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Sample records for stahl converting russian

  1. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine.

  2. Handbuch Stahl Auswahl, Verarbeitung, Anwendung

    CERN Document Server

    Bleck, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Stahl ist der wichtigste Konstruktionswerkstoff. Im Maschinen- und Anlagenbau, Fahrzeugbau, Schiffbau, Stahlbau und in vielen anderen Industriebereichen ist er durch keinen anderen Werkstoff zu ersetzen. Für jeden Anwendungszweck gibt es passende Stahlsorten am Markt zu kaufen. Die Feinabstimmung der gewünschten Eigenschaften kann im weiteren Verarbeitungsprozess vorgenommen werden, bis der Werkstoff optimal den gewünschten Produktanforderungen entspricht. Die Anzahl der Möglichkeiten ist sehr groß und somit auch die Schwierigkeit, den genau passenden Stahl zu finden bzw. zu erzeugen. Das vorliegende Handbuch hilft Ihnen, dieses Problem zu lösen. Es zeigt u.a. - mit welchen systematischen Ansätzen und Hilfsmitteln Sie die in Frage kommende Stahlsorte eingrenzen können - die wichtigsten produktrelevanten Eigenschaften und Lieferformen - die werkstoffgerechte Weiterverarbeitung durch umformende und spanende Fertigungsprozesse und Wärmebehandlung - hunderte Anwendungsbeispiele aus Maschinen- und Anlage...

  3. L'ordre et l'existence: Stahl et les fondements du droit politique moderne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lev, Amnon

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen leverer Amnon Lev en nyfortolkning af Friedrich Julius Stahls værk og dets betydning for den moderne statsforfatningsret. Stahl er den største statstænker i det 19. århundrede og et af århundredets vigtigste retsfilosoffer. I artiklen vises det, 1) hvorledes Stahl løser statsforfatningsr...

  4. Converting to Belong: Immigration, Education and Nationalization among Young "Russian" Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiterman, Elena; Rapoport, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines religious conversion to Judaism among young "Russian" immigrant girls in Israel. Looking into the process of conversion in religious boarding schools for girls only ("Ulpana") and in the broader context of the Israeli nation-state, we examine the strategies the educators contrive in inculcating religiosity…

  5. Paul Henri Stahl and His Contribution to European Ethnosociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE ŞIŞEŞTEAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Only a little while has passed since the death of Professor Paul H. Stahl. These lines are an attempt at a synthetic presentation of his life and scientific activity, including short fragments from his memories related to the fieldwork he conducted in his early life, most of the times together with his friend and collaborator, Paul Petrescu. At the same time, being well acquainted with his ethnological and sociological views, as a former student of Paul H. Stahl at the EHESS in Paris, I have sought to capture some of the theoretical dimensions of his activity, insisting first of all on his important contribution to a European anthropology of premodern forms of property and organization of social groups. Within this European analytical and contrastive framework, I have also integrated the Romanian case, to which the late professor Paul H. Stahl was so attached. Secondly, I outlined several directions of analysis of what we could call anthropology of the sacred, the way in which the sacred forms an important dimension of social organization in European peasant societies.

  6. Stahl et les âges de la vie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Carvallo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La vieillesse constitue une pierre de touche pour toute théorie médicale : elle oblige à rendre raison de la temporalité à l’œuvre dans la vie. Aux yeux de Stahl, les iatromécaniciens méconnaissent la dimension temporelle de l’organisme ; en particulier, ils en ignorent la périodicité. Comprendre la vieillesse suppose donc la critique de la représentation linéaire du temps organique, que développe la mécanique et qui réduit le vivant au seul composé physique et chimique. Il reste alors à trouver la cause de la périodicité organique : sur ce point, Georg Ernst Stahl critique Thomas Sydenham, qui reconnaît certes la périodicité du vivant mais nie la possibilité d’une médecine étiologique. Pour sa part, le médecin de Halle cherche à rendre compte du vieillissement en lien avec les actions organiques fondamentales : le tonus, la circulation, l’excrétion, la sécrétion.

  7. Motus Tonicus: Georg Ernst Stahl's formulation of tonic motion and early modern medical thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ku-Ming

    2004-01-01

    This paper places in multiple contexts Stahl's formulation of tonic motion, a contractive and relaxative movement of body tissues that was thought to moderate the circulatory blood flowing through their porous structure. The paper analyzes Stahl's theory, elucidates its role in connecting his physiology and pathology, and situates its formulation in his conceptual development as well as the intellectual history of early modern medicine. The theory was at first a post-Harveyan attempt to explain occasional uneven blood flows; it was then expanded to account for the mechanism of blood circulation and metabolism, and formed a fundamental part of Stahl's effort to present a theory of animal heat and fever that would replace the traditional Galenic and fermentational theories. Tonic motion constituted the most important device that counteracted the ineluctable, unceasing corruption of the body, as dictated by its chemical nature; it thus qualified as the preeminent form of what Stahl considered vital motions.

  8. Optimierung einer Fachwerkbinderkonstruktion in Stahl- bzw. kombinierter Stahl-Holzbauweise unter Berücksichtigung brandschutztechnischer Anforderungen am Beispiel einer Sporthalle

    OpenAIRE

    Sandbrink, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Die Dachtragwerke von wettkampftauglichen Sporthallen müssen in der Regel neben dem Sportfeldbereich auch den Tribünenbereich stützenfrei überspannen. Aufgrund der großen Spannweite von mehr als 28 Metern kann dieser Forderung bspw. durch Dachbinder in Stahl-, Holz- oder Spannbetonbauweise entsprochen werden, welche nach der Niedersächsischen Versammlungsstättenverordnung zudem feuerhemmend ausgebildet sein müssen. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit sollen Dachbinder in Stahlbzw. hybrider Stahl-Holzbauw...

  9. 1 küsimus noorele juhile : Said just juhiks. Millest tuleks alustada? / Gert Stahl, Erki Kert, Madis Talmar ... [jt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Juhtimisküsimusele vastavad EASi rahvusvahelistumise divisjoni direktor, riskikapitali ettevõtte G.S.I. Ventures juhatuse esimees ning moefirma Bastion nõukogu esimees Gert Stahl, LHV juhatuse liige ja LHV ettevõtete nõustamise valdkonna juht Erki Kert, Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli tudeng ja mitmete üliõpilasprojektide juht Madis Talmar, filmitootmisfirma Alexandra Film produtsent Marianne Ostrat, ettevõtluskonsultant Liina Joller ning konsultatsioonifirma BDA Consulting juht Lo Rihvk

  10. Literary Returns: HENRIETTE YVONNE STAHL or the Fate of an Exceptional Woman to the Backdrop of Dramatic History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa-Valentina MIHĂILĂ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Romanian literature includes writers who, without being leading writers, have modern readers and success on the market. Henriette Yvonne Stahl crossed almost whole 20th century, with all his historical events, wrote nine novels, two volumes of short novels, a volume of poems and performed the translation of ten masterpieces from eight writers. Although she was native French speaker, the writer has created only in Romanian language and never ceased on being Romanian citizen. The men from her life, Ion Vinea and Petru Dumitriu, had in her an incentive of their talent and a formidable critic. The disease was the background of her existence, but this did not spare her from the communist prison experience. Without being enroll in some literary circle or some fancy literary orientation, without writing memories or being diarist, she spread her ego and her experiences throughout his entire opera, and she kept her aristocratic halo and her principles till the end of her life.

  11. Russian muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerheim, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A tightening of the electric power balance in the Nordic countries and increased focus on the supply reliability have made the power import from Russia increasingly more important. The two most important players in the Russian power market are the state-owned companies RAO UES and RosEnergoAtom. RAO UES has already begun to strengthen its presence in the Nordic market. There are indications that there are limits to the growth of power import from Russia, and the Nordic power market cannot be based on it in the future

  12. Data Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A data converter comprises a discrete-time sigma delta modulator e.g. for driving a Class-D power amplifier. The low-pass filter of the sigma delta modulator is modified by adding a suitably positioned pole to lower the oscillation frequency (limit cycle) of the sigma delta modulator in order to

  13. Data Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A data converter comprises a discrete-time sigma delta modulator e.g. for driving a Class-D power amplifier. The low-pass filter of the sigma delta modulator is modified by adding a suitably positioned pole to lower the oscillation frequency (limit cycle) of the sigma delta modulator in order to

  14. Data Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Daniel; Nuijten, Petrus A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    A data converter comprises a discrete- time sigma delta modulator e.g. for driving a Class-D power amplifier. The low-pass filter of the sigma delta modulator is modified by adding a suitably positioned pole to lower the oscillation frequency (limit cycle) of the sigma delta modulator in order to

  15. Hydrogen converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, Angel V.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina developed a process of 99 Mo production from fission, based on irradiation of uranium aluminide targets with thermal neutrons in the RA-3 reactor of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre. These targets are afterwards dissolved in an alkaline solution, with the consequent liberation of hydrogen as the main gaseous residue. This work deals with the use of a first model of metallic converter and a later prototype of glass converter at laboratory scale, adjusted to the requirements and conditions of the specific redox process. Oxidized copper wires were used, which were reduced to elementary copper at 400 C degrees and then regenerated by oxidation with hot air. Details of the bed structure and the operation conditions are also provided. The equipment required for the assembling in cells is minimal and, taking into account the operation final temperature and the purge with nitrogen, the procedure is totally safe. Finally, the results are extrapolated for the design of a converter to be used in a hot cell. (author)

  16. Ray converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    In a radiographic system a converter is used for changing image forming intensity distribution in a bundle of penetrating rays into a flow of electrically charged particles by electrodes located in a gas space and partly latticed (grids) which lie at potentials stepped from cathode to anode. The invention is particularly characterized by the provision of at least two grids extending between and parallel to the cathode and the anode. The electrical field which lies between two electrodes lies at least between the grids located closest to the cathode being to the extent of between 1 and 10 percent, in the average preferably 3 percent below the electrical break down field in the gas in a homogeneous electrical field

  17. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  18. Russian Language Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  19. Russian Language Course

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The Russian Cultural Circle is organising a new course of "Russian for Beginners", and is continuing a course for Advanced Students (3rd year). Interested persons are invited to contact: Mrs M. Mikhailova e-mail : mailto:mmmacha@hotmail.com Tel. 022 788 27 53

  20. The Russian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes a brief discussion of various assessments of Russian oil reserves, of the evolutions of Russian oil production (Russia is the second world producer after Saudi Arabia), of the distribution of Russian oil exports among various regions, and of the decrease of Russian oil consumption between 1992 and 2002. It describes the evolution of the actor system as the oil sector has been largely privatised since 1992, and indicates the main companies which should control the Russia market on a medium term. It also discusses the obstacles for the development of Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) between these companies. It addresses the issue of modernisation of the oil transport system as its status and its condition are often an obstacle to oil export for Russian companies. The article finally discusses the price issue, the relationship between Russia and other OPEC countries, and the need for huge investments

  1. Some Recent Russian Pedagogical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunatov, Rasio

    1975-01-01

    The article discusses three Russian language textbooks for speakers of English which represent a new trend in Russian pedagogical materials, that of minicourses for specialists in specific disciplines. The three textbooks are: S. H. Gould, "Russian for Mathematicians" (New York, 1972), G. P. M. Walker, "Russian for Librarians" (London, 1973), and…

  2. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  3. Russian separation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A small contract signed in FY92 with the Khlopin Radium Institute marked the beginning of the Russian Separations program. Under this contract the Khlopin Radium Institute performed laboratory and dynamic hot-cell testing using cobalt dicarbollide technology on simulated radioactive wastes similar to those found at DOE sites in the United States. The current scope of investigation has been extended to identify prospective technologies for application to other United States needs. The Khlopin Radium Institute project served as a model for three other pilot scale technology development projects. The premise of the pilot scale projects is to enable Russian scientists to demonstrate their technology in the context of DOE needs, using Russian technical expertise has proven to be a cost-effective means of screening Russian technologies

  4. Russian Language Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Russian Cultural Circle is organising a new Russian course for beginners and will continue its course for advanced students (3rd year), both from September onwards. Anyone interested in taking part is invited to contact Mrs M. Mikhailova (e-mail: mailto:mmmacha@hotmail.com or tel. 022 788 27 53) or Mrs C. Kukowka (e-mail: mailto:christinekukowka@orange.fror tel. ++ 33 4 50 42 43 22 after 8.00 p.m.).

  5. The New Russian Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstø, Pal; Blakkisrud, Helge

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the transformation of Russian nationalist discourse in the 21st century Russian nationalism, previously dominated by ‘imperial’ tendencies – pride in a large, strong and multi-ethnic state able to project its influence abroad – is increasingly focused on ethnic issues. This new ethno-nationalism has come in various guises, like racism and xenophobia, but also in a new intellectual movement of ‘national democracy’ deliberately seeking to emulate conservative West European nationalism...

  6. Russian nuclear industry exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatchev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rosatom is the world leader for the export of nuclear technologies. 34 reactors of Russian technology are being built or planned worldwide. Most reactors proposed by Rosatom are third generation VVER-1200 units with an electric power output of 1200 MWe. Although the nuclear island is always built by Rosatom, the remain of the plant can be subcontracted to other enterprises and European companies are sought because they would bring a european quality touch to Russian works. One of the main assets of Rosatom is to propose an integrated offer from supplying nuclear fuel to managing nuclear waste via the turnkey building of nuclear power plants. Another important asset is the financial assistance of the Russian state through state credit or the support from Russian national banks that appears to be a decisive advantage in the international competition to win markets. We have to temper the Russian export perspectives by noting that most projects are set in countries that are prone to instabilities and that the economic crisis affecting Russia has a negative impact on its financial means. (A.C.)

  7. Russian Sentence Adverbials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Elena; Durst-Andersen, Per

    2015-01-01

    and modal SAs; and (3) into temporal and areal SAs. It is demonstrated that many adverbials consist of micro-groups involving three and only three members where one is first person oriented, the other is second person oriented and the last one is third person oriented. This indicates that Russians have one...... way or the other to take their starting point in the previous discourse. It is, however, stressed that the specificity of the Russian language is found in modal adverbials where a division between external and internal reality exists. We end the examination by discussing the function of word order...

  8. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  9. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on air-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on air-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  10. Technologies for converter topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Haiyu

    2017-02-28

    In some embodiments of the disclosed inverter topologies, an inverter may include a full bridge LLC resonant converter, a first boost converter, and a second boost converter. In such embodiments, the first and second boost converters operate in an interleaved manner. In other disclosed embodiments, the inverter may include a half-bridge inverter circuit, a resonant circuit, a capacitor divider circuit, and a transformer.

  11. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE COURSES

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Russian Language Courses will be given at CERN from mid-September. For details, please call the teacher, Mrs Mascha Mikhailova, tel. + 41 22 782 62 29. At CERN, please send an e-mail to esthel.laperriere@cern.ch.

  12. Heinrich Stahli ja Johannes Gutslaffi Uue Testamendi tõlke kõrvutus / An Attempt at the Comparison of the Translations of the New Testament by Heinrich Stahl und Johannes Gutslaff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Ross

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to compare two 17th century translations of the New Testament: the translation by Heinrich Stahl (1638 and the translation by Johannes Gutslaff (1641–1656. Relying on the model of description presented by Torop (1989 and Torop and Osimo (2010, the translations are described by three aspects (1 linguistic, (2 functional, (3 that of the translator`s position within three different time perspectives: achronic, synchronic and diachronic. Within the achronic perspective, the two translations seem to be quite different in all three aspects. In the case of Stahl´s translation, the original text was Luther´s German translation and the target language was the North-Estonian vernacular. Different parts of the Bible had probably been translated by different persons and Stahl collected them, publishing them in a volume of his church manual. Gutslaff, on the other hand, translated the text himself using the original Greek version. His target language was the South-Estonian vernacular but his work was never published. Within the diachronic perspective, the differences disappear and the two translations seem to be quite similar. From today`s point of view both tr anslations are linguistically archaic and have no functional value except as object s of scientific research. Synchronic description is the most complicated one. The article tries to put to the test the possibilities of describing old translations from the point of view of their translation method. Very few examples of the Estonian language of the 17th century have been preserved, most are translations from German written down by German pastors. In addition to that, researchers know almost nothing about the Estonian language spoken by native speaker s of the time. As a re sult of this, it is hard to evaluate the linguistic status of many constructions and idioms used by the translators. This in turn makes it difficult to evaluate the stylistic intentions of the translator

  13. Russian Law and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fishman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki is committed to diverse and internationally collaborative approaches to studying various legal systems in the context of comparative law, and UHLS and the Law Faculty of the National Research University, Higher School of Economics have developed an ongoing program to undertake this effort. The original annual conference series on the Development of Russian Law was launched in 2008 as an initiative to further knowledge and critical thinking about Russian law during its period of transition and modernization. The conference is held annually and brings together legal practitioners and scholars from Russia, Finland and elsewhere to discuss important matters of Russian law, legal reform, and legal practice. Prior years’ Conference themes have included discussions of legal reforms, the justice system, the Russian legal profession, human rights, civil and business law, legal policy, rule-of-law and market economy.This year’s program was designed to attract law faculty, scholars from different disciplines, and also practicing lawyers, to address a wide range of topics grouped around the general theme of how the phenomenon and challenges of globalization affect Russian legal system development. The call for papers included: (i Relationships between Russian domestic and international law, (ii The impacts of international legal institutions on the development of Russian law(s, (iii Globalization in the field of business law, (iv Global law & Russian legal theory, (v Regional models of legal cooperation and Russia’s participation, (vi Transnational legal problems in areas such as constitutionalism and rule-of-law, (vii Theoretical and applied implications of the concept of global transplants, and (viii A global human rights agenda, including Russia’s place in this agenda.This was a very ambitious and multi-faceted undertaking. Through a process of careful evaluation, the Conference organizers produced

  14. Josephson stroboscopic converters. Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askerzade, I.N.

    2006-01-01

    One reviews studies dealing with the Josephson stroboscopic converters. One analyzed dynamic properties of the Josephson junctions serving as sensitive comparators in converters. One elaborates a theory to evaluate time resolution and sensitivity of the Josephson comparators. One derived analytical formulae for the limiting characteristics of superconductors of strobe-converters. One discusses peculiar features of strobe-converters on the basis of high-temperature superconductors. Evaluations show feasibility of designing of strobe-converters with subpicosecond time resolution and nanoampere sensitivity [ru

  15. Big russian oil round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Beer, G.

    2006-01-01

    The departure of Mikhail Khodorkovsky has brought an end to the idyllic times of supplies of Russian oil to the MOL-Slovnaft group. The group used to purchase oil directly from Yukos. But now brokers have again entered the Central European oil business. And their aim is to take control over all of the oil business. The Russians demonstrated the changed situation to Slovakia last autumn: you will either accept the new model, or there will be problems with oil deliveries. Consumers got the message. The main brokers of Russian oil in Central Europe are the Swiss companies Glencore and Fisotra. Little information is available regarding these commodity brokers. But the information available is sufficient to indicate that these are not small companies. Glencore undertakes 3% of all international oil trades. With an annual turnover of 72 billions USD, it was the biggest Swiss company by turnover in 2004. Fisotra also has an extensive product portfolio. It offers financial and commercial services and does not hide its good relations with Russian oil companies. Between 1994 and 1998, it managed their financial operations with major western companies such as BP, Cargill, Elf, Exxon, Shell, Total, and Mutsubishi and also with Glencore. Fisotra states that some of its clients achieved an annual turnover of 1.5 billions USD. At present, the Swiss brokers receive a fee of 1 to 1.5 USD per barrel. The Russian political elite must be aware of these brokerage services as the oil transport through the transit system is closely monitored by the state owned company Transneft. (authors)

  16. Invasion of Russian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslani, J.; Slovak, K.

    2006-01-01

    Washington has opened a Baltic front. That was one of the headlines in the Russian papers in October 2006. This imaginary front in the Baltic Sea was opened, according to the newspaper, by the deputy assistant of the State Secretary for Foreign Affairs, Mathew Bryza, in an interview with the German paper, Financial Times Deutschland. The US official said in this interview that the planned 1 200 km northern European gas pipeline recently named Nord Stream would increase Europe's energy dependency on Russia. 'If you live in Germany you do not want to go through what happened last winter in Ukraine when Russia shut off the supply of gas,' said M. Bryza. He also wondered to what degree diversification of gas supplies to Europe can be developed by having more pipelines to the same supplier. Dependence of the Europe on Russian gas is reviewed. (authors)

  17. Russian Medieval Military Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappoport, Pavel

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available In Russia defensive works were not less important than in Western Europe. Russian chronicles are full of reports of the building of towns, of their siege and defence. In Ancient Russian the word town meant not a town in the modern sense, but only a fortified settlement as distinct from an unfortified one. Thus the concept town applied to medieval towns proper and to citadels, feudal castles and even fortified villages. Every population centre with a wall round it was called a town. Moreover, until the 17th century this word was frequently applied to mean the fortifications themselves.

  18. Russian Law and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    David Fishman

    2016-01-01

    The Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki is committed to diverse and internationally collaborative approaches to studying various legal systems in the context of comparative law, and UHLS and the Law Faculty of the National Research University, Higher School of Economics have developed an ongoing program to undertake this effort. The original annual conference series on the Development of Russian Law was launched in 2008 as an initiative to further knowledge and critical thinking abou...

  19. The photoelectric displacement converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoner, Valeriu V.

    2005-02-01

    In the article are examined questions of constructing photoelectric displacement converter satisfying demands that are stated above. Converter has channels of approximate and precise readings. The approximate reading may be accomplished either by the method of reading from a code mask or by the method of the consecutive calculation of optical scale gaps number. Phase interpolator of mouar strips" gaps is determined as a precise measuring. It is shown mathematical model of converter that allow evaluating errors and operating speed of conversion.

  20. Interleaved power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-11-13

    A power converter architecture interleaves full bridge converters to alleviate thermal management problems in high current applications, and may, for example, double the output power capability while reducing parts count and costs. For example, one phase of a three phase inverter is shared between two transformers, which provide power to a rectifier such as a current doubler rectifier to provide two full bridge DC/DC converters with three rather than four high voltage inverter legs.

  1. Power converters definitions, classification and converter topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bordry, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces power conversion principles and defines the terminology. The concepts of sources and switches are defined and classified. From the basic laws of source interconnections, a generic method of power converter synthesis is presented. Some examples illustrate this systematic method. Finally, the notions of commutation cell and soft commutation are introduced and discussed.

  2. Internet marketing for Russian tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Andreeva, Tatiana; Kuzmina, Lilliya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This bachelor thesis was commissioned by Lomarengas Oy, the biggest cottage renting company in Finland. The goal of the thesis is to define suitable internet methods for the company in attracting Russian customers. Due to lack of the knowledge about the Russian market the additional task was to define the portrait of the target market. The research was conducted among the Russian customers of the company by phone interviews, emails and Vkontakte social network. Around 300 people ...

  3. The New Russian Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed, Birgitte Beck

    . By taking a comparative approach to the clash of two formerly separate book cultures, the Western and the Soviet, that results both in a mixture of highbrow and lowbrow forms and in ideological re-interpretations of the literary works, this book contributes to opening an East-West dialogue between...... print culture to a post-Soviet book market. It delivers a profound and critical exploration of Russian visual imaginary of classic, popular, and contemporary prose. Among all the carelessly bungled covers of mass-published post-Soviet series the study identifies gems from experimental designers...

  4. Advanced dcdc converters

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2003-01-01

    DC/DC conversion techniques have undergone rapid development in recent decades. With the pioneering work of these authors, DC/DC converters have now moved into their sixth generation. This book offers a concise, practical presentation of DC/DC converters, summarizing the spectrum of conversion tecnologies and presentingmany new ideas and more than 100 new topologies. Nowhere else in the literature are DC/DC converters so logically sorted and systematically introduced, and nowhere else can readers find detailed information on prototype topologies that represent a major contribution to modern power engineering. More than 320 figures, 60 tables, and 500 formulae facilitate understand and provide precise data.

  5. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental...

  6. RUSSIAN INDUSTRY INVESTMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pochukaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual deficiency of investment into Russian industry innovative development increases its technological drag from industries of countries with developed markets. Although the rate of investment into real sectors of Russian economics mid 2000 was higher compared to the previous period, annual investment amounts were much lower than in 1990. At present, highest investment amounts are directed to industry extractive branches and to the commerce. Amounts invested to various economy branches do not correspond to their contribution to the country’sGross Added Product; particularly underinvested are manufacturing industry branches. At present, foreign share in the country economy total investment makes 15–18%. Recently, most interesting for foreigners was investment to machine-building branches with overwhelming part (for example, 90% in 2007–2008 of foreign investment into the machine-building industry being directed to creation of new automobile plants. Today, first place in the list of foreign investors’ preferences in Russia is taken by the machine-tool construction sector.

  7. Unknown Russian giant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Priscilla.

    1996-01-01

    The present position and future potential of the Russian oil company Tatneft are assessed. Tatneft, the eighteenth largest oil company in the world, has 85 oil fields and over 20,700 production wells. In 1995, it increased its production by 6% to 504,000bpd and its crude oil exports outside Russia were 213,000bpd. The company forms the basis of the oil industry in the semi-autonomous republic of Tatarstan. Tafneft became a joint stock company in May 1994 with the government of Tatarstan as the largest shareholder with a 46% stake. Although Tafneft produces far more crude than Conoco or YPF, its market capitalisation per barrel of production is only 5% of these companies. Its long-term future lies in successfully increasing production and enhancing financial performance. The former is being addressed through enhanced oil recovery methods and various joint ventures are being entered into with western partners in order to tap foreign expertise and to finance modern equipment. The achievement of the latter requires an improvement towards world prices of the price for Russian domestic crude and a reduction in the tax burden away from revenue towards a profits basis. (UK)

  8. Thermionic photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, D. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermionic photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or gallium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  9. Reforming Russian Civil Procedur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The II Annual Symposium of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure ‘2015: The Civil Procedure 2.0: Reform and Current State’ took place on October 9, 2015, at the Faculty of Law of Kazan (Volga region Federal University.The Symposium is now an established tradition for the University. In 2015 it brought together in Kazan eminent scholars of civil procedure from cities across the whole of Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Saratov, Ekaterinburg, Omsk, Samara, Nizhnekamsk and others. This large-scale event attracted the attention not only of Russian scholars, but also of legal scholars from abroad: Elisabetta Silvestri (Professor, University of Pavia, Italy, William B. Simons (Professor, University of Tartu, Estonia, Jaroslav Turlukovsky (Professor, Warsaw University, Poland, Stuart H. Schultz (Practising Attorney, USA, Irina Izarova (Associate Professor, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine.The opening ceremony of the Symposium began with greetings to all participants and best wishes for productive discussions. Participants were welcomed with remarks by Marat Khairullin, Deputy Chair of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tatarstan, Radik Ilyasov, Head of the Federal Bailiff Service of the Republic of Tatarstan, and Ildar Tarkhanov, Academic Supervisor at the Faculty of Law. They expressed their appreciation for the great value of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure in the growth of the science of civil procedure and enforcement procedure, and for its contributions to the development of the judicial system of the Russian Federation.In addition to hearing prepared reports and discussing viewpoints on current issues of civil and arbitration procedure, participants attended presentations by representatives from procedural law periodicals in the frame of the Symposium. The Editor-in-Chief of Herald of Civil Procedure, Damir Valeev, and the Commercial Director of the Statut Publishing House (Moscow, Kirill Samoilov, presented new

  10. Russian language in Ukraine : does it concern only Russians?

    OpenAIRE

    Kseniia Ursulenko

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of current status of the Russian language in Ukraine. Based on the data of a monitoring “Ukrainian society” conducted by the Institute of Sociology (Kyiv) on the yearly basis since 1994, I define the factors that influence people’s attitudes toward the Russian language. The focus of the analysis is on the individual- and regional-level effects. The results show that there is a significant regional effect on the degree of support of the Russian language: the mor...

  11. Russian-Saudian Political Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kosach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction after the restoration (at that time of Soviet-Saudi relations of bilateral relations in September 1990. The article focuses on the role of the Russian Muslim community in shaping the Russian politics towards Riyadh in the 1990-2000s. The authors state there are both periods of “crises” and detente in the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction that were marked by events in Chechnya and former Yugoslavia in 1994-2000, “Arab Spring” 2011, the post-September 2015 era, the Russian anti-terrorist campaign in Syria. The alternation of these periods is the constant of Russian-Saudi political contacts, despite the similarity in the approaches of both sides to the ways and methods of solving crisis situations in the Middle East region, as well as the Saudi’s pro-Russian position regarding the change in the status of the Crimea and the situation in the east of Ukraine. The general attitude of both sides towards ISIS and Jabha al-Nusra as a source of terrorism, regional instability and the challenge of international security does not remove the two main contradictions that divide Moscow and Riyadh – attitude toward the official Syrian regime and the Iran’s regional policy. The study comes to the conclusion that Russia and Saudi Arabia are interested (albeit for various reasons in diversifying their foreign policy and foreign economic relations.

  12. Power converter design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Lee, F. C. Y.; Triner, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing the demonstrated capability of nonlinear programming algorithms, a practical design optimization approach for power converters is established to conceive a design to meet all power-circuit performance requirements and concurrently optimize a defined quantity such as weight or losses. In addition, to facilitate a cost-effective design, the computer-aided approach provides a means to readily assess (1) the weight-efficiency tradeoff, (2) impacts of converter requirements and component characteristics on a given design, and (3) optimum power system configurations.

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P G; Rømer, F K; Cortes, D

    1984-01-01

    In order to evaluate bleomycin-associated lung damage in humans, lung function parameters and serum levels of the endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were determined by serial measurements in 11 patients who were treated for testicular cancer. None developed clinical or radiolog......In order to evaluate bleomycin-associated lung damage in humans, lung function parameters and serum levels of the endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) were determined by serial measurements in 11 patients who were treated for testicular cancer. None developed clinical...

  14. Quantifiers in Russian Sign Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Paperno, D.; Keenan, E.L.

    2017-01-01

    After presenting some basic genetic, historical and typological information about Russian Sign Language, this chapter outlines the quantification patterns it expresses. It illustrates various semantic types of quantifiers, such as generalized existential, generalized universal, proportional,

  15. Russian Revolution: triumph or tragedy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdov Sergey Valentinovich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the most important events that happened in Petrograd from February to October 1917 and radically changed the whole character of the country. The paper also deals with their participants’ actions which turned out to be critical for Russian history. The research is based on credible sources and literature. The author tries to understand how the mighty Russian Empire collapsed within several days and why the left extremists took over as a result.

  16. Russian vodka a national tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Kesi, Dimitri.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Russian governments promoted vodka because it was a major source of income. As a result, Russians are culturally conditioned to consume alcohol and are facing tragic demographic declines never before seen in the developed world. Russia's autocratic governments are responsible for the development of vodka addiction. The crown used vodka as a source of income and steered the agrarian economy in the direction of vodka production. The Ru...

  17. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  18. Definition of Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Bordry, F

    2015-01-01

    The paper is intended to introduce power conversion principles and to define common terms in the domain. The concept s of sources and switches are defined and classified. From the basic laws of source interconnections, a generic method of power converter synthesis is presented. Some examples illustrate this systematic method. Finally, the commutation cell and soft commuta tion are introduced and discussedd.

  19. SSG Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Vicinanza, Diego; Frigaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The SSG (Sea Slot-cone Generator) is a wave energy converter of the overtopping type. The structure consists of a number of reservoirs one on the top of each others above the mean water level, in which the water of incoming waves is stored temporary. In each reservoir, expressively designed low h...

  20. Converting the reset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann; D. Bloch

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe give a simple algorithm to incorporate the effects of resets in convertible bond prices, without having to add an extra factor to take into account the value of the reset. Furthermore we show that the effect of a notice period, and additional make-whole features, can be treated in a

  1. The WHATs and HOWs of Maturing Computational and Software Engineering Skills in Russian Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semushin, I. V.; Tsyganova, J. V.; Ugarov, V. V.; Afanasova, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Russian higher education institutions' tradition of teaching large-enrolled classes is impairing student striving for individual prominence, one-upmanship, and hopes for originality. Intending to converting these drawbacks into benefits, a Project-Centred Education Model (PCEM) has been introduced to deliver Computational Mathematics and…

  2. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  3. Russian Science and Russian State: Image of a Scientist in Modern Russian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Medvedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the image of a scientist represented in recent Russian movies. The article discusses two groups of questions: (1 nature and role of popular science in the life of society; (2 national features of scientific cultures. The article agues that popular science should not be conceived as a week copy of the real science. On the contrary, modern models of science communication assume that popular science have its own value and is able to influence scientific practices. Simultaneously we assume, that since popular science is less integrated with international scientific norms, it can easer reveal national traditions of scientific life. As a result, the analyze of recent Russian movies shows that the tradition established in Peter I times for Russian scientists to work out their self-identity in concern with Russian state still exists (scientist- state supporter/scientist- oppositionist. Actually the modern interpretation of dilemma between state patriotism and liberalism given by modern movies shows that Russian scientist don't have real choice, because they loose anyway whereas the state always wins. So owing to recent movies this representation of hopeless destiny of a scientist is becoming widespread in Russian public culture.

  4. Microprocessor controlled static converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Szabo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to demonstrate a way of implementing a microcontroller into an DC motor speed control loop. The static power converter is a fully controlled rectifier bridge, using standard SCR's. The bridge's control signals are supplied by the microcontroller and are phase-angle or burst types. The automation loop contains a software PI-style regulator. All the experimental results shows that this aproach is flexibile enough to be used on a large scale.

  5. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Project for converting Russian Federation's Amursk coal-fired power plant into natural gas-fired power plant; 1998 nendo Roshia renpo AMURSK sekitandaki hatsudensho tennen gas nenryo tenkan keikaku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A study is made about the application of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures adopted by the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to a coal-fired power plant of Amursk, Russian Federation, for conversion of its fuel to natural gas. An only 40km-long pipeline will enable the plant to receive natural gas. A 200MW-class combined cycle plant will be added. Only 2 of the 9 existing boilers will be modified for use as backups. Since the price of electricity or heat is quite low, the facilities as they are will not fulfill the cost-performance goal. If the power rate is slightly hiked or the construction cost is reduced by 20%, however, the expected goal will be achieved. Fuel conversion and improved thermal efficiency will result in a 980,000-ton per year reduction in CO2, and a cumulative CO2 reduction of 24,230,000 tons will realize by the end of the plant service life of 25 years. The rate of the cumulative reduction against the invested capital will be 0.115 tons of CO2 per one US dollar. As for the term of works, 1 year and 8 months (January 2000-August 2001) will be necessary for preparation, and 2 years and 7 months (September 2001-March 2004) for the construction, a total of 4 years and 3 months. The reduced discharge of smoke and dust and SOx will greatly improve on the environment. (NEDO)

  6. Resonant power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2012-01-01

    This book is devoted to resonant energy conversion in power electronics. It is a practical, systematic guide to the analysis and design of various dc-dc resonant inverters, high-frequency rectifiers, and dc-dc resonant converters that are building blocks of many of today's high-frequency energy processors. Designed to function as both a superior senior-to-graduate level textbook for electrical engineering courses and a valuable professional reference for practicing engineers, it provides students and engineers with a solid grasp of existing high-frequency technology, while acquainting them wit

  7. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will

  8. X-Y Converter Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    system, high voltage automotive applications and industrial drives. Compared to the traditional boost converter and existing recent converters, the proposed XY converter family has the ability to provide a higher output voltage by using less number of power devices and reactive components. Other distinct......A New breed of a buck boost converter, named as the XY converter family is proposed in this article. In the XY family, 16 topologies are presented which are highly suitable for renewable energy applications which require a high ratio of DC-DC converter; such as a photovoltaic multilevel inverter...... features of the XY converter family are i) Single control switch ii) Provide negative output voltage iii) Non-isolated topologies iv) High conversion ratio without making the use of high duty cycle and v) modular structure. XY family is compared with the recent high step-up converters and the detailed...

  9. OVERVIEW OF RUSSIAN CIVIL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Russian civil procedure is not a pure Continental model because it also has procedural features of the common law system, as well as some other original and exceptional features. This article examines the main aspects of Russian civil justice: its main principles; judicial organization, including the structure of the courts and the division between courts of general jurisdiction and arbitrazh (commercial courts, and the Intellectual Property Court; sources of procedural law; bar organization; the jurisdiction of the courts; actions and proceedings; legal costs; evidence; administrative procedure; class actions; enforcement proceedings; and arbitration and mediation.

  10. Emergence of new Russian and foreign investors in the Russian oil and gas complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbatov, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    A critical analysis is presented of the factors influencing foreign investment in Russian oil and gas exploration and production. Greater stability in the Russian economy would help and unfortunately some elements of the Russian bureaucracy hinder quick decision making. Western investors could improve their position by concentrating on developments which are unlikely to be developed by Russian companies in the next decade. (author)

  11. Russian Loanword Adaptation in Persian; Optimal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambuziya, Aliye Kord Zafaranlu; Hashemi, Eftekhar Sadat

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). It is the first study of phonological process on Russian loanwords adaptation in Persian. By gathering about 50 current Russian loanwords, we selected some of them to analyze. We…

  12. Characteristics of Russian Professionals’ Organizational Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Khurtina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes organizational behavior of Russian professionals at the individual and organizational levels. The characteristics of Russian professionals’ organizational behavior are examined on the basis of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE, depending on the qualification level and age.

  13. Gazprom the new russian empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, D.

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzes the economical and political impacts of the great Gazprom group, leader in the russian energy domain, in Russia. Already number one of the world gas industry, this Group is becoming the right-hand of the Kremlin. Thus the author wonders on this empire transparency and limits. (A.L.B.)

  14. REFLECTION IN RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.M.C.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the theoretical underpinnings upon which Russian psychologists base their analysis of reflection. The intention is to arrive at a clearer understanding of their research aims and research methods, and to explore the relevance of their research to educational practice.

  15. Russian nominal semantics and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which ar...

  16. Institutional corruption in Russian universities

    OpenAIRE

    Rumyantseva, Nataliya; Denisova-Schmidt, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Russia is about to become an academic superpower, which makes it very successful at least in the context of the BRIC countries—Brazil, Russia, India, China. After various effective reforms, including the Bologna process and the modernization of admissions procedures, the Russian government is now working hard on remedying corruption in higher education.

  17. Economic Factors of Russian Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, Vyacheslav N.; Vakhtina, Margarita A.; Simonova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is connected with the high level of economic inequality in Russia. The article goal is to show that the current Russian institutional system is not directed to decrease the economic inequality but on the contrary it continues to make and deepen it. The leading approach to study of this problem is the…

  18. Russian Initiatives in Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of Russian initiatives concerning its participation in international system of Internet governance. In the research, conceptual and theoretic basis for participation of state governments in Internet governance is given, academic discourse of this issue is assessed, the review of main Russian initiatives made from 2005 (since the second stage of the World Summit on Information Society till the present day is carried out. The conclusion is made that the most successful Internet governance initiative of Russia is the implementation of cyrillic top level domains. Much less successful are Russian attempts to reconstruct existing organizational structure of Internet governance. Russian policy is assessed as a policy of preferring loud statements and PR rather than real influence on development of Internet technologies. Russia consideres Internet as political resource and tries to increase its influence on decision making process on a political, not operational level of Internet governance. The author states that federal government of the United States of America has fully lost the control on the domain name systems. These functions are going to be given to the private sector, while ICANN, which was established according to the Memorandum of Understanding/Joint Project Agreement with U.S. Department of Commerce, is becoming a truly independent international organization. Considering this, the author comes to the conclusion that political transformations for the sake of Russia are already made. He also forecast that next initiatives of Russia will be directed to the segmentation of the Internet.

  19. Reforming the Russian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, Mayra Rodriguez

    1999-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview; Russian energy markets; Evolution of the power sector; The electricity market; Regulation and proposed reforms; Politics in the power sector; Economics of the power sector; Regional differences; Foreign involvement; Valuation and company management; Conclusions. (Author)

  20. Manufacturing method of photoelectric converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Shunpei; Suzuki, Kunio; Fukada, Takeshi; Kanehana, Mikio

    1987-06-25

    This is a photoelectric converter wherein a photoelectromotive force is generated by utilizing the shorter wavelength side by the 1st converter and by utilizing the longer wavelength side by the 2nd converter; as a whole, wider wavelength range of light can be converted into electricity. In the 1st. converter, an electrode on the side of semi-incident surface is made transparent as well as an electrode equipped on the back of a non-mono-crystalline semiconductor. Light which passed this is introduced into the 2nd converter to generate an electromotive force. This invention especially relates with a method of forming this 2nd converter. In preparing I-type non-mono-crystalline semiconductor among the semiconductors having PIN junction, PCVD method is used by means of ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) by using a hydrogen- or halogen- added Si-semiconductor instead of using expensive Ge, etc, which are common in the conventional method. (3 figs)

  1. Power converters for ITER

    CERN Document Server

    Benfatto, I

    2006-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a thermonuclear fusion experiment designed to provide long deuterium– tritium burning plasma operation. After a short description of ITER objectives, the main design parameters and the construction schedule, the paper describes the electrical characteristics of the French 400 kV grid at Cadarache: the European site proposed for ITER. Moreover, the paper describes the main requirements and features of the power converters designed for the ITER coil and additional heating power supplies, characterized by a total installed power of about 1.8 GVA, modular design with basic units up to 90 MVA continuous duty, dc currents up to 68 kA, and voltages from 1 kV to 1 MV dc.

  2. Unity power factor converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Gene W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A unity power factor converter capable of effecting either inversion (dc-to-dc) or rectification (ac-to-dc), and capable of providing bilateral power control from a DC source (or load) through an AC transmission line to a DC load (or source) for power flow in either direction, is comprised of comparators for comparing the AC current i with an AC signal i.sub.ref (or its phase inversion) derived from the AC ports to generate control signals to operate a switch control circuit for high speed switching to shape the AC current waveform to a sine waveform, and synchronize it in phase and frequency with the AC voltage at the AC ports, by selectively switching the connections to a series inductor as required to increase or decrease the current i.

  3. Bidirectional DC/DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, F.

    2008-09-01

    The presented bidirectional DC/DC converter design concept is a further development of an already existing converter used for low battery voltage operation.For low battery voltage operation a high efficient low parts count DC/DC converter was developed, and used in a satellite for the battery charge and battery discharge function.The converter consists in a bidirectional, non regulating DC/DC converter connected to a discharge regulating Buck converter and a charge regulating Buck converter.The Bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter performs with relatively high efficiency even at relatively high currents, which here means up to 35Amps.This performance was obtained through the use of power MOSFET's with on- resistances of only a few mille Ohms connected to a special transformer allowing paralleling several transistor stages on the low voltage side of the transformer. The design is patent protected. Synchronous rectification leads to high efficiency at the low battery voltages considered, which was in the range 2,7- 4,3 Volt DC.The converter performs with low switching losses as zero voltage zero current switching is implemented in all switching positions of the converter.Now, the drive power needed, to switch a relatively large number of low Ohm , hence high drive capacitance, power MOSFET's using conventional drive techniques would limit the overall conversion efficiency.Therefore a resonant drive consuming considerable less power than a conventional drive circuit was implemented in the converter.To the originally built and patent protected bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter, is added the functionality of regulation.Hereby the need for additional converter stages in form of a Charge Buck regulator and a Discharge Buck regulator is eliminated.The bidirectional DC/DC converter can be used in connection with batteries, motors, etc, where the bidirectional feature, simple design and high performance may be useful.

  4. Russian perspectives: The past shapes the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, R.P.

    1994-11-01

    This document contains an outline of a speech given to a group of professionals at Pacific Northwest Laboratory which was intended to give an unbiased view of Soviet perceptions. Topics discussed include: The new mission of US and Soviet labs and institutions to develop products and dedicate research to post cold war threat, historical prospectives of Russia, Russian military roles and missions, ideology of Russian politics, evils of capitalism, Russian civil war, communism, world war II, Russian losses during the war, the cold war, reasons why America should care what happens in Russia, the internal threat against a market-based economy, the US should help, and the Russian people and their attitudes.

  5. ASPECTS OF COMMODIFICATION OF RUSSIAN IN FINLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ханнес Виимаранта

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the commodification of Russian in Finland, where recent decades have seen a sharp rise in the size of the Russian-speaking population and the number of tourists from Russia. We particularly consider the use of Russian in the fields of traditional and medical tourism, education, and culture - all of them areas where Russian tourists show a strong preference for services in their native language. The need to provide a variety of services in Russian means that proficiency in Russian is a sig-nificant asset on the job market, both for immigrants and for the relatively small number of Finns who can speak the language. We also note that there is considerable demand among Russian-speaking parents in Fin-land for educational services to supplement their children’s school education.

  6. Advanced power electronics converters PWM converters processing AC voltages

    CERN Document Server

    dos Santos, Euzeli

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, which can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces a new method to present power electronics converters called Power Blocks Geometry. Applicable for courses focusing on power electronics, power electronics converters, and advanced power converters. Offers a comprehensive set of simulation results to help understand the circuits presented throughout the book

  7. Integrated power electronic converters and digital control

    CERN Document Server

    Emadi, Ali; Nie, Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Non-isolated DC-DC ConvertersBuck ConverterBoost ConverterBuck-Boost ConverterIsolated DC-DC ConvertersFlyback ConverterForward ConverterPush-Pull ConverterFull-Bridge ConverterHalf-Bridge ConverterPower Factor CorrectionConcept of PFCGeneral Classification of PFC CircuitsHigh Switching Frequency Topologies for PFCApplication of PFC in Advanced Motor DrivesIntegrated Switched-Mode Power ConvertersSwitched-Mode Power SuppliesThe Concept of Integrated ConverterDefinition of Integrated Switched-Mode Power Supplies (ISMPS)Boost-Type Integrated TopologiesGeneral Structure of Boost-Type Integrated T

  8. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  9. Nanostructure Neutron Converter Layer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Thibeault, Sheila A. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods for making a neutron converter layer are provided. The various embodiment methods enable the formation of a single layer neutron converter material. The single layer neutron converter material formed according to the various embodiments may have a high neutron absorption cross section, tailored resistivity providing a good electric field penetration with submicron particles, and a high secondary electron emission coefficient. In an embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by sequential supercritical fluid metallization of a porous nanostructure aerogel or polyimide film. In another embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by simultaneous supercritical fluid metallization of a porous nanostructure aerogel or polyimide film. In a further embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by in-situ metalized aerogel nanostructure development.

  10. Impedance source power electronic converters

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yushan; Ge, Baoming; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ellabban, Omar; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of pow...

  11. Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yushan; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Ge, Baoming

    Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable...... and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key...... features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding...

  12. Noise exposure in convertible automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulec, A A; Lukens, S B; Jackson, L E; Deyoung, M N

    2011-02-01

    To quantify the noise exposure received while driving a convertible automobile with the top open, compared with the top closed. Five different convertible automobiles were driven, with the top both closed and open, and noise levels measured. The cars were tested at speeds of 88.5, 104.6 and 120.7 km/h. When driving with the convertible top open, the mean noise exposure ranged from 85.3 dB at 88.5 km/h to 89.9 dB at 120.7 km/h. At the tested speeds, noise exposure increased by an average of 12.4-14.6 dB after opening the convertible top. Driving convertible automobiles at speeds exceeding 88.5 km/h, with the top open, may result in noise exposure levels exceeding recommended limits, especially when driving with the convertible top open for prolonged periods.

  13. Advanced converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced converter reactors (ACRs) of primary US interest are those which can be commercialized within about 20 years, and are: Advanced Light-Water Reactors, Spectral-Shift-Control Reactors, Heavy-Water Reactors (CANDU type), and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. These reactors can operate on uranium, thorium, or uranium-thorium fuel cycles, but have the greatest fuel utilization on thorium type cycles. The water reactors tend to operate more economically on uranium cycles, while the HTGR is more economical on thorium cycles. Thus, the HTGR had the greatest practical potential for improving fuel utilization. If the US has 3.4 to 4 million tons U 3 O 8 at reasonable costs, ACRs can make important contributions to maintaining a high nuclear power level for many decades; further, they work well with fast breeder reactors in the long term under symbiotic fueling conditions. Primary nuclear data needs of ACRs are integral measurements of reactivity coefficients and resonance absorption integrals

  14. Nuclear knowledge management: Russian lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, A.; Yakovlev, N.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the Soviet experience preserved in Russia and related to the strategy of nuclear knowledge preservation in period of fast nuclear energy deployment. It's also discusses the problems of 80-90ies: 'gap' between generations, loss of the experimental base, ageing of scientific teams, weakened governmental support, etc. Obviously resumed positive development of the Russian nuclear energy in the last years, as well as expectation of the 'Second Nuclear Era' of large-scale nuclear energy use in the country, has made the elimination of NKM defects and the development of human resources one of the most important and vital prerequisites of the further nuclear development. The paper considers the measures taken in this regard by the Russian nuclear industry, including international cooperation

  15. A Russian View on Landpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Many of these seem innocuous or improbable—but it must be remembered that they will be interpreted in Mos- cow in accordance with a Russian view of the...money, weapons, and political protec- tion in the United Nations (UN). In Ukraine, Mos- cow startled the world by moving mass amounts of its land forces...complete information picture of the battlefield is formed for the appropriate commanders in real time, as the command and con- trol cycle is

  16. Subjunctive in Russian relative clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dobrushina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at determining the factors that trigger the choice of subjunctive in relative clauses, where it freely alternates with indicative forms. The factors are established on a basis of frequency of occurrence in Russian National Corpus (www.ruscorpora.ru and include the referential status of the noun heading the relative clause, the polarity, semantic type and epistemic status of the main predicate and the affirmative vs. interrogative status of the whole sentence.

  17. Corruption in Russian Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Denisova-Schmidt, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Endemic corruption in the country, the rising numbers in higher education, heightened competition between educational institutions at various levels and the creation of improper dependencies among all actors involved in the higher education sector are most likely the main reasons for the extensive spread of corruption at Russian universities. This paper discusses these issues as well as their consequences for further domestic development and for international cooperation with Russia.

  18. Russian Vodka - A National Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    nobility, but its existence supported most of the other industries—services, security, merchants and government bureaucracy. C. 19TH CENTURY VODKA...19th century tax-farm, the social, religious, governmental and psychological need for vodka prepared future Russian generations for life long...conspired to create this stunning statistic. High infertility rates, widespread abortions used as a form of birth control, explosion in STDs, marriage

  19. Russian Capital in Latvia: Trends and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Volgina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals the issue of the positions of Russian capital in Latvian market. The paper aims to estimate the volume and dynamics of Russian capital inflows into Latvia in compliance with Russian economic interests; to identify key sectors of Latvian economy that Russian capital is interested to invest in; to systemize information concerning Russian firms investing in Latvia; to assess the role of Russian capital in Latvian economy in comparison with other foreign investors; to propose author’s view on challenges and perspectives of Latvian-Russian investment cooperation in the situation of economic sanctions and geo-political conflict in east Ukraine. The author underlines that at the end of 2013, investments of Russian business to Latvia constituted about 5.0% of the total FDI stock and by that time Russia was the 7th largest investor with 0.5 bln euro of capital invested. The main sectors of Russian interests in Latvia are - gas supply, transport communications (transit corridors, banking and real estate. The article concludes that though the future of Russian-Latvian economic relations in the short-run is on a substantial pressure of geopolitical factors, the economic interests in mutual investment relations will prevail in the long-run perspectives.

  20. Raising Bilingual Children : Russian Mothers' experience in motivating Russian language and bilingualism in their Russian-Norwegian children

    OpenAIRE

    Vaynam, Margaret Judith

    2013-01-01

    The following thesis investigates Russian mothers’ experience of motivating Russian language learning and bilingualism in their Russian-Norwegian children in Norway. The purpose of this study is to look at the motivating factors that influence parents to teach their children their own language, as well as support the bilingual situation. Although the study focuses on the minority language, as it is the language spoken by the mothers, the bilingual situation is used to further analysis on moti...

  1. Catalytic converters in the fireplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouki, J.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to selecting the appropriate means of heating and using dry fuel, the amount of harmful emissions contained by flue gases produced by fireplaces can be reduced by technical means. One such option is to use an oxidising catalytic converter. Tests at TTS Institute's Heating Studies Experimental Station have focused on two such converters (dense and coarse) mounted in light-weight iron heating stoves. The ability of the dense catalytic converter to oxidise carbon monoxide gases proved to be good. The concentration of carbon monoxide in the flue gases was reduced by as much as 90 %. Measurements conducted by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) showed that the conversion of other gases, e.g. of methane, was good. The exhaust resistance caused by the dense converter was so great as to necessitate the mounting of a fluegas evacuation fan in the chimney for the purpose of creating sufficient draught. When relying on natural draught, the dense converter requires a chimney of at least 7 metres and a by-pass connection while the fire is being lit. In addition, the converter will have to be constructed to be less dense and this will mean that it's capability to oxidise non-combusted gases will be reduced. The coarse converter did not impair the draught but it's oxidising property was insufficient. With the tests over, the converter was not observed to have become blocked up by impurities

  2. Contaminant transport modeling studies of Russian sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) established mechanisms that promoted cooperation between U.S. and Russian scientists in scientific research as well as environmental technology transfer. Using Russian experience and U.S technology, LBL developed approaches for field investigations, site evaluation, waste disposal, and remediation at Russian contaminated sites. LBL assessed a comprehensive database as well as an actual, large-scale contaminated site to evaluate existing knowledge of and test mathematical models used for the assessment of U.S. contaminated sites

  3. Strategic utility of the Russian Spetsnaz

    OpenAIRE

    Atay, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Russian annexation of Crimea stimulated the author's interest in researching the little green men (allegedly the Russian Spetsnaz) that appeared at a decisive point in the coup de main. The intent here is to understand the capabilities and limitations of the Russian special operations forces (SOF) and the level of threat they present to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members and Russia's neighbors. This study uses Colin ...

  4. Russian Model Of The Administrative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja I. Jaroshenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 25, 2014 it would be twenty-one year since the Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted on the national referendum on December 12, 1993. During this time, almost all constitutional provisions are implemented. The key point of course was the judicial reform in Russia, launched simultaneously with the adoption of Constitution of the Russian Federation. Adopted the new Civil Procedural Code, Criminal Procedural Code, Arbitration Procedural Code of the Russian Federation, Federal Constitutional Law "On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation", Federal Constitutional Law "On the courts of general jurisdiction in Russia", Federal Constitutional Law "On the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation". However, during twenty-one year of Russian Constitution work, the question on establishment of administrative courts in our country has not been resolved. Merger of the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, which happened in the year 2014, also shown the need to resolve the status of administrative courts in Russia. Previously submitted to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation the draft of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Federal Administrative Courts in the Russian Federation" and is on the revision, which does not correspond to changes in the judicial system of the Russian Federation. Despite the failure of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Federal Administrative Courts in the Russian Federation", in the opinion of the author, and it should be called that way, it Russia has already developed an own model of the Russian administrative justice, which is very specific.

  5. Aspect acquisition in Russian as the weaker language: evidence from a Turkish-Russian child

    OpenAIRE

    Antonova-Unlu, E.; Wei, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives/purpose/research questions: This study aims to contribute to the discussion about the weaker language development by examining the effect of restricted input and use on the acquisition of the morphological category of aspect in Russian by a Turkish–Russian bilingual child in a Turkish-dominant environment. The main goal the study pursues is to investigate whether the reduced input and restricted use of Russian, mainly through communication with a Russian-speaking mother, i...

  6. Sustainable development of Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Kuz’menkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of administrative-territorial units (ATU refers to the main directions of Russian Federation state policy to ensure the security of the national economy to meet the vital needs of people and the preservation of such a possibility for the future generations. The article describes and analyzes the factors that have the most significant impact on the level of ATE development. The dynamics of the gross output of agriculture in Russia and its critical evaluation are presents. It was revealed that the development of the region is the basis of the national economy security. At present, the concept of “sustainable development” in Russia is relevant and the role of regions in the sustainable development of the Russian Federation is constantly increasing. Stability of self-financing of the regional economy is achieved through conducting effective fiscal, financial, credit, tax and price policy, establishment of equal inter-budgetary relations with the federal center, the development of the securities market, increasing the volume of exports. Conducted research allowed: to identify the main factors influencing the sustainable development of Russia regions. The reasons for the backlog of economy of the Smolensk region of the nationwide growth rate and direction of their elimination are examined. Formation of the forecast of domestic agriculture development in the period up to 2020 should be based on the priority position of the industry in the agricultural sector, which is determined by its decisive role in meeting the population’s needs for basic food products. Prospective volumes of production of major agricultural products are based on the need to meet the challenges provided by the Russian Federation Government Decree.

  7. Roots of Russian Soft Power: Rethinking Russian National Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Slobodchikoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold War heralded a new era as Western soft power was at its zenith in Eastern Europe and regional states accepted and institutionalized a new EuroAmerican ethos. In contrast, Russian soft power was at its lowest point as the Soviet Union imploded, leaving fi fteen newly independent states. While Russia was still the most powerful nation in the region, it lacked competence to deploy soft power and was unable to culturally infl uence its neighbors. Russia had to regain its footing and sought to redefi ne its own national identity prior to being able to build and project its soft power. Thus, Russia turned inward to nineteenth century works in philosophy and literature while Western soft power and expansionism continued to draw closer to Russia’s borders. As Moscow regrouped, it created institutions to spread its message both regionally and globally and expanded its communication prowess. Russia realized that while its national identity might be grounded within its Slavic roots and Russian exceptionalism, the only way it could effectively counter Western soft power was to point out the hypocrisy of American and European governmental policies. Rather than generating a positive projection of cultural and political attractiveness, Russia fought the spread Euro-American soft power by directly challenging it and showed that the Western political ethos ultimately was selfcontradictory and also worked to destroy traditional values.

  8. PRAGMATIC USES OF RUSSIAN SUBJUNCTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina R. Dobrushina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers pragmatic uses of the Russian subjunctive which does not refer to an irreal situation but marks an utterance as non-categorical (as in English: “I would suggest switching to the next question”. These usages are common in the 1st and 2nd person though confined to a narrow class of verbs listed in the paper. The paper focuses on the subjunctive of the verb xotet’ (‘want’. It is shown that the pragmatic subjunctive has a number of special properties: it may combine with indicative conditional protasis and may be co-ordinated with indicative forms. 

  9. Determination of input data for numerical design of sheet steels - report on a common research project of the steel and automotive industry; Ermittlung von Berechnungskennwerten an Karosseriewerkstoffen - Bericht ueber ein gemeinschaftsprojekt der Stahl- und Automobilindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleck, W.; Frehn, A. [Institut fuer Eisenhuettenkunde, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Engl, B. [ThyssenKrupp Stahl AG, Dortmund (Germany); Nicklas, D. [Saint-Gobain Sekurit Deutschland GmbH and Co KG, Aachen (Germany); Steinbeck, G. [Stahlinstitut VDEh, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    Within the scope of a common research project of the steel and automotive industry, 20 sheet steels have been investigated to obtain input data for FE-analysis. In detail, elastic, plastic and fatique characteristical values were determined by several testing institutes for a period of 3 years. The investigated sheet steels differ with regard to the microstructure and the steel concept. Beside several ferritic steels, multiphase steels like dual phase-, complex phase- and TRIP steels as well as 2 austenitic stainless steels were characterised. The starting materials and selected steels with a defined predeformation and heat treatment were investigated. Within this project, the partners developed a testing and documentation precept in which the ways and means were fixed to reach the defined steel condition and to enable a standardised testing and data output for the material database, realised by the automotive industry. Before the actual elastic, plastic and fatique testing, a reception test for all steels was carried out to characterise the materials with regard to the microstructure, surface condition, chemical composition and mechanical properties, obtained in the quasistatic tensile test. The results of the different testing institutes (elastic, plastic and fatique) will be presented in separate publications in detail. As a result of this project it became obvious that the investigated steels can be divided into steel groups which show a similar strain hardening behaviour. Thus, a prediction of mechanical values and flow curves for cognate steels within one steel group seems to be possible. This subject will be the focus of further investigations within the scope of a new project started on January 1{sup st}, 2003. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Im Rahmen eines gemeinschaftlichen Projektes der Stahl- und Automobilindustrie wurden an insgesamt 20 Staehlen fuer Feinblech Kennwerte fuer die FEM-Simulation ermittelt. Im Einzelnen

  10. Advanced DC/DC converters

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2003-01-01

    DC/DC conversion techniques have undergone rapid development in recent decades. With the pioneering work of these authors, DC/DC converters have now moved into their sixth generation. This book offers a concise, practical presentation of DC/DC converters, summarizing the spectrum of conversion tecnologies and presentingmany new ideas and more than 100 new topologies. Nowhere else in the literature are DC/DC converters so logically sorted and systematically introduced, and nowhere else can readers find detailed information on prototype topologies that represent a major contribution to modern power engineering. More than 320 figures, 60 tables, and 500 formulae facilitate understand and provide precise data.

  11. Wind/water energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkovich, J.

    1979-01-01

    Device will convert wind, water, tidal or wave energy into electrical or mechanical energy. Is comprised of windmill-like paddles or blades synchronously geared to orient themselves to wind direction for optimum energy extraction.

  12. Matrix Converter in Hybrid Drives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lettl, Jiří; Flígl, S.

    -, č. 3 (2004), s. 77-80 ISSN 0204-3599 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : matrix converter * hybrid drive * electric power splitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  13. Values and education: Russian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borytko Nikolai M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about some lessons of the multi-cultural analysis of a joint Russian-British educational project. The analysis, based on the achievements of Russian pedagogical science, about the achievement of the most effective cross-cultural communication, can be listed among the outcomes of the project, along with the applied results, which consists in developing an educational management training program. The growth of innovation process and international contacts in education testifies to the fact that education culture is evolving toward a new quality. In the evolution/process, the basic needs of schools, teachers and education managers are identified and conceptualized. Sharing achievements and discoveries in professional growth should be kept in mind and that fulfilling the needs can only take place within the context of the cultural-pedagogic position inherent to an individual teacher, a group of teachers, or a school. From the point of view of cross-cultural analysis, the specifics lie in the inherent values and the level at which the activity is typically performed. This analysis equips the researcher with the criteria necessary for identifying the culture type dealt with. This latter can be used then as a tool for analyzing and designing innovations.

  14. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  15. The Russian Federation and the International Space Station: Leveraging Russian Space Strengths to Control its Missile Technology Proliferation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gloss, Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis discusses how a partnership with the Russian Federation and Russian Space Agency within the International Space Station can both act as an incentive for the Russians to prevent illicit...

  16. Lexical Inferencing in Reading L2 Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes how intermediate-level first language English readers of Russian as a second language deploy lexical inferencing and other strategies when reading informational texts. Fifth-semester students of Russian performed think-alouds while reading two texts; one written for the general adult reader, and the other meant for school-age…

  17. The Russian Novel, Literature: 5113.88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed for a high school quinmester unit on the Russian novel, this guide is designed to give students the opportunity to become familiar with the major works of Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevski. Performance objectives for the course include studying the general facets of 19th century Russian culture and history, analyzing the novels of…

  18. Electronic Repository of Russian Historical Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tykhonov, Vyacheslav; Kessler, Gijs; Markevich, Andrei; de Vries, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The Electronic Repository for Russian Historical Statistics brings together data extracted from various published and unpublished sources in one place. Its principal focus is Russian economic and social history of the last three centuries (18th-21st). The repository caters to the needs of the

  19. Common fungal diseases of Russian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgeny P. Kuz' michevl; Ella s. Sokolova; Elena G. Kulikova

    2001-01-01

    Describes common fungal diseases of Russian forests, including diagnostic signs and symptoms, pathogen biology, damage caused by the disease, and methods of control. The fungal diseases are divided into two groups: those that are the most common in Russian forests and those that are found only in Russia. Within each group, diseases are subdivided by plant organ...

  20. Legal Portion in Russian Inheritance Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inshina, Roza; Murzalimova, Lyudmila

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the right to inherit as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The state has set rules according to which after a person's death, his or her property is inherited by other persons. The Russian civil legislation establishes the institution of legal portions that is…

  1. The Iconic Boom in Modern Russian Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the prices and the returns in the market for modern Russian art, a prime example of an ‘emerging art market’, over the last four decades. After applying a hedonic regression model on an extensive dataset containing 52,154 sales by 410 Russian artists, we show that the

  2. Russian gas in the west European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paper relates to the Russian supply of natural gas to the west European market. Following themes are discussed: The resource basis of the gas industry; analysis of the European gas market; projects for Russian gas supply to Europe; international co-operation

  3. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  4. Russian National Security Policy: Perceptions, Policies, and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crutcher, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... The workshop examined that policy in terms of factors influencing Russian national security policy formulation, Russia's perceptions of the world and itself, current Russian security and foreign...

  5. Current status of converter steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghbasialasie, H.; Holappa, L.

    1995-12-31

    This literature work is mainly focusing on the mechanisms of modern converter steelmaking and related with the evaluation of converter technology applied during the last decades and further to the future. The history of steelmaking has been briefly reviewed from bloomeries and early-steelmaking processes to the progress of modern converter process. The pneumatic converter processes were developed in the 1850`s and thereafter the basis for the rapid growth of steel industries was established for the next 100 years. The world production of steel has not continuously grown but fluctuating quite much. It reached 723 Mt in 1994. The production is believed to grow the forecast for the year 2003 being approximately 800 Mt. Electric arc furnace production is estimated to reach 280 Mt by 2003, and BOFIOH will reach 520 Mt by 2003. The current status of the converter steelmaking process is briefly described both on its theoretical bases and practical technological progresses. Developments which significantly improve the process are briefly discussed. Several more recent developments such as combined oxygen blowing process, increased scrap melting, post combustion and hot metal pretreatment are discussed. The future progress will be in further development of these process characteristics as well as in eventual emerging of the continuous converter process. (author)

  6. The Russian nuclear data research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The report contains the Russian programme of nuclear data research, approved by the Russian Nuclear Data Committee on 16 December 1994. It gives surveys on nuclear data needs, on the structure of nuclear data activities, on experimental facilities for nuclear data measurements at five Russian institutes, on theoretical model work, nuclear data evaluation, and nuclear data testing. It describes four Russian nuclear data centers and their relations to the International Nuclear Data Centres Network, and their holdings of nuclear data libraries of Russian and international origin. A summary of nuclear data applications in energy and non-energy fields is given. An appendix contains a detail nuclear data research programme for the years 1995 - 2005. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  7. Multifractal structures for the Russian stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Taro

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we apply the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) to the Russian stock price returns. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to reveal the multifractal structures for the Russian stock market by financial crises. The contributions of the paper are twofold. (i) Finding the multifractal structures for the Russian stock market. The generalized Hurst exponents estimated become highly-nonlinear to the order of the fluctuation functions. (ii) Computing the multifractality degree according to Zunino et al. (2008). We find that the multifractality degree of the Russian stock market can be categorized within emerging markets, however, the Russian 1998 crisis and the global financial crisis dampen the degree when we consider the order of the polynomial trends in the MFDFA.

  8. Moscow DMZ: The story of the international effort to convert Russian weapons science to peaceful purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    ISTC created a program to re-employ former Soviet scientists in civilian projects dealing with environmental pollution, nuclear safety, and economic underdevelopment: in short, the legacy of the Soviet system. Glenn E. Schweitzer was the first Executive Director of ISTC, based in Moscow, and his book is additionally a vivid personal account of his impressions of life and work in Moscow as he set about establishing ISTC

  9. Converter Monitoring Unit for Retrofit of Wind Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rannestad, Bjorn; Maarbjerg, Anders Eggert; Frederiksen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    A Converter Monitoring Unit (CMU), which will enable condition monitoring of wind turbine converters is presented in this paper. Reducing the cost of corrective maintenance by means of condition monitoring is a way of lowering Operation & Maintenance (O&M) costs for wind turbine systems....... The CMU must be able to detect a broad range of failure modes related to Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules and associated gate drives. IGBT collector-emitter on-state voltage (vceon) and current (ic) is sampled in the CMU and used for detection of emerging failures. A new method...

  10. Employment strategy of the Russians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borisovich Toreev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the crisis it is especially important to choose a correct employment strategy. Every employee uses an employment strategy, as he/she selects the direction of long-term employment consciously or intuitively. The choice of strategy is determined by a number of factors shaping the person’s attitudes: health, character, upbringing, education, social environment, institutional environment. The employment strategies of the young people newly entering the labor market differ from lab our strategies of workers. Young people do not have such experience and can plan their life “from scratch”. The Soviet specialists, people who started their career in the planned economy, have their own features of employment strategies. The article describes employment strategies of the Russians

  11. Russian church renovationism in 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Pawełczyk-Dura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fall of tsarist autocracy in 1917 opened up the possibility of revival of the Orthodox Church. Political and socialmovement revived activities renovationists, closely observing the prevailing mood among believers. They excepted deepreforms in Church organizations and rituals and postulate require activating the clergy. However, All Russian Sobor of1917-1918 rejected the reneval project based on the idea of creating independent administrative Orthodox community,connected reformed faith and ritual. Consciousness of organizational and ideological confusion motivate renovationiststo turn to the most important factor influencing the social and political life. It happened only until 1922. „Living Church”has become a weapon in the fight the communist regime against in the Orthodox Church.

  12. Science and Russian Orthodox Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Karl; Bayuk, Dimitri

    2016-09-01

    In Russia the theme of science and religion found its strongest resonance at the levels of humanistic scholarship and Christianity in general, where visions of harmony dominated and doctrinal and confessional particularity was largely absent. The fraught relations of both the Holy Synod and the Imperial Academy of Sciences with the Russian state since the early eighteenth century had the collateral consequence of minimal institutional contacts between theology and natural philosophy. Though “scientific apologetics” eventually found a place in the seminaries, scientists did not contribute to this scholarship in the nineteenth century. The rare prominent scientist who entertained religious beliefs posited either harmony or conflict in public writings even more rarely, and it is the varieties of religious indifference—not solely Soviet in origin—that invite historical inquiry.

  13. Modeling of asymmetrical boost converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Isabel Arango Zuluaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical interleaved dual boost (AIDB is a fifth-order DC/DC converter designed to interface photovoltaic (PV panels. The AIDB produces small current harmonics to the PV panels, reducing the power losses caused by the converter operation. Moreover, the AIDB provides a large voltage conversion ratio, which is required to step-up the PV voltage to the large dc-link voltage used in grid-connected inverters. To reject irradiance and load disturbances, the AIDB must be operated in a closed-loop and a dynamic model is required. Given that the AIDB converter operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM, classical modeling approaches based on Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM are not valid. Moreover, classical DCM modeling techniques are not suitable for the AIDB converter. Therefore, this paper develops a novel mathematical model for the AIDB converter, which is suitable for control-pur-poses. The proposed model is based on the calculation of a diode current that is typically disregarded. Moreover, because the traditional correction to the second duty cycle reported in literature is not effective, a new equation is designed. The model accuracy is contrasted with circuital simulations in time and frequency domains, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, the usefulness of the model in control applications is illustrated with an application example.

  14. Russian Field” in Advertising Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana P. Romanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with commercial names having reference to the cultural space of Russia. Their connotative meaning includes a ‘Russian ethno-cultural marker’ (REM actualized in the advertising discourse by a multi-coded text constituted by an integrated complex of semantic, stylistic, and symbolic verbal and visual signs. The article analyzes the verbal means of expression of the REM in commercial naming: lexical, semantic, and stylistic features of the names; national precedent phenomena reflected by the words designating elements of Russian spiritual and material culture; notions of Russian history; ethnonyms; culture-specific vocabulary; archaic words; precedent personal names and toponyms; Russian colloquial expressions. The author also analyzes graphic elements and models of commercial names formation as supplementary REM actualizers. The article focuses on three major functions of REM-names: informational, phatic, and connotative functions, outlining their spheres of use in commercial discourse, particularly in the commercial naming of Russian state enterprises and brands and in labeling exported goods and services. The Russian ethnically marked names represent an open, dynamically developing system which can be represented as a field structure whose center is constituted by commercial names including ethnonyms, culture-specific vocabulary and words designating national precedent phenomena, and the periphery by all Russian names.

  15. Russian energy prices, taxes and costs 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Russian energy industry may be the country's most promising exporter, but it is struggling to free itself from the heavy regulation and economic distortions inherited from the Soviet era. This analysis examines Russian price and tax policies as well as production costs in 1993, and their effect on supply and demand in the oil, coal, gas and electricity sectors. The study underscores the broad consensus among both Western and Russian experts that primary energy prices should be lifted to world levels. It offers a framework for addressing the great question about how fast this should be done in a country undergoing a tremendous social and political transformation

  16. The philosophical implications of Russian conceptualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Epstein

    2010-01-01

    Conceptualism identifies itself as a predominantly Russian-Soviet mode of thinking. In the West, the correlation between ideological signs and observable reality has been persistently validated through scientific and economic practice; while in Russia, traditionally, reality itself has been constructed from ideological signs generated by its ruling minds as a kind of hyper-reality. Thus, Russian Conceptualism sees itself not as a mere replica of Western postmodernism, but as a reflection of the underlying structures of Russian history, where the signs of reality have always been subject to ideological manipulation.

  17. CORPORATIONS IN RUSSIAN ECONOMICS OF TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shirokovskikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Russian economics there are purely Russian private corporations as well as mixed state/private owned and transnational corporations. Specific ways of forming corporations in Russia resulted in corporate management models different from those used abroad (exclusive of largest holdingcompanies with considerable participation of the state. Difference in the corporation forms is determined by relations between owners and top managers. Efficient and sustainable (in the western sense functioning of Russian corporations may become effective only after long timeprovided RF ownership right legislation gets simultaneously improved.

  18. Simplified design of data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1997-01-01

    Simplified Design of Data Converters shows how to design and experiment with data converters, both analog-to-digital and digital to analog. The design approach here is the same one used in all of John Lenk's best-selling books on simplified and practical design. Throughout the book, design problems start with guidelines for selecting all components on a trial-value basis, assuming a specific design goal and set of conditions. Then, using the guideline values in experimental circuits, the desired results are produced by varying the experimental component values, if needed.If you are a w

  19. Russian Military Thinking – A New Generation of Warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Peter A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with how Russian warfighting is described and discussed in contemporary Russian military theory. The approach has been studies, analyses and interpretations of primarily Russian sources as prominent Russian journals, but also Western analyses and interpretations of contemporary Russian warfighting discussions. Theoretical considerations are limited to the period from the 1980s to the present day - 2014. Mainly Russian experts on military theory (Bogdanov, Chekinov, Gareev, Kiselyov, Kuralenko, Morozov, Slipchenko, Vinogradov, Vladimirov, Vorobyov have been studied, but also sources from some prominent Western experts on Russian warfare (FitzGerald, Gileotti, Kipp, McDermott.

  20. AC-DC PFC Converter Using Combination of Flyback Converter and Full-bridge DC-DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Zaenal Efendi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a combination of power factor correction converter using Flyback converter and Full-bridge dc-dc converter in series connection. Flyback converter is operated in discontinuous conduction mode so that it can serve as a power factor correction converter and meanwhile Full-bridge dc-dc converter is used for dc regulator. This converter system is designed to produce a 86 Volt of output voltage and 2 A of output current. Both simulation and experiment results show that the power factor of this converter achieves up to 0.99 and meets harmonic standard of IEC61000-3-2. Keywords: Flyback Converter, Full-bridge DC-DC Converter, Power Factor Correction.

  1. The history, present status and future prospects of the Russian fuel peat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Tcvetkov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review the history of the Russian fuel peat industry, analyse the prospects for its further development, and draw attention to its significant technical and economic potential. Russian peat resources represent more than 30 % of the global total. Peat production peaked during 1960–1980, when the volume of peat extraction was two orders of magnitude higher than it is now. The key factors that prevented further development of the Russian fuel peat industry were an inadequate regulatory framework for peat processing and the inability of peat extraction enterprises to overcome the energy supply monopoly of the coal, oil and gas industries. At present, the peat industry of the Russian Federation is in decline and its potential has been lost. Most of the power plants that previously operated on peat have been converted to coal and other fuels and, as a result, the occurrence of peatland fires has increased greatly. A case is made for revival of the industry to exploit peat as a local energy resource, employing modern processing techniques that can achieve full utilisation of the peat whilst reducing air pollution and generating little waste.

  2. Infliximab in Russian clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Lukina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of infliximab began (INF in Russia in 2001. It was the first genetically engineered biological agent (GEBA registered in our country to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. With the advent of infliximab, a Russian biological rheumatoid arthritis therapy registry started its work. In October 2005, it was set up on the basis of GEBA centers founded in the leading rheumatology clinics of Russia. Objective: to generalize the Russian experience in using INF (its efficacy, tolerance, and side effects in patients with RA in real clinical practice within the framework of a multicenter observational study. Subjects and methods. The register included patients with a valid diagnosis of RA in whom INF treatment was first started. The main indication for this was previous basic therapy failure. This investigation analyzed 396 patients receiving INF therapy. Prior to INF administration, all the patients were examined to identify whether they had possible latent tuberculosis, by applying chest X-ray study and Mantoux test. The European League Against Rheumatism criteria were used to evaluate the efficiency of INF therapy. The relationship between the therapeutic effects of the drug and its cumulative dose was specially used. The trend in X-ray progression was estimated using the Sharp method modified by van der Heijde. INF was given in a dose of 3 mg/kg by the classical regimen: at 0, 2, and 6 weeks, then every 8 weeks. The main assessment periods were at 22 and 46—54 weeks. Results. Analysis of the data of real clinical practice in Russia demonstrates that the use of INF in RA patients with the inadequate effect of traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs is able to cause a rapid and pronounced reduction in disease activity. There is significant evidence that the IFN-treated patients with RA had also suppressed bone destruction. INF treatment for early RA gives rise to remissions more frequently in the early stage of

  3. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  4. Reliability of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon

    There are many different working principles for wave energy converters (WECs) which are used to produce electricity from waves. In order for WECs tobecome successful and more competitive to other renewable electricity sources,the consideration of the structural reliability of WECs is essential.St...

  5. Advanced Thermionic Converter Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, James R.

    2003-01-01

    A thermionic energy converter (TEC) is a direct energy conversion device, which converts heat to electricity with no moving parts. Thermionic converters are well suited to space nuclear power systems because of their high power density, high heat rejection temperature, and immunity to radiation. Several recent advances in thermionic energy conversion technology have greatly improved the efficiency of these devices. A research program was undertaken to independently confirm these advances, and to extend them to converters with practical geometry. The recent development of a stable cesium/oxygen vapor source has led to a significant improvement in performance. The addition of a small amount of oxygen to the cesium vapor can increase the emission current by a factor of three or more. The beneficial effects of oxygen are stable and reproducible. A TEC with a cold seal has been invented, which greatly simplifies construction, operation, and maintenance of the TEC. Electron reflection from the collector has been shown to reduce the performance of TEC's. Reflection suppressing materials were produced and tested. One sample showed evidence of reflection suppression, increasing the average output voltage by 0.16 V. Another sample did not. Research in this area is ongoing.

  6. Detecting Bots on Russian Political Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukal, Denis; Sanovich, Sergey; Bonneau, Richard; Tucker, Joshua A

    2017-12-01

    Automated and semiautomated Twitter accounts, bots, have recently gained significant public attention due to their potential interference in the political realm. In this study, we develop a methodology for detecting bots on Twitter using an ensemble of classifiers and apply it to study bot activity within political discussions in the Russian Twittersphere. We focus on the interval from February 2014 to December 2015, an especially consequential period in Russian politics. Among accounts actively Tweeting about Russian politics, we find that on the majority of days, the proportion of Tweets produced by bots exceeds 50%. We reveal bot characteristics that distinguish them from humans in this corpus, and find that the software platform used for Tweeting is among the best predictors of bots. Finally, we find suggestive evidence that one prominent activity that bots were involved in on Russian political Twitter is the spread of news stories and promotion of media who produce them.

  7. Quantum computer for dummies (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Grozin, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    An introduction (in Russian) to quantum computers, quantum cryptography, and quantum teleportation for students who have no previous knowledge of these subjects, but know quantum mechanics. Several simple examples are considered in detail using the quantum computer emulator QCL.

  8. [ASSET missions at the Russian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnyk, N.

    1996-01-01

    The activities connected with the ASSET missions and seminars which were held at the Russian nuclear power plants with the assistance of the IAEA and which facilitated the enhancement of nuclear safety culture are described

  9. LITERARY SPECIFICS OF THE RUSSIAN MEDIA CRITICISM

    OpenAIRE

    Balashova, Y.B.

    2016-01-01

    The article reveals the literary foundation of the Russian media criticism. At the same time, historically criticism in Russia was closely linked to the journalistic discourse. This correlation continues today.

  10. Russian Federation Rising Power: Strengths and Weaknesses

    OpenAIRE

    KEITAN, Ahmed Yousif

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing developments in the Russian Federation since the beginning of the twenty-first century have been a dramatic turning point in its role at regional and international levels. A series of attempt to redraw the balances and become an international force that ultimately leads to its main goal of changing the balance of power in the system and building a new international order. The Russian diplomatic activity has evolved from competition, conflict, and cooperation with other internation...

  11. THE MYTH OF THE RUSSIAN EXISTENTIAL THREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    control costs because the government covers the companies’ losses . This inefficient paradigm of incentives only perpetuates more corruption . However...main problem for the Russian defense industry and the root of its inefficiency is corruption . Russia’s chief military prosecutor estimates that...nearly 20 percent of the defense budget disappears due to corruption . This corruption cost the government 7 billion Russian rubles ($220 million USD) in

  12. Parsing Chinese-Russian Military Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    music festival.154 ASSESSMENT These joint Russian- Chinese military exercises serve several important national security purposes for both governments...APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parsing Chinese -Russian Military Exercises 5a. CONTRACT...support of Army participation in national security policy formulation. iii Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press PARSING CHINESE

  13. Open Government Data in Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Koznov, Dmitrij; Andreeva, Olga; Nikula, Uolevi; Maglyas, Andrey; Muromtsev, Dmitry; Radchenko, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Open data can increase transparency and accountability of a country government, leading to free information sharing and stimulation of new innovations. This paper analyses government open data policy as well as open data initiatives and trends in Russian Federation. The OCDE analytical framework for national open government data portals and supporting initiatives is used as the bases for the study. The key issues of Russian open government data movement are summarized and aggregated. The pape...

  14. Corporate targeting: Nike on the Russian market

    OpenAIRE

    Sekulović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Nike Corporation is one of leading global players in sports apparel and footwear market. Strategic development of Nike Co has always been based on superior marketing and engagement of world-class sportspersons in its advertising campaigns. When USSR collapsed, Nike immediately started with penetration on Russian market. By relying on its outstanding innovativeness in product development and marketing, Nike has become one of three biggest players in the market. As its distributor for Russian m...

  15. Russian Ballistic Missile Defense: Rhetoric and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    cooperate (they even share a common catalog of tar - 7 gets with single designations), but, as one Russian de- fense analyst put it, “in practice such...19 Aleksandr Tar - nayev, a member of the Russian State Duma Defense Committee, complained that due to insufficient funds, the VKO command could not...well as nuclear warheads, will probably utilize the presently moth- balled 51T6 (Gorgon) silos. It should have a range of up to 100-km and an

  16. Russian Language in the Central Asia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Petrovna Borishpolets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available He article is devoted to the role of the Russian language in Central Asia and its development perspectives in the context of the Eurasian integration processes. Russian language has a long historical tradition in Central Asia and hasn't lost its importance even at the background of two waves of "derussification" that took place after 1991. Notwithstanding the decrease of the status, it keeps substantial public significance. During last two decades only in Turkmenistan we are witnessing the decrease in spreading of the Russian language among title population of the Central Asia region. Its positions as an active communication channel is secured not only by the social tradition, but also by the competitiveness of the Russian language education, advantages of the bilingual business, requirements of the labor migrants, HR interests and by some other pragmatic thoughts, which role within the context of Eurasian economic integration will increase. Despite the difficulties, it is too early to speak about the decrease of the Russian language in the Central Asia region. It is more likely that the institutes itself that maintain it and promoting it are at the low ebb. New scales and forms of practical work that is interested not only for Russia, but also Central Asia countries are required. Pressure on the resources of the Russian language increases the possibility of ethnic conflicts and strengthens the positions of political radicalism in Central Asia region.

  17. About Russian nuclear energetic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laletin, N.I.

    2003-01-01

    My particular view about Russian nuclear energetics perspectives is presented. The nearest and the further perspectives are considered. The arguments are adduced that the most probable scenario of nuclear energetic development is its stabilization in the near future. Fur further development the arguments of supporters and opponents of nuclear energetics are analyzed. Three points of view are considered. The first point of view that there is not alternative for nuclear energetics. My notes are the following ones. a) I express a skeptic opinion about a statement of quick exhaustion of fossil organic fuel recourses and corresponding estimations are presented. b) It is expressed skeptic opinion about the statement that nuclear energetics can have a visual influence on ''steam effect''. c) I agree that nuclear energetics is the most ecological technology for normal work but however we can't disregard possibilities of catastrophic accidents. The second point of view that the use of nuclear energetics can't have the justification. I adduce the arguments contrary to this statement. The third point of view that nuclear energetics is a usual technology and the only criteria for discussions about what dimension and where one ought develop it is total cost of its unit. Expressed an opinion that the deceived for the choose of a way the skill of the estimate correctly and optimized so named the external parts of the unit energy costs for different energy technologies. (author)

  18. Gulf Canada's Russian joint venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motyka, D.

    1992-01-01

    After three years of evaluating prospects and negotiating with government and industry representatives, Gulf Canada established its first joint venture in the Russian Federation with Komineft, a production association from the Komi autonomous republic. Komineft has a 50% share of the venture, and the rest is shared equally between Gulf and British Gas. The operating area is at the Vozey and Upper Vozey fields in the Timan-Pechora Basin, some 1,500 km northeast of Moscow just inside the Arctic Circle. An attractive feature of the Upper Vozey project is low development costs of ca $2/bbl. In the Vozey field, the venture will set up an enhanced oil recovery demonstration project to test techniques perfected in Alberta. About 60 Canadians are involved on the project, and headquarters are in Usinsk, ca 100 km south of the oil fields. In the first half of 1992, oil production in the first phase of the venture averaged around 10,000 bbl/d and continues to increase

  19. Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.

  20. Photoelectric converter; Koden henkan soshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawayama, I.

    1995-04-07

    The conventional solar cell module wherein plural photovoltaic elements formed on a metal substrate are connected and coated by weatherproof and translucent resin has defects such as pinholes, and separation because moisture infiltrating from the outside causes dissolution of such conductive matrix as silver in the collecting electrode. This invention relates to a photoelectric converter which has little decrease in the output under the environment of light irradiation, wherein a photoelectric converting semiconductor, a transparent conductive layer on the above-mentioned semiconductor, and conductive member containing water repellent fine powder grains on this transparent conductive layer are laminated successively. Polytetrafluoroethylene, polydimethyl siloxane, polyethylene, and nylon are desirable to be employed as the water repellent fine powder grains. The fine powder grains are mixed with conductive filler and binder to produce conductive paste, pattern-applied by a screen printing machine, and subjected to thermal treatment to form a conductive member. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Photoelectric converters with quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan-He; Sun, Chang-Pu; Li, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Jin-Can

    2016-05-01

    Photon impingement is capable of liberating electrons in electronic devices and driving the electron flux from the lower chemical potential to higher chemical potential. Previous studies hinted that the thermodynamic efficiency of a nanosized photoelectric converter at maximum power is bounded by the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency ηCA. In this study, we apply quantum effects to design a photoelectric converter based on a three-level quantum dot (QD) interacting with fermionic baths and photons. We show that, by adopting a pair of suitable degenerate states, quantum coherences induced by the couplings of QDs to sunlight and fermion baths can coexist steadily in nanoelectronic systems. Our analysis indicates that the efficiency at maximum power is no longer limited to ηCA through manipulation of carefully controlled quantum coherences.

  2. Radiated EMI from power converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnautovski-Toševa Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous increase of switching frequency together with the ongoing trend to higher complexity and functionality, power converters as a part of electronic systems have raised more and more electromagnetic energy pollution to the local system environment. In the same time, stringent demands are imposed on the designers of new circuits that electromagnetic interference (EMI has to be suppressed at its source before it is allowed to propagate into other circuits and systems. In this paper, the authors present a full-wave numerical method for calculation and simulation of electromagnetic field radiated by power converter circuitry. The main objective is to analyze the layout geometry in order to obtain competitive PCB layout that will enable suitably attenuated level of the radiated electric field to safe level. By this it would be possible to ensure reliable operation of the sensitive electronic components in the proximity.

  3. Not Russian Enough? Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism in Nineteenth-Century Russian Opera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmers, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, Russian composers and critics were encouraged to cultivate a national style to distinguish their music from the dominant Italian, French, and German traditions. Not Russian Enough? explores this aspiration for a nationalist musical tradition as it was carried out in the

  4. Reading L2 Russian: The Challenges of the Russian-English Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines when and how students use Russian-English dictionaries while reading informational texts in Russian and what success they have with word lookup. The study uses introspective verbal protocols (i.e., think-alouds) to follow how readers construct meaning from two texts while reading them for a limited time first…

  5. The Turco-Russian Energy Relationship: Russian Energy Dominance and Its Ability to Influence Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    further Turkey-Russian alignment. Lastly, a Russian-Turkey alliance could cause the abrogation or modification of the Montreux Convention. The... Montreux Convention of 1936 gave the Dardanelles, Bosporus Straits, and the Sea of Marmora to Turkish military control. The treaty, signed by Turkey, Great

  6. The Russian Way of War: Post Soviet Adaptations in the Russian Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    93 Abkhazia Action...about an independent Abkhazia and South Ossetia and to block further Russian support for these aims. Unlike the Russians, Georgian forces demonstrated...Law 1, no. 2 (2009), 345. 208Aleksandr Iashvili, “Georgia Demands Withdrawl of Peacekeepers from Abkhazia and South Ossetia,” in Countdown to War in

  7. Multimodal shipments under program on Russian-origin research reactor SFA return to Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, A.N.; Ivashchenko, A.A.; Kanashov, B.A.; Komarov, S.V.; Komarov, S.N.; Barinkov, O.P.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes experience in preparation and organization of research reactor nuclear material import under the Program on Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Return to the Russian Federation. It also summarizes evolution of transport equipment, conveyances and routes and describes types of packages, their adaptation and certification, safety issues, peculiarities and prospective use of the packagings and conveyances. (author)

  8. Biomass compounds converted to gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-08

    It is claimed that corn, castor, and jojoba oils as well as Hevea latex can be converted in high yields to gasoline by passage over zeolite catalysts at 450 degrees to 500 degrees centigrade. Gasoline yields are 60% from corn oil (essentially tristearin), compared with 50% yields from methanol. Latex depolymerizes before conversion. Fat and oil molecules adopt conformations that enable them to enter zeolite interstices, resulting in high yields of C6 to C9 aromatics.

  9. Status of advanced bremsstrahlung converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbleib, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to review the somewhat ill-defined area of advanced converter research in a more or less chronological fashion. Section 2 reviews the early B/sub z/ work that was motivated by the CASINO project. More recent work makes liberal use of technology from ICF research using REBs is discussed in Sec. 3. Section 4 discusses possible directions for future research, some of which are being actively pursued at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and elsewhere

  10. Computerized simulation of converter process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalkanen, H.; Suomi, M.L.; Wallgren, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Metallurgy

    1996-12-31

    Converter process is essentially an oxidising refining process aiming in addition to (1) the primary refining action, decarburisation of high carbon iron melt, also to (2) maximal elimination of impurity elements, especially silicon, phosphorus and sulphur, (3) melting of substantial amounts of scrap using the extra heat released in oxidation reactions and (4) to exact final steel temperature control, optimal for further treatments. `Quantitative modelling of such a complex non-stationary chemical process as oxygen converting necessitates extensive formulation of chemical and thermal evolution of the process in connection with the technological properties of the reactor and the process control measures. A comprehensive converter simulation program like CONSIM-3. 1 and its preceding versions that is based on the theoretical and practical knowledge on the process can be used for (1) educating specialists and smelter personnel, (2) planning of the blowing programs, (3) developing and testing of process control systems and after some elaboration and restructuring (4) it can be integrated to static or dynamic process control systems. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  11. TRANSFORMATION OF FAMILY IN MODERN RUSSIAN SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Anatolevna Otradnova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines concept of family in Russian society, changes in interpretation of family, connected with modern tendencies and processes in different sociocultural spheres.   The article is structured and has accurate limits of introduction, main part and conclusion. The relevance of the research is caused by present-day crisis tendencies connected with suicide actions, atomization and hedonization of society, value depreciation of family.  The object of the research is to analyze the conception of family and its transformation in condition of modern Russian society. The tasks are to determine the term family, to analyze approaches to understanding of the family and its genesis, detect some peculiarities of modern Russian society, research the transformation of interpretation of family in modern society; the matter of investigation is modern Russian society, the subject is the transformation of family structures; the following methods of research are used: historical and cultural approach, typological method, existential method, common logic procedures. The research contains author’s definition of the term family, historical and cultural analysis and typological explication of the approaches to interpretation of the problem, classification of family structures - which have been formed in Russian society- on the base of statistic and sociological data.   Some interweaving of concept family with the most important existential values (love, freedom, responsibility were investigated and some tendencies for further development of family relationship in Russian society were revealed, its problems and prospect were emphasized. The results of the investigation testify that modern types of matrimonial relationship differ in limitation of functionality, mutual responsibility, thereby it is possible to state that interpretation of family in modern Russian society has transformed.

  12. Development of a Compact Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of a matrix converter. Matrix converters belong to the category of direct frequency converters. A converter does not contain DC-link and the output voltage is provided by direct switching of voltage from the input phases. This is enabled by 9 bidirectional switches, which are provided by anti-serial connection of 18 IGBT transistors. The absence of a DC-link is great advantage of the matrix converter, but it also increases the requirements on the converter control. For this reason a new prototype of a matrix converter is being developed with sophisticated modern components (FPGA, Power PC equipped in the control part of the converter. The converter will be used for testing new control algorithms and commutation methods. 

  13. Russian mortality beyond vital statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of routine data have established that the extreme mortality fluctuations among young and middle-aged men are the most important single component of both temporal changes in Russian life expectancy at birth and in the gap between male and female life expectancy. It is also responsible for the largest share of the life expectancy gap between Russia and other industrialised countries. A case-control study has been used to identify factors associated with mortality among men aged 20 to 55 in the five major cities of the Udmurt Republic in 1998-99. Men dying from external causes and circulatory disease are taken as cases. Matched controls were selected from men of the same age living in the same neighbourhood of residence. Information about characteristics of cases and controls was obtained by interviewing proxies who were family members or friends of the subjects. After exclusion of those deaths for which proxy informant could not be identified, a total of 205 circulatory disease and 333 external cause cases were included together with the same number of controls. Educational level was significantly associated with mortality from circulatory diseases and external causes in a crude analysis. However, this could largely be explained by adjustment for employment, marital status, smoking and alcohol consumption. Smoking was associated with mortality from circulatory disease (crude OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.36-4.36, this effect being slightly attenuated after adjustment for socio-economic factors and alcohol consumption. Unemployment was associated with a large increase in the risk of death from external causes (crude OR=3.63, 95% CI 2.17-6.08, an effect that was still substantial after adjustment for other variables (adjusted OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.43-4.43. A reported history of periods of heavy drinking was linked to both deaths from circulatory disease (crude OR=4.21, 95% CI 2.35-7.55 and external cause mortality (crude OR=2.65, 95% CI 1

  14. Economics of Russian oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubenko, I.

    1993-01-01

    The main technical indicators of oil production in Russia are presented from the year 1988, when the current decline in oil production started. In 1992, only 9 new oil deposits were put into production, and average well productivity dropped to 12.4 tonnes/d. The number of idle wells reached 31,934 as compared to 8,714 in 1988. The share of low productivity deposits in 1993 was 49.7%. In the first five months of 1993, the number of new wells put into operation failed to offset the shutdown of old wells. Although the number of workovers grew by 32%, this work was insufficient to stabilize oil production. The decline in production is due to the general state of economic stability and endless reorganizations in the economy, and to the lack of sufficient investment in the industry. Oil-producing enterprises have lacked funds due to systematic and growing indebtedness of buyers of crude. This overdue indebtedness reached 393 billion rubles by the beginning of 1993. Although domestic oil prices increased sharply in 1991-92, the volume of production in real terms has dropped by nearly a third. Oil is sold at different prices to different categories of buyers. Prices include expenses, profit from which a 32% profits tax is paid, excise taxes, and payments to a centralized price-regulation fund. From the industry point of view, certain reforms are necessary to reconstruct and develop the industry. These include ensuring payments to oil producers, gradual transfer of Russian prices to world levels, lowering taxes, and adoption and refinement of a law on oil. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  15. Simulation Results of Double Forward Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to find a better forward converter for DC to DC conversion.Simulation of double forward converter in SMPS system is discussed in this paper. Aforward converter with RCD snubber to synchronous rectifier and/or to current doubleris also discussed. The evolution of the forward converter is first reviewed in a tutorialfashion. Performance parameters are discussed including operating principle, voltageconversion ratio, efficiency, device stress, small-signal dynamics, noise and EMI. Itscircuit operation and its performance characteristics of the forward converter with RCDsnubber and double forward converter are described and the simulation results arepresented.

  16. A community study of language concordance in Russian patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, Philip S; Lundgren, Rita A; Pines, Irina; Doll, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    Unique challenges exist in the provision of culturally and linguistically appropriate health care to ethnically diverse populations. The purpose of this study was to improve the metabolic control of Russian patients with diabetes through increased attention to language and cultural concordance between the provider and patient. This is a retrospective cohort study of 55 Russian immigrant type 2 patients with diabetes to assess levels of glycemic, lipid, and blood pressure control before and after the arrival of a bilingual Russian internist trained in both the United States and Russia. Paired t test was used to compare these parameters before and after the bilingual Russian provider joined our practice. Overall, the mean low density lipoprotein (LDL) level decreased by 20% from 126 mg/dL to 102 mg/dL (P=.0002) respectively before and after the Russian provider began treating these patients. Mean hemoglobin A1c decreased from 8.4% to 8.0% (P=.007), and diastolic blood pressure was reduced from 82.7 mm Hg to 76.3 mm Hg (P=.0002). Systolic blood pressure also improved from 143.2 mm Hg to 140.6 mm Hg (P=.3). At the end of the study period more than 90% of the patients with diabetes were appropriately taking lipid-lowering medications and an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Our findings suggest that it is important to facilitate the health care of ethnically diverse minority populations in a manner that attempts to maximize language and cultural concordance. These potential benefits will assume an even greater importance with the expansive growth of ethnic minorities in the United States and their unique healthcare needs.

  17. Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Garzonio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities The present text was given as a talk at Stanford University in 2003. Here the author presents a comparative analysis of Russian and Italian versification and pays attention to the cultural contacts between these two poetical traditions in an effort to define the role played by Italian patterns in Russian verse. In this perspective the author offers a history of Russian poetical translation of Italian texts pointing out the different opinions of Russian poets about the “musicality” of Italian verse. The combined influence of language and culture in modelling different Russian poetical forms in a chronological perspective is underlined.

  18. Specificational Copular Sentences in Russian and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H Partee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Russian sentence (1, from Padučeva and Uspensky (1979, and English (2 are examples of specificational copular sentences: NP2 provides the ‘specification’, or ‘value’ of the description given by NP1. (1Vladelec ètogo osobnjaka – juvelir Fužere. owner-NOM this-GENmansion-GENjeweler-NOM Fuzhere ‘The owner of this mansion is the jeweler Fuzhere.’ (2The biggest problem is the recent budget cuts. Williams (1983 and Partee (1986 argued that specificational sentences like (2 result from “inversion around the copula”: that NP1 is a predicate (type and NP2 is the subject, a referential expression of type e. Partee (1999 argued that such an analysis is right for Russian, citing arguments from Padučeva and Uspensky (1979 that NP2 is the subject of sentence (1. But in that paper I argued that differences between Russian and English suggest that in English there is no such inversion, contra Williams (1983 and Partee (1986: the subject of (2 is NP1, and both NPs are of type e, but with NP1 less referential than NP2, perhaps “attributive”. Now, based on classic work by Roger Higgins on English and by Paducheva and Uspensky on Russian, and on a wealth of recent work by Mikkelsen, Geist, Romero, Schlenker, and others, a reexamination the semantics and structure of specificational copular sentences in Russian and English in a typological perspective supports a partly different set of conclusions: (i NP1 is of type and NP2 is of type e in both English and Russian; (ii but NP1 is subject in English, while NP2 is subject in Russian; and (iii NP1 in specificational sentences is universally topical (discourse-old, but only in some languages (like English is that accomplished by putting NP1 into canonical subject position. In other words, both English (2 and Russian (1 move the -type NP1 into some sentence-initial position for information-structure reasons, but in English NP1 ends up as syntactic subject

  19. Ships in Russian Literature: Folklore Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Dudareva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a genesis of the ship image in the Russian literature and folklore, an idea of “other kingdom” in the Russian literature poetics of the 19-20 centuries. An emphasis is put on the issues related to the metaphor of a ship, a boat in the artistic world of Lermontov, Turgenev, Dostoevsky and in the poetry of the early 20th century. A paradigm “the Moon – boat” is studied in detail. The image of a boat, which regularly appears in Russian literature, various word-painters’ art works, is associated with semantics of funeral ceremonial boat typical for different folk genres. Addressing to riddles about death, to Russian epic tradition, to plots dedicated to Razin demonstrates complexity and significance of the symbol of a boat/ferry/ship for the national culture. This symbol encapsulates the supreme idea of death as cosmic regeneration, character’s initiation, which appeared highly sought by Russian literature, both realistic prose and avantgarde and modernism poetry.

  20. CMS Honours Three Russian and Bielorussian companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 7 March, CMS handed out the three latest Gold Awards under its scheme for honouring its best suppliers suppliers (c.f. Bulletin n°10/2003). Three Russian and Bielorussian firms were honoured, on the occasion of a visit by dignitaries from the two countries. CERN played host to Anatoly Sherbak, Head of the Fundamental Research Department of the Russian Federation Ministry of Industry and Science, Ambassador Sergei Aleinik, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Belarus to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva, Andrei Pirogov, Assistant Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the Office of the United Nations, and Alexei Sissakian, Vice Director of the JINR (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research) at Dubna in Russia. The directors of the three Russian and Bielorussian firms have received their awards and are seen with the visiting Russian and Bielorussian dignitaries and the CMS leaders in front of the CMS hadron calorimeter, on the spot where the detector is being assembled.These promi...

  1. Russian – Chinese Trade and Exchange Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Alexandrovich Izotov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The author assesses the impact of the Yuan exchange rate volatility on the indicators of the Russian-Chinese trade (the analysis is made on the ground of the statistical database CEIC. Quantitative estimates of changes in Russian-Chinese merchandise trade by commodity groups (in the HS classification due to the revaluation of the CNY against the USD were obtained via the regression analysis. In the case of the revaluation of the Yuan to the US dollar the value of Russian exports may increase for such commodity groups as mineral products, chemical industry products, base metals, precious stones and metals, and vehicles. This article shows that the value of Chinese imports will decrease for such merchandise groups as transport vehicles, machinery and equipment, leather industry products, non-precious metals and products from them; in this case, the import of the food industry products, mineral products and optical instruments will decrease insignificantly. The author concludes that the revaluation of the Yuan, contributing to the growth of Russian exports and the reduction in Chinese imports, will not cause a radical change in structure of the Russian-Chinese trade

  2. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  3. The Russian Quest for Ontological Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Gejl

    This paper argues that Russia’s decision to militarily intervene in the Kosovo crisis (1999) arose out of ontological, alongside material, insecurity. Whereas states’ material security essentially deals with national survival, ontological security concerns safety of the ‘national Self......’. By supplementing the existing theories of geopolitics and regime security with the conceptual lens of ontological security, my interpretivist case study demonstrates why Russia, despite great risk and material costs, decided to militarily intervene and traces how Russian senses of ‘national Self’ were...... how Russia’s material security decreased while its sense of ontological security increased. Thus, the intensified Russo-Western antagonism following intervention opened a ‘window of opportunity’ for Russian elite to reconstruct a more self-confident sense of ‘Russian Self’. The paper contributes...

  4. Russian oil policy under Putin in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiaud, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article intends to explain and evaluate the interactions between the three developments which have structured the Russian oil industry since the beginning of V. Putin's second presidential term of office: the slowing down in production growth as well as the absolute decline of the latter observed in 2008, the reorganization of this industry marked by the increasing role of public oil companies and, finally, the adjustments made to the contractual arrangements surrounding the activities of the upstream oil sector. It has shown, on one hand, that the decline in current production is the result of the exhaustion of short term strategies by private Russian companies, and on the other hand, that the contract adjustments are insufficient to allow the Russian companies to adjust to more long term strategies. From this perspective, the increased role played by public oil companies can be analysed as an organisational response to this institutional dead-end. (author)

  5. Russian Gas Market: Entering New Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, Tatiana; Molnar, Gergely

    2015-04-01

    After a period of extensive growth in the 2000's, the Russian gas industry is now facing numerous challenges. Mounting competition by independent producers and the development of new production by Gazprom, combined with stagnating domestic demand and weakening export markets, have created a situation of overproduction, made worse by western sanctions and low oil and gas prices. Expansion to the East thanks to the recent China deal is not expected to provide much relief before 2024. The coming decade will be critical for the industry and its outcome will largely depend on the government's pricing and institutional policies but the role of the state should remain essential. This document presents the key findings of the New CEDIGAZ report 'Russian Gas Market: Entering New Era'. The report analyses the ongoing changes in the Russian industry and the challenges to be met

  6. Trial by Jury in Russian Military Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai P. Kovalev

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available One of peculiar features of the military criminal justice system in Russia is that in some cases military defendants may apply for trial by jury. Unlike the existing U.S. court-martial jury and the Russian military jury of the early 1900s (World War I period which were comprised of the members of the armed forces, in modern Russia jurors trying military defendants are civilians. This article aims to provide a brief history of military jury in Russia and identify issues of independence and impartiality in Russian military courts with participation of lay decision-makers. In particular, the article will analyze two high-profile cases which resulted in acquittals of Russian officers accused of killing several Chechen civilians during counter-terrorist operations in Chechnya.

  7. Public information - Northwest region of Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiapina, A.

    2001-01-01

    Regional Center of Public Information in Northwest region of Russian Federation is a part of the State Regional Educational Center of Ministry of the Russian Federation for atomic energy in St.-Petersburg, Russia (http://graph.runnet.ru/). This Center of Public Information (CPI) provides a wide range of information dealing with the nuclear power. The objectives of the CPI are: to conduct informational and educational activities so as to form a positive attitude toward atomic energy and nuclear technologies; to provide the population with a means reliable information about objects of potential risk; to organize an active exchange of the information with enterprises using nuclear technologies in the region. The main topics of informational support are these: electricity production, the ground of nuclear power, new Russian nuclear reactors, nuclear safety, nuclear power and environment, radioactivity, Leningrad nuclear power plant, responsibilities in nuclear engineering. (author)

  8. Price and Income Elasticities of Russian Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardina Algieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gauges export demand elasticities for Russia using an Error Correction technique within a cointegration framework. An extended version of the Imperfect Substitutes Model has been implemented to estimate the sensitivity of Russian exports without oil components to price and to Russian and world income. Our results suggest a robust and negative long run cointegration relationship between the real effective exchange rate, defined as the weighted average of the rouble’s exchange rates versus a basket of the three currencies with the largest share in the trade turnover adjusted to incorporate inflation rate differences (the ratio of the domestic price indices to the foreign price indices, and Russian exports. An increase in exports by 24% is caused by a real depreciation by 10%. Furthermore, a 10% growth in world income leads to a 33% rise in exports. Finally, exports drop by 14% whenever a 10% increase in domestic income occurs

  9. New ventures shape up for Russian projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the foreign presence in the Soviet oil industry is destined to grow as a result of ventures by Canadian, British, and French companies. Gulf Canada Resources Ltd., Calgary, last week disclosed the government of the Russian republic has granted approvals necessary to enable Gulf Canada and British Gas plc's KomiArctic Oil joint venture to begin production operations immediately. The approvals follow the registration of Komi Arctic Oil by the Minister of Finance of the Russian Federation in November, at which time it became a legally constituted independent company in Russia. Canadian Fracmaster Ltd., also of Calgary, disclosed it plans to spend $75-100 million on three new joint venture production deals in the Russian republic in 1992

  10. Converting pest insects into food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Wiwatwittaya, Decha

    2010-01-01

    Canopy dwelling weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are used to control a variety of pests in a number of tropical tree crops. What is less familiar is the existence of commercial markets where these ants and their brood are sold for (i) human consumption, (ii) pet food or (iii) traditional medicine...... by pest insects, problematic pests are converted into food and additional earnings. To assess the profitability of providing additional food for the ants, O. smaragdina food conversion efficiency (ECI) was estimated in the laboratory. This estimate suggests the feeding of weaver ants in ant farms...

  11. Power Converters and Power Quality

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the subject of power quality for power converters. The first part gives an overview of most of the common disturbances and power quality issues in electrical networks for particle accelerators, and explains their consequences for accelerator operation. The propagation of asymmetrical network disturbances into a network is analysed. Quantitative parameters for network disturbances in a typical network are presented, and immunity levels for users’ electrical equipment are proposed. The second part of this paper discusses the technologies and strategies used in particle accelerator networks for power quality improvement . Particular focus is given to networks supplying loads with cycling active and reactive power

  12. High-Performance Data Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    Novel techniques for multi-bit oversampled data conversion are described. State-of-the-art oversampled data converters are analyzed, leading to the conclusion that their performance is limited mainly by low-resolution signal representation. To increase the resolution, high-performance, high......, because that requires a high-resolution loop quantizer which introduces only a small delay. Generally, it is not acceptable to design the loop quantizer as a high-resolution flash quantizer because they require a large chip area and high power consumption. Pipeline techniques are proposed to circumvent...

  13. Power electronics converters and regulators

    CERN Document Server

    Dokić, Branko L

    2015-01-01

    This book is the result of the extensive experience the authors gained through their year-long occupation at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at the University of Banja Luka. Starting at the fundamental basics of electrical engineering, the book guides the reader into this field and covers all the relevant types of converters and regulators. Understanding is enhanced by the given examples, exercises and solutions. Thus this book can be used as a textbook for students, for self-study or as a reference book for professionals.

  14. Electromechanical converters for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros, T.; Burduniuc, M.; Deaconu, S. I.; Rujanschi, N.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of various constructive schemes of synchronous electromechanical converters with permanent magnets fixed on the rotor and asynchronous with the short-circuit rotor. Various electrical stator winding schemes have also been compared, demonstrating the efficiency of copper utilization in toroidal windings. The electromagnetic calculus of the axial machine has particularities compared to the cylindrical machine, in the paper is presented the method of correlating the geometry of the cylindrical and axial machines. In this case the method and recommendations used in the design of such machines may be used.

  15. Cognitive predictors of success in learning Russian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbitskaya, L.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of cognitive characteristics in the success in learning Russian, assessed through teachers’ grades and test scores on standardized state exams. This paper examines the relationship between cognitive characteristics, such as nonverbal intelligence, working memory and speed of information processing, and the results of the Unified State Exam for 11th grade students, the Basic State Exam for 9th grade students and the traditional assessment of Russian language learning. This study involved students in the 9th and 11th grades from four educational institutions in the Moscow and St. Petersburg regions; 427 students were studying in the 9th grade (50.3% were boys and 398 students were studying in the 11th grade (44.8% were boys. This study concluded that expert assessment of Russian language learning is more associated with successful test scores on the Unified State Exam (r = 0.71, p < 0.01 than with the results of the Basic State Exam (r = 0.46, р < 0.01. This study showed that at the lower and upper levels of secondary education, nonverbal intelligence is a significant predictor of success in learning the Russian language according to expert estimates. In addition, we found differences in the relationship between cognitive performance and success in learning the Russian language as assessed by tests. Nonverbal intelligence contributes significantly to individual differences in scores for the Unified State Exam in Russian, while the contribution of cognitive characteristics on the Basic State Exam is not statistically significant.

  16. Corporate targeting: Nike on the Russian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nike Corporation is one of leading global players in sports apparel and footwear market. Strategic development of Nike Co has always been based on superior marketing and engagement of world-class sportspersons in its advertising campaigns. When USSR collapsed, Nike immediately started with penetration on Russian market. By relying on its outstanding innovativeness in product development and marketing, Nike has become one of three biggest players in the market. As its distributor for Russian market, Nike has chosen Serbia-based company, Delta Sport. The strategy of penetration on Russian market is based on four major pillars: sport marketing, public relations retail marketing and advertising. The most relevant competitors on Russian market are Reebok and Adidas. Trying to increase its market share in the Russian Federation, Nike has used following competitive advantages: global brand, retail discounts and cost decrease. Regarding further development of the company's activities on Russian market, long-term objectives are as follows: maintaining the leading position, unfurling production on whole RF and CIS territories, new contracts and improvement of contracts with existing partners, expanding of retail network, establishment of own production on RF and CIS markets, and orientation of marketing department toward "Sport Marketing". Delta Sport, as an agent of Nike Co, has certain freedom in creating business policy but it still has to comply with basic principles adopted for the whole corporation. The most important factors considered when selecting a strategy are: positive sides of firm, its goals and interests top management relationships, financial resources, personnel qualifications influence of external environment, and time factor. Delta Sport has entirely adopted these principles and also developed internal ones, which are complementary with Nike's.

  17. Power electronic converters without electrolytic capacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bossche, Alex; Haddad, Salim; Mordjaoui, Mourad

    2017-01-01

    Power electronic converters may have a quite long lifetime, but some applications such as converters for automotive and photovoltaic could even desire a longer life. One of the elements to increase the lifetime of converters is to avoid electrolytic capacitors, They can be replaced by metalized film capacitors or ceramic capacitors. A lot of converter types can be re-designed to use them, but it influences the way of designing, as a lower capacitance value is used. Electrolytic capacitors are...

  18. OAM mode converter in twisted fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Cordeiro, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA.......We analyze the case of an OAM mode converter based on a twisted fiber, through finite element simulations where we exploit an equivalence between geometric and material transformations. The obtained converter has potential applications in MDM. © 2014 OSA....

  19. Evidence for weight effects in Russian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kizach, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that factors such as weight, pronominality, animacy and newness influence word order in several languages, but whereas newness repeatedly has been argued to be a relevant factor for Russian, little or no attention has been paid to weight. In this paper, which is based on evidence...... from corpus data, weight is demonstrated to have a very significant influence on word order in Russian. Specifically, four constructions are tested: Postverbal PPs, the double object construction, adversity impersonals and the order of S, V and O. In all cases the same pattern emerges: The heavier...

  20. Organizational Development of Russian SMEs: Current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Velinov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research paper sheds a light on Russian SMEs transition and specifically on their current development and evolution. The paper attempts to explain what are the main drivers and antecedents on SMEs during the period 2010-2015. Along with it, it is applied detailed analysis of Russian SMEs in terms of key performance indicators, turnover and volume of sales. Further, are given potential developments and trends within SMEs in Russia. The paper draws attention to socio-economic and political factors influencing SMEs development.

  1. Russian Media Educators: Case Studies Portraits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to case studies of the media education works of some well knowns Russian media educators. The analysis of media educational work of the famous Russian media educators leads us to the conclusion that media education in Russia is developing, building on the synthesis of the aesthetic, socio-cultural, and practical concepts, with a focus on the development of media competence of the audience, mainly school and youth. The enthusiasts of media education, even devoid of substantial public support for its innovative projects, achieve significant and meaningful results.

  2. TRADITIONS OF RUSSIAN BUSINESS AND CORPORATE PATRIOTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Sverdlikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of employees’ loyalty to organization is usually associated with the analysis of the organizational culture, its norms, values, rules, which create a peculiar relationships the staff and the organization. In modern Russia there is an interesting symbiosis of the different epochs cultures, determining the personnel loyalty to organizations. The article represents the results of the researches received in the last decade by well-known Western and Russian sociological centers, as well as by some separate Russian sociologists. A significant feature of these studies is that they were conducted solely with the use of quantitative methods and in the format of Western corporate values and Western evaluation tools. The author research demonstrates that the corporate culture of Russian organizations, as well as the personnel loyalty, does not meet many inherent in international practice, evaluation criteria. Russian business culture is usually regarded as being in the process of becoming, to some extent, “underdeveloped” in comparison with the culture that exists in countries with strong capitalist traditions. This is not true. Over 25 years in Russia of market economy development have formed a certain system of values, incorporating values of pre-revolutionary business, ideological orientations of the Soviet era and the values that have been formed in recent years. Low degree of personnel’s loyalty towards the organizations, in this respect, is not a symptom of the cultural underdevelopment, it is a specific cultural trait of the domestic business, which has a quite rational basis and is not a subject to exclusively negative interpretation. This conclusion is based on the results of qualitative and quantitative research, conducted using methods of biographical analysis and content analysis of contemporary business periodicals. These qualitative and quantitative research methods in the analysis of the Russian corporate values determine a

  3. Reviss to market Russian isotopes worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, I.A. (Reviss services, Aylesbury (United Kingdom))

    1992-12-01

    The culmination of two years of detailed negotiations saw the formation of Reviss Services in April 1992. This joint venture company is a collaboration between Amersham International (Health Science Group), the Mayak Production Association (manufacturer of radioisotopes) and AO Techsnabexport (the Russian export agency). It is set up to enable a variety of Russian-manufactured radioisotopes to be marketed worldwide. Formation of the joint venture company was made possible by the recent political changes in the former Soviet Union, allowing the three parties to extend their long-standing commercial trading relationship into a full working partnership. (Author).

  4. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  5. Russian science readings (chemistry, physics, biology)

    CERN Document Server

    Light, L

    1949-01-01

    Some years' experience in teaching Russian to working scientists who had already acquired the rudiments of the grammar convinced me of the need for a reader of the present type that would smooth the path of those wishing to study Russian scientific literature in the original. Although the subject matter comprises what I have described for convenience as chemistry, physics and biology, it could be read with equal profit by those engaged in any branch of pure or applied science. All the passages are taken from school textbooks, and acknowledgements are due to the authors of the works listed at the foot of the contents page.

  6. FOOD SECURITY PROBLEMS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Polyanskaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concepts and factors of food security and food sovereignty of the Russian Federation. The composition of the consumer basket, the most significant of its components, and based on threshold values of self-sufficiency is calculated in the dynamics of the prevalence of food independence. The groups of products, which are in the country to be at a level below the thresholds, regulated by the food security doctrine of the Russian Federation. Identified the possible General trend of development of agricultural production in the country.

  7. Crimea and the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Bebler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent Russian-Ukrainian dispute over Crimea attracted wide international attention. The purpose of this paper is to explain its historic, demographic, legal, political and military strategic background, its similarities with and differences from other “frozen” conflicts on the periphery of the former Soviet Union, the roles of three main parties directly involved in the Crimean conflict, its linkage with secessionist attempts in Eastern and Southern Ukraine, wider international ramifications of the conflict and the ensuing deterioration of the West’s relations with the Russian Federation.

  8. Reviss to market Russian isotopes worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The culmination of two years of detailed negotiations saw the formation of Reviss Services in April 1992. This joint venture company is a collaboration between Amersham International (Health Science Group), the Mayak Production Association (manufacturer of radioisotopes) and AO Techsnabexport (the Russian export agency). It is set up to enable a variety of Russian-manufactured radioisotopes to be marketed worldwide. Formation of the joint venture company was made possible by the recent political changes in the former Soviet Union, allowing the three parties to extend their long-standing commercial trading relationship into a full working partnership. (Author)

  9. Meteorological Data from the Russian Arctic, 1961-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains monthly means of meteorological observation data from Russian stations from 1961-2000 (for most stations). The Russian station observations...

  10. Experience of shipping Russian-origin research reactor spent fuel to the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The primary goal of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) programme is to advance nuclear non-proliferation objectives by eliminating stockpiles of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU). The RRRFR programme was first conceived during trilateral discussions among the USA, the Russian Federation and the IAEA, initiated in 1999, when participants identified more than 20 research reactors in 17 countries having Russian/Soviet supplied fuel. In 2000, the Director General of the IAEA sent a letter to 15 countries asking for their willingness to return HEU spent fuel to the Russian Federation. Fourteen countries responded positively to the Director General's letter. In 2004, the Russian Federation and the USA signed a Government-to-Government Agreement concerning cooperation to return the Russian produced research reactor nuclear fuel to the Russian Federation. This agreement established the legal framework necessary for the cooperation between the Russian Federation and the USA for the return of Russian supplied research reactor fuel from eligible countries. Under the Bratislava agreements concluded by Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir Putin in February 2005, both countries committed to completing all shipments of Russian-origin HEU spent fuel currently stored outside research reactors by the end of 2010. Up to the time of writing (May 2009) the programme has completed 19 shipments totalling over 838 kg of Russian-origin HEU spent and fresh fuel which has been returned from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Kazakhstan, Latvia, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Uzbekistan and Vietnam. During this time, the programme successfully removed all HEU from two countries, Latvia and Bulgaria. HEU spent fuel shipments have been the most complex shipments under the RRRFR programme, which will be the focus of this publication. The first shipment of HEU spent fuel from Uzbekistan was completed in January 2006, followed by HEU spent fuel

  11. ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN REVIVAL STYLE IN RUSSIAN EMPIRE ARCHITECTURE IN 19TH CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Татьяна Сергеевна Семичевская

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the process of the establishment and development of the so-called “Russian style” in the Russian Empire’s architecture in the 19th century, which in foreign historiography is also known as the Russian revival style. The article demonstrates the importance of choosing a perfect state policy in architecture to match with the growing mood of national honor after the glorious victory in the Patriotic War of 1812, the style that will show all the beauty and greatness of our count...

  12. Hybrid thermionic-photovoltaic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datas, A. [Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-04

    A conceptual device for the direct conversion of heat into electricity is presented. This concept hybridizes thermionic (TI) and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion in a single thermionic-photovoltaic (TIPV) solid-state device. This device transforms into electricity both the electron and photon fluxes emitted by an incandescent surface. This letter presents an idealized analysis of this device in order to determine its theoretical potential. According to this analysis, the key advantage of this converter, with respect to either TPV or TI, is the higher power density in an extended temperature range. For low temperatures, TIPV performs like TPV due to the negligible electron flux. On the contrary, for high temperatures, TIPV performs like TI due to the great enhancement of the electron flux, which overshadows the photon flux contribution. At the intermediate temperatures, ∼1650 K in the case of this particular study, I show that the power density potential of TIPV converter is twice as great as that of TPV and TI. The greatest impact concerns applications in which the temperature varies in a relatively wide range, for which averaged power density enhancement above 500% is attainable.

  13. Geologists of Russian origin in the francophone countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchoumatchenco, P.; Durand-Delga, M.; Ricour, J.; Wiazemsky, M.

    2016-10-01

    Many ethnic Russian geologists have lived and worked in Francophone countries. We describe in this paper the life and career of geologists (i.e. all Earth scientists - geologists, mineralogists, tectonicians, geophysicists, geochemists, paleontologists, mining and drilling engineers, hydrogeologists, cosmos - geologists, etc.), regardless of their original nationality (Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, Germans, etc.) born in the territory of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union or the Russian Federation. (Author)

  14. RUSSIAN DIPLOMATIC DOCUMENTS AS AN INFORMATIONAL SOURCE ABOUT OTTOMANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina KASUMOVA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the process of starting and developing regular diplomatic relations between the Ottoman and Russian empires by the example of the notes of Count P. A. Tolstoy – the first Russian ambassador in Turkey. Showing sources of knowledge about Turkey and Turkish society in Russia, provides a brief list of the main diplomatic sources on Russian-Turkish relations in the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire.

  15. Communicative, Educational, Pedagogical Objectives and Planning in Russian Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtyugina, Alla A.; Hasanova, Irina I.; Kotova, Svetlana S.; Sokolova, Anastasia N.; Svetkina, Irina A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem stems from the necessity to distinctly plan educational process and set the goals for successful mastering of Russian language by foreign students in Russian higher educational institutions. The article is aimed at defining the foreign students' objectives for Russian language training, allowing them to get involved…

  16. Regulation of the Debt Sustainability of the Russian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, Alexander Z.; Chapluk, Vladimir Z.; Sayrenko, Tatiana N.; Sorokina, Larisa N.; Pertovskaya, Maria V.; Alekseenko, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigating problem is caused by the need to reduce the total aggregated amount of debt in Russian economy in conditions of crisis and the strengthening of external anti-Russian sanctions. In this context, the purpose of this article is to identify measures aimed to regulate debt sustainability of the Russian economy using…

  17. Current knowledge and attitudes: Russian olive biology, ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of a two-day Russian olive symposium held in February 2014 were to disseminate current knowledge and identify data gaps regarding Russian olive biology and ecology, distributions, integrated management, and to ascertain the feasibility and acceptance of a proposed program for classical biological control of Russian olive. The symposium was...

  18. Effects of Aging on the Production of Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarchuk, Iulia; Kemper, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Compares young and older adults' production of complex syntactic structures in Russian. Finds that content and fluency in Russian were associated with Russian vocabulary knowledge and influenced by educational level and knowledge of English and other languages and that working-memory limitations affect the use of clause and word order variations…

  19. Support for Separatism in Ethnic Republics of the Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagendoorn, Louk; Poppe, Edwin; Minescu, Anca

    2008-01-01

    This study examines popular support for separatism among Russians and non-Russian titular nationalities (titulars) in 10 ethnic republics of the Russian Federation: Karelia, Komi, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, Adygea, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Sakha-Yakutia and Tuva. A survey was carried

  20. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  1. Russian natural gas exports-Will Russian gas price reforms improve the European security of supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagen, Eirik Lund; Tsygankova, Marina

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we use both theoretical and numerical tools to study potential effects on Russian gas exports from different Russian domestic gas prices and production capacities in 2015. We also investigate whether a fully competitive European gas market may provide incentives for Gazprom, the dominant Russian gas company, to change its export behaviour. Our main findings suggest that both increased domestic gas prices and sufficient production capacities are vital to maintain Gazprom's market share in Europe over the next decade. In fact, Russia may struggle to carry out its current long-term export commitments if domestic prices are sufficiently low. At the same time, if Russian prices approach European net-back levels, Gazprom may reduce exports in favour of a relatively more profitable domestic market

  2. Word Order in Russian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmelman, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the results of an investigation of word order in Russian Sign Language (RSL) are presented. A small corpus of narratives based on comic strips by nine native signers was analyzed and a picture-description experiment (based on Volterra et al. 1984) was conducted with six native signers. The results are the following: the most frequent…

  3. Radioactive waste in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, B.; Lindbom, B.

    1994-01-01

    The present report has been produced by Kemakta Consultants Co. under contract from the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The purpose of the study is to give a broad overview of the situation in the Russian Federation with regard to the production and management of radioactive waste. The report also presents an outline of possible risks for environmental and societal consequences of the current waste management practices. The study is intended to be used as a basis for discussions regarding possible international cooperative efforts for improving the waste management system in Russia. The report is mainly based on publicly available literature. In addition, information has been obtained during a two-day visit to the Bochvar Institute and the Russian Atomic Power Ministry, MinAtom, in Moscow. Complementary information has been provided by MinAtom in response to a questionnaire that was sent to MinAtom subsequent to the visit to Moscow. Staff at the Russian embassy in Stockholm has assisted in the organisation of contacts as well as with various clarifications and translations. Some of the information in this report has not been officially confirmed by the Russian authorities. 17 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  4. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  5. A Contemporary long telegram: Explaining Russian Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    of not enlarging NATO . Compounded by the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact it is a reminder that the Russian Federation is vulnerable. Continuing the......year. vi Acronyms IMF International Monetary Fund NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization RT Russia Today USSR Union of Soviet Socialist

  6. Nuclear energy and society: Russian dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear weapons and crisis of confidence resulting from severe accidents have both formed the attitude towards nuclear issues in the Russian minds. The current status of relations between nuclear energy and the public is still close to this politicization of nuclear energy and to the constant irrational fear of radiations. The 3 basic antinuclear arguments usually mentioned are proliferation risk, wastes and accidents. For proliferation risk it is easy to understand that a complete nuclear power phase-out would not prevent the spreading of nuclear weapons because uranium and centrifuges would still exist. For the Russian society, the issue of radioactive wastes is popular these days because the Russian parliament is considering a bill about it. The issue of radioactive wastes seems to be economically and technically solvable. The main problem is nuclear accidents. In Russia this issue is very touchy: we still remember zero-radiation events, which, when happened not very long ago, have aroused panics in whole regions. It is hard to change the idea, well spread in Russian minds that the authorities are always trying to understate the scale of negative events. Nevertheless, some recent polls show that the positive trend in the attitude towards nuclear energy is obvious as it is in most part of the world. (A.C.)

  7. Russian orchestral works. Torgny Sporsen / Ivan March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Ivan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Russian orchestral works. Torgny Sporsen (bass). Gothenburg Symphony Brass Band. Gothenburg Symphony Chorus and Orchestra / Neeme Järvi" D6 MC 429 984 - 4 GH; CD 429 984 - 26H (76 minutes). Borodin: In Central Asia. Prince Igor - Polovtsian Dances

  8. Russian consumers' motives for food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honkanen, P.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers¿ food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the

  9. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  10. German and Russian Adolescents' Environmental Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szagun, Gisela; Pavlov, Vladimir I.

    German (n=610) and Russian (n=610) adolescents in 3 age groups, 12, 15, and 18 years, were given a questionnaire assessing their feelings towards environmental destruction, their readiness for pro-environmental action, and their ethical attitude toward nature. In both nationalities anxiety, sadness, and anger about environmental destruction were…

  11. Russians and Americans Gather to Talk Psychobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Constance

    1978-01-01

    Reports on the first Soviet-American meeting on psychology held in April, 1978 at the University of California at Irvine. The meeting was attended by 10 Soviets and about 30 Americans. The big difference between the two groups was that the Americans had small theories and lots of data, and the Russians had large theories and much less data. (BB)

  12. Russian Higher Education: Who Can Afford It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounko, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the issue of access and equity in the Russian higher education system by examining recent government initiatives. While recently introduced measures such as the Unified State Examination and student loan project are designed to aid students and expand participation, they alone cannot ensure equitable access to higher education…

  13. Researching Informal Labour Migration: Russian Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Perepelkin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern Russian society is affected by “non-resident informal employment”: a regular productive activity that is not firmly and officially registered in accordance with Russian foreign labour regulations. A specific characteristic of this phenomenon in Russia is that the multimillion flow of CIS working age citizens enters Russia absolutely legally, but with the intention of working in the so-called shadow or semi-legal economy. The authors’ main aim is to present a complex and balanced evaluation of the situation. On one hand they argue that this labour migration was of some use to Russia, i.e. in the early 1990’s large groups of “informal” foreign workers filled an economic niche, unpopular among local labour force (construction and repair, small sized retail trade etc. and thus enabled to solve the deficit in many services and satisfy needs for basic products. On the other hand, a negative reflection of such shadow employment exceeded all of its conjuncture benefits from post-soviet “gastarbeiter” labour.. The permanency of these migration contingents undermines the Russian labour market, not only from the point of wages and working conditions. It provides and maintains not only unfair labour practices, but also the deterioration of common morals and ethics: the devaluation of positive values, the predominance of cynic pragmatism in Russian people and legislative nihilism.

  14. New Ideologies in Postcommunist Russian Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovskaya, Elena; Karpov, Vyacheslav

    1999-01-01

    Explores patterns of recent ideological changes in the content of 12 Russian secondary school textbooks in the social sciences and humanities. Shows that textbook content has shifted from a consistent representation of key dogmas of Marxism-Leninism toward a contradictory combination of the ideological symbols of nationalism, Westernism, and…

  15. Metaphors of Happiness in English and Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csillag Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Ekman et al. (1972, happiness is one of the six universal basic human emotions. Kövecses (2000 claims that certain aspects of the conceptualization of emotions are universal or nearuniversal. The paper compares linguistic expressions to discuss the question of the universality of the emotion happiness and its metaphors in English and Russian.

  16. Concepts Joy and Suffering in Russian Linguaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Korostova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Russian linguistic consciousness, the concepts of emotions joy and suffering are verbalized at the lexical and phraseological levels, forming the basis for metaphorical combinations. Concepts of emotions, suffering and joy are mutually reinforcing: in the presupposition of the idea of suffering, there is a knowledge that it is not infinite and is always replaced by joy. Russian naive-linguistic consciousness reflects the oldest ideas about the alternation of phenomena and events, desirable and undesirable for man. The concepts of suffering and joy are closely related to the universal category of time. As observations on linguistic projections of concepts show, suffering is realized as a longer process than joy. Emotives of different levels of language represent emotional states of joy and suffering in Russian linguistic culture. According to the National Corpus of the Russian language, lexical demonstrators of the concept of joy dominate. Cognitive interpretation of events in the mind of a person can be changed under the influence of the emotional regime carried out by the media.

  17. The future of Russian gas exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiononv, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Yuri; Panin, Sergei

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; The structure of Russian gas exports; Exports to Europe; Exports to Turkey/Middle East; Exports to Asia/Pacific Rim; FSU gas exports; Regulations for exporting gas from Russia; Equipment and services. (Author)

  18. Russian Register of Pregnancy and Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Dmitrenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations (CMF. Information on the teratogenicity of AEDs is contradictory. The potential negative effects of new-generation AEDs are less well known. Many physicians and patients face difficulties in establishing a balance between the risk of seizures during pregnancy and that of teratogenicity in the use of AEDs. In most foreign countries, there are national and international pregnancy and epilepsy registries that make possible to centralize and systematize information on the safety of AEDs and to also give a true picture of the state of the problem.The Russian pregnancy and epilepsy register (RPER has been launched since 2017. RPER is a Russian national prospective and retrospective observational study, without interfering with the antiepileptic therapy prescribed by an attending physician to childbearing-aged patients living in the subjects of the Russian Federation. RPER is an independent research initiative and is implemented by neurologists and psychiatrists who provide assistance to women with epilepsy. The main goal of the RPER is to compare the risk of serious CMFs following the maternal intake of various AEDs and their combinations in different regions of the Russian Federation and to develop strategies for preventing CMFs. 

  19. Russian criminal corporate victimology: notion, subject, prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanov, P.

    2012-01-01

    The article grounds the necessity to elaborate the modern field of victimilogy the Russian criminal corporate victimology, gives its criminological definition, describes the basic structural elements of the suggested scientific field, and marks the prospective directions of its development in the nearest future.

  20. REPRODUCTIVE CONSTRAINTS IN THE RUSSIAN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodion R. Tokov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main factors restraining the activity of industrial development at the present stage of Russian reforms. Special attention is paid to innovation activity of organizations, industries, business confidence, high level of taxation, the lack of funds and lack of demand on the domestic market.

  1. Russian upstream joint ventures logging progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Occidental Petroleum Corp. has begun exporting oil from Russia as part of an enhanced recovery joint venture in western Siberia. Oxy holds a 50% interest in the joint venture company, Vanyoganneft, and will market the oil. In other activity, two Canadian companies are marking progress with Russian upstream joint ventures

  2. Manufacturing method of photoelectric converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Koji; Niwa, Yasuo

    1987-06-24

    In a method of making a thin film for a photoelectric converter by a method to form an electroconductive layer by burning a mixture of lead oxide and chromic oxide, thickness of the film was limited and the poreless uniform film was not obtainable. The intransparency of the film gave low conversion efficiency only. This invention enabled to obtain a transparent film wherein an oxide (containing lead and chrome) is used as a target to form, in vacuum, a thin film of the oxide, and then this thin film is heat-treated in an atmosphere at least containing lead. Thin transparent film was obtained enhancing the conversion efficiency. High quality and high reliability are ensured because a poreless uniform film can be obtained. Cost was reduced because mass-production was made possible by the use of a vacuum technique. (5 figs)

  3. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging......This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... polypropylene film capacitor can be the equivalent capacitive load. Because of the voltage dependent characteristic, X7R MLCC cannot be used to replace the DEAP actuator. However, this type of capacitor can be used to substitute the capacitive actuator with voltage dependent property at the development phase....

  4. Mapping Russian Media Network: Media’s Role in Russian Foreign Policy and Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    influence , the Presidential Administration can encourage large state-owned companies and Russian oligarchs to direct advertising toward or away from...instrument and lever of influence . The role of media in promoting Russian foreign policy and exerting the influence of President Vladimir Putin has...examine the role that Russia’s media and messaging plays in external influence . In addition, we highlight that while media is a key instrument of

  5. Administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhat Akhnafovich Yunusov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the research of formation and development of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law and comparativelegal analysis of this institution as well as the longterm experience in crime investigation to trace the problems and trends of administrative prejudgment and prove the necessity to introduce or to be more precise legalize the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law. Methods the research is based on the general dialectic method of cognition comparative historical formaljuridical methods as well as special and privatelegal methods of research. Results analysis of the main problems and collisions of administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law the doctrine and the practice of implementation of this institution can become the basis for legalization of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law and implementing it for the crimes stipulated in the Special part of the Russian Criminal Code if they are of low or middle gravity and committed intentionally those most often occurred. The article studies the institution of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law since 1922 until present. Various researchersrsquo opinions are given for and against returning of this institution. Taking into account the criminological indicators the authors express their own opinion on legalization of the administrative prejudgment. Scientific novelty having abandoned the formal approach to the institution of the administrative prejudgment both in the Russian criminal law and in the foreign laws the authors believe that the criminal personality should be the central factor of the administrative prejudgment legalization. In this context the authors state the direct connection between the personal features of a criminal including their inclination to immoral and illegal behavior and the crime committed by them. Practical value the theoretical conclusions formulated in the research

  6. ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN REVIVAL STYLE IN RUSSIAN EMPIRE ARCHITECTURE IN 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Сергеевна Семичевская

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the process of the establishment and development of the so-called “Russian style” in the Russian Empire’s architecture in the 19th century, which in foreign historiography is also known as the Russian revival style. The article demonstrates the importance of choosing a perfect state policy in architecture to match with the growing mood of national honor after the glorious victory in the Patriotic War of 1812, the style that will show all the beauty and greatness of our country. The author examines the changes the style takes and the symbolic meanings that the Russian revival architecture holds within to become an object of commemoration of the national tradition, to depict the history in stone and to save it for ages. Nowadays the interest in the Russian revival style architecture is constantly increasing. It can be observed in the lately constructed churches in the “Russian-byzantine” style, in the scientific researches of this style in architecture and international conferences held in this sphere.

  7. Interactive Russian Grammar: The Case System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Gam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available My paper addresses a problem many of us in North American college language programs confront regularly, the solution to which regularly and frustratingly remains just out of our reach. I refer to the teaching of the most basic and most crucial element of Russian grammar, namely, its case system, and teaching it to our students whose native language, English, does not have such a system. As I teach the Russian cases, I see vividly the disconnect between grammar presented for students (simplified, episodic, based on the "pick it up along the way" principle and the learned papers on Russian grammar by linguists, which are barely comprehensible to a non-linguist. Materials in the middle are lacking-materials to help a literature professor acting as a "de facto" language instructor understand and address the needs of students as they learn this crucial segment of basic Russian grammar. This core element of Russian grammar is presented to students in the first year of college language study, is revisited in the second year, and very often by the third year students either manage to completely block it out from their memory (as if it were some traumatic experience that happened "a long time ago"-that is, before .summer break-but most importantly due to the lack of practice or demonstrate a partial or even complete lack of understanding or misunderstanding of this system forcing us to deal with it again in the third year. Not only is it frustrating for both the students and the language instructor; but from the point of view of their overall proficiency, the lack of control of the case system holds our students back. There can be no talk of advanced language proficiency without a complete and automatic mastery of this basic system. Unfortunately, regardless of the specific textbooks used, the students very often manage not to have a general idea and mastery of this system even by the third year of study.

  8. Meta-analysis: Problems with Russian Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, E V

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a powerful tool to identify Evidence Based medical technologies (interventions) for use in every day practice. Meta-analysis uses statistical approaches to combine results from multiple studies in an effort to increase power (over individual studies), improve estimates of the size of the effect and/or to resolve uncertainty when reports disagree. Meta-analysis is a quantitative, formal study design used to systematically assess previous research studies to derive conclusions from this research. Meta-analysis may provide more precise estimate of the effect of treatment or risk factor for a disease, or other outcomes, than any individual study contributing to the pooled analysis.We have quite a substantial number of Russian medical publications, but not so many Meta-Analyses published in Russian. Russian publications are cited in English language papers not so often. A total of 90% of clinical studies included in published Meta-Analyses incorporate only English language papers. International studies or papers with Russian co-authors are published in English language. The main question is: what is the problem with inclusion of Russian medical publications in Meta-Analysis? The main reasons for this are the following: 1) It is difficult to find Russian papers, difficult to work with them and to work with Russian journals:a. There are single Russian Biomedical Journals, which are translated into English and are included in databases (PubMed, Scopus and other), despite the fact that all of them have English language abstracts.b. The majority the meta-analyses authors use in their work different citation management software such as the Mendeley, Reference Manager, ProCite, EndNote, and others. These citation management systems allow scientists to organize their own literature databases with internet searches and have adds-on for the Office programs what makes process of literature citation very convenient. The Internet sites of the majority of

  9. THE MULTIMODAL MODULE AS PART OF THE RUSSIAN NATIONAL CORPUS

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Grishina

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the Multimodal Russian Corpus (MURCO) as the new project in the framework of the Russian National Corpus (RNC). The pilot version of the MURCO was opened for general access in October, 2010 and since then MURCO has increased its volume up to 4.3 mln tokens and developed its structure. The corpus presently consists of the following subcorpora: 1) Movie speech, 2) Public Spoken Russian, 3) Private Spoken Russian 4) Theater speech 5) Written-to-be-SpokenRussian.The MURCO is...

  10. Basic of Features investment activity of Russian companies abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O N Yashina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics of the development of investment activity of Russian companies abroad. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the nature of changes in the investment strategy of Russian business abroad after the global financial crisis of 2008. Emphasizes that government support of major Russian companies commodity sector, including geopolitical reasons, leads to conservation of backward economic structure and export of our country, and to maintain the status quo of the largest economic agents. However, the activities of Russian foreign midsize businesses are concentrated in high-tech industries, can act as one of the most significant modernization of the Russian economy.

  11. Three-phase AC-AC power converters based on matrix converter topology matrix-reactance frequency converters concept

    CERN Document Server

    Szczesniak, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    AC voltage frequency changes is one of the most important functions of solid state power converters. The most desirable features in frequency converters are the ability to generate load voltages with arbitrary amplitude and frequency, sinusoidal currents and voltages waveforms; the possibility of providing unity power factor for any load; and, finally, a simple and compact power circuit. Over the past decades, a number of different frequency converter topologies have appeared in the literature, but only the converters with either a voltage or current DC link are commonly used in industrial app

  12. Radiation-Tolerant DC-DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutt, Glenn; Sable, Dan; Leslie, Leonard; Graham, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses power converters suitable for space use that meet the DSCC MIL-PRF-38534 Appendix G radiation hardness level P classification. A method for qualifying commercially produced electronic parts for DC-DC converters per the Defense Supply Center Columbus (DSCC) radiation hardened assurance requirements was developed. Development and compliance testing of standard hybrid converters suitable for space use were completed for missions with total dose radiation requirements of up to 30 kRad. This innovation provides the same overall performance as standard hybrid converters, but includes assurance of radiation- tolerant design through components and design compliance testing. This availability of design-certified radiation-tolerant converters can significantly reduce total cost and delivery time for power converters for space applications that fit the appropriate DSCC classification (30 kRad).

  13. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    electronic converter systems; anomaly detection and remaining-life prediction for power electronics; reliability of DC-link capacitors in power electronic converters; reliability of power electronics packaging; modeling for life-time prediction of power semiconductor modules; minimization of DC......-tolerant adjustable speed drive systems; mission profile oriented reliability design in wind turbine and photovoltaic systems; reliability of power conversion systems in photovoltaic applications; power supplies for computers; and high-power converters. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems is essential......The main aims of power electronic converter systems (PECS) are to control, convert, and condition electrical power flow from one form to another through the use of solid-state electronics. This book outlines current research into the scientific modeling, experimentation, and remedial measures...

  14. Serbian Volunteers And Russian Revolution Of 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ia. V. Vishniakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using original documents from the Russian State Military Historical Archive, many of which are introduced for the first time, the author reveals details of creation and activities of the Serbian Volunteer Corps formed from captured soldiers and officers of the Austro-Hungarian army inOdessain the Summer 1916. The same autumn it received a baptism of fire in Dobruja fighting in the separate corps of the Russian army under the command of General Zayonchkovsky. The research interest in studying the activities of “national” and "international" military units within the Russian army is connected with the question of expediency and effectiveness of using such forces against those for whom they have not so long ago shed blood. The author, contrary to the popular opinion of Serbian historians, shows that the call to join the First Serbian division did not arouse mass enthusiasm among the prisoners of war both Serbs and representatives of other Yugoslav nations because of well-founded fears for their close relatives living in the Dual Monarchy and a fairly comfortable stay in the Russian captivity. At the same time, the author emphasizes that this military unit, commanded by officers of the Serbian regular army, was considered by the political leadership ofSerbiaas the basis of the future armed forces of the new state ofYugoslavia. The article shows that the events of the Russian Revolution of 1917 influenced the future fate of this military formation. Many of its soldiers later found themselves on different sides of the front in the Russian civil war. A special attention is payed to the interethnic conflict erupted in the corps between the Serbs on the one side and the Croats and Slovenes on the other. The author introduces a significant body of primary documents showing the nuances of relations in the corps between representatives of various Yugoslav nations. The article emphasizes that the relationship of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes within the

  15. Russian geological education in the world market (the case of Russian State Geological Prospecting University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily Ivanovich Lisov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher geological education in Russia and in MSGPI-RSGPU specific. It - engineering. The mineral deposits determine the development of the global industry and foreign trade. Growing global demand for the profession of geologists and mining engineers. Training of foreign students in Russia has its own geopolitical and economic importance. In Russia a strong resource-based economy. It attracts students from developing countries. MGRI-RSGPU is the leading universities training specialists for mining. The article presents data about the University and types of education. Shown scientific and educational problems in higher education. This article discusses the prospects for the promotion of Russian higher geological education at the world market of educational services. The increasing role of new scientific and technological achievements in mining, enhanced environmental as well as staff requirements is revealed. Given that the leading schools in the mining industry, in addition to Russia, are formed in Canada, Germany, USA, Australia, Great Britain, many developing countries rich in natural resources, have begun to form their own national centers for training in this area. Under such competitive conditions Russian geological education maintains its own niche. Recognition of this is the active participation of Russian universities in the creation and development of the World Forum of sustainable development of mineral universities (WFURS, described in the article. The main factors of competitiveness that led to leading positions of Russian State Geological Prospecting University in system of the Russian geological education are described. Particular attention is paid to the international activities of Russian higher educational institutions including Geological Prospecting University. The basic statistics (both in the context of the country, and in the field of foreign undergraduate and graduate students enrolled at this university is provided. The

  16. Gadolinium sheet converter for neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, C.T.S. [Laboratorio de Neutrongrafia em Tempo Real (LNRTR/PEN/COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Crispim, V.R. [Laboratorio de Neutrongrafia em Tempo Real (LNRTR/PEN/COPPE), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); PEN/COPPE-DNC/Escola Politecnica CT, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.br; Santos, W.M.S. [Laboratorio de Colisao Atomica e Molecular (LACAM/IF), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-12-15

    This work describes a methodology developed for the confection of gadolinium sheet converter for neutron radiography using the gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) as material converter. Though manufactured at a relatively low cost, they are as good as the sheet converter on the market. Here, we present neutron radiography of the penetrameter, the edge spread function, the modulation transfer function and characteristic curves for each set sheet-AA400 Kodak film.

  17. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  18. Commutation Processes in Multiresonant ZVS Bridge Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Luft

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the multiresonant ZVS DC/DC bridge converter is presented. The control system of the converter is basedon the method of frequency control at the constant time of transistor turn-off with a phase shift. The operation of the circuit is givenand the operating range of the converter is defined where ZVS switching operation is assured. Control characteristics are given andthe converter’s efficiency is defined. The circuit’s operation is analysed on the basis of results of the converter simulation tests using Simplorer programme.

  19. Terms of trade and Russian economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Idrisov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses economic development trends in Russia in late 2014 and 2015 and reviews the basic mechanisms of how changes in the terms of trade affect the economic development of countries from a historical perspective and with a particular focus on those changes in the Russian economy that occurred in late 2014 and 2015. The authors demonstrate that structural reforms aimed at diversification of production and exports are necessary for sustainable economic development, for social stability and for reducing the impact of variability in the terms of trade on the Russian economy. During periods of instability in the government agenda's measures for the real and financial sectors, it is necessary not only to compensate economic agents losses caused by changes in the terms of trade but also to improve the economic structure and to develop and enhance the stability of the financial markets.

  20. RUSSIAN SOFT POWER: ORIGINS, INSTITUTIONS, EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sergunin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper examines conceptual and institutional aspects ofRussia’s soft power strategy over the last decade.Methodology: research is made on the basis of the institutional approach which requires the analysis of both configuration and internal structure of the object. The study of an institution’s behavior and its interaction with the external environment is an integral part of this approach as well.Results: The sources of Moscow's interest in the soft power strategy are explained. Various methods, techniques and institutional mechanisms that are used by Moscow to exercise its soft power in its geopolitical neighborhood are explored. The effectiveness of Russia’s soft power politics is evaluated.Practical implications: the results of this research can be taken into consideration by the Russian governmental agencies responsible for the soft power strategies (e.g. the Rossotrudnichestvo and ‘Russian world’.

  1. Motivational Projections of Russian Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina M. Shipitsina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the semantic, pragmatic and structural features of words, phrases, dialogues motivation, in the contemporary Russian popular speech. These structural features are characterized by originality and unconventional use. Language material is the result of authors` direct observation of spontaneous verbal communication between people of different social and age groups. The words and remarks were analyzed in compliance with the communication system of national Russian language and cultural background of popular speech. Studies have discovered that in spoken discourse there are some other ways to increase the expression statement. It is important to note that spontaneous speech identifies lacunae in the nominative language and its vocabulary system. It is proved, prefixation is also effective and regular way of the same action presenting. The most typical forms, ways and means to update language resources as a result of the linguistic creativity of native speakers were identified.

  2. Russian naval bases due commercial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Tecnogrid Group, New York, has signed a joint venture with the Russian Navy for commercial development of a wide range of sea dn land based assets owned by the former Soviet Navy. This paper reports that among other things, the venture aims for projects that will allow greater volumes of oil exports by revamping several naval bases. Tecnogrid's partner in the joint venture is AO Navicon, A Russian stock holding company that is the commercial arm of the Navy. Navicon has the sole right to commercially develop and deploy the Navy's assets. The Navy can no longer depend on the state for support, and Adm. Ig. Malhonin. With that in mind, the Navy is looking to become the leading force in moving toward a free market economy. Mahonin is Russia's second ranking naval official

  3. Russian Enterprises and Company Law in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Nysten-Haarala, S.

    2001-01-01

    Privatization and company law have been the most important instruments of transforming Russian enterprises. State enterprises have been privatized and modern company law governs how they function, but privatized companies have not changed their business culture. Privatization did not divide management and ownership and did not create efficient stock markets to monitor managers. Managers were able to keep their authoritarian methods inherited from socialist management and rent-seeking in the a...

  4. Small is beautiful: Russian compact reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Perera, J.

    1994-01-01

    Large areas of Russian territory still have no centralized electricity supply making them particularly suitable for the small nuclear power plants described in this article. Thirty small reactor designs have been assessed each generating between 1 MWe and 150 MWe. Six designs were selected as winners, two in each section of small, medium and large designs, capable of producing low cost electricity, efficiently. These are described briefly. plans are underway for the construction of some of the design winners in remote locations. (UK)

  5. Scenarios for Russian Agricultural Development to 2021

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    government officials eager to ensure the farms’ survival.56 This gave rise to vertically integrated agribusiness firms. These combined enterprises... agribusiness environment has underlain the complaints of farmers, food processors, and rural officials throughout the post-Soviet era. In the 1990s, an...export potential has been widely recognized in recent years. Yet, it has also gained a reputation as an unreliable supplier causing Russian grain to

  6. Russian Military Space Capabilities, 1992-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, B.

    In the period which followed the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian military space programme contracted sharply. Close analysis of the programme reveals that some sub-programmes were concluded and others replaced. Russia continued to give a priority to photoreconnaissance, electronic surveillance, early warning and some other low-profile programmes. A new photoreconnaissance series was introduced (Orlets-2) and Russia continued to operate a modest military space programme in mid-2001.

  7. ABOUT EDUCATION IN RUSSIAN SUNDAY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Komashinskaia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Аbstract. The aim of the publication is to show the importance of the system of religious education of the Russian Orthodox Church formed in Russia as the system that forms an outlook of the specific person and society in general. The relevance of the problem discussed in the article is caused by the fact that the ideas, moral ideals and values which are founded by an education system now in several years will be realized in specific affairs and acts.Methods. The methods involve theoretical analysis of scientific literature on the considered problem, system analysis, generalization, modeling, survey.Results and scientific novelty. The history of origin, development, decline and the subsequent revival of Sunday schools in Russia is described. Their positive role in the modern Russian system of religious education is noted; firstly, the forming of spiritual and moral values among younger generation, distribution and strengthening in society of moral standards.The main directions of teaching and educational activities in modern Sunday schools and requirements to personal and subject results of training of pupils of schools are stated. These requirements are established by the standard approved by the Sacred Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church in the territory of the Russian Federation.The history of spread of Orthodoxy in the Far East and development of the Vladivostok eparchy is briefly presented. The features of the organization of modern religious education and orthodox education of children are considered on the example of Sunday school of the parish of Temple of St. Seraphim of Sarov of the Vladivostok eparchy.Practical significance. Activities of Sunday school are shown as the most available and mass form of studying and preserving orthodox traditions and cultural wealth. 

  8. New narratives on Russian renewable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, A.V.; Overland, I.

    2010-01-01

    The article points out the renewable energy potential in Russia in light of the new policy targets development, technical and economic potential as well as limits related to a lack of effectiveness of renewable energy promoting policies. Moreover, the article links the renewable energy development to the liberalization of Russian power sector which actually provides a possibility for market-support mechanisms, such as the green certificates. Renewable energy in Russia also has an important regional dimension, particularly for remote regions. (authors)

  9. Migration processes in the Russian Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Flera H. Sokolova

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing and summarizing of official statistics, the article reveals the dynamics of migration processes in the Russian Arctic in XXI century, which is important in conditions of intensification of population movements in the country and the world, and is significant in the context of defending the country's national interests in the Arctic and strengthening the human potential in the region in order to ensure its sustainable innovative economic and social development. It is ...

  10. Russian Environmental Law - an Overview For Business.

    OpenAIRE

    Ratsiborinskaya, Daria

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstractRussia has carried out major environmental policy reforms during its transition period since the early 1990s, including with respect to global issues such as climate change, loss of biodiversity and ozone layer depletion. In view of these changes, this chapter provides a brief overview of current (and forthcoming) Russian environmental law as applicable to businesses operating in Russia. By touching upon the main difficulties that investors may face, e.g., environmental charge...

  11. The problems of Russian inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmyshova O.A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to problems of Russian inclusive education. Based on the results of theoretical analysis the author raises some questions and their solutions may help to increase the effectiveness of the activity of inclusive educational organizations, provide harmonization of relations of inclusive education members and that will guarantee a successful integration of children with disabilities and special needs in the society.

  12. Environmental radioactivity of the Russian Federation territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    General characteristics of the contaminated areas at the territory of Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is presented. Greatest areas of 137 Cs contamination (1-5 Ci/km 2 ) were revealed in Russia as compared with Belarus Ukraine and Moldova Russian territory was studied less than that of other republics affected due to the Chernobyl accident. Ratio of regions of Russia by 137 Cs contamination degree was considered. 3 tabs

  13. Russian-American venture designs new reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, P.

    1994-01-01

    Russian and American nuclear energy experts have completed a joint design study of a small, low-cost and demonstrably accident-proof reactor that they say could revolutionize the way conventional reactors are designed, marketed and operated. The joint design is helium-cooled and graphite-moderated and has a power density of 3 MWt/cubic meter, which is significantly less than the standard American reactor. A prototype of this design should be operating in Chelyabinsk by June 1996

  14. Non-Russian Language Space and Border in Russian Karelian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuulikki Kurki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Finnish language literature in Russian Karelia on the Russian-Finnish national borderland from the 1940s until the 1970s. It focuses on the concepts of the non-Russian language space and border that are constructed and studied in the context of three novels: Iira (1947, Tiny White Bird (1961, and We Karelians (1971. The article claims that the non-Russian language space and the national border started to be understood differently from the official degrees dictated by Moscow, as found in literature already from the late 1950s and early 1960s. From the 1950s onwards, the historical, linguistic, and cultural roots across the national border and the Finnish population were allowed to be recognized in literature. Furthermore, this article claims that in the 1970s, literature was able to represent such regional history, and also the closeness and permeability of the national border that influenced the lives of the Soviet Karelian non-Russian speaking population and their identity formation. This led to different ideas of the national border, in which the border and its functions and meanings became gradually more multi-voiced, ambivalent and controversial, in comparison to the conceptualization of the border as presenting a strict, impermeable boundary.

  15. The restructuring of the Russian oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian Oil and Gas Corporation, Rosneftegas, was set up in October 1990 to be the central coordinating body of the Russian oil industry. Rosneftegas decided to seek expert advice from international advisers on the restructuring of the industry in the transition to a market economy. The advisers put forward a framework for change based on eight internal and external factors. On the internal, industry, side they are: private ownership, market structures, competition and demarcation of responsibilities. On the external, policy side they are: oil and gas legislation; taxation; contracts; and pricing. A list of investment policy and industry structure objectives was defined on the basis of the framework. Much progress has been made and many of the detailed conclusions of the advisers' report have been implemented. Many difficult issues remain to be dealt with, however. These include considerable tension between the Russian Federal government and the regional governments, between production associations and their local governments, and over the domestic price of oil and oil products. (UK)

  16. Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reistad, O.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    2006-04-01

    In order to establish a systematic approach for future proliferation and environmental analyses of Russia's marine nuclear reactor systems, this paper summarizes and analyzes the available open-source information on the design properties of reactor systems and nuclear fuels. The most distinctive features of Russian marine reactor development are pointed out, and similarities and differences between Russian military and civilian reactor systems and fuel are discussed. Relevant updated information on all Russian vessels using nuclear propulsion is presented in Annex I. The basic analytic division in this paper follows vessel generations first to third generation; and reactor types PWR and LMC technology. Most of the available information is related to nuclear icebreakers. This information is systematically analyzed in order to identify stages in the development of Russia's civilian naval nuclear reactors. Three different reactor models are discussed: OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40, together with several versions of these. Concerning military reactors, it is not possible to identify characteristics for the individual reactor models, so the basic division follows vessel generations first to third generation. From the information available, however, it is possible to identify the main lines along which the design of submarines of especially the first and the second generation has been made. The conclusions contain a discussion of possible implications of the results, in addition to suggestions for further work. (au)

  17. Russian electricity reform. Emerging challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Russian Government is pursuing a strategy of very high economic growth, with the objective of doubling gross domestic product in ten years. It recognises the central role the electricity sector has to play to achieve this target and has embarked on a highly ambitious program of electricity reform. If it is to succeed, the reform program will have to create market structures, market rules and a regulatory framework that will foster competitive wholesale and retail electricity markets. At the same time, it will have to deal with sensitive social issues related to tariff rebalancing and the removal of cross subsidies. Only competitive markets based on transparent prices that reflect costs can deliver the efficient, reliable and internationally competitive performance needed to meet the government's economic targets. Such markets are essential to attract new investment that will be required to ensure security of electricity supply after 2010. This book focuses on key aspects of the proposed reform that could have an important bearing on its success. It also raises concerns as to the pace of reform in related areas, such as the need for complementary reforms in the Russian natural gas sector. The IEA commends the Russian Government on its efforts to embrace this electricity reform - a key element critical to meeting the challenges ahead in terms of its economic growth and energy security. 17 figs., 10 tabs., 3 maps.

  18. [Current ascariasis situation in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchenkova, N N; Romanenko, N A; Chernyshenko, A I

    2006-01-01

    In the Russian Federation (RF), ascariasis remains to be the most common geohelminthiasis, in children in particular. With its overall reduction, the prevalence of ascariasis is very uneven on the RF territory. In the past 15 years, from 1991 to 2004, there was a steady-state decrease in the incidence of ascariasis from 79.5 to 46.0 per 100,000. Its incidence rates remained higher than the average Russian ones in 33 RF subjects and lower than those in 48 subjects and began reducing in 8 subjects in the past 4 years. Of the 33 RF subjects wherein the incidence rates were constantly greater than the average Russian ones, 27 subjects are located in the natural background-favorable areas. In the past 15 years, there was an increase in the impact of socioeconomic factors on the higher incidence of ascariasis: the population's migration; the delivery and transport of Ascaris egg-contaminated greens, vegetables, berries; the development of hothouse gardening, and, as a result, the occurrence of ascariasis in the northern areas of the country, as well as the use of discharged waters for soil fertilization to grow crops. The territory of Russia was first epidemiologically districted in the context of ascariasis, by taking into account the natural background and socioeconomic factors. The area of ascariasis is on the rise. In all RF subjects, public health and social security bodies should constantly keep in mind the problem in ascariasis control and prevention.

  19. Russian nuclear power plants for marine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reistad, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to establish a systematic approach for future proliferation and environmental analyses of Russia's marine nuclear reactor systems, this paper summarizes and analyzes the available open-source information on the design properties of reactor systems and nuclear fuels. The most distinctive features of Russian marine reactor development are pointed out, and similarities and differences between Russian military and civilian reactor systems and fuel are discussed. Relevant updated information on all Russian vessels using nuclear propulsion is presented in Annex I. The basic analytic division in this paper follows vessel generations first to third generation; and reactor types PWR and LMC technology. Most of the available information is related to nuclear icebreakers. This information is systematically analyzed in order to identify stages in the development of Russia's civilian naval nuclear reactors. Three different reactor models are discussed: OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40, together with several versions of these. Concerning military reactors, it is not possible to identify characteristics for the individual reactor models, so the basic division follows vessel generations first to third generation. From the information available, however, it is possible to identify the main lines along which the design of submarines of especially the first and the second generation has been made. The conclusions contain a discussion of possible implications of the results, in addition to suggestions for further work. (au)

  20. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination

  1. LITURGICAL TEXT IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE. PROBLEM STATEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetis Serezhaevich Seropyan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses artistic expressions of liturgical language in the literary text and its interaction of the Holy Tradition. Many Russian authors knew the liturgical text well. Studying it reveals the crucial meaning of the Gospel and liturgical texts (as part of the Holy Tradition for Russian literature. Authors saw the essence of every phenomenon in the word for it, and the nature of God in His name. Some ideas and sayings of the authors and their characters find their sources in liturgical texts. The article focuses on liturgical sources of some characters' commemorations and invocations, as well as poetical topics of the symbolists, Dostoevsky's famous dictum on beauty which will save the world (The Idiot, etc. De-cyphering this liturgical code will help us learn and comprehend the hidden endless meaning of a literary text. The specific feature of Russian literature is its pursuit of the spiritual liturgical exploration of the world, an exploration when truth takes shape and thus becomes real in both literary text and history.

  2. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.

    2009-01-01

    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  3. Time-Interleaved Analog to Digital Converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the research carried out by our PhD student Simon Louwsma at the University of Twente, The Netherlands in the field of high-speed Analogto- Digital (AD) converters. AD converters are crucial circuits for modern systems where information is stored or processed in digital form. Due

  4. Present trends in HVDC converter station design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Lennart; Asplund, Gunnar; Bjorklund, Hans; Flisberg, Gunnar [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    HVDC converter station technology has developed rapidly to satisfy increasing requirements during past 10 - 15 years, but there has not been any dramatic changes since thyristor valves were introduced in the mid 70s. This paper describes some recent and expected future developments, that will substantiality change and simplify future converter stations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Modelling and Control of Grid converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin

    The present report describes the work done in the Phase 1a during the research project "Modelling and Control of Grid Converter". The developed models for the plant and different control strategies for the grid converter are presented in detail. Simulation results under different operating...

  6. Controller for a wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G.; Bull, Diana L.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2015-09-22

    A wave energy converter (WEC) is described, the WEC including a power take off (PTO) that converts relative motion of bodies of the WEC into electrical energy. A controller controls operation of the PTO, causing the PTO to act as a motor to widen a wave frequency spectrum that is usable to generate electrical energy.

  7. Utilization of Nonlinear Converters for Audio Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels; Birch, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    . The introduction of non-linear converters for audio amplication defeats this limitation. A Cuk converter, designed to deliver an AC peak output voltage twice the supply voltage, is presented in this paper. A 3V prototype has been developed to prove the concept. The prototype shows that it is possible to achieve...

  8. Front converter lenses for smart phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiley, Daniel J.; O'Neil, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Front converters for the iPhone 6, from six different vendors, are examined in detail. Telephoto, wide angle, and fisheye converters are examined. System performance is measured, and the measured lens designs are presented. Great variety is found in both design type and performance; little correlation is found between performance and design type.

  9. Switched-mode converters (one quadrant)

    CERN Document Server

    Barrade, P

    2006-01-01

    Switched-mode converters are DC/DC converters that supply DC loads with a regulated output voltage, and protection against overcurrents and short circuits. These converters are generally fed from an AC network via a transformer and a conventional diode rectifier. Switched-mode converters (one quadrant) are non-reversible converters that allow the feeding of a DC load with unipolar voltage and current. The switched-mode converters presented in this contribution are classified into two families. The first is dedicated to the basic topologies of DC/DC converters, generally used for low- to mid-power applications. As such structures enable only hard commutation processes, the main drawback of such topologies is high commutation losses. A typical multichannel evolution is presented that allows an interesting decrease in these losses. Deduced from this direct DC/DC converter, an evolution is also presented that allows the integration of a transformer into the buck and the buck–boost structure. This enables an int...

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fu-rong; Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling and simulation of matrix converter. Two models of matrix converter are presented: one is based on indirect space vector modulation and the other is based on power balance equation. The basis of these two models is• given and the process on modeling is introduced...

  11. A novel converter topology for TEM applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and energy levels of the TEM system, require special type of excitation technique. Power converters for such non-standard requirements are not reported in the literature, particularly for TEM applications. This paper introduces TEM systems to the reader and presents the requirements for excitation. A converter topology.

  12. Multilevel converters for 10 MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Several promising multi-level converter configurations for 10 MW Wind Turbines both with direct drive and one-stage gear box drive using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) are proposed, designed and compared. Reliability is a crucial indicator for large scale wind power converters...

  13. A novel converter topology for TEM applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Power converters for such non-standard requirements are not reported in the literature, particularly for TEM applications. This paper introduces TEM systems to the reader and presents the requirements for excitation. A converter topology to meet the requirements, it's analysis, control and performance are presented. Among ...

  14. Turning off the tap: Using the FAST approach to stop the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Livchits, Viktoria; Ahmad Khan, Faiz; Atwood, Sidney; Kornienko, Sergei; Kononenko, Yulia; Vasilyeva, Irina; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2018-04-05

    We report the association of the FAST (Find cases Actively, Separate safely and Treat effectively) strategy with reduction of hospital-based acquisition of MDR-TB in Russian Federation. We used pre- and post-intervention cohorts in two Russian hospitals to determine whether the FAST strategy was associated with reduced odds of converting from known baseline isoniazid and rifampin (H/R) susceptibility to MDR within 12 months. Sixty-three (8.9%) of 709 H/R susceptible patients acquired MDR-TB; 55(12.2%) in the early cohort and 8 (3.1%) in the FAST cohort. FAST was associated with reduced odds (Adjusted OR (AOR) 0.16, 95% CI 0.07, 0.39) and a 9.2% absolute reduction.

  15. Periodic Control of Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Danwei, Wang; Yang, Yongheng

    Advanced power electronic converters convert, control and condition electricity. Power converters require control strategies for periodic signal compensation to assure good power quality and stable power system operation. This comprehensive text presents the most recent internal model principle...... based periodic control technology, which offers the perfect periodic control solution for power electronic conversion. It also provides complete analysis and synthesis methods for periodic control systems, and plenty of practical examples to demonstrate the validity of proposed periodic control...... technology for power converters. It proposes a unified framework for housing periodic control schemes for power converters, and provides a general proportional-integral-derivative control solution to periodic signal compensation in extensive engineering applications. Periodic Control of Power Electronic...

  16. A review of Indirect Matrix Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Rahmani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Matrix Converter (MC is a modern direct AC/AC electrical power converter without dc-link capacitor. MC is operated in four quadrant, assuring a control of the output voltage, amplitude and frequency. The matrix converter has recently attracted significant attention among researchers and it has become increasing attractive for applications of wind energy conversion, military power supplies, induction motor drives, etc. Recently, different MC topologies have been proposed and developed which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Matrix converter can be classified as direct and indirect structures. The direct one has been elaborated in previous work. In this paper the indirect MCs are reviewed. Different characteristics of the indirect MC topologies are mentioned to show the strengths and weaknesses of such converter topologies.

  17. Switched Mode Four-Quadrant Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Thurel, Y

    2015-01-01

    This paper was originally presented at CAS-2004, and was slightly modified for CAS-2014. It presents a review of the key parameters that impact the design choices for a true four-quadrant power converter, in the range 1-10 kW, mainly based on switching mode converter topology. This paper will first describe the state-of-the-art for this power converter family, giving the drawbacks and advantages of different possible solutions. It will also present practical results obtained from the CERN-designed converter. It will finally give some important tips regarding critical phases like test one, when conducting a project dealing with this type of power converter.

  18. Qualitative model of a plasma photoelectric converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, N. A.; Flamant, G.

    2009-01-01

    A converter of focused optical radiation into electric current is considered on the basis of the photovoltaic effect in plasmas. The converter model is based on analysis of asymmetric spatial distributions of charge particle number density and ambipolar potential in the photoplasma produced by external optical radiation focused in a heat pipe filled with a mixture of alkali vapor and a heavy inert gas. Energy balance in the plasma photoelectric converter is analyzed. The conditions in which the external radiation energy is effectively absorbed in the converter are indicated. The plasma parameters for which the energy of absorbed optical radiation is mainly spent on sustaining the ambipolar field in the plasma are determined. It is shown that the plasma photoelectric converter makes it possible to attain a high conversion efficiency for focused solar radiation.

  19. A novel power converter for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvarajan, S.; Yu, Dachuan; Xu, Shanguang

    A simple and economical power conditioner to convert the power available from solar panels into 60 Hz ac voltage is described. The raw dc voltage from the solar panels is converted to a regulated dc voltage using a boost converter and a large capacitor and the dc output is then converted to 60 Hz ac using a bridge inverter. The ratio between the load current and the short-circuit current of a PV panel at maximum power point is nearly constant for different insolation (light) levels and this property is utilized in designing a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller. The controller includes a novel arrangement for sensing the short-circuit current without disturbing the operation of the PV panel and implementing MPPT. The switching losses in the inverter are reduced by using snubbers. The results obtained on an experimental converter are presented.

  20. The Simulation of DFIG Grid Side Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Yan-Ling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Firstly,DFIG basic structure of grid side converter was analyzed according to basic principles of voltage converter, and a mathematical model of grid side converter was established in the three-phase stationary coordinate system and the two-phase rotating coordinate system respectively. Then use the grid voltage oriented vector control strategy based On dq coordinate model of the grid side converter and its essential principles and realization scheme were introduced. Finally,SVPWM,Park,control systems and other power electronics model were built in matlab/simulink,converter was simulated based On vector control strategy under rectifier state and inverter state respectively. The simulation results show that the control strategy has a good dynamic response,and by choosing the appropriate inductance,capacitance,the network side current will reach stable state quickly with smooth waveform and small harmonic,while the DC voltage will reach stable value quickly with small overshoot.

  1. Transformer Isolated Buck-Boost Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry W. Williams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the single-switch dc-to-dc converters, those with the buck-boost voltage transfer function offer most potential for transformer coupling, hence isolation, at the kilowatt level. This paper highlights the limitations of the traditional magnetic coupled, buck-boost topology. Then four split-capacitor transformer-coupled topologies (specifically the Cuk, sepic, zeta, and a new, converters with a common ac equivalent circuit are explored, that do not temporarily store core magnetic energy as does the traditional isolated buck-boost converter nor have a core dc magnetizing current bias, as with the sepic and zeta transformer coupled topologies. Core dc bias capacitive voltage compensation is a practical design constraint in three of the four topologies, while all four must cater for stray and leakage inductance effects. Simulations and experimental results for the new converter at 408W support the transformer-coupled, single-switch dc-to-dc converter concepts investigated.

  2. Ethnic Motives in Russian Mass Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines certain finding on ethnic aspects of mass consciousness in the Russian Federation, as presented in the journal Monitoring public opinion: economic and social changes (rus. Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены, published by the All-Russian Centre for the Study of Public Opinion. The problems of national identity and ethnic tension in Russia increased after the collapse of the Soviet empire. Ethnic phobias, complexes and ambitions reached a peak in the period 1993–1995. However, by 1999–2000, according to the surveys, they returned to the 1989–1990 level. The increase until 1995 occurred during the break-down of former Soviet political and administrative relations. By 1994 negative attitudes, apart from a traditional aversion to immigrants from the Caucasus, were directed to peoples of the newly independent former Soviet republics (especially to those from the Baltic states, and to ethnic groups such as the Vietnamese, Gypsies, etc. On the other hand, the subsequent decrease in negative attitudes to other ethnic groups was not so much the result of greater tolerance or the development of civil society, but rather due to an imperial tradition of indifference to ethnic problems. According to L. Gudkov, ethnic views in 1994–1995 showed traces inherited from the Stalinist period. Gudkov found that passivity and a “victim“ complex had assumed a central position in the self-image of Russians. Such a complex serves to exonerate the subject from any feeling of personal blame or deficiency, but also leads to a nostalgic idealisation of the past and a negation of the present. The result is a social syndrome that denies action and an ethnosocial self-awareness that prevents universalisation and the development of a national identity based on the principles of civil society. The “victim“ complex fosters a feeling of threat to the

  3. Russian LNG: The Long Road to Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    On December 1, 2013 a law on liquefied natural gas (LNG) export liberalization came into legal force in Russia. The law grants two categories of companies other than Russia's state gas giant Gazprom and its subsidiary companies the right to export LNG: (1) users of mineral resources that have a license to construct an LNG plant or to send their gas production for liquefaction, and (2) companies that are more than 50% owned by the Russian government, for gas produced from Russian offshore fields or under production-sharing agreements. This is-without exaggeration-a historic decision for the Russian gas industry, the path to which was certainly not easy. Recent years have seen a radical change in the global economic climate, which has changed the dynamics of the European gas market (gas demand decline and Russian gas import reduction, changing pricing mechanism for a much higher share of spot indexing, European Commission anti-trust investigations against Gazprom, etc) and is increasingly pushing Russia to diversify its gas exports. However, diversifying exports through the development of LNG has proven to be not so simple. Over the past 20 years, with the exception of the Sakhalin-2 project, structured under a project-sharing agreement (PSA) rather than in the framework of national legislation, all other projects failed to come close to completion. The Kharasavey and Baltic LNG projects were abandoned in the early stages of project evaluation, while the Shtokman project progressed to the point of the operating company being created, but in the end was postponed indefinitely. The first stage of LNG development in Russia ended in failure. However, the Russian government considers the development of LNG exports to be a priority, which can be evidenced in all official policy papers. It is believed that LNG will help in achieving a set of objectives, namely: increasing the absolute volume of exports, allowing the country to enter into previously inaccessible markets

  4. CENTENARY OF 1917 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IN THE FOCUS OF ANTI-RUSSIAN HISTORICAL PROPAGANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вардан Эрнестович Багдасарян

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the anti-Russian historical narrative focused on the 1917 events. The relevance of the theme is determined bythe wide-ranging discussion on the Russian revolution due toits anniversary. The authors solve the problem of the scientific criticism of the anti-Russian myths, focused on the assessments and interpretations of the two Russian revolutions of 1917. In the article there are shown the ideological basis and political context of the coverage of the events of 1917. The authors analyze 5 historical ideologemes, which are disseminated in the public consciousness. They also show the cognitive and political implications of adopting the respective ideology. As a typical liberal myth, the authors regard the interpretation of the October Revolution as “stolen freedom” provided by the February revolution. In the article there is shown that through the myth of “stolen freedom” the whole history of Russia is presented as a reproduction of the “totalitarian regime”. The authors prove the incorrectness of showing Bolsheviks as the initiators of the use of mass terror tactics, to which all major opposing forces resorted. There is considered the connection of the interpretation of the Revolution as the manifestation of the “Russian rebellion” with the Russophobic myth of the Russian barbarism. The authors criticize the idea of the Bolshevik imperialism, which is allegedly based on the ideology of world revolution. The article gives the deconstruction of the myth of the Bolshevik regime illegitimacy and shows the cognitive contradictions of the attempts to counter the concepts of “October Revolution” and “October Coup”. The authors reveal that the thesis of the Constituent Assembly, as an illustration of the Bolshevik illegitimacy, doesn’t correspondent to the historical facts. The authors conclude that the issues of covering the events of both the Revolutionand the Great Patriotic War are linked to the national

  5. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  6. Russian-German research and academic cooperation in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriyev Vasily

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the stages of development of international research cooperation in the framework of research and education projects focusing on the study of marine and polar territories of the Russian Federation and the Federative Republic of Germany. The largest and most stable projects are the establishment of the Russian-German laboratory of polar and marine research named after the Russian polar explorer of German origin, Otto Schmidt, — OSL — on the premises of AARI, the Russian-German education project — the Applied polar and marine studies master's programme (POMOR — implemented by the Russian and German partners at Saint Petersburg State University, and the Laptev Sea system research programme bringing together around 20 Russian and German organisations.

  7. (In)Complete Acquisition of Aspect in Second Language and Heritage Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation compares the knowledge of Russian Verbal Aspect in two types of learners enrolled in college level Russian courses: foreign language learners of Russian whose native language is English and heritage language speakers of Russian whose dominant language at the time of study is English. Russian Aspect is known to be problematic both…

  8. Reading Russian-English Homographs in Sentence Contexts: Evidence from ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Jared, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether Russian--English bilinguals activate knowledge of Russian when reading English sentences. Russian and English share only a few letters, but there are some interlingual homographs (e.g., POT, which means "mouth" in Russian). Critical sentences were written such that the Russian meaning of the…

  9. Russian Weaponization of Information and Influence in the Baltic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-11

    education , and organization of ethnic Russians through formal and informal foreign policy structures may destabilize the Baltic States to the point that...cultural policies that encourage Russian language education and social networking, ethnic Russian communities remain isolated and underserved, and thus...Trade,” Europe and Central Asia Report No 240 (Brussels, BE: International Crisis Group, 2016), 19. 26 Ibid., 9. 31 multilateralism.27 Putin

  10. The consequences of political dictatorship for Russian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyfer, V N

    2001-09-01

    The Soviet communist regime had devastating consequences on the state of Russian twentieth century science. Country Communist leaders promoted Trofim Lysenko--an agronomist and keen supporter of the inheritance of acquired characters--and the Soviet government imposed a complete ban on the practice and teaching of genetics, which it condemned as a "bourgeois perversion". Russian science, which had previously flourished, rapidly declined, and many valuable scientific discoveries made by leading Russian geneticists were forgotten.

  11. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  12. Russian Magical Realism and Pelevin as Its Exponent

    OpenAIRE

    Berlina, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    In her article "Russian Magical Realism and Pelevin as Its Exponent" Alexandra Berlina seeks to enrich magical realism studies as a field of comparative literature and culture by showing that, although largely ignored in scholarship, such a thing as Russian magical realism exists and provides an interesting field for analysis. First, Berlina provides an overview of relevant scholarly works on the genre, tracing mentions (as well as striking omissions) of Russian influence, followed by a discu...

  13. Climate change and zoonotic infections in the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Revich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change in the Russian Arctic is more pronounced than in any other part of the country. Between 1955 and 2000, the annual average air temperature in the Russian North increased by 1.2°C. During the same period, the mean temperature of upper layer of permafrost increased by 3°C. Climate change in Russian Arctic increases the risks of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. This review presents data on morbidity rates among people, domestic animals and wildlife in the Russian Arctic, focusing on the potential climate related emergence of such diseases as tick-borne encephalitis, tularemia, brucellosis, leptospirosis, rabies, and anthrax.

  14. Archetypes of the spiritual movement in Russian historiosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokina Tatyana Evgenievna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main principles of Russian philosophy of history. The most discussed historiosophical idea, going through a variety of transformations, remains Slavyanofil doctrine of special destiny of Russia, its spiritual integrity. The author focuses on the fact that preserving «national archetype» as a key issue, Russian historiosophy offered various options related to the West as a symbol of a different worldview. Mindful of the global fascination with Buddhist understanding of human destiny and history of the world, it must be said that the Russian historiosophy presumed itself in opposition to the Buddhist concept of the historiosophical. Briefly it is explained the reasons for the occurrence of classical Russian literature historiosophical space. 1. The national literature was perceived by Russian thinkers as the «second history». 2. Figures of historical discourse were five Russian classics: Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy. 3. The fate and the works of Russian writers of the inherent rationale of national historical path in its different variants. 4. The Russian philosophy of history, to show interest in religious issues, examines the life and work of every writer as a definite spiritual model of public importance and is being implemented in the historical world. It is commented on historico-philosophical concept of Leontiev and Fedorov, Rozanov and Solovyov who emphasize that eschatology is the semantic core of Russian philosophy of history.

  15. The history of the Russian Orthodox Church in Denmark (1741-2016 seen in a Danish-Russian historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Carsten Sander

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history and the problems of the Russian Orthodox Church in Denmark – and here seen in a Danish-Russian historical perspective, especially, in the last 300 years. The relations between the Danes and the Orthodox Church began, however, around 900 years before, in the Eastern European state of Kievan Rus. The article shows that the history of the church is closely linked to the political development in Russia. In this article, the history of the church and the changing Russian congregations will be illuminated in a historical perspective so that both the church and church buildings will throw a new light on the role of the Russian Church in both Danish and Russian history. In addition, it will be analysed to what extent trade policy, strategy and power policy and family relations have influenced the role and position of the Russian Church in Danish history.

  16. Underwater noise from a wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    of the absorber type. During recordings the converter was operating close to maximum power output (nominal capacity of 110 kW). During operation the independently operating absorbers float semi-submerged in the water and wave-generated up-and-down motion is converted into hydraulic pressure by means of pistons...... connected to the arms of the absorbers. The hydraulic pressure then in turn drives the generator. A 57 minute sequence of noise from the converter was recorded by a Loggerhead datalogger deployed in 7 m deep water 25 m from the converter. This sequence contained recordings of ambient noise, the converter...... in full operation and start and stop of the converter. Median broad band (10 Hz – 20 kHz) sound pressure level (Leq) was 123 dB re. 1 Pa, irrespective of status of the wave energy converter (stopped, running or starting/stopping). The most pronounced peak in the third-octave spectrum was in the 160 Hz...

  17. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  18. Selective harmonic control for power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an Internal Model Principle (IMP) based Selective Harmonic Controller (SHC) for power converters. The proposed SHC offers an optimal control solution for power converters to mitigate power harmonics. It makes a good trade-off among cost, complexity and performance. It has high...... accuracy and fast transient response, and it is cost-effective, easy for real-time implementation, and compatible for design rules-of-thumb. An application on a three-phase PWM converter has confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in terms of harmonic mitigation....

  19. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  20. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings collate lectures given at the twenty-eighth specialized course organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held at the Hotel du Parc, Baden, Switzerland from 7 - 14 May 2014, in collaboration with the Paul Scherrer Institute. Following introductory lectures on accelerators and the requirements on power converters, the course covered components and topologies of the different types of power converters needed for particle accelerators. Issues of design, control and exploitation in a sometimes-hostile environment were addressed. Site visits to ABB and PSI provided an insight into state-of-the-art power converter production and operation, while topical seminars completed the programme.

  1. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of PECS at different levels of complexity. Drawing on the experience of an international team of experts, this book explores the reliability of PECS covering topics including an introduction to reliability engineering in power......-tolerant adjustable speed drive systems; mission profile oriented reliability design in wind turbine and photovoltaic systems; reliability of power conversion systems in photovoltaic applications; power supplies for computers; and high-power converters. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems is essential...... reading for researchers, professionals and students working with power electronics and their applications, particularly those specializing in the development and application of power electronic converters and systems....

  2. Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability......, in the latter case with attention to series connection and parallel connection either electrical or magnetic ones (multiphase/windings machines/transformers). It is concluded that as the power level increases in wind turbines, medium-voltage power converters will be a dominant power converter configuration...

  3. Synchronous Control of Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bose, Bimal K.

    2002-01-01

    A novel method of direct synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is applied for control of modular multilevel converters consisting from three standard triphase inverter modules along with an 0.33 p.u. output transformer. The proposed method provides synchronisation of the voltage waveforms...... for each module and the composed voltage at the output of the converter. Multilevel output voltage of the converter has quarter-wave symmetry during the whole range including the zone of overmodulation. Both continuous and discontinuous versions of synchronous PWM, based on vector approach...

  4. Russian deserters of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Os'kin Maksim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desertion is one of the most active forms of ordinary resistance of the people to the state pressure during the low-popular war which is conducting for the purposes unclear for the people. At the same time, mass desertion is a manifestation of «total» war in the world conflicts of the XX century. During World War I in all armies of the world there was the desertion often accepting mass character. In the Russian army, as well as in other, deserters appeared from the war beginning. Desertion scales in the Russian army explained as objective factors - diffi cult fights, shortage of supply, defeat at the front, and subjective - unwillingness to participate in war, melancholy for the house, desire to help a family the work. Desertion in different years of war had various forms. If at the beginning of war there were mainly «self-arrows», in 1915, during defeats at the front - evasion from entrenchments. By the end of 1916, because of the general fatigue from war, desertion takes the real form - flight from the front to the back. After February revolution desertion becomes mass in which hundreds thousands military personnel take part already. Disorder of army and development of revolutionary process extremely strengthen desertion scales that is explained by the actual lack of punishment for this crime. Destruction of the Russian state during revolution became the main reason of coming to power of Bolsheviks, an exit of Russia from war and the army demobilization which essential part in 1917 already deserted from the front.

  5. RUSSIAN DRINKING: TOO LATE FOR EMERGENCY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Evgenjevich Kuznetsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian drinking for the first time demonstrates weakening of specialization in spirits drinking and stabilization of amount drunk. This suggests expectations of drinking qualitative turn, i.e. to consumer’s choice oriented to quality of drinking rather than to quantity, and further to lessening the drinking norm. Experience of wine-drinking countries of Europe and influence of pan-European homogenization of patterns of drinking, favor such a perspective. The marked decrease of drinking norm in wine-drinking countries was achieved with the minimal state intervention. Survey data (n=904 is provided to corroborate the claim that Russian drinking is able to self-regulate. The data witness weak support for government’s measures taken to restrict access to beverages sale in terms of age, time, place, and price; customers are likely to value freedom of choice unbridled. Governmental pursuance of simplistic access-and-pricing restrictive policies recently undertaken, may force Russian drinking back to another cycle of alcoholisation within the old ‘northern’ model. Bootlegging expansion, formerly progressive specialization in spirits drinking, habit of making gross purchases in population are explained by former experiences of coping with deficits, dry campaigns, and traditional culture of religious and secular abstinences. Scarcity of modes of compensatory behaviors and low concern for health also back up the special cultural status of alcohol. Government should seek for positive measures, viz. wider sporting involvement for students and inclusion for disabled to revive the nation’s regard for health and awareness of health-related risks.

  6. On The New Russian Eastern Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Torkunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the new Eastern foreign policy of Russia, which has been developing since 2011, and the realization of various projects within this policy. The author posits that world is undergoing profound and dynamic changes, which boil down to two interconnected processes: 1 economic power shift towards Asia-Pacific region, which will define in the near future the shape of the world system; 2 shift of the main political, economic and military contradictions in world politics to this region. These core changes in world politics are also effected by trends in development of Russia and its near abroad. For more than a quarter of the century Russia has been pursuing a regional leadership in building among post-soviet states a mutual space for common interests open for other members of international community. This policy became known as "new Russian Eastern policy" or a policy of Eurasian integration. Its main goal is to establish Eurasian economic union by 2015 which will open boarders of the member states for unrestricted movement of goods, services, capital and workers within the emerging regional market with the total volume of 170-180 million people. Russian leaders look forward to discussing with their European partners prospects for merging Eurasian and European unions into a single economic space stretching from Lisbon to Vladivostok. Conceptually the strategy of Eurasian integration stems from a belief in unity of economic, cultural, civilizational interests of the Eurasian member states with state interests in Asia and Asia-Pacific. Realization of the new Eastern policy will be accompanied by the long awaited development of the Russian Eastern regions.

  7. Not Russian Enough: The Negotiation of Nationalism in Nineteenth-Century Russian Opera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmers, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Nineteenth-century Russian music has often been considered something ‘special’. This is a conviction widespread among audiences, musicians, critics and scholars alike; a belief eagerly stimulated and exploited in the marketing of this music outside Russia, and that continues to contribute to its

  8. Factors affecting world and Russian domestic oil prices: the domestic implications - a Russian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper modestly aims at answering two formally related but unnecessarily interconnected questions about international and Russian domestic pricing of crude oil. The first of them is what, in our opinion, chiefly determines price dynamics of the contemporary world oil market. And the second one is in which way (if at all) world oil price dynamics affect Russia's internal market. (author)

  9. Russian-Friendly: How Russian Became a Commodity in Europe and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how Russian became a commodity in the global service industry in the decade between 2004 and 2014 and, in some places, much earlier. I will begin with a discussion of sociolinguistic theory of "commodification of language", focusing on aspects critical for this case study. Then, I will trace the…

  10. RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION ACCORDING TO RUSSIAN ARTHRITIS REGISTRY DATA (COMMUNICATION I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the materials of the Russian Arthritis Registry (OREL that includes 3276 patients from 11 Russian Federation's largest research-and-practical centers situated in Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Tula, Yaroslavl, Tyumen. It discusses the main goals of setting up registries, compares the results of an analysis of the data available in the Russian Registry OREL and registries of European countries and the USA. The findings suggest that there is non-uniform information on clinical, laboratory, and instrumental parameters in the national registers of a number of European countries and the USA. According to its basic characteristics, the Russian Registry OREL compares favorably with a number of other registries in the completeness of data collection, which allows a general idea of rheumatoidarthritis (RA patients in Russia. For further development of the OREL Registry, it is necessary to concentrate our attention on the following main areas: to improve the quality of filling out documents; to follow-up patients receiving different RA therapy regimens according to the guidelines of the Association of Rheumatologists of Russia for the treatment of RA; to conduct in-depth studies of comorbidity, primarily depressive disorders; to analyze adverse reactions that make RA therapy difficult; to actively use modules for patients' self-rating of their condition; to develop nursing care, etc.

  11. Patronymic Models in Northern Russian Subdialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina B. Kachinskaya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A patronymic is part of every Russian person’s name derived from the full name of its bearer’s father. In subdialects, the patronymic can be coined not only from the full father’s name, but also from its diminutive based on different word-formation models. Besides, the article considers the aforementioned parts of names formed from the bearer’s grandfather’s and mother’s names, and women’s names made on the basis of their husbands’ names. Finally, patronymics can be based on nicknames, categorized into personal nicknames, patronymical nicknames and the ones connected with close relatives.

  12. Peculiarities of expressing the apprehensive in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Zorikhina Nilsson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with different ways of expressing apprehension in Russian by the verbal constructions using subordinating conjunctions как бы (не and чтобы (не and the -л-subjunctive verb form or infinitive. The formal structure of the constructions and the peculiarities of the synonymity of the conjunctions are examined in more detail. Special attention is given to the status of the negative particle не. We argue that negation in the apprehensive does not lose its semantic nature but its manifestations are uncommon due to the assertion-suspending contexts it operates within.

  13. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-01-01

    The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...

  14. Russian Foreign Policy. Sources and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Russia and the USA in World Politics],” SShA- Kanada , Ekonomika, Politika, Kul’tura, No. 9, September 2006, pp. 3–18. 5 Celeste Wallander calls this...Century: Problems and Perspectives],” SShA- Kanada , Ekonomika, Politika, Kul’tura, May 2007, pp. 61–76. 118 Pavel Zolotarev, “Tzeli i Prioriteti...SShA- Kanada , Ekonomika, Politika, Kul’tura, May 2007, pp. 61–76. Podvig, Paul, “Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces,” Web page, undated. As of August

  15. Default contagion risks in Russian interbank market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidov, A. V.; Rumyantsev, E. L.

    2016-06-01

    Systemic risks of default contagion in the Russian interbank market are investigated. The analysis is based on considering the bow-tie structure of the weighted oriented graph describing the structure of the interbank loans. A probabilistic model of interbank contagion explicitly taking into account the empirical bow-tie structure reflecting functionality of the corresponding nodes (borrowers, lenders, borrowers and lenders simultaneously), degree distributions and disassortativity of the interbank network under consideration based on empirical data is developed. The characteristics of contagion-related systemic risk calculated with this model are shown to be in agreement with those of explicit stress tests.

  16. Gazprom vs. other Russian gas producers: The evolution of the Russian gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunden, Lars Petter; Fjaertoft, Daniel; Overland, Indra; Prachakova, Alesia

    2013-01-01

    The non-Gazprom gas producers (NGPs) doubled their share of the Russian domestic gas market between 2000 and 2010 and have continued growing since then. For several years especially Novatek expanded. More recently, Rosneft has emerged as a key player, not least through its purchase of TNK-BP. This article begins with an overview of the companies in the Russian gas sector, their resource bases and capacities, and subsequently examines whether differences in field development costs and export market access may make it rational for Gazprom to continue ceding market share to the NGPs. With rising costs of Gazprom's queue of greenfield developments, any delays in Gazprom's investment program may be compensated through increased NGP production. The article argues that the NGPs are ready to fill the gap, may be allowed to do so and are already increasing their market share in an increasingly competitive market. The stage may now be set for a continued gradual transformation of the Russian gas market, in which the interests of Gazprom and the NGPs may be complementary or may be pitted against each other, but those of the Russian Federation are in any case likely to be better fulfilled than in the past. - Highlights: • Other Russian gas producers, especially Novatek and Rosneft, are taking market shares from Gazprom. • Gazprom has a monopoly on exports and has had a de facto monopoly on the domestic pipeline grid through its control over trunk pipelines. • Gazprom's greenfield projects are more expensive than those of other producers. • Gazprom's loss of market shares to other producers in the domestic market may actually be in Gazprom's interest

  17. State estimation for wave energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelli, Giorgio; Coe, Ryan Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    This report gives a brief discussion and examples on the topic of state estimation for wave energy converters (WECs). These methods are intended for use to enable real-time closed loop control of WECs.

  18. multilevel buck converter for automotive electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    MULTILEVEL BUCK CONVERTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICAL LOAD. E. T. Yabefa1,* and D. Ebregbe2. 1ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT, BAYELSA STATE COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCE (BYCAS) YENAGOA, BAYELSA STATE NIGERIA. 2ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, NIGER DELTA UNIVERSITY, ...

  19. Reliability of power electronic converter systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Henry Shu-hung; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book outlines current research into the scientific modeling, experimentation, and remedial measures for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of Power Electronic Converter Systems (PECS) at different levels of complexity.

  20. A three-port direct current converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The three-port direct current converter comprising: at least one input direct current source; at least one storage battery; a primary side circuit; a secondary side circuit; a first single magnetic component shared by the primary side circuit and the secondary side circuit, wherein the primary side...... circuit comprises a connection between the at least one input direct current source and the at least one storage battery, the primary side circuit configured for operating as a buck converter; a second magnetic component serially coupled to the first single magnetic component, wherein the first and second...... magnetic components are configured to perform a voltage step-up, wherein the secondary side circuit comprises a connection between the at least one storage battery and at least one load, the secondary side configured for operating as a tapped boost converter; wherein the three-port direct current converter...

  1. "Forback" Dc-To-Dc Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukemire, Alan T.

    1992-01-01

    Dc-to-dc power-converter circuits called "forback" resemble circuits of standard configurations called "forward", "flyback", and "Cuk". Circuit employs minor modifications to existing topologies, combines advantages, while eliminating disadvantages, of older circuits.

  2. Multilevel-clamped multilevel converters (MLC2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Bellar, Maria Dias; Muñoz-Aguliar, Raúl Santiago

    2012-01-01

    This letter introduces a new series of multilevel (ML) converters based on the ML clamping concept. By applying this technique, a ML clamping unit (MCU) conveys additional levels for synthesizing the output waveforms of a diode-clampedML dc– ac power converter. The basic building block of the ML...... clamping scheme is the ML clamping cell, which is composed of a pair of dc sources associated with one single-pole/triple-throw type of switch arrangement. The number of series-connected ML-clamping cells will set the number of levels of the synthesized waveform. By depending on the MCU arrangements......, different converter configurations can be derived, namely, the common clamping and the modular types. Both approaches can be accomplished by employing classical three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) technology. Thus, the overall structure of the resultant converter is kept simple, wherein the number...

  3. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O

    2013-01-01

    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  4. A new type time-amplitude converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Haiwei; Han Jian; Li Zhongwei

    2004-01-01

    The time-amplitude converter is used mostly in nuclear physics experiments where require fast time measurement, such as the identify of particles, the measurement of excitated life-span and flying time of nucleon, and so on. According to the requirement of experiment, a new type time-amplitude converter composing of IC has been developed. It is precision is 100 ns. It has the merits of stable performance, higher precision and so on. (authors)

  5. AC – AC Converters for UPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusalin Lucian R. Păun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose a new control technique forsingle – phase AC – AC converters used for a on-line UPSwith a good dynamic response, a reduced-partscomponents, a good output characteristic, a good powerfactorcorrection(PFC. This converter no needs anisolation transformer. A power factor correction rectifierand an inverter with the proposed control scheme has beendesigned and simulated using Caspoc2007, validating theconcept.

  6. Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Concept development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Felice; Barbaro, Giuseppe; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati, Federica Mara

    2015-01-01

    The Resonant Wave Energy Converter (REWEC) is a device for converting sea wave energy to electrical energy. It belongs to the family of Oscillating Water Columns and is composed by an absorbing chamber connected to the open sea via a vertical duct. The paper gives a holistic view on the concept development of the device, starting from its implementation in the context of submerged breakwaters to the recently developed vertical breakwaters. [it

  7. Russian Threat Perceptions and Security Policies: Soviet Shadows and Contemporary Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Cimbala, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between military reform in Russia and Russian threat perceptions is influenced by the Soviet past, by Russian domestic politics, and by the character of current U.S.-Russian and NATO-Russian relations. Prospective Russian military reform is endangered by continuing threat perceptions that exaggerate Russian military weakness and by domestic forces that play against a rational assessment of Russia's geostrategic requirements.

  8. LHC Power Converters: A Precision Game

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The LHC test-bed, String 2, is close to commissioning and one important element to get a first chance to prove what it can do is the power converter system. In String 2 there are 16 converters, in the full LHC there will be almost 1800. This article takes a look at what is so special about the power converters for the LHC. The 13 000 Amps power converters with the watercooled cables going to the String 2 feedboxes. The LHC's superconducting magnets will be the pinnacle of high technology. But to work, they'll need the help of high-precision power converters to supply them with extremely stable DC current. Perfection will be the name of the game, with an accuracy of just 1-2 parts per million (ppm) required. LEP, for the sake of comparison, could live with 10-20 ppm. The LHC's power converters will be very different from those of LEP or the SPS since the new accelerator's magnets are mostly superconducting. That means that they require much higher currents at a lower voltage since superconductors have no re...

  9. Russian oil : is the boom really over

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebel, R.E. [Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This conference paper sought to answer three questions: is the growth in demand for imported oil by China, India and the United States sustainable; can OPEC member-countries, particularly those of the Persian Gulf, develop sustainable spare producing capacity; and is the growth in Russian oil production and exports sustainable? The paper examined Russia's program of expansion; how Russia can accomplish its planned expansion; Russian demographics and how the shrinking population could drive down the economy; restrictions on strategic fields in Russia; auctions for the rights to develop oil fields; as well as oil and gas exports in Russia. The paper also suggested what can be expected in 2005 in terms of oil output; oil industry issues such as idle wells, frozen assets, and bottlenecked export pipelines; as well as Russia's oil future in Eastern Siberia, and offshore Sakhalin Island and the Barents Sea. The paper concluded that Russia is not using its newly-found wealth to create a diversified economy that protects the country when the price of oil drops, nor is it taking steps to protect property rights or to stop harassment of business by predatory inspectors.

  10. Russian alcohol policy in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levintova, Marya

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines implementation of the 2005 federal alcohol control law in the Russian Federation. The documents on the Russian Federation federal legislation on the control of the production and turnover of ethyl alcohol, and ethyl alcohol containing products, news reports, research, and historical documents were gathered and analysed for implementation barriers. Consumption of alcoholic beverages, especially spirits, has been one the most significant public health problems in Russia for many centuries. Prior attempts to control alcohol consumption have been unsuccessful, in part due to the government's reliance on alcohol revenue, and its inability to implement creative and manageable solutions in the light of the high drinking rates. Implementation of this legislation has been a challenge in Russia because of administrative oversight, lack of organizational preparation, and corruption. The law discussed in this paper presented a window of opportunity to ameliorate the deteriorating health status and reverse the impending mortality crisis. However, a number of barriers presented substantial setbacks toward realization of this legislation.

  11. INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE PROFILES IN RUSSIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Novikova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of intercultural competence (ICC as a psychological phenomenon including the analysis of its models, factors, and profiles. The results of an empirical study in two major multinational Russian universities (388 students, of which 254 young women and 134 young men are presented. The aim of the study was to identify the typological profiles of the ICC and their characteristics in relation to personality traits. ICC was studied based on the “Dynamic model of intercultural sensitivity” by M. Bennet. The author’s modification of the “Scale of intercultural sensitivity” by O.E. Khuhlaev and M.Y. Chibisova in the adaptation of Y.A. Lopashenko was used for the ICC diagnostics. Personality traits were considered in the framework of the Five-Factor Model (P. Costa and R. McCrae and were measured by a short form of the “Five-Factor Questionnaire” in Russian adaptation by M.V. Bodunov and S.D. Biryukov. We identified four ICC profiles of students provisionally called “ethnocentrists”, “negativists”, “undecided (ambivalent”, and “ethnorelativists”. It is shown that the profiles differ not only in the correlation between the severity of parameters of the ICC, but also in personality traits. The results can be used for the design of ICC development and formation programs, based on the identified psychological specifics of ICC profiles.

  12. Preventing Social Orphanhood: the Russian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semya G.V.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the Russian model of social orphanhood eradicating based on the analysis of the dynamics of the adoption and foster care and social orphanhood prevention, the legislation development and a compari- son with the international experience. The effectiveness of the state policy is depends on focus of the top federal and regional officials, the dynamic legis- lative development, federal financial support and creative accomplishing the tasks of social orphanhood eradicating throughout the country. Author proposes methodology for evaluating the regions performance based on math- ematical models of the continuity equation. The article identifies a number of factors determine the features of the state policy implementation throughout Russia, including ethnic and religious factors, geographical proximity to the international experience, migration flows, climatic conditions, and the health level. It is pointed out that the implementation of the National Strategy for Action on Children plays a key role in forming the Russian model. The main modern challengers are defining the strategy and tactics of the family and foster care of children difficult to place in family, services on interdepartmental basis, and economic crisis, which may lead to an increasing return of children from foster families.

  13. Russian Speech in Radio: Norm and Deviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Nefedov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available National radio, like television, is called upon to bring to the masses not only relevant information, but also a high culture of language. There were always serious demands to oral public speech from the point of view of the correctness and uniformity of the pronunciation. However, today the analysis of the language practice of broadcasting often indicates a discrepancy between the use of linguistic resources in existing literary norms. The author of the article from the end of December 2016 to early April 2017 listened and analyzed from the point of view of language correctness the majority of programs on the radio Komsomolskaya Pravda (KP. In general, recognizing the good speech qualification of the workers of this radio, as well as their «guests» (political scientists, lawyers, historians, etc., one can not but note the presence of a significant number of errors in their speech. The material presented in the article allows us to conclude that at present, broadcasting is losing its position in the field of speech culture. Neglect of the rules of the Russian language on the radio «Komsomolskaya Pravda» negatively affects the image of the Russian language, which is formed in the minds of listeners. The language of radio should strive to become a standard of cleanliness and high culture for the population, since it has the enormous power of mass impact and supports the unity of the cultural and linguistic space.

  14. Russian institute receives CMS Gold Award

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The Snezhinsk All-Russian Institute of Scientific Research for Technical Physics (VNIITF) of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC) is one of twelve CMS suppliers to receive awards for outstanding performance this year. The CMS Collaboration took the opportunity of the visit to CERN of the Director of VNIITF and his deputy to present the CMS Gold Award, which the institute has received for its exceptional performance in the assembly of steel plates for the CMS forward hadronic calorimeter. This calorimeter consists of two sets of 18 wedge-shaped modules arranged concentrically around the beam-pipe at each end of the CMS detector. Each module consists of steel absorber plates with quartz fibres inserted into them. The institute developed a special welding technique to assemble the absorber plates, enabling a high-quality detector to be produced at relatively low cost.RFNC-VNIITF Director Professor Georgy Rykovanov (right), is seen here receiving the Gold Award from Felicitas Pauss, Vice-Chairman of the CMS ...

  15. Russian Population Ethnic Structure: Trends and Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safronov S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the census data from 1989, 2002 and 2010, the article analyzes the evolution of the ethnic structure of the population of the post-Soviet Russia from the territorial perspective. The stability of the ethnic structure of the “Russian mega nucleus” and indigenization of the national regions are considered in view of the differences in migration trends during the two inter-census periods and the socioeconomic situation in the regions. The urbanization rate of major ethnic groups is an indirect indicator of the prospects of traditional “primordial” ethnic identities in different ethnic groups. Special attention is paid to new trends — an increase in the number of people refraining from answering the question about their ethnic identity or giving an unclear answer. Alongside serious census errors, this phenomenon can be a result of growing complexity of the ethnic identity structures and the processes of modernization, which occur at different rates in Russian and national regions. Based on the 2010 census data, the article analyses the differences in polyethnicity between the rural and urban population, which are accounted for by the historical background, particularities of regional development, settlement features, and migration processes of the past two decades.

  16. Technological Aspects of Russian Energy Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Z. Zhiznin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the impact of technology on the development of world energy in the world, as well as on the development of international energy relations. The important role of international cooperation in the field of energy technologies as a key factor in the development and global deployment of energy technologies in the industry. The most effective technology in the world of multilateral cooperation under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA and other international organizations. It allows the joint efforts of the countries concerned to develop new technologies, test them and implement in production. For Russia, it is very important, because at the moment our country is not only a leading exporter of energy resources, but also has a significant impact on global energy security. At the same time Russia's FEC requires urgent and serious modernization through the development and introduction of innovative technologies on the basis of the study of international experience. Therefore the question of modernization of Russian fuel and energy complex has an international character. One way to accelerate the process of modernization of the organization is a public-private partnership that will largely depend on the nature and possibilities of Russian energy diplomacy, given the geopolitical and economic realities in connection with the sanctions imposed by Western countries against our country.

  17. Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieniawski, A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance

  18. Is the balkanization of the ukrainian-russian conflict probable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Petrovich Koshkin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the possibility and probability of Balkanization of the UkrainianRussian intersocietal relations. Methods the need to study the main factors affecting the state of the modern RussianUkrainian conflict in its ethnopolitical dimension with the predominat focus on intersocietal relations determined the use of the historicalgenetic comparativehistorical and typological methods of investigation integrated with the systemic approach. Results the main parallels are shown that occur when comparing the ethnopolitical situation in the Balkans and above all the SerbianCroatian relations with the current RussianUkrainian conflict mainly at the level of relations of Russians and Ukrainians as ethnic groups. The ethnosocial and ethnopolitical differences of the genesis and current state of both conflicts do not provide a sufficient basis for specific predictions about the inevitable Balkanization of the RussianUkrainian conflict. Scientific novelty the article proves the inconsistency of unambiguous similes of the RussianUkrainian conflict and interethnic SerbianCroatian conflict at intersocietal and associated levels it shows the significant differences of the conflict situations that do not lead to dogmatic conclusions about the development of the RussianUkrainian relations by the Yugoslavia scenario. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity in the study of ethnos and ethnicity in the analysis of ethnopolitical processes in modern Ukraine and consideration of the status and prospects of the development of RussianUkrainian relations. nbsp

  19. Silent Movies: A Digitized Video Approach to the Russian Verb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkes, Lisa A.

    A HyperCard stack using digitized video to provide students of Russian with meaningful exercise in the use of verbal aspect and verbs of motion and position is described. Several problems presented by the Russian verb are defined. Examples of traditional textbook exercises are presented--translations, fill-ins, and picture-based approaches, and…

  20. Palatalization and Intrinsic Prosodic Vowel Features in Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The presented study is aimed at investigating the interaction of palatalization and intrinsic prosodic features of the vowel in CVC (consonant+vowel+consonant) syllables in Russian. The universal nature of intrinsic prosodic vowel features was confirmed with the data from the Russian language. It was found that palatalization of the consonants…

  1. Phonotactic Constraints: Implications for Models of Oral Reading in Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulicheva, Anastasia; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steven; Perry, Conrad

    2016-01-01

    The present article investigates how phonotactic rules constrain oral reading in the Russian language. The pronunciation of letters in Russian is regular and consistent, but it is subject to substantial phonotactic influence: the position of a phoneme and its phonological context within a word can alter its pronunciation. In Part 1 of the article,…

  2. Modality in Russian language picture of the world

    OpenAIRE

    Glazkova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    In article the incentive modality in Russian language picture of the world on a design example a predicative + an infinitive is analyzed. Research of modeling synonyms showed unevenness of a modal language pic-ture of the world of Russian: intention and need prevalence and obligation reduction

  3. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  4. Economic Factors Influence on the Russian Capital Market Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dorofeev Evgeny

    2001-01-01

    The author analyzes the price dynamics of shares listed in the Russian Trading System (RTS). Preferences for speculative versus strategic investments in the Russian capital market are studied by dividing the risk associated with each share into a general component, which depends on economic fundamentals, and an individual (speculative) component associated with holding that particular asset.

  5. Social Mechanisms in Elaborating Russian Educational Policy: Legal Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostev, Aleksandr N.; Turko, Tamara I.; Shchepanskiy, Sergey B.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of legal monitoring and those of a sociological research on the efficiency of social mechanisms in Russian Federation education policy. The data obtained substantiates: the need for systematic improvement of Russian legislation in the education sector; revised notions and content of social mechanisms in Russian…

  6. Russian delegation visits NIH and NCI to discuss research collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Center for Global Health hosted a delegation from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research to discuss ongoing and future collaborations in cancer research. The delegation was accompanied by representatives from the US Embassy in Moscow and the Embassy of the Russian Federation in Washington DC.

  7. MODERN CHINA IN THE MIRROR OF THE RUSSIAN PUBLIC OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Denis V. Novikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the relationship of contemporary Russian society and the Chinese People's Republic. Based on polls 2014-2015 the author concludes that dominant in the Russian public con-sciousness is the image of the People's Republic of China as a friendly country.

  8. Farm production performance in Russian regions: farm panel data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezlepkina, I.

    2003-01-01

    The Russian agricultural sector has experienced many problems since the beginning of the 1990s that resulted in a fall in farm output. Employing a production function approach and, unlike other studies, farm-level data on more than 20,000 Russian large-scale farms for the period 1995-2000, this

  9. Russian Cryptographic Algorithms in the Identity Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Dubovitskaya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is to implement Russian cryptographic algorithms in the IdM-systems. The research centers on the study of the claim-based authentication protocols and the existing IdM-systems and on the development of an authentication module for Russian cryptographic algorithms.

  10. Mechanisms of the Russian monocentrism conservation: historical and politological essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Trofimov

    2017-04-01

    The conducted research broadens the nature the «Russian powerconcept, deprives it of the mythological core, and allows developing (borrowing from the general civilization paradigm alternative mechanisms of Russian political management that orient the «stateto serving individuals and peaceful coexistence with various actors of the world political system.

  11. The war of the mushrooms: A Russian folktale revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are numerous versions of a Russian folktale, War of the Mushrooms. The tale is indexed in standard folkloristic references as tale type 297B. Unfortunately, it is not included in the best known collection of Russian folktales translated into English, that of Alexander Afanesiev. It was first r...

  12. Grammatical realization of Russian etiquette speech genres: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is devoted to the issue of grammatical approach application during the teaching of Russian etiquette speech for foreigners. In the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language, the issues related to the development of etiquette speech genres arise at all stages of language learning, beginning with the first ...

  13. Funny in animated films and literature: what the russian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An objective of this research was identification of representations of the Russian younger school students about comic on material of such cultural texts as animated films and works of fiction. 174 Russian school students of elementary school (92 boys and 82 girls) at the age of 9-11 years participated in a research.

  14. Peculiarities of Teaching the Russian Language to Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalova, Lera A.; Zakirova, Venera G.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this study is due to migration processes in Russia, the emergence in Russian schools of migrant children. School practice shows that the education of migrant children the Russian language has its own specifics related to the problems of bilingualism (bilingualism), ethnic identification, insufficient knowledge of the Russian…

  15. Codes of Ethics for Computing at Russian Institutions and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourciau, Lester J.; Spain, Victoria, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the degree to which Russian institutions and universities have formulated and promulgated codes of ethics or policies for acceptable computer use, the author examined Russian institution and university home pages. Lists home pages examined, 10 commandments for computer ethics from the Computer Ethics Institute, and a policy statement…

  16. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  17. Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sosnowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analytic tendencies in modern Polish and Russian Modern Polish and Russian are characterized by some features which demonstrate an increasing level of analitism. In the process of transformation from synthetic to analytical language, a crucial role is played by prepositional units. In this research, analitism is understood in a traditional way as a morphological and syntactic phenomenon. The fact that the synthetic structure of a language may, in some conditions, turn into an analytical one, as happened in the case of Bulgarian and Macedonian, has been intriguing linguists ever since, and has made me attempt to answer the question: What is the condition of modern Polish and Russian, which are languages with a rich literary tradition and solid grammatical norms, which belong to a group of synthetic languages? The analytical tendencies in morphology include the following: a decrease in the number of cases in all inflected parts of speech; a more frequent use of uninflected nouns and adjectives; the growing importance of nouns with common gender, and, in particular, the use of forms of masculine gender to depict feminine gender; differences in expressing collectiveness in a group of nouns (using collective meaning for forms that have singular meaning; substituting case forms with prepositions; substituting case forms with subordinate clauses; substituting case forms with “helper” words. Analytical tendencies in the area of numeral functioning include: substituting inflected forms of ordinal numerals with cardinal ones; the gradual disappearing inflection of numerals; confusing the forms of noun cases after numerals; the disappearing declination of collective numerals; displacing other cases with so-called simple cases; changing the syntactical position which the numeral should be inflected in; abandoning the declination of first elements of collective numerals. During the study of analytic tendencies in morphology, it was necessary to examine

  18. Russian Minatom nuclear safety research strategic plan. An international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1999-01-01

    An NEA study on safety research needs of Russian-designed reactors, carried out in 1996, strongly recommended that a strategic plan for safety research be developed with respect to Russian nuclear power plants. Such a plan was developed at the Russian International Nuclear Safety Centre (RINSC) of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom). The Strategic Plan is designed to address high-priority safety-research needs, through a combination of domestic research, the application of appropriate foreign knowledge, and collaboration. It represents major progress toward developing a comprehensive and coherent safety-research programme for Russian nuclear power plants (NPPs). The NEA undertook its review of the Strategic Plan with the objective of providing independent verification on the scope, priority, and content of the research described in the Plan based upon the experience of the international group of experts. The principal conclusions of the review and the general comments of the NEA group are presented. (K.A.)

  19. Planning and reporting of Russian transmutation research projects within ISTC. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, H. [Uppsala Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research; Gudowski, W. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Reactor Technology; Liljenzin, J.O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Mileikovsky, C. [Pully (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    The International Scientific and Technical Center (ISTC) in Moscow funds research of civil interest to counteract the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation. Recently, new technical concepts, Accelerator Transmutation of Nuclear Waste (ATW), have been proposed to incinerate and transmute long-lived radioactive nuclear waste to relax the time needed to store the waste in a geological repository. The Russian experts are knowledgeable and well equipped for doing research in the different technical fields of relevance for the transmutation concepts. Thus, a number of ISTC projects have been proposed to investigate different technical aspects of ATW with a result that a fair number of former weapon specialists have converted from military to peaceful civilian research. The present report describes the back ground, the status and near term activities of a few ISTC projects of relevance for the ATW concept, which are planned with the participation of a Swedish reference group. 4 refs.

  20. Planning and reporting of Russian transmutation research projects within ISTC. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, H.

    1997-02-01

    The International Scientific and Technical Center (ISTC) in Moscow funds research of civil interest to counteract the risk of nuclear weapon proliferation. Recently, new technical concepts, Accelerator Transmutation of Nuclear Waste (ATW), have been proposed to incinerate and transmute long-lived radioactive nuclear waste to relax the time needed to store the waste in a geological repository. The Russian experts are knowledgeable and well equipped for doing research in the different technical fields of relevance for the transmutation concepts. Thus, a number of ISTC projects have been proposed to investigate different technical aspects of ATW with a result that a fair number of former weapon specialists have converted from military to peaceful civilian research. The present report describes the back ground, the status and near term activities of a few ISTC projects of relevance for the ATW concept, which are planned with the participation of a Swedish reference group. 4 refs

  1. Experience on Russian military origin plutonium conversion into fast reactor nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, A.F.; Skiba, O.V.; Bychkov, A.V.; Mayorshin, A.A.; Kisly, V.A.; Bobrov, D.A.; Osipenko, A.G.; Babikov, L.G.; Mishinev, V.B.

    2001-01-01

    According to the Concept of Russian Minatom on military plutonium excess utilization, the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation ''Research Institute of Atomic Reactors'' (Dimitrovgrad) has begun study on possibility of technological processing of the metal military plutonium into MOX fuel. The Program and the stages of its realization are submitted in the paper. During 1998-2000 the first stage of the Program was fulfilled and 50 kg of military origin metallic plutonium was converted to MOX fuel for the BOR-60 and BN-600 reactor. The plutonium conversion into MOX fuel is carried out under the original technology developed by SSC RIAR. It includes pyro-electrochemical process for production of fuel on the domestic equipment with the subsequent fuel pins manufacturing for the fast reactors by the vibro-packing method. The produced MOX fuel is purified from alloy additives (Ga) and corresponds to the vibro-packed fuel standard for fast reactors. The fuel pins manufacturing for BOR-60 and BN-600 reactors are carried out by the vibro-packing method on a standard procedure, which is used in SSC RIAR more than 20 years. (author)

  2. Тhe Russian statehood. 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Butakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The author's research methodology of social processes is represented, by establishinga bond between the ways of property organization and governmental form – especiallyits political regime.The analysis of methodology is based on the historical materials devoted to Russian statehoodin terms of its transition states during the appropriate industrialization of domesticproduction.The results, scope of application. Since 1861, the Russian statehood during its existence hasexperienced a number of important transitional states, where the successful process offorming the traditional foundations of the corresponding society in different periods (pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet in terms of the author's methodology was and still is untenable.The basis of this methodology is the existing relationship between the concrete wayof property organization and its social function. Thus, a private way of property organizationreproduces the function of social development. A mixed (corporate way provides a functionof social compromise (convergence. Finally, the common (collective way of propertyorganization can be determined by the function of social security. A concrete way of propertyorganization arries out only a specific social function. An attempt to change this dependenceleads the corresponding society to the destruction of the foundations of its existence.Thus, the liquidation (abolition of the private way of property organization objectivelyforms the impossibility of realizing the functions of social development and the functionsof social compromise (convergence in the society by the common (collective way ofits organization. There is another aspect of the relationship between a particular way oforganizing property and its social function. Each of the above methods of property organization,reaching a monopoly state that goes into rent, provides for self-destruction andtransformation of its social function as opposed to: from development to

  3. Understanding delta-sigma data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Pavan, Shanti; Temes, Gabor C

    2017-01-01

    This new edition introduces novel analysis and design techniques for delta-sigma (ΔΣ) converters in physical and conceptual terms, and includes new chapters that explore developments in the field over the last decade. This book explains the principles and operation of delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in physical and conceptual terms in accordance with the most recent developments in the field. The interest of ΔΣ converter designers has shifted significantly over the past decade, due to many new applications for data converters at the far ends of the frequency spectrum. Continuous-time delta-sigma A/D converters with GHz clocks, of both lowpass and bandpass types, are required for wireless applications. At the other extreme, multiplexed ADCs with very narrow (sometimes 10 Hz wide) signal bandwidths, but very high accuracy are needed in the interfaces of biomedical and environmental sensors. To reflect the changing eeds of designers, the second edition includes significant new material on bo...

  4. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  5. Underwater noise from a wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tougaard, Jakob

    in full operation and start and stop of the converter. Median broad band (10 Hz – 20 kHz) sound pressure level (Leq) was 123 dB re. 1 Pa, irrespective of status of the wave energy converter (stopped, running or starting/stopping). The most pronounced peak in the third-octave spectrum was in the 160 Hz...... band during start and stop of the converter, attributed to the hydraulic pump responsible for lifting and lowering the absorbers. Less pronounced, but still statistically significant differences were seen in the bands 125, 160, 200 and 250 Hz when operation and ambient were compared. No statistically...... significant noise above ambient could be detected above the 250 Hz band. The absolute increase in noise above ambient was very small. L50 third-octave levels in the four bands with the converter running were thus only 1-2 dB above ambient L50 levels. The noise recorded 25 m from the wave energy converter...

  6. English/Russian and Russian/English glossary of physical protection terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo Hoo, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    This glossary was prepared in fulfillment of the Glossary Preparation Task identified in the Program Plan for providing Assistance to the Russian Federation in Nuclear Material Control and Accounting and Physical Protection. The Program Plan is part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program as provided for under House Resolution (H.R.) 3807 (Title II, as referenced under Public Law (P.L.) 102-229. The terms in this glossary were derived from physical protection training material prepared at Sandia. The training material, and thus refinements to the glossary, has undergone years of development in presentation to both domestic and international audiences. Also, Russian Colleagues and interpreters have reviewed the translations for accuracy

  7. Russian standards for dimensional measurements for nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilenko, V. P.; Filippov, M. N.; Novikov, Yu. A.; Rakov, A. V.; Todua, P. A.

    2009-05-01

    In order to provide the uniformity of measurements at the nanoscale, seven national standards have been developed in the Russian Federation. Of these seven standards, three standards specify the procedures of fabrication and certification of linear measures with the linewidth lying in the nanometer range. The other four standards specify the procedures of verification and calibration of customer's atomic force microscopes and scanning electron microscopes, intended to perform measurements of linear dimensions of relief nanostructures. For an atomic force microscope, the following four parameters can be deduced: scale factor for the video signal, effective radius of the cantilever tip, scale factor for the vertical axis of the microscope, relative deflection of the microscope's Z-scanner from the orthogonality to the plane of a sample surface. For a scanning electron microscope, the following two parameters can be deduced: scale factor for the video signal and the effective diameter of the electron beam. The standards came into force in 2008.

  8. US/Russian Joint Film Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Richard

    1996-01-01

    A joint U.S./Russian film test was conducted during MIR Mission 18 to evaluate the effects of radiation on photographic film during long-duration space flights. Two duplicate sets of film were flown on this MIR mission: one set was processed and evaluated by the NASA/JSC Photographic Laboratory, and the other by the RKK Energia's Photographic Laboratory in Moscow. This preliminary report includes only the results of the JSC evaluation (excluding the SN-10 film which was not available for evaluation at the time this report was written). The final report will include an evaluation by JSC of the SN-10 film and an evaluation of the test data by the RKK Energia. ISC's evaluation of the test data showed the positive film flown was damaged very little when exposed to approximately 8 rads of radiation. Two of the three negative films were significantly damaged and the third film was damaged only moderately.

  9. Calendar anomalies in the Russian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Maria Caporale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research note investigates whether or not calendar anomalies (such as the January, day-of-the-week and turn-of-the-month effects characterize the Russian stock market, which could be interpreted as evidence against market efficiency. Specifically, OLS, GARCH, EGARCH and TGARCH models are estimated using daily data for the MICEX market index over the period Sept. 1997–Apr. 2016. The empirical results show the importance of taking into account transactions costs (proxied by the bid-ask spreads: once these are incorporated into the analysis, calendar anomalies disappear, and therefore, there is no evidence of exploitable profit opportunities based on them that would be inconsistent with market efficiency.

  10. Poland wants to thwart Russian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaux, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    The Polish authorities are doing everything in their power to block Nord Stream 2, the Russian natural gas pipeline project that will double (by 2019) Nord Stream 1 through the Baltic Sea. Gazprom's Nord Stream 2 (in which European companies such as Engie (France), Uniper and Wintershall (Germany), OMV (Austria) and Shell are involved) will poses a risk, according to Poland, to the gas supply of central European countries (and notably Ukraine). Poland also intends to stop all its gas imports from Russia after 2022 (end of the Yamal contract): the country is therefore developing its capacity to increase its own natural gas production and has just inaugurated a liquefied natural gas terminal on the Baltic Sea. A gas pipeline is also in project, that will link Norway to Poland. For power generation, the nuclear energy option is also studied

  11. Decommissioning strategy for reactor AM, Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorov, A.P.; Mukhamadeev, R.I.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies into the various aspects of decommissioning the oldest Russian research reactor, the AM reactor. Experimental and calculation results of a study to determine the inventory of long lived radioactive materials at the AM reactor are presented, along with a comparison to comparable data for other similar reactors. An analysis, by calculation, of the decay time needed to allow manual dismantling of the reactor vessel and stack, without remote operated equipment, defined it as 90 years. The possibility of burning most of the irradiated graphite to decrease the amount of long lived radioactive wastes was confirmed. The problems associated with the dismantling of the reactor components, contaminated with radioactive corrosion products, were analyzed. A decommissioning strategy for reactor AM was formed which is deferred dismantling, placing most of the radiological areas into long term safe enclosure. An overall decommissioning plan for reactor AM is given. (author)

  12. Under-reported income of Russian households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Murashov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed paper, an attempt is made to estimate the proportion of unstated income for Russian households based on micro data. An overview of microeconomic approaches to estimating the scale of under-reported income is provided. These approaches are weakly represented in the national literature, so their strengths and weaknesses are also analyzed. A theoretical model of household consumer behavior is described that allows the size of under-reported income to be estimated. The structure of household incomes and expenditures is studied based on an RLMS sample for 2012. The model is estimated using household subsamples based on the type of household and household income. The estimation technique utilizes regression variables and random effects. The resulting subsample estimates were applied to the general population and compared with those obtained by other researchers using alternative methods and other data. A comparison is made to estimates of under-reported income developed for British households.

  13. Franchising As Hybrid Organization: Russian Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuzel F. Yusupova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia has favorable conditions for development of hybrid cooperation (franchising on the different markets. On the one hand, as well as for the majority of countries with transition economies many Russian markets has been undersaturated. On the other hand, as for the developed countries, Russia has highly skilled human resources and the developed structure of consumption. In these conditions a model of coordination of the relations of franchising has been more and more popular. The benefit of this form can be explained from the side of institutional approach. The matter is that in real practice to determine the borders of firm is not simple. Key decisions of firm sometimes can be performed not in one center that can complicate distribution of control and responsibility and the determination of its borders. On the other hand, the determination of key decisions in the market, distribution of its assets and responsibility within one firm can strongly increase agency expenses. Therefore the hybrid form of coordination of the relations (to which the franchising belongs can lower these expenses, but in case of strict accomplishment of terms of the contract. The hybrid forms of coordination includes the combination of characteristics of the market and hierarchy. Transactions are controlled via the price mechanism for coordination. For control and management of united actions, the maintenance of a certain symmetry in relations are necessary the hierarchical elements. The different conditions of franchise are the reasons of risks for both parties. And for decrease in risk of opportunism the special tools are developed for disciplining of the franchisee. The described examples of the Russian franchises through comparison of contract terms showed how hybrid agreements solve the cooperation problems connected with specificity of resources, transactional expenses and the competition.

  14. STAFF MARKETING IN MODERN RUSSIAN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya N. Kretova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The conception of staff marketing, which was developed abroad, is effectively used in the developed countries for a long time. Its main advantage consists in the possibility of organizing some planning for the implementation of staff strategy: staff marketing provides the enterprise on the long-term basis with human resources capable of forming strategic potential, which would allow to implement the planned activities. Numerous problems of formation and development of civilized market relations in our country do not allow to fully implement the detailed models of staff marketing in domestic realities. On the basis of the analysis of theoretical developments and factors that have a practical impact on the implementation of marketing personnel in modern Russian conditions, the authors describe the essential elements of the conception. The primary purposes of staff marketing for domestic enterprises, grouped into the internal and external marketing are substantiated and disclosed. The special attention is paid to increasing the staff loyalty, which has dominant influence on business outcomes. The algorithm of events for the development of motivation system is proposed; at the stage of studying job satisfaction it is recommend to apply analytical calculations with the use of Shewhart control charts. Unlike traditional statistical tools based on the inspection of already implemented results, this approach is aimed at preventing negative tendencies and avoids losses associated with dissatisfaction with difficulty, as the individual employee and the team as a whole. Modern Russian enterprises can fully realize the conception of staff marketing only through rethinking of the consequences for all directions of work with the staff, as reflected in the definition of objectives, motivating staff and ensuring social responsibility of the enterprise.

  15. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    to traditional unidirectional fuel cell, bidirectional fuel cells have increased operating voltage and current ranges. These characteristics increase the stresses on dc-dc and dc-ac converters in the electrical system, which require proper design and advanced optimization. This work is part of the PhD project...... entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies......The large scale integration of renewable energy sources requires suitable energy storage systems to balance energy production and demand in the electrical grid. Bidirectional fuel cells are an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to the high energy density of fuel. Compared...

  16. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The main aims of power electronic converter systems (PECS) are to control, convert, and condition electrical power flow from one form to another through the use of solid-state electronics. This book outlines current research into the scientific modeling, experimentation, and remedial measures......-link capacitance in power electronic converter systems; wind turbine systems; smart control strategies for improved reliability of power electronics system; lifetime modelling; power module lifetime test and state monitoring; tools for performance and reliability analysis of power electronics systems; fault...... for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of PECS at different levels of complexity. Drawing on the experience of an international team of experts, this book explores the reliability of PECS covering topics including an introduction to reliability engineering in power...

  17. Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics technology has become the enabling technology for the integration of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) such as offshore wind turbine power systems and commercial photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the applications, a vast array of DPGS-based power converter...... topologies has been developed and more are coming into the market in order to achieve an efficient and reliable power conversion from the renewables. In addition, stringent demands from both the distribution system operators and the consumers have been imposed on the renewable-based DPGS. This article...... presents an overview of the power converters for the DPGS, mainly based on wind turbine systems and photovoltaic systems, covering a wide range of applications. Moreover, the modulation schemes and interfacing power filters for the power converters are also exemplified. Finally, the general control...

  18. Measurements of neutron spectrum from uranium converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, M.; Sotic, O.; Marinkovic, S.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure for determination of energetic distribution of neutrons by the multisphere technique is given. The theoretical basis and features of the method are explained. The spectral distribution of neutrons emerging from the neutron converter constructed at the bare reactor assembly RB, has been determined applying the existing computer programme and literature data for the energetic dependence functions of spheres of various diameters. The obtained spectral distribution has a specific maximum in the domain of fast neutrons, justifying thus the reacton for the construction of the converter. The neutron spectrum data obtained and given in this report are very important for the use of the converter in neutron dosimetry and radiation protection, as well as in the radiobiology, shielding, reactor physics etc. (author)

  19. Radioisotope thermionic converters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskolczy, G.; Lieb, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of radioisotope thermionics is reviewed, with emphasis on the U.S. programs, and the prospects for the future are assessed. In radioisotope thermionic converters the emitter heat is generated by the decay of a radioactive isotope. The thermionic converter emitter is mounted directly on a capsule containing the isotope. The rest of the capsule is generally insulated to reduce thermal loss. The development of isotope-fueled thermionic power systems for space application has been pursued since the late 1950's. The U.S. effort was concentrated on modular systems with alpha emitters as the isotope heat source. In the SNAP-13 program, the heat sources were Cerium isotopes and each module produced about 100 watts. The converters were planar diodes and the capsule was insulated with multi-foil insulation

  20. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of PECS at different levels of complexity. Drawing on the experience of an international team of experts, this book explores the reliability of PECS covering topics including an introduction to reliability engineering in power...... electronic converter systems; anomaly detection and remaining-life prediction for power electronics; reliability of DC-link capacitors in power electronic converters; reliability of power electronics packaging; modeling for life-time prediction of power semiconductor modules; minimization of DC......-link capacitance in power electronic converter systems; wind turbine systems; smart control strategies for improved reliability of power electronics system; lifetime modelling; power module lifetime test and state monitoring; tools for performance and reliability analysis of power electronics systems; fault...

  1. Current Mode Data Converters for Sensor Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Herald Holger

    to reduce these. A novel measure called the 'error energy measure' is presented. This measure is very helpful in the design phase as it evaluates the dynamic performance of a DAC without performing long term simulations. A thorough analysis of the stability of 1-bit oversampled data converters is presented......This thesis is mainly concerned with data conversion. Especially data conversion using current mode signal processing is treated.A tutorial chapter introducing D/A conversion is presented. In this chapter the effects that cause static and dynamic nonlinearities are discussed along with methods....... Also, a methodology for designing the feedback filter in oversampled data converters is presented. Finally, the effect of nonideal effects in oversampled converters is investigated.Switched current (SI) technique is briefly presented at the system level and transistor level. A thorough analysis...

  2. Paradoxes of evidence in Russian addiction medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelevich, V D; Zalmunin, K Yu

    2015-01-01

    For many years, clinical protocols for treatment of drug abuse patients and treatment standards in Russian Federation were not grounded on the principles of evidence-based medicine [1]. Recommendations for use of certain drugs were not accompanied by any indication of the level of credibility of the evidence supporting it. The appearance in 2014 of such indications in clinical recommendations can be considered a significant step forward for the science of addiction medicine [2]. To compare Russian evidence and practice in addiction medicines with international standards. Situation and literature analysis. The analysis shows that in the wording of recommendations on the use of medicines, some were subject of serious methodological errors. For some drugs globally there is high quality evidence supporting effects of certain drugs globally, but this is not recognized in Russia. As a result, Russian standards of clinical care for the treatment of dependency syndrome are radically different to the standards of therapy, presented in the WHO recommendations. This is due both to the disregard of the meta-analyses presented in the Cochrane reviews and also to the specific bioethical preferences in drug treatment in Russia.It is known that there is no convincing data on the effectiveness and safety of antipsychotics in the treatment of alcohol dependence syndrome [3]. 13 randomized trials with a double blind placebo-controlled design involving 1593 patients assessing effects of amisulpride, aripiprazole, flupentixolum dekonoat, olanzapine, quetiapine, tiapride showed that antipsychotics do not result in abstinence, do not reduce abuse and do not stop craving in alcoholic patients: "Antipsychotics should not be used in patients with a primary diagnosis of dependence. Appointment of antipsychotics for the treatment of substance abuse disorders are contraindicated, since not only does it not improve the condition of patients, but it can even worsen the course of the disease

  3. Russian food products marke: New CEFTA export opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to point out the unexploited export potential of CEFTA economies to the Russian market, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. More precisely, the Russian food market is examined, because of its size, the lack of domestic supply and actual changes of trading partners due to political and security antagonisms. The competitiveness of CEFTA food production on the Russian food market was analyzed by using two classical instruments of competitiveness - coefficient of conformity (CC and real effective exchange rate (RER.CC is applied first to the CEFTA export and Russian import of food in total, and then to the six main Russian import food products. The results indicate the highest degree of matching between Russian import and all CEFTA country export of fruits, vegetable and its processed commodities. RER is calculated to show competitiveness in terms of prices in bilateral trade, and result shows a very favorable ratio of currency, except in the case of Montenegro and Bosnia because their fixation to euro. Due to the small size of CEFTA production and non-proportional large Russian market, the interconnection, e.g. forming the value chain made of CEFTAs agriculture and food industry companies is suggested as the basis of new CEFTA export strategy.

  4. Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  5. single-phase dc phase dc-ac boost converter ac boost converter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    supply (UPS) AC motor drives and other power sup systems, need to step-up the DC input voltage. increase the output voltage level in order requirements, DC-DC boost converter is used provide DC bus voltage for PWM inverters. Hence, conventional design always cascades DC and a separate DC-AC converter.

  6. Efficient modelling of a modular multilevel converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khatib, Walid Ziad; Holbøll, Joachim; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2013-01-01

    Looking at the near future, we see that offshore wind penetration into the electrical grid will continue increasing rapidly. Until very recently, the trend has been to place the offshore wind farms close to shore within the reach for transmission using HVAC cables but for larger distances HVDC...... are calculated for the converter. Time-domain simulations on a MMC HVDC test system are performed in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment based on the new model. The results demonstrate that the modeled MMC-HVDC system with or without converter transformer is able to operate under specific fault conditions....

  7. The Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme-Induced Angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat

    2017-02-01

    The bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist icatibant is effective in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema. The drug is not approved officially for this indication and has to be administered in an emergency situation off-label. Corticosteroids or antihistamines do not seem to work in this condition. The effectiveness of C1-esterase-inhibitor in angiotensin-converting enzyme-induced angioedema must be verified in a double-blind study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  9. Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

  10. New strategy for optimizing wavelength converter placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Y. C.; Chien, S. F.; Low, Andy L. Y.; Teo, C. F.; Lee, Youngseok

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a new strategic alternate-path routing to be combined with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to better solve the wavelength converters placement problem. The strategic search heuristic is designed to provide network connectivity topologies for the converters to be placed more effectively. The new strategy is applied to the 14-node NSFNET to examine its efficiency in reducing the blocking probability in sparse wavelength conversion network. Computed results show that, when applied to the identical optimization framework, our search method outperforms both the equal-cost multipath routing and traffic-engineering-aware shortest-path routing.

  11. A linear temperature-to-frequency converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif

    1965-01-01

    , and that the maximum value of the temperature-frequency coefficient beta in this point is-1/3 alpha, where a is the temperature coefficient of the thermistor at the corresponding temperature. Curves showing the range in which the converter is expected to be linear to within plusmn0.1 degC are given. A laboratory......-built converter having beta = 1.0% degC-1 at 25degC is found to be linear to within plusmn0. 1 degC from 10 to 40degC....

  12. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    . Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. This implicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development...... stages, and results thereby in a need for specific test objectives and procedures for each development stage. This PhD thesis has looked into the different development stages and more specifically in the performance assessment of wave energy converters based on tank testing and sea trials. The objective...

  13. Performance Evaluation of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur

    . Guidelines for the development of wave energy converters recommend the use of different prototypes, having different sizes, which have to perform tank tests or sea trials. Thisimplicates the need of different testing environment, which shifts from being controllable to uncontrollable with the development...... stages, and results thereby in a need for specific testobjectives and procedures for each development stage. This PhD thesis has looked into the different development stages and more specifically in the performance assessment of wave energy converters based on tank testing and sea trials. The objective...

  14. BUCHAREST AS A CITY BRAND: HOW TO ATTRACT RUSSIAN TOURISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina OCHKOVSKAYA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the attractiveness of Bucharest and its perception by Russian tourists as well as to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the city and define the idea for positioning statement for this place. Bucharest has a deep history and cultural heritage that are highly appreciated by tourists seeking cultural tourism. Moreover, Bucharest had the nickname of "Little Paris" which implied the beauty of the city. Our study focuses mainly on the target audience of Russian people who appreciate cultural heritage. According to the Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat, the number of Russians who visited Romania as tourists increased by 73% in the first quarter of 2015 (http://russtd.com/destinations/eastern-europe-loses-almost-half-russian-tourists-year. This increase is a positive sign as it means that Romania and Bucharest are becoming more and more attractive for Russian tourists. Tourists can bring many benefits to the place, both economic and social. In turn, new places with heritage can enrich tourists with new knowledge and broaden their erudition. The study allows us to understand the perception of Bucharest by Russian tourists and single out the key elements of the city of Bucharest. The key elements of the city of Bucharest are rooted in cultural heritage and authenticity, including different styles of architecture, Orthodox churches, classical and folk music, outstanding musicians and food. Bucharest might thus be offered the positioning as a mysterious authentic city revealing the coexistence of different times.To some extent this paper contributes to the understanding of the image of Bucharest in Russian tourists’ eyes, their associations and fears. It gives some insights into factors that make Russians choose touristic destinations. In addition, some ideas for the city positioning, logos and slogans can derive from this paper. The study can be useful for touristic agencies or for the Ministry

  15. The U.S.-Russian joint studies on using power reactors to disposition surplus weapons plutonium as spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebeskov, A.; Kalashnikov, A.; Pavlovichev, A.

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, the US and the Russian Federation completed an initial joint study of the candidate options for the disposition of surplus weapons plutonium in both countries. The options included long term storage, immobilization of the plutonium in glass or ceramic for geologic disposal, and the conversion of weapons plutonium to spent fuel in power reactors. For the latter option, the US is only considering the use of existing light water reactors (LWRs) with no new reactor construction for plutonium disposition, or the use of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) heavy water reactors. While Russia advocates building new reactors, the cost is high, and the continuing joint study of the Russian options is considering only the use of existing VVER-1000 LWRs in Russia and possibly Ukraine, the existing BN-60O fast neutron reactor at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant in Russia, or the use of the Canadian CANDU reactors. Six of the seven existing VVER-1000 reactors in Russia and the eleven VVER-1000 reactors in Ukraine are all of recent vintage and can be converted to use partial MOX cores. These existing VVER-1000 reactors are capable of converting almost 300 kg of surplus weapons plutonium to spent fuel each year with minimum nuclear power plant modifications. Higher core loads may be achievable in future years

  16. Dual Converter Fed Open-End Transformer Topology with Parallel Converters and Integrated Magnetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    converter group comprises of two parallel Voltage Source Converters (VSCs), whose carrier signals are interleaved to improve the harmonic quality of the resultant switched output voltage of that converter group. However, an additional inductive component is required to suppress the circulating current...... that flows between the parallel interleaved VSCs. An integrated inductor is proposed which suppresses the circulating current in both the converter groups. In addition, the functionality of the line filter inductor is also integrated. Flux in various parts of the integrated inductor is analyzed and a design...... procedure is also described. The volume and the losses of the proposed solution are compared with that of the state-of-art solution. The control of the proposed converter system is also discussed. The analysis has been verified by the simulation and experimental results....

  17. The Bear and Dragon Embrace: Russian-Chinese Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Authors: 2000), 89. 2 Joseph Y.S. Cheng, “Challenges to China’s Russian Policy in Early 21st Century,” Journal of Contemporary Asia , Vol. 34, No. 4...shield their internal abuses from Western criticism, and they generally do not publicly criticize or comment on each other’s policies .64 Russian and...Joseph Y.S. “Challenges to China’s Russian Policy in Early 21st Century.” Journal of Contemporary Asia . Vol. 34, No. 4 (2004): 480-502. Contessi

  18. No sleep in the deep for Russian subs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, J.

    1993-01-01

    In the Russian Far East, dozens of nuclear-powered submarines, once a threat to Western navies, are now a threat to the environment. Between mid-1989 and 1993, over 80 Russian nuclear submarines were removed from service. Nearly 80 more will be retired by the year 2000. Most of these submarines contain two nuclear reactors. The many decommisioned submarines have overwhelmed the limited funds and processing capacity of the Russian Navy. Problems include removal of the fuel, scrapping of the submarines, and safe disposal of the radioactive reactor vessels

  19. Teaching Russian Literature in Italian Universities: Problems and Possible Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Marchesini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Vladimirovič Nabokov is undoubtedly a key figure of world literature. Nonetheless, together with his legacy as a writer, his activity as a University teacher should be considered. This aspect, often marginalized by Nabokov criticism, deserves greater recognition. Indeed, it could stimulate interesting theoretical reflections on how to teach literature, especially Russian. In this perspective, this paper discusses some of the most common problems in teaching Russian literature in Italian universities, suggesting possible solutions inferred from Nabokov’s Lectures on Russian Literature (1981.

  20. Competitiveness of innovative companies in the new economy: the russian in the postcrisis period

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkus, Natalia A.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the competitiveness of Russian companies shows that one of the key problems of Russian business is the low level of innovation. The article considers problems associated with inert innovation policy of the Russian state, examines the development of different types of strategic innovation behavior of Russian companies.

  1. Health Information in Russian (Русский)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bad Breath - Русский (Russian) PDF California Dental Association Benefits of Exercise Starting an Exercise Program - Русский (Russian) ... Русский (Russian) PDF American Cancer Society Blood Sugar Fasting Blood Sugar Test - Русский (Russian) Bilingual PDF Health ...

  2. Kultuuriruum ja Natalie Mei prostitutsiooniteemalised joonistused / Kai Stahl

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stahl, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Analüüsitakse feministliku lugemise ja Juri Lotmani kultuurisemiootika abil kultuuri ja "mittekultuuri" vahelist piiriala, keskendudes viisidele, kuidas Natalie Mei erines oma joonistustega kunsti üldpildist - rikkudes traditsionaalset pildikoodi, ironiseerib Mei selle teema domineerivat käsitlust ja pildilist kuvamist, luues naiskunstnikuna uue vaatenurga

  3. National Ignition Facility frequency converter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, C.E.; Auerbach, J.M.; Adams, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary error budget for the third harmonic converter for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser driver has been developed using a root-sum-square-accumulation of error sources. Such a budget sets an upper bound on the allowable magnitude of the various effects that reduce conversion efficiency. Development efforts on crystal mounting technology and crystal quality studies are discussed

  4. Analysis of a phase-converter performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litchev, A.; Yanev, K. [Botswana Univ., Gaborone (Botswana). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A theoretical investigation of a phase converter consisting of static reactive elements was presented. The converter was connected to a 3-phase voltage supply and a large single-phase load in order to enable the symmetrical loading of all 3 phases. The parameters of the converter elements were determined in order to ensure that source phase currents functioned as part of a symmetrical system. Inductive and capacitive single-phase loads for the 3-phase system were also modelled. The power factor of the 3-phase source was unity at a purely active single-phase load. The source power factor decreased and remained lower than that of the load at inductive-resistive or capacitive-resistive loads. The source power factor was capacitive at inductive-resistive loads and capacitive-resistive when the source power factor was inductive. The theoretical study was compared with experimental data. Results of the investigation indicated that the static converter can be used to load 3-phase voltage systems with single-phase loads by maintaining supply symmetry. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. Validating converted java code via symbolic execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Harry M.; Verhoef, C.

    2017-01-01

    The testing approach described here has grown out of migration projects aimed at converting procedural programs in COBOL or PL/1 to object-oriented Java code. The code conversion itself is now automated but not completely. The human reengineer still has to make some adjustments to the automatically

  6. Converting skeletal structures to quad dominant meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Welnicka, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    We propose the Skeleton to Quad-dominant polygonal Mesh algorithm (SQM), which converts skeletal structures to meshes composed entirely of polar and annular regions. Both types of regions have a regular structure where all faces are quads except for a single ring of triangles at the center of eac...

  7. Mathematical modeling of the flash converting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, H.Y.; Perez-Tello, M.; Riihilahti, K.M. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An axisymmetric mathematical model for the Kennecott-Outokumpu flash converting process for converting solid copper matte to copper is presented. The model is an adaptation of the comprehensive mathematical model formerly developed at the University of Utah for the flash smelting of copper concentrates. The model incorporates the transport of momentum, heat, mass, and reaction kinetics between gas and particles in a particle-laden turbulent gas jet. The standard k-{epsilon} model is used to describe gas-phase turbulence in an Eulerian framework. The particle-phase is treated from a Lagrangian viewpoint which is coupled to the gas-phase via the source terms in the Eulerian gas-phase governing equations. Matte particles were represented as Cu{sub 2}S yFeS, and assumed to undergo homogeneous oxidation to Cu{sub 2}O, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and SO{sub 2}. A reaction kinetics mechanism involving both external mass transfer of oxygen gas to the particle surface and diffusion of oxygen through the porous oxide layer is proposed to estimate the particle oxidation rate Predictions of the mathematical model were compared with the experimental data collected in a bench-scale flash converting facility. Good agreement between the model predictions and the measurements was obtained. The model was used to study the effect of different gas-injection configurations on the overall fluid dynamics in a commercial size flash converting shaft. (author)

  8. Near-Shore Floating Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruol, Piero; Zanuttigh, Barbara; Martinelli, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this note is to analyse the possible application of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) as a combined tool to protect the coast and harvest energy. Physical model tests are used to evaluate wave transmission past a near-shore floating WEC of the wave activated body type, named DEXA. Efficiency...

  9. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) insertiondeletion (ID) gene polymorphism on the treatment responses of type 2 diabetic subjects at varying stages of nephropathy to ACE inhibitors (ACEI) with regard to blood pressure (MAP) and renal response (GFR). Methods: The ...

  10. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  11. Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW’s has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion,...

  12. Development of the Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, Hans Christian

    2000-01-01

    The development of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon (WD) is presented. The WD is based on the overtopping principle. Initially a description of the WD is given. Then the development over time in terms of the various research and development projects working with the concept is described...

  13. Aquabuoy Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter

    The work reported here is part of the contract agreement between the Finavera Renewables Ocean Energy Ltd. and the Department of Civil Engineering Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory to instrument a model in scale 1:10 to prototype of the AquaBuOY (AB) wave energy converter and to analyse...

  14. Compact HVDC converter station design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lips, P.

    1976-01-01

    Possible means to reduce HVDC converter station land area requirements are shown. The split-up of real estate between the different kinds of equipment in present-day terminals is analyzed. From this, a priority list for suitable action to be taken is deducted. Three concepts of converter values suitable for compact converter stations are briefly discussed. By example of a 2400 MW terminal it is shown that with air-insulated liquid cooled thyristor valves a land area requirement of 0.8 m/sup 2//MW (8.5 sq. ft./MW) can be achieved, i.e., 1.2 percent of that required by the Pacific Intertie. Alternative solutions with metalclad valves are introduced and it is concluded that for converter stations with high rating in metropolitan areas, air-insulated liquid cooled thyristor valves seem to be the most appropriate choice. Where a low profile station is desirable, dead tank oil-insulated thyristor valves for outdoor mounting could be the optimum solution.

  15. Molecules for Converting Sunlight into Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 10. Molecules for Converting Sunlight into Electricity - Dye Sensitized Nanocrystalline-TiO2 based Photovoltaics. Ravi Mosurkal. General Article Volume 6 Issue 10 October 2001 pp 76-86 ...

  16. Online Scheduling in Distributed Message Converter Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risse, Thomas; Wombacher, Andreas; Surridge, Mike; Taylor, Steve; Aberer, Karl

    The optimal distribution of jobs among hosts in distributed environments is an important factor to achieve high performance. The optimal strategy depends on the application. In this paper we present a new online scheduling strategy for distributed EDI converter system. The strategy is based on the

  17. multilevel buck converter for automotive electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from internal combustion engine (ICE). The mass production of the hybrid electric (HE) and the electric vehicle (EV) is still awaited due to subsystem inefficiencies. Increasing the efficiencies of the power converters within subsystems of these HEVs and EVs will increase the performance of the new transportation vehicles.

  18. Catalytic Converters Maintain Air Quality in Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, engineers developed a tin-oxide based washcoat to prevent oxygen buildup in carbon dioxide lasers used to detect wind shears. Airflow Catalyst Systems Inc. of Rochester, New York, licensed the technology and then adapted the washcoat for use as a catalytic converter to treat the exhaust from diesel mining equipment.

  19. Convertible bonds and bank risk-taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, N.; Perotti, E.

    2015-01-01

    We study how contingent capital that converts in equity ahead of default affects bankrisk-shifting. Going concern conversion restores equity value in highly levered states,thus reducing heightened risk incentives. In contrast, conversion at default for traditionalbail-inable debt has no effect on

  20. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...

  1. Do Convertible Bond Issuers Cater to Investor Demand?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Duca, Eric; Dutordoir, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of fluctuations in investor demand for convertible securities on convertible bond issue volumes, pricing, and design. We find evidence of a positive impact of investor demand proxies on convertible bond issue volumes. We also document significantly lower convertible bond

  2. Methods for Converter Sludge Dehydration Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhromeev, M. I.; Moreva, Y. A.; Starkova, L. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the intensification methods for converter sludge dehydration exemplified by the sludges of the Oxygen Converter Workshop (OCW) of the Open Joint-Stock Company “Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works” (MMK, OJSC), one of the largest metallurgical companies in the Southern Urals. Converter sludges can contain up to 45-70% of ferrum [21] which is interesting in terms of their use as an addition to a sinter-feed mixture. Sludge intensifies the sintering process. It positively influences pelletizing and fusion mixture melting dynamics at sintering. Over the period of the converter sludge dehydration complex operation at the OCW, MMK, OJSC, it was revealed that processing results in obtaining of high humidity sludge. It causes sludge freezing during the winter period, thus, its transportation involves extra costs for sludge warming up. To resolve the above-mentioned problem, the following works were performed in 2016: - experimental studies of how the application of the low-molecular anionic flocculate “SEURVEY” FL-3 influences sludge humidity reduction. - experimental studies of how the filtering press process operation parameters influence sludge humidity reduction. The new flocculate application didn't lower the dehydrated sludge humidity (the objective was the humidity of not more than 15%). Basing upon the conducted research results, we can make a conclusion that putting into operation the sewage water reactant treatment technology with the use of “SEURVEY”, FL-3 (H-10) is not recommended. The research of the influence the filtering press process parameters have on the dehydration process intensification demonstrated that reaching of the obtained residue humidity value lower than 15% is possible under the reduction of the filtering press chamber depths to 30 mm and with the application of additional operation “Residue drying” with compressed air. This way of the sludge dehydration problem resolving at filtering presses of the

  3. The Potential of Modern Russian Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Grigor’evna Dobrokhleb

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the necessity of socio-demographic approach to assessing the potential of modern generations. The demographic potential of generations is determined by their number, their share in total population, and their life expectancy. Their economic potential is determined by the proportion of representatives of different generations in total employment. Their social potential is determined by the system of values of generations. The rapid growth of differences in these characteristics leads to the break up of intergenerational relations and is connected with the aggravation of social contradictions. The potential of modern generations can be considered in different aspects: number of generations, life expectancy at birth, the share of representatives of different generations that share or do not share the basic social values of the society, including values related to reproductive and other types of demographic behavior. In order to identify existing differences between generations in the framework of the socio-demographic approach, the paper analyzes the dynamics of the number of young people in 1926, 1936, 2014 in the Russian Federation; the authors also carry out a comparative analysis of the secondary and authors’ sociological data of values-related and reproductive attitudes of conditionally parental and child generations. Russian researchers studied the life potential of the population and proved that in 1990–2010, the life potential of Russia’s population decreased. Reduction in the life potential in the population in general is associated with a decrease in this indicator for the younger generation (children’s ages due to the reduction in the number and proportion of this generation in the population structure. The reduction in the life potential has not stopped because the number of the younger generation continues to decrease. However, life expectancy in this period increased. Nevertheless, in general, mortality in

  4. Determination of Russian innovative activity tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A. Motova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an attempt to group main types of economic activity depending on intensity and efficiency of innovative activities on the basis of the available statistical information on dynamics of innovative activities in various industries of economy and with the use of the mathematic and statistical tool, in particular, cluster analysis tool. For this purpose, on the basis of the data, contained in the statistical report, characterizing the level of innovative activity (number of the innovation-active organizations, costs for technological innovations, amount of the shipped innovative products, etc. the indicators, characterizing intensity and efficiency of innovative activities were calculated. They have acted as the initial information for implementation of the cluster analysis.Further analysis results of the data, characterizing profitability of investments in various industries of economy are presented. Obviously, the activity of implementation of financial investments in various sectors of industrial production and service sector are directly connected with the profit on financial investments. On the basis of the dynamics analysis of investments’ profitability in various industries of economy for the period of 2005-2014 leaders and outsiders in this indicator are revealed. The following conclusion is made: the need to develop the forecast estimations on the indicators, characterizing profitability of financial investments on main types of economic activity.The analysis of innovative activities in the Russian Federation (results are given in the article, is based on the official statistics data. The main source of statistical information is the report «Information about innovative activity of organization «. The data, obtained as a result of the observation, are published in the editions «Indicators of Innovative Activity» (The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat and

  5. AUTOINFLAMMATORY DISEASES IN RHEUMATOLOGY: RUSSIAN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Salugina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs are characterized by periodic, sometimes self-limiting attacks that appear as fever and clinical symptoms resembling rheumatic ones, in the absence of autoimmune or infectious diseases. The group of AIDs encompasses a broad spectrum of nosological entities; some of them have been recently dealt with by rheumatologists.Objective: to define the spectrum of AIDs in the practice of a pediatric rheumatologist from the results of visits to the Russian Federal Rheumatology Center.Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled patients who had visited the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology in 2007 to 2015 for fever and other signs of a systemic inflammatory process in order to specify their diagnosis and to rule out infections, blood cancer, and other diseases. All underwent conventional rheumatologic examination, HLA Class A typing, and molecular genetic testing.Results and discussion. 101 patients aged 6.5 months to 60 years with AIDs were identified over 9 years and diagnosed as having the following diseases. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF was detected in 17 patients (the female to male (M/F ratio was 6:11; Behсet's disease (BD in 25 children (M/F, 14:11, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS in 17 patients, including Muckle–Wells syndrome in 13 (M/F, 4:9; chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous articular and neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (CINCA/NOMID syndrome in 4 (M/F, 3:1, periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis (PFAPA syndrome in 17 (M/F, 10:7, hyper-IgD syndrome/mevalonate kinase deficiency syndrome in 3 (M/F, 0:3, tumor necrosis factor receptor periodic syndrome (TRAPS in 7 (M/F, 4:3, undifferentiated AID in 14, and Blau syndrome in one patient. The patients with BD were rather ethnically diverse: among them, there were representatives of North Caucasian peoples, Tatars, Uzbeks, Moldavians, and others; there were 7 ethnic Russians. There

  6. A NEW RUSSIAN WASTE MANAGEMENT INSTALLATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Andrew; Engxy, Thor; Endregard, Monica; Schwab, Patrick; Nazarian, Ashot; Krumrine, Paul; Backe, Steinar; Gorin, Stephen; Evans, Brent

    2003-02-27

    The Polyarninsky Shipyard (sometimes called Navy Yard No. 10 or the Shkval Shipyard) has been designated as the recipient for Solid Radioactive Waste (SRW) management facilities under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program. The existing SRW storage site at this shipyard is filled to capacity, which is forcing the shipyard to reduce its submarine dismantlement activities. The Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation is planned as a combination of several AMEC projects. It will have several elements, including a set of hydraulic metal cutting tools, containers for transport and storage, the Mobile Pretreatment Facility (MPF) for Solid Radioactive Waste, the PICASSO system for radiation monitoring, and a Waste Storage Facility. Hydraulically operated cutting tools can cut many metal items via shearing so that dusts or particulates are not generated. The AMEC Program procured a cutting tool system, consisting of a motor and hydraulic pumping unit, a 38-mm conduit-cutting tool, a 100- mm pipe-cutting tool, and a spreading tool all mounted on a wheeled cart. The vendor modified the tool system for extremely cold conditions and Russian electrical standards, then delivered the tool system to the Polyarninsky shipyard. A new container for transportation and storage of SRW and been designed and fabricated. The first 400 of these containers have been delivered to the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy for use at the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation. These containers are cylindrical in shape and can hold seven standard 200-liter drums. They are the first containers ever certified in Russia for the offsite transport of military SRW. These containers can be transported by truck, rail, barge, or ship. The MPF will be the focal point of the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation and a key element in meeting the nuclear submarine dismantlement and waste processing needs of the Russian Federation. It will receive raw

  7. Russian and American students' images of their future presidents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strokanov A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of their future presidents’ images among Russian and American students was studied. The general tendencies and specific features of the perception of a future president among Russian and American students were revealed. For respondents of both groups, the significant factors influencing their choice of whom to vote for were the program of the candidate, his strategic thinking, the reliability of his team, a high degree of professionalism and competence, leadership skills, the ability to speak and convince, and personal qualities. In regard to specific features, Russian students paid more attention to the business qualities of a future president than did American students; Russian students were optimistic and considered elections capable of effecting changes in the country. American students showed less interest in political events, along with the professional qualities of the leader; they paid attention to his appearance and believed that elections can affect the private life of people.

  8. Russian-Indian Workshop "Radio Astronomy And Star Formation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, Igor; Zemlyanukha, P.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India supported several joint projects in this field. The aims of the workshop were a discussion of the results of these and other relevant projects and promotion of the further Russian-Indian cooperation in this rapidly developing area of astrophysical research. The participants of the workshop represented several Russian and Indian organizations, which have important results in this field. The scientific program included a wide range of relevant observational and theoretical studies. The organizers of the workshop hope that the vivid discussions and tight communications between the participants will lead to increasing cooperation in this field between Russian and Indian researchers.

  9. On the issue of modern Russian society’s consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Samsonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the problems that challenge to consolidation of contemporary Russian society, such as social inequality in different spheres, high level of corruption, the inefficiency of public authorities, demographic problems etc, and trace major consolidation trends.

  10. Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Russian Federation Snow Depth and Ice Crust Surveys, dataset DSI-9808, contains routine snow surveys that run throughout the cold season every 10 days (every five...

  11. Commonalities in Russian Military Operations in Urban Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Dale

    2003-01-01

    .... In doing so it advantage in technology will be significantly reduced. By conducting a study of the Russian operations in Chechnya and comparing it to operations in Stalingrad some enduring traits began to emerge...

  12. Russian Basic Course: Aural Comprehension Enrichment Word Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Several hundred military terms in Russian are contained in this pamphlet. Terms pertaining to army, navy, and air force weaponry and procedures are presented on aural comprehension enrichment word cards with English translations on the reverse side. (RL)

  13. Russian Fighter Aircraft Industrial Base: Parallels with the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolkcom, Christopher; Schwarzler, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    ... and allocated resources for construction. Once among the most glamorous components of the Soviet military industrial complex, the Russian military aircraft industry has been described by some analysts as being on the verge of collapse...

  14. Threats to Russian Security: the View From Moscom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The years 1999-2000 mark a watershed in Russian military policy. During this time President Boris Yeltsin resigned and was succeeded by Vladimir Putin, who was elected in his own right in March 2000...

  15. Strategic development of a university in the Russian exclave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemeshev Andrey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on key characteristics of modern universities (global, scientific and entrepreneurial ones. The authors discuss prospects of the strategic development of the university in the Russian exclave.

  16. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE IN NORTHERN NORWAY: HISTORICAL, ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL TIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маргарита Ольнова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the topic “Commodification of the Russian language”. The author examines the process of commodification in the Norwegian city of Kirkenes and connects this phenomenon with the rise of the new economy and the current cooperation between Russia and Norway. The paper pre-sents an analysis of the linguistic landscape of Kirkenes, newspaper publications devoted to the “Russian Kirkenes” and interviews with Russian tourists and residents of the city. According to the author, the situation in Kirkenes illustrates the transition of the old economy into a new one: the former mining city turned into a tourist Mecca of the North, a center of cooperation of the Nordic countries. In such conditions, know-ledge of the Russian language becomes beneficial for the city's residents.

  17. Rethinking the National Interest: Putin's Turn in Russian Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medvedev, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the historical and political roots behind a transformation in Russian foreign policy undertaken by President Vladimir Putin in the wake of the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001...

  18. Future Legacy of the Russian Revolution. Participatory Political Economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2017), s. 565-580 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : revolution * participation * political economy * Russian revolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Political science

  19. Some Remarks on Mood and Aspect in Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.

    1974-01-01

    An explanation is offered of aspect in imperative verb forms and in certain infinitive verb forms in Russian. Three presuppositions or conditions of appropriateness are postulated and their correlation to the aspect of an imperative or infinitive form discussed. (RM)

  20. "Signs of honor" among Russian inmates in Israel's prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Efrat

    2010-12-01

    The unique nature of Israeli society as an immigrant society has also affected the prison population in Israel. This article focuses on a social and cultural phenomenon that particularly characterizes the prisoners of Russian origin, the phenomenon of tattoos. Using postmodernist theories, the article examines the function of the tattoo among Russian prisoners and the role it plays in constructing the criminal self-identity of these inmates in Israeli prisons. The tattoos observed during 2005-2006 among the Russian prisoners in four major Israeli prisons reflect the values of the Russian criminal subculture from which they evolved and were imported. This subculture is characterized by a hierarchical class structure and manifestations of machismo, domination, defiance, rebellion, and open antagonism against the Establishment and its representatives.

  1. Rosoboroneksport: Arms Sales and the Structure of Russian Defense Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blank, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    In August 2006, the U.S. Government imposed sanctions on Russian arms sellers and producers, Rosoboroneksport, Russia's main arms-selling agency, and Sukhoi, which manufactures aircraft, because of their arms sales to Iran...

  2. Approaches of Russian oil companies to optimal capital structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishuk, T.; Ulyanova, O.; Savchitz, V.

    2015-11-01

    Oil companies play a vital role in Russian economy. Demand for hydrocarbon products will be increasing for the nearest decades simultaneously with the population growth and social needs. Change of raw-material orientation of Russian economy and the transition to the innovative way of the development do not exclude the development of oil industry in future. Moreover, society believes that this sector must bring the Russian economy on to the road of innovative development due to neo-industrialization. To achieve this, the government power as well as capital management of companies are required. To make their optimal capital structure, it is necessary to minimize the capital cost, decrease definite risks under existing limits, and maximize profitability. The capital structure analysis of Russian and foreign oil companies shows different approaches, reasons, as well as conditions and, consequently, equity capital and debt capital relationship and their cost, which demands the effective capital management strategy.

  3. Coping with the New Challenges in Managing a Russian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazev, Evgeni

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the dramatic changes in funding of Russian higher education and the resulting challenges for university governance within a globally competitive context. Describes the strategic management approach involving change management taken by Kazan State University. (EV)

  4. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...... ratio. The dc-dc converter controls the battery charge/discharge current while the grid converter controls the common dc-link voltage and the grid current. The applied control structures and the hardware implementation of both converters are presented, together with their interaction. Experimental...

  5. Investment and Saving in Russian Macroeconomy. Compilation and Analyses of an aggregated SAM for Russia, 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Yasushi Nakamura

    1998-01-01

    Assessing investment activity is a key to understanding the present Russian economy; the Russian official national accounts, however, do not give very much information on it because of their large statistical discrepancies. Using a matrix balancing method, we construct an aggregated Social Accounting Matrix (SAM), which integrates a Russian Flow of Funds table into the Russian national accounts and contains no discrepancies. Comparing the Russian SAM with Japanese and US SAMs, we find some ch...

  6. Russian spent marine fuel as a global security risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gussgard, K.; Reistad, O.

    2001-01-01

    Russian marine fuel is a trans-national security concern. This paper focuses on specific technical properties of Russian marine nuclear fuel especially relevant for evaluating different aspects on nuclear proliferation, in addition to risks associated with regional environmental degradation and illegal diversion of radiological substances. Russian fresh fuel for marine reactors has been involved in several significant cases of illicit trafficking of special nuclear materials. The amount and quality of nuclear materials in Russian spent marine fuel give also reason for concern. Not less than 200 marine reactor cores are ready for having their spent fuel unloaded and preliminary stored on shore in the Far East and North West of Russia, and large amounts of spent naval fuel have been stored at Russian military bases for decades. In order to assess the security risks associated with Russian spent marine fuel, this paper discusses the material attractiveness of spent fuel from all types of Russian marine reactors. The calculations are based on a model of a light water moderated Russian icebreaker reactor. The computer tool HELIOS, used for modelling the reactor and the reactor operations, has been extensively qualified by comparisons with experimental data and international benchmark problems for reactor physics codes as well as through feedback from applications. Some of these benchmarks and studies include fuel enrichments up to 90% in Russian marine reactors. Several fuel data cases are discussed in the paper, focusing especially on: 1) early fuel designs with low initial enrichment; 2) more modern fuel designs used in third and fourth generation of Russian submarines probably with intermediate enriched fuel; and 3) marine fuel with initial enrichment levels close to weapons-grade material. In each case the fuel has been burned until k eff has reached below 1. Case 1) has been evaluated, the calculations made as basis for this paper have concentrated on fuel with

  7. Is Transition in the Russian Economy Complete?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Mikhailovich Kul’kov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A quarter of a century passed since the beginning of market transformation (transition in Russia; nevertheless, there are serious doubts about whether the transition is complete. The effective transition to a new type of economy should ideally be a period of transformation, modernization and the formation of a national economic model. Only in this case can it be qualified as full, adequate, and constructive. Such combination has not taken place in Russia; it seems as if the market transformations were taking place independently, and this is the root of Russia’s many contemporary problems. The current crisis in the Russian economy primarily reflects the pendency of these tasks that were necessary to be solved from the very beginning of transformation. This crisis is first of all a focused expression and continuation of the transformation and reproduction crises in the national economy, the crisis of the current defective economic models and the then pursued economic policy. External factors only facilitated the exacerbation of Russia’s internal problems. In order to respond effectively to such a large-scale crisis it is necessary to consider all its aspects and underlying causes originating in the challenges of the transition period. Only the implementation of economic modernization and the formation of an effective national economic model is able to bring the Russian economy to a new level of development and thus to bring the transformation, which is lagging behind due to historical reasons, in line with these processes. In this case there will be good reason to conclude that the final border of the transition period is overcome. A new model of Russia’s economy must be adequate to the entire set of national-specific factors and strategic and vital development goals that Russia has. The core of modernization must be new industrialization, which is characterized by the transition to automation, computerization, greening of industrial

  8. Media Education: Opinions of Russian Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fedorov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the conducted questionnaire among teachers of secondary schools showed that realizing the great importance of the media in the contemporary information society, three quarters of them support the idea of media education at schools and 58% believe that a new major for pedagogical institutes needs to be introduced - “Media Education”. Most of teachers justly think that the combination of the autonomous and integrated media lessons is the most effective way today for the development of media education in Russia, and therefore - for the increase of media literacy of the young generation. However, in spite of the fact that majority of teachers define the aim to develop the critical thinking of the audience as one of the most important, they significantly overestimate the weight of “protectionist” approach to media studies today, and on the contrary, undervalue the goals to develop the democratic thinking of the pupils, their knowledge about theory and history of media and media culture. Moreover, despite of the general support of media education ideas (in theory expressed by 75 % of the teachers, actually only one third of them use some elements of media education at their lessons (in reality, and one fifth of the group does not integrate it at all. The hardest obstacle on the way of media education into the Russian classrooms is the absence of financial motivation, according to the teachers, though to our point of view, last but not the least is the passive anticipation of the authority’s directives and insufficient level of knowledge of today’s Russian teachers in terms of the theory and methods of media education. Thus, the analysis of the teachers’ questionnaire has given us additional proof for the necessity of the official introduction of the new university-level Major- “Media Education” (namely, Major, because the homonymous Minor was registered in 2002 and media education courses for the students of all

  9. Russian Military Politics and Russia’s 2010 Defense Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    escala - tion towards a large-scale conflict (Borisov 2009). In line with other security documents of recent years of Putin and Medvedev, e.g...Russian-Chinese military exercises and their wider perspective: Power play in Central Asia , Russian Series 05/51, Swindon, UK: CSRC, UK Defence...doctrine” in response to increas- ing external instability and internal problems associ- ated with the Caucasus and Central Asia . He cited the

  10. Interpersonal communication about politics among Russian migrants in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    CHERNYUK, IRINA

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to analyse interpersonal communication on politics among Russian migrants in Finland, and to find an answer to the question: What are the essentials of the interpersonal communication on politics among Russian migrants in Finland? The study presents an exploration of scientific discussion on political communication. The research focuses political communication among citizens on interpersonal level, and considers different approaches, theories and findings in that fiel...

  11. "THE ETERNAL GOSPEL" IN THE ARTISTIC CHRONOTOPES OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov V. N.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the status of chronotope as a new category of historical poetics (M. Bakhtin. The author sets up the problems of the analysis of imaginative space and time in the works of Russian classical writers. The Christian symbolism in Dostoevsky's and Turgenev's novels is unfolded; the occurrence of the Gospel and the phenomenon of Christ in Russian literature are emphasized.

  12. Constructing motherhood: Russian women bringing up children in Bergen, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Eva José Brækkan

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to explore how Russian women have constructed motherhood within the Norwegian context. The empirical material came from qualitative, loosely structured interviews with nine middle-class, educated, Russian immigrant women in Bergen, Norway. In this study motherhood was understood as both constructed and contextual, and as part of a broader conceptual framework made up of the following: Baumrind's typology of parenting styles; a culture, gender and social cl...

  13. Offer and acceptance under the Russian Civil Code

    OpenAIRE

    Musin, Valery

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with a procedure of entering into a contract under Russian civil law both at the domestic and foreign markets. An offer and an acceptance are considered in the light or relevant provisions of the Russian Civil Codes of 1922, 1964 and that currently effective as compared with rules of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980 and INIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 2010.

  14. Europa can not end use of russian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2006-01-01

    In thi paper the extract from an interview with the Chairman of the Board of Directors of gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Philippe Boucly is published. Shutdowns of gas supplies at the beginning of the year triggered the start of discussions on Europe's dependency on Russian natural gas. But the weeks of discussion did not find a solution. The discussions were limited to searching for solutions regarding the elimination of the impact of the unpredictable activities of Russian partners

  15. AREAS OF RUSSIAN CONSUMER MARKET TRANSNATIONALIZATION UNDER GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Snimschikova I. V.; Lazgiev M. M.

    2015-01-01

    In the article, transnationalization is considered as an objective factor of development in the context of globalization and the main areas of transnational corporations’ penetration in the Russian consumer market are identified. The Russian market is significantly attractive for commodity and food transnational corporations. The main objective of the majority of TNCs is the introduction and expansion to the markets in order to trade goods, produced in the third countries. Investment is prima...

  16. The Russian Federation and the International Climate Change Regime

    OpenAIRE

    GORDEEVA, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Although the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the key players in the global climate change politics, the country is rather discreet in binding itself with new international climate obligations. Often the country is criticized for its weak national climate change law and policy. To provide current context as regards the status of Russian climate change mitigation efforts, this article analyzes the RF's climate law and policy at the domestic and international levels. It does so by first invest...

  17. Russian criminal political victimology: notion, object and prospects of development

    OpenAIRE

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Kabanov

    2015-01-01

    Objective to describe and explain the structure of the modern Russian criminological political victimology as a special intersectoral criminological theory. Methods the research is based on the universal dialectic method of cognition of social reality. Results basing on the normative legal acts scientific literature and law enforcement practice the author proposes a concept of the structure of the modern Russian criminological political victimology as a special sphere of th...

  18. Offer and Acceptance under the Russian Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Musin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a procedure of entering into a contract under Russian civil law both at the domestic and foreign markets. An offer and an acceptance are considered in the light or relevant provisions of the Russian Civil Codes of 1922, 1964 and that currently effective as compared with rules of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods 1980 and INIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 2010.

  19. Overview of contamination from US and Russian nuclear complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper briefly compares the United States and Russian weapons complexes and provides a perspective on the releases of radioactivity to the environment in both countries. Fortunately, the technologies, data, models, and scientific experience that have been gained over the last 50 years are being shared between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (MINATOM) which constitutes a new environmental partnership between the two countries

  20. Dividend-Protected Convertible Bonds and the Disappearance

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy, Bruce D.; Verwijmeren, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Firms have not historically called their convertible bonds as soon as they could force conversion. Various explanations for the delay rely on the size of the dividends that bondholders forgo so long as they do not convert. We investigate an important change in convertible security design, namely that more than 95 percent of recent convertible bond issues are dividend-protected. Dividend protection means that the conversion value of the shares into which a bond is convertible is unaffected by ...

  1. Childfree as a Social Phenomenon: Russians' Attitude to Voluntary Childlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Maratovna Salyakhieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the childfree phenomenon in the context of Russian society. The late modernism dramatically affects the structure of society and traditional social values. This applies to the social institution of the family and the social norm of parenthood. These social changes can be considered, on the one hand, from the position of hyperliberalization and autonomy of the individual, and, on the other, as a manifestation of the institutional crisis of the family. The latter point of view is more typical of the Russian sociological tradition. The paper deals with the study of the main reasons for the appearance and spread of the phenomenon and the classification of childfree. Based on the results of a questionnaire survey conducted by the authors, the paper provides data on the relative potential possibility for the distribution of childfree ideas in Russia. The survey results show that about half of Russians have heard about childfree. 40% of Russians give negative evaluation to childfree, about half of Russians are neutral to people who have voluntarily refused to parenthood. The data correlate with the studies of public opinion poll centers, according to which about half of the respondents express their loyal and neutral attitude. More than half of surveyors see a potential threat in the childfree movement for Russian society, noting at the same time (45% that the phenomenon is not widespread in Russia. The authors see the prospects for research in the study of the relationship of age groups and the degree of loyalty to childfree.

  2. Russian New Art of Hybrid Warfare in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to analyse the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. For the purposes of the paper, the theory of hybrid warfare was chosen as an analytical category. Throughout the paper, the concept of hybrid warfare is examined and applied on case study of Crimean annexation. Hybrid warfare, especially in connection with Russian actions in Crimea has been an intensely debated concept. There is an ongoing debate among scholars concerning the meaning of the concept, its existence and employment by the Russian Federation. This paper showed that the article of Valeriy Gerasimov – the incumbent Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Federation-invoked a new warfare strategy for the Russian Federation which was consequently for the very first time in its full spectre and effectivity employed on case of Crimean annexation in March 2014. Observing the application of the hybrid warfare in practice serves the purposes of countering its further potential application in post-Soviet space and Russian ‘near abroad’.

  3. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  4. The Illusive Nature of ‘Russian International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Bogush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The monograph written by Estonian international law scholar Lauri Mälksoo is impressively well-timed. The record of recent international legal developments involving Russia is striking: the annexation of Crimea and the armed conflict in Ukraine, Russia’s ‘sanctions war’ with the United States and the European Union, nonrecognition and non-compliance with the international arbitral award in the Yukos case, and earlier, in 2013, Russia’s boycott of the proceedings at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. Most recently, already subsequent to the publication of Russian Approaches to International Law, in July 2015 the Russian Constitutional Court sent a message of open disregard to Strasbourg by declaring that the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights could not be implemented in Russia if they contradicted the Russian Constitution. In all these instances the Russian government relied on its own reading of international law, which appeared not only to be strikingly different from that of the vast majority of states, but often detrimental to the foundations of the discipline. One might wonder whether these events are just the excesses of authoritarian power-politics, or more fundamentally grounded. Specifically, is there any special Russian international school of legal thought (referred to below as ‘Russian international law’? And if there is, may it serve as a plausible alternative to Western-centric contemporary international law? Lauri Mälksoo’s book is the first genuine response to these questions.

  5. Imbalance between pulmonary angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wosten-van Asperen, Roelie M.; Bos, Albert; Bem, Reinout A.; Dierdorp, Barbara S.; Dekker, Tamara; van Goor, Harry; Kamilic, Jelena; van der Loos, Chris M.; van den Berg, Elske; Bruijn, Martijn; van Woensel, Job B.; Lutter, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Angiotensin-converting enzyme and its effector peptide angiotensin II have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was identified as the counter-regulatory enzyme of angiotensin-converting enzyme that converts

  6. Imbalance between pulmonary angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activity in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wösten-van Asperen, Roelie M.; Bos, Albert P.; Bem, Reinout A.; Dierdorp, Barbara S.; Dekker, Tamara; van Goor, Harry; Kamilic, Jelena; van der Loos, Chris M.; van den Berg, Elske; Bruijn, Martijn; van Woensel, Job B.; Lutter, René

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme and its effector peptide angiotensin II have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Recently, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was identified as the counter-regulatory enzyme of angiotensin-converting enzyme that converts angiotensin

  7. Current problems in Russian-Latvian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezhevich Nikolay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Current relations between Russia and Latvia are still influenced by a series of mutual claims that appeared after the demise of the USSR. Latvia — as well as Estonia and Lithuania — is both an EU and NATO member state. However, unlike the above mentioned countries, its relations with Russia are developing at a more pragmatic level. Numerous political differences often result in economic losses both for Latvia and Russia. Despite the fact that Latvia has been an independent state for more than 20 years, there are still some unresolved issues in its relations with Russia. Today, relations between the two countries are often viewed through the prism of EU — Russia relations. Nonetheless, they often do not fit this context. Settling differences between Latvia and Russia will contribute to trade relations, which are increasingly important for both parties. In order to prevent and localise emerging conflicts, diplomats, politicians, and experts should interpret Russian-Latvian relations in view of the national features without referring to theoretical models based on the mythological “unity” of the three Baltic States.

  8. Safety status of Russian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Gosatomnadzor of Russia is conducting the safety regulation and inspection activity related to nuclear and radiation safety at nuclear research facilities, including research reactors, critical assemblies and sub-critical assemblies. It implies implementing three major activities: 1) establishing the laws and safety standards in the field of research reactors nuclear and radiation safety; 2) research reactors licensing; and 3) inspections (or license conditions tracking and inspection). The database on nuclear research facilities has recently been updated based on the actual status of all facilities. It turned out that many facilities have been shutdown, whether temporary or permanently, waiting for the final decision on their decommissioning. Compared to previous years the situation has been inevitably changing. Now we have 99 nuclear research facilities in total under Gosatomnadzor of Russia supervision (compared to 113 in previous years). Their distribution by types and operating organizations is presented. The licensing and conduct of inspection processes are briefly outlined with emphasis being made on specific issues related to major incidents that happened in 2000, spent fuel management, occupational exposure, effluents and emissions, emergency preparedness and physical protection. Finally, a summary of problems at current Russian research facilities is outlined. (author)

  9. On attracting investment to Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleinik Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern conditions of economic systems development have necessitated more precise directions of investment process for the economic growth to accelerate. The precipitous fall of oil prices that occurred in the second half of 2014 weighed heavily on foreign direct investment flows to oilexporting countries. The problem of attracting investment is one of the key problems of economic development. The aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the shifts in the structure of investments, the study of the structure of investments to the Russian economy. Structural changes result from differences in the growth rate of the elements forming an economic system. An integral coefficient has been used for evaluation of structural changes. Multiple regression was used to analyze the impact of various factors on the change in structure of investment. The regression coefficients in the model give quantitative assessment of the pace of change in the structure as it depends on a specific factor. The model estimation shows that the variables “share of investments in manufacturing” (positive influence and “share of investments in the health, physical culture, education” (negative influence have the largest t-values. Hence, these two factors influence the structural changes in investments most strongly The evaluation and analysis of the structural shifts may lead to conclusions regarding the efficiency of the structure investment and adjustment of the economic policy.

  10. History and current condition of Russian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Valery N; Gurovich, Isaak

    2012-08-01

    Russian psychiatry has a dramatic history, and until now has been at a transitional stage of development. It is facing problems not only common in world psychiatry, but also specific to eastern Europe, in particular Russia. Starting from the beginning of the 1990s, considerable changes have occurred in psychiatry, especially after 1992 when the law on psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision was adopted. It became the ideological and legislative basis for reforms. However, there are definite obstacles to structural reforms in psychiatry. They are unfavourable technical conditions in many psychiatric clinics, hypercentralization of psychiatric services, shortage of clinical psychologists and social workers in psychiatry, some difficulties in cooperation between psychiatric and general medical institutions. Economic difficulties in the transition period of Russia's social development prevent the overcoming of these problems. They are being actively discussed and some of them are being gradually solved, e.g. the organization of team work in mental health services, the increasing number of specialists on social work, and the involvement of non-government organizations in psychosocial rehabilitation.

  11. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Russia’s accomplishments in planetary space exploration were not achieved easily. Formerly, the USSR experienced frustration in trying to tame unreliable Molniya and Proton upper stages and in tracking spacecraft over long distances. This book will assess the scientific haul of data from the Venus and Mars missions and look at the engineering approaches. The USSR developed several generations of planetary probes: from MV and Zond to the Phobos type. The engineering techniques used and the science packages are examined, as well as the nature of the difficulties encountered which ruined several missions. The programme’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, as well as its role within the Soviet space programme as a whole. Brian Harvey concludes by looking forward to future Russian planetary exploration (e.g Phobos Grunt sample return mission). Several plans have been considered and may, with a restoration of funding, come to fruition. Soviet studies of deep space and Mars missions (e.g. TMK, ...

  12. Pending crisis in Russian civil military relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D.Y.

    1997-10-01

    A key issue in the study of civil-military relations has been how to create a military sufficiently strong to ensure security from external threats while simultaneously preventing the military from using its preponderance of power in the domestic arena. This dilemma arises from the fear engendered by a large armed force created to combat foreign threats, but which is also inherently a threat to the society that created it. In Russia, however, the question is not how the civilian leadership can keep the military out of politics, but how the military can keep the leadership from politicizing the armed forces. The Russian military has no interest in resolving Russia`s domestic political problems. It is a professional military that prefers to leave politics to the politicians, and to carry out its mission of defending the nation against external attack. But the lack of responsible central leadership and the poor state of the economy are driving the military toward involvement in domestic politics if for no other reason than to ensure its own survival.

  13. Strategic Alliances: the Potential for Russian Nanoindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakova Elena Ivanovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategic alliances as a form of interfirm cooperation (including international cooperation increase the potential of solving large-scale problems of national nanoindustry development, providing synergy of participants resources united by the principle of complementarity and substitution in the process of joint implementation of complex R&D programs, mobilization and input of significant financial, material, technical and intellectual resources of the participants in nanotechnology projects. Strategic alliances in nanoindustry with national and international companies participation are defined as institutional and organizational form of interfirm cooperation. At this, the upper limit of its functioning is represented by hierarchical relations in transactions within the integrated structures, and the low limit by heterarchical relations in transactions among the detached firms. The paper identifies the main factors of successful functioning of strategic alliances in nanoindustry. At the same time, the participants pursuit of their own economic interests (including non-matching interests will inevitably become a source of origin and accumulation of contradictions in the alliance, which can cause its disintegration or acquisition of a weaker, passive participant by a stronger one. This determines the need for a thorough study of decisions on entering into a strategic alliance, on tactical and operational participation in its management in accordance with the contribution of partners to its creation, defining their authority and share in the results of operations. The article also studies the experience of strategic alliances formation in American and European nanoindustry, and exemplifies the potential of such interfirm cooperation in the realia of Russian economy.

  14. Migration processes in the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flera H. Sokolova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing and summarizing of official statistics, the article reveals the dynamics of migration processes in the Russian Arctic in XXI century, which is important in conditions of intensification of population movements in the country and the world, and is significant in the context of defending the country's national interests in the Arctic and strengthening the human potential in the region in order to ensure its sustainable innovative economic and social development. It is noted that throughout the history of Arctic exploration, migration has been a major factor in its socio-economic and cultural development. The 20th century was marked by intensive migration of the population influx, which contributed to the transformation of sparsely populated areas into an industrially and culturally developed region. The dynamics of migration processes in the beginning of the 21st century shows the opposite trend. The migration outflow of the population, which has slowed down in the first decade of the 21st century (compared to the 1990s, in recent years has once again started to gain pace. The regions of the Arctic have a rapidly declining population, there is a trend of outflow of young and highly qualified personnel. The existing structure of the population and labor migrants does not fully meet the labor market demand for suitably qualified personnel. The region is experiencing an acute need for government support and well-thought-out policy to consolidate and attract population.

  15. Regional Banks in the Russian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vitalyevich Leonov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the lack of a uniform definition of «a regional bank», problems of their activities are widely discussed in the context of increasing regulation of the banking sector and creation of conditions for accelerated development of certain regions. The author analyses the Russian-language scientific literature in order to define «a regional bank» and systematize its key differences from other commercial banks. The researcher shows that the allocation of regional banks in a separate group should be related to specific features of the environment and not by endogenous factors associated with the selection of activities and balance sheet structure. The low level of financial market development and concentration of specific undiversified risks are the principal qualifiers differentiating between regional banks and other credit institutions in Russia. As classification criteria the author uses following: spatial representation (the bank does not have structural subdivisions in Moscow and the ownership structure (among the bank’s owners there are no national and international financial groups that have a direct impact on the operations of the bank

  16. Using Russian Ruble in International Transactions

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    Irina Z. Yarygina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues in international relations of the Russian Federation on the basis of the increased use of the ruble as the currency contracts and payments. The work shows the coordinated support of economic actors, public institutions of countries-partners. Collaborate with international teams, according to the author of the article, the implementation of economic programs of mutual interest and reinforces the trend of creating a multipolar world. The analysis of problems of development cooperation partners countries in the monetary sphere and shows that the main causes hindering greater use of domestic currencies are: hard currency regulation; a rare use of letters of credit and guarantees, which increases the financial risk operations; significant transaction costs; asymmetrical measures, currency regulation, burdening the mutual interests of the parties. To expand the use of the ruble in international relations author offers take into account a number of factors, including the need for a priority international currency contracts to perform the basic functions of money abroad is a measure of the value, means of payment and means of hoarding. The author's position is presented about the prospects of State institutional policy. In particular, the conclusion: the experience of Bulgaria, Romania, Albania has shown that the main task of the departments responsible for implementing the monetary policy should be the containment of inflationary pressures associated, including overdue contributions to the budget. A key priority in such circumstances is to support solvent and transparent banking systems, which are the basis for international cooperation.

  17. Comments on the Russian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrovsky, I.

    1992-01-01

    The state of the energy industries and markets in the former Soviet Union is reviewed, with a focus on the oil sector. In spite of the economic recession, the demand for primary energy resources and electricity has dropped only slightly. A decrease in energy production has not yet hurt industries such as oil refining and equipment manufacturing. The low oil price in the domestic trade, ca $2.70/bbl, means that producers have an incentive to hoard oil in the ground or sell preferably to the export market. Non-energy industries are entering the oil market as well. Oil production has fallen by early depletion of the best reservoirs, the unwillingness of producers to produce because of low domestic oil prices, lack of investment, and inadequate technology. It is suggested that Russian oil needs to stay in Russia to stimulate economic growth and increase energy demand. Russia will need hard support such as exploration and production programs, modernization of processing facilities, development of infrastructure, technical assistance, management training, and a restructuring of the outdated financial system. All of this will require more involvement from western companies

  18. Environmental application of russian natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursenko, B.

    1998-01-01

    There are more than 70 deposits and localities of zeolite-containing rocks (ZCR) in Russia. Total resources of relatively rich (more than 40% of zeolites) rocks are estimated as 3.8 billion tons. The main Russian deposits are located in Siberia and Far East. A number of traditional ways of ZCR utilization for environmental protection have been developed in Russia during last two decades, when a few governmental scientific programs were in operation. These were: (1) waste water treatment (galvanic waste, oil-product pollution, municipal waste water, radioactive pollution); (2) drinking water preparation (municipal and individual filters, coagulation method, lemonade production); (3) gas drying and purification (natural gas drying, stack-gas cleanup, oxygen enriched air production). Growing interest was attracted to zeolites due to their potential utilization in the nuclear waste treatment, re-cultivation of technically polluted territories and especially after they were used for localization of the radioactive accidents on the atomic power stations (Three Mile Island, U.S.A. in 1981 and Chernobyl, USSR in 1986). Structure, ion-exchange capacity and phase transformations of the zeolites are discussed

  19. Multi-output DC-DC converters based on diode-clamped converters configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami, A.; Zare, F.; Ghosh, A.

    2010-01-01

    for a diode-clamed inverter in the grid connection systems, where boosting low rectified output-voltage and series DC link capacitors is required. To verify the proposed topology, steady-state and dynamic analyses of a MOB converter are examined. A simple control strategy has been proposed to demonstrate......This study presents a new DC DC multi-output boost (MOB) converter which can share its total output between different series of output voltages for low- and high-power applications. This configuration can be utilised instead of several single output power supplies. This is a compatible topology...... the performance of the proposed topology for a double-output boost converter. The topology and its control strategy can easily be extended to offer multiple outputs. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the validity of the control strategy for the proposed converter....

  20. Analog-digital converters for industrial applications including an introduction to digital-analog converters

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnhäuser, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This book offers students and those new to the topic of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) a broad introduction, before going into details of the state-of-the-art design techniques for SAR and DS converters, including the latest research topics, which are valuable for IC design engineers as well as users of ADCs in applications. The book then addresses important topics, such as correct connectivity of ADCs in an application, the verification, characterization and testing of ADCs that ensure high-quality end products. Analog-to-digital converters are the central element in any data processing system and regulation loops such as modems or electrical motor drives. They significantly affect the performance and resolution of a system or end product. System development engineers need to be familiar with the performance parameters of the converters and understand the advantages and disadvantages of the various architectures. Integrated circuit development engineers have to overcome the problem of achieving high per...