyelocytes were significantly higher under Liu's stain than under Wright-Giemsa stain. Significant differences also existed in the occurrence of hypergranular cells and cytoplasmic protrusions between smears stained with Liu's stain and Wright-Giemsa stain. Liu's stain is important for the rapid diagnosis of suspicious APL, especially in recognizing Auer rods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO SEE THE UTILITY OF MODIFIED ULTRAFAST PAPANICOLAOU (MUFP STAIN OVER STANDARD PAP STAIN IN ROUTINE FNA SMEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Khajuria

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pap stain is an excellent method to review the cytological specimen; however, it is time consuming and costly. Various modifications have been developed in Pap stain of which latest is Modified Ultrafast Pap (MUFP stain which is hybrid of the technique by Romanowsky and conventional Pap stain to reduce the staining time to 90 seconds. AIM Aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and applicability of MUFP stain in fine needle aspiration smears of various organs. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was carried out in the cytopathology laboratory of GMC, Jammu for a period of 6 months from December 2015 to May 2016. A total no of 200 specimens were collected. The samples included 80 lymph node aspiration samples, 40 thyroid FNA samples, 50 breast FNA samples, 25 soft tissue aspirations and 5 salivary gland aspirations. Two smears were kept for fixation in 95% ethanol for staining with standard Pap stain and 2 were air dried for MUFP staining. RESULTS A correct diagnosis was achieved in all the cases. Background was similar in both staining methods. However, well-preserved cell morphology, crisp nuclear outline, good overall staining were well seen with MUFP method when compared with the standard Pap method. CONCLUSION The findings of this study support the use of MUFP method in cytology laboratory over standard Pap method.

  12. Qualitative Inquiry in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... larger social issues. As living human beings in cultural worlds, we are constantly surrounded by 'data' that call for analysis, and as we cope with the different situations and episodes of our lives, we are engaged in understanding and interpreting the world as a form of qualitative inquiry. The book...... helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials....

  13. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  14. Gram stain microbiological pattern of upper extremities suppuration at Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso Nigeria: a fifteen month review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A J; Olaolorun, D A; Meier, D E; Tarpley, J L

    2011-06-01

    Sixty-eight (68) patients with serious upper extremity suppurative infections, presenting within a period of fifteen (15) months, were prospectively studied clinically, Gram stain of aspirates/pus were performed, specimen cultured, planted, and where indicated glucose levels and haemoglobin genotype determined. Half of the patients had hand infections. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from thirty-nine (39) patients. Gram Negative bacilli, including Salmonella were more isolated from patients with diabetes mellitus or Hgb SS or SC. The Gram stain results correlated with the culture result 90%. When Gram Positive cocci were demonstrated in the primary microscopic examination, cultures were not mandatory. When no organism was demonstrated on primary Gram stain or the patient was diabetic or a sickler, cultures of the specimens were done. The Gram stain, well performed, remains a useful, inexpensive, technologically appropriate laboratory test for abetting decision making in patients with upper extremity suppurative infections. Organisms encountered in this study included: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Coliforms.

  15. AutoIHC-scoring: a machine learning framework for automated Allred scoring of molecular expression in ER- and PR-stained breast cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, S; Arun, I; Ahmed, R; Chatterjee, S; Chakraborty, C

    2017-11-01

    In prognostic evaluation of breast cancer Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers namely, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are widely used. The expert pathologist investigates qualitatively the stained tissue slide under microscope to provide the Allred score; which is clinically used for therapeutic decision making. Such qualitative judgment is time-consuming, tedious and more often suffers from interobserver variability. As a result, it leads to imprecise IHC score for ER and PR. To overcome this, there is an urgent need of developing a reliable and efficient IHC quantifier for high throughput decision making. In view of this, our study aims at developing an automated IHC profiler for quantitative assessment of ER and PR molecular expression from stained tissue images. We propose here to use CMYK colour space for positively and negatively stained cell extraction for proportion score. Also colour features are used for quantitative assessment of intensity scoring among the positively stained cells. Five different machine learning models namely artificial neural network, Naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbours, decision tree and random forest are considered for learning the colour features using average red, green and blue pixel values of positively stained cell patches. Fifty cases of ER- and PR-stained tissues have been evaluated for validation with the expert pathologist's score. All five models perform adequately where random forest shows the best correlation with the expert's score (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.9192). In the proposed approach the average variation of diaminobenzidine (DAB) to nuclear area from the expert's score is found to be 7.58%, as compared to 27.83% for state-of-the-art ImmunoRatio software. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Qualitative Tourism Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina; Martini, Annaclaudia; Garcia, Luis-Manuel; Lowry, Linda

    Conducting qualitative research in tourism studies entails engaging with an entire approach, a set of methods that shape project design, conceptual frameworks, data analysis, and anticipated outcomes. Standard qualitative methods are individual interviews, focus groups and ethnography. Solicited

  17. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  18. Quantification of polysaccharides fixed to Gram stained slides using lactophenol cotton blue and digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Dark blue rings and circles emerged when the non-specific polysaccharide stain lactophenol cotton blue was added to Gram stained slides. The dark blue staining is attributable to the presence of capsular polysaccharides and bacterial slime associated with clumps of Gram-negative bacteria.  Since all bacterial cells are glycosylated and concentrate polysaccharides from the media, the majority of cells stain light blue. The contrast between dark and light staining is sufficient to enable a digital image processing thresholding technique to be quantitative with little background noise. Prior to the addition of lactophenol cotton blue, the Gram-stained slides appeared unremarkable, lacking ubiquitous clumps or stained polysaccharides.  Adding lactophenol cotton blue to Gram stained slides is a quick and inexpensive way to screen cell cultures for bacterial slime, clumps and biofilms that are invisible using the Gram stain alone.

  19. Appearance of granulated cells in blood films stained by automated aqueous versus methanolic Romanowsky methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Robin W; Velguth, Karen E

    2010-03-01

    Romanowsky stains are used routinely by veterinary clinical pathology laboratories for cytologic and blood film evaluations. Automated stainers are available for both aqueous and methanolic Romanowsky stains. Mast cell granules and canine distemper virus inclusions are known to stain differently by these 2 methods, but we have noticed differences in the staining characteristics of other granulated cells. The aim of this study was to investigate and document the variable appearance of basophils and large granular lymphocytes in blood films stained using aqueous and methanolic Romanowsky methods. Cytologic preparations from 1 canine mast cell tumor and blood films from 8 dogs, 1 cat, 1 rabbit, and 1 ostrich were stained using an automated aqueous stain (Aerospray 7120, with and without a predip fixative) and an automated methanolic stain (Hematek). Staining quality and intensity of the cytoplasmic granules in mast cells, basophils, and large granular lymphocytes was evaluated subjectively. Cytoplasmic granules of mast cells, basophils, and large granular lymphocytes stained poorly or not at all with the automated aqueous stain but stained prominently and were readily identified with the automated methanolic stain. Use of the predip fixative with the Aerospray method improved the visibility of basophil granules but not mast cell granules, and had a variable affect on the visibility of granules in large granular lymphocytes. Clinical pathologists should be aware of the staining methodology used on the slides they evaluate to avoid incorrect interpretation of granulated cell populations.

  20. The qualitative research proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Klopper, Hester

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation c...

  1. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  2. Authoring Effective Demonstrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Dan; Jensen, Randy; Salas, Eduardo; Rosen, Michael A; Ramachandran, Sowmya; Upshaw, Christin L; Hinkelman, Elizabeth; Lampton, Don

    2007-01-01

    ... or human role-players for each training event. We report our ongoing efforts to (1) research the nature and purpose of demonstration, articulating guidelines for effective demonstration within a training context, and (2...

  3. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  4. Color stability and staining of silorane after prolonged chemical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jesus, Vivian CBR; Martinelli, Nata Luiz; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia

    methacrylate (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE; Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE; Master Fill, Biodinâmica) or silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) composite materials. Initial color was registered in a spectrophotometer. Specimens were divided in four groups and individually stored at 37°C in 0.02N citric acid, 0.02N phosphoric...... perceptible after immersion in water, citric acid, phosphoric acid or ethanol up to 21 days (¿E... of the immersion medium (pacid or citric acid did not influence the color stability or staining susceptibility of the investigated...

  5. Weathering effects on materials from historical stained glass windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Heras, M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A selection of materials (stained glasses, lead cames, support elements and putty from historical stained glass windows of different periods (13th-19th centuries have been studied. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray diffraction were used as characterization techniques. Degradation of historical stained glass windows is due to the particular chemical composition oftlie materials used for their production: stained glasses, lead network, metallic support elements and refilling putty. However, the presence of a given chemical composition is not the only factor involved in the degradation process. It is necessary the occurrence of other external factors that contribute to the development and progress of alteration problems in the materials mentioned above. The presence of gaseous pollution in the air produces a negative interaction with the surface of the stained glass windows materials. Firstly, the stained glasses and the grisailles begin a dealkalinisation process and a silica gel layer is formed during the early contact between the glasses and the wet environment. After that, insoluble salt deposits and corrosion crusts are formed as a consequence of a deeper chemical attack which results in a depolymerisation of the glass network. The lead cames and the metallic support elements are also altered by weathering. Such materials are oxidized and both pits and crusts appear on their surfaces. The transport of ions and other substances from the corrosion crusts of the metallic elements gives rise new deposits upon the stained glasses, which could intensify their own degradation processes. The putty experiments a noticeable shrinkage and cracking. Likewise, adverse environmental conditions favour the transport of putty substances towards the other materials of the stained glass window, thereby increasing the crusts thickness and adding elements that contribute to the total alteration of the

  6. Al behavior in tobacco cells by NAA and staining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iikura, H.; Tanoi, K.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    To study aluminum toxicity for plant, it is important to analyze the behavior of Al in cells. The way how Al is taken up by tobacco cells through lumogallion staining method developed is presented. The fluorescence intensity from the cell was increased rapidly between 4 and 8 hours of 1 mM Al treatment. To calibrate the fluorescence intensity from Al-lumogallion complex, Al amount in the cell was determined by NAA. When the same sample was analyzed by ICP-AES, Al amounts in all the samples were 13% lower than those measured by NAA. (author)

  7. Examination of seminal stain by HPLC assay of phenolphthalein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Manabu; Akane, Atsushi; Mitani, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Okii, Yutaka

    2009-04-01

    Quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to detect semen was investigated in this study. Briefly, 1cm of a gauze thread with a seminal stain was soaked in the reaction mixture (phenolphthalein diphosphate tetrasodium dissolved in acetate buffer) for 5-10 min, and the supernatant was analyzed by HPLC with a spectrophotometric detector. Phenolphthalein was liberated from the reagent in the presence of acid phosphatase, and the liberated phenolphthalein was detected objectively and was unaffected by blood contamination. Since liberation of phenolphthalein from the reagent occurred slightly in control negative samples, the cut-off value of the examination should be set at 1.0 microg/ml.

  8. ANALISIS POTENSI PENERIMAAN KUALITAS ALUMNI PROGRAM STUDI EKONOMI SYARI’AH STAIN KUDUS DITINJAU DARI PERSPEKTIF STAKEHOLDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekawati Rahayu Ningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available GRADUATES RECEPTION QUALITYANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL ECONOMIC STUDIES SYARI’AH IN STAIN KUDUS VIEWED FROM THE PERSPECTIVE STAKEHOLDER. The first aim of  this study was to determine the potential reception of  graduates quality in Shariah Economic Studiesof  STAINKudus in the world of  work. Second, to determine the motivations and needs of  stakeholders on the acceptance of  the quality of  graduates in Economics   Shariah STAIN Kudus.And third, to determine what factors which are supporting and inhibiting the absorption of graduates of the Department of Shariah Economics STAIN Kudus in working world. The theory that was developed as a basis for the analysis is the pyramid theory of  motivation and needs of  Abraham Maslow. By using qualitative research approach, the analysis and discussion of this study are:First, the potential acceptance of  Shariah Economy graduates in the working world, especially in the banking and financial institutions Shari’ah is still very large and potentially growing along with the rapid growth in the number of  banking and financial institutions Shari’ah in Indonesia. Second, motivation and needs of  stakeholders for the graduates reception of Shariah Economic STAIN Kudus is because it is the only college in the state of  religion around the Pantura area having Shariah Economic Studies Program and easily accessible. In addition, in order to establish a more synergistic relationship with the STAIN kudus then either the shari’a banking and financial institutions are willing to accept graduates of  Shariah Economic Studies Program as employees, of course, with the various criteria established in the job requirements. Keywords:Potential,  Quality  Admissions,  Graduates, Economic Shariah, Stakeholder. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah: Pertama, untuk mengetahui potensi penerimaan kualitas alumni Program Studi Ekonomi Syari’ah STAIN Kudus di dunia kerja. Kedua, untuk mengetahui motivasi dan

  9. Buffered Romanowsky-Giemsa method for formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections: taming a traditional stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanović, D; Samardžija, G; Redžek, A; Arnaut, M; Nikin, Z; Stefanović, M

    2017-01-01

    Romanowsky-Giemsa (RG) stains were devised during the 19th century for identifying plasmodia parasites in blood smears. Later, RG stains became standard procedures for hematology and cytology. Numerous attempts have been made to apply RG staining to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections, with varied success. Most published work on this topic described RG staining methods in which sections were overstained, then subjected to acid differentiation; unfortunately, the differentiation step often caused inconsistent staining outcomes. If staining is performed under optimal conditions with control of dye concentration, pH, solution temperature and staining time, no differentiation is required. We used RG and 0.002 M buffer, pH 42, for staining and washing sections. All steps were performed at room temperature. After staining and air drying, sections were washed in 96-100% ethanol to remove extraneous stain. Finally, sections were washed in xylene and mounted using DPX. Staining results were similar to routine hemalum and eosin (H & E) staining. Nuclei were blue; intensity depended largely on chromatin density. RNA-rich sites were purple. Collagen fibers, keratin, muscle cells, erythrocytes and white matter of the central nervous system were stained pinkish and reddish hues. Cartilage matrix, mast cell granules and areas of myxomatous degeneration were purple. Sulfate-rich mucins were stained pale blue, while those lacking sulfate groups were unstained. Deposits of hemosiderin, lipofuscin and melanin were greenish, and calcium deposits were blue. Helicobacter pylori bacteria were violet to purple. The advantages of the method are its close similarity to H & E staining and technical simplicity. Hemosiderin, H. pylori, mast cell granules, melanin and specific granules of different hematopoietic cells, which are invisible or barely distinguishable by H & E staining, are visualized. Other advantages over previous RG stains include shorter staining time and avoidance

  10. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Satu Elo; Maria Kääriäinen; Outi Kanste; Tarja Pölkki; Kati Utriainen; Helvi Kyngäs

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studie...

  11. On the nature of Romanowsky-Giemsa staining and the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect. I. Model experiments on the specificity of azure B-eosin Y stain as compared with other thiazine dye-eosin Y combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, D H; Gehring, T

    1985-03-01

    After incorporation into a polyacrylamide matrix, the biopolymers DNA, RNA, heparin, hyaluronic acid, collagen and the synthetic polymers poly(U) and poly(A, U) were stained with the pure thiazine dyes, Methylene Blue, the Azures and Thionin alone and combined with Eosin Y. Satisfactory spectrophotometric agreement was obtained between the staining reactions of the biopolymers in the artificial matrix and those in their natural surroundings. This was especially true with respect to the specificity of the Azure B-Eosin Y dye-pair, which is based on the generation, on suitable substrates, of a purple colour, the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect (RGE), with an absorbance maximum near 550 nm. In the model experiments, DNA, heparin, hyaluronic acid and collagen were found to be RGE-positive and poly(U), poly(A, U) and RNA RGE-negative. A theory of RGE is proposed which complies with the new and earlier observations: after saturation of available anionic binding sites and aggregate formation by Azure B, electron donor acceptor complexes are formed between Eosin Y and Azure B via hydrogen-bridge formation of the aminosubstituent proton of Azure B and between Eosin Y and the biopolymer surface. Charge-transfer complex formation may also account for the qualitative identity of Azure B-Eosin Y and Azure A-Eosin Y spectra of substrates, which are coloured purple. Quantitatively, Azure A-Eosin Y is less efficient in giving RGE. The generation of RGE is time-dependent. Equilibrium staining is attained after about 120 h. The implications of the results for the biological application of Romanowsky-Giemsa staining are discussed briefly.

  12. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  13. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  14. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14th century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19th century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation.

  15. Color stability of ceramic brackets immersed in potentially staining solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Coser Guignone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the color stability of five types of ceramic brackets after immersion in potentially staining solutions.METHODS: Ninety brackets were divided into 5 groups (n = 18 according to brackets commercial brands and the solutions in which they were immersed (coffee, red wine, coke and artificial saliva. The brackets assessed were Transcend (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA, Radiance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA, Mystique (GAC International Inc., Bohemia, NY, USA and Luxi II (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, CO, USA. Chromatic changes were analyzed with the aid of a reflectance spectrophotometer and by visual inspection at five specific time intervals. Assessment periods were as received from the manufacturer (T0, 24 hours (T1, 72 hours (T2, as well as 7 days (T3 and 14 days (T4 of immersion in the aforementioned solutions. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with ANOVA and Bonferroni correction, as well as to a multivariate profile analysis for independent and paired samples with significance level set at 5%.RESULTS: The duration of the immersion period influenced color alteration of all tested brackets, even though these changes could not always be visually observed. Different behaviors were observed for each immersion solution; however, brackets immersed in one solution progressed similarly despite minor variations.CONCLUSIONS: Staining became more intense over time and all brackets underwent color alterations when immersed in the aforementioned solutions.

  16. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-11-24

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14 th century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19 th century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation.

  17. Coproduction of detergent compatible bacterial enzymes and stain removal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2015-10-01

    Most of the detergents that are presently produced contain the detergent compatible enzymes to improve and accelerate the washing performance by removing tough stains. The process is environment friendly as the use of enzymes in the detergent formulation reduces the utilization of toxic detergent constituents. The current trend is to use the detergent compatible enzymes that are active at low and ambient temperature in order to save energy and maintain fabric quality. As the detergent compatible bacterial enzymes are used together in the detergent formulation, it is important to co-produce the detergent enzymes in a single fermentation medium as the enzyme stability is assured, and production cost gets reduced enormously. The review reports on the production, purification, characterization and application of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases are available. However, there is no specific review or minireview on the concomitant production of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases. In this minireview, the coproduction of detergent compatible enzymes by bacterial species, enzyme stability towards detergents and detergent components, and stain release analysis were discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Visualizing peripheral nerve regeneration by whole mount staining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-peng Dun

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve trauma triggers a well characterised sequence of events both proximal and distal to the site of injury. Axons distal to the injury degenerate, Schwann cells convert to a repair supportive phenotype and macrophages enter the nerve to clear myelin and axonal debris. Following these events, axons must regrow through the distal part of the nerve, re-innervate and finally are re-myelinated by Schwann cells. For nerve crush injuries (axonotmesis, in which the integrity of the nerve is maintained, repair may be relatively effective whereas for nerve transection (neurotmesis repair will likely be very poor as few axons may be able to cross between the two parts of the severed nerve, across the newly generated nerve bridge, to enter the distal stump and regenerate. Analysing axon growth and the cell-cell interactions that occur following both nerve crush and cut injuries has largely been carried out by staining sections of nerve tissue, but this has the obvious disadvantage that it is not possible to follow the paths of regenerating axons in three dimensions within the nerve trunk or nerve bridge. To try and solve this problem, we describe the development and use of a novel whole mount staining protocol that allows the analysis of axonal regeneration, Schwann cell-axon interaction and re-vascularisation of the repairing nerve following nerve cut and crush injuries.

  19. Stained glasses under the nuclear microprobe: A window into history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilarigues, M. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro and R and D Unit Vidro e da Ceramica Para as Artes, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)], E-mail: mgv@fct.unl.pt; Fernandes, P. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro and R and D Unit Vidro e da Ceramica Para as Artes, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Alves, L.C.; Silva, R.C. da [Dep. Fisica, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2009-06-15

    Stained glass fragments from the 15th, 16th and 20th centuries, belonging to Mosteiro de Santa Maria da Vitoria, Batalha (Portugal), were characterised non-destructively in a nuclear microprobe. The work aimed at finding the composition of the glasses and glass paintings and relating these with the corresponding production periods. The elemental compositions of the glass fragments were obtained by means of scanning micro-beam Particle Induced X-ray Emission ({mu}-PIXE) spectrometry in selected cross-sections. These were complemented by micro X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry. Characterisation of colour was performed by optical absorption spectroscopy in the UV-vis range, while the corrosion products were identified by optical microscopy and {mu}-FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectroscopy in combination with the data generated by {mu}-PIXE. Nuclear microprobe analysis allowed unveiling the compositions and structures, in particular of glass paintings and corrosion products. While it is not surprising that Fe, Cu and Pb were the main elements identified in the grisaille paintings of all studied periods, as well as Ag and Cu found in the glasses decorated with yellow silver painting, their distribution gave important clues on the materials and techniques used to manufacture these stained glasses. Furthermore, it allowed establishing a definite relation between the compositions found and the periods of production, with the added bonus of correctly reassigning the manufacturing period of some samples.

  20. Development and Evaluation of Semiautomated Quantification of Lissamine Green Staining of the Bulbar Conjunctiva From Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunya, Vatinee Y; Chen, Min; Zheng, Yuanjie; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Gee, James; Daniel, Ebenezer; O'Sullivan, Ryan; Smith, Eli; Stone, Richard A; Maguire, Maureen G

    2017-10-01

    Lissamine green (LG) staining of the conjunctiva is a key biomarker in evaluating ocular surface disease. The disease currently is assessed using relatively coarse subjective scales. Objective assessment would standardize comparisons over time and between clinicians. To develop a semiautomated, quantitative system to assess lissamine green staining of the bulbar conjunctiva on digital images. Using a standard photography protocol, 35 digital images of the conjunctiva of 11 patients with a diagnosis of dry eye disease based on characteristic signs and symptoms were obtained after topical administration of preservative-free LG, 1%, solution. Images were scored independently by 2 masked ophthalmologists in an academic medical center using the van Bijsterveld and National Eye Institute (NEI) scales. The region of interest was identified by manually marking 7 anatomic landmarks on the images. An objective measure was developed by segmenting the images, forming a vector of key attributes, and then performing a random forest regression. Subjective scores were correlated with the output from a computer algorithm using a cross-validation technique. The ranking of images from least to most staining was compared between the algorithm and the ophthalmologists. The study was conducted from April 26, 2012, through June 2, 2016. Correlation and level of agreement among computerized algorithm scores, van Bijsterveld scale clinical scores, and NEI scale clinical scores. The scores from the automated algorithm correlated well with the mean scores obtained from the gradings of 2 ophthalmologists for the 35 images using the van Bijsterveld scale (Spearman correlation coefficient, rs = 0.79), and moderately with the NEI scale (rs = 0.61) scores. For qualitative ranking of staining, the correlation between the automated algorithm and the 2 ophthalmologists was rs = 0.78 and rs = 0.83. The algorithm performed well when evaluating LG staining of the conjunctiva, as

  1. Computer supported qualitative research

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Luís; Sousa, Francislê; Moreira, António; Lamas, David

    2017-01-01

    This book contains an edited selection of the papers accepted for presentation and discussion at the first International Symposium on Qualitative Research (ISQR2016), held in Porto, Portugal, July 12th-14th, 2016. The book and the symposium features the four main application fields Education, Health, Social Sciences and Engineering and Technology and seven main subjects: Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research (theoretical studies, critical reflection about epistemological dimensions, ontological and axiological); Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies (literature review, integrating results, aggregation studies, meta -analysis, meta- analysis of qualitative meta- synthesis, meta- ethnography); Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (emphasis in research processes that build on mixed methodologies but with priority to qualitative approaches); Data Analysis Types (content analysis , discourse analysis , thematic analysis , narrative analysis , etc.); Innovative processes of Qualitative ...

  2. Extrinsic tooth stain removal efficacy of a sodium bicarbonate dual-phase dentifrice containing calcium and phosphate in a six-week clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Jeffery L; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this clinical investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness in removing existing extrinsic tooth stains of a sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), dual-phase dentifrice containing calcium and phosphate (Test Dentifrice), when compared to a commercial hydrated silica dentifrice (Control Dentifrice), during a six-week period of normal, unsupervised use. This investigation was a double-blind comparison of two equivalent, parallel groups of subjects assigned to use different dentifrices for six weeks. A total of 108 adult male and female subjects qualified for the trial based on the presence of existing extrinsic tooth stains and other inclusion/exclusion criteria. The two groups were balanced for gender, tobacco use, and extrinsic tooth stain scores, and randomly assigned the Test or Control dentifrices. All subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily using only the dentifrice and toothbrush provided, and to refrain from using any other oral hygiene products for the duration of the study. Although product usage was unsupervised after the baseline visit, subjects maintained a treatment diary, and product consumption was monitored to estimate compliance. Oral soft and hard tissue and extrinsic stain assessments (Modified Lobene Stain Index) for each subject were conducted at baseline and after two, four, and six weeks of product use. A total of 107 subjects complied with the protocol and completed the six-week study. Compared to baseline, at the two-, four-, and six-week examinations the Test Dentifrice group had statistically significant reductions in extrinsic tooth stain. In contrast, the Control Dentifrice group did not attain significant reductions from baseline at any of the exams. At both the four-week and six-week examinations, the Test Dentifrice group had significantly lower levels of extrinsic tooth stain than the Control Dentifrice group. A sodium bicarbonate, dual-phase dentifrice containing calcium and phosphate demonstrated

  3. Routine histologic demonstration of helicobacter pylori in gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine histologic demonstration of helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies: should immunohistochemistry replace giemsa stain? ... Method: Thirty-five consecutive endoscopic gastric biopsies obtained from dyspeptic patients, having a histological diagnosis of chronic gastritis were reviewed. Giemsa and IHC were applied ...

  4. STAINING SECTIONS OF WATER-MISCIBLE RESINS .1. EFFECTS OF THE MOLECULAR-SIZE OF THE STAIN, AND OF RESIN CROSS-LINKING, ON THE STAINING OF GLYCOL METHACRYLATE EMBEDDED TISSUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERRITS, PO; HOROBIN, RW; WRIGHT, DJ

    1990-01-01

    Penetration of hydrophilic acid and basic dyes into sections cut from glycol methacrylate (GMA)-embedded tissues was studied; as were the effects on such staining of superficial coatings of thin layers of GMA. Dye size was a major factor in controlling penetration of resin and staining of tissues.

  5. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  6. Effectiveness of clean-up procedures on stain susceptibility of different orthodontic adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pundlik Mane

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Chemical-cure adhesive showed higher stain susceptibility than light-cure adhesive in all clean-up procedures. Both adhesives would show less stain susceptibility with polishing step with rubber cup and pumice.

  7. Simple and Specific Dual-Wavelength Excitable Dye Staining for Glycoprotein Detection in Polyacrylamide Gels and Its Application in Glycoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Hsuan; Wu, Yu-Jen; Lu, Ya-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Kuang H.; Li, Ding-Tzai; Shi, Fong-Ku; Chen, Ching-Chuan; Hsu, Jue-Liang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a commercially available fluorescent dye, Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl hydrazine (LRSH), was designed to specifically stain the glycoproteins in polyacrylamide gels. Through the periodate/Schiff base mechanism, the fluorescent dye readily attaches to glycoproteins and the fluorescence can be simultaneously observed under either 305 nm or 532 nm excitation therefore, the dye-stained glycoproteins can be detected under a regular UV transilluminator or a more elegant laser-based gel scanner. The specificity and detection limit were examined using a standard protein mixture in polyacrylamide gels in this study. The application of this glycoprotein stain dye was further demonstrated using pregnancy urine samples. The fluorescent spots were further digested in gel and their identities confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis and database searching. In addition, the N-glycosylation sites of LRSH-labeled uromodulin were readily mapped via in-gel PNGaseF deglycosylation and LC-MS/MS analysis, which indicated that this fluorescent dye labeling does not interfere with enzymatic deglycosylation. Hence, the application of this simple and specific dual-wavelength excitable dye staining in current glycoproteome research is promising. PMID:21976968

  8. Simple and Specific Dual-Wavelength Excitable Dye Staining for Glycoprotein Detection in Polyacrylamide Gels and Its Application in Glycoproteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a commercially available fluorescent dye, Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl hydrazine (LRSH, was designed to specifically stain the glycoproteins in polyacrylamide gels. Through the periodate/Schiff base mechanism, the fluorescent dye readily attaches to glycoproteins and the fluorescence can be simultaneously observed under either 305 nm or 532 nm excitation therefore, the dye-stained glycoproteins can be detected under a regular UV transilluminator or a more elegant laser-based gel scanner. The specificity and detection limit were examined using a standard protein mixture in polyacrylamide gels in this study. The application of this glycoprotein stain dye was further demonstrated using pregnancy urine samples. The fluorescent spots were further digested in gel and their identities confirmed through LC-MS/MS analysis and database searching. In addition, the N-glycosylation sites of LRSH-labeled uromodulin were readily mapped via in-gel PNGaseF deglycosylation and LC-MS/MS analysis, which indicated that this fluorescent dye labeling does not interfere with enzymatic deglycosylation. Hence, the application of this simple and specific dual-wavelength excitable dye staining in current glycoproteome research is promising.

  9. Maternal and fetal characteristics associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balchin, Imelda; Whittaker, John C; Lamont, Ronald F

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF.......To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF....

  10. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in microculture plates with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, M; Chernesky, M; Mahony, J

    1984-06-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) staining, using a monoclonal antibody, detected two- to fourfold more inclusions than did iodine staining. Of 274 clinical specimens, 53 (19.3%) were positive by IF on passage 1 as compared with 33 (12%) by iodine staining (P less than 0.005). IF-stained inclusions in McCoy cells in the bottom of microculture wells were readily viewed with a long-focal-length objective at a magnification of 250 X.

  11. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in microculture plates with monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, M; Chernesky, M; Mahony, J

    1984-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) staining, using a monoclonal antibody, detected two- to fourfold more inclusions than did iodine staining. Of 274 clinical specimens, 53 (19.3%) were positive by IF on passage 1 as compared with 33 (12%) by iodine staining (P less than 0.005). IF-stained inclusions in McCoy cells in the bottom of microculture wells were readily viewed with a long-focal-length objective at a magnification of 250 X.

  12. My Most Annoying Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Joseph M.

    2006-12-01

    After demonstrating various wave phenemona of pulses and continuous wavetrains in elastic media (slinky, springs, tuning forks etc.) students are still struggling with the concepts of standing waves, reflection and transmission at free and fixed boundaries, interference at nodes and antinodes, and the difference between transverse and longitudinal waves. In this simple demonstration we will overcome any misconceptions concerning these topics.

  13. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  14. Myxosporidiosis in intensively-reared Piaractus mesopotamicus: Histopathological diagnosis by means of Ziehl-Neelsen staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson G. Manrique

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples of different organs from intensively-reared Piaractus mesopotamicus were collected and processed using routine histological techniques in order to produce thin sections for staining with hematoxylin-eosin and with the Ziehl-Neelsen method. Through examination under an optical microscope, myxosporidians of the genera Henneguya sp. and Myxobolus sp. were identified, respectivelyin the gills and kidneys of P. mesopotamicus. Plasmodia with immature spores of Henneguya sp. were located along the secondary lamellae, with total length of 30.45±4.84µm and width of 3.52±0.33µm. Spores of Myxobolus sp. were located in the kidneys, with total length of 8.94±0.82µm and width of 5.59±0.39µm. Histopathological analysis of the gills showed plasmodia containing spores of Henneguya sp., at intralamellar and intravascular localities, at different stages of development. Spores of Myxobolus sp. were identified in the kidneys, in the peritubular region and in the interstices and glomerulus, surrounded by melanomacrophages. Focal hemorrhage was recorded in a few cases. Ziehl-Neelsen staining allowed to identify particular features of the spores and facilitated biometry and enabled classification in comparison with hematoxylin-eosin, thus demonstrating its usefulness for histopathological diagnosis of the parasitosis.

  15. Vegetable cells in Papanicolaou-stained cervical smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasi, Francesco; Tosi, Giovanni; Ruozi, Barbara; Curatola, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Vegetable cells are unusual findings in Papanicolaou-stained cervical smears; these structures could be wrongly mistaken for abnormal human cells, worm eggs, or spores by a cytologist encountering the possibility of meeting those elements in cytological analysis. Five cervicovaginal smears showing similar vegetable cells have been detected over a 3-yr period (2002-2004) in the course of a population screening program for cancer of the uterine cervix in Modena (Italy) involving 32,500 women. According to the clinical histories of the patients, the vaginal pharmaceutical drugs or appliances used were of different types: vaginal lavages, pessaries, and vaginal creams. Following a careful investigation, the only substance that can lead to vegetal elements has been identified as polysaccharide galactomannan, which is one of the excipient present in the drugs used. The authors have identified the origin of these contaminants and the means of pollution, using cytological and pharmaceutical investigation.

  16. Homogeneously staining regions (HSR) in a human malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieux de Salum, S; Slavutsky, I; Besuschio, S; Pavlovsky, A A

    1984-01-01

    A case of nodular malignant melanoma (level V of Clark's classification) with homogeneously staining regions (HSR) on the long arm of one chromosome #2 is described. Ultrastructural observation of melanosomic and promelanosomic granules near Golgi's vesicles confirmed the histologic diagnosis. Chromosome analysis was performed on nine metaphases from a bone marrow sample and 76 metaphases from culture of the malignant skin tumor. G-banding revealed the presence of a clone with trisomy #8 and another cell line with the HSR marker. This is the first report of HSR in human melanoma cells. As HSR has been found only in malignant cells, we believe that among the many factors that influence the patients' clinical evolution and poor response to treatment, the genic imbalance is of the utmost importance.

  17. Fat tissue staining and photodynamic/photothermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Yanina, Irina Yu.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.

    2010-02-01

    Cellulite is considered as a disease of the subcutaneous fat layer that appears mostly in women and consists of changes in fat cell accumulation together with disturbed lymphatic drainage, affecting the external appearance of the skin. The photodynamic and selective photothermal treatments may provide reduction the volume of regional or sitespecific accumulations of subcutaneous adipose tissue on the cellular level. We hypothesize that light irradiation of stained fat tissue at selected temperature leads to fat cell lypolytic activity (the enhancement of lipolysis of cell triglycerides due to expression of lipase activity and cell release of free fat acids (FFAs) due to temporal cell membrane porosity), and cell killing due to apoptosis caused by the induced fat cell stress and/or limited cell necrosis.

  18. Age estimation of blood stains by hemoglobin derivative determination using reflectance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; Nadort, Annemarie; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Blood stains can be crucial in reconstructing crime events. However, no reliable methods are currently available to establish the age of a blood stain on the crime scene. We show that determining the fractions of three hemoglobin derivatives in a blood stain at various ages enables relating these

  19. A Comparison of Heat versus Methanol Fixation for Gram Staining Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerath, Jeanne M.; Roland, Jenna M.; Rossi, Lucas C.; Weishalla, Steven R.; Wolf, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    Gram staining bacteria is a fundamental technique introduced in general biology and microbiology laboratory courses. Two common problems students encounter when Gram staining bacteria are (1) having a difficult time locating bacterial cells on the microscope slide and (2) over-decolorizing bacterial cells during the staining procedure such that…

  20. Combined beta-galactosidase and immunogold/silver staining for immunohistochemistry and DNA in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, W.; van der Loos, C.; Volkers, H.; Lauwen, R.; van den Berg, F.; Houthoff, H. J.; Das, P. K.

    1990-01-01

    A combination of beta-galactosidase enzyme and the immunogold/silver staining method was studied for evaluation of double-staining experiments. Applications are shown for immunohistochemical double staining using two monoclonal antibodies and for combined immunohistochemistry and DNA in situ

  1. Digital simulation of staining in histopathology multispectral images: enhancement and linear transformation of spectral transmittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Pinky A; Yagi, Yukako

    2012-05-01

    Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain is currently the most popular for routine histopathology staining. Special and/or immuno-histochemical (IHC) staining is often requested to further corroborate the initial diagnosis on H&E stained tissue sections. Digital simulation of staining (or digital staining) can be a very valuable tool to produce the desired stained images from the H&E stained tissue sections instantaneously. We present an approach to digital staining of histopathology multispectral images by combining the effects of spectral enhancement and spectral transformation. Spectral enhancement is accomplished by shifting the N-band original spectrum of the multispectral pixel with the weighted difference between the pixel's original and estimated spectrum; the spectrum is estimated using M transformed to the spectral configuration associated to its reaction to a specific stain by utilizing an N × N transformation matrix, which is derived through application of least mean squares method to the enhanced and target spectral transmittance samples of the different tissue components found in the image. Results of our experiments on the digital conversion of an H&E stained multispectral image to its Masson's trichrome stained equivalent show the viability of the method.

  2. 19 CFR 10.52 - Painted, colored or stained glass windows for religious institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Painted, colored or stained glass windows for.... General Provisions Works of Art § 10.52 Painted, colored or stained glass windows for religious institutions. When painted, colored, or stained glass windows or parts thereof, are claimed free of duty under...

  3. Surface discoloration of composite resins: Effects of staining and bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate surface discoloration of three microhybrid composite resins (Esthet•X HD, Clearfil AP-X, Gradia Direct) and five nanohybrid composite resins (Ceram•X, GC Kalore, G-aenial, Grandio, GrandioSO), after staining and bleaching procedures. Materials and Methods: The composite resins were polymerized with a curing light (Celalux II, Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) into 160 silicon molds (6,4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) to obtain identical specimens. Twenty samples for each composite resin were prepared. The specimens were polished using an automated polishing machine with the sequence of 600-, 800-, 1000-grit abrasive paper under water irrigation. The specimens were immersed in tea and distilled water: the specimens were dipped for 20 min, once a day (every 24 h), for 14 days into the drinks. The specimens were then bleached with carbamide peroxide at 17% (Perfect Bleach-Voco). The color of specimens was measured with a spectrophotometer according to the CIE L*a*b* system after light-polymerization of composite resin specimens, after 7 days, after 14 days, and after bleaching. The color difference h index (DEab*) between each measurement was calculated. Statistical analysis was made using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: All specimens showed a significant increase in staining with a similar trend and no significant differences between microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins. After whitening procedures, materials tested showed both significant and unsignificant differences of the h index. Conclusions: Microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins had similar in vitro surface discoloration in tea. After bleaching, discoloration was removed from some composite resins tested. PMID:23559921

  4. Surface discoloration of composite resins: Effects of staining and bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Poggio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate surface discoloration of three microhybrid composite resins (Esthet·X HD, Clearfil AP-X, Gradia Direct and five nanohybrid composite resins (Ceram·X, GC Kalore, G-aenial, Grandio, GrandioSO, after staining and bleaching procedures. Materials and Methods: The composite resins were polymerized with a curing light (Celalux II, Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany into 160 silicon molds (6,4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness to obtain identical specimens. Twenty samples for each composite resin were prepared. The specimens were polished using an automated polishing machine with the sequence of 600-, 800-, 1000-grit abrasive paper under water irrigation. The specimens were immersed in tea and distilled water: the specimens were dipped for 20 min, once a day (every 24 h, for 14 days into the drinks. The specimens were then bleached with carbamide peroxide at 17% (Perfect Bleach-Voco. The color of specimens was measured with a spectrophotometer according to the CIE LFNx01aFNx01bFNx01 system after light-polymerization of composite resin specimens, after 7 days, after 14 days, and after bleaching. The color difference h index (DE abFNx01 between each measurement was calculated. Statistical analysis was made using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All specimens showed a significant increase in staining with a similar trend and no significant differences between microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins. After whitening procedures, materials tested showed both significant and unsignificant differences of the h index. Conclusions: Microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins had similar in vitro surface discoloration in tea. After bleaching, discoloration was removed from some composite resins tested.

  5. Surface discoloration of composite resins: Effects of staining and bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate surface discoloration of three microhybrid composite resins (Esthet•X HD, Clearfil AP-X, Gradia Direct) and five nanohybrid composite resins (Ceram•X, GC Kalore, G-aenial, Grandio, GrandioSO), after staining and bleaching procedures. The composite resins were polymerized with a curing light (Celalux II, Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) into 160 silicon molds (6,4 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) to obtain identical specimens. Twenty samples for each composite resin were prepared. The specimens were polished using an automated polishing machine with the sequence of 600-, 800-, 1000-grit abrasive paper under water irrigation. The specimens were immersed in tea and distilled water: the specimens were dipped for 20 min, once a day (every 24 h), for 14 days into the drinks. The specimens were then bleached with carbamide peroxide at 17% (Perfect Bleach-Voco). The color of specimens was measured with a spectrophotometer according to the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) system after light-polymerization of composite resin specimens, after 7 days, after 14 days, and after bleaching. The color difference h index (DEab(*)) between each measurement was calculated. Statistical analysis was made using analysis of variance (ANOVA). All specimens showed a significant increase in staining with a similar trend and no significant differences between microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins. After whitening procedures, materials tested showed both significant and unsignificant differences of the h index. Microhybrid and nanohybrid composite resins had similar in vitro surface discoloration in tea. After bleaching, discoloration was removed from some composite resins tested.

  6. Evaluating Corneal Fluorescein Staining Using a Novel Automated Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, Francisco; Wang, Haobing; Yin, Jia; Marmalidou, Anna; Dana, Reza

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate interobserver concordance in measured corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) using the National Eye Institute/Industry (NEI) grading scale and the Corneal Fluorescein Staining Index (CFSi), a computer-assisted, objective, centesimal scoring system. We conducted a study to evaluate CFS in clinical photographs of patients with corneal epitheliopathy. One group of clinicians graded CFS in the images using the NEI while a second group applied the CFSi. We evaluated the level of interobserver agreement and differences among CFS scores with each method, level of correlation between the two methods, and distribution of cases based on the CFS severity assigned by each method. The level of interobserver agreement was 0.65 (P < 0.001) with the NEI, and 0.99 (P < 0.001) with the CFSi. There were statistically significant differences among clinicians' measurements obtained with the NEI (P < 0.001), but not with the CFSi (P = 0.78). There was a statistically significant correlation between the CFS scores obtained with the two methods (R = 0.72; P < 0.001). The NEI scale allocated the majority of cases (65%) within the higher quartile in the scale's severity (12-15/15). In contrast, the CFSi allocated the majority of cases (61%) within the lower quartile in the scale's severity (0-25/100). The CFSi is easy to implement, provides higher interobserver consistency, and due to its continuous score can discriminate smaller differences in CFS. Reproducibility of the computer-based system is higher and, interestingly, the system allocates cases of epitheliopathy in different severity categories than clinicians do. The CFSi can be an alternative for objective CFS evaluation in the clinic and in clinical trials.

  7. What Is Qualitative Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The article is an in-depth explanation of qualitative research, an approach increasingly prevalent among today's research communities. After discussing its present spread within the health sciences, the author addresses: 1. Its definition. 2. Its characteristics, as well as its theoretical and procedural background. 3. Its procedures. 4. Differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches. 5. Mixed methods incorporating quantitative research. And in conclusion: 6. The importance of establishing an epistemological perspective in qualitative research.

  8. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-01-01

    The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability). Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of ca...

  9. PEMBELAJARAN DAN PENILAIAN BERORIENTASI NILAI (AKHLAK DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP PERILAKU MAHASISWA STAIN PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Muchlis Solichin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Education represents the effort of systematic to bear quality grad of professional, for the reason must always innovate and reorientation at curriculum and study models so that it can face the challenge especially of the values friction at Islam and Indonesia of effect of culture and ideology contention of interracial and religion.Education model or formal in the form of study is claimed to orient at value (behavior. STAIN Pamekasan as education institution is claimed to emphasize behavior education as materialization of vision mission which tread on at islamic value and at Indonesia. This research is focused at how study and assessment which orient the value ( behavior and how study impact and the assessment to student behavior. This research comes near with qualitative paradigm by means of compiler of interview data, observation and documentation to be analysed and interpreted in taking conclusion. Result of research is obtained, that is; there are some study model and assessment which orient the value (behavior, that is; to express the meaning from some theories, to connective the theoretical study with various value in life, to express the science benefit at subject constructed , explaining values implied in science area at the subject, explaining values implied in science area, practicing on behavior values.

  10. Comparing Demonstratives in Kwa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nt'. The following sub-sections discuss the categories of demonstratives in the various languages in more detail. 3.1. Akan ...... languages: a classification and description of Africa s largest family,. 216-245. Lanham: University Press of America.

  11. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  12. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  13. Innovative technology demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-04-01

    The Innovative Technology Demonstration (ITD) program at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB), Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, will demonstrate the overall utility and effectiveness of innovative technologies for site characterization, monitoring, and remediation of selected contaminated test sites. The current demonstration test sites include a CERCLA site on the NPL list, located under a building (Building 3001) that houses a large active industrial complex used for rebuilding military aircraft, and a site beneath and surrounding an abandoned underground tank vault used for storage of jet fuels and solvents. The site under Building 3001 (the NW Test Site) is contaminated with TCE and Cr +6 ; the site with the fuel storage vault (the SW Tanks Site) is contaminated with fuels, BTEX and TCE. These sites and others have been identified for cleanup under the Air Force's Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This document describes the demonstrations that have been conducted or are planned for the TAFB

  14. Validity in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, R; Chase, S K; Mandle, C L

    2001-07-01

    Much contemporary dialogue has centered on the difficulty of establishing validity criteria in qualitative research. Developing validity standards in qualitative research is challenging because of the necessity to incorporate rigor and subjectivity as well as creativity into the scientific process. This article explores the extant issues related to the science and art of qualitative research and proposes a synthesis of contemporary viewpoints. A distinction between primary and secondary validity criteria in qualitative research is made with credibility, authenticity, criticality, and integrity identified as primary validity criteria and explicitness, vividness, creativity, thoroughness, congruence, and sensitivity identified as secondary validity criteria.

  15. Overview of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are a robust tool for chaplaincy research questions. Similar to much of chaplaincy clinical care, qualitative research generally works with written texts, often transcriptions of individual interviews or focus group conversations and seeks to understand the meaning of experience in a study sample. This article describes three common methodologies: ethnography, grounded theory, and phenomenology. Issues to consider relating to the study sample, design, and analysis are discussed. Enhancing the validity of the data, as well reliability and ethical issues in qualitative research are described. Qualitative research is an accessible way for chaplains to contribute new knowledge about the sacred dimension of people's lived experience.

  16. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  17. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  18. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities

  19. Methyl green-pyronin Y staining of nucleic acids: studies on the effects of staining time, dye composition and diffusion rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H O

    2003-01-01

    of hypotheses have been put forward concerning kinetics and binding mechanisms. Using both filter paper models containing DNA, RNA or heparin and histological sections, we have attempted to evaluate the kinetics of staining and the role of staining time for methyl green and pyronin Y by applying the dyes...

  20. Cell wall staining with Trypan blue enables quantitative analysis of morphological changes in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Marek, Magdalena; Günther-Pomorski, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    staining with fluorescent dyes is a valuable tool. Furthermore, cell wall staining is used to facilitate sub-cellular localization experiments with fluorescently-labeled proteins and the detection of yeast cells in non-fungal host tissues. Here, we report staining of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall...... with Trypan Blue, which emits strong red fluorescence upon binding to chitin and yeast glucan; thereby, it facilitates cell wall analysis by confocal and super-resolution microscopy. The staining pattern of Trypan Blue was similar to that of the widely used UV-excitable, blue fluorescent cell wall stain...

  1. Recognition of Pneumocystis carinii by gram stain in impression smears of lung tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felegie, T P; Pasculle, A W; Dekker, A

    1984-01-01

    In 12 of 20 (60%) biopsy-proven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the diagnosis was first suggested by examination of routine Gram stains of impression smears made from infected lung tissue and later confirmed by methenamine-silver staining. The cysts appeared as 5- to 7-microns unstained spheres, each containing six to eight intracystic gram-negative bodies (sporozoites). Although the Gram stain does not appear to be as sensitive as more traditional staining techniques for the detection of P. carinii, clinical microbiologists should be aware of the morphology of this organism in gram-stained specimens because this relatively simple procedure gives quick results. Images PMID:6084017

  2. Clinical Utility of an Automated Instrument for Gram Staining Single Slides ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Mix, Samantha; Moradi, Wais

    2010-01-01

    Gram stains of 87 different clinical samples were prepared by the laboratory's conventional methods (automated or manual) and by a new single-slide-type automated staining instrument, GG&B AGS-1000. Gram stains from either heat- or methanol-fixed slides stained with the new instrument were easy to interpret, and results were essentially the same as those from the methanol-fixed slides prepared as a part of the routine workflow. This instrument is well suited to a rapid-response laboratory where Gram stain requests are commonly received on a stat basis. PMID:20410348

  3. Clinical utility of an automated instrument for gram staining single slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Mix, Samantha; Moradi, Wais

    2010-06-01

    Gram stains of 87 different clinical samples were prepared by the laboratory's conventional methods (automated or manual) and by a new single-slide-type automated staining instrument, GG&B AGS-1000. Gram stains from either heat- or methanol-fixed slides stained with the new instrument were easy to interpret, and results were essentially the same as those from the methanol-fixed slides prepared as a part of the routine workflow. This instrument is well suited to a rapid-response laboratory where Gram stain requests are commonly received on a stat basis.

  4. A Nev Simplified Stain Extracted From The Petals of Kujarat Tea Flovers ( Hibiscus Subdariffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Z. Javadat

    2018-01-01

    The results of staining with Kujarat stain proved to be highly efficient when compared with routine stains ( such as iodine and. trichrome. In addition to that no differences vere observed between the watery and alcoholic extractsJ so the present work recommended the use of watery solution of stain ( in saline at the concentration of ( 8% wt.! vol. for both routine and teaching purposes. The dried petals can be easi1y obtained from the local markets with a cheep price and then the stain can be sasily prepared at any time.

  5. Reliable and durable Golgi staining of brain tissue from human autopsies and experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Petrushevski, Vladimir M; Stankov, Aleksandar; Dika, Ani; Jakovski, Zlatko; Pavlovski, Goran; Davcheva, Natasha; Lipkin, Richard; Schnieder, Tatiana; Scobie, Kimberley; Duma, Aleksej; Dwork, Andrew J

    2014-06-15

    Golgi stains are notoriously capricious, particularly when applied to human brain. The well-known difficulties, which include complete failure of impregnation, patchy staining, unstable staining, and extensive crystalline deposits in superficial sections, have discouraged many from attempting to use these techniques. A reliable method that produces uniform impregnation in tissue from human autopsies and experimental animals is needed. The method described, "NeoGolgi", modifies previous Golgi-Cox protocols (Glaser and Van der Loos, 1981). Changes include: much longer time (>10 weeks) in Golgi solution, agitation on a slowly rocking platform, more gradual infiltration with Parlodion, more thorough removal of excess staining solution during embedding, and shorter exposure to ammonia after infiltration. The procedure has successfully stained over 220 consecutive frontal or hippocampal blocks from more than 175 consecutive human autopsy cases. Dendritic spines are easily recognized, and background is clear, allowing examination of very thick (200 μm) sections. Stained neurons are evenly distributed within cortical regions. The stain is stable for at least eight years. Most importantly, all stained neurons are apparently well-impregnated, eliminating ambiguity between pathology and poor impregnation that is inherent to other methods. Most methods of Golgi staining are poorly predictable. They often fail completely, staining is patchy, and abnormal morphology is often indistinguishable from poor impregnation. "NeoGolgi" overcomes these problems. Starting with unfixed tissue, it is possible to obtain Golgi staining of predictably high quality in brains from human autopsies and experimental animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of four staining methods for detection of mast cells in equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, Mathilde; Desnoyers, Michel; Beauchamp, Guy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Mast cells normally are present in equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), but usually represent Romanowsky method to stain mast cell granules with that of 3 metachromatic stains: automated Romanowsky, May-Grünwald Giemsa, and toluidine blue stains. The BALF cells from 24 horses were studied. A differential cell count was performed blindly on 400 cells. The percentages of mast cells obtained were analyzed by means of repeated-measures analysis of variance and Fischer's PLSD test. The Bland and Altman method was used to assess agreement among stains. The mean percentage of mast cells in BALF was significantly lower with the fast Romanowsky than with the automated Romanowsky, May-Grünwald Giemsa, and toluidine blue stains. With the fast Romanowsky stain, the metachromatic granules of mast cells were not stained, and their identification was based on morphologic criteria. Toluidine blue staining allowed detection of the highest mean percentage of mast cells, but was inadequate for performing a differential cell count on other cell types. In conclusion, fast Romanosky stain may be inadequate for detection of mast cells in equine BALF, whereas automated Romanowsky, May-Grünwald Giemsa, and toluidine blue stains provide metachromatic staining of mast cell granules.

  7. A case of acquired port wine stain: an association with repeated sunburn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Sila; Benar, Elif B; Afsar, Fatma Sule; Calli, Aylin; Ulusarac, Ozlem

    2016-10-01

    Unlike congenital port wine stain (PWS), an acquired PWS is a rare vascular lesion that develops later in life. Although solar damage is associated with acquired PWS, there is no reported case of acquired PWS after sunburn in the literature. We report a case of a 54-year-old man diagnosed with acquired PWS possibly caused by repeated sunburn. We recommended laser treatment to our patient; however, the patient did not chose to receive any treatment. Our case demonstrates a possible rare occurrence of an acquired PWS after sunburn with larger lesions and more diffuse distribution. For this reason, our case differs from other acquired PWS cases. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. The assessment of port wine stains in children following multiple pulsed-dye laser treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naran, Sanjay; Gilmore, John; Deleyiannis, Frederic W-B

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 3 methods of assessment of pediatric port wine stains (PWSs) following multiple pulsed-dye laser (PDL) treatments; (i) parental evaluation, (ii) objective evaluation utilizing L*a*b* color measurement, and (iii) the visual inspection of serial photographs by blinded observers. Twenty-one children who had received at least 4 prior PDL treatments were prospectively enrolled. Following additional PDL treatment, 72.5% of the parental responses indicated a lighter PWS; 85% said that they would continue with further treatment. According to the assessments by 3 observers, only 33.3% to 61.9% (correlation coefficients: 0.41 and 0.54; P L*a*b* measurements were not significantly correlated with the observers' perceptions. L*a*b* assessment is not a clinically useful method to evaluate PDL response in the PWS previously treated. Relying solely on parental assessment may lead to overtreatment without a demonstrable benefit.

  9. RESPON PERBANKAN SYARI’AH DAN LEMBAGA KEUANGAN SYARIAH DI PAMEKASAN TERHADAP PEMBUKAAN PROGRAM STUDI PERBANKAN SYARI’AH DI STAIN PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Haryanto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are three focuses becoming study in this research that is: a Response ( appresiation Syari'ah Bangking and Financial Institution of Syari'ah in Pamekasan, b Expectation of Syari'ah Bangking and Financial Institution of Syari'Ah in Pamekasan to grad, c Elementary compentence which must be had by grad. This research uses the approach qualitative trying to watch closely the response of the head Syari'ah Bangking and Financial Institution of Moslem law in Pamekasan to opening of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan. Result of this research showing that: Response of Financial Institution and Syari’ah Banking in Pamekasan to opening the Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan is very good, and they are also ready for cooperating in powering the Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan. Expectation of Syari’ah Banking and Financial Institution of Syari'ah in Pamekasan to grad of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan, that is; the grad of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking STAIN Pamekasan next, absolute mastering the conception of Syari’ah Banking supported with knowledge of conventional banking concept and domination of information Technology Skill. Elementary compentence which must be had by the grad of Study Program of Syari’ah Banking in STAIN Pamekasan, that is; some of responders assess is competent, and some of other assess still many conventional banking payload, less payload of syari’ah banking, and still less subjects which uplift the skill and practice because the next grad have to ready to work in banking area.

  10. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O. [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  11. TRUEX hot demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility

  12. Inspection quality demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses an inspection demonstration process that was initiated in late 1982 and is still functioning. In 1982, the Nine Mile Point-1 boiling water reactor completed the required inspection governed by rules established by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The inspection results indicated there were no cracks when the results were evaluated against the established criteria. Later, while performing the system hydro-test prior to returning to power, one of the joints leaked, indicating a through-wall crack. The demonstration process, including a training program recognized by the NRC, are described in the paper. The final answer on how good the demonstration and field inspection are can only be determined by comparison of the inspection results with direct observation of the flaws. This is currently in progress

  13. Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Xu, Hairong; Eke, Ahizechukwu C

    2014-01-23

    Amnioinfusion is thought to dilute meconium present in the amniotic fluid and so reduce the risk of meconium aspiration. To assess the effects of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor on perinatal outcome. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 December 2013). Randomised trials comparing amnioinfusion with no amnioinfusion for women in labour with moderate or thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid. Three review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality, and extracted data. Fourteen studies of variable quality (4435 women) are included.Subgroup analysis was performed for studies from settings with limited facilities to monitor the baby's condition during labour and intervene effectively, and settings with standard peripartum surveillance.Settings with standard peripartum surveillance: there was considerable heterogeneity for several outcomes. There was no significant reduction in the primary outcomes meconium aspiration syndrome, perinatal death or severe morbidity, and maternal death or severe morbidity. There was a reduction in caesarean sections (CSs) for fetal distress but not overall. Meconium below the vocal cords diagnosed by laryngoscopy was reduced, as was neonatal ventilation or neonatal intensive care unit admission, but there was no significant reduction in perinatal deaths or other morbidity. Planned sensitivity analysis excluding trials with greater risk of bias resulted in an absence of benefits for any of the outcomes studied.Settings with limited peripartum surveillance: three studies were included. In the amnioinfusion group there was a reduction in CS for fetal distress and overall; meconium aspiration syndrome (three studies, 1144 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.52); perinatal mortality (three studies, 1151 women; RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.53) and neonatal ventilation or neonatal intensive care unit admission. In one of the studies, meconium

  14. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ

  15. Innovative technology demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.B.; Hartley, J.N.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1992-04-01

    Currently, several innovative technologies are being demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB) to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells have been successfully installed at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site to test new methods of in situ remediation of soils and ground water. This emerging technology was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. A demonstration of two in situ sensor systems capable of providing real-time data on contamination levels will be conducted and evaluated concurrently with the SGE demonstration activities. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ

  16. A Qualitative Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This article reports on a qualitative study that explored the use of coping strategies among first-year students in managing academic-related stressors. Qualitative data were collected using a non-probability and purposive sample. A total of 225 first-year students who were registered at a South African university ...

  17. Visualizing Qualitative Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    The abundance of qualitative data in today's society and the need to easily scrutinize, digest, and share this information calls for effective visualization and analysis tools. Yet, no existing qualitative tools have the analytic power, visual effectiveness, and universality of familiar quantitative instruments like bar charts, scatter-plots, and…

  18. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  19. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  20. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Lub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate, the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of connecting them with aspects of evaluation in social policy. It argues that different purposes of qualitative evaluations can be linked with different scientific paradigms and perspectives, thus transcending unproductive paradigmatic divisions as well as providing a flexible yet rigorous validity framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative evaluations.

  1. Comparison of staining of mitotic figures by haematoxylin and eosin-and crystal violet stains, in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankle Madhuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitosis of cells gives rise to tissue integrity. Defects during mitosis bring about abnormalities. Excessive proliferation of cells due to increased mitosis is one such outcome, which is the hallmark in precancer and cancer. The localization of proliferating cells or their precursors may not be obvious and easy. Establishing an easy way to distinguish these mitotic cells will help in grading and understanding their biological potential. Although immunohistochemistry is an advanced method in use, the cost and time factor makes it less feasible for many laboratories. Selective histochemical stains like toluidine blue, giemsa and crystal violet have been used in tissues including the developing brain, neural tissue and skin. Aim of the study: 1To compare the staining of mitotic cells in haematoxylin and eosin with that in crystal violet. 2To compare the number of mitotic figures present in normal oral mucosa, epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in crystal violet-stained sections with that in H and E-stained sections. Materials and Methods: Ten tissues of normal oral mucosa and 15 tissues each of oral epithelial dysplasia seen in tobacco-associated leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were studied to evaluate the selectivity of 1% crystal violet for mitotic figures. The staining was compared with standard H and E staining. Statistical analysis was done using Man-Whitney U test. Results: A statistically significant increase in the mean mitotic count was observed in crystal violet-stained sections of epithelial dysplasia as compared to the H and E-stained sections ( p = 0.0327. A similar increase in the mitotic counts was noted in crystal violet-stained sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma as compared to the H and E-stained sections.( p = 0.0443. No significant difference was found in the mitotic counts determined in dysplasia or carcinoma by either the crystal violet ( p = 0.4429 or the H and E-staining techniques ( p = 0

  2. Organic Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversmith, Ernest F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a listing of 35 demonstrations designed to generate interest in organic chemistry and help put points across. Topics include opening lecture; molecular structure and properties; halogenation; nucleophilic substitution, alkenes and dienes, stereochemistry, spectroscopy, alcohols and phenols, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, amines,…

  3. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  4. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  5. Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L.; Fowler, Veronica L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic

  6. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  7. Coffee-stain growth dynamics on dry and wet surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, François; Ingremeau, François; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-02-01

    The drying of a drop containing particles often results in the accumulation of the particles at the contact line. In this work, we investigate the drying of an aqueous colloidal drop surrounded by a hydrogel that is also evaporating. We combine theoretical and experimental studies to understand how the surrounding vapor concentration affects the particle deposit during the constant radius evaporation mode. In addition to the common case of evaporation on an otherwise dry surface, we show that in a configuration where liquid is evaporating from a flat surface around the drop, the singularity of the evaporative flux at the contact line is suppressed and the drop evaporation is homogeneous. For both conditions, we derive the velocity field and we establish the temporal evolution of the number of particles accumulated at the contact line. We predict the growth dynamics of the stain and the drying timescales. Thus, dry and wet conditions are compared with experimental results and we highlight that only the dynamics is modified by the evaporation conditions, not the final accumulation at the contact line.

  8. Effect of staining solutions on discoloration of resin nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Kil; Kim, Tae-Hyong; Ko, Ching-Chang; García-Godoy, Franklin; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2010-02-01

    To examine the effect of staining solutions on the discoloration of resin nanocomposites. Three resin nanocomposites (Ceram X, Grandio, and Filtek Z350) were light cured for 40 seconds at a light intensity of 1000 mW/cm2. The color of the specimens was measured in %R (reflectance) mode before and after immersing the specimens in four different test solutions [distilled water (DW), coffee (CF), 50% ethanol (50ET) and brewed green tea (GT)] for 7 hours/day over a 3-week period. The color difference (deltaE*) was obtained based on the CIEL*a*b* color coordinate values. The specimens immersed in DW, 50ET and GT showed a slight increase in L* value. However, the samples immersed in CF showed a decrease in the L* value and an increase in the b* value. CF induced a significant color change (deltaE*: 3.1-5.6) in most specimens but the other solutions induced only a slight color change. Overall, coffee caused unacceptable color changes to the resin nanocomposites.

  9. Development of a stained cell nuclei counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Niranjan; Moffatt, Christopher; Okada, Kazunori

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel cell counting system which exploits the Fast Radial Symmetry Transformation (FRST) algorithm [1]. The driving force behind our system is a research on neurogenesis in the intact nervous system of Manduca Sexta or the Tobacco Hornworm, which was being studied to assess the impact of age, food and environment on neurogenesis. The varying thickness of the intact nervous system in this species often yields images with inhomogeneous background and inconsistencies such as varying illumination, variable contrast, and irregular cell size. For automated counting, such inhomogeneity and inconsistencies must be addressed, which no existing work has done successfully. Thus, our goal is to devise a new cell counting algorithm for the images with non-uniform background. Our solution adapts FRST: a computer vision algorithm which is designed to detect points of interest on circular regions such as human eyes. This algorithm enhances the occurrences of the stained-cell nuclei in 2D digital images and negates the problems caused by their inhomogeneity. Besides FRST, our algorithm employs standard image processing methods, such as mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. We have evaluated the developed cell counting system with fourteen digital images of Tobacco Hornworm's nervous system collected for this study with ground-truth cell counts by biology experts. Experimental results show that our system has a minimum error of 1.41% and mean error of 16.68% which is at least forty-four percent better than the algorithm without FRST.

  10. Zebrafish embryology and cartilage staining protocols for high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emran, Farida; Brooks, Jacqueline M; Zimmerman, Steven R; Johnson, Susan L; Lue, Robert A

    2009-06-01

    The Life Sciences-Howard Hughes Medical Institute Outreach Program at Harvard University supports high school science education by offering an on-campus program for students and their teachers to participate in investigative, hands-on laboratory sessions. The outreach program has recently designed and launched a successful zebrafish embryology protocol that we present here. The main objectives of this protocol are to introduce students to zebrafish as a model research organism and to provide students with direct experience with current techniques used in embryological research. The content of the lab is designed to generate discussions on embryology, genetics, fertilization, natural selection, and animal adaptation. The protocol produces reliable results in a time-efficient manner using a minimum of reagents. The protocol presented here consists of three sections: observations of live zebrafish larvae at different developmental stages, cartilage staining of zebrafish larvae, and a mutant hunt involving identification of two zebrafish mutants (nacre and chokh). Here, we describe the protocol, show the results obtained for each section, and suggest possible alternatives for different lab settings.

  11. Akreditasi Perpustakaan Perguruan Tinggi: Pengalaman Perpustakaan STAIN Kediri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarudin Komarudin

    2016-07-01

    Abstract; The importance of quality has been a concern of college library librarian. National Library has compiled standards can be used as a minimum level college library quality. A form of formal recognition of compliance with these standards is by accrediting library. Accreditation aims to improve accredited institution so useful to build a library quality. As stipulated by Law Decree(UU No. 43 of 2007 and Government Regulation (PPNo. 24 of 2014, the National Library has the National Library Accreditation Agency (LAP-N. Accredited certificate can obtain a library based on the number of components weighted values of service, cooperation, collection, organization of library materials, human resources, building / space and infrastructure, budget, library management and maintenance of library collection. The experience of STAIN Kediri library in carrying out the library accreditation including : make a plan of accreditation activities, form preparation team of accreditation, perform self assessments, set up support files, send a letter of application and data file support, assessment accreditation forms, prepare for site assessment and carry out the acreditation. The main thing is the accreditation is a culture of quality. Hope to obtain the best value of accreditation lies in the culture of quality.

  12. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.

  13. Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B; Mathur, P; Gupta, B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. No 'very major' discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in beta lactam - beta lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.

  14. How Romanowsky stains work and why they remain valuable - including a proposed universal Romanowsky staining mechanism and a rational troubleshooting scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, R W

    2011-02-01

    An introduction to the nomenclature and concept of "Romanowsky stains" is followed by a brief account of the dyes involved and especially the crucial role of azure B and of the impurity of most commercial dye lots. Technical features of standardized and traditional Romanowsky stains are outlined, e.g., number and ratio of the acidic and basic dyes used, solvent effects, staining times, and fixation effects. The peculiar advantages of Romanowsky staining are noted, namely, the polychromasia achieved in a technically simple manner with the potential for stain intensification of "the color purple." Accounts are provided of a variety of physicochemically relevant topics, namely, acidic and basic dyeing, peculiarities of acidic and basic dye mixtures, consequences of differential staining rates of different cell and tissue components and of different dyes, the chemical significance of "the color purple," the substrate selectivity for purple color formation and its intensification in situ due to a template effect, effects of resin embedding and prior fixation. Based on these physicochemical phenomena, mechanisms for the various Romanowsky staining applications are outlined including for blood, marrow and cytological smears; G-bands of chromosomes; microorganisms and other single-cell entities; and paraffin and resin tissue sections. The common factors involved in these specific mechanisms are pulled together to generate a "universal" generic mechanism for these stains. Certain generic problems of Romanowsky stains are discussed including the instability of solutions of acidic dye-basic dye mixtures, the inherent heterogeneity of polychrome methylene blue, and the resulting problems of standardization. Finally, a rational trouble-shooting scheme is appended.

  15. Is the gram stain useful in the microbiologic diagnosis of VAP? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Thompson, Deb; Safdar, Nasia

    2012-08-01

    In a meta-analysis examining respiratory specimen Gram stain for diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia, absence of bacteria on Gram stain had a high negative predictive value, but a positive Gram stain correlated poorly with organisms recovered in culture. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major challenge and no generally accepted gold standard exists for VAP diagnosis. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the role of respiratory specimen Gram stain to diagnose VAP, and the correlation with final culture results. In 21 studies, pooled sensitivity of Gram stain for VAP was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], .77-0.81; P Gram stain for a VAP prevalence of 20%-30% was 91%, suggesting that VAP is unlikely with a negative Gram stain but the positive predictive value of Gram stain was only 40%. Pooled kappa was 0.42 for gram-positive organisms and 0.34 for gram-negative organisms, suggesting fair concordance between organisms on Gram stain and recovery by culture. Therefore, a positive Gram stain should not be used to narrow anti-infective therapy until culture results become available.

  16. Leishman-Giemsa cocktail: an effective Romanowsky stain for air-dried cytologic smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbyal, Rajendra S; Agarwal, Neeta; Kumar, Prachi

    2006-01-01

    To develop an economical, quick, readily available and simple alternative to May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain and so to explore the combination of Leishman and Giemsa stain (LG cocktail). One wet-fixed and 2 air-dried smears were prepared from 720 cases during the period January 2003-November 2004. The LG cocktail and MGG stain were used on the air-dried smears and Papanicolaou stain in wet-fixed smears. Diagnoses of the cases were made using the LG cocktail-stained smears, and then its diagnostic efficacy was cross-checked with the MGG- and Papanicolaou-stained smears by the same cytopathologist. A comparative study of the LG cocktail and MGG-stained smears was done. The results achieved with the LG cocktail-stained smears were comparable to or even better than those with the MGG-stained smears, with excellent diagnostic efficacy. As compared to MGG stain, the 1-step LG cocktail is cheaper, easier to standardize and quicker.

  17. A simple and sensitive method for the activity staining of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, N; Muftüoglu, M; Hamdi Ogus, I

    1998-06-11

    Xanthine oxidase is a commercially-important enzyme. Several biochemical compounds have been quantitated by xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase has been used as an auxiliary enzyme in the staining of several enzymes or tissues, however, there is no direct staining method available for it, on polyacrylamide gels. Partially-purified xanthine oxidase from cow milk was used as the enzyme source for the development of an activity-staining method on polyacrylamide gels. Staining was very sensitive. Detection of 0.02 microU of the enzyme on polyacrylamide gels was possible. Staining of 0.05 microU takes about 1 min whereas staining of 0.5 microU will take less than 5 s. Addition of TEMED is not essential for activity staining but it did increase both the rate and the intensity of the staining. The stained gels must be washed with distilled water, extensively, in order to remove excess unoxidized nitroblue tetrazolium, and must be protected from light, for a clear background and sharp activity-band staining. This method might be useful for quality control of xanthine oxidase obtained from different sources.

  18. Evaluation of double vital staining with lugol's iodine and methylene blue in diagnosing superficial esophageal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guiyong; Long, Qinglin; Wu, Yuwei; Zhao, Jingjing; Chen, Lei; Li, Xianghong

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of double vital staining with lugol's iodine and methylene blue in the diagnosis of superficial esophageal lesions. Doubtful superficial esophageal lesions identified with conventional endoscope were sprayed with 3% lugol's iodine and 0.5% methylene blue in order and observed in detail after each staining. Depending on the mucosal staining, biopsy specimen was obtained and underwent pathological examination. Using conventional endoscope, we found 356 lesions in 297 patients, among which 179 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions (CAPs) (including 71 early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 23 esophageal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias, 85 esophageal low-grade intraepithelial neoplasias) and 177 were non-cancer non-precancerous lesions (NCNPs) (i.e. esophagitis and esophageal squamous cell hyperplasia). Most of CAPs were lightly stained or unstained, while NCNPs were hyperstained after lugol's iodine stained. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of lugol's lightly stained and unstained for identifying CAPs were 34.5%, 100%, 60.7%, 100% and 67.4%, respectively. Most of CAPs were lightly stained or hyperstained, while NCNPs were unstained after double vital staining. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of double vital staining lightly stained and hyperstained for identifying CAPs were 97.7%, 100%, 97.8%, 100% and 98.9%, respectively. The accuracy of double vital staining for identifying CAPs was higher than that of lugol's iodine stained (p = 0.000). The double staining with lugol's iodine and methylene blue significantly improves the detection and diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell CAPs.

  19. AVNG system demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, Jonathan Louis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mac Arthur, Duncan W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kondratov, Sergey [VNIIEF; Livke, Alexander [VNIIEF; Razinkov, Sergey [VNIIEF

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  20. Remote monitoring demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, Susan; Olsen, John

    2006-01-01

    The recently upgraded remote monitoring system at the Joyo Experimental Reactor uses a DCM-14 camera module and GEMINI software. The final data is compatible both with the IAEA-approved GARS review software and the ALIS software that was used for this demonstration. Features of the remote monitoring upgrade emphasized compatibility with IAEA practice. This presentation gives particular attention to the selection process for meeting network security considerations at the O'arai site. The Joyo system is different from the NNCA's ACPF system, in that it emphasizes use of IAEA standard camera technology and data acquisition and transmission software. In the demonstration itself, a temporary virtual private network (VPN) between the meeting room and the server at Sandia in Albuquerque allowed attendees to observe data stored from routine transmissions from the Joyo Fresh Fuel Storage to Sandia. Image files from a fuel movement earlier in the month showed Joyo workers and IAEA inspectors carrying out a transfer. (author)

  1. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  2. Automatic lighting controls demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, in a real building situation, the energy and peak demand reduction capabilities of an electronically ballasted lighting control system that can utilize all types of control strategies to efficiently manage lighting. The project has demonstrated that a state-of-the-art electronically ballasted dimmable lighting system can reduce energy and lighting demand by as least 50% using various combinations of control strategies. By reducing light levels over circulation areas (tuning) and reducing after hours light levels to accommodate the less stringent lighting demands of the cleaning crew (scheduling), lighting energy consumption on weekdays was reduced an average of 54% relative to the initial condition. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. IGCC technology and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palonen, J. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Karhula (Finland). Hans Ahlstrom Lab.; Lundqvist, R.G. [A. Ahlstrom Corporation, Helsinki (Finland); Staahl, K. [Sydkraft AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    Future energy production will be performed by advanced technologies that are more efficient, more environmentally friendly and less expensive than current technologies. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have been proposed as one of these systems. Utilising biofuels in future energy production will also be emphasised since this lowers substantially carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere due to the fact that biomass is a renewable form of energy. Combining advanced technology and biomass utilisation is for this reason something that should and will be encouraged. A. Ahlstrom Corporation of Finland and Sydkraft AB of Sweden have as one part of company strategies adopted this approach for the future. The companies have joined their resources in developing a biomass-based IGCC system with the gasification part based on pressurised circulating fluidized-bed technology. With this kind of technology electrical efficiency can be substantially increased compared to conventional power plants. As a first concrete step, a decision has been made to build a demonstration plant. This plant, located in Vaernamo, Sweden, has already been built and is now in commissioning and demonstration stage. The system comprises a fuel drying plant, a pressurised CFB gasifier with gas cooling and cleaning, a gas turbine, a waste heat recovery unit and a steam turbine. The plant is the first in the world where the integration of a pressurised gasifier with a gas turbine will be realised utilising a low calorific gas produced from biomass. The capacity of the Vaernamo plant is 6 MW of electricity and 9 MW of district heating. Technology development is in progress for design of plants of sizes from 20 to 120 MWe. The paper describes the Bioflow IGCC system, the Vaernamo demonstration plant and experiences from the commissioning and demonstration stages. (orig.)

  4. The Majorana Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  5. SAMSON Technology Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    escrow service in the operational environment. For the SAMSON TD, two key escrow systems were demonstrated: StrongAuth SKLES; a 3rd party key... escrow appliance; and A custom database-based key escrow system created for the SAMSON TD. The external label that is placed on file objects that...the key that was used to protect the file. When a SAMSON component presents a token to the KMS, the associated key is retrieved from the escrow and

  6. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  7. Learning From Demonstration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    2014-01-01

    Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings. This ...... prevailed over realizing a good indoor climate, which included sufficient heating. Project management must be able to handle quantitative complexity where simple issues add up to major challenges.......Demonstration projects are often used in the building sector to provide a basis for using new processes and/or products. The climate change agenda implies that construction is not only required to deliver value for the customer, cost reductions and efficiency but also sustainable buildings....... This paper reports on an early demonstration project, the Building of a passive house dormitory in the Central Region of Denmark in 2006-2009. The project was supposed to deliver value, lean design, prefabrication, quality in sustainability, certification according to German standards for passive houses...

  8. Understanding Romanowsky staining. 2. The staining mechanism of suspension-fixed cells, including influences of specimen morphology on the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, R W; Curtis, D; Pindar, L

    1989-01-01

    Romanowsky staining of suspension-fixed lymphocytes and fibroblasts, deposited as monolayers on slides, involves an initial basic dyeing process followed by formation of a hydrophobic Azur B/Eosin Y complex at the more permeable and so faster staining cellular sites. This mechanism is shared with blood and marrow smears. However certain morphological features peculiar to suspension-fixed, cell culture-derived preparations also influence the staining pattern via rate control: namely the irregular and bulky profiles of fibroblasts, compared to the smoother and thinner lymphocytes; and the occasional superficial occlusion of cells by culture medium.

  9. The evaluation of Lugol's iodine solution staining combined with endoscope for diagnosis of non-erosive reflux disease in clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Xue, L; Liu, J; Zhang, H-Y; Zhang, D; Song, X-H; He, Y-X; Yang, T; Li, C-Q; Li, Y-Q

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the value of Lugol's iodine solution staining combined with endoscope on the diagnosis of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). A total of 96 gastroesophageal reflux disease patients were selected to participate in this study. The patients were stained on esophageal mucosa by Lugol's iodine solution and examined at routine endoscopy. The shallow staining and/or non-staining group patients were treated with esomeprazole and mosapride citrate, and then the changes in Lugol's iodine staining, Gerd Q (Gerd questionnaire) scoring and histological characters of esophageal mucosa were recorded before and after treatment. As the results, a total of 68 patients were diagnosed as NERD, and 36 of 68 patients were observed with uniform staining and 32 of 68 patients were observed with shallow staining and/or non-staining. After 4 weeks for treatment, 28 of 32 patients with shallow staining and/or non-staining became uniform staining and 4 of 32 patients were still with shallow staining and/or non-staining. Before and after treatment, the Gerd Q scoring of uniform staining groups and shallow staining and/or non-staining groups all had a significant difference (p Lugol's iodine solution staining combined with endoscope. Lugol's iodine solution staining combined with routine endoscopy, Gerd Q scoring and histomorphology can be used to evaluate the diagnosis and therapeutic effect of NERD.

  10. Superresolution Imaging of Aquaporin-4 Cluster Size in Antibody-Stained Paraffin Brain Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alex J; Verkman, Alan S

    2015-12-15

    The water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) forms supramolecular clusters whose size is determined by the ratio of M1- and M23-AQP4 isoforms. In cultured astrocytes, differences in the subcellular localization and macromolecular interactions of small and large AQP4 clusters results in distinct physiological roles for M1- and M23-AQP4. Here, we developed quantitative superresolution optical imaging methodology to measure AQP4 cluster size in antibody-stained paraffin sections of mouse cerebral cortex and spinal cord, human postmortem brain, and glioma biopsy specimens. This methodology was used to demonstrate that large AQP4 clusters are formed in AQP4(-/-) astrocytes transfected with only M23-AQP4, but not in those expressing only M1-AQP4, both in vitro and in vivo. Native AQP4 in mouse cortex, where both isoforms are expressed, was enriched in astrocyte foot-processes adjacent to microcapillaries; clusters in perivascular regions of the cortex were larger than in parenchymal regions, demonstrating size-dependent subcellular segregation of AQP4 clusters. Two-color superresolution imaging demonstrated colocalization of Kir4.1 with AQP4 clusters in perivascular areas but not in parenchyma. Surprisingly, the subcellular distribution of AQP4 clusters was different between gray and white matter astrocytes in spinal cord, demonstrating regional specificity in cluster polarization. Changes in AQP4 subcellular distribution are associated with several neurological diseases and we demonstrate that AQP4 clustering was preserved in a postmortem human cortical brain tissue specimen, but that AQP4 was not substantially clustered in a human glioblastoma specimen despite high-level expression. Our results demonstrate the utility of superresolution optical imaging for measuring the size of AQP4 supramolecular clusters in paraffin sections of brain tissue and support AQP4 cluster size as a primary determinant of its subcellular distribution. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society

  11. Qualitative research in thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carverhill, Philip A

    2002-04-01

    A new research paradigm has been emerging which holds significant potential for the field of death studies. The qualitative project is a diverse collection of methodologies that focuses its interests on the words, narratives, and stories of individuals and groups. Part of its appeal may lie in the inherent closeness of fit between qualitative inquiry and applied work with the dying and the bereaved. The author introduces the individual articles in this special issue and outlines the development of the project as well as some current issues in qualitative research in thanatology.

  12. Antibiotics for neonates born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren E; Shivananda, Sandesh; Murthy, Prashanth; Srinivasjois, Ravisha; Shah, Prakeshkumar S

    2017-06-28

    Approximately 1 in 10 pregnancies is affected by meconium passage at delivery, which can result in meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). MAS can cause respiratory complications and, very rarely, death. Antibiotics have been prescribed for neonates exposed to meconium in amniotic fluid, with the intention of preventing infection due to potential bacterial contaminants. We conducted this review to assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotics for:1. prevention of infection, morbidity, and mortality among infants born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) who are asymptomatic at birth; and2. prevention of infection, morbidity, and mortality among infants born through MSAF who have signs and symptoms compatible with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). We performed a literature search using the following databases: MEDLINE (1966 to July 2016); Embase (1980 to July 2016); the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to July 2016); and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 7) in the Cochrane Library. We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared antibiotics administered via any route versus placebo or no treatment for prevention of infection among neonates exposed to MSAF, or who developed MAS. We excluded cohort, case control, and any other non-randomised studies and applied no language restrictions. We included studies of term and preterm infants, and we included studies examining use of any antibacterial antibiotics. We included studies that reported on any outcomes of interest. We assessed the methodological quality of included trials by reviewing information provided in study reports and obtained by personal communication with study authors. We extracted data on relevant outcomes, estimated effect size, and reported values as risk ratios (RRs), risk

  13. Periocular port wine stain: the great ormond street hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaier, Ayman; Nischal, Ken K; Espinosa, Marcela; Manoj, Bal

    2011-11-01

    To identify the sensitivity and specificity of risk factors for the development of glaucoma in patients with port wine stain (PWS). A retrospective case-control study involving a large cohort of patients with PWS. A total of 216 patients (total of 252 eyes) with unilateral or bilateral PWS seen in the eye department in Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom. We studied the anatomic distribution of PWS and the incidence of choroidal hemangioma, episcleral hemangioma, iris heterochromia, and Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). We analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of these features as risk factors for glaucoma. Development of glaucoma. Mean age at presentation was 2.9 years (3 weeks to 18.8 years). Mean follow-up was 3.2 years (0-15 years). A total of 180 patients (83.3%) had unilateral lesion, and 36 patients (16.7%) had bilateral lesion. Thirty-one patients (14.3%) had isolated V1 lesion, 35 patients had V2 lesion only (16.2%), and 93 patients (43%) had both V1 and V2 involved. On the last visit, 46 eyes (18.3%) in 39 patients had glaucoma; their mean age was 3.25 years. Glaucoma was more common if PWS was bilateral (P=0.0001), both upper and lower lids were involved (P heterochromia (P=0.004), or choroidal hemangioma (P heterochromia are sensitive prognosticators for the development of glaucoma. Iris heterochromia is associated with the development of early glaucoma in patients with PWS. Patients at high risk of glaucoma should be seen more often in clinic. Patients who do not have combined lid involvement or episcleral hemangioma have a lower risk and can therefore be seen less often in clinic. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterizing soil preferential flow using iodine--starch staining experiments and the active region model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Feng; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Renduo; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2009-03-01

    Thirteen iodine-starch staining experiments with different boundary conditions and measurement scales were conducted at two sites to study preferential flow processes in natural unsaturated soils. Digital imaging analyses were implemented to obtain the corresponding preferential flow patterns. The test results are used to evaluate a recently proposed active region model in terms of its usefulness and robustness for characterizing unsaturated flow processes at field scale. Test results provide useful insights into flow patterns in unsaturated soils. They show that flow pattern depends on the top boundary condition. As the total infiltrating-water depth increased form 20 mm to 80 mm for the 100 x 100 cm{sup 2} plots, the corresponding flow pattern changed from few preferential flow paths associated with a relatively small degree of stained coverage and a small infiltration depth, to a pattern characterized by a higher stained coverage and a larger infiltration depth, and to (finally) a relatively homogeneous flow pattern with few unstained area and a much larger infiltration depth. Test results also show that the preferential flow pattern became generally more heterogeneous and complex for a larger measurement scale (or size of infiltration plot). These observations support the general idea behind the active region model that preferential flow pattern in unsaturated soils are dynamic and depend on water flow conditions. Further analyses of the test results indicate that the active-region model is able to capture the major features of the observed flow pattern at the scale of interest, and the determined parameter values do not significantly depend on the test conditions (initial water content and total amount of infiltrating water) for a given test site. This supports the validity of the active region model that considers that parameter to be a property of the corresponding unsaturated soil. Results also show that some intrinsic relation seems to exist between active

  15. S - and N-alkylating agents diminish the fluorescence of fluorescent dye-stained DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesche, Robert; John, Harald; Kehe, Kai; Schmidt, Annette; Popp, Tanja; Balzuweit, Frank; Thiermann, Horst; Gudermann, Thomas; Steinritz, Dirk

    2017-01-25

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical warfare agent, causes DNA alkylation, which is believed to be the main cause of its toxicity. SM DNA adducts are commonly used to verify exposure to this vesicant. However, the required analytical state-of-the-art mass-spectrometry methods are complex, use delicate instruments, are not mobile, and require laboratory infrastructure that is most likely not available in conflict zones. Attempts have thus been made to develop rapid detection methods that can be used in the field. The analysis of SM DNA adducts (HETE-G) by immunodetection is a convenient and suitable method. For a diagnostic assessment, HETE-G levels must be determined in relation to the total DNA in the sample. Total DNA can be easily visualized by the use of fluorescent DNA dyes. This study examines whether SM and related compounds affect total DNA staining, an issue that has not been investigated before. After pure DNA was extracted from human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), DNA was exposed to different S- and N-alkylating agents. Our experiments revealed a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the fluorescence signal of fluorescent dye-stained DNA after exposure to alkylating agents. After mass spectrometry and additional fluorescence measurements ruled out covalent modifications of ethidium bromide (EthBr) by SM, we assumed that DNA crosslinks caused DNA condensation and thereby impaired access of the fluorescent dyes to the DNA. DNA digestion by restriction enzymes restored fluorescence, a fact that strengthened our hypothesis. However, monofunctional agents, which are unable to crosslink DNA, also decreased the fluorescence signal. In subsequent experiments, we demonstrated that protons produced during DNA alkylation caused a pH decrease that was found responsible for the reduction in fluorescence. The use of an appropriate buffer system eliminated the adverse effect of alkylating agents on DNA staining with fluorescent dyes. An appropriate buffer system is thus

  16. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  17. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  18. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  19. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System.

  20. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    In ubiquitous computing, as more and more devices are embedded into the environment, there is a risk that the user loses the understanding of the system. In normal use this is not always a problem, but when breakdowns occur it is crucial that the user understands the system to be able to handle...... is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  1. Final Demonstrator Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    understanding the spatial relations that obtain between the landscape architects and their materials, their work settings and their work sites.  This report should be read as an introduction and orientation to the various project  prototypes and demonstrators – it will make only limited sense taken in isolation.  ......The WorkSPACE project aims to create an integrated environment for collaborative  work activities that can be distributed over a variety of spaces and that mixes digital  and physical materials. We have termed this ‘spatial computing’ because much of the  functionality is provided through...

  2. Demonstration of HITEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, H.D.; Woodall, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A model reactor for HITEX successfully demonstrated the concept of high-temperature isotopic exchange in a closed loop simulating the conditions for fusion fuel cleanup. The catalyst of platinum on alumina pellets provided a surface area large enough to operate the reactor at 400 degrees celsius with flow rates up to 2 L/min. A 15-L tank containing a mixture of 4% CD 4 in H 2 was depleted in deuterium within 75 minutes down to 100 ppm HD above the natural concentration of HD in the make-up hydrogen stream. The application to tritium removal from tritiated impurities in a hydrogen stream will work as well or better

  3. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David

    2007-01-01

    the situation. The concept of palpable computing, introduced by the PalCom project, denotes systems which support such understandability. In PalCom, a set of prototype scenarios provide input for an open software architecture and a conceptual framework for palpable computing. One of these prototype scenarios...... is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  4. Utility of Acridine Orange staining for detection of bacteria from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeraja, M; Lakshmi, V; Padmasri, C; Padmaja, K

    2017-08-01

    The diagnostic performance of AO stain was evaluated for the detection of bacteria and or fungi from positive blood cultures. The sensitivity of Gram stain (GS) was 98.26% while Acridine Orange (AO) stain proved to be more sensitive (100%) with a Positive and Negative Predictive Value of 100% each. The specificity of both the stains was 100%. Overall agreement between the two stains was 98.23% (688/700). The organisms that were missed by GS and positive by AO were Candida species (Sutton, 2006) and Gram negative bacilli (GNB) (Sutton, 2006). Sensitivity of GS was 82.35% and AO was 100% among mixed cultures. Immediate reporting of the results of AO stain would have a significant impact on clinical management of patients with serious blood stream infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding microwave-stimulated Romanowsky--Giemsa staining of plastic embedded bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, R W; Boon, M E

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow smears were made and fixed in methanol or formaldehyde. Marrow sections of various thicknesses were also prepared from formaldehyde fixed marrows embedded in paraffin or plastic (glycol methacrylate). The different smears and sections were then stained by a Romanowsky--Giemsa procedure. Some specimens were stained using a standard microwave-stimulated method previously used diagnostically. The effects of technical variations were studied, including degree of microwave irradiation and the staining time. Comparisons of the resulting staining outcomes showed that microwave stimulated Romanowsky--Giemsa staining of plastic sections is a rate controlled process. Unusual aspects of the staining pattern of plastic sections (namely the purple basophilic cytoplasms and nucleoli, and blue chromatin) are due to microwave stimulation and formaldehyde fixation respectively.

  6. Can examination of tissue stained with Oil red O be postponed up to three months?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoffersen Simone Dorthea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As far as we know, there are no known studies on the durability of frozen tissue stained with Oil Red O. The purpose of this study was to examine if the lipid drops in Oil Red O stained tissue keep the original position and color over time (3 months. Further we examined if storage position of the stained tissue makes a difference. Method: We used ten frozen kidney sections stained with Oil Red O. Half of the samples were stored vertically and the other half horizontally, and photos of the same areas were taken within the first 24 hours after staining, and then after 48 hours, 72 hours, 7 days, 14 days, 1 month, 2 months and 3 months respectively. Results and conclusion: No changes in position of the lipids were observed. The color of the staining faded somewhat over time, but it was still possible to distinguish the positive sites from the negative.

  7. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-05-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies.2-5 In this paper, we focus on a particular vortex known as bathtub vortex (BTV). It occurs when water is drained from a hole at the bottom of a container such as a bathtub or a sink under the action of gravity. The vortex has a funnel shape with a central air core, resembling a tornado. We have designed a portable apparatus to demonstrate bathtub vortex on a continual basis. The apparatus consists of a clear cylinder supported by a frame over a water reservoir and a submersible pump. Young and old have been equally amazed by watching the demonstrations at various public presentations held at the University of the Pacific recently. With material cost of less than 100, the apparatus can be easily fabricated and used at other universities. With a short set-up time, it is an ideal device for promoting science to the general public, and it can be used to enhance lectures in physics courses as well.

  8. Inseparable phone books demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation and experiment steps are presented on how to turn a simple discrepant event into an instructional activity. Results showed the relationships between number of pages and force, as well as between amounts of interleave and force. In addition to these, the mathematical equation for the total force between all interleaved pages is derived. As a conclusion, this study demonstrated that not only can phone books be used, but also ordinary books, to investigate this discrepant event. This experiment can be conducted as an example to show the agreement between theoretical and experimental results along with the confounding variables. This discrepant event can be used to create a cognitive conflict in students’ minds about the concepts of ‘force and motion’ and ‘friction force’.

  9. The IBL BOC Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Ancu, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Falchieri, D; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Heim, T; Joseph, J; Krieger, N; Kugel, A; Morettini, P; Neumann, M; Polini, A; Schneider, B; Schroer, N

    2011-01-01

    The IBL is a new pixel detector layer to be installed at the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN in 2013. It will be integrated into the general pixel readout and software framework, hence the off-detector readout electronics has to support the new front-end electronics whilst maintaining a high degree of interoperability to the components of the existing system. The off-detector readout is realised using a number of VME card pairs – ROD and BOC – plus a VME crate controller and a custom timing distribution system. The main elements of the new BOC design comprise optical interfaces towards the detector, signal conditioning and data recovery logic. We present the demonstrator used to verify the design approach. The demonstrator is based on a XILINX SP605 FPGA evaluation board and uses a Microblaze processor inside the FPGA to provide easy and flexible access to all essential BOC functions and the corresponding emulator modules, which enable full test of the entire BOC functionality even without any external ...

  10. Qualitative research, tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2016-01-01

    , the application of qualitative and quantitative methods may also become less contested, potentially leading the way to new ways of engaging with and creatively conjoining qualitative and quantitative methods and methodologies in years to come. For instance, the huge amounts of big data currently being generated...... to and create the world, and as context specific processes of living and knowing. Both methodologically and analytically, critical tourism research centers on themes such as power, identity, Othering, performativity, and embodiment, as well as gender, race, and other inequality related issues. The application...... of qualitative research in generating knowledge in and about tourism. In continuation to this, new issues and interests regarding the application and role of qualitative research can also be identified. One is a growing appreciation in business and management of the rich material and knowledge generated...

  11. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  12. Juvenile localized scleroderma with port wine stain: Coincidental or possible common pathogenetic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Dogruk Kacar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Port wine stain and juvenile localized scleroderma are two different dermatoses usually encountered in pediatric age group. Up to now, there are reports of morphea patients initially diagnosed and treated as port wine stain. Coexistence of both diseases is not found yet. We herein present a case of juvenile localized scleroderma on the left side of trunk, with congenital port wine stain located on the ipsilateral face at V1-V2 distribution.

  13. Juvenile localized scleroderma with port wine stain: coincidental or possible common pathogenetic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacar, Seval Dogruk; Ozuguz, Pinar; Polat, Serap; Kacar, Emre; Polat, Onur; Tokyol, Cigdem

    2015-01-01

    Port wine stain and juvenile localized scleroderma are two different dermatoses usually encountered in pediatric age group. Up to now, there are reports of morphea patients initially diagnosed and treated as port wine stain. Coexistence of both diseases is not found yet. We herein present a case of juvenile localized scleroderma on the left side of trunk, with congenital port wine stain located on the ipsilateral face at V1-V2 distribution.

  14. Scaling Qualitative Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There are different approaches to qualitative probability, which includes subjective probability. We developed a representation of qualitative probability based on relational systems, which allows modeling uncertainty by probability structures and is more coherent than existing approaches. This setting makes it possible proving that any comparative probability is induced by some probability structure (Theorem 2.1), that classical probability is a probability structure (Theorem 2.2) and that i...

  15. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  16. A Simple Procedure for the Evaluation of Bone Vitality by Staining with a Tetrazolium Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Schiffner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Presently, no intra-operative method for a direct assessment of bone vitality exists. Therefore, we set out to test the applicability of tetrazolium-based staining on bone samples. The explanted femoral heads of 37 patients were used to obtain either cancellous bone fragments or bone slices. Samples were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC or 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (thiazolyl blue, MTT at different times (one to twelve hours after explantation. Staining was quantified either spectrophotometrically after extraction of the dyes or by densitometric image analysis. TTC-staining of cancellous bone fragments and bone slices, respectively, indicated the detectability of vital cells in both types of samples in a window of up to six hours after explantation. Staining intensity at later time-points was indistinguishable from the staining of untreated samples or sodium azide treated samples, which represent dead cells. In contrast, MTT-staining of bone slices revealed intense unspecific staining, which obscured the evaluation of the vitality of the samples. The lack of a detectable increase of colour intensity in TTC-stained bone samples, which were treated more than six hours after explantation, corresponds to reduced fracture healing. The described simple procedure could provide a basis for an intraoperative decision by the orthopaedic surgeon.

  17. A rapid nuclear staining test using cationic dyes contributes to efficient STR analysis of telogen hair roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ha, Eun-Ju; Woo, Seung-Kyun; Lee, So-Min; Lim, Kyung-Hee; Eom, Yong-Bin

    2017-07-01

    Telogen hairs presented in the crime scene are commonly encountered as trace evidence. However, short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of the hairs currently have low and limited use due to poor success rate. To increase the success rate of STR profiling of telogen hairs, we developed a rapid and cost-effective method to estimate the number of nuclei in the hair roots. Five cationic dyes, Methyl green (MG), Harris hematoxylin (HH), Methylene blue (MB), Toluidine blue (TB), and Safranin O (SO) were evaluated in this study. We conducted a screening test based on microscopy and the percentage of loss with nuclear DNA, in order to select the best dye. MG was selected based on its specific nuclei staining and low adverse effect on the hair-associated nuclear DNA. We examined 330 scalp and 100 pubic telogen hairs with MG. Stained hairs were classified into five groups and analyzed by STR. The fast staining method revealed 70% (head hair) and 33.4% (pubic hair) of full (30 alleles) and high partial (18-29 alleles) STR profiling proportion from the lowest nuclei count group (one to ten nuclei). The results of this study demonstrated a rapid, specific, nondestructive, and high yield DNA profiling method applicable for screening telogen hairs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A Gram Stain Hands-On Workshop Enhances First Year Medical Students' Technique Competency in Comprehension and Memorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfiner, Matthew S; Martinez, Luis R; Pavia, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory diagnostic tests have an essential role in patient care, and the increasing number of medical and health professions schools focusing on teaching laboratory medicine to pre-clinical students reflects this importance. However, data validating the pedagogical methods that best influence students' comprehension and interpretation of diagnostic tests have not been well described. The Gram stain is a simple yet significant and frequently used diagnostic test in the clinical setting that helps classify bacteria into two major groups, Gram positive and negative, based on their cell wall structure. We used this technique to assess which educational strategies may improve students' learning and competency in medical diagnostic techniques. Hence, in this randomized controlled study, we compared the effectiveness of several educational strategies (e.g. workshop, discussion, or lecture) in first year medical students' competency in comprehension and interpretation of the Gram stain procedure. We demonstrated that a hands-on practical workshop significantly enhances students' competency in memorization and overall comprehension of the technique. Interestingly, most students irrespective of their cohort showed difficulty in answering Gram stain-related analytical questions, suggesting that more emphasis should be allocated by the instructors to clearly explain the interpretation of the diagnostic test results to students in medical and health professional schools. This proof of principle study highlights the need of practical experiences on laboratory medical techniques during pre-clinical training to facilitate future medical doctors' and healthcare professionals' basic understanding and competency in diagnostic testing for better patient care.

  19. A Gram Stain Hands-On Workshop Enhances First Year Medical Students' Technique Competency in Comprehension and Memorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Delfiner

    Full Text Available Laboratory diagnostic tests have an essential role in patient care, and the increasing number of medical and health professions schools focusing on teaching laboratory medicine to pre-clinical students reflects this importance. However, data validating the pedagogical methods that best influence students' comprehension and interpretation of diagnostic tests have not been well described. The Gram stain is a simple yet significant and frequently used diagnostic test in the clinical setting that helps classify bacteria into two major groups, Gram positive and negative, based on their cell wall structure.We used this technique to assess which educational strategies may improve students' learning and competency in medical diagnostic techniques. Hence, in this randomized controlled study, we compared the effectiveness of several educational strategies (e.g. workshop, discussion, or lecture in first year medical students' competency in comprehension and interpretation of the Gram stain procedure. We demonstrated that a hands-on practical workshop significantly enhances students' competency in memorization and overall comprehension of the technique. Interestingly, most students irrespective of their cohort showed difficulty in answering Gram stain-related analytical questions, suggesting that more emphasis should be allocated by the instructors to clearly explain the interpretation of the diagnostic test results to students in medical and health professional schools.This proof of principle study highlights the need of practical experiences on laboratory medical techniques during pre-clinical training to facilitate future medical doctors' and healthcare professionals' basic understanding and competency in diagnostic testing for better patient care.

  20. Facile and eco-friendly synthesis of green fluorescent carbon nanodots for applications in bioimaging, patterning and staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong; Li, Yanyan; Li, Xiaofeng; Wen, Xiangping; Zhang, Guomei; Yang, Jun; Dong, Chuan; Shuang, Shaomin

    2015-04-28

    We report a facile and eco-friendly strategy for the fabrication of green fluorescent carbon nanodots (CDs), and demonstrate their applications for bio-imaging, patterning, and staining. A one-pot hydrothermal method using various plant petals yields bright green-emitting CDs, providing an easy way for the production of green fluorescent CDs without the need for a tedious synthetic methodology or the use of toxic/expensive solvents and starting materials. The as-prepared CDs show small size distribution and excellent dispersibility. Their strong green fluorescence is observed when the excitation wavelength is between 430 nm and 490 nm. Moreover, they exhibit high tolerance to various external conditions, such as pH values, external cations, and continuous excitation. Due to minimum toxicity as well as good photoluminescence properties, these CDs can be applied to in vitro and in vivo imaging, patterning, and staining. According to confocal fluorescence imaging of human uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma cells, CDs penetrate into the cell and enter the cytoplasm and the nucleus. More strikingly, carp is directly fed with CDs for in vivo imaging and shows bright green fluorescence at an excitation wavelength of 470 nm. In addition, the obtained CDs are used as fluorescent inks for drawing luminescence patterns. Finally, we also apply the CDs as a fluorescent dye. Interestingly, the absorbent filter paper with staining emits dramatic fluorescence under 470 nm excitation.

  1. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  2. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  3. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  4. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.D. (ed.)

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  5. Application of NeuroTrace staining in the fresh frozen brain samples to laser microdissection combined with quantitative RT-PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Seico; Kakeyama, Masaki; Endo, Toshihiro; Yoshioka, Wataru; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2015-06-20

    The heterogeneity of the brain requires appropriate molecular biological approaches to account for its morphological complexity. Laser-assisted microdissection followed by transcript profiling by quantitative determination has been reported to be an optimal methodology. Nevertheless, not all brain regions can be identified easily without staining, restricting the accuracy and efficiency in sampling. The aim of the present study was to validate whether fixation and staining treatments are suitable for quantitative transcript expression analysis in laser microdissection (LMD) samples. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the absolute transcript expression levels and profiles of samples obtained from the hippocampal dentate gyrus from fresh frozen mice brain sections that had been fixed with ethanol and stained with NeuroTrace. The results were compared with those obtained from unfixed and unstained samples. We found that the quantitative relationship of transcript expression levels between various housekeeping genes and immediate early genes was preserved, although the preparation compromised the yield of the transcripts. In addition, histological and molecular integrities of the fixed and stained specimens were preserved for at least a week at room temperature. Based on the lobe specific profiles of transcripts in the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary, we confirmed that no cross-contamination on transcription expressions occurred as a result of the fixation and staining. We have provided detailed information of the procedures on ethanol fixation followed by NeuroTrace staining on the absolute quantitative RT-PCR analysis using microdissected fresh frozen mouse brain tissues. The present study demonstrated that quantitative transcript expression analysis can be conducted reliably on stained tissues. This method is suitable for applications in basic and clinical studies on particular transcript expressions in various regions of the brain.

  6. Segmentation of elastic fibres in images of vessel wall sections stained with Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Morera, Pablo; Travieso-González, Carlos M; Castaño-González, Irene; Mompeó-Corredera, Blanca; Ortega-Santana, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    The elastic fibres are an essential component of the extracellular matrix in blood vessel walls that allows a long-range of deformability and passive recoil without energy input. The quantitative determination of elastic fibres will provide information on the state of the vascular wall and to determine the role and behaviour of this key structural element in different physiological and pathological vascular processes. We present a segmentation method to identify and quantify elastic fibres based on a local threshold technique and some morphological characteristics measured on the segmented objects that facilitate the discrimination between elastic fibres and other image components. The morphological characteristics analysed are the thickness and the length of an object. The segmentation method was evaluated using an image database of vein sections stained with Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin. The performance results are based on a ground truth generated manually resulting in values of sensitivity greater than 80% with the exception in two samples, and specificity values above 90% for all samples. Medical specialists carried out a visual evaluation where the observations indicate a general agreement on the segmentation results' visual quality, and the consistency between the methodology proposed and the subjective observation of the doctors for the evaluation of pathological changes in vessel wall. The proposed methodology provides more objective measurements than the qualitative methods traditionally used in the histological analysis, with a significant potential for this method to be used as a diagnostic aid for many other vascular pathological conditions and in similar tissues such as skin and mucous membranes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analisis Program Kerja Prodi Pbi Jurusan Tarbiyah STAIN Samarinda Tahun 2011-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafa Shafa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is to analyze some aspects that are being the attention in the working program analysis, such as: Reinforcing of vision, mission, goal and target, also achievement strategy; Tutor arrangement, leadership, management system, and giving a guarantee of quality; Related to university student  and graduate; Human resource; Curriculum, teaching and learning, and academic situation; Funding, means and infrastructure, also information system; Research, servicing/ public service, and cooperation. The research goals are: (1 To dig what programs that has been arranged by English Department of STAIN Samarinda in academic year 20111-2015; (2 To know what steps that is taken by English Department in implementing the working program; (3 To analyze the strength/ opportunity and challenge that will be faced by English Department based on the working program that has been arranged. The research isdescriptive-qualitative that using some techniques of data collecting, namely: interview, observation, and documentation. The research respondents are Vice Chairmanof Student University Affairs,Chairman of Tarbiyah Department, and English Department coordinator. Then the data collection is analyzed by using analysis of SWOT. The research summary is: The steps that is taken by English Department in implementing the working program such as: socializing the vision, mission, and strategy of English Department through brochure and leaflet distribution, optimalizing the cooperation with stakeholder such as school and region government through the programs of Tarbiyah Department, building an intensive communication with the leadership party to back up the working program, maximizing the calculation every year that oriented on the increase of study of program quality from the managerial aspect or the human resource. Nevertheless, the working program of English Department implementation from the extend time of 2011 to 2013 the applicability is still minimized and

  8. OPTIMIZING LISTENING SKILLS TO IMPROVE THE TOEFL SCORE OF STAIN PEKALONGAN STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riskiana .

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fact that the students have problems in the three micro-skills of listening namely recognizing the English stress patterns, the reduced forms of words, and words boundaries and that the teachers never teach the students how to listen have made them get low TOEFL scores on listening section. This research aims at: (1 finding out whether optimizing listening skills can improve the students’ TOEFL scores on listening; and (2 describing the class situation during the teaching of toefl listening by optimizing listening skills. This action research is conducted in two cycles each of which is divided into planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. There are two kinds of data. The qualitative data taken from observation, interview, and questionnaire are analyzed by using Constant Comparative Method. The quantitative data taken from the pre-test in the pre-research, post-test in cycle 1, and post-test in cycle 2 are analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The subjects of the research are the STAIN Pekalongan students taking English 3 class, the TOEFL Preparation Class, in the Academic Year 2014/2015. The result of the research shows that: (1 teaching toefl listening section by optimizing listening skills is able to overcome the students’ problems in the three micro-skills of listening and consequently improve the students’ TOEFL scores on listening. Their average scores improve from 101 in the pre-test to 118 in the post-test of cycle 1 and 129 in the post-test of cycle 2; (2 The class situation is attractive and the students are actively involved in the various activities done during the teaching and learning process. In line with the success of optimizing listening skills in teaching TOEFL listening, it is suggested that teachers should examine their students’ listening problems so as to be able to teach them what they need in listening to English.

  9. Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique can diagnose paragonimiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Slesak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated the Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZNS technique for the diagnosis of paragonimiasis in Laos and compared different modifications of the ZNS techniques. METHODOLOGY: WE APPLIED THE FOLLOWING APPROACH: We (1 examined a paragonimiasis index case's sputum with wet film direct examination (WF and ZNS; (2 re-examined stored ZNS slides from two provinces; (3 compared prospectively WF, ZNS, and formalin-ether concentration technique (FECT for sputum examination of patients with chronic cough; and (4 compared different ZNS procedures. Finally, we assessed excess direct costs associated with the use of different diagnostic techniques. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paragonimus eggs were clearly visible in WF and ZNS sputum samples of the index case. They appeared brownish-reddish in ZNS and were detected in 6 of 263 archived ZNS slides corresponding to 5 patients. One hundred sputum samples from 43 patients were examined with three techniques, which revealed that 6 patients had paragonimiasis (13 positive samples. Sensitivity per slide of the FECT, ZNS and the WF technique was 84.6 (p = 0.48, 76.9 (p = 0.25 and 61.5% (p = 0.07, respectively. Percentage of fragmented eggs was below 19% and did not differ between techniques (p = 0.13. Additional operational costs per slide were 0 (ZNS, 0.10 US$ (WF, and 0.79 US$ (FECT. ZNS heated for five minutes contained less eggs than briefly heated slides (29 eggs per slide [eps] vs. 42 eps, p = 0.01. Bloodstained sputum portions contained more eggs than unstained parts (3.3 eps vs. 0.7 eps, p = 0.016. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Paragonimus eggs can easily be detected in today's widely used ZNS of sputum slides. The ZNS technique appears superior to the standard WF sputum examination for paragonimiasis and eliminates the risk of tuberculosis transmission. Our findings suggest that ZNS sputum slides should also be examined routinely for Paragonimus eggs. ZNS technique has potential in epidemiological research on

  10. Ziehl-Neelsen Staining Technique Can Diagnose Paragonimiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesak, Günther; Inthalad, Saythong; Basy, Phadsana; Keomanivong, Dalaphone; Phoutsavath, Ounheaun; Khampoui, Somchaivang; Grosrenaud, Aude; Amstutz, Vincent; Barennes, Hubert; Buisson, Yves; Odermatt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background We evaluated the Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZNS) technique for the diagnosis of paragonimiasis in Laos and compared different modifications of the ZNS techniques. Methodology We applied the following approach: We (1) examined a paragonimiasis index case's sputum with wet film direct examination (WF) and ZNS; (2) re-examined stored ZNS slides from two provinces; (3) compared prospectively WF, ZNS, and formalin-ether concentration technique (FECT) for sputum examination of patients with chronic cough; and (4) compared different ZNS procedures. Finally, we assessed excess direct costs associated with the use of different diagnostic techniques. Principal Findings Paragonimus eggs were clearly visible in WF and ZNS sputum samples of the index case. They appeared brownish-reddish in ZNS and were detected in 6 of 263 archived ZNS slides corresponding to 5 patients. One hundred sputum samples from 43 patients were examined with three techniques, which revealed that 6 patients had paragonimiasis (13 positive samples). Sensitivity per slide of the FECT, ZNS and the WF technique was 84.6 (p = 0.48), 76.9 (p = 0.25) and 61.5% (p = 0.07), respectively. Percentage of fragmented eggs was below 19% and did not differ between techniques (p = 0.13). Additional operational costs per slide were 0 (ZNS), 0.10 US$ (WF), and 0.79 US$ (FECT). ZNS heated for five minutes contained less eggs than briefly heated slides (29 eggs per slide [eps] vs. 42 eps, p = 0.01). Bloodstained sputum portions contained more eggs than unstained parts (3.3 eps vs. 0.7 eps, p = 0.016). Conclusions/Significance Paragonimus eggs can easily be detected in today's widely used ZNS of sputum slides. The ZNS technique appears superior to the standard WF sputum examination for paragonimiasis and eliminates the risk of tuberculosis transmission. Our findings suggest that ZNS sputum slides should also be examined routinely for Paragonimus eggs. ZNS technique has potential in

  11. Demonstration of Polysaccharide Capsule in Campylobacter jejuni Using Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; McCrossan, Maria V.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Campylobacter jejuni, an important gastrointestinal pathogen, has the genetic determinants to produce a capsular polysaccharide (Karlyshev et al., Mol. Microbiol. 35:529–541, 2000). Despite these data, the presence of a capsule in these bacteria has remained controversial. In this study we stain C. jejuni cells with the cationic dye Alcian blue and demonstrate for the first time by electron microscopy that C. jejuni cells produce a polysaccharide capsule that is ret...

  12. Demonstration exercise 'Cavtat 09'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trut, D.

    2009-01-01

    The demonstration exercise is to show a terrorist attack in urban area resulting in a certain number of injured people. On 7th April 2009 a terrorist group HAL 9000 is in Cavtat and set up an explosive devices with chemical reagents in several spots with intention to activate them and cause great number of victims. On the same day, in area of the Cavtat Croatia Hotel, which is hosting the world CBMTS Congress, Cavtat Police Station notice several masked persons, in escapement. Hotel personnel alerted the County 112 Center about noticed devices placed by chlorine dioxide tanks, for water conditioning. Intervention police came to block entrance to this area and evacuate hotel's guests and congress members. An explosion and fire occurs from where the position of water-conditioning plant and chlorine dioxide tank. The 112 Center alarms fire-fighters for fight fire and decontamination action and HAZMAT Civil Support Team from Georgia (participated the congress). In the meantime, guests have been instructed not to leave their rooms and to hermetically close doors and windows with available material to keep away potential toxic fume. Decision makers form the County Protection and Rescue Headquarters monitors the situation till the end of alert for the population in the area of Cavtat.(author)

  13. A Demonstration of Lusail

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Essam

    2017-05-10

    There has been a proliferation of datasets available as interlinked RDF data accessible through SPARQL endpoints. This has led to the emergence of various applications in life science, distributed social networks, and Internet of Things that need to integrate data from multiple endpoints. We will demonstrate Lusail; a system that supports the need of emerging applications to access tens to hundreds of geo-distributed datasets. Lusail is a geo-distributed graph engine for querying linked RDF data. Lusail delivers outstanding performance using (i) a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that minimizes the intermediate data to be accessed by the subqueries, and (ii) selectivityawareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism. During the demo, the audience will be able to query actually deployed RDF endpoints as well as large synthetic and real benchmarks that we have deployed in the public cloud. The demo will also show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  14. Staining of proteins in gels with Coomassie G-250 without organic solvent and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ann-Marie; Besir, H Uuml Seyin

    2009-08-14

    In classical protein staining protocols using Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB), solutions with high contents of toxic and flammable organic solvents (Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol) and acetic acid are used for fixation, staining and destaining of proteins in a gel after SDS-PAGE. To speed up the procedure, heating the staining solution in the microwave oven for a short time is frequently used. This usually results in evaporation of toxic or hazardous Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol and a strong smell of acetic acid in the lab which should be avoided due to safety considerations. In a protocol originally published in two patent applications by E.M. Wondrak (US2001046709 (A1), US6319720 (B1)), an alternative composition of the staining solution is described in which no organic solvent or acid is used. The CBB is dissolved in bidistilled water (60-80 mg of CBB G-250 per liter) and 35 mM HCl is added as the only other compound in the staining solution. The CBB staining of the gel is done after SDS-PAGE and thorough washing of the gel in bidistilled water. By heating the gel during the washing and staining steps, the process can be finished faster and no toxic or hazardous compounds are evaporating. The staining of proteins occurs already within 1 minute after heating the gel in staining solution and is fully developed after 15-30 min with a slightly blue background that is destained completely by prolonged washing of the stained gel in bidistilled water, without affecting the stained protein bands.

  15. Clinical and computer-assisted evaluations of the stain removal ability of the Sonicare electronic toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, C; Johnson, B; Emling, R C; Yankell, S L

    1994-01-01

    Two single-blind clinical studies investigated the stain removal properties of Sonicare, a new electronic toothbrush that combines sonic vibrations and dynamic fluid activity with mechanical scrubbing to clean tooth surfaces. In one study, 30 subjects used a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse (Peridex) for two weeks to accumulate stain, and then were assigned to either Sonicare or a manual toothbrush (Oral-B P-35). The subjects brushed with their assigned device for 2 minutes twice a day. In a second study, 19 subjects with extrinsic stain due to coffee, tea, or tobacco (CTT) causes were randomly assigned to either Sonicare or a manual toothbrush (Crest Complete). These subjects also brushed for 2 minutes twice a day, with additional brushing on the stained areas. Stain on the labial surfaces of the subjects' anterior teeth was evaluated with the Lobene index at the pretrial, 2-week, and 4-week periods. Clinical analysis indicated that use of Sonicare resulted in Peridex stain reductions of 54% and 50% after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, and reductions in CTT stain of 39% and 82% at similar time points. The manual toothbrush resulted in stain increases of 4% and 24% in the Peridex study and CTT stain decreases of 41% and 39% after 2- and 4-week brushing periods. Computer image analysis was performed on photographic records from the CTT stain study and showed a high correlation with the Lobene index (r = 0.82). The results of these two independent studies indicate that Sonicare is superior to the manual toothbrushes studied in removing both Peridex and CTT stains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Comparison of algorithms for blood stain detection applied to forensic hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Messinger, David W.; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Early detection of blood stains is particularly important since the blood reacts physically and chemically with air and materials over time. Accurate identification of blood remnants, including regions that might have been intentionally cleaned, is an important aspect of forensic investigation. Hyperspectral imaging might be a potential method to detect blood stains because it is non-contact and provides substantial spectral information that can be used to identify regions in a scene with trace amounts of blood. The potential complexity of scenes in which such vast violence occurs can be high when the range of scene material types and conditions containing blood stains at a crime scene are considered. Some stains are hard to detect by the unaided eye, especially if a conscious effort to clean the scene has occurred (we refer to these as "latent" blood stains). In this paper we present the initial results of a study of the use of hyperspectral imaging algorithms for blood detection in complex scenes. We describe a hyperspectral imaging system which generates images covering 400 nm - 700 nm visible range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm. Three image sets of 31 wavelength bands were generated using this camera for a simulated indoor crime scene in which blood stains were placed on a T-shirt and walls. To detect blood stains in the scene, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Subspace Reed Xiaoli Detection (SRXD), and Topological Anomaly Detection (TAD) algorithms were used. Comparison of the three hyperspectral image analysis techniques shows that TAD is most suitable for detecting blood stains and discovering latent blood stains.

  17. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Metabolic markers in relation to hypoxia; staining patterns and colocalization of pimonidazole, HIF-1α, CAIX, LDH-5, GLUT-1, MCT1 and MCT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademakers, Saskia E; Lok, Jasper; Kogel, Albert J van der; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes HAM

    2011-01-01

    The cellular response of malignant tumors to hypoxia is diverse. Several important endogenous metabolic markers are upregulated under hypoxic conditions. We examined the staining patterns and co-expression of HIF-1α, CAIX, LDH-5, GLUT-1, MCT1 and MCT4 with the exogenous hypoxic cell marker pimonidazole and the association of marker expression with clinicopathological characteristics. 20 biopsies of advanced head and neck carcinomas were immunohistochemically stained and analyzed. All patients were given the hypoxia marker pimonidazole intravenously 2 h prior to biopsy taking. The tumor area positive for each marker, the colocalization of the different markers and the distribution of the markers in relation to the blood vessels were assessed by semiautomatic quantitative analysis. MCT1 staining was present in hypoxic (pimonidazole stained) as well as non-hypoxic areas in almost equal amounts. MCT1 expression showed a significant overall correlation (r = 0.75, p < 0.001) and strong spatial relationship with CAIX. LDH-5 showed the strongest correlation with pimonidazole (r = 0.66, p = 0.002). MCT4 and GLUT-1 demonstrated a typical diffusion-limited hypoxic pattern and showed a high degree of colocalization. Both MCT4 and CAIX showed a higher expression in the primary tumor in node positive patients (p = 0.09 both). Colocalization and staining patterns of metabolic and hypoxia-related proteins provides valuable additional information over single protein analyses and can improve the understanding of their functions and environmental influences

  19. Comparison of Chemicon SimulFluor direct fluorescent antibody staining with cell culture and shell vial direct immunoperoxidase staining for detection of herpes simplex virus and with cytospin direct immunofluorescence staining for detection of varicella-zoster virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, E L; Brandt, K; Horsman, G B

    2001-09-01

    A new rapid direct immunofluorescence assay, the SimulFluor direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) assay, which can simultaneously detect herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV), was evaluated in comparison with our current standard procedures of (i) shell vial direct immunoperoxidase (shell vial IP) staining and cell culture for detection of HSV and (ii) cytospin DFA staining for VZV detection. A total of 517 vesicular, oral, genital, and skin lesion specimens were tested by all three procedures. For HSV detection, the SimulFluor DFA assay had an overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 80.0, 98.3, 92.3, and 95.1%, respectively, when compared to culture. Shell vial IP staining had a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 87.6, 100, 100, and 96.9%, respectively, when compared with cell culture. The SimulFluor DFA assay, however, offers same-day, 1.5-hours results versus a 1- to 2-day wait for shell vial IP staining results and a 1- to 6-day wait for culture results for HSV. For VZV detection SimulFluor DFA staining detected 27 positive specimens as compared to 31 by our standard cytospin DFA technique--a correlation of 87.1%. A positive SimulFluor reaction for VZV is indicated by yellow-gold fluorescence compared to the bright apple-green fluorescence observed by cytospin DFA staining. There is no difference in turnaround time between the two assays. The SimulFluor DFA assay is a rapid immunofluorescence assay that can detect 80% of the HSV-positive specimens and 87% of the VZV-positive specimens with a 1.5-h turnaround time.

  20. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Elo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studies, our own experiences, and methodological textbooks. Trustworthiness was described for the main qualitative content analysis phases from data collection to reporting of the results. We concluded that it is important to scrutinize the trustworthiness of every phase of the analysis process, including the preparation, organization, and reporting of results. Together, these phases should give a reader a clear indication of the overall trustworthiness of the study. Based on our findings, we compiled a checklist for researchers attempting to improve the trustworthiness of a content analysis study. The discussion in this article helps to clarify how content analysis should be reported in a valid and understandable manner, which would be of particular benefit to reviewers of scientific articles. Furthermore, we discuss that it is often difficult to evaluate the trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis studies because of defective data collection method description and/or analysis description.

  1. A histochemical study of tissue eosinophilia in oral squamous cell carcinoma using Congo red staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Priya Shirish; Kaijkar, Manasi S

    2013-11-01

    Tumor associated tissue eosinophilia is believed to play a significant role in the biological behavior of the carcinoma. Eosinophil infiltrate in association with the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have been reviewed from time-to-time. The significance of such an association has been variably thought to be either a potential diagnostic tool for stromal invasion or as a prognostic indicator. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Congo red staining to differentiate eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and whether this eosinophilia is associated with the histologic grading in OSCC. The eosinophil infiltration in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and Congo red stained sections of 50 biopsies of OSCC were examined. The eosinophil distribution was quantitatively evaluated in both sections as either diffuse or focal and scored as mild, moderate and severe grades. The average number of eosinophils obtained in OSCC stained by H and E and Congo red were then statistically compared by univariate analysis carried out using Student's t-test. P Congo red stain over H and E stain to differentiate eosinophils was excellent and found to be statistically significant (P Congo red staining showed a high sensitivity in staining eosinophils over routine H and E. This staining technique could therefore provide an adjunct to routine H and E in evaluating eosinophils in dysplasia and OSCC cases.

  2. Gram-stain-based antimicrobial selection reduces cost and overuse compared with Japanese guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsuha, Sanefumi; Shiiki, Soichi; Narita, Masashi

    2015-10-26

    The Gram stain has been used as an essential tool for antimicrobial stewardship in our hospital since the 1970s. The objective of this study was to clarify the difference in the targeted therapies selected based on the Gram stain and simulated empirical therapies based on the antimicrobial guidelines used in Japan. A referral-hospital-based prospective descriptive study was undertaken between May 2013 and April 2014 in Okinawa, Japan. All enrolled patients were adults who had been admitted to the Division of Infectious Diseases through the emergency room with suspected bacterial infection at one of three sites: respiratory system, urinary tract, or skin and soft tissues. The study outcomes were the types and effectiveness of the antibiotics initially selected, and their total costs. Two hundred eight patients were enrolled in the study. The median age was 80 years. A significantly narrower spectrum of antibiotics was selected based on the Gram stain than was selected based on the Japanese guidelines. The treatments based on the Gram stain and on the guidelines were estimated to be equally highly effective. The total cost of antimicrobials after Gram-stain testing was less than half the cost after the guidelines were followed. Compared with the Japanese guidelines, the Gram stain dramatically reduced the overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials without affecting the effectiveness of the treatment. Drug costs were reduced by half when the Gram stain was used. The Gram stain should be included in all antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  3. Comparison of Gram stain and Nomarski optics for screening sputum specimens before culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, L G; Kepas, A

    1986-01-01

    Although the Gram stain is usually used to screen sputum specimens prior to culture, wet mount observation with Nomarski optics has been suggested as a useful alternative. We compared the two methods and found that more specimens were rejected by the Gram stain technique without eliminating any that yielded important clinical information.

  4. Pyogenic granuloma appearing on port-wine stain: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, I; Kilinc, N; Yucetas, A

    2003-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma has been reported to be associated with hemangiomas and hamartomas, including port-wine stain. It has been suggested that the spontaneous development of pyogenic granuloma in port-wine stain might be associated with microscopic arteriovenous anastomoses in highly vascularized areas such as the fingers, hands, lips, tongue and face. A 25-year-old male patient presented with a history of a reddish, solitary nodule on the posterior cervical area for eight months. There had been an associated port-wine stain at the same localization since birth. Physical examination revealed a solitary, strawberry-like dome-shaped papule, 12 mm in diameter, within a well-demarcated reddish colored surrounding patch which had been present on the posterior cervical area. The lesion was excised, considering pyogenic granuloma arising in a port-wine stain. Histopathologic examination showed a mass of capillaries with variable luminal diameters, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and immature endothelial proliferation in the upper dermis. The capillaries were organized into lobules separated by fibrous stroma and were surrounded by an epithelial collarette. Immunohistochemical staining for factor VIII-related antigen supported all these findings of the port-wine stain. We present a pyogenic granuloma arising in port-wine stain on the posterior cervical area, since the posterior cervical area is not as highly vascular as the fingers, hands, lips, tongue and face. We believed that the collar of the patient's shirt continuously traumatized port-wine stain, and consequently led to the development of pyogenic granuloma.

  5. Extracts of Pterocarpus osun as a histological stain for collagen fibres

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The staining ability of Pterocarpus osun extract on tissue sections was determined. 2 kg of P. osun stem was dried, milled to obtain a fine powder and a red pigment extracted from the powder with 1 L of 70% ethanol at 78°C for 24 h. The alcoholic and acidic extracts were used to stain tissue sections. Collagen fibres, red ...

  6. Marine Red Staining of a Pennsylvanian Carbonate Slope: Environmental and Oceanographic Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, B.; Immenhauser, A.M.; Steuber, T; Hagmaier, M.; Bahamonde, J.R.; Samankassou, E.; Merino Tomé, O.

    2007-01-01

    Red-stained platform facies are a common feature of many carbonate settings throughout the geological record. Although the mechanisms involved in red staining of subaerially exposed or argillaceous, peri-platforin limestones are reasonably well understood, the environmental and oceanographic

  7. Hyperspectral imaging for the age estimation of blood stains at the crime scene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Gerda; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2012-01-01

    The age estimation of blood stains can provide important information on the temporal aspects of a crime. As previously shown, visible spectroscopy of blood stains can successfully be used for their age estimation. In the present study we evaluated the feasibility to use hyperspectral imaging for

  8. The effect of an oxygenating agent on chlorhexidine-induced extrinsic tooth staining: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen-Schakel, N.W.D.; Slot, D.E.; Bakker, E.W.P.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) is currently the most effective mouthwash for reducing plaque and gingivitis, one of its side effects is extrinsic tooth staining. Interestingly, oxygenating agents may reduce this staining. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to systematically

  9. The effect of an oxygenating agent on chlorhexidine-induced extrinsic tooth staining: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen-Schakel, N. W. D.; Slot, D. E.; Bakker, E. W. P.; van der Weijden, G. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) is currently the most effective mouthwash for reducing plaque and gingivitis, one of its side effects is extrinsic tooth staining. Interestingly, oxygenating agents may reduce this staining. Objective: The aim of this review was to systematically

  10. Red alder kitchen cabinets—How does application of commercial stains influence customer choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of consumer reaction and preferences for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) secondary products will help Alaska producers in entering new markets. In this study, red alder kitchen cabinets were commercially stained to six different levels and displayed at home shows in Portland, Oregon, and Anchorage, Alaska. The stains simulated...

  11. [The staining of decalcified histological bone slices with the improved Romanowsky-Giemsa solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, B

    1990-01-01

    This article presents a modified Giemsa-staining. The dye Azure B-Eosinate (Serva, Heidelberg) reformed according to Wittekind was applied to paraffin-slices of decalcified bones of rabbits. Besides a contrast staining on the whole significant details in the histological mounting of bone can be exposed.

  12. Understanding Romanowsky staining. I: The Romanowsky-Giemsa effect in blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, R W; Walter, K J

    1987-01-01

    Normal blood smears were stained by the standardised azure B-eosin Y Romanowsky procedure recently introduced by the ICSH, and the classical picture resulted. The effects of varying the times and temperature of staining, the composition of the solvent (buffer concentration, methanol content, & pH), the concentration of the dyes, and the mode of fixation were studied. The results are best understood in terms of the following staining mechanism. Initial colouration involves simple acid and basic dyeing. Eosin yields red erythrocytes and eosinophil granules. Azure B very rapidly gives rise to blue stained chromatin, neutrophil specific granules, platelets and ribosome-rich cytoplasms; also to violet basophil granules. Subsequently the azure B in certain structures combines with eosin to give purple azure B-eosin complexes, leaving other structures with their initial colours. The selectivity of complex formation is controlled by rate of entry of eosin into azure B stained structures. Only faster staining structures (i.e. chromatin, neutrophil specific granules, and platelets) permit formation of the purple complex in the standard method. This staining mechanism illuminates scientific problems (e.g. the nature of 'toxic' granules) and assists technical trouble-shooting (e.g. why nuclei sometimes stain blue, not purple).

  13. [The identification of barbituric acid derivatives in the old blood stains on textiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichek, A V; Shabalina, A E; Rassinskaya, L A

    Thus article was designed to report a few cases of the identification of barbituric acid derivatives in the old blood stains on the clothes and other textiles. The data presented give evidence that barbiturates are capable of persisting in dry blood stains during rather a long period. The authors emphasize the necessity of mandatory control investigations to avoid obtaining the false positive results.

  14. Fading of auramine-stained mycobacterial smears and implications for external quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minion, Jessica; Shenai, Shubhada; Vadwai, Viral; Tipnis, Tejashree; Greenaway, Christina; Menzies, Dick; Ramsay, Andrew; Rodrigues, Camilla; Pai, Madhukar

    2011-05-01

    Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy is being scaled up for tuberculosis control, but fading of auramine-stained slides could compromise external quality assurance. We stored auramine-stained slides and reexamined them over time. Slides stored in all environments faded quickly, with significant changes in the proportion of positive slides in as little as 1 week.

  15. Ruthenium tetraoxide staining of polybutylene terephthalaat (PBT) and polyisobutylene-b-PBT block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janik-Jakubowska, H.Z.; Janik, Helena; Walch, E.; Walch, Eric; Gaymans, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    A ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) staining method has been evaluated for segmented polyisobutylene-b-polybutylene terephthalate (PIB-b-PBT). Solution cast films and melt pressed samples have been studied. For comparison PBT has also been studied. PBT and PIB-b-PBT could be stained with RuO4 at room

  16. Counterion-dye staining for DNA in electrophoresed gels using indoine blue and methyl orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Young; Jin, Li-Tai; Yoo, Gyurng-Soo; Choi, Jung-Kap

    2006-05-01

    In this study, we describe a sensitive staining method for DNA in agarose and polyacrylamide gels using organic visible dyes, indoine blue (IB) and methyl orange (MO). The counterion-dye staining method uses two oppositely charged dyes to form a hydrophobic ion pair complex in the staining solution. A decrease in the number of free forms of dyes in staining solution can enhance the selectivity of binding between the dye and DNA, and can reduce nonspecific background staining. As a result, the sensitivity of counterion-dye staining was significantly improved compared with other dye-based staining. This method uses a staining solution consisting of 0.008% IB, 0.002% MO, 10% ethanol and 0.2 M sodium acetate at pH 4.7, and can detect 5 ng of lambda DNA/HindIII within 60 min in agarose gels and 10 ng of PhiX174 DNA/HaeIII within 20 min in polyacrylamide gels.

  17. Improved method for silver staining of glycoproteins in thin sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Poulsen, J H

    1995-01-01

    A method for detection of glycoproteins in thin sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels was developed by a combination of (i) initial periodic acid oxidation/Alcian blue staining and (ii) subsequent staining with silver nitrate. The procedure allowed detection of as little as 1.6 ng of alpha 1...

  18. Supravital dithizone staining in the isolation of human and rat pancreatic islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, W A; Christie, M R; Kahn, R

    1989-01-01

    stain red on incubation with dithizone solution. Tissue selected on the basis of dithizone staining was shown to contain insulin-positive cells and to accumulate insulin in the medium during a subsequent period in tissue culture. Experiments with rat islets indicated that the dithizone treatment had...

  19. Complete staining of human spermatozoa and immature germ cells combined with phase contrast microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, A Y; Drejer, J O; Bagger, P V

    1987-01-01

    A method combining Janus green B and Thymol blue stains the anterior part of the head, the nuclear membrane, middle piece, and tail of spermatozoa light green and the nucleus deep purple. The method provides excellent stained preparations for the evaluation of sperm morphology by phase contrast...

  20. The effect of some fixatives on the staining ability of Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-10-20

    Oct 20, 2006 ... The effect of some fixatives on the staining reactions of the extracts of Sorghum bicolor on tissue sections was studied in order to identify the most appropriate fixative for the stain. Tissue sections taken at postmortem were fixed in 10% formol saline, Carnoy's fluid, Bouin's fluid, Formol sublimate,.

  1. Qualitative research and consumer psychology: alternatives for application

    OpenAIRE

    Velandia Morales, Andrea; López López, Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative research is a research strategy used to analyze the reality. When applied to consumer psychology, it allows a deeper knowledge about consumer’s behavior and associated emotions and motivations. Qualitative research goes beyond the description of buyers’ behavior and shows information about how and why that behavior is produced.The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how qualitative research is relevant for the knowledge and the understanding of consumers’ behavior and how, thr...

  2. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion

  3. Qualitative Assertions as Prescriptive Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Amanda; Talbert, Tony

    2011-01-01

    The primary question regarding prescriptive appropriateness is a difficult one to answer for the qualitative researcher. While there are certainly qualitative researchers who have offered prescriptive protocols to better define and describe the terrain of qualitative research design and there are qualitative researchers who offer research…

  4. The influence of Romanowsky-Giemsa type of stains on the nuclear texture of desoxyribonuclease-treated cytological preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, D; Schulte, E; Kretschmer, V

    1989-01-01

    It had been observed that cell films where DNA had been partially digested by DNase stained differentially by the standard RG stain and a representative commercial Giemsa mixture. The reasons for this divergence were experimentally investigated. The lower concentration of Azure B in the commercial Giemsa mixture as compared with the standard RG stain emerged as the most likely factor causing the divergence of staining behaviour. A correlation of this assumption to the theory of the RG stain is tentatively suggested.

  5. New Tetrachromic VOF Stain (Type III-G.S for Normal and Pathological Fish Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sarasquete

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A new VOF Type III-G.S stain was applied to histological sections of different organs and tissues of healthy and pathological larvae, juvenile and adult fish species (Solea senegalensis; Sparus aurata; Diplodus sargo; Pagrus auriga; Argyrosomus regius and Halobatrachus didactylus. In comparison to the original Gutiérrez´VOF stain, more acid dyes of contrasting colours and polychromatic/metachromatic properties were incorporated as essential constituents of the tetrachromic VOF stain. This facilitates the selective staining of different basic tissues and improves the morphological analysis of histochemical approaches of the cell components. The VOF-Type III G.S stain is composed of a mixture of several dyes of varying size and molecular weight (Orange G< acid Fuchsin< Light green

  6. Evaluation of gram stain as an alternative in the assessment of human spermatozoa quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, D; Msaouel, P; Angelopoulou, R

    2006-01-01

    During spermiogenesis, protaminosis and sperm chromatin condensation are important prerequisites for the preservation of DNA integrity in spermatozoa. The aim of this study is to assess Gram stain as an alternative technique for the evaluation of human sperm chromatin condensation status. Aniline blue and Gram staining were applied to semen samples from 34 donors in order to determine the relationship between sperm chromatin condensation and infertility. In addition, the possible correlation between morphology and vitality (eosin-Y staining) of spermatozoa compared with their nuclear status (aniline blue and Gram staining) was studied. Chromatin condensation and sperm vitality were significantly higher in fertile men compared to the subfertile. A significant correlation was found between chromatin condensation and (a) sperm vitality (p Gram staining may be used as a routine method in assisted reproduction laboratories and could assist in the evaluation of sperm quality as well as in the selection of the appropriate fertilization technique.

  7. [Qualitative methods in psychiatric research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Glaesmer, Heide

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the usage of qualitative methods in psychiatric research and presents the qualitative approach in more detail. Recent original empirical work of a German psychiatric journal was systematically reviewed. Methods used to collect and analyse the information are detailed. One third of the articles used a solely qualitative research design. One further article applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three kinds of the qualitative interviews were used (in depth, narrative and problem-focussed interview). Additionally, focus groups (group discussions) and qualitative content analysis were applied by studies. Qualitative approaches are an integral part of psychiatric research. Further work should assure to use adequate sampling strategies.

  8. Effect of different light-curing modes on degree of conversion, staining susceptibility and stain's retention using different beverages in a nanofilled composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Georgetto, Matheus Henrique; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Catelan, Anderson; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Figueroba, Sidney Raimundo; Lovadino, José Roberto

    2011-04-01

    It is unknown whether the staining pigment concentration would affect the color of composite resin and whether the absorption of the staining pigment is related to the degree of conversion (DC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing units (LCUs) on DC, superficial staining (ΔE), and pigment concentration (PC) in a nanofilled composite resin (Z350, 3M ESPE) using different beverages. Specimens were polymerized for 20 seconds using four LCUs (N=50): quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH)--450 mW/cm(2); laser (LAS)--300 mW/cm(2); second-generation light-emitting diode (LED)-1100 mW/cm(2); and third generation LED--700 mW/cm(2). DC (%) was measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Specimens concerning each group (N=10) were then immersed in one of the solutions (distilled water, red wine, whisky, coffee, and cola--40 min/day, for 40 days). Specimen's color was measured before and after exposure to solutions using a colorimeter (Commission Internacionale de I'Eclairaga L*a*b* color scale), and ΔE was calculated. Specimens were then prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis to measure PC. Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p=0.05). DC: QTH presented the lowest DC, with statistical differences for LAS, LED 2, and LED 3. Whisky and wine showed lower PC mean values than cola and coffee. No statistical difference was observed for LCUs regarding PC and all staining solutions, except cola. Whisky showed the highest values for ΔE regarding all LCUs. Wine showed statistically lower ΔE than whisky, with water presenting the lowest ΔE. LAS and QTH showed higher values than LED 2 concerning ΔE.   LCUs interfered with DC and altered the PC and ΔE of the composite resin submitted to different staining solutions. There was no correlation among DC, PC, and ΔE. Light-curing modes might interfere with staining susceptibility, stain's retention, and DC of a composite resin, compromising the clinical

  9. Staining of Proteins in Gels with Coomassie G-250 without Organic Solvent and Acetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ann-Marie; Besir, Hüseyin

    2009-01-01

    In classical protein staining protocols using Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB), solutions with high contents of toxic and flammable organic solvents (Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol) and acetic acid are used for fixation, staining and destaining of proteins in a gel after SDS-PAGE. To speed up the procedure, heating the staining solution in the microwave oven for a short time is frequently used. This usually results in evaporation of toxic or hazardous Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol and a strong smell of acetic acid in the lab which should be avoided due to safety considerations. In a protocol originally published in two patent applications by E.M. Wondrak (US2001046709 (A1), US6319720 (B1)), an alternative composition of the staining solution is described in which no organic solvent or acid is used. The CBB is dissolved in bidistilled water (60-80mg of CBB G-250 per liter) and 35 mM HCl is added as the only other compound in the staining solution. The CBB staning of the gel is done after SDS-PAGE and thorough washing of the gel in bidistilled water. By heating the gel during the washing and staining steps, the process can be finished faster and no toxic or hazardous compunds are evaporating. The staining of proteins occurs already within 1 minute after heating the gel in staining solution and is fully developed after 15-30 min with a slightly blue background that is destained completely by prolonged washing of the stained gel in bidistilled water, without affecting the stained protein bands. PMID:19684570

  10. Resin technologies: construction and staining of resin TMA's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, William J; Wilson, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    The traditional formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and therefore the tissue microarrays created from it, provide good morphology but with a compromised antigenicity when compared to frozen tissue. In contrast, while solving the issue of antigenicity, frozen tissue suffers from a lack of morphology. We have demonstrated that tissue microarrays constructed in glycol methacrylate resin, when combined with a cold acetone fixation step, have been able to combine the superior morphology of resin-embedded sections with the superior antigenicity of frozen tissue for prospectively collected material.

  11. Disciplining Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the…

  12. a qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ...

    This article provides a reflection on the experiences of Muslim women with regard to domestic violence. A qualitative approach was utilised following an explorative, descriptive, phenomenological contextual research design, as the researchers sought to understand the lived experiences of Muslim women in abusive ...

  13. Helicobacter pylori detection in chronic gastritis: a comparison of staining methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Khan, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori is an important cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulceration and gastric malignancies as gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Its definitive diagnosis is based on histopathology. Routine H and E stain is not very effective in its detection, immune-stains and fluorescent stains are costly. Need for simple cheap and sensitive stain has always been a topic of hot debate and extensive research. Method: paraffin embedded blocks of all adult patients diagnosed as chronic gastritis/gastric ulceration with no accompanying gastric pathology as hypertrophic gastropathys, and neoplasias were taken into study. Three sections of 4 micron were cut and stained with routine H and E, Giemsa, and Cresyl fast violet. Results: Total number of patients was 50. Out of these 37 (74%) were males and 13 (26%) were females. Mean age of the patients was 50.4 years. Thirty-four percent (34%) were positive in normal H and E stain, 68% were positive in Giemsa and 76% were positive in Cresyl fast violet. Conclusion: Cresyl fast violet is a good stain for diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis. (author)

  14. Rapid alkaline methylene blue supravital staining for assessment of anterior segment infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Katsuji

    2016-01-01

    To present the Löffler's alkaline methylene blue technique of staining eye discharges in eyes with anterior segment infections. The Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining method is a simple staining technique that can be used to differentiate bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. It is a cationic dye that stains cells blue because the positively charged dye is attracted to negatively charged particles such as polyphosphates, DNAs, and RNAs. Specimens collected from patients by swabbing are smeared onto microscope slides and the methylene blue solution is dropped on the slide. The slide is covered with a glass cover slip and examined under a microscope. The entire time from the collection to the viewing is about 30 seconds. Histopathological images of the conjunctival epithelial cells and neutrophils in eye discharges were dyed blue and the nuclei were stained more intensely blue. Bacterial infections consisted mainly of neutrophils, and viral infections consisted mainly of lymphocytes. Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining can be done in about 30 seconds for diagnosis. Even though this is a one color stain, it is possible to infer the cause of the infection by detection of the absence of bacteria and/or fungi in context of the differential distribution of neutrophils and lymphocytes.

  15. Analysis of the utility of stone gram stain in urolithiasis treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerill, Patrick A; Rivera, Marcelino E; Krambeck, Amy E

    2014-06-01

    To define the sensitivity and specificity of stone gram stain for infected urolithiasis treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PCNL procedures performed at our institution were analyzed between January 2009 and May 2013. Stone fragments were sent in a sterile fashion for aerobic and fungal cultures. A gram stain and fungal smear were performed on the stones and reported within 24 hours of collection. A total of 228 patients underwent 248 PCNLs. Of the 248 stones, 81 (33%) had a positive stone culture. Stone gram stain was positive in 31 cases and negative in 50. There were 167 negative stone cultures, and in these cases, gram stain was positive in 5 and negative in 162. The calculated sensitivity and specificity of stone gram stain were 38% and 97%. The positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 76%, respectively. In the subset of 16 patients with positive stone fungal cultures, fungal smear was performed in 12 and was positive in 4, giving fungal smear a sensitivity of 33%. The results of this study suggest that stone gram stain cannot be relied on to detect a positive stone culture and may fail to detect up to 62% of infected stones. However, when positive, gram stain accurately predicts a positive stone culture in 86% of cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving Gram stain proficiency in hospital and satellite laboratories that do not have microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarner, Jeannette; Street, Cassandra; Matlock, Margaret; Cole, Lisa; Brierre, Francoise

    2017-03-01

    Consolidation of laboratories has left many hospitals and satellite laboratories with minimal microbiologic testing. In many hospitals and satellite laboratories, Gram stains on primary specimens are still performed despite difficultly in maintaining proficiency. To maintain Gram stain proficiency at a community 450-bed hospital with an active emergency room we designed bimonthly challenges that require reporting Gram staining and morphology of different organisms. The challenges consist of five specimens prepared by the reference microbiology laboratory from cultures and primary specimens. Twenty to 23 medical laboratory scientists participate reading the challenges. Results from the challenges are discussed with each medical laboratory scientists. In addition, printed images from the challenges are presented at huddle to add microbiology knowledge. On the first three challenges, Gram staining was read correctly in 71%-77% of the time while morphology 53%-66%. In the last six challenges correct answers for Gram stain were 77%-99% while morphology 73%-96%. We observed statistically significant improvement when reading Gram stains by providing frequent challenges to medical laboratory scientists. The clinical importance of Gram stain results is emphasized during huddle presentations increasing knowledge and motivation to perform the test for patients.

  17. Automated robust registration of grossly misregistered whole-slide images with varying stains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litjens, G.; Safferling, K.; Grabe, N.

    2016-03-01

    Cancer diagnosis and pharmaceutical research increasingly depend on the accurate quantification of cancer biomarkers. Identification of biomarkers is usually performed through immunohistochemical staining of cancer sections on glass slides. However, combination of multiple biomarkers from a wide variety of immunohistochemically stained slides is a tedious process in traditional histopathology due to the switching of glass slides and re-identification of regions of interest by pathologists. Digital pathology now allows us to apply image registration algorithms to digitized whole-slides to align the differing immunohistochemical stains automatically. However, registration algorithms need to be robust to changes in color due to differing stains and severe changes in tissue content between slides. In this work we developed a robust registration methodology to allow for fast coarse alignment of multiple immunohistochemical stains to the base hematyoxylin and eosin stained image. We applied HSD color model conversion to obtain a less stain color dependent representation of the whole-slide images. Subsequently, optical density thresholding and connected component analysis were used to identify the relevant regions for registration. Template matching using normalized mutual information was applied to provide initial translation and rotation parameters, after which a cost function-driven affine registration was performed. The algorithm was validated using 40 slides from 10 prostate cancer patients, with landmark registration error as a metric. Median landmark registration error was around 180 microns, which indicates performance is adequate for practical application. None of the registrations failed, indicating the robustness of the algorithm.

  18. Favorite Demonstrations: Gaseous Diffusion: A Demonstration of Graham's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, George B.; Ebner, Ronald D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid are used to illustrate rates of diffusion (Graham's Law). Simple equipment needed for the demonstration include a long tube, rubber stoppes, and cotton. Two related demonstrations are also explained. (DH)

  19. Two-dimensional analysis of proteins in unprocessed human urine using double stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, P K; Resnick, M I

    1993-09-01

    In the present study, a revised two-dimensional (2-D) map of proteins in unprocessed human urine was established. Spot urines were obtained from ten healthy men and ten healthy women each in Dewar flasks over a mixture of protease inhibitors. The specimens were sieved, desalted and freeze-dried, and identical amounts were pooled according to sex. The resulting samples were dissolved in urea mix and subjected to 2-D gel analysis employing the ISO-DALT system: the electrophoretograms were developed by double stain. We visualized more protein spots than reported previously, though most of them as yet remain unidentified. With the exception of similar relative positions of major protein spots, the samples demonstrated different patterns: urine of women, in general, had more spots and a greater proportion of low molecular weight proteins. Besides alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and the most acidic urinary proteins (MAUP), which were discerned earlier only in the ACIDO-DALT system, the ones known to precipitate while processing the samples were also detected. The 2-D profiles we established could be used as a diagnostic aid to study the excretion of proteins under various disease conditions.

  20. An innovative method for obtaining consistent images and quantification of histochemically stained specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Michael A; Sedgewick, Gerald J; Ericson, Marna

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining digital images of color brightfield microscopy is an important aspect of biomedical research and the clinical practice of diagnostic pathology. Although the field of digital pathology has had tremendous advances in whole-slide imaging systems, little effort has been directed toward standardizing color brightfield digital imaging to maintain image-to-image consistency and tonal linearity. Using a single camera and microscope to obtain digital images of three stains, we show that microscope and camera systems inherently produce image-to-image variation. Moreover, we demonstrate that post-processing with a widely used raster graphics editor software program does not completely correct for session-to-session inconsistency. We introduce a reliable method for creating consistent images with a hardware/software solution (ChromaCal™; Datacolor Inc., NJ) along with its features for creating color standardization, preserving linear tonal levels, providing automated white balancing and setting automated brightness to consistent levels. The resulting image consistency using this method will also streamline mean density and morphometry measurements, as images are easily segmented and single thresholds can be used. We suggest that this is a superior method for color brightfield imaging, which can be used for quantification and can be readily incorporated into workflows. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Carcinoembryonic antigen as a biomarker for meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Amir; Tal, Reshef; Irani, Mohamad; McCalla, Sandra; Haberman, Shoshana; Garg, Deepika; Wajntraub, Birgitta

    2016-03-01

    To assess whether elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration in amniotic fluid can indicate meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). In a prospective cohort study, women with a term singleton pregnancy who were in labor but had intact membranes were recruited at a center in Israel over a 5-month period in 2013. Only women who subsequently underwent artificial rupture of membranes following a clear medical indication were included. Samples of amniotic fluid, urine, and serum were collected. Amniotic fluid was examined by sight and classified as clear, MSAF, or undetermined. CEA concentration in the samples was measured. Among 81 participants, 45 had clear amniotic fluid, 28 had MSAF, and eight had undetermined amniotic fluid. Mean CEA concentration was more than 10 times higher in MSAF (2658 μg/L, standard error 250) than in clear amniotic fluid (238 μg/L, standard error 29; P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100% for distinguishing MSAF from clear amniotic fluid at a CEA cutoff of 799.2 μg/L. CEA concentrations in urine and serum were all within the normal range (≤5 μg/L), irrespective of amniotic fluid status. High CEA concentrations in amniotic fluid can assist in the diagnosis of MSAF. These findings could provide the basis for a bedside test to detect MSAF following rupture of membranes. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In-gel digestion for mass spectrometric characterization of RNA from fluorescently stained polyacrylamide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Masato; Ikumi, Maki; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Masaki, Shunpei; Matsuda, Ryozo; Nobe, Yuko; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Takeda, Jun; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Isobe, Toshiaki

    2010-09-15

    Although current mass spectrometry-based proteomics technology allows for high-throughput analysis of protein components in functional ribonucleoprotein complexes, this technology has had limited application to studies of RNA itself. Here we present a protocol for RNA analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Specifically, RNAs of interest are subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with a fluorescent dye, and RNAs in gel bands are digested with nuclease and then analyzed directly liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, resulting in highly accurate mass values and reliable information on post-transcriptional modifications. We demonstrate that the method can be applied to the identification and chemical analysis of small RNAs in mouse embryonic stem cell extracts and of small RNAs in the spliceosomal ribonucleoprotein complex pulled down from yeast cells using a tagged protein cofactor as bait. The protocol is relatively simple and allowed us to identify not only three novel methylated nucleotide residues of RNase P RNA, U6 snRNA, and 7SL RNA prepared from mouse ES cells but also various 3'-end forms of U4, U5S, and U6 snRNAs isolated from the yeast spliceosome at the femtomole level. The method is thus a convenient tool for direct analysis of RNAs in various cellular ribonucleoprotein complexes, particularly for the analysis of post-transcriptional modifications and metabolic processing of RNA.

  3. Prooxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Umbilical Cord Blood of Infants with Meconium Stained of Amniotic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Arjmand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Using a novel assay termed prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB assay to determine prooxidant-antioxidant balance in umbilical cord blood of infants with meconium stained of amniotic fluid (MSAF. Passage of meconium in amniotic fluid is associated with increase of neonatal mortality and morbidity. This complication occurs in about 15% of infants and is more widespread in postterm neonates. About 1.5 percent of neonates with MSAF develop meconium aspiration syndrome. Method. Sera of 29 umbilical cord blood of infants with MSAF and 32 healthy infants (HI were collected. Both groups had nonsmoker and non-alcoholic mothers with no diseases. The PAB was measured. Result. There was a significant increase of PAB value (32.8±15.9 HK in umbilical cord blood of infants with MSAF in comparison to HI (24.5±12.6 HK (P<0.05. There was no significant correlation between PAB value and age of mothers. Conclusion. The increased PAB value in infants with MSAF showed that these infants are exposed to oxidative stress. Further research with larger population is needed to demonstrate the oxidative stress in infants with MSAF.

  4. Histological staining methods preparatory to laser capture microdissection significantly affect the integrity of the cellular RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming-Chung

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling by microarray analysis of cells enriched by laser capture microdissection (LCM faces several technical challenges. Frozen sections yield higher quality RNA than paraffin-imbedded sections, but even with frozen sections, the staining methods used for histological identification of cells of interest could still damage the mRNA in the cells. To study the contribution of staining methods to degradation of results from gene expression profiling of LCM samples, we subjected pellets of the mouse plasma cell tumor cell line TEPC 1165 to direct RNA extraction and to parallel frozen sectioning for LCM and subsequent RNA extraction. We used microarray hybridization analysis to compare gene expression profiles of RNA from cell pellets with gene expression profiles of RNA from frozen sections that had been stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, Nissl Stain (NS, and for immunofluorescence (IF as well as with the plasma cell-revealing methyl green pyronin (MGP stain. All RNAs were amplified with two rounds of T7-based in vitro transcription and analyzed by two-color expression analysis on 10-K cDNA microarrays. Results The MGP-stained samples showed the least introduction of mRNA loss, followed by H&E and immunofluorescence. Nissl staining was significantly more detrimental to gene expression profiles, presumably owing to an aqueous step in which RNA may have been damaged by endogenous or exogenous RNAases. Conclusion RNA damage can occur during the staining steps preparatory to laser capture microdissection, with the consequence of loss of representation of certain genes in microarray hybridization analysis. Inclusion of RNAase inhibitor in aqueous staining solutions appears to be important in protecting RNA from loss of gene transcripts.

  5. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ≥10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P=0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P=0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda dentifrice: A review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming

    2017-11-01

    Tooth discoloration may be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic stains or a combination of both. There are 2 major approaches to removing the stains, including the chemical mechanism using peroxides for tooth bleaching and the mechanical mechanism using abrasives in prophylactic pastes and dentifrices to remove stains, resulting in a whitening effect. Attempts have also been made to add a low concentration of peroxides to dentifrices to enhance their abrasive cleaning to remove tooth stains. This article provides a review of both in vitro and clinical studies on stain removal and whitening effect of dentifrices containing sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). In recent years, whitening dentifrices have become popular because of little additional effort for use, ease of availability, low cost, and accumulated evidence of clinical efficacy and safety in the literature. Advances in research and technology have led to innovative formulations of dentifrices using baking soda as the sole abrasive or a component of an abrasive system. Baking soda is biologically compatible with acid-buffering capacities, antibacterial at high concentrations, and has a relatively lower abrasivity. The evidence available in the literature indicates that baking soda-based dentifrices are effective and safe for tooth stain removal and consequently whitening. A number of clinical studies have also shown that baking soda-based dentifrices are more effective in stain removal and whitening than some non-baking soda-containing dentifrices with a higher abrasivity. So far, research efforts have mainly focused on stain removal and tooth-whitening efficacy and clinical safety of baking soda dentifrices used with manual toothbrushes, with only a few studies investigating their effects using powered toothbrushes, for which further research is encouraged. As part of a daily oral hygiene practice, baking soda-based dentifrice is a desirable, alternative or additional measure for tooth stain removal and whitening

  7. Effects of various finishing procedures on the staining of provisional restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ahmet Umut; Kurt, Safak; Kulunk, Tolga

    2005-05-01

    methacrylate-based material group demonstrated statistically significantly less color change than the other provisional material tested. The methyl methacrylate-based PR material (TemDent) was found to be more color stable than the autopolymerized (Protemp II and Luxatemp) and light-polymerized (Revotek LC) composites tested. The use of diamond polishing paste after polishing with pumice significantly decreased the staining of methyl metacrylate and bis-acryl composites tested. The highest color-change values were obtained in the groups polished with polishing discs, which were found to be significantly different compared to values obtained with other polishing techniques.

  8. Cellular responses of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli to the Gram stain.

    OpenAIRE

    Beveridge, T J; Davies, J A

    1983-01-01

    Exponentially growing cells of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were Gram stained with potassium trichloro(eta 2-ethylene)platinum(II) (TPt) in place of the usual KI-I2 mordant. This electron-dense probe allowed the staining mechanism to be followed and compared with cellular perturbations throughout the staining process. A crystal violet (CV)-TPt chemical complex was formed within the cell substance and at the cell surface of B. subtilis when the dye and Pt mordant were added. The etha...

  9. Supravital dithizone staining in the isolation of human and rat pancreatic islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, W A; Christie, M R; Kahn, R

    1989-01-01

    no effect on insulin release in tissue culture, on acute responses to stimulatory glucose concentrations or on the insulin content of cells. These results suggest that dithizone staining can assist in the identification of islets from the human pancreas and may prove to be a useful tool in developing......Dithizone, a zinc chelating agent, is known to selectively stain the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. In the present study, we have used this stain to aid the identification of islets in material obtained by collagenase digestion of human pancreas. Islets were shown to rapidly and reversibly...... techniques for the large scale isolation of functionally intact human islets....

  10. Amazonian açai and food dyes for staining arbuscular- micorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lourdes Martins Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizae microscopy requires differential staining of typical structures. Dyes employed, such as trypan blue, pose risks to health and environment. Alternative dyes such as pen ink and aniline have variable coloring efficiency. In this work, Brachiaria decumbens roots, discolored with caustic soda (NaOH, were stained with açai, annatto, saffron, trypan blue and pen inks. There were significant differences among dyes regarding stained mycorrhizal structures and pictures quality. Acai was considered the best alternative dye, with similar results to trypan blue.

  11. RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS IN NEWBORNS ASSOCIATED WITH MECONIUM-STAINED AMNIOTIC FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Menon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Perinatal morbidity and mortality resulting from aspiration of Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid (MSAF is due to the respiratory problems ranging from mild respiratory distress to meconium aspiration syndrome and meconium pneumonitis. The aim of the study is to define the respiratory problems and to identify the determinants of respiratory distress in babies born through light, moderate and thick MSAF. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective observational study conducted in a university tertiary maternity care institute in Kerala. 150 term pregnancies with meconium-stained amniotic fluid were selected of which 50 cases were each of light, moderate and thick meconium staining. RESULTS Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was seen frequently in the age group between 20-25 years age than above age of 25 years (p<0.0001. Post-dated pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension and anaemia also showed a trend in increase occurrence of meconium-stained liquor. Severe birth asphyxia as indicated by Apgar score of <3 was seen in 72.7% of thick meconium staining compared to 18.2% and 9.1% with moderate and light staining of meconium (P=0.004. Respiratory distress in newborn was severe (meconium aspiration syndrome in babies with thick meconium staining (80% compared to 15% with moderate meconium and 5% with light meconium staining (P<0.0001. The hazard ratio for death was 8 times higher with meconium aspiration syndrome compared to newborns with aspiration of moderate or light meconium-stained amniotic fluid aspiration. The odds ratio was also very high with aspiration of thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid than the other groups (OR 11.43; 95%, CI 1.33 to 98.35; Z statistic 2.22; P=0.03. CONCLUSION Meconium staining of the liquor is an important warning signal of foetal distress and the likelihood is increased if associated with alterations in the foetal heart rate. Increased morbidity and mortality was found with

  12. INTERNALISASI PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER DI PERGURUAN TINGGI: Studi Kasus di Jurusan Tarbiyah STAIN PONOROGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharisul Wathoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study will examine the internalization of character values at the Tarbiyah Department of STAIN Ponorogo. It has been found out that STAIN Ponorogo, in particular the Tarbiyah Department, has made efforts to undertake character education to the students through three patterns: during the learning process, during process of academic administrative services, and during extracurricular and intraccurricular activities followed by students at STAIN Ponorogo. The characters to be internalized are honesty, discipline, religiousity, creativity, self-reliance, responsibility, tolerance, communication and responsibility. Keywords: character education, morality, internalization

  13. Epidermization in the esophageal mucosa: unusual epithelial changes clearly detected by Lugol's staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Y; Ochiai, A; Shimoda, T; Yamaguchi, H; Tachimori, Y; Kato, H; Watanabe, H; Hirohashi, S

    1997-05-01

    A 58-year-old Japanese man with superficial esophageal cancer accompanied by unusual epithelial changes, including esophageal mucosal epidermization, is reported. Staining with Lugol's iodine clearly showed irregular unstained lesions, which could not be seen clearly macroscopically, in the resected specimen. Histologic examination of the irregular unstained areas showed definite granular and horny layers regarded as epidermization, acanthosis with slight nuclear enlargement, and epithelial atrophy. The immunohistochemical staining patterns of keratins in the epidermized and atrophic lesions were similar to those in the epidermis, and the keratin staining patterns of the acanthotic lesion were similar to those of the oral epithelium.

  14. Qualitative and temporal aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral assumptions, rational or otherwise, are not solid enough to be eligible as first principles of theoretical economics. Hence all endeavors to lay the formal foundation on a new site and at a deeper level actually need no further vindication. The present paper suggests three non-behavioral axioms as groundwork and applies them to the analysis of qualitative and temporal aggregation in the pure consumption economy. It turns out that the structural axiom set is self-similar with regard...

  15. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    21. Glaser , B. G. and Strauss, A. L. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory . London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-GD-0773...Evaluations. United States General Accounting Office 20. Glaser , B. G. (2002) Constructivist Grounded Theory ? Forum: Qualitative Social Research 3 (3...sampling, originated with the development of grounded theory [21]. In contrast to statistical sampling, the goal of theoretical sampling is not to

  16. Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loe, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Information Integration Technology Demonstration (IITD) were to investigate, design a software architecture and demonstrate a capability to display intelligence data from multiple disciplines...

  17. Romanowsky dyes and Romanowsky-Giemsa effect. 5. Structural investigations of the purple DNA-AB-EY dye complexes of Romanowsky-Giemsa staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, K; Seiffert, W; Zimmermann, H W

    1990-01-01

    A reproducible Romanowsky-Giemsa staining (RGS) can be carried out with standardized staining solutions containing the two dyes azure B (AB) and eosin Y (EY). After staining, cell nuclei have a purple coloration generated by DNA-AB-EY complexes. The microspectra of cell nuclei have a sharp and intense absorption band at 18,100 cm-1 (552 nm), the so called Romanowsky band (RB), which is due to the EY chromophore of the dye complexes. Other absorption bands can be assigned to the DNA-bound AB cations. Artificial DNA-AB-EY complexes can be prepared outside the cell by subsequent staining of DNA with AB and EY. In the first step of our staining experiments we prepared thin films of blue DNA-AB complexes on microslides with 1:1 composition: each anionic phosphodiester residue of the nucleic acid was occupied by one AB cation. Microspectrophotometric investigations of the dye preparations demonstrated that, besides monomers and dimers, mainly higher AB aggregates are bound to DNA by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These DNA-AB complexes are insoluble in water. Therefore it was possible to stain the DNA-AB films with aqueous EY solutions and also to prepare insoluble DNA-AB-EY films in the second step of the staining experiments. After the reaction with EY, thin sites within the dye preparations were purple. The microspectra of the purple spots show a strong Romanowsky band at 18,100 cm-1. Using a special technique it was possible to estimate the composition of the purple dye complexes. The ratio of the two dyes was approximately EY:AB approximately 1:3. The EY anions are mainly bound by hydrophobic interaction to the AB framework of the electrical neutral DNA-AB complexes. The EY absorption is red shifted by the interaction of EY with the AB framework of DNA-AB-EY. We suppose that this red shift is caused by a dielectric polarization of the bound EY dianions. The DNA chains in the DNA-AB complexes can mechanically be aligned in a preferred direction k. Highly

  18. B-Amyloid Precursor Protein Staining of the Brain in Sudden Infant and Early Childhood Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisbeth Lund; Banner, Jytte; Ulhøi, Benedicte Parm

    2013-01-01

    To develop and validate a scoring method for assessing β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) staining in cerebral white matter and to investigate the occurrence, amount and deposition pattern based on the cause of death in infants and young children....

  19. One Small Step for the Gram Stain, One Giant Leap for Clinical Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Richard B

    2016-06-01

    The Gram stain is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory, yet it is poorly controlled and lacks standardization. It was once the best rapid test in microbiology, but it is no longer trusted by many clinicians. The publication by Samuel et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 54:1442-1447, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03066-15) is a start for those who want to evaluate and improve Gram stain performance. In an age of emerging rapid molecular results, is the Gram stain still relevant? How should clinical microbiologists respond to the call to reduce Gram stain error rates? Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Utility of Gram Staining for Evaluation of the Quality of Cystic Fibrosis Sputum Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bindu; Stapp, Jenny; Stapp, Lynn; Bugni, Linda; Van Dalfsen, Jill; Burns, Jane L.

    2002-01-01

    The microscopic examination of Gram-stained sputum specimens is very helpful in the evaluation of patients with community-acquired pneumonia and has also been recommended for use in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate that recommendation. One hundred one sputum samples from CF patients were cultured for gram-negative bacilli and examined by Gram staining for both sputum adequacy (using the quality [Q] score) and bacterial morphology. Subjective evaluation of adequacy was also performed and categorized. Based on Q score evaluation, 41% of the samples would have been rejected despite a subjective appearance of purulence. Only three of these rejected samples were culture negative for gram-negative CF pathogens. Correlation between culture results and quantitative Gram stain examination was also poor. These data suggest that subjective evaluation combined with comprehensive bacteriology is superior to Gram staining in identifying pathogens in CF sputum. PMID:12149331

  1. Staining Pattern Classification of Antinuclear Autoantibodies Based on Block Segmentation in Indirect Immunofluorescence Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqian; Tseng, Kuo-Kun; Hsieh, Zu Yi; Yang, Ching Wen; Huang, Huang-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence based on HEp-2 cell substrate is the most commonly used staining method for antinuclear autoantibodies associated with different types of autoimmune pathologies. The aim of this paper is to design an automatic system to identify the staining patterns based on block segmentation compared to the cell segmentation most used in previous research. Various feature descriptors and classifiers are tested and compared in the classification of the staining pattern of blocks and it is found that the technique of the combination of the local binary pattern and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm achieve the best performance. Relying on the results of block pattern classification, experiments on the whole images show that classifier fusion rules are able to identify the staining patterns of the whole well (specimen image) with a total accuracy of about 94.62%. PMID:25474260

  2. Identification of malaria parasites by fluorescence microscopy and acridine orange staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, G. T.; Sodeman, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    The need for a technique that is more sensitive than the use of Romanowsky-stained thick blood films for detecting malaria parasites at low concentration in the blood is well recognized. One of the more promising methods appeared to be fluorochrome staining with acridine orange. However, reports on the efficacy of the technique were contradictory and it was not clear to what extent blood films taken under survey conditions would contain fluorescing artefacts that might confuse diagnosis. An investigation indicated that, provided reasonable care was taken, blood films made under survey conditions contained few confusing artefacts. However, it was found that, while acridine orange staining might have a slight advantage when large malaria parasites were present, it was inferior to routine Romanowsky staining for the detection of young trophozoites, the inferiority becoming more pronounced as the parasite concentration decreased. PMID:4130021

  3. Use of Romanowsky type (Diff-3) stain for detecting Helicobacter pylori in smears and tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitoun, A M

    1992-05-01

    A Romanowsky type (Diff-3) stain was used for identifying Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens from 50 patients with ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia. Air dried smears were prepared from fresh biopsy tissue and histological sections were prepared from paraffin wax processed tissue. The Diff-3 technique is accomplished in five steps and takes about 30 seconds. Results using the Diff-3 stain correlated 100% with those using the Giemsa stain. The Diff-3 stain is reliable, simple, rapid, easy and clean, and smears prepared from fresh biopsy tissue can be examined and an immediate report given. The method is recommended for the identification of H pylori in smears prepared from fresh tissue as well as in sections prepared from processed tissue.

  4. Chemical contrast observed in thermal images of blood-stained fabrics exposed to steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Wayne L; Boltin, Nicholas D; Lu, Zhenyu; Cassidy, Brianna M; Belliveau, Raymond G; Straub, Emory J; DeJong, Stephanie A; Morgan, Stephen L; Myrick, M L

    2015-09-21

    Thermal imaging is not ordinarily a good way to visualize chemical contrast. In recent work, however, we observed strong and reproducible images with chemical contrasts on blood-stained fabrics, especially on more hydrophobic fabrics like acrylic and polyester.

  5. Efficacy of baking soda-containing chewing gum in removing natural tooth stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H

    2001-07-01

    A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.

  6. Consequences of meconium stained amniotic fluid: What does the evidence tell us?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutton, E.K.; Thorpe, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is common and associated with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Other consequences of meconium passage before birth are less well understood. Methods: We reviewed the literature for original papers reporting on outcomes associated with MSAF.

  7. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  8. Section for qualitative methods (Letter)

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Z.; Madill, A.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are increasingly used in all areas of psychology. We have proposed a new Section – the Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section – for anyone with an interest in using these research methods.

  9. Automation-assisted cervical cancer screening in manual liquid-based cytology with hematoxylin and eosin staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Kong, Hui; Ting Chin, Chien; Liu, Shaoxiong; Fan, Xinmin; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping

    2014-03-01

    Current automation-assisted technologies for screening cervical cancer mainly rely on automated liquid-based cytology slides with proprietary stain. This is not a cost-efficient approach to be utilized in developing countries. In this article, we propose the first automation-assisted system to screen cervical cancer in manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) slides with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, which is inexpensive and more applicable in developing countries. This system consists of three main modules: image acquisition, cell segmentation, and cell classification. First, an autofocusing scheme is proposed to find the global maximum of the focus curve by iteratively comparing image qualities of specific locations. On the autofocused images, the multiway graph cut (GC) is performed globally on the a* channel enhanced image to obtain cytoplasm segmentation. The nuclei, especially abnormal nuclei, are robustly segmented by using GC adaptively and locally. Two concave-based approaches are integrated to split the touching nuclei. To classify the segmented cells, features are selected and preprocessed to improve the sensitivity, and contextual and cytoplasm information are introduced to improve the specificity. Experiments on 26 consecutive image stacks demonstrated that the dynamic autofocusing accuracy was 2.06 μm. On 21 cervical cell images with nonideal imaging condition and pathology, our segmentation method achieved a 93% accuracy for cytoplasm, and a 87.3% F-measure for nuclei, both outperformed state of the art works in terms of accuracy. Additional clinical trials showed that both the sensitivity (88.1%) and the specificity (100%) of our system are satisfyingly high. These results proved the feasibility of automation-assisted cervical cancer screening in MLBC slides with H&E stain, which is highly desirable in community health centers and small hospitals. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  10. [Comet assay of DNA fragmentation: modification of silver staining for obtaining permanent preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins'kyĭ, V O; Lutsyk, M D; Stoĭka, R S

    2005-01-01

    Modification of comet analysis is proposed for obtaining permanent preparations by DNA staining with silver compounds. The sensitivity of staining is similar to that observed at the treatment by ethidium bromide and other fluorochromes. The advantages of the method are stability of slides and possibility of their reinvestigation by light microscopy. The method does not need expensive fluorescent microscope and lacks contacting with carcinogenic compounds and UV light irradiation.

  11. Utility of Gram stain for the microbiological analysis of burn wound surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Sameer; Gregson, Daniel B; Lloyd, Tracie; Crichton, Marilyn; Church, Deirdre L

    2003-11-01

    Surface swab cultures have attracted attention as a potential alternative to biopsy histology or quantitative culture methods for microbiological burn wound monitoring. To our knowledge, the utility of adding a Gram-stained slide in this context has not been evaluated previously. To determine the degree of correlation of Gram stain with culture for the microbiological analysis of burn wound surfaces. Prospective laboratory analysis. Urban health region/centralized diagnostic microbiology laboratory. Burn patients hospitalized in any Calgary Health Region burn center from November 2000 to September 2001. Gram stain plus culture of burn wound surface swab specimens obtained during routine dressing changes or based on clinical signs of infection. Degree of correlation (complete, high, partial, none), including weighted kappa statistic (kappa(w)), of Gram stain with culture based on quantitative microscopy and degree of culture growth. A total of 375 specimens from 50 burn patients were evaluated. Of these, 239 were negative by culture and Gram stain, 7 were positive by Gram stain only, 89 were positive by culture only, and 40 were positive by both methods. The degree of complete, high, partial, and no correlation of Gram stain with culture was 70.9% (266/375), 1.1% (4/375), 2.4% (9/375), and 25.6% (96/375), respectively. The degree of correlation for all 375 specimens, as expressed by the weighted kappa statistic, was found to be fair (kappa(w) = 0.32).Conclusion.-The Gram stain is not suitable for the microbiological analysis of burn wound surfaces.

  12. Interkoneksi Stain, Bsm, Dan Mes Dalam Mengembangkan Ekonomi Islam: Studi Kasus Di Purwokerto

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlan, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    STAIN, Bank Syariah Mandiri (BSM), and Masyarakat Ekonomi Syariah (MES, Syariah Economic Society) have important rolein the development of Islam economy in Purwokerto. This research result evidenced that these three institutions have an Islamic economydevelopment program according with vision and mission of their institution. STAIN as Islamic higher education is on curriculum design andlecture quality domain, BSM as banking financial institution on enhancing employee/manager quality, and MES ...

  13. INTERKONEKSI STAIN, BSM, DAN MES DALAM MENGEMBANGKAN EKONOMI ISLAM: STUDI KASUS DI PURWOKERTO

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlan, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    STAIN, Bank Syariah Mandiri (BSM), and Masyarakat Ekonomi Syariah (MES, Syariah Economic Society) have important rolein the development of Islam economy in Purwokerto. This research result evidenced that these three institutions have an Islamic economydevelopment program according with vision and mission of their institution. STAIN as Islamic higher education is on curriculum design andlecture quality domain, BSM as banking financial institution on enhancing employee/manager quality, and MES ...

  14. Evaluation of methods for stain removal in acrylic resin denture teeth: in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    CASSIANO,Ana Flávia Balestrero; LEITE,Andressa Rosa Perin; POLICASTRO,Vivian Barnabé; COMPAGNONI,Marco Antonio; PERO,Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The staining of artificial teeth can be related to the acrylic resin abrasion caused by brushing, resulting in higher deposition of dyes from the beverage, and consequently higher aesthetic damage. Objective The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate methods for removal of stains from acrylic denture teeth using spectrophotometric analysis. Material and method Artificial teeth were divided into twelve groups (n=10) according to the type of treatment (re-polishing ...

  15. An evaluation of a technique to remove stains from teeth using microabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard B T; Loney, Robert W; Doyle, M Gorman; Moulding, M Brent

    2003-08-01

    Microabrasion using a paste made of acid and pumice is a technique that has been used to remove white, yellow and brown stains from enamel. The authors evaluated the technique by studying the effectiveness of a proprietary microabrasion product. One author used microabrasion to remove white, yellow and brown stains from within the outermost layer of the tooth enamel of 32 subjects. Standardized slides of the teeth were taken before and one week after treatment. Four prosthodontists evaluated the paired images, using a standardized questionnaire and visual analog scales ranging from 1 (no improvement in appearance or stain not removed at all) to 7 (exceptional improvement in appearance or stain totally removed). The evaluators were calibrated and blinded. The evaluators always identified a difference between the pretreatment slides and posttreatment slides; they found no difference between the control slides. In all cases but one (97 percent), the treated teeth had improved in appearance with more uniformity in color. Analysis of variance revealed no differences between evaluator ratings (P = .146). The intraclass correlation coefficient for ratings of individual cases by different evaluators was 0.72, representing a "good" level of correlation of the ratings for improvement of appearance and for stain removal. Mean (+/- standard deviation) ratings were 5.38 (+/- 1.26) for improvement of appearance and 5.06 (+/- 1.26) for stain removal. This study showed that enamel microabrasion could remove stains from within the outermost layer of tooth enamel, thereby improving the appearance of the teeth. This study supports recommendations that enamel microabrasion is an effective, atraumatic method of improving the appearance of teeth with stains in the outermost layer of enamel.

  16. Acid-Fast Staining and Petroff Hausser Chamber Counting of Mycobacterial Cells in Liquid Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Treuer, Robin; Haydel, Shelley E.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and rapid cell counts of mycobacterial species in culture are difficult to obtain. Here, a method using modified Kinyoun acid-fast staining was adapted for use with a Petroff-Hausser sperm and bacteria cell counting chamber by using a liquid suspension staining technique. Cell counts obtained by this method were compared to viable cell counts by agar plate counting, revealing accurate correlation.

  17. Measurement of stain removal in vitro: a comparison of two instrumental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lath, D L; Johnson, C; Smith, R N; Brook, A H

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare an established spectrophotometrical approach for the measurement of stain removal in vitro with a new digital image analysis system. Eighteen acrylic blocks were stained by cycling them through human saliva (2 min), chlorhexidine (2 min) and tea (1 h), rinsed with deionized water and left to air dry. The absorbance of each block was then measured at 395 nm using a single-beam spectrophotometer. The lightness (L-value) of the stained blocks (after a baseline correction) was measured using digital image analysis. Image acquisition and L-values were obtained using Adobe Photoshop software. The stain removal ability of two whitening toothpastes and deionized water was tested by immersing each stained block in a test slurry (15 g paste/60 ml deionized water) for 1 min, rinsing and finally left to air dry. This cycle was repeated until the blocks had 5 min exposure to the slurry. Absorbance values from spectrophotometry and L-values by image analysis were obtained after each cycle. Fleiss' coefficient of reliability for intra-operator repeatability of the image analysis system and spectrophotometry was 0.999 for both methods which shows excellent reliability. Pearson's correlation coefficients for the two methods (stain build-up) were 0.976. Test products A, B and C gave correlations of 0.962, 0.998 and 0.817 respectively (stain removal), significant at the 0.01 level. The image system is a reliable alternative measurement method validated here against spectrophotometry for stain removal in vitro, and can provide full colour measurement.

  18. Colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Lu; Sun, Wen-Tian; Liao, Wen; Lu, Wen-Xin; Li, Qi-Wen; Jeong, Yunho; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Zhi-He

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents in vitro. Sixty clear orthodontic aligners produced by three manufacturers (Invisalign, Angelalign, and Smartee) were immersed in three staining solutions (coffee, black tea, and red wine) and one control solution (distilled water). After 12-h and 7-day immersions, the aligners were washed in an ultrasonic cleaner and measured with a colourimeter. Th...

  19. Identification of blue staining vaccine-derived material in inflammatory lesions using cultured canine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Jennifer L; LeBlanc, Casey J

    2015-03-01

    Vaccine reactions are described in cytology textbooks as having eosinophilic to magenta colored globules within and admixed with inflammatory cells. Recently, we have seen increased numbers of inflammatory lesions containing blue to blue-gray globular material, with historical information suggesting an association with rabies vaccination. The purpose of the study was to confirm the blue-gray and the eosinophilic material observed microscopically in some inflammatory lesions as being vaccine-derived. Three different vaccines were cytocentrifuged and Wright stained. Vaccine aliquots were also added to the culture media of canine-derived macrophages for 24 hours and the cells subsequently harvested, cytocentrifuged, and Wright stained. The globular material present in both preparations was compared to that observed in vaccine-induced inflammatory lesions. Morin staining was used to identify metal within vaccine material in both in vitro- and in vivo-derived cytology samples. Vaccine-derived material has a characteristic color and appearance. Appearance of the material was consistent in cytologic samples, in cells incubated with the vaccine, and in cytocentrifuged preparations of the vaccine vial contents. The blue-gray globules stained positively for Morin stain, while the eosinophilic material did not stain. Vaccine-induced inflammatory lesions may contain blue to blue-gray or magenta stained globular material. Blue-gray material was associated with administration of rabies vaccine Imrab 3 TF and the observed material may be metal-containing adjuvant. Magenta material was associated with other vaccines and negative for Morin stain, suggesting a metal-free adjuvant. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  20. The Comparative Study of Art of Manufacturing Orosi and Stained Glass Windows in Iran and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadat Abooei Mehrizi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, glass manufacturing art has been globally common. There are certain similarities between Stained Glass and Orosi works. Based on historical texts, peak of Orosi art in Iran occurred during the reign of Safavid dynasty while its fall was after Qajar era. After introduction to churches after 12th century, Stained Glass manufacturing art was officially recognized. In contemporary era, Orosi art has almost faded away since it did not adapt to architecture. Similarly, Stained Glass art did not develop after it was introduced to Iran. The objectives of comparison between these arts are clarification of effects of the two arts on each other as well as better understanding of Orosi glass and Stained Glass arts. From methodological viewpoint, this study is descriptive-analytical in nature. In order to obtain better results, similar and available works of Orosi and Stained Glass arts were studied. The results of comparing these two arts suggested similar manufacturing methods and designs. In addition, a common application of the two arts is communication of greatness of the building to visitors’ minds. Stained Glass was mostly used for representation of Christ’s story while Orosi art was commonly used for depicting geometrical patterns. As a result, Orosi art was not initially influenced by Stained Glass art. In some cases, one could claim that Stained Glass art was influenced by Orosi art. Numerous factors played a role in creating differences between these two arts among which one could point to climatic conditions and patrons of such arts.