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Sample records for stagonospora nodorum blotch

  1. Predicting pre-planting risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat using machine learning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this know...

  2. Predicting Pre-planting Risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in Winter Wheat Using Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Lucky K; Cowger, Christina; Gross, Kevin; Ojiambo, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this knowledge can facilitate disease management decisions prior to planting of the wheat crop. In this study, we examined the performance of multiple regression (MR) and three machine learning algorithms namely artificial neural networks, categorical and regression trees, and random forests (RF), in predicting the pre-planting risk of SNB in wheat. Pre-planting factors tested as potential predictor variables were cultivar resistance, latitude, longitude, previous crop, seeding rate, seed treatment, tillage type, and wheat residue. Disease severity assessed at the end of the growing season was used as the response variable. The models were developed using 431 disease cases (unique combinations of predictors) collected from 2012 to 2014 and these cases were randomly divided into training, validation, and test datasets. Models were evaluated based on the regression of observed against predicted severity values of SNB, sensitivity-specificity ROC analysis, and the Kappa statistic. A strong relationship was observed between late-season severity of SNB and specific pre-planting factors in which latitude, longitude, wheat residue, and cultivar resistance were the most important predictors. The MR model explained 33% of variability in the data, while machine learning models explained 47 to 79% of the total variability. Similarly, the MR model correctly classified 74% of the disease cases, while machine learning models correctly classified 81 to 83% of these cases. Results show that the RF algorithm, which explained 79% of the variability within the data, was the most accurate in predicting the risk of SNB, with an accuracy rate of 93%. The RF algorithm could allow early assessment of

  3. Dissection of effector-induced host susceptibility pathways in Stagonospora nodorum blotch of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The necrotrophic Stagonospora nodorum-wheat interaction is characterized by several pathogen-derived proteinaceous host-selective toxins (SnToxA, SnTox1, SnTox2, SnTox3 and SnTox4) that induce diseases in the host carrying a corresponding dominant susceptibility gene (Tsn1, Snn1, Snn2, Snn3 and Snn4...

  4. Re-Evaluation of a Tetraploid Wheat Population Indicates That the Tsn1-ToxA Interaction is the Only Factor Governing Stagonospora Nodorum Blotch Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat Tsn1 gene on chromosome 5B confers sensitivity to the host-selective toxin ToxA produced by the pathogens that cause tan spot and Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB). A compatible Tsn1-ToxA interaction is known to play a major role in conferring susceptibility of hexaploid (common) wheat to...

  5. Determining the order of resistance genes against Stagonospora nodorum blotch, Fusarium head blight and stem rust on wheat chromosome arm 3BS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Rima; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Ohm, Herbert W; Mateos-Hernandez, Maria; Wise, Kiersten A; Goodwin, Stephen B

    2016-02-02

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), Fusarium head blight (FHB) and stem rust (SR), caused by the fungi Parastagonospora (synonym Stagonospora) nodorum, Fusarium graminearum and Puccinia graminis, respectively, significantly reduce yield and quality of wheat. Three resistance factors, QSng.sfr-3BS, Fhb1 and Sr2, conferring resistance, respectively, to SNB, FHB and SR, each from a unique donor line, were mapped previously to the short arm of wheat chromosome 3B. Based on published reports, our hypothesis was that Sr2 is the most distal, Fhb1 the most proximal and QSng.sfr-3BS is in between Sr2 and Fhb1 on wheat chromosome arm 3BS. To test this hypothesis, 1600 F2 plants from crosses between parental lines Arina, Alsen and Ocoroni86, conferring resistance genes QSng.sfr-3BS, Fhb1 and Sr2, respectively, were genotyped and phenotyped for SNB along with the parental lines. Five closely linked single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to make the genetic map and determine the gene order. The results indicate that QSng.sfr-3BS is located between the other two resistance genes on chromosome 3BS. Knowing the positional order of these resistance genes will aid in developing a wheat line with all three genes in coupling, which has the potential to provide broad-spectrum resistance preventing grain yield and quality losses.

  6. SnTox5-Snn5: A novel Stagonospora nodorum effector-wheat gene interaction and its relationship with the SnToxA-Tsn1 and SnTox3-Snn3-B1 interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Stagonospora nodorum-wheat interaction consists of multiple pathogen - produced necrotrophic effectors that interact directly or indirectly with specific host gene products to induce the disease Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB). Here, we used a tetraploid wheat mapping population to identify an...

  7. Genetic Analysis of Disease Susceptibility Caused by Compatible Tsn1-SnToxA and Snn1-SnTox1 Interactions in the Wheat-Stagonospora Nodorum Pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagonospora nodorum is a foliar pathogen of wheat that produces several host-selective toxins (HSTs) and causes the disease Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB). The wheat genes Snn1 and Tsn1 confer sensitivity to the HSTs SnTox1 and SnToxA, respectively. The objectives of this study were to dissect, ...

  8. Characterising the role of GABA and its metabolism in the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Mead

    Full Text Available A reverse genetics approach was used to investigate the role of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism in the wheat pathogenic fungus Stagonospora nodorum. The creation of mutants lacking Sdh1, the gene encoding succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, resulted in strains that grew poorly on γ-aminobutyric acid as a nitrogen source. The sdh1 mutants were more susceptible to reactive oxygen stress but were less affected by increased growth temperatures. Pathogenicity assays revealed that the metabolism of γ-aminobutyric acid is required for complete pathogenicity. Growth assays of the wild-type and mutant strains showed that the inclusion of γ-aminobutyric acid as a supplement in minimal media (i.e., not as a nitrogen or carbon source resulted in restricted growth but increased sporulation. The addition of glutamate, the precursor to GABA, had no effect on either growth or sporulation. The γ-aminobutyric acid effect on sporulation was found to be dose dependent and not restricted to Stagonospora nodorum with a similar effect observed in the dothideomycete Botryosphaeria sp. The positive effect on sporulation was assayed using isomers of γ-aminobutyric acid and other metabolites known to influence asexual development in Stagonospora nodorum but no effect was observed. These data demonstrate that γ-aminobutyric acid plays an important role in Stagonospora nodorum in responding to environmental stresses while also having a positive effect on asexual development.

  9. Toward the molecular cloning of the Septoria nodorum blotch susceptibility gene Snn2 in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septoria nodorum blotch is a disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum. In the wheat-P. nodorum pathosystem, recognition of pathogen-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) by dominant host genes leads to host cell death, which allows the pathogen to gain nutrients an...

  10. Dothideomycete-plant interactions illuminated by genome sequencing and EST analysis of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hane, J.K.; Lowe, R.G.T.; Solomon, P.S.; Tan, K.C.; Schoch, C.L.; Spatafora, J.W.; Crous, P.W.; Kodira, C.; Birren, B.W.; Galagan, J.E.; Torriani, S.F.F.; McDonald, B.A.; Oliver, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    Stagonospora nodorum is a major necrotrophic fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and a member of the Dothideomycetes, a large fungal taxon that includes many important plant pathogens affecting all major crop plant families. Here, we report the acquisition and initial analysis of a draft

  11. Mapping of SnTox3-Snn3 as a major determinant of field susceptibility to Septoria nodorum leaf blotch in the SHA3/CBRD x Naxos population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastagonospora nodorum is a necrotrophic pathogen of wheat, causing Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB) affecting both the leaf and glume. P. nodorum is the major leaf blotch pathogen on spring wheat in Norway. Resistance to the disease is quantitative, but several host-specific interactions between nec...

  12. Development,Identification and Validation of Markers for Mmarker-Assisted Selection Against the Stagonospora nodorum Toxin Ssensitivity Genes Tsn1 and Snn2 in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat-Stagonospora nodorum pathosystem involves a number of pathogen-produced host-selective toxins that interact with host genes in an inverse gene-for-gene manner to cause disease. The wheat intervarietal recombinant inbred population derived from BR34 and Grandin (BG population) segregates f...

  13. The cysteine rich necrotrophic effector SnTox1 produced by Stagonospora nodorum triggers susceptibility of wheat lines harboring Snn1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum produces multiple necrotrophic effectors (also called host-selective toxins that promote disease by interacting with corresponding host sensitivity gene products. SnTox1 was the first necrotrophic effector identified in S. nodorum, and was shown to induce necrosis on wheat lines carrying Snn1. Here, we report the molecular cloning and validation of SnTox1 as well as the preliminary characterization of the mechanism underlying the SnTox1-Snn1 interaction which leads to susceptibility. SnTox1 was identified using bioinformatics tools and verified by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. SnTox1 encodes a 117 amino acid protein with the first 17 amino acids predicted as a signal peptide, and strikingly, the mature protein contains 16 cysteine residues, a common feature for some avirulence effectors. The transformation of SnTox1 into an avirulent S. nodorum isolate was sufficient to make the strain pathogenic. Additionally, the deletion of SnTox1 in virulent isolates rendered the SnTox1 mutated strains avirulent on the Snn1 differential wheat line. SnTox1 was present in 85% of a global collection of S. nodorum isolates. We identified a total of 11 protein isoforms and found evidence for strong diversifying selection operating on SnTox1. The SnTox1-Snn1 interaction results in an oxidative burst, DNA laddering, and pathogenesis related (PR gene expression, all hallmarks of a defense response. In the absence of light, the development of SnTox1-induced necrosis and disease symptoms were completely blocked. By comparing the infection processes of a GFP-tagged avirulent isolate and the same isolate transformed with SnTox1, we conclude that SnTox1 may play a critical role during fungal penetration. This research further demonstrates that necrotrophic fungal pathogens utilize small effector proteins to exploit plant resistance pathways for their colonization, which provides important insights into the molecular

  14. Molecular mapping of adult plant resistance to Parastagonospora nodorum leaf blotch in bread wheat lines ‘Shanghai-3/Catbird’ and ‘Naxos’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Qiongxian; Lillemo, Morten

    2014-01-01

    supplied with mist irrigation. Leaf blotch severity was scored together with plant height, heading date and maturity date in these trials. A testing data set was also available from other field trials with the same population. Totally, two major and six minor QTL were detected for leaf blotch resistance...

  15. A Review of the Interactions between Wheat and Wheat Pathogens: Zymoseptoria tritici, Fusarium spp. and Parastagonospora nodorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Duba

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic pathogen which causes Septoria leaf blotch in wheat. The pathogenesis of the disease consists of a biotrophic phase and a necrotrophic phase. The pathogen infects the host plant by suppressing its immune response in the first stage of infection. Hemibiotrophic pathogens of the genus Fusarium cause Fusarium head blight, and the necrotrophic Parastagonospora nodorum is responsible for Septoria nodorum blotch in wheat. Cell wall-degrading enzymes in plants promote infections by necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, and trichothecenes, secondary fungal metabolites, facilitate infections caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. There are no sources of complete resistance to the above pathogens in wheat. Defense mechanisms in wheat are controlled by many genes encoding resistance traits. In the wheat genome, the characteristic features of loci responsible for resistance to pathogenic infections indicate that at least several dozen genes encode resistance to pathogens. The molecular interactions between wheat and Z. tritici, P. nodorum and Fusarium spp. pathogens have been insufficiently investigated. Most studies focus on the mechanisms by which the hemibiotrophic Z. tritici suppresses immune responses in plants and the role of mycotoxins and effector proteins in infections caused by P. nodorum and Fusarium spp. fungi. Trichothecene glycosylation and effector proteins, which are involved in defense responses in wheat, have been described at the molecular level. Recent advances in molecular biology have produced interesting findings which should be further elucidated in studies of molecular interactions between wheat and fungal pathogens. The Clustered Regularly-Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/ CRISPR associated (CRISPR/Cas system can be used to introduce targeted mutations into the wheat genome and confer resistance to selected fungal diseases. Host-induced gene silencing and spray-induced gene

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a ToxA-like gene from the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ToxA, the first discovered fungal proteinaceous host-selective toxin, was originally identified from the tan spot fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr). Homologues of the PtrToxA gene have not been identified from any other ascomycetes except the leaf/glume blotch fungus Stagonospora nodorum, w...

  17. Fuzzy logic techniques for blotch feature evaluation in dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azmath; Gupta, Kapil; Stanley, R J; Stoecker, William V; Moss, Randy H; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Soyer, H Peter; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Cognetta, Armand B

    2009-01-01

    Blotches, also called structureless areas, are critical in differentiating malignant melanoma from benign lesions in dermoscopy skin lesion images. In this paper, fuzzy logic techniques are investigated for the automatic detection of blotch features for malignant melanoma discrimination. Four fuzzy sets representative of blotch size and relative and absolute blotch colors are used to extract blotchy areas from a set of dermoscopy skin lesion images. Five previously reported blotch features are computed from the extracted blotches as well as four new features. Using a neural network classifier, malignant melanoma discrimination results are optimized over the range of possible alpha-cuts and compared with results using crisp blotch features. Features computed from blotches using the fuzzy logic techniques based on three plane relative color and blotch size yield the highest diagnostic accuracy of 81.2%.

  18. Grape (Vitis spp.)- Grapevine red blotch disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and elsewhere in the United States The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negative for...

  19. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  20. Characterization of Pseudomonas species causing brown blotch of Agaricus bisporis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Kastelein, P.; Krijger, M.C.; Hendriks, M.J.A.; Baars, J.J.P.; Amsing, J.G.M.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Warris, S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial blotch is occasionally causing damage in the production of common mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). The disease is found worldwide and can be caused by different fluorescent Pseudomonas species present in casing material. For identification of the causative agents of blotch in the Netherlands

  1. Sooty blotch of apple: Efficacy of different application strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, U.; Späth, S.

    2008-01-01

    Sooty blotch causes heavy losses in Lake Constance organic apple production. In the last five years research has been done at the research station for fruit growing (Kompetenzzentrum Obstbau – Bodensee) on strategies to control Sooty blotch on organic grown pome fruit. Different control strategies with lime sulphur, coconut soap and potassium bicarbonate with different application rates, application times were tested in several trials on the cultivar ‘Topaz’. Over the years the...

  2. Method for controlling bacterial blotch disease in edible mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler Rivas, C.; Wichers, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for controlling bacterial blotch disease in edible mushrooms, comprising of treating the mushrooms with one or more lipodepsipeptides. The lipodepsipeptides are for instance chosen from WLIP and viscosin. The invention further relates to the edible mushrooms

  3. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of Phaeosphaeria nodorum and its close relatives indicate cryptic species and an origin in the Fertile Crescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Megan C; Razavi, Mohammad; Friesen, Timothy L; Brunner, Patrick C; McDonald, Bruce A

    2012-11-01

    The origin of the fungal wheat pathogen Phaeosphaeria nodorum remains unclear despite earlier intensive global population genetic and phylogeographical studies. We sequenced 1683 bp distributed across three loci in 355 globally distributed Phaeosphaeria isolates, including 74 collected in Iran near the center of origin of wheat. We identified nine phylogenetically distinct clades, including two previously unknown species tentatively named P1 and P2 collected in Iran. Coalescent analysis indicates that P1 and P2 are sister species of P. nodorum and the other Phaeosphaeria species identified in our analysis. Two species, P. nodorum and P. avenaria f. sp. tritici 1 (Pat1), comprised ~85% of the sampled isolates, making them the dominant wheat-infecting pathogens within the species complex. We designed a PCR-RFLP assay to distinguish P. nodorum from Pat1. Approximately 4% of P. nodorum and Pat1 isolates showed evidence of hybridization. Measures of private allelic richness at SSR and sequence loci suggest that the center of origin of P. nodorum coincides with its host in the Fertile Crescent. We hypothesize that the origin of this species complex is also in the Fertile Crescent, with four species out of nine found exclusively in the Iranian collections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Net Blotch ( Pyrenophora teres ) on Malt Barley Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production is constrained by diseases such as net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechsl. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of net blotch disease on malt barley yield and grain quality under natural infection. Four malt barley varieties (Beka, HB 120, HB 52 and Holker), ...

  5. Exogenous melatonin improves Malus resistance to Marssonina apple blotch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lihua; Wang, Ping; Li, Mingjun; Ke, Xiwang; Li, Cuiying; Liang, Dong; Wu, Shan; Ma, Xinli; Li, Chao; Zou, Yangjun; Ma, Fengwang

    2013-05-01

    We examined whether exogenously applied melatonin could improve resistance to Marssonina apple blotch (Diplocarpon mali) by apple [Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. cv. Donghongguo]. This serious disease leads to premature defoliation in the main regions of apple production. When plants were pretreated with melatonin, resistance was increased in the leaves. We investigated the potential roles for melatonin in modulating levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well the activities of antioxidant enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins during these plant-pathogen interactions. Pretreatment enabled plants to maintain intracellular H2O2 concentrations at steady-state levels and enhance the activities of plant defence-related enzymes, possibly improving disease resistance. Because melatonin is safe and beneficial to animals and humans, exogenous pretreatment might represent a promising cultivation strategy to protect plants against this pathogen infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Resistance in barley against Drechslera teres induced by Bipolaris maydis and Septoria nodorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Lobeck, P.S.; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    1998-01-01

    1.4.31 RESISTANCE IN BARLEY AGAINST DRECHSLERA TERES INDUCED BY BIPOLARIS MAYDIS AND SEPTORIA NODORUM HJL JORGENSEN, PS LOBECK, H THORDAL-CHRISTENSEN, E de NEERGAARD and V SMEDEGAARD-PETERSEN Department of Plant Biology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaidsensvej 40, DK-1871 Fr...

  7. Induction of mutant resistant to alternaria blotch of apple by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Toji [Hokuriku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Joetsu, Niigata (Japan); Ito, Yuji [National Inst. of Agrobiological Resources, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Masuda, Tetsuo [National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, Morioka, Iwate (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Apple cultivars resistant to Alternaria blotch disease have been produced by cross-breeding, but it is difficult to produce resistance by crossing without changing the properties of cultivar because the gene composition of the cultivar tree is almost heterozygous. This study aimed to investigate the resistant mutation in Alternaria blotch susceptible and semiresistant cultivars. The resistance to Alternaria blotch pathogen or AM toxin is classified into the following three groups: 1) highly sensitive group including Indo, Redgold and Starking delicious, 2) semi-resistant group including Fuji, Orin and Golden delicious and 3) resistant group including Gala and Tsugaru. After gamma ray exposure of 80 Gy (at 5 Gy/hour), AM-toxin insensitive clones were selected in the VM{sub 6} generation. These selected mutants could be rooted and habituated under field conditions. The degree of disease resistance was assessed by AM toxin treatment and Alternaria blotch fungi spore inoculation test. The leaves of these mutants were changed to variegated at high temperature, suggesting that some mutation related to chloroplast might have occurred. Alternaria blotch resistant strains could be produced by exposing to {gamma}ray and selecting with AM toxin in shoot-tip culture system, but the functional effects of the AM toxin in Alternaria blotch and also the mechanism in the mutant lines were still unclear. (M.N.)

  8. Induction of mutant resistant to alternaria blotch of apple by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Toji; Ito, Yuji; Masuda, Tetsuo

    2000-01-01

    Apple cultivars resistant to Alternaria blotch disease have been produced by cross-breeding, but it is difficult to produce resistance by crossing without changing the properties of cultivar because the gene composition of the cultivar tree is almost heterozygous. This study aimed to investigate the resistant mutation in Alternaria blotch susceptible and semiresistant cultivars. The resistance to Alternaria blotch pathogen or AM toxin is classified into the following three groups: 1) highly sensitive group including Indo, Redgold and Starking delicious, 2) semi-resistant group including Fuji, Orin and Golden delicious and 3) resistant group including Gala and Tsugaru. After gamma ray exposure of 80 Gy (at 5 Gy/hour), AM-toxin insensitive clones were selected in the VM 6 generation. These selected mutants could be rooted and habituated under field conditions. The degree of disease resistance was assessed by AM toxin treatment and Alternaria blotch fungi spore inoculation test. The leaves of these mutants were changed to variegated at high temperature, suggesting that some mutation related to chloroplast might have occurred. Alternaria blotch resistant strains could be produced by exposing to γray and selecting with AM toxin in shoot-tip culture system, but the functional effects of the AM toxin in Alternaria blotch and also the mechanism in the mutant lines were still unclear. (M.N.)

  9. The effectiveness of winter treatments with copper or lime sulphur to control Sooty Blotch on apple.

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Marc; Tamm, Lucius; Fuchs, Jacques G.

    2004-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003 two randomized trials and three “on farm” trials where carried out to test the hypothesis that a single winter treatment could reduce the primary inoculum of Sooty Blotch sufficiently to prevent fruit disease during summer. copperoxychloride (0.2%-0.4%) and lime sulfur (4.0%-5.0%) were applied until run-off in March shortly before bud break. Assessments of Sooty Blotch incidence and severity where made immediately after harvest. The winter treatments with co...

  10. Recovery Plan for Red Leaf Blotch of Soybean Caused by Phoma glycinicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red leaf blotch (RLB) of soybean is caused by the fungal pathogen Phoma glycinicola, formerly known in the plant pathology literature as Pyrenochaeta glycines, Dactuliophora glycines, and Dactuliochaeata glycines. The disease presently occurs in only a few African countries on soybean and a wild leg...

  11. Implicated vectors and spread of grapevine red blotch-associated virus in Oregon vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine viruses have detrimental consequences for wine grape production, as is known for Grapevine leafroll -associated viruses (GLRaVs) and Grapevine red blotch -associated virus (GRBaV). From 2013-2016, vineyards in three wine grape production regions of Oregon were surveyed for the presence of ...

  12. Dissoconiaceae associated with sooty blotch and flyspeck on fruits in China and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.Y.; Sun, G.Y.; Zhai, X.R.; Batzer, J.C.; Mayfield, D.A.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Gleason, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Zasmidium angulare, a novel species of Mycosphaerellaceae, and several novel taxa that reside in Dissoconiaceae, were identified from a collection of apples and Cucurbita maxima (cv. Blue Hubbard) from China and the USA that exhibited sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) signs on their host substrata.

  13. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C.; Crous, Pedro W.; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we

  14. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C.; Crous, Pedro W.; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so

  15. New broad-spectrum resistance to septoria tritici blotch derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S.; Faris, J.D.; Friesen, T.L.; Visser, R.G.F.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Robert, O.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of wheat. We screened five synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHs), 13 wheat varieties that represent the differential set of cultivars and two susceptible checks with a global

  16. Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella graminicola) in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simón, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    KeyWord:Genetic, environmental and cultural factors influencing the resistance to septoria tritici blotch (Mycosphaerella

  17. Association of Shiny White Blotches and Strands With Nonpigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Dechent, Cristián; Bajaj, Shirin; Marchetti, Michael A.; Rabinovitz, Harold; Dusza, Stephen W.; Marghoob, Ashfaq A.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of skin cancer and is usually nonpigmented. Shiny white structures (SWSs) are frequently present in BCC. OBJECTIVE To determine the diagnostic accuracy of various morphologies of SWSs for diagnosis of nonpigmented BCC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Nonpigmented skin tumors, determined clinically and dermoscopically, were identified from a database of lesions consecutively biopsied over a 3-year period (January 2, 2009, to December 31, 2012) from a single dermatology practice. Data analysis was conducted from October 9, 2014, to November 15, 2015. Investigators blinded to histopathologic diagnosis evaluated the polarized dermoscopic images for the presence of SWSs, which were categorized as blotches, strands, short white lines, and rosettes. Measures of diagnostic accuracy for BCC were estimated. Participants included 2375 patients from a dermatologic clinic in Plantation, Florida. Review of the medical records identified 2891 biopsied skin lesions; 457 of these were nonpigmented neoplasms. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Diagnosis of BCC with dermoscopy compared with all other diagnoses combined was the primary outcome; the secondary outcome was diagnosis of BCC compared with amelanotic melanoma. We calculated diagnostic accuracy measured as odds ratios (ORs), sensitivity, and specificity of shiny white blotches and/or strands for the diagnosis of BCC. RESULTS Of the 457 nonpigmented neoplasms evaluated, 287 (62.8%) were BCCs, 106 (23.2%) were squamous cell carcinoma, 39 (8.5%) were lichen planus–like keratosis, 21 (4.6%) were melanomas, and 4 (0.9%) were nevi. The prevalence of SWSs was 49.0% (n = 224). In multivariate analysis (reported as OR [95% CI]) controlling for age, sex, and anatomical location, the presence of any SWS was associated with a diagnosis of BCC (2.3 [1.5–3.6]; P < .001). Blotches (6.3 [3.6–10.9]; P < .001), strands (4.9 [2.9–8.4]; P < .001), and blotches and strands together

  18. Durable resistance to net blotch and agronomic performance in some barley mutants [Hordeum vulgare L.; Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds from the net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) susceptible cultivar Thibaut were treated by gamma ray radiation and subsequently evaluated for reaction to the pathogen in the M2-M5 generations. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of putative mutants were compared with Thibaut in two different locations. Genetic variation among some mutant lines/cv Thibaut was estimated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Sixteen mutant lines and their mother cultivar Thibaut were analyzed with 14 EcoR1-Mse1 primer combinations. A total number of 504 AFLP bands were analyzed for each pair mutant/Thibaut. Narrow genetic variation among all genotypes was detected with an average of genetic similarity of 0.96. Cluster analysis with the entire AFLP data divided all genotypes into two major groups. The resistant mutant lines were grouped in one subcluster with 0.98 similarity index. Some resistant mutant lines to net blotch with good agronomic performances were produced [it

  19. Comparative Genome Analysis Reveals Adaptation to the Ectophytic Lifestyle of Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chao; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Guangyu; Gleason, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi are a distinctive group of plant pathogens which, although phylogenetically diverse, occupy an exclusively surface-dwelling niche. They cause economic losses by superficially blemishing the fruit of several tree crops, principally apple, in moist temperate regions worldwide. In this study, we performed genome-wide comparative analyses separately within three pairs of species of ascomycete pathogens; each pair contained an SBFS species as well as...

  20. Effect of chitosan solution on the inhibition of Acidovorax citrulli causing bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Shi, Yu; Shan, Changlin; Zhou, Qing; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Wang, Yanli; Wu, Guoxing; Li, Hongye; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2013-03-30

    The production of watermelon in China has been seriously hampered by fruit blotch disease and limited control measures are now applied. Chitosan has been employed to control a variety of plant diseases and is considered to be the most promising biochemical to control this disease. The in vitro antibacterial effect of chitosan and its ability in protection of watermelon seedlings from bacterial fruit blotch were evaluated. Results showed that three types of chitosan, in particular, chitosan A at 0.40 mg mL⁻¹ significantly inhibited the growth of Acidovorax citrulli. The antibacterial activity of chitosan A was affected by chitosan concentration and incubation time. The direct antibacterial activity of chitosan may be attributed to membrane lysis evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation. The disease index of watermelon seedlings planted in soil and the death rate of seedlings planted in perlite were significantly reduced by chitosan A at 0.40 mg mL⁻¹ compared to the pathogen control. Fresh and dry weight of watermelon seedlings planted in soil was increased by chitosan seed treatment, but not by chitosan leaf spraying. The results indicated that chitosan solution may have a potential in controlling bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Field efficacy of different fungicide mixtures in control of net blotch on barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanović Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven fungicide mixtures (epoxiconazol + metconazole, boscalid + epoxiconazole, pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole, prothioconazole + tebuconazole, picoxistrobin + cyproconazole, azoxystrobin + cyproconazole and spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol were evaluated for control of net blotch of barley caused by Drechslera teres, as well as yield losses, over the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Two applications of the fungicide combination pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole at the rate of 1.0 l ha-1 were the most effective treatment in controlling the disease and improving yield in both experimental years. Treatments with the fungicide mixtures epoxiconazol + metconazole and spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol showed the least effectiveness in disease control, as well as yield increase.

  2. A simulation program for the timing of fungicides to control Sooty Blotch in organic apple growing. First results in 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Trapman, Marc

    2004-01-01

    A simulation program for infections by Sooty Blotch was developed based on literature data and expert judgements. The value of the model as tool for timing fungicide sprays to control Sooty Blotch was tested in 2003 in two randomized plot trials, and four “on farm” trials where the treatments where made by the growers. Disease pressure was relative low due to the warm and dry summer of 2003. Two to five post infection treatments with lime sulfur or coconut soap aimed at severe ...

  3. Genetic analysis of resistance to septoria tritici blotch in the French winter wheat cultivars Balance and Apache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S.; Robert, O.; Laurent, V.; Lonnet, P.; Margalé, E.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola is the causal agent of septoria tritici blotch (STB), one of the most destructive foliar diseases of bread and durum wheat globally, particularly in temperate humid areas. A screening of the French bread wheat cultivars Apache and Balance with 30 M.

  4. Large-scale gene discovery in the Septoria tritici blotch fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola with a focus on in planta expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, G.H.J.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Mendes, O.; Verstappen, E.C.P.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Sandbrink, H.; Burgt, van der A.; Zwiers, L.H.; Csukai, M.; Waalwijk, C.

    2008-01-01

    The foliar disease septoria tritici blotch, caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola, is currently the most important wheat disease in Europe. Gene expression was examined under highly different conditions, using 10 expressed sequence tag libraries generated from M. graminicola isolate IPO323

  5. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irradiation on barley susceptibility to net blotch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.; Al-safadi, B.; Charbaji, T.

    2000-11-01

    Isolates of Drechslera teres f. sp. teres that cause net blotch symptoms on barley were collected from fields in different regions of Syria. there virulence spectra were determined using 11 barley cultivars. Cultivars exhibited a continuos range of response from very susceptible to moderately resistant. Isolate Raqa 13 had the highest mean virulence, then Halap 2, whereas ICARDA 3 was the lowest virulent. The effect of three concentrations (1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) of nitrogen (Urea 45%) fertilizer, and two doses of gamma ray (10 and 20 Gy), on susceptibility to infection by Drechslera teres were studied. Two barley cultivars (Thibaut and Furia) were used in this study. Results showed that 1000 ppm (N) and 15 Gy dose treatment had a positive effect on decreasing the susceptibility. (author)

  6. The effect of irradiating barley seeds (Hordeum Vulgare) on plantlet growth and net blotch resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    Barley seeds of two cultivars (Smash and Thibaut) and one line (74-F-6) with water contents adjusted between 12.8 and 13.3%, were irradiated with various doses (1-sup 1 sup 6 sup 0 Gy) of sup 6 sup 0 Co γ rays. Doses of 1-sup 4 sup 0 Gy favored an increases length of the first leaf. In general, doses of 15 and sup 2 sup 0 Gy decreased barley susceptibility to Drechrlera teres f. maculata by 25 and 21%, respectively. This reduction was a function of the line or cultivar used. The best response was obtained with cv. Smash. Seedling growth stimulation and host susceptibility to D. teres were significantly correlated (r= -0.68). The stimulatory effect of γ rays on growth could be used at low levels, to provide adequate field resistance to net blotch caused by D. teres f. maculata. (author). 28 refs., 3 tabs

  7. The Mystery of Spot Blotch Disease Caused by the Fungal Pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana on Barley (Hordeum vulgare L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjendal, Nele

    was investigated. In this PhD work it could be shown that light dependent disease symptoms were associated with less fungal colonization, while suppressing the rate of photosynthesis by keeping plants in darkness made them super-susceptible to B. sorokiniana colonization. Likewise, partial suppression......The fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana causes a wide spectrum of diseases including spot blotch disease. To achieve a better understanding of the biology of the fungus, the interaction of B. sorokiniana with the host barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and the resulting disease spot blotch...... of photosynthesis with DCMU (3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) reduced the formation of necrosis after infection and led to increased susceptibility, strongly implying that active photosynthesis is involved in disease symptom formation and that these symptoms negatively affect fungal colonization...

  8. Identification of Novel Source of Resistance and Differential Response of Allium Genotypes to Purple Blotch Pathogen, Alternaria porri (Ellis Ciferri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyabrata Nanda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple blotch, caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cifferi, is a serious disease incurring heavy yield losses in the bulb and seed crop of onion and garlic worldwide. There is an immediate need for identification of effective resistance sources for use in host resistance breeding. A total of 43 Allium genotypes were screened for purple blotch resistance under field conditions. Allium cepa accession ‘CBT-Ac77’ and cultivar ‘Arka Kalyan’ were observed to be highly resistant. In vitro inoculation of a selected set of genotypes with A. porri, revealed that 7 days after inoculation was suitable to observe the disease severity. In vitro screening of 43 genotypes for resistance to A. porri revealed two resistant lines. An additional 14 genotypes showed consistent moderate resistance in the field as well as in vitro evaluations. Among the related Allium species, A. schoenoprasum and A. roylei showed the least disease index and can be used for interspecific hybridization with cultivated onion. Differential reaction analysis of three A. porri isolates (Apo-Chiplima, Apn-Nasik, Apg-Guntur in 43 genotypes revealed significant variation among the evaluated Allium species (P = 0.001. All together, the present study suggest that, the newly identified resistance sources can be used as potential donors for ongoing purple blotch resistance breeding program in India.

  9. Ancestral state reconstruction infers phytopathogenic origins of sooty blotch and flyspeck fungi on apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Izera; Batzer, Jean Carlson; Harrington, Thomas C; Crous, Pedro W; Lavrov, Dennis V; Li, Huanyu; Gleason, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Members of the sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) complex are epiphytic fungi in the Ascomycota that cause economically damaging blemishes of apples worldwide. SBFS fungi are polyphyletic, but approx. 96% of SBFS species are in the Capnodiales. Evolutionary origins of SBFS fungi remain unclear, so we attempted to infer their origins by means of ancestral state reconstruction on a phylogenetic tree built utilizing genes for the nuc 28S rDNA (approx. 830 bp from near the 59 end) and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The analyzed taxa included the well-known genera of SBFS as well as non-SBFS fungi from seven families within the Capnodiales. The non-SBFS taxa were selected based on their distinct ecological niches, including plant-parasitic and saprophytic species. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that most SBFS species in the Capnodiales are closely related to plant-parasitic fungi. Ancestral state reconstruction provided strong evidence that plant-parasitic fungi were the ancestors of the major SBFS lineages. Knowledge gained from this study may help to better understand the ecology and evolution of epiphytic fungi. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  10. Comparative Genome Analysis Reveals Adaptation to the Ectophytic Lifestyle of Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Zhang, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi are a distinctive group of plant pathogens which, although phylogenetically diverse, occupy an exclusively surface-dwelling niche. They cause economic losses by superficially blemishing the fruit of several tree crops, principally apple, in moist temperate regions worldwide. In this study, we performed genome-wide comparative analyses separately within three pairs of species of ascomycete pathogens; each pair contained an SBFS species as well as a closely related but plant-penetrating parasite (PPP) species. Our results showed that all three of the SBFS pathogens had significantly smaller genome sizes, gene numbers and repeat ratios than their counterpart PPPs. The pathogenicity-related genes encoding MFS transporters, secreted proteins (mainly effectors and peptidases), plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and secondary metabolism enzymes were also drastically reduced in the SBFS fungi compared with their PPP relatives. We hypothesize that the above differences in genome composition are due largely to different levels of acquisition, loss, expansion, and contraction of gene families and emergence of orphan genes. Furthermore, results suggested that horizontal gene transfer may have played a role, although limited, in the divergent evolutionary paths of SBFS pathogens and PPPs; repeat-induced point mutation could have inhibited the propagation of transposable elements and expansion of gene families in the SBFS group, given that this mechanism is stronger in the SBFS fungi than in their PPP relatives. These results substantially broaden understanding of evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation of fungi to the epicuticular niche of plants. PMID:29126189

  11. Citrus leaf blotch virus invades meristematic regions in Nicotiana benthamiana and citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, Jesús; Vives, María Carmen; Velázquez, Karelia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Juárez, Jose; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Guerri, José

    2013-08-01

    To invade systemically host plants, viruses need to replicate in the infected cells, spread to neighbouring cells through plasmodesmata and move to distal parts of the plant via sieve tubes to start new infection foci. To monitor the infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants by Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV), leaves were agroinoculated with an infectious cDNA clone of the CLBV genomic RNA expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the transcriptional control of a duplicate promoter of the coat protein subgenomic RNA. Fluorescent spots first appeared in agroinfiltrated leaves 11-12 days after infiltration, indicating CLBV replication. Then, after entering the phloem vascular system, CLBV was unloaded in the upper parts of the plant and invaded all tissues, including flower organs and meristems. GFP fluorescence was not visible in citrus plants infected with CLBV-GFP. Therefore, to detect CLBV in meristematic regions, Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) plants were graft inoculated with CLBV, with Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a virus readily eliminated by shoot-tip grafting in vitro, or with both simultaneously. Although CLBV was detected by hybridization and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 0.2-mm shoot tips in all CLBV-inoculated plants, CTV was not detected. These results explain the difficulty in eliminating CLBV by shoot-tip grafting in vitro. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. Biological Control of Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon Pathogen (Acidovorax citrulli with Rhizosphere Associated Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Adhikari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB, which is caused by Acidovorax citrulli, is a serious threat to watermelon growers around the world. The present study was conducted to screen effective rhizobacterial isolates against 35 different A. citrulli isolates and determine their efficacy on BFB and growth parameters of watermelon. Two rhizobacterial isolates viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa (SN-22, Sinomonas atrocyanea (NSB-27 showed high inhibitory activity in the preliminary screening and were further evaluated for their effect on BFB and growth parameters of three different watermelon varieties under greenhouse conditions. The greenhouse experiment result revealed that SN-22 and NSB-27 significantly reduced BFB and had significant stimulatory effect on total chlorophyll content, plant height, total fresh weight and total dry weight compared to uninoculated plants across the tested three watermelon varieties. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA sequences revealed that strains SN-22 belong to P. polymyxa and NSB-27 to S. atrocyanea with the bootstrap value of 99% and 98%, respectively. The isolates SN-22 and NSB-27 were tested for antagonistic and PGP traits. The result showed that the tested isolates produced siderophore, hydrolytic enzymes (protease and cellulose, chitinase, starch hydrolytic enzymes and they showed phosphate as well as zinc solubilizing capacity. This is the first report of P. polymyxa (SN-22 and S. atrocyanea (NSB-27 as biocontrol-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on watermelon.

  13. Spatial prediction of wheat Septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici) disease severity in central Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros; Kumar, Sunil; Senay, Gabriel; Takele, Abera; Lencho, Alemu

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have reported the presence of wheat septoria leaf blotch (Septoria tritici; SLB) disease in Ethiopia. However, the environmental factors associated with SLB disease, and areas under risk of SLB disease, have not been studied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that environmental variables can adequately explain observed SLB disease severity levels in West Shewa, Central Ethiopia. Specifically, we identified 50 environmental variables and assessed their relationships with SLB disease severity. Geographically referenced disease severity data were obtained from the field, and linear regression and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modeling approaches were used for developing spatial models. Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived vegetation indices and land surface temperature (LST) variables highly influenced SLB model predictions. Soil and topographic variables did not sufficiently explain observed SLB disease severity variation in this study. Our results show that wheat growing areas in Central Ethiopia, including highly productive districts, are at risk of SLB disease. The study demonstrates the integration of field data with modeling approaches such as BRT for predicting the spatial patterns of severity of a pathogenic wheat disease in Central Ethiopia. Our results can aid Ethiopia's wheat disease monitoring efforts, while our methods can be replicated for testing related hypotheses elsewhere.

  14. Adaptive color polymorphism and unusually high local genetic diversity in the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Micheletti

    Full Text Available Recently, studies of adaptive color variation have become popular as models for examining the genetics of natural selection. We examined color pattern polymorphism and genetic variation in a population of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana that is found in habitats with both dark (lava and light colored (granite substrates. We conducted a limited experiment for adult phenotypic plasticity in laboratory conditions. We recorded both substrate and lizard color patterns in the field to determine whether lizards tended to match their substrate. Finally we examined genetic variation in a gene (melanocortin 1 receptor that has been shown to affect lizard color in other species and in a presumably neutral gene (mitochondrial cytochrome b. Populations were sampled in the immediate area of the lava flows as well as from a more distant site to examine the role of population structure. Our captive Uta did not change color to match their background. We show that side-blotched lizards tend to match the substrate on which it was caught in the field and that variation in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene does not correlate well with color pattern in this population. Perhaps the most remarkable result is that this population of side-blotched lizards shows extremely high levels of variation at both genetic markers, in the sense of allele numbers, with relatively low levels of between-allele sequence variation. Genetic variation across this small region was as great or greater than that seen in samples of pelagic fish species collected worldwide. Statistical analysis of genetic variation suggests rapid population expansion may be responsible for the high levels of variation.

  15. Adaptive color polymorphism and unusually high local genetic diversity in the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, Steven; Parra, Eliseo; Routman, Eric J

    2012-01-01

    Recently, studies of adaptive color variation have become popular as models for examining the genetics of natural selection. We examined color pattern polymorphism and genetic variation in a population of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) that is found in habitats with both dark (lava) and light colored (granite) substrates. We conducted a limited experiment for adult phenotypic plasticity in laboratory conditions. We recorded both substrate and lizard color patterns in the field to determine whether lizards tended to match their substrate. Finally we examined genetic variation in a gene (melanocortin 1 receptor) that has been shown to affect lizard color in other species and in a presumably neutral gene (mitochondrial cytochrome b). Populations were sampled in the immediate area of the lava flows as well as from a more distant site to examine the role of population structure. Our captive Uta did not change color to match their background. We show that side-blotched lizards tend to match the substrate on which it was caught in the field and that variation in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene does not correlate well with color pattern in this population. Perhaps the most remarkable result is that this population of side-blotched lizards shows extremely high levels of variation at both genetic markers, in the sense of allele numbers, with relatively low levels of between-allele sequence variation. Genetic variation across this small region was as great or greater than that seen in samples of pelagic fish species collected worldwide. Statistical analysis of genetic variation suggests rapid population expansion may be responsible for the high levels of variation.

  16. Red blotch disease alters grape berry development and metabolism by interfering with the transcriptional and hormonal regulation of ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Hopfer, Helene; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Ye, Zirou; Rivero, Rosa M.; Albacete, Alfonso; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Koyama, Renata; Anderson, Michael M.; Smith, Rhonda J.; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a major threat to the wine industry in the USA. GRBaV infections (aka red blotch disease) compromise crop yield and berry chemical composition, affecting the flavor and aroma properties of must and wine. In this study, we combined genome-wide transcriptional profiling with targeted metabolite analyses and biochemical assays to characterize the impact of the disease on red-skinned berry ripening and metabolism. Using naturally infected berries collected from two vineyards, we were able to identify consistent berry responses to GRBaV across different environmental and cultural conditions. Specific alterations of both primary and secondary metabolism occurred in GRBaV-infected berries during ripening. Notably, GRBaV infections of post-véraison berries resulted in the induction of primary metabolic pathways normally associated with early berry development (e.g. thylakoid electron transfer and the Calvin cycle), while inhibiting ripening-associated pathways, such as a reduced metabolic flux in the central and peripheral phenylpropanoid pathways. We show that this metabolic reprogramming correlates with perturbations at multiple regulatory levels of berry development. Red blotch caused the abnormal expression of transcription factors (e.g. NACs, MYBs, and AP2-ERFs) and elements of the post-transcriptional machinery that function during red-skinned berry ripening. Abscisic acid, ethylene, and auxin pathways, which control both the initiation of ripening and stress responses, were also compromised. We conclude that GRBaV infections disrupt normal berry development and stress responses by altering transcription factors and hormone networks, which result in the inhibition of ripening pathways involved in the generation of color, flavor, and aroma compounds. PMID:28338755

  17. Comparative Genome Analysis Reveals Adaptation to the Ectophytic Lifestyle of Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Guangyu; Gleason, Mark L

    2017-11-01

    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi are a distinctive group of plant pathogens which, although phylogenetically diverse, occupy an exclusively surface-dwelling niche. They cause economic losses by superficially blemishing the fruit of several tree crops, principally apple, in moist temperate regions worldwide. In this study, we performed genome-wide comparative analyses separately within three pairs of species of ascomycete pathogens; each pair contained an SBFS species as well as a closely related but plant-penetrating parasite (PPP) species. Our results showed that all three of the SBFS pathogens had significantly smaller genome sizes, gene numbers and repeat ratios than their counterpart PPPs. The pathogenicity-related genes encoding MFS transporters, secreted proteins (mainly effectors and peptidases), plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and secondary metabolism enzymes were also drastically reduced in the SBFS fungi compared with their PPP relatives. We hypothesize that the above differences in genome composition are due largely to different levels of acquisition, loss, expansion, and contraction of gene families and emergence of orphan genes. Furthermore, results suggested that horizontal gene transfer may have played a role, although limited, in the divergent evolutionary paths of SBFS pathogens and PPPs; repeat-induced point mutation could have inhibited the propagation of transposable elements and expansion of gene families in the SBFS group, given that this mechanism is stronger in the SBFS fungi than in their PPP relatives. These results substantially broaden understanding of evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation of fungi to the epicuticular niche of plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Pathogenic variation in isolates of Pseudomonas causing the brown blotch of cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abou-Zeid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty seven bacterial isolates were isolated from superficial brown discolorations on the caps of cultivated Agaricus bisporus. After White Line Assay (WLA and the assist of Biolog computer-identification system, isolates were divided into groups: (I comprised ninteen bacterial isolates that positively responded to a Pseudomonas "reactans" reference strain (NCPPB1311 in WLA and were identified as Pseudomonas tolaasii, (II comprised two isolates which were WLA+ towards the reference strain (JCM21583 of P. tolaasii and were proposed to be P. "reactans". The third group comprised six isolates, two of which weakly responded to the strain of P. tolaasii and were identified as P. gingeri whereas the other four were WLA- and identified as P. fluorescens (three isolates and P. marginalis (one isolate. Isolates of P. tolaasii showed high aggressiveness compared with those of P. "reactans" in pathogenicity tests. Cubes of 1 cm³ of A. bisporus turned brown and decreased in size when were inoculated with 10 µl of P. tolaasii suspension containing 10(8 CFU ml-1, whereas a similar concentration of P. "reactans" caused only light browning. Fifty µl of the same concentration of P. tolaasii isolates gave typical brown blotch symptoms on fresh mushroom sporophores whereas the two P. "reactans" isolates caused superficial light discoloration only after inoculation with 100 µl of the same concentration. Mixture from both bacterial suspensions increased the brown areas formed on the pileus. This is the first pathogenicity report of P. tolasii and P. "reactans" isolated from cultivated A. bisporus in Egypt.

  19. Ranking quantitative resistance to Septoria tritici blotch in elite wheat cultivars using automated image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisto, Petteri; Hund, Andreas; Yu, Kang; Anderegg, Jonas; Walter, Achim; Mascher, Fabio; McDonald, Bruce A; Mikaberidze, Alexey

    2017-12-06

    Quantitative resistance is likely to be more durable than major gene resistance for controlling Septoria tritici blotch (STB) on wheat. Earlier studies hypothesized that resistance affecting the degree of host damage, as measured by the percentage of leaf area covered by STB lesions, is distinct from resistance that affects pathogen reproduction, as measured by the density of pycnidia produced within lesions. We tested this hypothesis using a collection of 335 elite European winter wheat cultivars that was naturally infected by a diverse population of Zymoseptoria tritici in a replicated field experiment. We used automated image analysis (AIA) of 21420 scanned wheat leaves to obtain quantitative measures of conditional STB intesity that were precise, objective, and reproducible. These measures allowed us to explicitly separate resistance affecting host damage from resistance affecting pathogen reproduction, enabling us to confirm that these resistance traits are largely independent. The cultivar rankings based on host damage were different from the rankings based on pathogen reproduction, indicating that the two forms of resistance should be considered separately in breeding programs aiming to increase STB resistance. We hypothesize that these different forms of resistance are under separate genetic control, enabling them to be recombined to form new cultivars that are highly resistant to STB. We found a significant correlation between rankings based on automated image analysis and rankings based on traditional visual scoring, suggesting that image analysis can complement conventional measurements of STB resistance, based largely on host damage, while enabling a much more precise measure of pathogen reproduction. We showed that measures of pathogen reproduction early in the growing season were the best predictors of host damage late in the growing season, illustrating the importance of breeding for resistance that reduces pathogen reproduction in order to minimize

  20. An evaluation of the flora adjacent to wine grape vineyards for the presence of alternative host plants of grapevine red blotch-associated virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a recently discovered virus of concern to wine grape production in North America. While the vector of this virus is unknown, other elements of virus epidemiology are essential to develop guidelines for the management of the virus as well as to assist ...

  1. Identification and genetic mapping of highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from an EST database of the septoria tritici blotch pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, S.B.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Cavaletto, J.R.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Crane, C.F.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    A database of 30,137 EST sequences from Mycosphaerella graminicola, the septoria tritici blotch fungus of wheat, was scanned with a custom software pipeline for di- and trinucleotide units repeated tandemly six or more times. The bioinformatics analysis identified 109 putative SSR loci, and for 99

  2. Map-Based Cloning of the Fungal Toxin Sensitivity Gene Tsn1 in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat Tsn1 gene on wheat chromosome arm 5BL confers sensitivity to the host-selective proteinaceous toxins Ptr ToxA and SnToxA produced by the pathogenic fungi Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and Stagonospora nodorum, respectively. Compatible Tsn1-ToxA interactions lead to extensive cell death and...

  3. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sherry R.; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Radhamani, J.; Parimalan, R.; Sivaswamy, M.; Tyagi, Sandhya; Yadav, Mamata; Kumari, Jyotisna; Deepali; Sharma, Sandeep; Bhagat, Indoo; Meeta, Madhu; Bains, N. S.; Chowdhury, A. K.; Saha, B. C.; Bhattacharya, P. M.; Kumari, Jyoti; Singh, M. C.; Gangwar, O. P.; Prasad, P.; Bharadwaj, S. C.; Gogoi, Robin; Sharma, J. B.; GM, Sandeep Kumar; Saharan, M. S.; Bag, Manas; Roy, Anirban; Prasad, T. V.; Sharma, R. K.; Dutta, M.; Sharma, Indu; Bansal, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat–Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011–14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab), a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal), a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels. PMID:27942031

  4. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Kumar

    Full Text Available A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu, a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab, a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal, a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels.

  5. Evaluation of 19,460 Wheat Accessions Conserved in the Indian National Genebank to Identify New Sources of Resistance to Rust and Spot Blotch Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sundeep; Archak, Sunil; Tyagi, R K; Kumar, Jagdish; Vk, Vikas; Jacob, Sherry R; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Radhamani, J; Parimalan, R; Sivaswamy, M; Tyagi, Sandhya; Yadav, Mamata; Kumari, Jyotisna; Deepali; Sharma, Sandeep; Bhagat, Indoo; Meeta, Madhu; Bains, N S; Chowdhury, A K; Saha, B C; Bhattacharya, P M; Kumari, Jyoti; Singh, M C; Gangwar, O P; Prasad, P; Bharadwaj, S C; Gogoi, Robin; Sharma, J B; Gm, Sandeep Kumar; Saharan, M S; Bag, Manas; Roy, Anirban; Prasad, T V; Sharma, R K; Dutta, M; Sharma, Indu; Bansal, K C

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive germplasm evaluation study of wheat accessions conserved in the Indian National Genebank was conducted to identify sources of rust and spot blotch resistance. Genebank accessions comprising three species of wheat-Triticum aestivum, T. durum and T. dicoccum were screened sequentially at multiple disease hotspots, during the 2011-14 crop seasons, carrying only resistant accessions to the next step of evaluation. Wheat accessions which were found to be resistant in the field were then assayed for seedling resistance and profiled using molecular markers. In the primary evaluation, 19,460 accessions were screened at Wellington (Tamil Nadu), a hotspot for wheat rusts. We identified 4925 accessions to be resistant and these were further evaluated at Gurdaspur (Punjab), a hotspot for stripe rust and at Cooch Behar (West Bengal), a hotspot for spot blotch. The second round evaluation identified 498 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts and 868 accessions potentially resistant to spot blotch. Evaluation of rust resistant accessions for seedling resistance against seven virulent pathotypes of three rusts under artificial epiphytotic conditions identified 137 accessions potentially resistant to multiple rusts. Molecular analysis to identify different combinations of genetic loci imparting resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust and spot blotch using linked molecular markers, identified 45 wheat accessions containing known resistance genes against all three rusts as well as a QTL for spot blotch resistance. The resistant germplasm accessions, particularly against stripe rust, identified in this study can be excellent potential candidates to be employed for breeding resistance into the background of high yielding wheat cultivars through conventional or molecular breeding approaches, and are expected to contribute toward food security at national and global levels.

  6. Induced resistance to septorial leaf blotch disease in wheat cv. 'SaberBeg' and its hybrids by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Al-Marooff, E.; AI-Janabi, A.; Mahmood, A.; AI-Aubaidi

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Seeds of 'SaberBeg' and its hybrids in F 2 generation were irradiated with different doses of fast neutrons. 1324 variants selected from M 2 and F 4 M 2 were evaluated for resistance to septorial leaf blotch (Septoria tritici Rob ex Desm) with artificial inoculation under field conditions, through 3 successive generations. Results revealed 55 variants moderately resistant, along with better agronomic traits such as stiff stem, earliness in maturity and good adaption to semiarid zone conditions. The highest number of such variants was obtained from irradiated 'SaberBeg' x 'Mexipak' and 'SaberBeg' x ('Mexipak' x 'AbuGhraib 4'), while the lowest number was found from 'SaberBeg' x 'Araz'. (author)

  7. First Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Bacteriophages Infecting Acidovorax citrulli, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryan Rahimi-Midani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages of Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, were isolated from 39 watermelon, pumpkin, and cucumber leaf samples collected from various regions of Korea and tested against 18 A. citrulli strains. Among the six phages isolated, ACP17 forms the largest plaque, and exhibits the morphology of phages in the Myoviridae family with a head diameter of 100 ± 5 nm and tail length of 150 ± 5 nm. ACP17 has eclipse and latent periods of 25 ± 5 min and 50 ± 5 min, respectively, and a burst size of 120. The genome of ACP17 is 156,281 base pairs with a G + C content of 58.7%, 263 open reading frames, and 4 transfer RNA genes. Blast search and phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein showed that ACP17 has limited homology to two Stentrophomonas phages, suggesting that ACP17 is a new type of Myoviridae isolated from A. citrulli.

  8. Efeito do Soursop yellow blotch virus no desenvolvimento vegetativo e na produção da gravioleira Effect of the Soursop yellow blotch virus on the growth and yield of soursop diseased plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. dos Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os danos causados no desenvolvimento vegetativo e na produção de frutos da gravioleira pelo vírus da mancha-amarela da gravioleira (Soursop yellow blotch virus, SYBV, foram estudados durante os anos de 2000 a 2004 em um experimento com dois tratamentos: plantas sadias e plantas doentes, dispostos em blocos ao acaso, com oito repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados, anualmente, a altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, número e peso de frutos, sendo que a produção foi monitorada a partir do segundo ano de plantio. As médias relativas à altura de planta, diâmetro do caule, número e peso de frutos das parcelas foram computadas, analisadas estatisticamente e comparadas pelo teste F. As plantas de ambos tratamentos foram originadas de mudas enxertadas, sendo as plantas doentes obtidas por meio de enxertias com propágulos de plantas infectadas com o SYBV. A doença reduziu em 65,11% e 46,72% a altura e o diâmetro do caule, respectivamente, e em 94,7 % e 99,2 % o número e o peso de frutos em relação às plantas sadias.Growth and yield losses on soursop plants due the Soursop yellow blotch virus (SYBV disease were studied during the years 2000 to 2004 in an experiment with two treatments: healthy and SYBV diseased plants. The experiment was disposed in a completely randomized block design with 8 replications with 4 plants per plot. Plant height, trunk diameter, number and weight of fruits were evaluated annually. Data, as plot means, was computed, statistically analyzed and compared by F test. Plants of both treatments were obtained by grafting with buds from healthy and SYBV infected plants. The disease caused percent reductions of 65.11, 46.72, 94.7 and 99.2 in plant height, trunk diameter, in fruit number and fruit weight, respectively.

  9. Metabolic responses to different immune challenges and varying resource availability in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey D; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Webb, Alison C; Angilletta, Michael J; DeNardo, Dale F; French, Susannah S

    2017-12-01

    The energetic cost of immunity depends on many factors, including the type of challenge, the timing of the response, and the state of the animal. We measured changes in the standard metabolic rates of side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard, 1852) in response to different immune challenges and nutritional states. In the first experiment, lizards were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (to stimulate the response to a pathogen), cutaneous biopsy (as a proxy to a superficial wound), both injection and biopsy, or neither (control). Four and five days later, we measured the standard metabolic rates of the lizards. In response to healing a cutaneous wound, lizards reduced metabolic rate and lost body mass. Healing rate was also inversely related to weight loss, but LPS had no effect on body mass or metabolic rate. In the second experiment, a new set of lizards were randomly assigned to a high-food or low-food diet and administered a cutaneous biopsy. As in the first experiment, we observed a reduction in metabolic rate after wounding; moreover, this decrease was positively correlated with the rate of healing. We observed higher rates of metabolism in lizards that ate more food, but food consumption was unrelated to the decrease in metabolic rate following the biopsy. These experiments demonstrate the dynamic nature of the immune response in response to immune challenge and the state of the organism.

  10. Biocontrol of Bacterial Fruit Blotch byBacillus subtilis9407 via Surfactin-Mediated Antibacterial Activity and Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhanwei; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xun; Duan, Yongming; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Bacillus subtilis 9407 showed a strong antibacterial activity against Acidovorax citrulli in vitro and 61.7% biocontrol efficacy on melon seedlings 4 days post inoculation under greenhouse conditions. To understand the biocontrol mechanism of B. subtilis 9407, identify the primary antibacterial compound and determine its role in controlling bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a srfAB deletion mutant (Δ srfAB ) was constructed. The Δ srfAB which was deficient in production of surfactin, not only showed almost no ability to inhibit growth of A. citrulli but also decreased biofilm formation and reduced swarming motility. Colonization assay demonstrated that B. subtilis 9407 could conlonize on melon roots and leaves in a large population, while Δ srfAB showed a four- to ten-fold reduction in colonization of melon roots and leaves. Furthermore, a biocontrol assay showed that Δ srfAB lost the biocontrol efficacy. In summary, our results indicated that surfactin, which consists of C13- to C16-surfactin A was the primary antibacterial compound of B. subtilis 9407, and it played a major role in biofilm formation, swarming motility, colonization and suppressing BFB. We propose that the biocontrol activity of B. subtilis 9407 is the results of the coordinated action of surfactin-mediated antibacterial activity and colonization. This study reveals for the first time that the use of a B. subtilis strain as a potential biological control agent could efficiently control BFB by producing surfactin.

  11. Development of Nested-PCR Assay to Detect Acidovorax citrulli, a Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch at Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tak Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The specific and sensitive nested-PCR method to detect Acidovorax citrulli, a causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch on cucurbitaceae, was developed. PCR primers were designed from the draft genome sequence which was obtained with the Next Generation Sequencing of A. citrulli KACC10651, and the nested-PCR primer set (Ac-ORF 21F/Ac-ORF 21R were selected by checking of specificity to A. citrulli with PCR assays. The selected nested-PCR primer amplified the 140 bp DNA only from A. citrulli strains, and detection sensitivity of the nested PCR increased 10,000 times of 1st PCR detection limit (10 ng genomic DNA/PCR. The nested PCR detected A. citrulli from the all samples of seed surface wash (external seed detection of the artificially inoculated watermelon seeds with 101 cfu/ml and above population of A. citrulli while the nested PCR could not detected A. citrulli from the mashed seed suspension (internal seed detection of the all artificially inoculated watermelon seeds. When the naturally infested watermelon seeds (10% seed infested rate with grow-out test used, the nested PCR detected A. citrulli from 2 seed samples out of 10 replication samples externally and 5 seed samples out of 10 replication samples internally. We believe that the nested-PCR developed in this study will be useful method to detect A. citrulli from the Cucurbitaceae seeds.

  12. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 guards against Pseudomonas tolaasii brown-blotch lesions on the surface of post-harvest Agaricus bisporus supermarket mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Emma B; Jackson, Robert W; Bhumbra, Shobita; Smith, Tim; Sockett, R Elizabeth

    2014-06-20

    Pseudomonas tolaasii is a problematic pathogen of cultured mushrooms, forming dark brown 'blotches' on mushroom surfaces and causing spoilage during crop growth and post-harvest . Treating P. tolaasii infection is difficult, as other, commensal bacterial species such as Pseudomonas putida are necessary for mushroom growth, so treatments must be relatively specific. We have found that P. tolaasii is susceptible to predation in vitro by the δ-proteobacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. This effect also occurred in funga, where B. bacteriovorus was administered to post-harvest mushroom caps before and after administration of the P. tolaasii pathogen. A significant, visible improvement in blotch appearance, after incubation, was observed on administration of Bdellovibrio. A significant reduction in viable P. tolaasii cell numbers, recovered from the mushroom tissue, was detected. This was accompanied by a more marked reduction in blotch severity on Bdellovibrio administration. We found that there was in some cases an accompanying overgrowth of presumed-commensal, non-Pseudomonas bacteria on post-harvest mushroom caps after Bdellovibrio-treatment. These bacteria were identified (by 16SrRNA gene sequencing) as Enterobacter species, which were seemingly resistant to predation. We visualised predatory interactions occuring between B. bacteriovorus and P. tolaasii on the post-harvest mushroom cap surface by Scanning Electron Microscopy, seeing predatory invasion of P. tolaasii by B. bacteriovorus in funga. This anti-P. tolaasii effect worked well in post-harvest supermarket mushrooms, thus Bdellovibrio was not affected by any pre-treatment of mushrooms for commercial/consumer purposes. The soil-dwelling B. bacteriovorus HD100 preys upon and kills P. tolaasii, on mushroom surfaces, and could therefore be applied to prevent spoilage in post-harvest situations where mushrooms are stored and packaged for sale.

  13. Seasonal shifts in clutch size and egg size in the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana Baird and Girard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Ronald A

    1981-05-01

    There is evidence that the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana, and some other organisms of temperate latitudes produce fewer and larger eggs as the reproductive season progresses. There are at least two models that could explain this phenomenon.Proponents of the parental investment model claim that females are selected to increase egg size, at the cost of clutch size, late in the season in order to produce larger and competitively superior hatchlings at a time when food for hatchlings is in low supply and when juvenile density is high. In this model the selective agent is relative scarcity of food available to hatchlings late in the reproductive season, and the adaptive response is production of larger offspring.The alternative explanation (bet-hedging model) proposed in this paper is based on the view that the amount of food available to females for the production of late-season clutches is unpredictable, and that selection has favored conservatively small clutches in the late season to insure that each egg is at least minimally provisioned. Smaller clutches, which occur most frequently late in the season, are more likely to consist of larger eggs, compared to larger clutches, for two reasons. Firstly, unlike birds, oviparous lizards cannot alter parental investment after their eggs are deposited, and therefore, in cases of fractional optimal clutch size, the next lower integral clutch size is selected with the remaining reproductive energy allocated to increased egg size. With other factors constant, eggs of smaller clutches will increase more in size than eggs of larger clutches when excess energy is divided among the eggs of a clutch. Secondly, unanticipated energy that may become available for reproduction during energy-rich years will similarly increase egg size a greater amount if divided among fewer eggs.

  14. Finished genome of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola reveals dispensome structure, chromosome plasticity, and stealth pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Goodwin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant-pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola (asexual stage: Septoria tritici causes septoria tritici blotch, a disease that greatly reduces the yield and quality of wheat. This disease is economically important in most wheat-growing areas worldwide and threatens global food production. Control of the disease has been hampered by a limited understanding of the genetic and biochemical bases of pathogenicity, including mechanisms of infection and of resistance in the host. Unlike most other plant pathogens, M. graminicola has a long latent period during which it evades host defenses. Although this type of stealth pathogenicity occurs commonly in Mycosphaerella and other Dothideomycetes, the largest class of plant-pathogenic fungi, its genetic basis is not known. To address this problem, the genome of M. graminicola was sequenced completely. The finished genome contains 21 chromosomes, eight of which could be lost with no visible effect on the fungus and thus are dispensable. This eight-chromosome dispensome is dynamic in field and progeny isolates, is different from the core genome in gene and repeat content, and appears to have originated by ancient horizontal transfer from an unknown donor. Synteny plots of the M. graminicola chromosomes versus those of the only other sequenced Dothideomycete, Stagonospora nodorum, revealed conservation of gene content but not order or orientation, suggesting a high rate of intra-chromosomal rearrangement in one or both species. This observed "mesosynteny" is very different from synteny seen between other organisms. A surprising feature of the M. graminicola genome compared to other sequenced plant pathogens was that it contained very few genes for enzymes that break down plant cell walls, which was more similar to endophytes than to pathogens. The stealth pathogenesis of M. graminicola probably involves degradation of proteins rather than carbohydrates to evade host defenses during the biotrophic

  15. Study on screening and antagonistic mechanisms of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 54 against bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Hao; Wu, Fang; Yu, Zhen-Yun; Xie, Ping; Ke, Hong-Jiao; Li, Hong-Wei; Yu, Yi-Yang; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) was a serious threat to cucurbitaceae crops. It was caused by the gram-negative bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli. Two hundred strains, which have the potential in controlling plant diseases in our laboratory's biocontrol strain library, were employed to this research to screen some antagonistic bacteria, which can efficiently control bacterial fruit blotch disease. Based on the results of antagonistic activity experiments, greenhouse tests and field trials, 5 of the test strains have high abilities to control BFB. One of the 5 bacteria strains has the highest potential to control BFB named 54. The biocontrol efficacy of 54 was up to 60%. To characterize the strain, we used series of methods to evaluate the bacterium, including morphology analysis, physiological biochemical test and biomolecular assay. We found that the bacterium 54 belongs to the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The colonization test results showed that 54 had the highest colonization levels, and the density of the strain on leaves was up 10(5)colony forming units (CFU) per gram of leaf tissue. Our recent results show that B. amyloliquefaciens 54 can promote the plant growth due to raised the contents of available N, P, K and the leaf chlorophyll. The antagonistic bacterium 54 can significantly control the BF B by increasing the expression level of defense-related gene PR1 and the accumulation the hydrogen peroxide in the plant. The results of trail experiment was also verified this efficient results of bacterium. This is also the first report of B. amyloliquefaciens strain that is able to control BFB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of wearable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) techniques for in situ real-time field inspection of apple Marssonina blotch disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Ravichandran, Naresh Kumar; Shirazi, Muhammad Faizan; Han, Sangyeop; Jeong, Hyosang; Kim, Pilun; Jung, Hee-Young; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-04-01

    Here we describe the possible application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to inspect Marssonina coronaria infected apple blotch disease of in situ apple leaves. To fulfill the in situ field inspection requirement, we developed a compact wearable OCT system. For the confirmation of OCT results, simultaneous experiment was performed in realtime using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which is frequently used in agriculture. LAMP method was developed as an alternative approach for the inspection of disease. We performed field inspection for 30 consecutive days, and all the acquired results from both OCT and lamp were compared to confirm the correlation. A clear identification between healthy specimens, apparently healthy but infected specimens, and infected specimens could be obtained through the real-time OCT images, and the correlation between OCT and lamp results was confirmed through the obtained realtime lamp results. Based on this feasibility study, we conclude that the combination of both these diagnosing modalities can be effective for various novel agricultural discoveries.

  17. Operational application and improvements of the disease risk forecast model PROCULTURE to optimize fungicides spray for the septoria leaf blotch disease in winter wheat in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Junk

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The model PROCULTURE has been developed by the Université Catholique de Louvain – UCL (Belgium to simulate the progress of the septoria leaf blotch disease on winter wheat during the cropping season. The model has been validated in Luxembourg for four years at four distinct representative sites. It is able to identify infection periods due to the causal agent Mycosphaerella graminicola on the last five leaf layers by combining meteorological data with phenological data from PROCULTURE's crop growth model component. The meteorological forcing consists of hourly time-series of air temperature, relative humidity and cumulative rainfall since the time of sowing, retrieved from automatic weather stations for hindcast and numerical weather prediction model outputs for the forecast periods. In order to improve the model, leaf wetness – which is one of the most important drivers for the spread of the disease – shall be added as an additional predictor. Therefore leaf wetness sensors were set up at four test sites during the 2007 growing season. To get a continuous spatial coverage of the country, it is planned to couple the PROCULTURE model offline to 12-hourly operational weather forecasts from an implementation of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model for Luxembourg at 1 km resolution. Because the WRF model does not provide leaf wetness directly, an artificial neural network (ANN is used to model this parameter.

  18. Identification and genetic mapping of highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from an EST database of the septoria tritici blotch pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Stephen B; van der Lee, Theo A J; Cavaletto, Jessica R; Te Lintel Hekkert, Bas; Crane, Charles F; Kema, Gert H J

    2007-05-01

    A database of 30,137 EST sequences from Mycosphaerella graminicola, the septoria tritici blotch fungus of wheat, was scanned with a custom software pipeline for di- and trinucleotide units repeated tandemly six or more times. The bioinformatics analysis identified 109 putative SSR loci, and for 99 of them, flanking primers were developed successfully and tested for amplification and polymorphism by PCR on five field isolates of diverse origin, including the parents of the standard M. graminicola mapping population. Seventy-seven of the 99 primer pairs generated an easily scored banding pattern and 51 were polymorphic, with up to four alleles per locus, among the isolates tested. Among these 51 loci, 23 were polymorphic between the parents of the mapping population. Twenty-one of these as well as two previously published microsatellite loci were positioned on the existing genetic linkage map of M. graminicola on 13 of the 24 linkage groups. Most (66%) of the primer pairs also amplified bands in the closely related barley pathogen Septoria passerinii, but only six were polymorphic among four isolates tested. A subset of the primer pairs also revealed polymorphisms when tested with DNA from the related banana black leaf streak (Black Sigatoka) pathogen, M. fijiensis. The EST database provided an excellent source of new, highly polymorphic microsatellite markers that can be multiplexed for high-throughput genetic analyses of M. graminicola and related species.

  19. Involvement of hrpX and hrpG in the Virulence of Acidovorax citrulli Strain Aac5, Causal Agent of Bacterial Fruit Blotch in Cucurbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Acidovorax citrulli causes bacterial fruit blotch, a disease that poses a global threat to watermelon and melon production. Despite its economic importance, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity and virulence of A. citrulli. Like other plant-pathogenic bacteria, A. citrulli relies on a type III secretion system (T3SS for pathogenicity. On the basis of sequence and operon arrangement analyses, A. citrulli was found to have a class II hrp gene cluster similar to those of Xanthomonas and Ralstonia spp. In the class II hrp cluster, hrpG and hrpX play key roles in the regulation of T3SS effectors. However, little is known about the regulation of the T3SS in A. citrulli. This study aimed to investigate the roles of hrpG and hrpX in A. citrulli pathogenicity. We found that hrpG or hrpX deletion mutants of the A. citrulli group II strain Aac5 had reduced pathogenicity on watermelon seedlings, failed to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco, and elicited higher levels of reactive oxygen species in Nicotiana benthamiana than the wild-type strain. Additionally, we demonstrated that HrpG activates HrpX in A. citrulli. Moreover, transcription and translation of the type 3-secreted effector (T3E gene Aac5_2166 were suppressed in hrpG and hrpX mutants. Notably, hrpG and hrpX appeared to modulate biofilm formation. These results suggest that hrpG and hrpX are essential for pathogenicity, regulation of T3Es, and biofilm formation in A. citrulli.

  20. Utilização do inseticida Methomyl na seleção de genótipos de aveia resistentes à helmintosporiose User of Methomyl insecticide for the selection of spot blotch resistant oat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Luise Handel

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A helmintosporiose é uma moléstia que afeta a cultura da aveia, reduzindo seu rendimento e qualidade de grão. A seleção de genótipos resistentes com utilização de filtrados tóxicos do fungo Helminthosporium sativum é eficaz, pois delimita a variabilidade do patógeno e reduz a interferência do ambiente na expressão do genótipo. Contudo, a obtenção dos filtrados tóxicos deste fungo é um processo lento e delicado. Dessa forma, a possibilidade do uso de substâncias sintéticas que simulem seu efeito, inibindo o transporte de elétrons da cadeia respiratória, é de grande interesse. O inseticida Methomyl é eficaz para simular o efeito da toxina do fungo que causa a helmintosporiose em milho, tendo o presente trabalho visado testar sua eficiência na cultura da aveia. Para isso, foi avaliado o crescimento de calos e raízes de aveia expostas ao Methomyl, quando crescimentos maiores indicaram maior resistência ao produto, e possível resistência à moléstia. Os resultados indicam que o Methomyl afeta o crescimento de raízes e calos de aveia e pode ser utilizado para separar os grupos de genótipos com e sem resistência à helmintosporiose. Assim, UFRGS 14, com maior sensibilidade aos filtrados tóxicos de H. sativum em outros estudos, também apresentou crescimento mais afetado pelo Methomyl em todos os experimentos aqui conduzidos.Spot Blotch is a plant disease which causes yield losses in oat and other cereals. Selection for resistant genotypes using Helminthosporium sativum toxic filtrates is an efficient technique, which reduces the pathogen variability and the influence of the environment over the genotype expression. The filtrates extraction is time consuming and a difficult process, and the possibility of using a synthetic product to simulate its action of inhibiting the cell electron transport chain would be useful. The Methomyl insecticide is an efficient product to simulate the effects of the fungus that causes spot

  1. Insights into Tan Spot and Stem Rust Resistance and Susceptibility by Studying the Pre-Green Revolution Global Collection of Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Sidrat; Sehgal, Sunish Kumar; Jin, Yue; Turnipseed, Brent; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-01-01

    Tan spot (TS), caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died) Drechs, is an important foliar disease of wheat and has become a threat to world wheat production since the 1970s. In this study a globally diverse pre-1940s collection of 247 wheat genotypes was evaluated against Ptr ToxA, P. tritici-repentis race 1, and stem rust to determine if; (i) acquisition of Ptr ToxA by the P. tritici-repentis from Stagonospora nodorum led to increased pathogen virulence or (ii) incorporation of ...

  2. Effect of essential oils of medicinal plants on leaf blotch in Tanzania grass Efeito de óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais sobre a helmintosporiose do capim Tanzânia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rodrigues dos Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spots caused by phyto-pathogenic fungi, can reduce the production of forage plants. The essential oils of medicinal plants have antimicrobial potential. The objective here was to evaluate the fungotoxicity in vitro of the essential oils of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (Poaceae, lemon balm (Lippia alba (Mill. NE Br ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae and peppermint (Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae on the fungus Helminthosporium sp. and the in vivo effect of these oils and of commercial neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae on leaf blotch in Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1. The mycelial growth of the fungus was evaluated over five periods (2; 4; 6; 8 and 10 days from incubation and with five concentrations of essential oils (C1 = 250 ppm; C2 = 500 ppm; C3 = 750 ppm; C4 = 1,000 ppm e C5 = 1,250 ppm. As an alternative control, the preventative and curative effect on leaf blotch of five oil-based treatments were evaluated: lemongrass, citronella, lemon balm, peppermint and neem in four concentrations (2,500; 5,000; 7,500 and 10,000 ppm. The essential oils of lemongrass and citronella were the most effective in reducing mycelial growth of Helminthosporium sp. With the essential oil of lemongrass, the pathogen presented the highest growth concentration (1.250 ppm. The results obtained showed that all the essential oils and concentrations tested presented a preventive and curative effect, reducing the severity of leaf blotch.Manchas foliares, causadas por fungos fitopatogênicos, podem reduzir a produção de forrageiras. Óleos essenciais de plantas medicinais apresentam potencial antimicrobiano. Objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade in vitro dos óleos essenciais de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle (Poaceae, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson (Verbenaceae e hortel

  3. Controle biológico da mancha-aquosa do melão por compostos bioativos produzidos por Bacillus spp. Biocontrol of bacterial fruit blotch of melon by bioactive compounds produced by Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizama Roza Santos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A mancha-aquosa, causada por Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac causa grandes prejuízos à cultura do melão. O controle dessa doença foi estudado in vivo, com microbiolização de sementes de melão Amarelo infectadas, com líquidos fermentados de Bacillus subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. pumilus C116 e Bacillus sp. MEN2, com e sem células bacterianas. O mecanismo de ação dos isolados foi estudado in vitro pelo método de difusão em ágar e os compostos bioativos parcialmente caracterizados por testes de hemólise e atividade surfactante. Nos testes in vivo, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com e sem células, indicando que o controle ocorreu devido à presença de compostos bioativos produzidos durante as fermentações. Todos os tratamentos diferiram da testemunha sem diferir entre si (P=0,05%. B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7 proporcionou redução da incidência (89,1% e do índice de doença (92,7%, elevou o período de incubação da mancha-aquosa de 9,8 para 11,9 dias e reduziu a AACPD de 3,36 para 0,17. In vitro, todos isolados apresentaram antibiose contra Aac e os compostos bioativos foram parcialmente caracterizados como lipopeptídeos.The bacterial fruit blotch, caused by the bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, is responsible for great losses in melon production. The control of this disease was investigated in vivo by treating infected yellow melon seeds with fermented broths of B. subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. pumilus C116 and Bacillus sp. MEN2, with and without bacterial cells. The mechanism of action of the strains was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion technique. The bioactive compounds produced were partially characterized by hemolysis test and surfactant activity. Regarding the tests conducted in vivo there was no statistical difference between the treatments with and without bacterial cells, which indicated that the control was due to the

  4. SnTox3 acts in effector triggered susceptibility to induce disease on wheat carrying the Snn3 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Liu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The necrotrophic fungus Stagonospora nodorum produces multiple proteinaceous host-selective toxins (HSTs which act in effector triggered susceptibility. Here, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of the SnTox3-encoding gene, designated SnTox3, as well as the initial characterization of the SnTox3 protein. SnTox3 is a 693 bp intron-free gene with little obvious homology to other known genes. The predicted immature SnTox3 protein is 25.8 kDa in size. A 20 amino acid signal sequence as well as a possible pro sequence are predicted. Six cysteine residues are predicted to form disulfide bonds and are shown to be important for SnTox3 activity. Using heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris and transformation into an avirulent S. nodorum isolate, we show that SnTox3 encodes the SnTox3 protein and that SnTox3 interacts with the wheat susceptibility gene Snn3. In addition, the avirulent S. nodorum isolate transformed with SnTox3 was virulent on host lines expressing the Snn3 gene. SnTox3-disrupted mutants were deficient in the production of SnTox3 and avirulent on the Snn3 differential wheat line BG220. An analysis of genetic diversity revealed that SnTox3 is present in 60.1% of a worldwide collection of 923 isolates and occurs as eleven nucleotide haplotypes resulting in four amino acid haplotypes. The cloning of SnTox3 provides a fundamental tool for the investigation of the S. nodorum-wheat interaction, as well as vital information for the general characterization of necrotroph-plant interactions.

  5. Chemosensitization of plant pathogenic fungi to agricultural fungicides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly eDzhavakhiya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A common consequence of using agricultural fungicides is the development of resistance by fungal pathogens, which undermines reliability of fungicidal effectiveness. A potentially new strategy to aid in overcoming or minimizing this problem is enhancement of pathogen sensitivity to fungicides, or chemosensitization. Chemosensitization can be accomplished by combining a commercial fungicide with a certain non- or marginally fungicidal substance at levels where, alone, neither compound would be effective. Chemosensitization decreases the probability of the pathogen developing resistance, reduces the toxic impact on the environment by lowering effective dosage levels of toxic fungicides, and improves efficacy of antifungal agents. The present study shows that the antifungal activity of azole and strobilurin fungicides can be significantly enhanced through their co-application with certain natural or synthetic products against several economically important plant pathogenic fungi. Quadris (azoxystrobin combined with thymol at a non-fungitoxic concentration produced much higher growth inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana, Phoma glomerata, Alternaria sp. and Stagonospora nodorum than the fungicide alone. The effect of Dividend (difenoconazole applied with thymol significantly enhanced antifungal activity against B. sorokiniana and S. nodorum. Folicur (tebuconazole combined with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HBA, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or thymol significantly inhibited growth of A. alternata, at a much greater level than the fungicide alone. In addition, co-application of Folicur and 4-HBA resulted in a similar enhancement of antifungal activity against Fusarium culmorum. Lastly, we discovered that metabolites in the culture liquid of F. sambucinum biocontrol isolate FS-94 also had chemosensitizing activity, increasing S. nodorum sensitivity to Folicur and Dividend.

  6. Efeitos de diferentes condições de irrigação e densidade de semeadura no microclima e na ocorrência de helmintosporiose de oídio em trigo Effects of different conditions of irrigation and crop density in microclimate and spot blotch and powdery mildew occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Sentelhas

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em Campinas (SP, o efeito da irrigação por aspersão e da densidade de semeadura na temperatura média do ar e na duração do período de molhamento (DPM, e sua influência em helmintosporiose e oídio na cultura do trigo, em experimentos ao nível de campo durante os invernos de 1990 e 1991 respectivamente. Os resultados foram submetidos a análises estatísticas: de diferença de dados pareados (microclima e de intervalos de confiança (taxa de crescimento das moléstias. As áreas com maior densidade de plantas e irrigadas mostraram a seguinte tendência: as temperaturas médias foram mais baixas, 0,7°C, e a DPM, com maior duração, 45 minutos. Com relação às taxas de crescimento, notou-se que foram influenciadas positivamente pela irrigação e pela densidade de semeadura quando as condições macroclimáticas não eram amplamente favoráveis ao desenvolvimento dos patógenos.Field experiments (1990 and 1991 were carried out in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, during winter season, in order to study sprinkler irrigation and crop density effects on micrometeorological parameters (average air temperature and dew duration and to evaluate their influence in the occurrence of spot blotch and powdery mildew in wheat crop. The results obtained were submitted to statistical analysis: comparison of means of two independent sample analysis (microclimate and confidence interval analysis (infection rates. It was verified that in the most dense and irrigated plots the average air temperatures were lower (0.7°C and the dew durations (DPM were longer (45 minutes than in the other plots. The infection rates of diseases were influenced positively by irrigation and crop density when the macroclimatic conditions were not favorable to disease development.

  7. Variability Pattern for Resistance to Purple Blotch ( Alternaria porri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five onion cultivars Red Creole, Kaharda, Koumassa, Sokoto local and ori were selected on the basis of diverse genetic backgrounds with respect to resistance to Alternaria porri (Ellis.) Cif. The cultivars were crossed in a complete diallel, the 25 F1s generated and their parents were evaluated in replicated yield trials at ...

  8. Variability Pattern for Resistance to Purple Blotch (Alternaria porri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Five onion cultivars Red Creole, Kaharda, Koumassa, Sokoto local and ori were selected on the basis of diverse genetic backgrounds with respect to resistance to Alternaria porri (Ellis.) Cif. The cultivars were crossed in a complete diallel, the 25 F1s generated and their parents were evaluated in replicated ...

  9. Biocontrole da mancha-aquosa do melão pelo tratamento de sementes com bactérias epifíticas e endofíticas Biocontrol of bacterial blotch of melon by seed treatment with epiphytic and endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldenir de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias epifíticas e endofíticas (96 isolados e fungos endofíticos (69 isolados foram obtidos de plantas de meloeiro sadios e testados no controle da mancha-aquosa, em condições de casa de vegetação, pelo tratamento de sementes pré-inoculadas com Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli ou pelo tratamento de sementes sadias visando a proteção da planta a posterior inoculação com o patógeno. As sementes de melão foram microbiolizadas por imersão nas suspensões (A570= 0,7, semeadas e avaliadas quanto ao período de incubação (PI, incidência (INC, severidade da doença (SEV e redução da severidade da doença (RSD. Apenas a microbiolização de sementes artificialmente infectadas, utilizando os endofíticos ENM5 (não identificado, ENM9 (Bacillus cereus, ENM13 (Bacillus sp., ENM16 (Bacillus cereus, ENM32 (Bacillus subtilis e ENM43 (Bacillus sp., revelou potencial para o controle da mancha-aquosa. Esses isolados, após o teste de compatibilidade in vitro, foram reavaliados isoladamente e em misturas dois a dois quanto ao PI, INC, SEV e RSD, além do índice de doença (IDO e área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD. Todos os tratamentos diferiram significativamente (P= 0,05 da testemunha, com RSD de até 93,6%, destacando-se os isolados ENM13 e ENM9 com PI de 7,5 e 7,25 dias, SEV de 0,22 e 0,22, IDO de 2,59 e 2,59, e AACPD de 0,22 e 0,39, respectivamente. Ensaios foram realizados in vitro para a determinação dos possíveis mecanismos de ação envolvidos no controle biológico. Os isolados ENM13 e ENM9 solubilizaram fosfato, ENM5 apresentou antibiose contra A. avenae subsp. citrulli, ENM43 produziu HCN enquanto ENM16 e ENM32 não apresentaram nenhum dos mecanismos testados.Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria (96 strains and endophytic fungi (69 strains were isolated from symptomless melon plants and tested for control of fruit blotch under greenhouse conditions, by treating seeds previously inoculated with Acidovorax

  10. Insights into Tan Spot and Stem Rust Resistance and Susceptibility by Studying the Pre-Green Revolution Global Collection of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrat Abdullah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tan spot (TS, caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died Drechs, is an important foliar disease of wheat and has become a threat to world wheat production since the 1970s. In this study a globally diverse pre-1940s collection of 247 wheat genotypes was evaluated against Ptr ToxA, P. tritici-repentis race 1, and stem rust to determine if; (i acquisition of Ptr ToxA by the P. tritici-repentis from Stagonospora nodorum led to increased pathogen virulence or (ii incorporation of TS susceptibility during development stem rust resistant cultivars led to an increase in TS epidemics globally. Most genotypes were susceptible to stem rust; however, a range of reactions to TS and Ptr ToxA were observed. Four combinations of disease-toxin reactions were observed among the genotypes; TS susceptible-Ptr ToxA sensitive, TS susceptible-Ptr ToxA insensitive, TS resistant-Ptr ToxA insensitive, and TS resistant-Ptr ToxA toxin sensitive. A weak correlation (r = 0.14 for bread wheat and −0.082 for durum was observed between stem rust susceptibility and TS resistance. Even though there were no reported epidemics in the pre-1940s, TS sensitive genotypes were widely grown in that period, suggesting that Ptr ToxA may not be an important factor responsible for enhanced prevalence of TS.

  11. Insights into Tan Spot and Stem Rust Resistance and Susceptibility by Studying the Pre-Green Revolution Global Collection of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Sidrat; Sehgal, Sunish Kumar; Jin, Yue; Turnipseed, Brent; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-04-01

    Tan spot (TS), caused by the fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died) Drechs, is an important foliar disease of wheat and has become a threat to world wheat production since the 1970s. In this study a globally diverse pre-1940s collection of 247 wheat genotypes was evaluated against Ptr ToxA, P. tritici-repentis race 1, and stem rust to determine if; (i) acquisition of Ptr ToxA by the P. tritici-repentis from Stagonospora nodorum led to increased pathogen virulence or (ii) incorporation of TS susceptibility during development stem rust resistant cultivars led to an increase in TS epidemics globally. Most genotypes were susceptible to stem rust; however, a range of reactions to TS and Ptr ToxA were observed. Four combinations of disease-toxin reactions were observed among the genotypes; TS susceptible-Ptr ToxA sensitive, TS susceptible-Ptr ToxA insensitive, TS resistant-Ptr ToxA insensitive, and TS resistant-Ptr ToxA toxin sensitive. A weak correlation (r = 0.14 for bread wheat and -0.082 for durum) was observed between stem rust susceptibility and TS resistance. Even though there were no reported epidemics in the pre-1940s, TS sensitive genotypes were widely grown in that period, suggesting that Ptr ToxA may not be an important factor responsible for enhanced prevalence of TS.

  12. In silico reversal of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP identifies the origins of repeat families and uncovers obscured duplicated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hane James K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP is a fungal genome defence mechanism guarding against transposon invasion. RIP mutates the sequence of repeated DNA and over time renders the affected regions unrecognisable by similarity search tools such as BLAST. Results DeRIP is a new software tool developed to predict the original sequence of a RIP-mutated region prior to the occurrence of RIP. In this study, we apply deRIP to the genome of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum SN15 and predict the origin of several previously uncharacterised classes of repetitive DNA. Conclusions Five new classes of transposon repeats and four classes of endogenous gene repeats were identified after deRIP. The deRIP process is a new tool for fungal genomics that facilitates the identification and understanding of the role and origin of fungal repetitive DNA. DeRIP is open-source and is available as part of the RIPCAL suite at http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/ripcal.

  13. FUNGICIDES IN SECOND HARVEST CORN: CERCOSPORIOSE CONTROL AND BLOTCH, PRODUCTIVITY, ECONOMIC RETURN AND GRAIN QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rezende

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência de The aim of this study was evaluate efficacy fungicides to control cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis and helminthosporium leaf blight (Exserohilumturcicum, productivity, economic returns and quality of grain of corn culture of second crop in Farm Bandeirantes at Feliz Natal/MT. The treatments evaluated were: pyraclostrobina+epoxiconazol (0,7 L ha-1, trifloxistrobina+protioconazol (0,3L ha-1, azoxistrobina+cyproconazol(0,3 L ha-1, azoxystrobina (0,25 L ha-1, trifloxistrobina+ciproconazol (0,2 L ha-1 and control. Theapplicationof products occurred when corn was with 55 days, with a high propelled sprayer. The experimental design was a randomized block, with 6 treatments and 3 replications. The severity of each disease was visually determined through periodic analyses and ten plants were marked in each repetition, which were evaluated during the entire crop cycle. The data of severity obtained were used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. It was also obtained the production per ha, the economic return (R$ ha-1 and physiological quality of grain was evaluated by germination tests and accelerated aging of the grains. All treatments had significant difference compared to the control sample in controlling cercospora leaf spot about the control of helminthosporiumleat blight, the fungicides trifloxystrobin+prothioconazol and trifloxystrobin+cyproconazol were not efficient, and the fungicides pyraclostrobina+epoxiconazol, azoxystrobina, azoxistrobina+cyproconazol were efficient. The treatments that had major production are from the group of triazoles+strobilurine and the fungicide pyraclostrobin+epoxyconazol showed greater economic viability. Not were differences among fungicides, and neither of the treatments compared to control, in germination and accelerated aging tests, showing that the grains have good quality characteristics

  14. Improvement of Resistance Against Septoria Leaf Blotch Caused By Zymoseptoria tritici in Danish Winter Wheat Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagndorf, Nana; Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Edriss, Vahid

    were evaluated for STB resistance in field trials in Denmark. All 170 wheat lines were genotyped with iSelect 15k SNP wheat array. We identified four QTL associated with resistance towards STB, located on chromosome 1B, 2A, 5D and 7A. Already identified resistance genes towards STB, Stb2 and Stb11...

  15. An ecophysiological approach to crop losses exemplified in the system wheat, leaf rust, and glume blotch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der A.F.

    1975-01-01

    The motive of the author to embark upon the research reported here was the need to develop new concepts to approach the problem of crop losses, and eventually the problem of their prevention by means of disease control and plant breeding. The introduction of ecophysiology as an approach, explained

  16. Isolation and identification of bacterial glum blotch and leaf blight on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . atrofaciens and P. syringae pv. syringae respectively are the bacterial diseases of wheat in Iran. The disease causes damage on wheat which leads to lots of yield and crop losses in the host plants. During the spring and summer of ...

  17. SnTox1, a Parastagonospora nodorum necrotrophic effector, is a dual-function protein that facilitates infection while protecting from wheat-produced chitinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gao, Yuanyuan; Kim, Yong Min; Faris, Justin D.; Shelver, Weilin L.; Wit, de Pierre J.G.M.; Xu, Steven S.; Friesen, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    SnTox1 induces programmed cell death and the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes including chitinases. Additionally, SnTox1 has structural homology to several plant chitin-binding proteins. Therefore, we evaluated SnTox1 for chitin binding and localization. We transformed an avirulent

  18. Interaction Effect Of Irradiation And Fertilization On Grain Yield, Kernel Weight And Severity Of Wheat To Septoria Tritici Blotch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M. A.; Jawhar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Field research was undertaken, for two growing seasons, to investigate the effects of soil fertilization with potassium (K 2 SO 4 , 36% K) and nitrogen (urea, 46% N), seed irradiation with gamma rays (0, 5, 10 and 15 Gy) and their combinations on the grain yield, 1000-kernel weight and severity of Mycosphaerella graminicola on wheat. Two Syrian wheat cultivars; Bohuth 6 (Triticum aestivum L.) and Bohuth 5 (T. turgidum var durum Desf.) were used in this study. Plants were inoculated with a mixture of 15 virulent isolates of the pathogen at the growth stage (GS) 33-34. Results indicated that the average response to fertilizer application and irradiation treatments was dependent on the susceptibility level of cultivars compared with the control. The level of infection of the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment was reduced by 9 and 46 % in 1998 and by 6 and 42 % in 1999 for Bohuth 5 and Bohuth 6, respectively. This was associated with increased grain yield by 68 and 59% in 1998 and 59 and 33% in 1999, respectively. Highest yield losses from M. graminicola occurred in the treatment of nil fertilization and irradiation. Grain weight was increased by various treatments applied, but such an increase was highest in the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment. This combined treatment appeared to be more effective on calcareous soils, which are typical of Mediterranean environments. (Authors)

  19. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-xia Zhang

    Full Text Available Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings increase our knowledge of pathogen resistance mechanisms, and the data will also promote further investigation into the regulation of the expression of these target proteins.

  20. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-xia; Tian, Yi; Cong, Pei-hua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings increase our knowledge of pathogen resistance mechanisms, and the data will also promote further investigation into the regulation of the expression of these target proteins.

  1. WLIP, a lipodepsipeptide of Pseudomonas 'reactans', as inhibitor of the symptoms of the brown blotch disease of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler Rivas, C.; Arpin, N.; Olivier, J.M.; Wichers, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    A cell-free crude extract containing the white line inducing principle (WLIP), a lipodepsipeptide produced by Pseudomonas 'reactans', could inhibit browning of mushrooms caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii. Mushrooms inoculated with Ps. tolaasii at concentrations of 2.7 x 106 cfu ml-1 or higher showed

  2. An accurate, specific, sensitive, high-throughput method based on a microsphere immunoassay for multiplex detection of three viruses and bacterial fruit blotch bacterium in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Makornwattana, Manlika; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Phuengwas, Sudtida; Warin, Nuchnard; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2017-09-01

    To employ a microsphere immunoassay (MIA) to simultaneously detect multiple plant pathogens (potyviruses, Watermelon silver mottle virus, Melon yellow spot virus, and Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli) in actual plant samples, several factors need to be optimized and rigorously validated. Here, a simple extraction method using a single extraction buffer was successfully selected to detect the four pathogens in various cucurbit samples (cucumber, cantaloupe, melon, and watermelon). The extraction method and assay performance were validated with inoculated and field cucurbit samples. The MIA showed 98-99% relative accuracy, 97-100% relative specificity and 92-100% relative sensitivity when compared to commercial ELISA kits and reverse transcription PCR. In addition, the MIA was also able to accurately detect multiple-infected field samples. The results demonstrate that one common extraction method for all tested cucurbit samples could be applied to detect multiple pathogens; avoiding the need for multiple protocols to be employed. This multiplex method can therefore be instrumental for high-throughput screening of multiple plant pathogens with many advantages such as a shorter assay time (2.5h) with single assay format, a lower cost of detection ($5 vs $19.7 for 4 pathogens/sample) and less labor requirement. Its multiplex capacity can also be expanded to detect up to 50 different pathogens upon the availability of specific antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Triticale biotic stresses--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseniuk, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Triticale has been considered as resistant to diseases over a long time. Although, many authors perpetuate this opinion, it is no longer true. However, in comparison to wheat and rye triticale still may look as a healthy crop, but its healthiness has been steadily declining. It could be explained by steady expansion of the growing area and longer exposure to pathogens. On the other hand, triticale is a crop on which meet pathogens of wheat and rye, but there is evidence that on triticale embedded more so called "wheat pathogens", than rye ones. For such an notable example may serve races of Puccinia recondita. In the latter respect triticale also appears to be a bridge facilitating a direct contact between the pathogens, e.g. between physiological forms of the most important cereal rusts. Such contacts stimulate somatic hybridization on bridging triticale plant and may finally result in new hybrid pathotypes carrying virulence genes (factors) to all three hosts, i.e. triticale, wheat and rye. In addition to all triticale commercial and agronomical values, triticale still is and it will continue to be bridging transfers of resistance genes to various pathogens and pests mainly from rye to wheat. The paper will describe main diseases affecting triticale worldwide. The first disease which occurred on this cereal in epidemic proportions was stem rust (Pucinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Australia. Leaf and stripe rusts (P. recondita f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis) are also have gained in importance everywhere triticale is grown. In recent years, at least in Poland, powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis occurred in epidemic proportions in quite a number of winter triticale cultivars. Similar phenomenon has been observed with quite a number of other diseases caused by facultative pathogens, such as the most damaging to triticale the Stagonospora spp. leaf and glume blotch disease complex and other pathogens like Cochliobolus sativus, Fusarium culmorum, and F

  4. Tratamento químico de sementes sobre o desenvolvimento de mancha marrom em plantas de trigo Chemical treatment in seeds on the development of the spot blotch in wheat plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Suemy Ishikawa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos fungicidas difenoconazole e carboxin + thiram aplicados em sementes de trigo cultivares 'CD 104' e 'OR Mirante', inoculadas com Cochliobolus sativus. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x3 (2 cultivares e 2 fungicidas + testemunha sem controle em sete repetições. O fungo foi isolado e reproduzido em meio de cultura BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar e, posteriormente, multiplicado em sementes de trigo pré-cozidas, constituindo a fonte de inóculo. As avaliações foram do número de lesões na folha basal de cinco plantas por vaso aos 22, 25, 29, 31, 35 e 38 dias após a semeadura (DAS e aos 41 dias foram avaliados o comprimento (cm, massa fresca (g e seca (g da parte aérea e das raízes. A partir das avaliações do número de lesões, também foi calculada a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, cujos dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. A cultivar 'CD 104' foi mais suscetível ao patógeno do que 'OR Mirante'; difenoconazole foi eficiente no controle da doença na parte aérea, enquanto carboxin + thiram se igualou à testemunha; os dois fungicidas interferiram negativamente no desenvolvimento das plantas, uma vez que as médias de comprimento, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e das raízes obtidas das sementes tratadas é inferior à média das sementes não tratadas.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides difenoconazole and carboxin + thiram applied in seed wheat cultivars 'CD 104' and 'OR Mirante', inoculated with Cochliobolus sativus. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x3 factorial design (2 cultivars and 2 fungicides + untreated control in seven replications. The fungi was isolated and reproduced in PDA culture medium (potato-dextrose-agar and subsequently multiplied in seeds of wheat pre-cooked and is the source of inoculum. The evaluations were the number of lesions in the basal leaf of five plants per pot at 22, 25, 29, 31, 35 and 38 days after sowing (DAS, and at 41DAS were evaluated the length (cm, fresh weight (g and dry weight (g of shoot and root. From the evaluations of the number of lesions was also calculated the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC. The datas were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The 'CD 104' cultivar was more susceptible to the pathogen than 'OR Mirante'; difenoconazole was efficient to control the disease as carboxin + thiram equaled the witness; both fungicides interfered negatively on plant development, since the average length, fresh weight and dry shoot and root obtained from treated seed is lower than the untreated seeds.

  5. Comparison of the northern snakehead (Channa argus) and blotched snakehead (Channa maculata) and their reciprocal hybrids (C. maculata ♀ × C. argus ♂ and C. argus ♀ × C. maculata ♂) based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xincheng, Zhang; Xinping, Zhu; Kunci, Chen; Jian, Zhao; Qing, Luo; Xiaoyou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA of Channa argus, Channa maculata, C. maculate ♀ × C. argus ♂ and C. argus ♀ × C. maculata ♂ were sequenced to characterize and compare their mitochondrial genomes. The lengths were 16,558, 16,559, 16,558 and 16,559 bp respectively. Start codon of 13 protein-coding genes was ATG, except that COI was GTG. The control region of the mitogenome were 907, 908, 907 and 908 bp in C. argus, C. maculata and their reciprocal hybrids (C. argus ♀ × C. maculata ♂ and C. maculate ♀ × C. argus ♂), respectively.

  6. Inheritance and localisation of resistance to ¤Mycosphaerella graminicola¤ causing septoria tritici blotch and plant height in the wheat (¤Triticum aestivum¤ L.) genome with DNA markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, L.; Borum, F.; Jahoor, A.

    2003-01-01

    , and to an isolate mixture at the adult plant stage, in field trials. A gene located at or near the Stb6 locus mapping to chromosome 3A provided seedling resistance to IPO323. Two complementary genes, mapping to chromosome 3A, one of which was the IPO323 resistance gene, were needed for resistance to the Danish...... over two trials. Both these QTLs were also detected at the seedling stage with isolate Riso97-86, whereas isolate IPO323 only detected the QTL on 3A. Additionally, two QTLs identified in adult plants on chromosomes 2B and 7B were not detected at the seedling stage. Four QTLs were detected for plant...

  7. Intensidade de ataque de tripes, de alternaria e da queima-das-pontas em cultivares de cebola Intensity of attacks of thrips, purple blotch and gray mold on onion cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano L.D. Leite

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a intensidade de ataque de Thrips tabaci Lind., a incidência de Alternaria porri (Ellis e Botrytis squamosa J.C. Walker em nove cultivares de cebola [Aurora, Primavera, CNPH 6400, Crioula Alto-Vale, Vale-Ouro (IPA 11, Franciscana (IPA-16, Piraouro, Conquista e Serrana], num experimento no delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. Foram feitas avaliações semanais, do transplantio até a colheita, em dez plantas/parcela do número de T. tabaci presente na bainha das folhas bem como da percentagem de área foliar danificada pelo mesmo a partir da primeira folha expandida e também da presença ou da ausência de lesões causadas por A. porri e B. squamosa. A cv. Franciscana mostrou-se mais resistente em relação às demais ao ataque de T. tabaci. Não houve diferença significativa de plantas afetadas por A. porri e B. squamosa. T. tabaci e A. porri foram ambos afetados positiva e negativamente pela temperatura e pela umidade relativa do ambiente, respectivamente.The intensity of attack of T. tabaci and incidence of Alternaria porri (Ellis Cif and Botrytis squamosa J.C. Walker in nine onion cultivars [Aurora, Primavera, CNPH 6400, Crioula Alto-Vale, Vale-Ouro (IPA 11, Franciscana (IPA-16, Piraouro, Conquista and Serrana] was evaluated, in an experiment in randomized blocks design, with five replications. Weekly evaluations were done from the transplanting until harvesting date, in ten plants/parcel of the number of T. tabaci on the leaves, the percentage of damaged foliar area from the first expanded leaf up and the presence or absence of injuries caused by A. porri and B. squamosa. The cv. Franciscana was more resistant to the attack of T. tabaci in comparison to the other onion cultivars. There was no significant difference between cvs for A. porri and Botrytis squamosa resistance. T. tabaci and A. porri were influenced positively and negatively by temperature and relative humidity, respectively.

  8. Mise en évidence au Burkina Faso d'un nouveau taxon de Colletotrichum dans l'étiologie de la maladie des taches brunes du niébé

    OpenAIRE

    Sérémé, P.; Diasso, GA.; Ake, S.

    2001-01-01

    Identification of New Taxum of Colletotrichum as a Causal Pathogen for Brown Blotch Disease of Cowpea in the Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso. Brown blotch disease of cowpea was, until recentiy, described as a disease of savannah and forested zones of Africa. However, in its latest progression, the disease also appeared in the sahelian zone of Burkina. In the present study on the etiology of brown blotch disease in Burkina Faso, analysis of isolates Colletotrichum spp. iead to the identification...

  9. Selection rhizosphere-competent microbes for development of microbial products as biocontrol agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinistova, A. V.; Elchin, A. A.; Gorbunova, N. V.; Muratov, V. S.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Khudaibergenova, B. M.; Shabaev, V. P.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    Rhizosphere-borne microorganisms reintroduced to the soil-root interface can establish without inducing permanent disturbance in the microbial balance and effectively colonise the rhizosphere due to carbon sources of plant root exudates. A challenge for future development of microbial products for use in agriculture will be selection of rhizosphere-competent microbes that both protect the plant from pathogens and improve crop establishment and persistence. In this study screening, collection, identification and expression of stable and technological microbial strains living in soils and in the rhizosphere of abundant weed - couch-grass Elytrigia repens L. Nevski were conducted. A total of 98 bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere were assessed for biocontrol activity in vitro against phytopathogenic fungi including Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium heterosporum, Fusarium oxysporum, Drechslera teres, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Piricularia oryzae, Botrytis cinerea, Colletothrichum atramentarium and Cladosporium sp., Stagonospora nodorum. Biocontrol activity were performed by the following methods: radial and parallel streaks, "host - pathogen" on the cuts of wheat leaves. A culture collection comprising 64 potential biocontrol agents (BCA) against wheat and barley root diseases has been established. Of these, the most effective were 8 isolates inhibitory to at least 4 out of 5 phytopathogenic fungi tested. The remaining isolates inhibited at least 1 of 5 fungi tested. Growth stimulating activity of proposed rhizobacteria-based preparations was estimated using seedling and vegetative pot techniques. Seeds-inoculation and the tests in laboratory and field conditions were conducted for different agricultural crops - wheat and barley. Intact cells, liquid culture filtrates and crude extracts of the four beneficial bacterial strains isolated from the rhizosphere of weed were studied to stimulate plant growth. As a result, four bacterial strains selected from rhizosphere of weed

  10. Selection procedures for durable resistance in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    A wheat breeding programme for durable resistance to all locally important pathogens: leaf rust, stem rust, powdery mildew, Septoria nodorum, Septoria tritici, Cochliobolus sativus, Fusarium graminearum, Common Root Rot, Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus and Soil Borne Mosaic

  11. Molecular evidence for cryptic species among the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii and Trematomus hansoni

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bernardi, G.; Goswami, U.

    . bernacchii colour morphs, 'white blotch' and 'brown', at McMurdo Sound, may correspond to these cryptic species. In this study mitochondria1 DNA sequences of the 12s and 16s ribosomal regions is presented for six 'white blotch' morphs, eight 'brown' morphs...

  12. Statut des principales maladies cryptogamiques foliaires du blé au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diseases were identified based on their typical symptoms and the microscopic examination of the spores of their different fructification after the samples incubation. The prevalence, impact and severity of attacks was determined for each foliar fungal disease. Septoria leaf blotch, brown rust and net blotch were by far the ...

  13. Four new species of the Indo-Burmese genus Badis from West Bengal, India (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Badidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdesalici, Stefano; Voort, Stefan Van Der

    2015-07-13

    Four new species of Badis are described from West Bengal, India. Badis andrewraoi, new species, is diagnosed by a combination of characters which include absence of a black caudal-fin margin, absence of a conspicuous dark blotch on pectoral-fin base, absence of cleithral and opercular blotches, absence of a blotch on the dorsolateral aspect of the caudal peduncle, absence of an ocellus on the caudal-fin base, presence of a conspicuous median black caudal peduncle blotch, a medially broader posterior-most bar, displaying as a partially absorbed second median caudal peduncle blotch, presence of an additional bar anteriorly, and vertical bars restricted to lower half of body and never forming large blocks. Badis autumnum, new species, is diagnosed by a combination of characters which include two autapomorphies: presence of a blotch above the base of the opercular spine, and of a conspicuous dark blotch on pectoral-fin base. Additionally, it presents a black caudal-fin margin, outlining entire fin, absence of a cleithral blotch, absence of a blotch on the dorsolateral aspect of the caudal peduncle, absence of an ocellus on the caudal-fin base, presence of a conspicuous median black caudal peduncle blotch, a medially broader posterior-most bar, displaying as a partially absorbed second median caudal peduncle blotch, and presence of an additional bar anteriorly. Badis kyanos, new species, is diagnosed by a combination of characters which include absence of a conspicuous dark blotch on pectoral-fin base, absence of cleithral and opercular blotches, absence of a blotch on the dorsolateral aspect of the caudal peduncle, absence of an ocellus on the caudal-fin base, presence of a conspicuous median black caudal peduncle blotch, a medially broader posterior-most bar, displaying as a partially absorbed second median caudal peduncle blotch, presence of an additional bar anteriorly, its vertical bars forming large, fragmented black blocks dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally, and

  14. The hijacking of a receptor kinase–driven pathway by a wheat fungal pathogen leads to disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Zengcui; Friesen, Timothy L.; Raats, Dina; Fahima, Tzion; Brueggeman, Robert S.; Lu, Shunwen; Trick, Harold N.; Liu, Zhaohui; Chao, Wun; Frenkel, Zeev; Xu, Steven S.; Rasmussen, Jack B.; Faris, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotrophic pathogens live and feed on dying tissue, but their interactions with plants are not well understood compared to biotrophic pathogens. The wheat Snn1 gene confers susceptibility to strains of the necrotrophic pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum that produce the SnTox1 protein. We report the positional cloning of Snn1, a member of the wall-associated kinase class of receptors, which are known to drive pathways for biotrophic pathogen resistance. Recognition of SnTox1 by Snn1 activates programmed cell death, which allows this necrotroph to gain nutrients and sporulate. These results demonstrate that necrotrophic pathogens such as P. nodorum hijack host molecular pathways that are typically involved in resistance to biotrophic pathogens, revealing the complex nature of susceptibility and resistance in necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogen interactions with plants. PMID:27819043

  15. What You Should Know about Infectious Diseases: A Guide for Hemodialysis Patients and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tongue, in the mouth or in the throat Red, brown, pink or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose or eyelids Memory loss, depression and other neurologic symptoms. However, you ...

  16. The genomes of Mycosphaerella graminicola and M. fijiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, S.B.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Mycosphaerella graminicola (synonym: Zymoseptoria tritici) and Mycosphaerella fijiensis in the Ascomycetes order Capnodiales are economically important pathogens causing Septoria tritici blotch of wheat and black Sigatoka or leaf streak of banana, respectively. Both diseases occur wherever their

  17. Mission Realignment of Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    turtle in the area is the ornate box turtle which is a grassland inhabitant.3 Snakes include the diamondback water snake, blotched water snake, rough...with rock art. The second was apparently the remains of a historic lime kiln. 5 38 t SITE 2 -DRUM STORAGE AREA% Ifft,. _______- - -- - pig- " Ir I 4...Diamondback water snake Nerodi rhombifera Blotched water snake Nerodia re~hrogast Rough green snake OpheodW asivus Western cottonmouth Aakistrodon pcr I

  18. Draft Environmental Assessment: Transfer of Fuel and Fire Fighting Training Schools from Chanute Air Force Base, Illinois to Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    snake, blotched water snake rough green snake, western hognose, western coachwhip, Texas night snake, prairie rattlesnake, western diamondback rattlesnake...the remains of a historic lime kiln. Prior to construction of Twin Buttes Reservoir, salvage excavations were carded out at site 41 TG5 (Green 1961...concinna Spicy softshell TrionyN Hinifej Ornate box turtle Ler~n ornata Diamondback water snake Nerodia rhoinbifera Blotched water snake Merodia

  19. Environmental Statement for Proposed Continental Operations Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-17

    gravel, silicon ore, magnesite, volcanic cinder, fluorspar, dolimite, calcined lime , and raw clay. Lithium carbonite is produced from wells near... blotched lizard, Gopher snake, Sidewinder, Whip-tailed lizard, 3lack-throated sparrow, Horned lark, Loggerhead shrike, Gray flychatcher, Lecont’s...Least pocket mouse, Dark kangaroo mouse, White-footed deer mouse, Kit fox, Badger, Bobcat, Coyote, Desert-horned lizard, Side- blotched lizard, Whip

  20. Spatio-Temporal Neural Networks for Vision, Reasoning and Rapid Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-31

    instantiation of the predicate event. Once event is sanic set ofl nismnl(l(hrstanlini( s that led Baue’r to conclude active, its argumnents locationi and lime -of...disjoint digits, stray blotches , and ascenders/descenders from other lines on the envelope. More exactly, the set of 540 images contained 97 overlapping...digit pairs, more than 80 disjoint digits, several stray blotches , and 17 ascenders/descenders. The system, as implemented, can hardly hope to classify

  1. A review of genus Nuchequula (Teleostei: Leiognathidae) with the description of a new record from Chinese waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renxie; Liu, Jing; Yan, Yunrong

    2010-11-01

    We collected leiognathid fishes from the Hainan Island and Beibu Gulf between November 2007 and December 2008. Ten of these specimens were identified as Nuchequula blochii (Valenciennes 1835), which is the first record of this species in China’s waters. These specimens are distinguished by the combination of these characteristics: breast fully scaled, cheek naked, anteroventral profile of the lower jaw almost straight, a conspicuous dark blotch distally on the anterior part of spinous portion of dorsal fin, a yellow blotch distally on posterior part of spinous portion of dorsal fin, and a dark blotch on nape. This paper reviews the genus Nuchequula and describes three species that occur in China’s waters.

  2. Badis laspiophilus, a new miniature addition to the ichthyofauna of West Bengal, north-eastern India, with observations on its ecology and preliminary notes on its ethology (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Badidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdesalici, Stefano; Van Der Voort, Stefan

    2015-07-16

    Badis laspiophilus is described from the Torsa River drainage, West Bengal, India. It can be distinguished from congeners by a combination of characters which include a small size (15.7-21.0 mm SL), 14-16 circumpeduncular row scales, interorbital width 6.7-8.9% SL, upper and lower jaws 8.2-9.2 and 10.2-13.4% SL, respectively, presence of two dorsal-fin blotches and a single round blotch on the anal fin, and absence of cleithral, opercle and dorsolateral caudal peduncle blotches. Its benthic ecology is discussed and the Badis singenensis species group is diagnosed, of which B. laspiophilus and B. singenensis are considered members.

  3. The effect of foliar fungicides on the mycoflora of seeds of Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three foliar fungicides. i.e., Bayloton 25 WP, Dithane M-45, and Funaben K. on the mycoflora associated with the seeds of spring Triticum aestivum cv. Kolibri cultivated in the field was investigated. The fungicide which highly reduced the number of both fungal colonies and species was Funaben K. Of the fungi most frequently occurring. Only Funaben K applied on the seeds reduced the proportion of seeds with Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp.. and Septoria nodorum. In contrast. seeds from plants traeted with Funaben K harboured significantly more colonies of non-sporulating fungi.

  4. Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus from the Tigris drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir

    2017-03-02

    Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.

  5. R eprod u ced by Sa bin et G a tew ayund er licen ce gra n ted by th ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (e) Melanochromis aura/us, Monkey Bay (female), (f) MelanoC"hromis aura/us, Masinje (Masinje fonn, female). (g) Melanochromis 'blotch', Makanjila. (h) Melonochromis 'lcpidophage', MaJcanjila. (i) Melonochromis d. chipokae, Thumbi Wesl Island,. (j) Meionochromis 'black·while johann;', Likoma Island,. R eprod u ced.

  6. Disease severity estimates - effects of rater accuracy and assessments methods for comparing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of disease is fundamental to the discipline of plant pathology, and estimates of severity are often made visually. However, it is established that visual estimates can be inaccurate and unreliable. In this study estimates of Septoria leaf blotch on leaves of winter wheat from non-treated ...

  7. Trangressive segregation for resistance in wheat to Septoria tritici ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to study the inheritance of resistance in F6 progenies obtained from 36 crosses involving 14 wheat cultivars. Transgressive segregation towards more resistance and/or more susceptibility to Septoria tritici blotch in wheat occurred in most of the crosses. With so many parents, most showing ...

  8. Characterizing the Pyrenophora teres f. maculata – barley interaction using pathogen genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrenophora teres f. maculata is the cause of the foliar disease spot form net blotch (SFNB) on barley. To evaluate pathogen genetics underlying the P. teres f. maculata- barley interaction, we developed a 105-progeny population by crossing two globally diverse isolates, one from North Dakota, USA a...

  9. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Yin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat. To obtain a comprehensive protein dataset of this fungal pathogen, proteomes of Z. tritici growing in nutrient-limiting and rich media and in vivo at a late stage of wheat infection were fractionated by 1D gel or strong cation ...

  10. Cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternaria blotch (Alternaria mali) causes severe foliar damage to apple trees in Kashmir. Twenty one (21) isolates of A. mali were collected from different locations and characterized for cultural, morphological, pathogenic and molecular variations. A. mali colonies varied in their cultural behaviour ranging from velvety to ...

  11. Discovery of a functional Mycosphaerella teleomorph in the presumed asexual barley pathogen Septoria passerinii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ware, S.B.; Verstappen, E.C.P.; Breeden, J.; Cavaletto, J.R.; Goodwin, S.B.; Waalwijk, C.; Crous, P.W.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the possibility of a teleomorph associated with the genotypically diverse septoria speckled leaf blotch (SSLB) pathogen of barley, Septoria passerinii. A teleomorph in the genus Mycosphaerella had been predicted previously based on phylogenetic analyses. This prediction was tested with

  12. Quorum-sensing contributes to virulence, twitching motility, seed attachment and biofilm formation in the wild type strain Aac-5 of Acidovorax citrulli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acidovorax citrulli is a seed-borne pathogen that causes bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbits including melon and watermelon. We investigated the roles of quorum sensing in the wild-type group II strain Aac-5 of A. citrulli by generating aacR and aacI knockout mutants and their complementation strain...

  13. An atypical clinical presentation of lichen planus pigmentosus with typical dermoscopic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, Prachi C; Mehta, Hita H; Nimbark, Vivek; Jethwa, Manisha

    2018-03-25

    We report a rare and interesting case of a combined linear, Blaschkoid and zosteriform pattern of lichen planus pigmentosus. Dermoscopy showed discrete bluish-grey dots, globules, blotches and rods against a brownish background. A skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis from the presence of civatte bodies, melanin incontinence and band-like inflammation. © 2018 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  14. Distribution, cultivar susceptibility, and epidemiology of Apium virus Y on celery in coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apium virus Y (ApVY) is a potyvirus that was recently found to cause crop loss to celery (Apium graveolens) in California. Symptoms on leaves vary greatly and consist of general chlorosis, chlorotic or necrotic line patterns, chlorotic blotches and mottling, necrotic lesions, ringspots, and distorte...

  15. First report of Tomato spotted wilt virus on celery in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is widely cultivated in most parts of China as an important and high-value cash crop. In June 2013, irregular chlorotic blotches, necrotic flecks, concentric ring spots, and shrinking symptoms were observed on leaves of celery plants in fields of Tonghai County, Yunnan P...

  16. A new species of Thecadactylus from Sint Maarten, Lesser Antilles (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Koehler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Thecadactylus from the Caribbean island of Sint Maarten. The new species differs from all other species in the genus bya distinct dorsal pattern of numerous irregular but sharply deliminated black spots and blotches on an otherwise almost patternless background.

  17. LSB Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    systems this one is built-on. The order in which options are defaulted in this last manner is not extremely well defined at this Lime , but it can be... blotch )) shows a prototype call for frobnicate, which takes one required argument, one optional argument, and any number of other arguments. It shows

  18. Smokes and Obscurants: A Guidebook of Environmental Assessment. Volume 2. A Sample Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-04

    area are composed of Paleozoic sea-bed sediments consisting of lime tone, dolomite, quartzite, shale, and conglomerates (Figs. 8 and 9). During the...Gambelia) wislizenii Leopard Lizard Crotophytus collaris Collared Lizard Sceloporus magister Desert Spiny Lizard Uto stansburiana Side- Blotched Lizard

  19. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-08

    develops blue blotches on different parts of his body. It is communicated from male to male, but not from male to female or female to female. It is...16 per cent share-holder in Qapco. The plant as a whole will need a certain amount of lime to be linked up with Ihc cthylcnc plant and a period of

  20. African Crop Science Journal - Vol 8, No 3 (2000)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trangressive segregation for resistance in wheat to Septoria tritici blotch. P. F. Arama, J. E. Parlevliet, C. H. Van Silfhout. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v8i3. ... Effect of lime, urea and triple super phosphate on nitrogen and phosphorus mineralisation in an acid soil during incubation. J. J. Lelei, B. O. Mochoge, R. N. Onwonga.

  1. Camouflage Study of General Purpose Small and General Purpose Medium Tents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    background while aerial observation is apt to see " blotches " of grass and earth as a background. This project addressed itself to minimizing the probability...manual) 6-foot rule Lime striker Chalk Rags Lift (e.g., cherry picker, fork lift with cage, etc.) Gloves Preparation The FWWMR fabric must be

  2. MX Siting Investigation Geotechnical Evaluation. Volume IB. Nevada-Utah Verification Studies, FY 79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-24

    and tuff of the White Blotch Spring Formation in the south. Ash fall Ŝ MIR MATUUAL., IN. P1N-A-27-18____________ Lim~ na <*i -- i -- 7 0 -RLNT2...mineral consisting mostly of sulfate of lime . HORST - An elongated crustal block that has been uplifted along faults relative to the rocks on either

  3. MX Siting Investigation. MX System Siting Summary Report. General Introduction. Volume I. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-18

    70 Reveille Peak 1952 Tempiute Mountain 1964 a White Blotch Springs 1952 a 20 Elko 1955-72 Franklin Lake NE 1968, Franklin Lake NW 1969 Franklin Lake...Dodge Spring 1973 Elgin 1969 Elgin NE 1969 Elgin SW 1969 Ella Mountain 1973 Fife Mountain 1973 Garden Spring 1973 Jacks Mountain 1973 Leith 1973 Lime

  4. Environmental Assessment: Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Management Cannon Air Force Base and Melrose Air Force Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    natural gas, sand and gravel, natural carbon dioxide, lime , and scoria (USAF, 2002b). 3.5 LAND USE Since its establishment in 1942, CAFB has...salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), side- blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana), northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), ferruginous hawk, several species of

  5. Ground Wave Emergency Network. Final Operational Capability. Environmental Assessment for Southern Nevada Relay Node, Site No. RN 8W918NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-05

    resources survey (Rafferty, 1991a); during the Yucca Mountain survey, eight species of lizards (most commonly the western whiptail or side- i blotched ...upper part I Limy A soid condition of high lime content I Paleonto- Pertaining to fossils or the study of fossils I logical 3 Paleozoic Geologic period of

  6. Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Groom Mountain Range, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    occasional 6) T6S, R56E, Sec. 19, 7800 feet, few Erigeron ovinus occurs in crevices, with shallow, coarse soil on lime - stone, typically at the base...Phrynosoma phatyrhinos) X X X Sagebrush lizard (Sceloperous graciosus) X X X Western fence lizard (Sceloperous occidentalis) X X X X Side blotched lizard

  7. Process and Energy Optimization Assessment Level II Analysis. Rock Island Arsenal, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    coat. A proper paint job should have a smooth, continuous, adherent paint film free of runs, sags, blisters, orange peel, streaks, craters, blotches ...room was later renovated in the 1960s and a hot zeolite lime /soda ash system was installed. A newer hot zeolite system was in- stalled in the late

  8. Effect of plant extracts on growth of Alternaria porri (Ellis) Cif. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to establish the potential of crude plant extracts of Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Solanum nigrum L., Cleome gynandra L. and Acocanthera schimperi (ADC) Schweinf for the control of Alternaria porri the causal agent of onion purple blotch and other onion fungal pathogens. The effect of three ...

  9. [Importance of Chlorite P in prevention and treatment in horticulture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, J

    1993-01-01

    The Polish chlorine preparation for prophilaxis and controlling of bacterial blotch in the champignon culture and in order to carry out the general desinfection in champignon houses has been registered. This preparation is useful to general disinfection in greenhouses and other auxiliary spaces instead formalin having the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.

  10. Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propiconazole) spray intervals (7, 14, 21 day) and no spray control were arranged in a RCBD in 4 replications to assess net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) effect on malt quality. The varieties were grown at Holetta agricultural research center in 2005, ...

  11. Gene encoding a C-type cyclin in Mycosphaerella graminicola is involved in aerial mycelium formation, filamentous growth, hyphal swelling, melanin biosynthesis, stress response, and pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella graminicola is an important wheat pathogen causing septoria tritici blotch. To date, an efficient strategy to control M. graminicola has not been developed. More significantly, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M. graminicola pathogenicity. In this study, ...

  12. Local Community's Knowledge on Onion Production, Pests and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and grasshopper (6.3%) (Fig. 4). Fifty five per cent of the onion farmer respondents indicated that fungal diseases and especially onion purple blotch was the most destructive especially on crops planted during rainy season. Respondents. (73%) reported to be using chemical control methods in combating onion pests and ...

  13. Genetic evaluation of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... leaf rust, terminal heat stress and drought stress have adverse impact on wheat productivity in the eastern regions of South Asia especially Eastern Gangetic Plains of India (Joshi et al., 2007). However, spot blotch is most serious constrain for the wheat production caused by. Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and ...

  14. Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... (TKMWL) was 11 to 13% and is in the range for desirably modified barley grain on malting. The varieties ... Key words: Diastatic tendency, malt extract, FAN, malt barley qualities, net blotch, propiconazole, starch flour pasting. ... phate was applied at the rate of 100 kg/ha (blanket recommen- dation). Weeds ...

  15. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  16. Development of a rapid multiplex SSR genotyping method to study populations of the fun-gal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, A.; Marcel, T.C.; Confais, J.; Crane, C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Suffert, F.; Walker, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus causing leaf blotch of wheat that often decreases yield severely. Populations of the fungus are known to be highly diverse and poorly differentiated from each other. However, a genotyping tool is needed to address further

  17. Survey of Barley and Wheat Diseases in the Central Highlands of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Yahyaoui

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Annual surveys of barley and wheat diseases were conducted in Eritrea from 2000 to 2002. The surveys covered six zones of the central highlands where barley and wheat are grown. The main diseases of barley were netform net blotch, spot-form net blotch, leaf rust and scald. Other, less important diseases were loose smut, covered smut, barley stripe and septoria leaf blotch. Wheat was mainly affected by yellow rust and leaf rust. Loose smut, septoria leaf spot and tan spot diseases were less prevalent. The average incidence of these diseases varied according to the zone. Among barley diseases, net blotch incidence was high in four of the six zones surveyed. Leaf rust occurred at medium incidence in five zones. Loose smut was more severe in the southern highland plains, while covered smut was more common in the south-eastern highland terraces. For wheat, yellow rust incidence was high in two zones. Areas with a high incidence of yellow rust were not necessarily those with a high incidence of leaf rust. Leaf rust was important in the south-eastern and western highland terraces and in the western highland plains. The number of diseases found in the same field varied from 2 to 5. The south eastern highland terraces, the western highland terraces and the northern highland terraces had the highest proportions of individual barley fields with three or more diseases.

  18. Survey of microfungi in the Kleinwalsertal (Austrian alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M; Ale-Agha, N; Brassmann, M

    2008-01-01

    During an excursion to the Alps near the German/Austrian border (Kleinwalsertal) in August 2007, we were able to collect more than 40 species of microfungi as parasites or saprophytes on different parts of wild plants. Some of them have been observed only rarely until now. Most of the species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, and Deuteromycotina. For example: -Leptosphaeria jaceae Holm on Centaurea jacea L.; -Mycosphaerella equiseticola Bond.-Mont. on Equisetum telmateia Ehrh.; -Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. on Adenostyles alliariae (Gouan) Kerner, Centaurea phrygia, Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr.; -Podosphaera fusca (Fr.) U. Braun comb. nov. on Petasites paradoxus (Retz.) Baumg. and Senecio alpinus (L.) Scop.; -Pirottaea veneta Sacc. and Speg. on Lamium maculatum L.; -Coleosporium tussilaginis (Pers.) Kleb. on Adenostyles alliariae, Petasites paradoxus; -Puccinia mulgedii (West.) Syd. on Cicerbita alpinl; -Titleospora equiseti (Desm.) Vassil., -Stagonospora equiseti Fautr. on Equisetum telmateia, -Valdensia heterodoxa Peyronel on Cicerbita alpina.

  19. Diversity of Mn oxides produced by Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2011-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are environmentally abundant, highly reactive mineral phases that mediate the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, contaminants, carbon, and numerous other elements. Despite the belief that microorganisms (specifically bacteria and fungi) are responsible for the majority of Mn oxide formation in the environment, the impact of microbial species, physiology, and growth stage on Mn oxide formation is largely unresolved. Here, we couple microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to characterize the Mn oxides produced by four different species of Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi ( Plectosphaerella cucumerina strain DS2psM2a2 , Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, and Acremonium strictum strain DS1bioAY4a) isolated from acid mine drainage treatment systems in central Pennsylvania. The site of Mn oxide formation varies greatly among the fungi, including deposition on hyphal surfaces, at the base of reproductive structures (e.g., fruiting bodies), and on envisaged extracellular polymers adjacent to the cell. The primary product of Mn(II) oxidation for all species growing under the same chemical and physical conditions is a nanoparticulate, poorly-crystalline hexagonal birnessite-like phase resembling synthetic δ-MnO 2. The phylogeny and growth conditions (planktonic versus surface-attached) of the fungi, however, impact the conversion of the initial phyllomanganate to more ordered phases, such as todorokite ( A. strictum strain DS1bioAY4a) and triclinic birnessite ( Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a). Our findings reveal that the species of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi impacts the size, morphology, and structure of Mn biooxides, which will likely translate to large differences in the reactivity of the Mn oxide phases.

  20. The fourth Bent-toed Gecko of the genus Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Awal; Grismer, L Lee; Wood, Perry L

    2015-12-22

    Cyrtodactylus petani sp. nov. is a new species of Bent-toed Gecko from Java, Indonesia that had been masquerading under the name C. fumosus (Müller, 1895). The new species is differentiated from C. fumosus and all its Sundaland congeners by having the following combination of morphological characters: a maximum SVL of 57.2 mm; nine or ten supralabials; seven or eight infralabials; strongly tuberculate body and limbs; 20-25 paravertebral tubercles; 30-35 ventral scales; enlarged precloacal scales; enlarged femoral scales; 17-18 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 31-35 continuous precloacal and femoral pores in males, pores absent in females; no precloacal groove; no enlarged median subcaudals; tubercles on anterior portion of tail; no reticulated pattern on top of head; a blotched dorsal pattern; and no paired, dark, semi-lunar shaped blotches on the nape.

  1. Resistance of wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici to DMI and QoI fungicides in the Nordic-Baltic region - a status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, Thies Marten; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2017-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by the ascomycete Zymoseptoria tritici (Z. tritici) is currently the most prevalent foliar disease in wheat in the Nordic-Baltic region. Fungicide availability in this region differs greatly and is generally more limited than in other European regions. Monitor......Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by the ascomycete Zymoseptoria tritici (Z. tritici) is currently the most prevalent foliar disease in wheat in the Nordic-Baltic region. Fungicide availability in this region differs greatly and is generally more limited than in other European regions....... Monitoring of fungicide sensitivity is an essential tool to survey changes in fungal populations in order to react and be able to adapt recommendations for fungicide use. In this study the authors give an overview of the current situation of 14α-demethylation inhibitor (DMI) and quinone outside inhibitor (Qo...

  2. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. II

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Mansilla, J.P.; Alfenas, A.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Species of Eucalyptus are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere and to some extent in southern Europe, for timber and fibre production. Species of Mycosphaerella are commonly associated with leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus and can result in defoliation, dieback, and even tree death. In the present study, numerous isolates of Mycosphaerella species were collected from leaf litter, living leaves exhibiting leaf spot symptoms or severe Mycosphaerella leaf blotch symptom...

  3. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. II.

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, Pedro W.; Wingfield, Michael J.; Mansilla, J. Pedro; Alfenas, Acelino C.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.

    2006-01-01

    Species of Eucalyptus are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere and to some extent in southern Europe, for timber and fibre production. Species of Mycosphaerella are commonly associated with leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus and can result in defoliation, dieback, and even tree death. In the present study, numerous isolates of Mycosphaerella species were collected from leaf litter, living leaves exhibiting leaf spot symptoms or severe Mycosphaerella leaf blotch symptom...

  4. Peltaster fructicola genome reveals evolution from an invasive phytopathogen to an ectophytic parasite

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Xu; Huan Chen; Mark L. Gleason; Jin-Rong Xu; Huiquan Liu; Rong Zhang; Guangyu Sun

    2016-01-01

    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi are unconventional plant pathogens that cause economic losses by blemishing the surface appearance of infected fruit. Here, we introduce the 18.14-Mb genome of Peltaster fructicola, one of the most prevalent SBFS species on apple. This undersized assembly contains only 8,334 predicted protein-coding genes and a very small repertoire of repetitive elements. Phylogenomics and comparative genomics revealed that P. fructicola had undergone a reductive evolut...

  5. Wing Infrastructure and Development Outlook (WINDO) Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    divert airfield for military aircraft training in the NTTR and support the flying operations of the 57th Wing, other Air Force units, Navy, Marine ...includes desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), zebra-tailed lizard (Callosaurus draconoides), side-blotched lizard, horned lizards (Phrynosoma spp...be stored or used in work areas. Marine mammal —any mammal that is morphologically adapted to the marine environment, or primarily inhabits the

  6. Nellis and Creech Air Force Bases Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    57th Wing, other Air Force units, Navy, Marine Corps and allied air forces. Creech AFB is also the primary training site for the United States Air...Forces, Air National Guard, U.S. Air Force Reserve, Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and allied air forces. They are led by a Blue Forces commander who...includes desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), zebra-tailed lizard (Callosaurus draconoides), side-blotched lizard, horned lizards (Phrynosoma spp

  7. Environmental Impact Research Program: White Clover (Trifolium repens). Section 7.3.5, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    particularly high in phosphorus, lime , and potash (Leffel and Gibson 1973, Shaw and Cooper 1973, Vogel 1981, Thornburg 1982). Moisture White clover requires 16...Soils should be tested to determine fertilizer needs. Moderately to strongly acidic soils should be amended by adding lime to bring the pH up to 6.0...stands and occasionally destroys large areas during winter and spring months. Pepper spot, sooty blotch , and black patch frequently cause severe

  8. Low Dielectric Constant Insulators and Gold Metallization for GHz Multi-Chip Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    sleam/hr 0 0 20 0 0 20 lime of 1st/last rinse/hr NR 20 NO NO 20 NO I nse duration #times/min 0 1/10 0 0 1/10 0 Rinse interval (hr...little as possible to this environment. When small particles contaminate the wafer, the Au I will plate over the particle and when etched, a black blotch

  9. Taxonomy of two blue-flowered juno irises (Iris subgen. Scorpiris, Iridaceae) from the Western Tian-Shan

    OpenAIRE

    Lazkov, Georgy A.; Sennikov, Alexander N.

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomic applications of two species names of Iris subgen. Scorpiris, I. albomarginata R.C. Foster and I. willmottiana Foster, are clarified. These species are confirmed to be taxonomically separate, and they are redescribed and mapped for the first time. Both species are endemic to the Western Tian-Shan. Iris albomarginata has evenly pale-blue flowers and occurs in the Ugam and Pskem Ranges (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan), whereas I. willmottiana has blue flowers with white-blotched blades of ...

  10. Bioreactor Yields Extracts for Skin Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center researchers created a unique rotating-wall bioreactor that simulates microgravity conditions, spurring innovations in drug development and medical research. Renuèll Int'l Inc., based in Aventure, Florida, licensed the technology and used it to produce a healing skin care product, RE`JUVEL. In a Food and Drug Administration test, RE`JUVEL substantially increased skin moisture and elasticity while reducing dark blotches and wrinkles.

  11. A new pale-spotted species of Hypostomus Lacépède (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Tocantins and rio Xingu basins in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio H. Zawadzki

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Hypostomus Lacépède (Siluriformes, Loricariidae from rio Tocantins and rio Xingu basins in central Brazil, is described. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of pale blotches over a darker background on head, body and fins, and conspicuous keels on head, predorsal region and lateral plates. Comments on the pale-spotted species of Hypostomus are provided.

  12. Resistant mutant to black spot disease of Japanese pear 'Nijisseiki' induced by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, T.; Nishida, T.; Ikeda, F.

    1988-01-01

    A resistant mutant of Japanese pear to black spot disease was induced from the susceptible ‘Nijisseiki’ by chronic irradiation in a gamma-field. The symptoms of black spot disease on the mutant observed under field conditions for a period of 5 years after selection were minimal. Characteristics and degree of resistance of this mutant were examined. 1. The induced mutant obviously differed from ‘Nijisseiki’ in the susceptibility to the disease when spores or the phytotoxin of the pathogen were artificially inoculated on leaves and fruits. Resistance to black spot disease exhibited by this mutant, however, seemed to be rather intermediate when compared to the full resistance exhibited by the resistant ‘Chojuro’. 2. Degree of resistance to alternaria blotch which is one of the apple diseases, was examined in the induced mutant and ‘Nijisseiki’, since it had been reported that ‘Nijisseiki’ was susceptible to this apple disease, too. Both materials were susceptible to alternaria blotch, but the susceptibility of the mutant was very low. These results suggested that there would be no serious problem of infection by black spot or alternaria blotch disease in practical cultivation of this mutant. (author)

  13. Mise en évidence au Burkina Faso d'un nouveau taxon de Colletotrichum dans l'étiologie de la maladie des taches brunes du niébé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérémé, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of New Taxum of Colletotrichum as a Causal Pathogen for Brown Blotch Disease of Cowpea in the Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso. Brown blotch disease of cowpea was, until recentiy, described as a disease of savannah and forested zones of Africa. However, in its latest progression, the disease also appeared in the sahelian zone of Burkina. In the present study on the etiology of brown blotch disease in Burkina Faso, analysis of isolates Colletotrichum spp. iead to the identification of a new Colletotrichum taxum causing the disease in the sahelian area of Burkina Faso. Based on its growth and microscopic characteristics, the new taxum differs from Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum truncatum already reported as the 2 pathogens involved in the occurrence of the disease. Observed differences between studied isolates IMI 379432, IMI 379433, IMI 379434, and IMI 379435 of the new taxum, specifie to Pobe area in Burkina Faso, and those of C. capsici andC. truncatum was confirmed by CABI-BIOSCIENCE (England. Additional work, using molecular techniques, is projected in near future for a better characterization of the new taxum of Colletotrichum reported in the present study.

  14. Emergence of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor resistance of Pyrenophora teres in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfus, Alexandra; Miessner, Simone; Achenbach, Janosch; Strobel, Dieter; Bryson, Rosie; Stammler, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres is an important disease of barley worldwide. In addition to strobilurins (quinone ouside inhibitors) and azoles (demethylation inhibitors), succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) are very effective fungicides for net blotch control. Recently, SDHI-resistant isolates have been found in the field. Intensive sensitivity monitoring programmes across Europe were carried out to investigate the situation concerning SDHI resistance in P. teres. The first isolates with a lower sensitivity to SDHIs registered in barley were found in Germany in 2012 and carried the B-H277Y substitution in the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme. In 2013 and 2014, a significant increase in isolates with lower SDHI sensitivity was detected mainly in France and Germany, and the range of target-site mutations increased. Most of the resistant isolates carried the C-G79R substitution, which exhibits a strong impact on all SDHIs in microtitre tests. All SDHIs tested were shown to be cross-resistant. Other substitutions are gaining in importance, e.g. C-N75S in France and D-D145G in Germany. So far, no double mutants in SDH genes have been detected. Glasshouse tests showed that SDHI-resistant isolates were still controlled by the SDHI fluxapyroxad when applied preventively. To date, most isolates with C-G79R substitution have not simultaneously carried the F129L change in cytochrome b, which causes resistance towards QoI fungicides at low to moderate levels. Several target-site mutations in the genes of subunits SDH-B, SDH-C and SDH-D with different impact on SDHI fungicides were detected. The pattern of mutations varied from year to year and between different regions. Strict resistance management strategies are recommended to maintain SDHIs as effective tools for net blotch control, especially in areas with low frequencies of resistant isolates. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  16. A new Synbranchus (Teleostei: Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae from ilha de Marajó, Pará, Brazil, with notes on its reproductive biology and larval development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. Favorito

    Full Text Available Synbranchus lampreia, new species, is described from rio Goiapi, Marajó Island, Pará, northern Brazil. It differs from the other two described species of the genus by its color pattern, which consists of large roundish black blotches scattered over a light brown or yellowish ground pigmentation and presence of inconspicuous brown small spots distributed among the large dark spots. The species is further distinguished from S. marmoratus by a higher number of vertebrae and from S. madeira by a shorter postanal length. Information about reproductive aspects is provided and larval stages are described and illustrated.

  17. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. O. Birindelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Leporinus are described from coastal rivers of southern Bahia, Brazil. One of the new species has a bright red blotch immediately dorsal to the pectoral-fin origin in life, three dark blotches along the lateral line that distinctly increase in size posteriorly, and dark longitudinal lines between scale rows on the side of body. The second new species possesses a single broad dark midlateral stripe, encompassing one or two scale rows of depth on the body and centered on the scale row below the lateral line, a dark adipose fin, and a conspicuous dark blotch on the caudal peduncle. The first new species is known only from the rio de Contas and the second from the rio das Almas and rio Jiquiriçá. In addition, Leporinus melanopleura is redescribed based on a designated lectotype and additional specimens collected in the rio Una. Leporinus melanopleura has a single broad dark midlateral stripe, encompassing one or two scale rows of depth on the body, centered on the scale row below lateral line, a hyaline adipose fin (red in life, and an inconspicuous dark blotch on the caudal peduncle.Duas espécies novas de Leporinus são descritas com base em exemplares de rios costeiros do sudeste da Bahia, Brasil. Uma das espécies novas possui uma mancha vermelho-viva imediatamente dorsal à origem da nadadeira peitoral em vida, três manchas escuras sobre a linha lateral que aumentam de tamanho para trás, e linhas escuras longitudinais entre as séries de escamas na lateral do corpo. A segunda espécie nova apresenta uma única faixa escura sobre o corpo, com altura de uma ou duas fileiras de escamas e centrada na série de escamas da linha lateral, nadadeira adiposa escura, e uma conspícua mancha escura sobre o pedúnculo caudal. A primeira espécie nova é conhecida somente do rio de Contas e a segunda dos rios das Almas e Jiquiriçá. Além disso, Leporinus melanopleura é redescrita com base no lectótipo, designado no presente

  18. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann, 1903 (Characiformes, Characidae) from the rio Amazonas basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gustavo D; Marinho, Manoela M F

    2016-03-24

    Moenkhausia abyss is herein described from the rio Amazonas basin lowlands. The new species can be distinguished from the congeners by presenting the combination of the following characters: a dark blotch located on the upper caudal-fin lobe and the lower lobe hyaline, 25-29 branched anal-fin rays, humeral spot rectangular, vertically oriented, extending horizontally through two or two and a half scales and located over the third to the fifth lateral line scales, five longitudinal scale rows above the lateral line, predorsal scales arranged in a single not interrupted median row and 30-34 perforated lateral line scales. Brief comments on Moenkhausia megalops are provided.

  19. A new long-finned Corydoras Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae from the lower rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. C. Tencatt

    Full Text Available A new species of Corydoras is described from the lower rio Paraná basin, just downstream from Itaipu Dam, Brazil, close to Paraguay boundary. The new species can be distinguished from most of its congeners by the infraorbital 2 with a posterior laminar expansion conspicuously reduced, first and second dorsal-fin branched rays conspicuously elongated in males, mesethmoid entirely covered by skin, and by the presence of four to six irregular black or brownish blotches on the midline of the flank. The probable occurrence of the new species in the floodplain of the upper portion of the rio Paraná drainage is discussed.

  20. Hemiancistrus guahiborum, a new suckermouth armored catfish from Southern Venezuela (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Werneke

    Full Text Available Hemiancistrus guahiborum, new species, is described from the Orinoco River drainage of Venezuela. Hemiancistrus guahiborum can be separated from all other Hemiancistrus and all Peckoltia except P. braueri and P. cavatica by having an orange edge to the dorsal and caudal fins. Hemiancistrus guahiborum can be separated from Peckoltia cavatica and P. braueri by having the dorsal fin with separated light spots or uniformly colored (vs. with dark spots forming bands and the sides either solidly colored or with tan blotches (vs. with dark dorsal saddles.

  1. Redescription of Astyanax guianensis Eigenmann 1909 (Characiformes: Characidae), a poorly known and widespread fish from the Amazon, Orinoco and Guiana Shield drainages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Manoela M F; Camelier, Priscila; Birindelli, José L O

    2015-03-16

    Astyanax guianensis is redescribed based on the holotype, paratypes, and additional specimens from the rio Essequibo in Guyana, rio Orinoco in Venezuela and from several localities in the Amazon river basin in Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia. Astyanax guianensis is diagnosed by having five to 10 maxillary teeth, 31 to 35 pored lateral-line scales, 21 to 25 branched anal-fin rays, and a dark vertical humeral blotch followed by a clear area and then by a dark longitudinal stripe, ending before the caudal-fin rays. In addition, comments on the importance of revisionary studies on the species of the Characidae are provided.

  2. Interactional effect of irradiation and fertilization on susceptibility of wheat to septoria tritici

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    1999-12-01

    The effect of low doses of gamma rays (0, 5, 10, 15 Gy), soil fertilizer (0, N, K, N+K), and their interaction on grain yield, and susceptibility to infection by Septoria Tritici blotch, of two wheat cultivars (Bohouth 6 and Bohouth 5), were studied. results showed that all treatments have a positive effect on traits studied. A positive effect on reducing the infection by Septoria Tritici was detected. In general doses of 10 and 15 Gy decreased the infection area by 24 and 35%, and increased grain yield by 25 and 14.9% respectively. (author)

  3. A new species of Microglanis(Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás State, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    Full Text Available A new species of Microglanis is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil. This species is distinguished from the others by presenting a unique color pattern, consisting of round spots in the flank between the larger dark brown blotches. Moreover, it can be distinguished by the combination of the following features: caudal fin emarginate, the upper lobe slightly larger than the lower, lateral line relatively long, reaching vertical through posterior margin of the pelvic fin, and light stripe on supra-occipital region absent or very narrow and with irregular shape.

  4. Icing Characteristics of Low Altitude, Supercooled Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    out Droplet Probe, Observe Rate of Iheddiop of Accumulated Lime Ice, and to Note any Precipitation Bel-ow Cloud Base. 26 1322 5000 4-4 Aircraft starting...moisture" at this Lime . The ground is coming into view again even though the aircraft is still as- cending. Thus, cloud base appears to be rising...to be peeling off or is being knocked off in blotches 1-3 inches wide. Pireps "still noting light precipitation." 16 172o:30 P3400 PO Slight

  5. Residues of copper and sulphur on fruits from organic orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Kelderer, Markus; Matteazzi, Aldo; Casera, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    Copper und sulphur compounds are listed in annex 2b of the EC regulation 2091/92 and are used in organic orchards to control scab, mildew and sooty blotch also during summer time. In Italy, copper compounds have a waiting period from 20 days between last treatment and harvest, for sulphur compounds it differs and can reach until 30 days for lime sulphur. The trials carried out showed that using the recommended low dosages for copper and lime sulphur it should not be a problem t...

  6. Organic fruit production in humid climates of Europe: Bottlenecks and new approaches in disease and pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Tamm, Lucius; Häseli, Andreas; Fuchs, Jacques G.; Weibel, Franco; Wyss, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The organic market has grown exponentially in Europe during the last ten years. However, the organic fruit industry has shown the lowest growth rates (1-5% market share) compared to other commodities. One major reason is the high production risk due to high disease and pest pressure in humid climates. Key pests and diseases in apple and pear include scab, sooty blotch, and fire blight as well as rosy apple aphid, pear sucker, and codling moth. In cherry, damages due to brown rot (Monilinia) a...

  7. Reduced fungicide doses in cereals: Which parameters to consider?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    , the pathogen, disease pressure and timing of treatments. Certain diseases are known to require higher input (40- 75% rates) for achieving satisfactory control – this is the case for Septoria leaf blight, Rhynchosporium net blotch and Fusarium head blight, whereas most rust diseases generally have been found...... to be controlled successfully at rates down to quarter rates. Fungicides, in general, show highly variable dose responses for specific diseases, which is important to know when specific advice is given. Preventive treatments generally require less input compared with treatments during the latent period or later...

  8. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  9. First report of Pseudocercospora cladosporioides, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot of olive trees, in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Triki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive trees (Olea europaea cv. Meski having leaves with yellow spots on the upper surface and grey blotches on the lower surface were found in three orchards located in the regions of Takelsa, Testour and Enfidha, central and northern Tunisia. The shoots of the olive trees had also become defoliated indicating a severe attack of a pathogen. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was isolated from symptomatic leaves and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. This is the first Tunisian report of P. cladosporioides causing Cercospora leaf spot of olive trees.

  10. Description of Thorichthys panchovillai sp. n., a new species of cichlid (Actinopterygii: Cichlidae from the River Coatzacoalcos Basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Del Moral-Flores

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thorichthys panchovillai, new species, is described, from distinctive of the tributaries of the River Coatzacoalcos basin, Mexico. The new species is diagnosed by a set of characters: dorsal fin rays XVI, 8 – 9; anal fin rays VII, 6 – 7; pectoral fin rays, I, 11 – 12; total gill-rakers on the first branchial cleft 11 – 12; subopercular stain present although weakly intensified, it exposes a notable sexual dimorphism that distinguishes it from others: the female possess a black blotch between the fifth and sixth dorsal spine.

  11. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Monte Goncalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  12. Taming a wild beast: Developing molecular tools and new methods to understand the biology of Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Nicholas J

    2015-06-01

    Septoria blotch of wheat is one of the world's most serious plant diseases, which is difficult to control due to the absence of durable host resistance and the increasing frequency of fungicide-resistance. The ascomycete fungus that causes the disease, Zymoseptoria tritici, has been very challenging to study. This special issue of Fungal Genetics and Biology showcases an integrated approach to method development and the innovation of new molecular tools to study the biology of Z. tritici. When considered together, these new methods will have a rapid and dramatic effect on our ability to combat this significant disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A new species of Ituglanis (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae from the rio Uruguai basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Ferrer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new species of Ituglanis associated to the grasslands of the Pampa biome is described from the rio Uruguai basin, southern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the low number of ribs and by a unique color pattern composed of an outer layer with scattered round black blotches equivalent in size to the eye circumference over a reddish brown background on the lateral surface of the body. We provide the genetic sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I (COI for three of the paratypes and discuss aspects about the recent discovery of the new species.

  14. Production of small cysteine-rich effector proteins in Escherichia coli for structural and functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Nguyen, Neal; Breen, Susan; Outram, Megan A; Dodds, Peter N; Kobe, Bostjan; Solomon, Peter S; Williams, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Although the lifestyles and infection strategies of plant pathogens are diverse, a prevailing feature is the use of an arsenal of secreted proteins, known as effectors, which aid in microbial infection. In the case of eukaryotic filamentous pathogens, such as fungi and oomycetes, effector proteins are typically dissimilar, at the protein sequence level, to known protein families and functional domains. Consequently, we currently have a limited understanding of how fungal and oomycete effectors promote disease. Protein biochemistry and structural biology are two methods that can contribute greatly to the understanding of protein function. Both techniques are dependent on obtaining proteins that are pure and functional, and generally require the use of heterologous recombinant protein expression systems. Here, we present a general scheme and methodology for the production and characterization of small cysteine-rich (SCR) effectors utilizing Escherichia coli expression systems. Using this approach, we successfully produced cysteine-rich effectors derived from the biotrophic fungal pathogen Melampsora lini and the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum. Access to functional recombinant proteins facilitated crystallization and functional experiments. These results are discussed in the context of a general workflow that may serve as a template for others interested in understanding the function of SCR effector(s) from their plant pathogen(s) of interest. © 2016 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Seed treatment for control leaf spot diseases of spring wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Krzyzińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 2001 and 2002 at the Institute of Plant Protection Branch in Sooenicowice research work was performed on seed treatment with fungicides against leaf diseases of spring wheat cv. Ismena caused by pathogenic fungi: Blumeria graminis, Phaeasphaeria nodorum, Puccinia recondita i Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Two variants of protection were included in the experiment: seed dressing with fungicides or seed dressing and single application of foliar spray at GS 49. At early growth stages of spring wheat a very high biological activity against powdery mildew, septoria leaf spot, brown rust and tan spot was recorded for seed dressing containing triticonazole+prochloraz. In the case of triadimenol+imazalil+fuberidazole only a weak, but long-lasting effect against brown rust and septoria leaf spot was observed. Leaf infection as well as 1000 grain mass and yield, in the experimental combination with using triticonazole+prochloraz were on the same level as in the experimental variant where after seed dressing with triadimenol+imazalil+fuberidazole plots were sprayed with tridemorf+epoxykonazole at GS 49. It was concluded that seed dressing preparation containing triticonazole+prochloraz constituted a good base for protection of spring wheat against foliar diseases.

  16. Pathotype diversity among Algerian isolates of Pyrenophora teres f. teres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima BOUNGAB

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley Net Blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt is one of the most important foliar diseases in north western Algeria. The disease could cause appreciable yield losses under favorable environmental conditions. Studies on pathogen variability and distribution of virulence in Ptt are essential to identify effective sources of resistance to net blotch of barley. In this study, pathogenic variability in 48 isolates of Ptt, collected from different barley-growing areas of north-western Algeria were evaluated using 22 barley genotypes as differential hosts. Trials carried out under controlled conditions confirmed the large variation in the virulence of this fungus. The genotypes exhibited variability in response ranging from complete resistance to high susceptibility. This is the first report of pathogenic variability in Ptt in north western Algeria. The 48 isolates tested were further differentiated into 12 pathotypes according to their reaction on the host. Eight differential cultivars were resistant to all isolates tested, but others were susceptible to one or more of the isolates. The variability in the pathogen and the resistance identified in some genotypes used in this study are being investigated further to develop superior, adapted germplasm for use in barley breeding programs in north western Algeria.

  17. Investigating Intraspecific Variation of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Using DNA Fingerprinting and Whole Cell Fatty Acid Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R R; Langston, D B; Sanders, F H; Gitaitis, R D

    2000-02-01

    ABSTRACT To assess the diversity of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, 121 strains from watermelon, cantaloupe, and pumpkin were compared using pulse field gel electrophoresis of SpeI-digested DNA and gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters. Twenty-nine unique DNA fragments resulted from DNA digestion, and 14 distinct haplotypes were observed. Based on cluster analysis, two subgroups, I and II, were recognized, which accounted for 84.8% (eight haplotypes) and 15.2% (six haplotypes) of the strains, respectively. Results of cellular fatty acid analysis varied quantitatively and qualitatively for the A. avenae subsp. citrulli strains and supported the existence of the two subgroups. Group I includes strains from cantaloupe and pumpkin as well as the ATCC type strain, which was first described in the United States in 1978, whereas group II represents the typical watermelon fruit blotch-causing strains that appeared in the mainland United States in 1989. Knowledge of the two A. avenae subsp. citrulli groups may be useful in screening for watermelon fruit blotch resistance.

  18. Emaravirus: A Novel Genus of Multipartite, Negative Strand RNA Plant Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke-Ehret, Nicole; Mühlbach, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (Cajanus cajan) and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV), Fig mosaic virus (FMV), rose rosette virus (RRV), raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV), pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus Emaravirus was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses. PMID:23170170

  19. Cold-blooded vertebrates at the proposed Reference Repository Location in southeastern Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The information in this interim report will be used to design future environmental monitoring plans and assess impacts related to Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) activities. New reports will be issued as more data become available. Five study locations were established to study cold-blooded vertebrates in the vicinity of the proposed Reference Repository Location. Four study sites were in shrub-dominated stands of vegetation; the other site was devoid of shrubs because of a range fire in 1984. The side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana), trapped in four of the five plots, was the only lizard species captured. It was not trapped in the one plot dominated by spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa) shrubs. It is uncertain whether the side-blotched lizard is absent from this particular vegetation type, or if the population is too low to have been detected in the relatively short time span of the investigation. Two species of snakes were captured, gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) and green racers (Coluber constrictor mormon). The number of snakes captured was too small to detect any distributional pattern in space or time. Studies are continuing. 4 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Hybrid wheat: quantitative genetic parameters and consequences for the design of breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Carl Friedrich Horst; Gowda, Manje; Mühleisen, Jonathan; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Kazman, Ebrahim; Schachschneider, Ralf; Schacht, Johannes; Kirchhoff, Martin; Zhao, Yusheng; Reif, Jochen Christoph

    2013-11-01

    Commercial heterosis for grain yield is present in hybrid wheat but long-term competiveness of hybrid versus line breeding depends on the development of heterotic groups to improve hybrid prediction. Detailed knowledge of the amount of heterosis and quantitative genetic parameters are of paramount importance to assess the potential of hybrid breeding. Our objectives were to (1) examine the extent of midparent, better-parent and commercial heterosis in a vast population of 1,604 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) hybrids and their parental elite inbred lines and (2) discuss the consequences of relevant quantitative parameters for the design of hybrid wheat breeding programs. Fifteen male lines were crossed in a factorial mating design with 120 female lines, resulting in 1,604 of the 1,800 potential single-cross hybrid combinations. The hybrids, their parents, and ten commercial wheat varieties were evaluated in multi-location field experiments for grain yield, plant height, heading time and susceptibility to frost, lodging, septoria tritici blotch, yellow rust, leaf rust, and powdery mildew at up to five locations. We observed that hybrids were superior to the mean of their parents for grain yield (10.7 %) and susceptibility to frost (-7.2 %), leaf rust (-8.4 %) and septoria tritici blotch (-9.3 %). Moreover, 69 hybrids significantly (P hybrid wheat breeding. The estimated quantitative genetic parameters suggest that the establishment of reciprocal recurrent selection programs is pivotal for a successful long-term hybrid wheat breeding.

  1. Identification of non-pseudomonad bacteria from fruit bodies of wild agaricales fungi that detoxify tolaasin produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takanori; Murata, Hitoshi; Shirata, Akira

    2002-10-01

    Bacterial isolates from wild Agaricales fungi detoxified tolaasin, the inducer of brown blotch disease of cultivated mushrooms produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii. Mycetocola tolaasinivorans and Mycetocola lacteus were associated with fruit bodies of wild Pleurotus ostreatus and wild Lepista nuda, respectively. Tolaasin-detoxifying bacteria belonging to other genera were found in various wild mushrooms. An Acinetobacter sp. was isolated from fruit bodies of Tricholoma matsutake, Bacillus pumilus was isolated from Coprinus disseminatus, and Sphingobacterium multivorum was isolated from Clitocybe clavipes. A Pedobacter sp., which seemed not be identifiable as any known bacterial species, was isolated from a Clitocybe sp. Tolaasin-detoxifying bacteria identified thus far were attached to the surface of mycelia rather than residing within the fungal cells. M. tolaasinivorans, M. lacteus, B. pumilus, the Pedobacter sp., and S. multivorum efficiently detoxified tolaasin and strongly suppressed brown blotch development in cultivated P. ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus in vitro, but the Acinetobacter sp. did so less efficiently. These bacteria may be useful for the elucidation of mechanisms involved in tolaasin-detoxification, and may become biological control agents of mushroom disease.

  2. A new species of Hemigrammus Gill, 1858 (Characiformes: Characidae from the rio Madeira and rio Paraguai basins, with a redescription of H. lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela P. Ota

    Full Text Available A new Hemigrammusis described from the rio Paraguai and rio Madeira basins, Mato Grosso and Rondônia States, Brazil. The new species is characterized by possessing a wide dark horizontal stripe across the eye, a vertically elongated humeral blotch, and 4-5 gill-rakers on upper branch and 9-10 on lower. The new species can be easily diagnosed from H. lunatus, the sympatric and morphologically most similar congener, by the shape of humeral blotch and the number of gill rakers. Data of the type material of both Hemigrammus lunatus and H. maxillaris, as well as extensive examination of specimens, allowed us to conclude that H. maxillarisis a junior subjective synonym of H. lunatus. A redescription of H. lunatus, as well as a formal restriction of its type locality, is provided. A putative monophyletic group within Hemigrammus, composed by H. barrigonae, Hemigrammus lunatus, H. machadoi new species, and H. ulreyi, named Hemigrammus lunatus group, is proposed based on overall body morphology and color pattern. Additionally, a discussion on the biogeographical relationships between the rio Paraguai and rio Guaporé basins is provided.

  3. A new species of Peckoltia from the Upper Orinoco (Siluriformes, Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Jonathan W; Lujan, Nathan K

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the suckermouth armored catfish genus Peckoltia is described from the lower Ventuari River, a tributary of the upper Orinoco River in Amazonas State, Venezuela. Specimens of this species were formerly included in the wide-ranging Amazonian species Peckoltia vittata, but a recent molecular phylogeny found Orinoco individuals to be distantly related to Amazon Basin individuals spanning the range of Peckoltia vittata syntypes. Detailed morphological examination confirmed distinctiveness of Orinoco specimens, and found them to be diagnosable from true Peckoltia vittata by having generally greater than 25 teeth (vs. less), spots on the nape (vs. nape lacking spots), the upper lip with two to three black bar-shaped markings in a line like a moustache (vs. lips generally with a hyaline wash), and by the snout having a medial black line disconnected from the moustache markings (vs. medial snout stripe connected to a bar just above the lip). Peckoltia wernekei displays remarkable genetic similarity to its sister species, Peckoltia lujani, but differs morphologically by having dentary tooth rows meet at an angle less than 90° (vs. >90°), by having large faint blotches on the abdomen (vs. abdomen with no blotches), by a smaller internares width (21.2-26.6% vs. 28.5-46.5% of interorbital width), and a larger dorsal spine (148.1-178.6% vs. 80.1-134.5% of abdominal length).

  4. Pethia lutea, a new species of barb (Teleostei: Cyprinidae and new records of P. punctata from northern Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Katwate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of barb Pethia lutea is described from the Kundalika River in the northern part of the Western Ghats. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners in India based on a combination of characters including a distinct humped nape, absence of barbels, complete lateral line, lips thick, lateral fold on snout, 19-22 lateral line scales, 8 predorsal scales, 9-10 prepelvic scales, 14-15 preanal scales, 4-4.5 transverse scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 2.5-3 transverse scale rows between lateral line and pelvic fin base, 6-9 pair of serrae on the distal half of the dorsal fin spine, 13-15 branched pectoral fin rays, 7 branched pelvic fin rays, 4+26 total vertebrae, 4+13 abdominal and 13 caudal vertebrae, body with one vertical humeral and one caudal blotch and dorsal fin without any bands or blotches. Additionally, we provide new records of Pethia punctata from the rivers of Maharashtra State along with a description of its osteology.

  5. Grain yields and disease resistance as selection criteria for introduction of new varieties of small grain cereal in Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukobo, M R P; Ngongo, L M; Haesaert, G

    2014-01-01

    Wheat production in African countries is a major challenge for their development, considering their increasing consumption of wheat flour products. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, wheat and wheat-based products are the important imported food products although there is a potential for the cultivation of small grain cereals such as durum wheat, wheat and triticale. Trials done in Lubumbashi in the Katanga Province have shown that Septoria Leaf Blotch, Septoria Glume Blotch and Fusarium head blight are the main constraints to the efficient development of these cultures. Some varieties of Elite Spring Wheat, High Rainfall Wheat, Triticale and Durum Wheat from CIMMYT were followed during 4 growing seasons and agronomic characteristics and their levels of disease resistance were recorded. Correlations of agronomic characteristics with yields showed that in most cases, thousand kernel weight is the parameter that has the most influence on the yield level (p < 0.0001). The analysis of variance for all diseases showed that there were significant effects related to the year, the species and the interaction years x species. Triticale varieties seem to have a better resistance against the two forms of Septoria compared to wheat varieties but, they seem to be more sensitive to Fusarium Head Blight than wheat varieties. However, the Fusarium Head Blight has a rather low incidence in Lubumbashi.

  6. Variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dyulgerov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley. For this purpose, 22 lines from the ICARDA High Input Barley Program for favorable environment and 3 check varieties (Rihane-03, VMorales and Veslets were tested in an alpha-lattice design with two replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Bulgaria in 2014 and 2015 growing season. The traits days to heading, plant height, number of tillers per plant, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, spike length, awn length, peduncle length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei infection were studied. Significant differences between lines for all studied traits were found. The number of fertile tillers per plant was significantly positively correlated with grain yield. Lines expressed higher grain yields, shorter stem, better tolerance to net blotch and stripe rust than Bulgarian check variety Veslets were identified. These genotypes can, therefore, be used as parents for the improvement of spring barley.

  7. Characteristics of spring wheat genotypes exhibiting high resistance to FHB in terms of their resistance to other fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2012 at the Dłoń Agricultural Research Station, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland. The study was designed to evaluate the degree of infection by powdery mildew, brown rust, and septoria leaf blotch in 61 spring wheat genotypes differing in their resistance to Fusarium ssp. The vast majority of spring wheat genotypes in the collection of gene resources in the USA defined as resistant to Fusarium ssp. confirmed their resistance under Polish climatic conditions. The B .graminis infection rate of genotypes that are considered to be resistant to Fusarium head blight was high. The resistance ranged from 7 for Sumai 3 (PL2 up to 8.8 for Ning 8331 (in a 9-point scale. Most of the genotypes (56.5% were infected by Puccinia recondita at a level of 1–3 (in a 9-point scale. The genotypes of Sumai 3 exhibited high resistance to septoria leaf blotch, amounting to 1–2 in a 9-point scale; the resistance of Frontana ranged from 1 to 3.5, while the genotypes of Ning were infected by Mycosphaerella graminicola at 5–6.

  8. Bythaelurus tenuicephalus n. sp., a new deep-water catshark (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae) from the western Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschner, Carina Julia; Weigmann, Simon; Thiel, Ralf

    2015-09-07

    A new dwarf deep-water catshark, Bythaelurus tenuicephalus, is described based on one adult and one juvenile male specimen from off Tanzania and Mozambique in the western Indian Ocean. The new species differs from its congeners by its slender head and snout, which is only slightly bell-shaped in dorsoventral view without distinct lateral indention. All other Bythaelurus species have distinctly bell-shaped snouts with a strong lateral indention anterior to outer nostrils. Compared to its congeners in the western Indian Ocean, B. tenuicephalus n. sp. also has broader claspers in adult males (base width 2.1% TL vs. 1.5-1.8% TL). It further differs from B. clevai by attaining a smaller maximum size and having a color pattern of fewer and smaller blotches, larger oral papillae, a shorter snout, and broader claspers without knob-like apex and with a smaller envelope and a subtriangular (vs. subrectangular) exorhipidion. Compared to B. hispidus, the new species has a longer snout, a longer dorsal-caudal space, broader clasper without knob-like apex, and fewer vertebral centra. In contrast to B. lutarius, B. tenuicephalus attains a smaller maximum size and has a blotched (vs. largely plain) coloration, numerous (vs. lacking) oral papillae, shorter anterior nasal flaps, a longer caudal fin, a shorter pelvic anal space, and shorter and broader claspers.

  9. Bacillus velezensis CC09: A Potential 'Vaccine' for Controlling Wheat Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xingxing; Zhang, Wanling; Cai, Xunchao; Zhu, Tong; Xue, Yarong; Liu, Changhong

    2018-04-11

    Biocontrol bacteria that can act like a "vaccine", stimulating plant resistance to pathogenic diseases, are still not fully elucidated. In this study, an endophytic bacterium, Bacillus velezensis CC09, labeled with green fluorescent protein, was tested for its colonization, migration, and expression of genes encoding iturin A synthetase within wheat tissues and organs as well as for protective effects against wheat take-all and spot blotch diseases. The results showed that strain CC09 not only formed biofilm on the root surface but was also widely distributed in almost every tissue, including the epidermis, cortex, and xylem vessels, and even migrated to stems and leaves, resulting in 66.67% disease-control efficacy (DCE) of take-all and 21.64% DCE of spot blotch. Moreover, the gene cluster encoding iturin A synthase under the control of the p itu promoter is expressed in B. velezensis CC09 in wheat tissues, which indicates that iturin A might contribute to the in-vivo antifungal activity and leads to the disease control. All these data suggested that strain CC09 can act like a 'vaccine' in the control of wheat diseases, with a single treatment inoculated on roots through multiple mechanisms.

  10. Emaravirus: A Novel Genus of Multipartite, Negative Strand RNA Plant Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Mühlbach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L., fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (Cajanus cajan and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV, Fig mosaic virus (FMV, rose rosette virus (RRV, raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV, pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus Emaravirus was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A; Purvine, Samuel O; Zink, Erika M; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M; Hansel, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  12. Diversity of fungal endophytes in non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Shearin, Zachery; Bourke, Kimberly; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbial interactions may play a key role in plant invasions. One common microbial interaction takes place between plants and fungal endophytes when fungi asymptomatically colonize host plant tissues. The objectives of this study were to isolate and sequence fungal endophytes colonizing non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes region to evaluate variation in endophyte community composition among three host tissue types and three geographical regions. We collected entire ramets from multiple clones and populations, surface sterilized plant tissues, and plated replicate tissue samples from leaves, stems, and rhizomes on corn meal agar plates to culture and isolate fungal endophytes. Isolates were then subjected to Sanger sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Sequences were compared to fungal databases to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were analyzed statistically for community composition. In total, we obtained 173 endophyte isolates corresponding to 55 OTUs, 39 of which were isolated only a single time. The most common OTU corresponded most closely to Sarocladium strictum and comprised 25 % of all fungal isolates. More OTUs were found in stem tissues, but endophyte diversity was greatest in rhizome tissues. PERMANOVA analyses indicated significant differences in endophyte communities among tissue types, geographical regions, and the interaction between those factors, but no differences among individual ramets were detected. The functional role of the isolated endophytes is not yet known, but one genus isolated here (Stagonospora) has been reported to enhance Phragmites growth. Understanding the diversity and functions of Phragmites endophytes may provide targets for control measures based on disrupting host plant/endophyte interactions.

  13. Quantitative iTRAQ-based secretome analysis reveals species-specific and temporal shifts in carbon utilization strategies among manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Wu, Si; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2017-09-01

    Fungi generate a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and reactive metabolites, collectively known as the secretome, that synergistically drive plant litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or directly compared temporal patterns of enzyme utilization among diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon (C) degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of iTRAQ proteomics and custom bioinformatic analyses to compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi over a three-week time course. We demonstrate that although the fungi produce a similar suite of extracellular enzymes, they exhibit striking differences in the regulation of these enzymes among species and over time, revealing species-specific and temporal shifts in C utilization strategies as they degrade the same substrate. Specifically, our findings suggest that Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a and Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f employ sequential enzyme secretion patterns concomitant with decreasing resource availability, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a preferentially degrades proteinaceous substrate before switching to carbohydrates, and Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a utilizes primarily peptidases to aggressively attack carbon sources in a concentrated burst. This work highlights the diversity of operative metabolic strategies among cellulose-degrading Ascomycetes and enhances our understanding of their role in C turnover in the environment.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Zeiner

    Full Text Available Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a. We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-07-19

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  16. Fungal Planet description sheets: 281-319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Schumacher, R K; Summerell, B A; Giraldo, A; Gené, J; Guarro, J; Wanasinghe, D N; Hyde, K D; Camporesi, E; Gareth Jones, E B; Thambugala, K M; Malysheva, E F; Malysheva, V F; Acharya, K; Álvarez, J; Alvarado, P; Assefa, A; Barnes, C W; Bartlett, J S; Blanchette, R A; Burgess, T I; Carlavilla, J R; Coetzee, M P A; Damm, U; Decock, C A; den Breeÿen, A; de Vries, B; Dutta, A K; Holdom, D G; Rooney-Latham, S; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Mirabolfathy, M; Moreno, G; Nakashima, C; Papizadeh, M; Shahzadeh Fazeli, S A; Amoozegar, M A; Romberg, M K; Shivas, R G; Stalpers, J A; Stielow, B; Stukely, M J C; Swart, W J; Tan, Y P; van der Bank, M; Wood, A R; Zhang, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2014-12-01

    Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Alanphillipsia aloeicola from Aloe sp., Arxiella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Ganoderma austroafricanum from Jacaranda mimosifolia, Phacidiella podocarpi and Phaeosphaeria podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Phyllosticta mimusopisicola from Mimusops zeyheri and Sphaerulina pelargonii from Pelargonium sp. Furthermore, Barssia maroccana is described from Cedrus atlantica (Morocco), Codinaea pini from Pinus patula (Uganda), Crucellisporiopsis marquesiae from Marquesia acuminata (Zambia), Dinemasporium ipomoeae from Ipomoea pes-caprae (Vietnam), Diaporthe phragmitis from Phragmites australis (China), Marasmius vladimirii from leaf litter (India), Melanconium hedericola from Hedera helix (Spain), Pluteus albotomentosus and Pluteus extremiorientalis from a mixed forest (Russia), Rachicladosporium eucalypti from Eucalyptus globulus (Ethiopia), Sistotrema epiphyllum from dead leaves of Fagus sylvatica in a forest (The Netherlands), Stagonospora chrysopyla from Scirpus microcarpus (USA) and Trichomerium dioscoreae from Dioscorea sp. (Japan). Novel species from Australia include: Corynespora endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Gonatophragmium triuniae from Triunia youngiana, Penicillium coccotrypicola from Archontophoenix cunninghamiana and Phytophthora moyootj from soil. Novelties from Iran include Neocamarosporium chichastianum from soil and Seimatosporium pistaciae from Pistacia vera. Xenosonderhenia eucalypti and Zasmidium eucalyptigenum are newly described from Eucalyptus urophylla in Indonesia. Diaporthe acaciarum and Roussoella acacia are newly described from Acacia tortilis in Tanzania. New species from Italy include Comoclathris spartii from Spartium junceum and Phoma tamaricicola from Tamarix gallica. Novel genera include (Ascomycetes): Acremoniopsis from forest soil and Collarina from water sediments (Spain), Phellinocrescentia from a Phellinus sp. (French

  17. Evaluation of the mutagenic potential of Cochlospermum regium in Drosophila melanogaster male germ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Wanderlene Blanco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades the search for medical treatments based on alternative medicine has increased significantly, making knowledge of the plants commonly used as folk medicines extremely important. The plant Cochlospermum regium, a member of the Cochlospermaceae found in the Brazilian cerrado (a type of savanna, is known to have high depurative activity and to be effective not only in treating skin problems such as pimples, boils and blotches but also in curing gastritis and ulcers. We prepared aqueous extracts using 13, 19 and 25 gL-1 of dried C. regium root and investigated these extracts for possible mutagenic effects on Drosophila melanogaster germ cells. Mutagenesis was assessed using the ring-X loss (RXL test which can detect chromosome mosaicism, partial loss of the ring X chromosome and chromosome non-disjunction. Our results showed that at the concentrations tested C. regium extracts did not induce ring-X loss in D. melanogaster.

  18. [Screening of three novel antimicrobial peptides with antifungal pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jinping; Li, Liyun; Wang, Yang; Wang, Xianyun; Liu, Lijuan; Liu, Gouzhen; Cheng, Xiongying

    2011-12-01

    In order to discover novel antimicrobial peptides against important crop pathogens, we designed and screened a high capacity random peptide library and isolated a number of clones expressing peptides with antifungal activity. We selected 96 peptides from the library and synthesized their sequence, which were used to assay their activity against crop fungal pathogens. Using agar diffusion assay, these peptides were assayed for their activity against pathogens that cause cotton Fusarium wilt (Fusarium f. sp, vasinfecum), cotton red rot (Fusarium moniliforme), wheat spot blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana) and potato early blight (Alternaria solani). The three random peptides, A6, D4 and F10, showed the strongest activity against the above four crop fungal pathogens. Through Blastp analysis, we did not find they have homologous sequences with known antimicrobial peptides. The novel antimicrobial peptides will provide gene resources for preventing important crop pathogens.

  19. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Wingfield, Michael J; Mansilla, J Pedro; Alfenas, Acelino C; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2006-01-01

    Species of Eucalyptus are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere and to some extent in southern Europe, for timber and fibre production. Species of Mycosphaerella are commonly associated with leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus and can result in defoliation, dieback, and even tree death. In the present study, numerous isolates of Mycosphaerella species were collected from leaf litter, living leaves exhibiting leaf spot symptoms or severe Mycosphaerella leaf blotch symptoms. Isolates were compared based on DNA sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1 & ITS2) and the 5.8S gene. These data, together with characteristics of the fungal growth on three different media, morphology of the anamorph and teleomorph structures as well as ascospore germination patterns were used to describe 21 new species.

  20. Complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus infecting fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) plants in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Walter N; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N; Brown, Judith K

    2016-08-01

    The complete genome sequence was determined and characterized for a previously unreported bipartite begomovirus from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, family Cucurbitaceae) plants displaying mosaic symptoms in Cameroon. The DNA-A and DNA-B components were ~2.7 kb and ~2.6 kb in size, and the arrangement of viral coding regions on the genomic components was like those characteristic of other known bipartite begomoviruses originating in the Old World. While the DNA-A component was more closely related to that of chayote yellow mosaic virus (ChaYMV), at 78 %, the DNA-B component was more closely related to that of soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV), at 64 %. This newly discovered bipartite Old World virus is herein named telfairia mosaic virus (TelMV).

  1. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the Liolaemus rothi complex and a new species of lizard from Auca Mahuida Volcano (Squamata: Liolaemini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Luciano Javier; Olave, Melisa; Perez, Cristian Hernan Fulvio; Perez, Daniel Roberto; Morando, Mariana

    2013-01-21

    A new species of lizard of the genus Liolaemus from Neuquén Province, western Argentina, is described. The new species is a member of the Liolaemus rothi species complex, and mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data show it as sister taxon of the clade composed of (L. hermannunezi (L. tromen + L. loboi)), differing in size, squamation, coloration, and sexual dimorphism from the other species of this group. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. has a dark body coloration with series of notched blotches on the dorsum, with bright spots, and a very iridescent yellow-green coloration in natural light. Liolaemus sitesi sp. nov. is found only in the Auca Mahuida volcano and is terrestrial, dwelling on the stony slopes with sandy soil between 1300 m and the volcano summit.

  2. Three new Pimelodus species (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae from the rio Tocantins drainage, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Three new species of Siluriformes from the rio Tocantins drainage of Brazil are placed in the genus Pimelodus, P. stewarti, P. joannis, and P. halisodous. Pimelodus halisodous differs from the sympatric P. joannis and P. stewarti by the number of premaxillary tooth rows (13-16 vs. 5-9. Pimelodus joannis differs from P. stewarti by the presence of two dark blotches on the base of the caudal fin. The three new species differ from all other species of Pimelodus by the possession of a uniform gray coloration along flanks; the relatively short distance between the posterior nostril and the anterior orbital border; a short maxillary barbel, that only slightly surpasses the caudal-fin base.

  3. Astyanax vermilion and Astyanax burgerai: new characid fishes (Ostariophysi: Characiformes from Northeastern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Zanata

    Full Text Available Two new Astyanax species, A. vermilion, from rio Almada and rio Cachoeira, and A. burgerai, from rio Almada, Bahia State, Brazil, are described. Astyanax vermilion is distinguished from most of its congeners and from all other Astyanax species known from northeastern Brazilian drainages by having distal portion of pelvic fins dark, a combination of sexually dimorphic characters, posteroventral portion of body and fins (except pectoral reddish in life, and inconspicuous humeral and caudal spots. It also differs by having highest body depth just anterior of dorsal-fin origin, 32-34 lateral-line scales, and presence of one or two maxillary teeth. Astyanax burgerai is diagnosed by the presence of two vertically elongated humeral blotches, absence of a conspicuous and broad dark midlateral stripe (at least on anterior half of body, body highest along vertical slightly behind midlength of pectoral fin, 31-34 lateral-line scales, and two or three teeth on premaxillary outer series.

  4. Fossorial snake genus Apostolepis from South America (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lema, Thales

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available An update commented list of the snake genus Apostolepis from South America, with keys for identification of the species. They are fossorial snakes that present different coloration according their distribution: (a 7 to 3 dark stripes coloration, without light nuchal collar (if present, vestigial, with snout not projected beyond jaws - in Amazonian and enclaves within Caatinga domain; (b 5 dark striped dorsal pattern, snout projected, usually without white nuchal collars — from region of contact between Cerrado and Chaco domains; (c dorsal pattern coloration uniformly red, with nucho-cervical collars, snout usually projected — in Cerrado with dispersion to Chaco and Caatinga; (d 2 or none dark stripes dorsally, venter immaculate or with black blotches, snout projecting: (e an aberrant pattern with oblique black dorsal stripes, without collars, head black and snout projecting — one species in an enclave within Caatinga, with 17 rows of scales instead of 15.

  5. Incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad foliar causada por Mycosphaerella spp. en Eucaliptales de Galicia (NO España)

    OpenAIRE

    Otero, Lázara; Aguín, Olsa; Sáinz Osés, María Jesús; Mansilla, P.

    2007-01-01

    El género Mycosphaerella incluye más de 30 especies que son patógenas en eucalipto. La enfermedad que ocasionan se conoce como MLB (Mycosphaerella leaf blotch). El síntoma más característico consiste en la aparición de unas manchas necróticas en las hojas que reducen su capacidad fotosintética, con la consiguiente disminución del crecimiento y de la producción de madera. En 2005-2006 se hizo un muestreo en las masas de eucalipto, la mayoría de Eucalyptus globulus, situadas en las provincia...

  6. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  7. Recharacterization of Rhinophis dorsimaculatus Deraniyagala, 1941 (Serpentes: Uropeltidae), including description of new material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, David J; Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis

    2016-08-29

    The Sri Lankan uropeltid (shieldtail) snake Rhinophis dorsimaculatus Deraniyagala, 1941 was described originally from two specimens that were subsequently lost. The small amount of previously published data and lack of published colour photographs made this one of South Asia's most poorly known snake species, and this resulted in at least one instance of taxonomic misidentification. An additional 10 specimens from a historical collection from the vicinity of the type locality recently came to light. This material is reviewed and documented and the species recharacterized. An additional locality for the species is reported. The newly reported material helps to corroborate the taxonomic validity and distinctiveness of Rhinophis dorsimaculatus. The species is readily distinguished from congeners by having 227 or more ventral scales; a large, dorsally carinate rostral shield; posterior margins of paired anals that are largely separated by the posteriormost ventral scale; and a distinctive colour pattern with bilaterally asymmetrical dark blotches within a broad, pale middorsal stripe and regularly punctate flanks.

  8. Interactions between crop biomass and development of foliar diseases in winter wheat and the potential to graduate the fungicide dose according to crop biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    Foliar pathogens such as Zymoseptoria tritici and Puccinia striiformis causing septoria leaf blotch and yellow rust respectively can cause serious yield reduction in winter wheat production, and control of the diseases often requires several fungicide applications during the growing season. Control...... and other foliar diseases in winter wheat was dependent on crop development and biomass level. If such a biomass dependent dose response was found it was further the purpose to evaluate the potential to optimize fungicide inputs in winter wheat crops applying a site-specific crop density dependent fungicide...... dose. The study was carried out investigating fungicide dose response controlling foliar diseases in winter wheat at three biomass densities obtained growing the crop at three nitrogen levels and using variable seed rates. Further the field experiments included three fungicide dose rates at each...

  9. Stress-induced tradeoffs in a free-living lizard across a variable landscape: consequences for individuals and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Leilani D; French, Susannah S

    2012-01-01

    Current life history theory suggests that the allocation of energetic resources between competing physiological needs should be dictated by an individual's longevity and pace of life. One key physiological pathway likely to contribute to the partitioning of resources is the vertebrate stress response. By increasing circulating glucocorticoids the stress response can exert a suite of physiological effects, such as altering immune function. We investigated the effects of stress physiology on individual immunity, reproduction and oxidative stress, across an urban landscape. We sampled populations in and around St. George, Utah, examining corticosterone in response to restraint stress, two innate immune measures, reproductive output, and the presence of both reactive oxygen metabolites and antioxidant binding capacity, in populations of common side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) experiencing variable levels of environmental stress. Additionally, using capture-mark-recapture techniques, we examined the relationships between these physiological parameters and population-level differences. Our results reveal elevated physiological stress corresponds with suppressed immunity and increased oxidative stress. Interestingly, urban populations experiencing the most physiological stress also exhibited greater reproductive output and decreased survival relative to rural populations experiencing less physiological stress, demonstrating a tradeoff between reproduction and life maintenance processes. Our results suggest that environmental stress may augment life history strategy in this fast-paced species, and that shifts in life history strategy can in turn affect the population at large. Finally, the urban environment poses definite challenges for organisms, and while it appears that side-blotched lizards are adjusting physiologically, it is unknown what fitness costs these physiological adjustments accrue.

  10. A leafhopper-transmissible DNA virus with novel evolutionary lineage in the family geminiviridae implicated in grapevine redleaf disease by next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsana Poojari

    Full Text Available A graft-transmissible disease displaying red veins, red blotches and total reddening of leaves in red-berried wine grape (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars was observed in commercial vineyards. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to identify etiological agent(s associated with this emerging disease, designated as grapevine redleaf disease (GRD. High quality RNA extracted from leaves of grape cultivars Merlot and Cabernet Franc with and without GRD symptoms was used to prepare cDNA libraries. Assembly of highly informative sequence reads generated from Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries, followed by bioinformatic analyses of sequence contigs resulted in specific identification of taxonomically disparate viruses and viroids in samples with and without GRD symptoms. A single-stranded DNA virus, tentatively named Grapevine redleaf-associated virus (GRLaV, and Grapevine fanleaf virus were detected only in grapevines showing GRD symptoms. In contrast, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, Hop stunt viroid, Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1, Citrus exocortis viroid and Citrus exocortis Yucatan viroid were present in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic grapevines. GRLaV was transmitted by the Virginia creeper leafhopper (Erythroneura ziczac Walsh from grapevine-to-grapevine under greenhouse conditions. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses indicated that GRLaV, almost identical to recently reported Grapevine Cabernet Franc-associated virus from New York and Grapevine red blotch-associated virus from California, represents an evolutionarily distinct lineage in the family Geminiviridae with genome characteristics distinct from other leafhopper-transmitted geminiviruses. GRD significantly reduced fruit yield and affected berry quality parameters demonstrating negative impacts of the disease. Higher quantities of carbohydrates were present in symptomatic leaves suggesting their possible role in the expression of redleaf symptoms.

  11. Resistensi 10 Galur Kacang Tanah Hasil Silangan antara Arachis cardenassii dan A. hypogaea terhadap Infeksi Peanut stripe virus (PStV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Riduan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the pathogen infecting peanut in Indonesia is Peanut stripe virus (PStV,, causing stripe and blotch symptoms on infected peanut leaves. The objectives of this research were to evaluate effects of PStV infection on yield of 10 introgression lines of peanut derived from crossing of Arachis cardenasii and A. hypogaea, and to determine the tolerance of these lines against PStV infection. Peanut plants were grown in polybag containing 10 kg of potting soils and were grown under glasshouse conditions. The experimental unit consisted of four plants grown separately in four containers and for each treatment was replicated four times. Peanut plants were inoculated mechanically with Bogor isolate of PStV at 15 days after planting (dap and harvested at 95-100 dap. Results of the experiment indicated peanut cv. Gajah belonged to moderate tolerance while Kelinci was sensitive against PStV infection. Introgression line NC-CS11, CS30 and WS4 were grouped as tolerance while NC-CS51, WSl, and WS3 were moderate tolerance. The tolerance lines showed mild mosaic symptoms, did not show reduction of plant height and peanut yield upon inoculation with PStV. Introgresion line NC-CS15, CS20,CS22, and CS50 were sensitive against PStV infection, showed moderate to severe mosaic/blotch symptoms, reduction of plant height and peanut yield due to PStV infection. Among the tolerance and moderate tolerance lines, only NC-CS30 showed higher yield as compared to peanut cv. Gajah or Kelinci. Therefore, this line may be developed further as commercial peanut cultivar or be use as donor germplasm for PStV tolerance mechanisms in peanut breeding.

  12. Habitat associations of vertebrate prey within the controlled area study zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marr, N.V.; Brandt, C.A.; Fitzner, R.E.; Poole, L.D.

    1988-03-01

    Twelve study locations were established in nine habitat types in the vicinity of the proposed reference repository location. Eight species of small mammals were captured. Great Basin pocket mice (Perognathus parvus) comprised the majority of individuals captured, followed by deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), Northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides), Western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotus), Grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), Montane vole, (Microtus montanus), House mouse (Mus musculus), and the Bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea). Pocket mice were captured in all habitats sampled; deer mice were obtained in all habitats save hopsage and nearly pure cheatgrass stands. The highese capture rates were found in bitterbrush and riparian habitats. Capture sex ratios for both pocket mice and deer mice were significantly different from equality. Body weights for deer mice and pocket mice exhibited a great deal of heterogeneity across trap sites, although only the heterogeneity for pocket mice was significant. In general, body weights for both species were greater in the sagebrush habitats than elsewhere. These differences are interpreted in light of habitat evaluation methodologies. Six species of reptiles and one species of amphibian were captured. Side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were by far the most frequently captured species. The predominant snakes captured were the yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor) and the Great Basin gopher snake (Pituophis melanoleucus). Two Great Basin spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus intermontanus) captured at the Rattlesnake Springs trap site. Species diversity was quite low (Shannon-Wiener H )equals) 1.03). Side-blotched lizards were found in all habitats save near the talus on Gable Mountain and on the gravel pad site. The only other lizard species (northern sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus) and short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglasii)) were obtained in bitterbrush habitat. 20 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  13. Les méthodes d'analyse de ségrégation en mélange et d'association marqueur-trait révèlent des marqueurs AFLP communs de résistance à la septoriose chez un ancien blé dur de Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk segregant analysis and marker-trait association reveal common AFLP markers for resistance to septoria leaf blotch in Tunisian old durum wheat. Septoria tritici blotch (STB caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola is currently the major foliar disease of durum wheat in Tunisia. Most of the Tunisian elite cultivars show little or no resistance to this pathogen. Recently, some Tunisian landraces including 'Agili' have been identified as highly resistant to the virulent STB pathotype, 'Tun06'. In order to identify amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers associated with resistance to STB, we used bulk segregant analysis (BSA in two F3 biparental populations derived from crosses between the resistant durum wheat accession 'Agili' and the susceptible cultivars 'Karim' and 'Khiar' and Association Mapping (AM in a collection of 110 old durum wheat landraces. Out of the 24 EcoRI/MseI primer combinations tested, 4 were polymorphic between resistant and susceptible DNA pools. Screened on the parents and 9 to 12 progenies from each bulk, these polymorphic AFLP primer combinations revealed EcoACT/MseCTC-241, EcoACA/MseCTT-128, and EcoAGG/MseCTC-104 as specific alleles to resistant individuals suggesting their linkage to a gene for resistance to STB. Binary logistic regression analysis on the diversity panel showed that two AFLP markers out of the three identified by BSA were significantly associated with the resistance. EcoACT/MseCTC-241 was the significantly associated allele at P < 7.10-8 and was identified at a genetic distance of 1.2 cM to the resistance gene. This result indicates the efficiency of using landrace populations to detect potential markers for qualitative resistance.

  14. The role of a cytosolic superoxide dismutase in barley-pathogen interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Lightfoot, Damien

    2016-03-19

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide (O2-HO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are differentially produced during resistance responses to biotrophic pathogens and during susceptible responses to necrotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is responsible for the catalysis of the dismutation of O2-HO2 to H2O2, regulating the redox status of plant cells. Increased SOD activity has been correlated previously with resistance in barley to the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt, the causal agent of the net form of net blotch disease), but the role of individual isoforms of SOD has not been studied. A cytosolic CuZnSOD, HvCSD1, was isolated from barley and characterized as being expressed in tissue from different developmental stages. HvCSD1 was up-regulated during the interaction with Ptt and to a greater extent during the resistance response. Net blotch disease symptoms and fungal growth were not as pronounced in transgenic HvCSD1 knockdown lines in a susceptible background (cv. Golden Promise), when compared with wild-type plants, suggesting that cytosolic O2-HO2 contributes to the signalling required to induce a defence response to Ptt. There was no effect of HvCSD1 knockdown on infection by the hemi-biotrophic rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae or the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, but HvCSD1 also played a role in the regulation of lesion development by methyl viologen. Together, these results suggest that HvCSD1 could be important in the maintenance of the cytosolic redox status and in the differential regulation of responses to pathogens with different lifestyles.

  15. Investigation of the relationship between dermoscopic features and histopathological prognostic indicators in patients with cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Özbağçıvan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Dermoscopy has an important role in the diagnosis of melanoma nowadays. Dermoscopic findings of melanoma had been associated with Breslow thickness and invasion status in previous studies but the relationship between dermatoscopic findings and other histopathological prognostic indicators has not been investigated until today. In this study, our aim is to investigate the relationship between dermatoscopic findings and histopathologic prognostic indicators such as Breslow thickness, invasion status, mitotic rate, lymphovascular invasion (LVI, ulceration and regression in patients who had been diagnosed with melanoma due to their clinical, dermatoscopic and histopatological findings. Materials and Methods: Dermoscopic and histopathological findings of 47 cases of melanoma who applied to our clinic between the years 2000 and 2014 were evaluated. The relationship between the dermoscopic findings which had been reported to be observed in melanomas in previous research and the histopathologic prognostic indicators such as Breslow thickness, invasion status, mitotic rate, lymphovascular invasion, ulceration and regression were investigated. Results: Irregular dots/globules, atypical pigment network, multifocal hypopigmentation, radial streaks and moth-eaten borders have been associated with good prognostic indicators whereas comedo like openings, regular blotch, exophytic papillary structures, dotted, glomerular, lineer irregular vessels, pink/red and blue/gray colors were associated with poor prognostic indicators. Additionally some dermatoscopic findings which are more observed in benign lesions such as multiple milia-like cysts, comedo like openings, moth-eaten borders, regular blotch, exophytic papillary structures and finger print areas have been observed in melanomas in our study. Conclusion: Many dermoscopic findings have demonstrated statistically significant association with the histopathological prognostic indicators

  16. A fungal phylogeny based on 42 complete genomes derived from supertree and combined gene analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajich Jason E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, most fungal phylogenies have been derived from single gene comparisons, or from concatenated alignments of a small number of genes. The increase in fungal genome sequencing presents an opportunity to reconstruct evolutionary events using entire genomes. As a tool for future comparative, phylogenomic and phylogenetic studies, we used both supertrees and concatenated alignments to infer relationships between 42 species of fungi for which complete genome sequences are available. Results A dataset of 345,829 genes was extracted from 42 publicly available fungal genomes. Supertree methods were employed to derive phylogenies from 4,805 single gene families. We found that the average consensus supertree method may suffer from long-branch attraction artifacts, while matrix representation with parsimony (MRP appears to be immune from these. A genome phylogeny was also reconstructed from a concatenated alignment of 153 universally distributed orthologs. Our MRP supertree and concatenated phylogeny are highly congruent. Within the Ascomycota, the sub-phyla Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina were resolved. Both phylogenies infer that the Leotiomycetes are the closest sister group to the Sordariomycetes. There is some ambiguity regarding the placement of Stagonospora nodurum, the sole member of the class Dothideomycetes present in the dataset. Within the Saccharomycotina, a monophyletic clade containing organisms that translate CTG as serine instead of leucine is evident. There is also strong support for two groups within the CTG clade, one containing the fully sexual species Candida lusitaniae, Candida guilliermondii and Debaryomyces hansenii, and the second group containing Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis and Lodderomyces elongisporus. The second major clade within the Saccharomycotina contains species whose genomes have undergone a whole genome duplication (WGD, and their close

  17. Secretome-based Manganese(II) Oxidation by Filamentous Ascomycete Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, C. A.; Purvine, S.; Zink, E.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Chaput, D.; Wu, S.; Santelli, C. M.; Hansel, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the strongest oxidants in the environment, and Mn(II) oxidation to Mn(III/IV) (hydr)oxides includes both abiotic and microbially-mediated processes. While white-rot Basidiomycete fungi oxidize Mn(II) using laccases and Mn peroxidases in association with lignocellulose degradation, the mechanisms by which filamentous Ascomycete fungi oxidize Mn(II) and a physiological role for Mn(II) oxidation in these organisms remain poorly understood. Through a combination of chemical and in-gel assays, bulk mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ proteomics, we demonstrate enzymatic Mn(II) oxidation in the secretomes of three phylogenetically diverse Ascomycetes that were isolated from Mn-laden sediments. Candidate Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes were species-specific and included bilirubin oxidase and tyrosinase in Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, GMC oxidoreductase in Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a, and FAD-binding oxidoreductases in Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a. These findings were supported by full proteomic characterization of the secretomes, which revealed a lack of Mn, lignin, and versatile peroxidases in these Ascomycetes but a substantially higher proportion of LMCOs and GMC oxidoreductases compared to wood-rot Basidiomycetes. We also identified the potential for indirect enzymatic Mn(II) oxidation by hydroxyl radical, as the secretomes were rich in diverse lignocellulose-degrading enzymes that could participate in Fenton chemistry. A link between Mn(II) oxidation and carbon oxidation analogous to white-rot Basidiomycetes remains unknown in these Ascomycetes. Interestingly, growth rates on rich medium were unaffected by the presence of Mn(II), and the production of Mn(II)-oxidizing proteins in the secretome was constitutive and not inducible by Mn(II). Thus, no physiological benefit of Mn(II) oxidation in these Ascomycetes has yet been identified, and Mn(II) oxidation appears to be a side reaction. Future work will explore the lignin-degrading capacity of

  18. Larval, pre-juvenile and juvenile development of Diapterus peruvianus (Perciformes: Gerreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Patricia Adelheid Jiménez Rosenberg

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of Diapterus peruvianus (Sauvage 1879 is based on 60 larvae collected in superficial tows made in Bahía Concepción, and on 16 prejuvenile and juvenile organisms collected in Bahía de La Paz, B. C. S., México, using a standard plankton net and a rectangular epibenthonic net, respectively. Larvae of D. peruvianus show three large blotches on the dorsum of the gut that can fuse together and give the appearance of one large continuous blotch. There are two to three pre-anal pigments and 16 post-anal pigments in the ventral midline; cephalic pigments are present from the postflexion stage, as well as a serrated preoperculum. The prejuvenile and juvenile organisms are distinguished by their body depth, the analfin formula, the serrated preoperculum and the base pigments in the dorsal and anal fins.El desarrollo de Diapterus peruvianus se analizó con base en 60 larvas recolectadas en Bahía Concepción y 16 pre-juveniles y juveniles recolectados en la Ensenada de La Paz, B. C. S. México, usando respectivamente, una red estándar de plancton en arrastres superficiales y una red epibentónica para arrastres de plancton. Las larvas presentan desde la pre-flexión tres manchas alargadas sobre la superficie dorsal de la masa visceral, que pueden unirse y dar apariencia de pigmentación continua, observándose hasta 16 pigmentos post-anales en la línea media ventral y de dos a tres pigmentos pre-anales; la pigmentación cefálica así como la forma aserrada del pre-opérculo característica del género, aparecen a partir de la post-flexión. Los organismos pre-juveniles y juveniles se distinguen por la profundidad del cuerpo, la fórmula de la aleta anal, la fina forma aserrada del pre-opérculo y la pigmentación en la base de las aletas dorsal y anal.

  19. Controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e rendimento de grãos em cevada após aplicação de elicitores e fungicida = Bipolaris sorokiniana control and grain yield in barley after application of elicitors and fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemir Antoniazzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mancha marrom causada pelo fungo Bipolaris sorokiniana é considerada um dos problemas fitossanitários mais importantes na cevada provocando reduções na produtividade e prejuízos na qualidade cervejeira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos elicitores goma xantana e alicina e do fungicida epoxiconazole + piraclostrobina no controle da mancha marrom em cevada cervejeira, cultivar BRS 195 em dois ciclos de cultivo. O experimento foi conduzido na Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA, em Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, comquatro repetições. A aplicação de elicitores e fungicida resultou em maior peso de mil sementes, sem interferir no teor de proteínas e na classificação comercial. O rendimento de grãos foi superior após duas ou três aplicações de alicina. A incidência e severidade de B.sorokiniana nas folhas de plantas tratadas com elicitores foram semelhantes àquelas com fungicida.The disease spot blotch, caused by the fungi Bipolaris sorokiniana, is considered one of the most important phytosanitary problems ofbarley crop resulting on low productivity and damage on beer quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the elicitors xanthan gum and alicin and fungicide epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin on spot blotch control of barley cultivar BRS 195 during two cultivation cycles. The experiment was carried out at Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária (FAPA, Guarapuava, state of Paraná. The experimental design was in completely randomized blocks, with four replications. Treatment of barley plants withelicitors and fungicide resulted in higher thousand-seed weight without interfering on protein content and commercial classification. The grain yield increased after two or three alicin treatments. Bipolaris sorokiniana incidence and severety on the leaves of plants treated with elicitors were similar to those treated with fungicide.

  20. Mapping quantitative trait loci conferring resistance to a widely virulent isolate of Cochliobolus sativus in wild barley accession PI 466423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Matthew; Menke, Jon; Chao, Shiaoman; Steffenson, Brian J

    2016-10-01

    This research characterized the genetics of resistance of wild barley accession PI 466423 to a widely virulent pathotype of Cochliobolus sativus . Breeding lines were identified that combine the Midwest Six-rowed Durable Resistance Haplotype and resistance to the virulent isolate ND4008. Spot blotch, caused by Cochliobolus sativus, is a historically important foliar disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the Upper Midwest region of the USA. However, for the last 50 years this disease has been of little consequence due to the deployment of resistant six-rowed malting cultivars. These durably resistant cultivars carry the Midwest Six-rowed Durable Resistant Haplotype (MSDRH) comprised of three Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) on chromosomes 1H, 3H and 7H, originally contributed by breeding line NDB112. Recent reports of C. sativus isolates (e.g. ND4008) with virulence on NDB112 indicate that widely grown cultivars of the region are vulnerable to spot blotch epidemics. Wild barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum), the progenitor of cultivated barley, is a rich source of novel alleles, especially for disease resistance. Wild barley accession PI 466423 is highly resistant to C. sativus isolate ND4008. To determine the genetic architecture of resistance to isolate ND4008 in PI 466423, we phenotyped and genotyped an advanced backcross population (N = 244) derived from the wild accession and the recurrent parent 'Rasmusson', a Minnesota cultivar with the MSDRH. Disease phenotyping was done on BC2F4 seedlings in the greenhouse using isolate ND4008. The Rasmusson/PI 466423 population was genotyped with 7842 single nucleotide polymorphic markers. QTL analysis using composite interval mapping revealed four resistance loci on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H and 5H explaining 10.3, 7.4, 6.4 and 8.4 % of the variance, respectively. Resistance alleles on chromosomes 1H, 4H and 5H were contributed by PI 466423, whereas the one on chromosome 2H was contributed by Rasmusson. All four

  1. Oligo-DNA custom macroarray for monitoring major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria in the phyllosphere of apple trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hong He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To monitor the richness in microbial inhabitants in the phyllosphere of apple trees cultivated under various cultural and environmental conditions, we developed an oligo-DNA macroarray for major pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi and bacteria inhabiting the phyllosphere of apple trees. METHODS AND FINDINGS: First, we isolated culturable fungi and bacteria from apple orchards by an agar-plate culture method, and detected 32 fungal and 34 bacterial species. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Rhodotorula, Cystofilobasidium, and Epicoccum genera were predominant among the fungi, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium, and Pantoea genera were predominant among the bacteria. Based on the data, we selected 29 major non-pathogenic and 12 phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria as the targets of macroarray. Forty-one species-specific 40-base pair long oligo-DNA sequences were selected from the nucleotide sequences of rDNA-internal transcribed spacer region for fungi and 16S rDNA for bacteria. The oligo-DNAs were fixed on nylon membrane and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probes prepared for each species. All arrays except those for Alternaria, Bacillus, and their related species, were specifically hybridized. The array was sensitive enough to detect 10(3 CFU for Aureobasidium pullulans and Bacillus cereus. Nucleotide sequencing of 100 each of independent fungal rDNA-ITS and bacterial 16S-rDNA sequences from apple tree was in agreement with the macroarray data obtained using the same sample. Finally, we analyzed the richness in the microbial inhabitants in the samples collected from apple trees in four orchards. Major apple pathogens that cause scab, Alternaria blotch, and Marssonina blotch were detected along with several non-phytopathogenic fungal and bacterial inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: The macroarray technique presented here is a strong tool to monitor the major microbial species and the community structures in

  2. [Clinical manifestation of Kaposi sarcoma in otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, De-xian; Pi, Shi-jun; Zhang, Wen-shan

    2013-03-01

    To improve the knowledge of Kaposi sarcoma and the relationship between Kaposi sarcoma and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and to improve the ability to diagnose and treat Kaposi sarcoma and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Symptoms, signs and results of 121 patients encountered in the department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery in Tanzania, who was diagnosed as Kaposi sarcoma actually with HIV infection and AIDS, were retrospectively analyzed in this study. There were 46 males and 75 females with age ranged from 5 to 65 years, medium 30 year. The mucous membranes and skin lesions was the most commonly seen clinical manifestation in 121 cases, these lesions appeared as raised blotches or lumps that might be purple, brown, or red, early stages typical lesions began as flat or slightly raised colored spots. Among the cases reported here, 25 patients (20.66%) showed progressive nose blockage and nose bleeding and the purple-red new-grows were found in the nose of these patients. Fifteen patients (12.40%) had flat or slightly raised colored spots in their mucous membrane of mouth (palate or tongue), and in other 7 patients, purple small lumps were found in the gums of the patients. There were same lesions in their pharynx in 9 cases. In 10 patients (8.26%), Kaposi sarcoma was found in tonsil looked like tonsillitis with enlarged tonsils by two to three degree. Twelve patients (9.92%) had masses in the neck with no pain. Thirty-five patients (28.92%)had lesions of purple black nodules, including 10 patients who had the same lesions with ulcer formation in the nodules. All patients had been followed-up for at least two-years. Eighty-five patients passed away in one year, survival rate of one year was 21.48% (26/121), only 12 patients survived from the disease over two years, two years' survival rate was 9.92% (12/121). Kaposi sarcoma is the characteristic disease for AIDS, mainly found on the membranes and skin. These lesions appears

  3. Uncoupling direct and indirect components of female choice in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsbeek, Ryan; Sinervo, Barry

    2002-01-01

    One of the most controversial debates in evolutionary biology concerns the fitness consequences of female choice in nature. Discriminating females may benefit from high-quality territories and/or sires with high-quality genes. Here we experimentally dissociate female preferences for high-quality territories and male body size in a wild population of side-blotched lizards, Uta stansburiana. Females preferred experimentally improved territories but still chose high-quality sires for their progeny. High-quality territories were associated with earlier egg-laying dates and larger eggs. These maternal effects, evidently stimulated by high-quality territories, have been shown to enhance competitive ability and therefore the likelihood that philopatric offspring will capitalize on the direct benefits of superior territories, previously shown to promote progeny growth rate and survival (most offspring do not disperse from their natal area). Paternity analysis within clutches co-sired by two males revealed that female preferences for large males were also adaptive in terms of indirect benefits. Females used sperm from large sires to produce sons and sperm from small sires to produce daughters. Differential allocation of resources and progeny sex was adaptive and demonstrates a high degree of female control in the mating system. PMID:12417752

  4. Comparative virulence of Pyrenophora teres f. teres from Syria and Tunisia and screening for resistance sources in barley: implications for breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajila, A; Zoghlami, N; Al Ahmed, M; Baum, M; Ghorbel, A; Nazari, K

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the pathogenic diversity and virulence groups among Pyrenophora teres f. teres isolates, sampled from Syria and Tunisia, and to identify the most effective source of resistance in barley that could be used in breeding programmes to control net blotch in both countries. One hundred and four isolates of P. teres f. teres were collected from barley in different agroecological zones of Tunisia and Syria. Their virulence was evaluated using 14 barley genotypes as differential hosts. The UPGMA clustering identified high pathogenic variability; the isolates were clustered onto 20 pathotypes that were sheltered under three virulence groups, with high, intermediate and low disease scores. According to susceptibility/resistance frequencies and mean disease ratings, CI05401 cultivar ranked as the best differential when inoculated with the Syrian isolates. However, CI09214 cultivar was classified as the best effective source of resistance in Tunisia. All P. teres f. teres isolates were differentially pathogenic. CI09214 and CI05401 cultivars were released as the most effective sources of resistance in Syria and Tunisia. National and international barley breeding programmes that seek to develop resistance against P. teres f. teres in barley should strongly benefit from this study. This resistance cannot be achieved without the proper knowledge of the pathogen virulence spectrum and the sources of host resistance. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Selective loss of polymorphic mating types is associated with rapid phenotypic evolution during morphic speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corl, Ammon; Davis, Alison R; Kuchta, Shawn R; Sinervo, Barry

    2010-03-02

    Polymorphism may play an important role in speciation because new species could originate from the distinctive morphs observed in polymorphic populations. However, much remains to be understood about the process by which morphs found new species. To detail the steps of this mode of speciation, we studied the geographic variation and evolutionary history of a throat color polymorphism that distinguishes the "rock-paper-scissors" mating strategies of the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana. We found that the polymorphism is geographically widespread and has been maintained for millions of years. However, there are many populations with reduced numbers of throat color morphs. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the polymorphism is ancestral, but it has been independently lost eight times, often giving rise to morphologically distinct subspecies/species. Changes to the polymorphism likely involved selection because the allele for one particular male strategy, the "sneaker" morph, has been lost in all cases. Polymorphism loss was associated with accelerated evolution of male size, female size, and sexual dimorphism, which suggests that polymorphism loss can promote rapid divergence among populations and aid species formation.

  6. Grammatical Adaptation of English Loanwords of Gaming Industry in the Russian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen V. Gornostaev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the grammatical adaptation of borrowed from the English lexems in the sphere of the interactive entertainment industry. It has been given also other processes of development of language units of the thematic groups: phonetic, lexical, semantic. Nominations were taken by continuous sampling of periodicals (magazine «Gambling», various Internet sources and lively conversation, presented on Internet forums. The subject of the analysis is one-component substantive derivative and nonderivative nomination. During the study the following results were obtained. 1. The leading features of grammatical adaptation of anglicisms in the sphere of the gaming industry are: a the appearance of declinability, stabilization of generic relatedness (not only animated, but also inanimate nouns, b expansion of the capacity of the diversion, which is manifested in the formation of word-forming nest of three types - nest-pairs, nest-bundles and nest-chains. 2. Derivative words included in their composition, may belong to different parts of speech (nouns and verbs and formed by affix (suffixes and prefixing and non-affix (abbriviation, clipping, adding ways. 3. There are units in the language-recipient that have not undergone the process of grammatical adaptation: blotches and immutable acronyms.

  7. Effects of compost media on growth and flowering of parviflorous garden pansy (Viola x wittrockiana Gams.. Part I. Plant growth and conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zawadzińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the studies was to determine the effects of media with composts, based on sewage sludge and potato pulp, on the growth and conformation of the cultivar 'Butterfl y Yellow with Blotch'. In the experiment 14 potting media, including 12 media made of 4 composts, were tested. The percentage of compost mixed with sphagnum peat was 25%, 50% and 75%. The components of particular composts were as follows: I - municipal sewage sludge 70% and straw 30%; II - municipal sewage sludge 70% and sawdust 30%; III - municipal sewage sludge 35%, potato pulp 35% and straw 30%; IV - municipal sewage sludge 35%, potato pulp 35% and sawdust 30%. Two control potting media were used: 1 - sphagnum peat with Osmocote Exact Lo-Start at the dose 5 g×dm-3, and 2 - sphagnum peat with Azofoska at the dose 2.5 g×dm-3. There was no top-dressing during cultivation. The potting media used for pansy cultivation were rich in essential nutrients and in certain media macroelement content exceeded the limits recommended for the species with great nutrient requirements. The effects of the media on the growth, conformation and foliage of pansies depended on compost composition and its pecentage in a medium. The composts used for the media were found to be suitable for pansy cultivation. Despite smaller leaf rosettes in comparison with control plants, the pansies from compost media grew well and showed no disease symptoms.

  8. Effects of compost media on growth and flowering of parviflorous garden pansy (Viola x wittrockiana Gams.. Part II. Plant flowering and decorative value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zawadzińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies was to determine the effects of media containing composts from sewage sludge and potato pulp on the flowering and decorative value of 'Butterfly Yellow with Blotch' parviflorous pansy. In the experiment 14 potting media, including 12 media made of 4 composts, were tested. The percentage of compost mixed with sphagnum peat was 25%, 50% and 75%. The components of particular composts were as follows: I - municipal sewage sludge 70% and straw 30%; II - municipal sewage sludge 70% and sawdust 30%; III - municipal sewage sludge 35%, potato pulp 35% and straw 30%; IV - municipal sewage sludge 35%, potato pulp 35% and sawdust 30%. Two control potting media were used: 1 - sphagnum peat with Osmocote Exact Lo-Start at the dose 5 g×dm-3 and 2 - sphagnum peat with Azofoska at the dose 2.5 g×dm-3. There was no top-dressing during cultivation. The pansies for whose cultivation a slow-release fertiliser was used turned out to have most flowers, but the plants cultivated in compost with peat at the ratio 1:1 had equally abundant flowering. At the generative stage, the pansies in control media were the most decorative and those growing in 25% of compost I, 75% of compost II and 50% of compost III and IV. On the basis of plant valuation scale, quality assessment and the abundance of flowering it was found that the media containing 50% of composts were optimal for pansy cultivation.

  9. Dynamic Transcription profiles of Qinguan apple (Malus × domestica leaves in response to Marssonina coronaria inoculation

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    Junke eZhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marssonina apple blotch, caused by the fungus Marssonina coronaria, is one of the most destructive apple diseases in China and East Asia. A better understanding of the plant’s response to fungi during pathogenesis is urgently needed to improve plant resistance and to breed resistant cultivars. To address this, the transcriptomes of ‘Qinguan’ (a cultivar with high resistance to M. coronaria apple leaves were sequenced at 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-inoculation (hpi with Marssonina coronaria. The comparative results showed that a total of 1956 genes were differentially expressed between the inoculated and control samples at the 4 time points. Gene ontology (GO term enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs revealed changes in cellular component, secondary metabolism including chalcone isomerase activity, phytoalexin biosynthetic process, anthocyanin-containing compound biosynthetic process, lignin biosynthetic process, positive regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process; and molecular functions or biological processes related to the defense response, biotic stimulus response, wounding response and fungus response. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis pathways. Furthermore, the importance of changes in cellular components and partial polyphenol compounds when encountering M. coronaria are discussed.

  10. Multilocus sequence typing reveals two evolutionary lineages of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianjun; Schuenzel, Erin L; Li, Jianqiang; Schaad, Norman W

    2009-08-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, has caused considerable damage to the watermelon and melon industry in China and the United States. Understanding the emergence and spread of this pathogen is important for controlling the disease. To build a fingerprinting database for reliable identification and tracking of strains of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was developed using seven conserved loci. The study included 8 original strains from the 1978 description of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, 51 from China, and 34 from worldwide collections. Two major clonal complexes (CCs), CC1 and CC2, were identified within A. avenae subsp. citrulli; 48 strains typed as CC1 and 45 as CC2. All eight original 1978 strains isolated from watermelon and melon grouped in CC1. CC2 strains were predominant in the worldwide collection and all but five were isolated from watermelon. In China, a major seed producer for melon and watermelon, the predominant strains were CC1 and were found nearly equally on melon and watermelon.

  11. Role of Blossoms in Watermelon Seed Infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, R R; Gitaitis, R D; Castro, A C

    2003-05-01

    ABSTRACT The role of watermelon blossom inoculation in seed infestation by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli was investigated. Approximately 98% (84/87) of fruit developed from blossoms inoculated with 1 x 10(7) or 1 x 10(9) CFU of A. avenae subsp. citrulli per blossom were asymptomatic. Using immunomagnetic separation and the polymerase chain reaction, A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected in 44% of the seed lots assayed, despite the lack of fruit symptoms. Furthermore, viable colonies were recovered from 31% of the seed lots. Of these lots, 27% also yielded seedlings expressing bacterial fruit blotch symptoms when planted under conditions of 30 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. A. avenae subsp. citrulli was detected and recovered from the pulp of 33 and 19%, respectively, of symptomless fruit whose blossoms were inoculated with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. The ability to penetrate watermelon flowers was not unique to A. avenae subsp. citrulli, because blossoms inoculated with Pantoea ananatis also resulted in infested seed and pulp. The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a potential site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli.

  12. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens using a microsphere immunoassay technology.

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    Ratthaphol Charlermroj

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus, watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus. An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours. This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.

  13. Type IV Pili are required for virulence, twitching motility, and biofilm formation of acidovorax avenae subsp. Citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Ofir; Goffer, Tal; Burdman, Saul

    2009-08-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a threatening disease of watermelon, melon, and other cucurbits. Despite the economic importance of BFB, relatively little is known about basic aspects of the pathogen's biology and the molecular basis of its interaction with host plants. To identify A. avenae subsp. citrulli genes associated with pathogenicity, we generated a transposon (Tn5) mutant library on the background of strain M6, a group I strain of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, and screened it for reduced virulence by seed-transmission assays with melon. Here, we report the identification of a Tn5 mutant with reduced virulence that is impaired in pilM, which encodes a protein involved in assembly of type IV pili (TFP). Further characterization of this mutant revealed that A. avenae subsp. citrulli requires TFP for twitching motility and wild-type levels of biofilm formation. Significant reductions in virulence and biofilm formation as well as abolishment of twitching were also observed in insertional mutants affected in other TFP genes. We also provide the first evidence that group I strains of A. avenae subsp. citrulli can colonize and move through host xylem vessels.

  14. Multiplex detection of plant pathogens using a microsphere immunoassay technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection.

  15. Biological Control to Protect Watermelon Blossoms and Seed from Infection by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessehaie, A; Walcott, R R

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT The efficacy of biological control seed treatments with Pseudomonas fluorescens (A506), Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (AAA 99-2), and an unidentified gram-positive bacterium recovered from watermelon seed (WS-1) was evaluated for the management of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of watermelon. In growth chamber and greenhouse experiments, seed treated with AAA 99-2 displayed superior disease suppression, reducing BFB transmission by 96.5%. AAA 99-2, P. fluorescens A506, and Kocide also suppressed the epiphytic growth of A. avenae subsp. citrulli when applied to attached watermelon blossoms 5 h prior to inoculation. Watermelon blossom protection reduced seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. From blossoms treated with 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 63% of the resulting seed lots were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. In contrast, for blossoms protected with WS-1, Kocide, P. fluorescens A506, and AAA 99-2, the proportion of infested seed lots were 48.3, 21.1, 24.1, and 13.8%, respectively. The effect of blossom treatments on seed lot infestation was statistically significant (P = 0.001) but WS-1 was not significantly different from PBS. These findings suggest that blossom protection with biological control agents could be a feasible option for managing BFB.

  16. Validity of photo-identification technique to analyze natural markings in Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Ernesto Elgue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Individual identification is useful for answering a variety of biological questions about animal life histories. Most of the techniques used to mark amphibians are invasive and can cause negative effects, compromising individual survivorship and biasing studies. Photo-identification consists in the identification of specimens based on photographic records of unique color-design patterns. This technique has been used with success in several amphibian species. Melanophryniscus montevidensis is an endangered anuran species inhabiting the Uruguayan Atlantic coast. The general pattern of coloration is black with red and yellow blotches on the belly. In this study, we validated the technique of photo-identification assisted by software for individual recognition in M. montevidensis using natural markings. Field trips were performed over 16 months during which, the ventral color pattern of specimens was photographed. The photos were edited and analyzed with the Wild-ID 1.0 software for photographic reconnaissance. An efficiency of 100% was obtained in the visual recognition and 90% in the detection of recaptures using the software. The use of photo-identification using natural marks is an effective technique in this species, because the color pattern of the belly was highly variable among individuals and remained unchanged in individuals over the 16 month period. In this evaluation the use of software for photo-identification was necessary for the treatment of large databases.

  17. Nova espécie de Helicops Wagler, 1830 (Serpentes, Colubridae do rio Tapajós, Amazônia, Brasil

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    Jossehan Galúcio da Frota

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the 14 species of Helicops known, five of them are distributed in Brazilian Amazon region. Here I describe a new species of Helicops based on three specimens from Tapajós river, western Pará state, Brazil. The new species is characterized by an opaque, green-moss uniform coloration on the vertebral and paravertebral scales, extending until the end of the tail, becoming yellow-greenish in the paraventral region, without spots, blotches or stripes on the whole dorsum. It differs from all species known of Helicops by the dorsal color pattern. Morphologically, the new species seems like H. leopardinus (as indicated by the number of dorsal scale rows, the number of ventral scales, and the number of teeth, but it has smaller lobes in the hemipenis and a very distinct color pattern. Illustrations of the type material and a dicotomic key are presented to help to distinguish the new species from other species of Helicops from Brazilian Amazon region.

  18. Complex interplay of future climate levels of CO2, ozone and temperature on susceptibility to fungal diseases in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bolette Lind; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown in different climatic environments with elevated [CO2] (700 vs 385 ppm), [O3] (60/90 vs 20 ppb) and temperature (24/19 vs 19/12°C day/night) as single factors and in combinations, to evaluate the impact of these climatic factors on photosynthesis and susceptibil......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown in different climatic environments with elevated [CO2] (700 vs 385 ppm), [O3] (60/90 vs 20 ppb) and temperature (24/19 vs 19/12°C day/night) as single factors and in combinations, to evaluate the impact of these climatic factors on photosynthesis...... and susceptibility to powdery mildew and spot blotch disease. No significant increase in net CO2 assimilation rate was observed in barley grown under elevated [CO2] at ambient temperature. However, this rate was positively stimulated under elevated temperature together with a slightly higher potential quantum...... efficiency of PSII, both at ambient and elevated [CO2], suggesting that photosynthesis was not limited by [CO2] at ambient temperature. When growing under elevated temperature or [O3], infection by the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus decreased, whereas disease symptoms and growth of the toxin...

  19. A new species of Bryconops (Teleostei: Characidae from the rio Madeira basin, Northern Brazil

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    Juliana M. Wingert

    Full Text Available A new species of Bryconops is described from a tributary to the rio Madeira in the Amazon basin, State of Rondônia, Brazil. Bryconops piracolina belongs to the subgenus Bryconops by having no teeth or rarely one tooth in the maxilla, and a naked area on cheek between the second and third infraorbitals. The new species is distinguished from all species of this subgenus by the presence of a large black blotch on dorsal-fin base. Furthermore, it is distinguished from all congeners, except B. inpai, by possessing the adipose fin entirely black. It differs from B. inpai by the lack of humeral spots. It further differs from all species of the subgenus Bryconops, except B. caudomaculatus, by having the last scales of the longitudinal series of scales that bears the lateral line series not pored beyond the end of the hypural plate, and differs from B. caudomaculatus by the smaller number of pored lateral line scales (31-36, mean 34.6, vs. 37-43, mean = 40.6, respectively.

  20. Phenotypic differences in a cryptic predator: factors influencing morphological variation in the terciopelo Bothrops asper (Garman, 1884; Serpentes: Viperidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica María; Sasa, Mahmood; Pardo, Rodrigo; Méndez, Marco Antonio

    2009-12-01

    The terciopelo Bothrops asper, is a cryptic lancehead pitviper widely distributed in humid environments of Middle America and the north-western portion of South America. Throughout its extensive distribution range, the terciopelo exhibits great morphological variation in external characters, a situation that has complicated its proper separation from other related species. In this paper, we analyzed the phenotypic variation of B. asper based in a sample of 514 specimens from nine distinct physiographic regions. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated great phenotypic differentiation among most pre-established groups, and the pattern is fairly congruent between sexes. However, no correspondence was observed between morphological variation and molecular divergence, inferred from mDNA sequences, between individuals representing the physiographical regions under study. Geographic variation in the number of interrictals, ventral scales, subcaudal scales and dorsal blotches was positively correlated with latitude and number of dry months, but inversely related with precipitation. However, other variables do not exhibit such an effect. The observed relationships between scale counts and environmental variables are explained in terms of selective pressures to improve water balance along the distributional range of the species.

  1. Gill net and trammel net selectivity in the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey

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    F. Saadet Karakulak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fishing trials were carried out with gill nets and trammel nets in the northern Aegean Sea from March 2004 to February 2005. Four different mesh sizes for the gill nets and the inner panel of trammel nets (16, 18, 20 and 22 mm bar length were used. Selectivity parameters for the five most economically important species, bogue (Boops boops, annular sea bream (Diplodus annularis, striped red mullet (Mullus surmuletus, axillary sea bream (Pagellus acarne and blotched picarel (Spicara maena, caught by the two gears were estimated. The SELECT method was used to estimate the selectivity parameters of a variety of models. Catch composition and catch proportion of several species were different in gill and trammel nets. The length frequency distributions of the species caught by the two gears were significantly different. The bi-modal model selectivity curve gave the best fit for gill net and trammel net data, and there was little difference between the modal lengths of these nets. However, a clear difference was found in catching efficiency. The highest catch rates were obtained with the trammel net. Given that many discard species and small fish are caught by gill nets and trammel nets with a mesh size of 16 mm, it is clear that these nets are not appropriate for fisheries. Consequently, the best mesh size for multispecies fisheries is 18 mm. This mesh size will considerably reduce the numbers of small sized individuals and discard species in the catch.

  2. ALTERATIONS IN BARLEY PROTEOME UPON FUNGAL INFECTION AND TRICYCLAZOLE TREATMENT

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    Manoj Kumar a,b

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The barley proteome was investigated upon fungal infection and subsequent treatment by tricyclazole (TCZ, which is known to have applications in spot blotch disease management in barley.Significantly enhanced chlorophyll content was recorded in TCZ treated plants. The disease severity was significantly reduced after TCZ application in pathogen inoculated plants by reducing the appressoria formation at infection site in barley leaves. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE revealed the expression profile of proteins from (I control plants (healthy barley leaves; application with sterile water,(II plants after foliar application of TCZ (100 µg/ml, (III plants inoculated with B. sorokiniana and (IV plants treated with TCZ (72 h after B. sorokiniana inoculation. A set of 33 proteins expressed differentially after TCZ treatment. Out of this 19 had known functions, while others were unknown or hypothetical proteins. These differentially expressed proteins were related to redox-activity and gene expression, electron transfer,cell division and chromosome partitioning, cell envelop biogenesis, energy metabolism and conversion, respiration and pathogenesis related functions in the barley plants. The study provides a platform and documents the proteins that might be involved in disease management in barley following TCZ application. It is expected that the study will provide boost in understanding proteome regulation upon fungal infection and subsequent anti-fungal treatment and will attract researchers for further validation leading to better pest management.

  3. A new Brazilian Passiflora leafminer: Spinivalva gaucha, gen. n., sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Gracillariinae), the first gracillariid without a sap-feeding instar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Vargas, Hector A; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2013-01-01

    Male, female, pupa, larva and egg of a new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Gracillariinae), Spinivalva gaucha Moreira and Vargas from southern Brazil are described and illustrated with the aid of optical and scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences including members of related lineages is also provided. The immature stages are associated with Passiflora actinia, Passiflora misera and Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae), and build mines on the adaxial leaf surface. Initially the mines are serpentine in shape, but later in larval ontogeny become a blotch type. Although the larvae are hypermetamorphic as in other Gracillariidae, there is no sap-feeding instar in Spinivalva gaucha; the larva feeds on the palisade parenchyma, thus producing granular frass during all instars. Pupation occurs outside the mine; prior to pupating, the larva excretes numerous bubbles that are placed in rows on the lateral margins of the cocoon external surface. This is the second genus of gracillariid moth described for the Atlantic Rain Forest, and the second gracillariid species known to be associated with Passifloraceae.

  4. Environmental contaminants in Texas, USA, wetland reptiles: Evaluation using blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Bickham, J.W.; Baker, D.L.; Cowman, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Four species of reptiles (diamondback water snake [Nerodia rhombifer], blotched water snake [N. erythrogaster], cottonmouth [Agkistrodon piscivorus], and red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta]) were collected at two contaminated and three reference sites in Texas, USA. Old River Slough has received intensive applications of agricultural chemicals since the 1950s. Municipal Lake received industrial arsenic wastes continuously from 1940 to 1993. Blood samples were analyzed for organochlorines, potentially toxic elements, genetic damage, and plasma cholinesterase (ChE). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations reached as high as 3.0 ppm (wet weight) in whole blood of a diamondback water snake at Old River Slough, a level probably roughly equivalent to the maximum concentration found in plasma of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in 1978 to 1979 when DDE peaked in this sensitive species. Possible impacts on diamondback water snakes are unknown, but at least one diamondback water snake was gravid when captured, indicating active reproduction. Arsenic was not found in red-eared sliders (only species sampled) from Municipal Lake. Red-eared sliders of both sexes at Old River Slough showed declining levels of ChE with increasing mass, suggesting a life-long decrease of ChE levels. Possible negative population consequences are unknown, but no evidence was found in body condition (mass relative to carapace length) that red-eared sliders at either contaminated site were harmed.

  5. A new species of tree frog genus Rhacophorus from Sumatra, Indonesia Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidy, Amir; Kurniati, Hellen

    2015-04-14

    A small-sized tree frog of the genus Rhacophorus is described on the basis of 18 specimens collected from three different localities on Sumatra Island, Indonesia. Rhacophorus indonesiensis sp. nov. is divergent from all other Rhacophorus species genetically and morphologically. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of: the presence of black spots on the ventral surfaces of the hand and foot webbing, an absence of vomerine teeth, a venter with a white kite-shaped marking, raised white spots on the dorsum or on the head, and a reddish brown dorsum with irregular dark brown blotches and distinct black dots. With the addition of this new species, fifteen species of Rhacophorus are now known from Sumatra, the highest number of species of this genus in the Sundaland region. However, with the increasing conversion of forest to oil palm cultivation or mining, the possibility of the extinction of newly described or as yet undiscovered species is of great concern.

  6. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  7. Reconstructing Carotenoid-Based and Structural Coloration in Fossil Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver, Enrique

    2016-04-25

    Evidence of original coloration in fossils provides insights into the visual communication strategies used by ancient animals and the functional evolution of coloration over time [1-7]. Hitherto, all reconstructions of the colors of reptile integument and the plumage of fossil birds and feathered dinosaurs have been of melanin-based coloration [1-6]. Extant animals also use other mechanisms for producing color [8], but these have not been identified in fossils. Here we report the first examples of carotenoid-based coloration in the fossil record, and of structural coloration in fossil integument. The fossil skin, from a 10 million-year-old colubrid snake from the Late Miocene Libros Lagerstätte (Teruel, Spain) [9, 10], preserves dermal pigment cells (chromatophores)-xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores-in calcium phosphate. Comparison with chromatophore abundance and position in extant reptiles [11-15] indicates that the fossil snake was pale-colored in ventral regions; dorsal and lateral regions were green with brown-black and yellow-green transverse blotches. Such coloration most likely functioned in substrate matching and intraspecific signaling. Skin replicated in authigenic minerals is not uncommon in exceptionally preserved fossils [16, 17], and dermal pigment cells generate coloration in numerous reptile, amphibian, and fish taxa today [18]. Our discovery thus represents a new means by which to reconstruct the original coloration of exceptionally preserved fossil vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Crystal Structure of a Novel Viral Protease with a Serine/Lysine Catalytic Dyad Mechanism

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    Feldman,A.; Lee, J.; Delmas, B.; Paetzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    The blotched snakehead virus (BSNV), an aquatic birnavirus, encodes a polyprotein (NH2-pVP2-X-VP4-VP3-COOH) that is processed through the proteolytic activity of its own protease (VP4) to liberate itself and the viral proteins pVP2, X and VP3. The protein pVP2 is further processed by VP4 to give rise to the capsid protein VP2 and four structural peptides. We report here the crystal structure of a VP4 protease from BSNV, which displays a catalytic serine/lysine dyad in its active site. This is the first crystal structure of a birnavirus protease and the first crystal structure of a viral protease that utilizes a lysine general base in its catalytic mechanism. The topology of the VP4 substrate binding site is consistent with the enzymes substrate specificity and a nucleophilic attack from the si-face of the substrates scissile bond. Despite low levels of sequence identity, VP4 shows similarities in its active site to other characterized Ser/Lys proteases such as signal peptidase, LexA protease and Lon protease. Together, the structure of VP4 provides insights into the mechanism of a recently characterized clan of serine proteases that utilize a lysine general base and reveals the structure of potential targets for antiviral therapy, especially for other related and economically important viruses, such as infectious bursal disease virus in poultry and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in aquaculture.

  9. A new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the limestone forest of Khammouane Province, central Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Calame, Thomas; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2015-12-17

    We describe a new species of the genus Cyrtodactylus on the basis of three specimens from Khammouane Province, Laos. Cyrtodactylus soudthichaki sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining congeners by the combination of the following characters: adult SVL 69.2-70.0 mm; dorsal head and neck with dark blotches; nuchal loop present; dorsum with five brown bands between limb insertions; 19 or 20 irregular rows of dorsal tubercles; 32 or 33 ventral scale rows; ventrolateral folds present, with distinct tubercles; dorsal surface of hind limbs with tubercles; 29 precloacal and femoral pores in a continuous row in males, precloacal pores absent in the female; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales present; 4 or 5 postcloacal tubercles; and subcaudals transversely enlarged. The new species most closely resembles Cyrtodactylus jaegeri and Cyrtodactylus roesleri in overall coloration and pattern. However, they can be clearly distinguished from each other in the number of dorsal tubercle rows, ventral scales, and femoral and precloacal pores. Cyrtodactylus soudthichaki is the 16th species of Cyrtodactylus known from Laos.

  10. A new karst dwelling species of the Gekko japonicus group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from central Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2017-05-08

    A new species of the Gekko japonicus group is described from Khammouane Province, central Laos, based on morphological characters and molecular data. Morphologically, Gekko nadenensis sp. nov. is differentiated from the remaining congeners by a combination of the following characters: size moderate (SVL 61.0-77.1 mm); nares bordered with rostral; internasals absent; postmentals enlarged; interorbital scales between anterior corners of the eyes 28-30; dorsal tubercles absent; ventral scales between mental and cloacal slit 175-185; midbody scale rows 123-140; ventral scale rows 38-40; subdigital lamellae on first toes 13-15, on fourth toes 14-16; finger and toe webbing present at base; tubercles on dorsal surface of fore and hind limbs absent; precloacal pores six (3+3 or 5+1) in a discontinuous row in males, absent in the female; postcloacal tubercles 1 or 2; tubercles absent on dorsal surface of tail base; subcaudals distinctly enlarged; dorsal surface of body with greyish brown blotches. Molecular analyses demonstrated the new species is closely related to G. bonkowskii and G. thakhekensis, but separated from them by approximately 7% in genetic divergence as shown by a fragment of the mitochondrial ND2 gene.

  11. Two new species of Apistogramma Regan (Teleostei: Cichlidae from the rio Trombetas, Pará State, Brazil

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    Sven O Kullander

    Full Text Available Apistogramma angayuara is described from the rio Trombetas close to the cachoeira Vira Mundo where it is found in association with rapids. It is assigned to the A. pertensis species group, distinguished by the following characters in combination: three prominent stripes composed of dark spots along the sides of the abdomen, 2 vs. 3 postlachrymal infraorbital pores, 5 vs. 4 dentary pores, low dorsal fin in adult males, and presence of a caudal spot. It is the smallest species of Apistogramma reported so far, with the largest male 24.7 mm SL and the largest female 22.7 mm SL, and the first cichlid species found with a significant proportion of rhizopods in the stomach content. Apistogramma salpinction is described from lentic habitats at the margin of road BR-163, circa 70 km from Cachoeira Porteira village, in a swamp most probably connected to the igarapé Caxipacoré. It is compared to members of the Apistogramma cacatuoides group with which it shares prolonged anterior dorsal fin lappets and marginal caudal fin streamers in adult males. It is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the color pattern which includes a lateral band and abdominal stripes that become darker and have much lighter interspaces on the caudal peduncle, and a caudal spot that is divided into elongated blotches continuing the lateral band and upper two abdominal stripes, respectively.

  12. Review of the crevalle jacks, Caranx hippos complex (Teleostei: Carangidae), with a description of a new species from West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, W.F.; Carpenter, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    The Caranx hippos species complex comprises three extant species: crevalle jack (Caranx hippos) (Linnaeus, 1766) from both the western and eastern Atlantic oceans; Pacific crevalle jack (Caranx caninus) Gu??nther, 1868 from the eastern Pacific Ocean; and longfin crevalle jack (Caranx fischeri) new species, from the eastern Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea and Ascension Island. Adults of all three species are superficially similar with a black blotch on the lower half of the pectoral fin, a black spot on the upper margin of opercle, one or two pairs of enlarged symphyseal canines on the lower jaw, and a similar pattern of breast squamation. Each species has a different pattern of hyperostotic bone development and anal-fin color. The two sympatric eastern Atlantic species also differ from each other in number of dorsal- and anal-fin rays, and in large adults of C. fischeri the lobes of these fins are longer and the body is deeper. Caranx hippos from opposite sides of the Atlantic are virtually indistinguishable externally but differ consistently in the expression of hyperostosis of the first dorsal-fin pterygiophore. The fossil species Caranx carangopsis Steindachner 1859 appears to have been based on composite material of Trachurus sp. and a fourth species of the Caranx hippos complex. Patterns of hyperostotic bone development are compared in the nine (of 15 total) species of Caranx sensu stricto that exhibit hyperostosis.

  13. Raorchestes ghatei, a new species of shrub frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India

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    A.D. Padhye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Raorchestes ghatei is described from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra. The species differs from its congeners based on a combination of characters including small to medium-sized adult males, snout mucronate in dorsal view, canthus rostralis angular and sharp, snout slightly projecting beyond mouth ventrally, tympanum indistinct and one third of the eye diameter, tongue without papilla but with a lingual pit, nuptial pad rudimentary to absent, a bony tubercle on humerus at the end of deltoid ridge present in males and absent in females, skin finely granulated or smooth dorsally, lateral side marbled with white blotches on brown to black background. Molecular phylogeny based on 16S rRNA gene sequence suggests that the new species is genetically distinct and forms a monophyletic clade within Raorchestes. The species exhibits sexual dimorphism with males having single sub-gular vocal sac and a tubercle on the humerus while females lack them. The species shows direct development. The species is widely distributed in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra.

  14. Description of a new species of Trimma (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from the Red Sea, with a discussion of the generic separation of Trimma and Priolepis, with discussion of sensory papillae terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoese, Douglass F; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2015-10-06

    A new species of Pygmygoby, Trimma quadrimaculatum, n. sp., is described from the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea on the basis of 16 adult specimens. It is small-sized species, with the largest examined specimen reaching only 16.8 mm SL. The new species has characteristics of both Priolepis and Trimma, and easily may be confused with Priolepis randalli and Trimma mendelssohni; it can distinguish from other species by combination of characters: dorsal-fin rays D VI + I,8; anal-fin rays I,7; longitudinal scale series 23-25; median predorsal scales 6-8 (usually 7 or 8); head naked; a pair of modified elongate papillae on nape; fifth pelvic-fin ray with 2 dichotomous branches; body with broad, irregular, brown bars, last bar posteriorly on caudal peduncle extending basally on to rays of caudal fin; head with three dark brown bars below eye; four subcutaneous dark brown spots ventrally on posterior half of body; and basal quarter of second and third membranes of first dorsal fin with diffuse dark blotch. Placement of the new species in Trimma is based on the presence of more characteristics currently associated with Trimma than with Priolepis. The generic separation of the two genera is discussed, suggesting that further work is needed to clarify the separation of these two genera.

  15. Peltaster fructicola genome reveals evolution from an invasive phytopathogen to an ectophytic parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Chen, Huan; Gleason, Mark L; Xu, Jin-Rong; Liu, Huiquan; Zhang, Rong; Sun, Guangyu

    2016-03-11

    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi are unconventional plant pathogens that cause economic losses by blemishing the surface appearance of infected fruit. Here, we introduce the 18.14-Mb genome of Peltaster fructicola, one of the most prevalent SBFS species on apple. This undersized assembly contains only 8,334 predicted protein-coding genes and a very small repertoire of repetitive elements. Phylogenomics and comparative genomics revealed that P. fructicola had undergone a reductive evolution, during which the numbers of orphan genes and genes involved in plant cell wall degradation, secondary metabolism, and secreted peptidases and effectors were drastically reduced. In contrast, the genes controlling 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin biosynthesis and appressorium-mediated penetration were retained substantially. Additionally, microscopic examination of the surfaces of infected apple indicated for the first time that P. fructicola can not only dissolve epicuticular waxes but also partially penetrate the cuticle proper. Our findings indicate that genome contraction, characterized mainly by the massive loss of pathogenicity-related genes, has played an important role in the evolution of P. fructicola (and by implication other SBFS species) from a plant-penetrating ancestor to a non-invasive ectophyte, displaying a novel form of trophic interaction between plants and fungi.

  16. A new species of Acestrocephalus (Characiformes: Characidae from Venezuela

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    Carlos A Lasso

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Acestrocephalus is described from 60 specimens collected in the Río Orinoco and Río Negro drainages, Venezuela. This species is distinguished from all other Acestrocephalus by the combination of the following characters: anal rays, 29-36; 63-71 perforated scales on the lateral line; 10-12 scales above and 9-12 below the lateral line; 39-52 teeth on the maxillary; 9-12 premaxillary teeth; 8-12 teeth in the inner row on the dentary; 5-7 gill rakers on the lower part of the first gill arch; humeral, peduncular and caudal blotch absent.Se describe una nueva especie, Acestrocephalus ginesi, con base a 60 ejemplares recolectados en las cuencas del Río Orinoco y Río Negro, Venezuela. Esta especie difiere de otros miembros del género por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: aleta anal, 29-36 radios; 63-71 escamas con poro en la línea lateral; escamas transversales 10-12 / 9-12; 39-52 dientes en el maxilar; 9-12 dientes en el premaxilar; 8-12 dientes en la fila interna del dentario; 5-7 branquispinas en la parte inferior del primer arco branquial; mancha humeral, peduncular y caudal, ausentes.

  17. Taxonomic revision of thorny catfish genus Hassar (Siluriformes: Doradidae

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    José L. O. Birindelli

    Full Text Available The genus Hassar (Doradidae is diagnosed by a single exclusive feature: basioccipital with ventral ring-like arch surrounding aorta; and by the combination of several non-exclusive characters, including dark blotch in distal half of anterior branched rays of dorsal fin, and anteriormost postinfranuchal scutes reduced in size. Three nominal species are recognized and redescribed in Hassar: H. orestis from the Orinoco, Essequibo and Amazonas basins, excluding Tocantins and middle to upper Xingu drainages; H. wilderi from Tocantins; and H. affinis from northeastern Brazil, including Turiaçu, Pindaré-Mearim, Itapecuru and Parnaíba drainages. The nominal Hemidoras notospilus and Hassar ucayalensis are recognized as junior synonyms of Hassar orestis; Hassar woodi is considered a junior synonym of H. affinis; Hassar iheringi is recognized as a junior synonym of H. wilderi, and its type locality as originally reported is considered incorrect. A fourth new species, Hassar gabiru, is described from middle to upper Xingu river basin. Hassar is considered to be the sister taxon of Anduzedoras + Leptodoras. A detailed anatomical description and discussion of the phylogenetic relationships of Hassar among fimbriate-barbel doradids are provided.

  18. Morbidity and Mortality of Reptiles Admitted to the Australian Wildlife Health Centre, Healesville Sanctuary, Australia, 2000-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheelings, T Franciscus

    2015-07-01

    Medical records of 931 reptiles admitted to the Australian Wildlife Health Centre, Healesville Sanctuary, Healesville, Victoria, Australia, from 2000 to 2013 were reviewed to determine the causes of morbidity and mortality. Thirty-nine species were presented; the most common were the common long-neck turtle (Chelodina longicollis; n = 311, 33.4%), the eastern bluetongue lizard (Tiliqua scincoides; n = 224, 4.1%), the blotched bluetongue lizard (Tiliqua nigrolutea; n = 136, 14.6%), and the lowland copperhead (Austrelaps superbus; n = 55, 5.9%). Trauma was the most significant reason for admissions, accounting for 73.0% of cases. This was followed by not injured (11.7%), displacement (6.4%), snake removal (4.2%), human interference (3.1%), introduced species (1.1%), sick/diseased (0.2%), and illegal pet (0.2%). Within the category of trauma, impact with motor vehicle (41.0% of trauma cases) and domestic animal attack (33.2% of trauma cases) were the most common subcategories. Our results indicate that indirect anthropogenic factors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Australian reptiles.

  19. Evolutionary relationships between Rhynchosporium lolii sp. nov. and other Rhynchosporium species on grasses.

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    Kevin M King

    Full Text Available The fungal genus Rhynchosporium (causative agent of leaf blotch contains several host-specialised species, including R. commune (colonising barley and brome-grass, R. agropyri (couch-grass, R. secalis (rye and triticale and the more distantly related R. orthosporum (cocksfoot. This study used molecular fingerprinting, multilocus DNA sequence data, conidial morphology, host range tests and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the relationship between Rhynchosporium species on ryegrasses, both economically important forage grasses and common wild grasses in many cereal growing areas, and other plant species. Two different types of Rhynchosporium were found on ryegrasses in the UK. Firstly, there were isolates of R. commune that were pathogenic to both barley and Italian ryegrass. Secondly, there were isolates of a new species, here named R. lolii, that were pathogenic only to ryegrass species. R. lolii was most closely related to R. orthosporum, but exhibited clear molecular, morphological and host range differences. The species was estimated to have diverged from R. orthosporum ca. 5735 years before the present. The colonisation strategy of all of the different Rhynchosporium species involved extensive hyphal growth in the sub-cuticular regions of the leaves. Finally, new species-specific PCR diagnostic tests were developed that could distinguish between these five closely related Rhynchosporium species.

  20. Fungicides efficiency on wheat diseases control in response to the application with different spray nozzles

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    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides to leaf control diseases of wheat, when applied to different models of spray nozzles. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates of factorial (4 x 3+1. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The fungicides used were: Opera® (pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole 0.75 L.ha-1 , Opera® 0.75 L.ha-1 +Folicur® (tebuconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® (azoxystrobin+cyproconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® 0.3 L.ha-1 +Tilt® (propiconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 . These fungicides were applied with three models of spray nozzles jet planes: XR 11 001 (fine drop, AIRMIX 11,001 (average drop and AVI 11,001 (coarse drop. We evaluated the incidence and severity (damage per plant leaf of yellow spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis, spot blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana, leaf rust (Puccinia triticina and grain yield (kg.ha-1 culture. The results show that the application of fungicides for control of leaf diseases in wheat resulted in increases in grain yield, and yield higher values were observed with the application of Opera®, using the XR 11001.

  1. Biocontrol activity of effusol from the extremophile plant, Juncus maritimus, against the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Ramla; Rivière, Céline; Siah, Ali; Smaoui, Abderrazak; Samaillie, Jennifer; Hennebelle, Thierry; Roumy, Vincent; Ksouri, Riadh; Halama, Patrice; Sahpaz, Sevser

    2017-05-08

    Zymoseptoria tritici, responsible for Septoria tritici blotch, is the most important pathogen of wheat. The control of this parasite relies mainly on synthetic fungicides, but their use is increasingly controversial and searching for alternative management strategies is encouraged. In this context, the biocontrol potential of crude methanolic extracts of eight extremophile plant species from Tunisia, including three xerophytes and five halophytes, against Z. tritici was assessed. Only the extract of Juncus maritimus rhizomes showed significant in vitro antifungal activity. In extremophile plants, the production of secondary metabolites is often influenced by abiotic conditions. Thus, we collected several samples of J. maritimus rhizomes at different vegetative stages, at different periods, and from different substrates to compare their antifungal activities. Our results suggest that the plant environment, especially the substrate of the soil, should be taken into account to identify great sources of natural antifungal products. From the most active sample, a 9,10-dehydrophenanthrene derivative, effusol, absent from other J. maritimus rhizomes extracts, was purified. This product showed a strong antifungal activity against the pathogen, with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 19 μg mL -1 and an half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 9.98 μg mL -1 . This phenanthrene derivative could be a promising biocontrol molecule against Z. tritici.

  2. Amelanism in the corn snake is associated with the insertion of an LTR-retrotransposon in the OCA2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, Suzanne V; Lamichhaney, Sangeet; Martinez Barrio, Alvaro; Rafati, Nima; Andersson, Leif; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2015-11-24

    The corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) is a new model species particularly appropriate for investigating the processes generating colours in reptiles because numerous colour and pattern mutants have been isolated in the last five decades. Using our captive-bred colony of corn snakes, transcriptomic and genomic next-generation sequencing, exome assembly, and genotyping of SNPs in multiple families, we delimit the genomic interval bearing the causal mutation of amelanism, the oldest colour variant observed in that species. Proceeding with sequencing the candidate gene OCA2 in the uncovered genomic interval, we identify that the insertion of an LTR-retrotransposon in its 11(th) intron results in a considerable truncation of the p protein and likely constitutes the causal mutation of amelanism in corn snakes. As amelanistic snakes exhibit white, instead of black, borders around an otherwise normal pattern of dorsal orange saddles and lateral blotches, our results indicate that melanocytes lacking melanin are able to participate to the normal patterning of other colours in the skin. In combination with research in the zebrafish, this work opens the perspective of using corn snake colour and pattern variants to investigate the generative processes of skin colour patterning shared among major vertebrate lineages.

  3. Dissecting the molecular interactions between wheat and the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

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    Graeme James Kettles

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Dothideomycete fungus Zymoseptoria tritici (previously known as Mycosphaerella graminicola and Septoria tritici is the causative agent of Septoria tritici leaf blotch (STB disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In Europe, STB is the most economically damaging disease of wheat, with an estimated ~€1 billion per year in fungicide expenditure directed towards its control. Here, an overview of our current understanding of the molecular events that occur during Z. tritici infection of wheat leaves is presented. On the host side, this includes the contribution of (1 the pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI layer of the plant defence, and (2 major Stb resistance loci to Z. tritici resistance. On the pathogen side of the interaction, we consolidate evidence from recent bioinformatic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies that begin to explain the contribution of Z. tritici effector proteins to the biphasic lifestyle of the fungus. This includes the discovery of chitin-binding proteins in the Z. tritici secretome, which contribute to evasion of immune surveillance by this pathogen, and the possible existence of ‘necrotrophic’ effectors from Z. tritici, which may actively stimulate host recognition in a manner similar to related necrotrophic fungal pathogens. We finish by speculating on how some of these recent fundamental discoveries might be harnessed to help improve resistance to STB in the world’s second largest food crop.

  4. New record of Japanese snake blenny Xiphasia matsubarai (Perciformes: Blenniidae) from South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Murong; Zhao, Chunxu; Su, Xin; Tao, Yajin; Yan, Yunrong

    2017-11-01

    Specimens belonging to the family Blenniidae were collected in a fishery resource investigation from the coastal waters of Xisha Islands and Hainan Island, South China Sea in 2016. Combining morphological results with sequence analysis, we identified one specimen as Xiphasia matsubarai Okada & Suzuki, 1952. This represents a new record in the South China Sea. In morphology, the specimen has the following traits: body elongated, eel-like or ribbon-like in shape; flanks medium flat; the head small bluntly rounded anteriorly and without a moustache; eyes is slightly smaller, on upper lateral position of head, which is about equal to 1/5 of the length of the head; body without scales, lateral line has been degraded; both sides of the upper and lower jaws with a canine; gill is opening at the top of the pectoral fin base, approximately equal to the length of eye diameter. Dorsal fin XI, 96; pectoral fin 10; anal fin II, 95. Head and body grey-brown, including 26 dark grey-brown bands; abdomen and lower operculum yellowish grey and colour lighter; and dorsal base long with dark grey. Origin of dorsal is located over the anterior margin of pupil; black blotch on dorsal fin between 8th and 10th dorsal spine; anal and caudal fins dark grey, pectoral and ventral fins pale yellow. Sequence analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) strongly supports the identity of the specimen as X. matsubarai.

  5. Reduction of Growth and Reproduction of the Biotrophic Fungus Blumeria graminis in the Presence of a Necrotrophic Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Elizabeth S; Brown, James K M

    2016-01-01

    Crops are attacked by many potential pathogens with differing life-history traits, which raises the question of whether or not the outcome of infection by one pathogen may be modulated by a change in the host environment brought on by infection by another pathogen. We investigated the host-mediated interaction between the biotroph Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt), the powdery mildew pathogen of wheat, and the necrotroph Zymoseptoria tritici, which has a long latent, endophytic phase following which it switches to a necrotrophic phase, resulting in the disease symptoms of Septoria tritici blotch. Both diseases are potentially severe in humid temperate climates and are controlled by fungicides and by growing wheat varieties with partial resistance. The compatible interaction between Z. tritici and the host reduced the number, size, and reproductive capacity of mildew colonies that a normally virulent Bgt isolate would produce but did not significantly alter the early development of Bgt on the leaf. The effect on virulent Bgt was elicited only by viable spores of Z. tritici. Notably, this effect was seen before the necrotic foliar symptoms induced by Z. tritici were visible, which implies there is a physiological interaction during the latent, endophytic period of Z. tritici, which either takes place directly between this fungus and Bgt or is mediated by the wheat leaf. Information on how different pathogens interact in host plants may allow plant breeders and others to improve the design of screening trials and selection of germplasm.

  6. Reduction of growth and reproduction of the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis in the presence of a necrotrophic pathogen

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    Elizabeth S. Orton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Crops are attacked by many potential pathogens with differing life-history traits, which raises the question of whether or not the outcome of infection by one pathogen may be modulated by a change in the host environment brought on by infection by another pathogen. We investigated the host-mediated interaction between the biotroph Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt, the powdery mildew pathogen of wheat, and the necrotroph Zymoseptoria tritici, which has a long latent, endophytic phase following which it switches to a necrotrophic phase, resulting in the disease symptoms of Septoria tritici blotch. Both diseases are potentially severe in humid temperate climates and are controlled by fungicides and by growing wheat varieties with partial resistance. The compatible interaction between Z. tritici and the host reduced the number, size and reproductive capacity of mildew colonies that a normally virulent Bgt isolate would produce but did not significantly alter the early development of Bgt on the leaf. The effect on virulent Bgt was elicited only by viable spores of Z. tritici. Notably, this effect was seen before the necrotic foliar symptoms induced by Z. tritici were visible, which implies there is a physiological interaction during the latent, endophytic period of Z. tritici, which either takes place directly between this fungus and Bgt or is mediated by the wheat leaf. Information on how different pathogens interact in host plants may allow plant breeders and others to improve the design of screening trials and selection of germplasm.

  7. The UL24 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion

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    Ben Abdeljelil, Nawel; Rochette, Pierre-Alexandre; Pearson, Angela, E-mail: angela.pearson@iaf.inrs.ca

    2013-09-15

    Mutations in UL24 of herpes simplex virus type 1 can lead to a syncytial phenotype. We hypothesized that UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion. In non-immortalized human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) we detected viral glycoproteins B (gB), gD, gH and gL present in extended blotches throughout the cytoplasm with limited nuclear membrane staining; however, in HFFs infected with a UL24-deficient virus (UL24X), staining for the viral glycoproteins appeared as long, thin streaks running across the cell. Interestingly, there was a decrease in co-localized staining of gB and gD with F-actin at late times in UL24X-infected HFFs. Treatment with chemical agents that perturbed the actin cytoskeleton hindered the formation of UL24X-induced syncytia in these cells. These data support a model whereby the UL24 syncytial phenotype results from a mislocalization of viral glycoproteins late in infection. - Highlights: • UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins required for fusion. • Sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins varies in cell-type dependent manner. • Drugs targeting actin microfilaments affect formation of UL24-related syncytia in HFFs.

  8. Periorbital ecchymoses and breathlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Majumder, Biswajit; Ghosh, Sandip; Das, Dilip Kumar; Chatterjee, Sharmistha

    2017-09-01

    A 54-year-old man presented at our facility with a 3-month history of exertional breathlessness and purple blotches around his eyes. Examination revealed bilateral periorbital and perioral ecchymosis, purpuric spots along his waist, and waxy papules on his eyelids. In addition, the patient had macroglossia with nodular infiltration and irregular indentations at the lateral margin of his tongue. The patient also had a raised jugular venous pressure and prominent atrial and ventricular waves. Further examination revealed a fourth heart sound over the left ventricular apex, as well as bilateral basal rales. All other systems were normal except for mild hepatomegaly. Routine hematologic and biochemical lab work was unremarkable. X-rays of the spine and skull were normal, but a chest x-ray showed mild cardiomegaly. An electrocardiogram showed a QS complex from leads V1 to V4 (a pseudo-infarction pattern). An echocardiogram showed biatrial enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 48%, a speckled pattern on the myocardium, a thickened interatrial septum, and mild pericardial effusion. A color Doppler revealed mild mitral and tricuspid regurgitation with a restrictive pattern of mitral valve flow. Serum protein electrophoresis was normal. WHAT IS YOUR DIAGNOSIS? HOW WOULD YOU TREAT THIS PATIENT?

  9. A new species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from Serra do Cipó, Espinhaço Range, Southeastern Brazil, with proposition of a new species group to the genus

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    Paulo Passos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Atractus from Serra do Cipó, at the southeastern versant of Serra do Espinhaço, an inland mountain range nearly parallel to the Brazilian Atlantic coast. The new species is morphologically similar to A. paraguayensis and A. potschi with which it shares: 15 dorsal scale rows; white occipital region in juvenile specimens; dorsal ground color reddish pink to red (in life with alternate black transversal spots, blotches or transversal bands; seven upper and lower labial scales; ventrals and subcaudals creamish white; hemipenis slightly bilobed, semicapitate and semicalyculate. The new species differs from both taxa mainly on the basis of exclusive coloration characters (number and shape of transversal bands and hemipenial morphology (median face of the lobes without ornamentation, besides punctual meristic (number of ventral scales and maxillary teeth and morphometric (adult snout-vent length differences. Finally, we provide a discussion regarding the potential affinities of the new species and we redefine some Atractus species groups in order to better accommodate species sharing unique combinations of morphological characters.

  10. Polyphasic analysis of Acidovorax citrulli strains from northeastern Brazil

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    Kirley Michele Marques Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB of cucurbit plants is caused by Acidovorax citrulli and represents a serious concern to melon (Cucumis melo L. growers worldwide, including those in Brazil. Thirty-four A. citrulli strains from different melon production areas of northeastern Brazil were characterized for their virulence on melon fruits and their substrate utilization and molecular profiles. Based on the analysis of BFB severity on melon fruits, the A. citrulli strains were divided into three groups, classified as mildly, moderately or highly virulent. Although host-related groups were not observed, the watermelon and ‘melão-pepino’ strains exhibited only low or moderate virulence on melon fruit. Substrate utilization profiles revealed that 94 % of the 95 tested compounds were used by A. citrulli strains as a carbon source. Overall, based on substrate utilization, low variability was observed with no relationship to host of origin. The formation of one group of A. citrulli strains based on Repetitive Sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR analysis confirmed the low variability observed in the substrate utilization analyses. Bayesian inference based on the analysis of 23S rDNA partial sequence data resulted in one well-supported clade and clustered the strains with the A. citrulli-type species with high posterior probability support. Based on the markers used, the Brazilian A. citrulli strains belong to a single group, which corresponds to the previously described Group I for this bacterium in the United States.

  11. TPS-HAMMER: improving HAMMER registration algorithm by soft correspondence matching and thin-plate splines based deformation interpolation.

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    Wu, Guorong; Yap, Pew-Thian; Kim, Minjeong; Shen, Dinggang

    2010-02-01

    We present an improved MR brain image registration algorithm, called TPS-HAMMER, which is based on the concepts of attribute vectors and hierarchical landmark selection scheme proposed in the highly successful HAMMER registration algorithm. We demonstrate that TPS-HAMMER algorithm yields better registration accuracy, robustness, and speed over HAMMER owing to (1) the employment of soft correspondence matching and (2) the utilization of thin-plate splines (TPS) for sparse-to-dense deformation field generation. These two aspects can be integrated into a unified framework to refine the registration iteratively by alternating between soft correspondence matching and dense deformation field estimation. Compared with HAMMER, TPS-HAMMER affords several advantages: (1) unlike the Gaussian propagation mechanism employed in HAMMER, which can be slow and often leaves unreached blotches in the deformation field, the deformation interpolation in the non-landmark points can be obtained immediately with TPS in our algorithm; (2) the smoothness of deformation field is preserved due to the nice properties of TPS; (3) possible misalignments can be alleviated by allowing the matching of the landmarks with a number of possible candidate points and enforcing more exact matches in the final stages of the registration. Extensive experiments have been conducted, using the original HAMMER as a comparison baseline, to validate the merits of TPS-HAMMER. The results show that TPS-HAMMER yields significant improvement in both accuracy and speed, indicating high applicability for the clinical scenario. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Selective detection of viable seed-borne Acidovorax citrulli by real-time PCR with propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qian; Feng, Jian-Jun; Hu, Jie; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2016-10-14

    In recent years, use of the DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide (PMA) in real-time PCR has been reported as a novel method to detect viable bacteria in different types of samples, such as food, environmental, and microbiological samples. In this study, viable cells of Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial seedling blight and fruit blotch, were selectively detected and differentiated from dead cells by real-time fluorescent polymerase chain reaction amplification after the bacterial solution was treated with the DNA-binding dye PMA. The primers and TaqMan probe were based on the A. citrulli genome (Aave_1909, Gene ID: 4669443) and were highly specific for A. citrulli. The detection threshold of this assay was 10 3 colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) in pure cell suspensions containing viable and dead cells and infected watermelon seeds. Application of this assay enables the selective detection of viable cells of A. citrulli and facilitates monitoring of the pathogen in watermelon and melon seeds.

  13. Epidemiology of the Diseases of Wheat under Different Strategies of Supplementary Irrigation

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    Roberto P. Marano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is one of the most important and highly productive crops grown under supplementary irrigation in the central region of Santa Fe. However, its production is limited by the presence of diseases in the main stages for yield definition. The objective of this work was to assess wheat health in response to different supplementary irrigation strategies under greenhouse and field conditions. The field experiment included three treatments: dry (D, controlled deficit irrigation (CDI, and total irrigation (TI using the central pivot method. Disease incidence from stem elongation and severity in flag leaf and the leaf below the flag leaf were measured. Leaf area index (LAI, harvest index, air biomass, and yield components were determined. In greenhouse the treatments were TI and CDI, with evaluations similar to the field. The major leaf diseases observed were tan spot, leaf rust, and septoria leaf blotch. Significant differences in disease burden, LAI and yield components were observed in the different treatments. Under greenhouse conditions, only tan spot was observed. The results of this study indicated that the application of supplemental irrigation in wheat improved the yield, without increasing the incidence and severity of foliar diseases.

  14. Diagrammatic scale for the assessment of blast on wheat spikes

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    João Leodato Nunes Maciel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The correct quantification of blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae on wheat (Triticum aestivum spikes is an important component to understand the development of this disease aimed at its control. Visual quantification based on a diagrammatic scale can be a practical and efficient strategy that has already proven to be useful against several plant pathosystems, including diseases affecting wheat spikes like glume blotch and fusarium head blight. Spikes showing different disease severity values were collected from a wheat field with the aim of elaborating a diagrammatic scale to quantify blast severity on wheat spikes. The spikes were photographed and blast severity was determined by using resources of the software ImageJ. A diagrammatic scale was developed with the following disease severity values: 3.7, 7.5, 21.4, 30.5, 43.8, 57.3, 68.1, 86.0, and 100.0%. An asymptomatic spike was added to the scale. Scale validation was performed by eight people who estimated blast severity by using digitalized images of 40 wheat spikes. The precision and the accuracy of the evaluations varied according to the rater (0.82

  15. A Rejang River rash

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    Jean-Li Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old Iban woman presented to a rural primary healthcare clinic located along the Batang Rejang in Sarawak. She had a 2-day history of rash, which started over her trunk and later spread to her face and limbs. What started out as individual erythematous maculopapular spots later coalesced to form larger raised blotches. The rash was extremely pruritic and affected her sleep, and hence her visit. The rash was preceded by high grade, persistent fever that was temporarily relieved by paracetamol. She also complained of malaise, arthralgia and myalgia. Her appetite had been poor since the onset of the fever. She lived in a long house at the edge of the jungle. Although she did not have a history of going into the jungle to forage, she went regularly to the river to wash clothes. Clinically, she appeared lethargic and had bilateral conjunctival injection. Her left anterior cervical lymph nodes were palpable. There were erythematous macules measuring 5 to 15 mm distributed over her whole body but predominantly over the chest and abdominal region (Figure 1. An unusual skin lesion was discovered at the right hypochondriac region. This lesion resembled a cigarette burn with a necrotic centre (Figure 2. There was no evidence of hepato-splenomegaly. Examination of the other systems was unremarkable. On further questioning, the patient admitted being bitten by a ‘kutu babi’ or mite 3 days before the onset of her fever.

  16. The complex early life history of a marine estuarine-opportunist fish species, Solea turbynei (Soleidae from temperate South Africa

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    Nadine A. Strydom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The early life history stages and ecology of Solea turbynei, a marine estuarine-opportunist species, is described from nursery areas in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Early life history stages were collected over multiple years from known nursery habitats using plankton, fyke and larval seine nets. The larvae are described using morphometric measurements, meristic counts and pigmentation based on 29 individuals. Solea turbynei is differentiated from other Soleidae by the small size at flexion (3-4 mm, low myomere count and presence of two characteristic blotches of pigment on the dorsal fin. This species has a unique early life history strategy in that the larvae progressively span nearshore, surf zone and estuarine habitats with ontogeny. Abundance of preflexion stages peaks in summer in nearshore waters, indicative of peak spawning period but preflexion larvae are present throughout the year, indicating protracted spawning by adults. At flexion stage, larvae utilize surf zones where metamorphosis and settlement takes place. Early juveniles migrate into the sandy lower reaches of estuaries, after which fish take up residency to adulthood. Warm water is important for larval growth and survival in the nearshore, while turbidity shows a positive relationship with recruitment into estuarine nurseries.

  17. A new Dendropsophus Fitzinger, 1843 (Anura: Hylidae) of the parviceps group from the lowlands of the Guiana Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Orrico, Victor Goyannes Dill; Ernst, Raffael; Blanc, Michel; Martinez, Quentin; Vacher, Jean-Pierre; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Ouboter, Paul; Jairam, Rawien; Ron, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Many Amazonian frog species that are considered widely distributed may actually represent polyspecific complexes.. A minute tree frog from the Guiana Shield originally assigned to the allegedly widely distributed Dendropsophus brevifrons proved to be a yet undescribed species within the D. parviceps group. We herein describe this new species and present a phylogeny for the D. parviceps group. The new species is diagnosed from other Dendropsophus of the parviceps group by its small body size (19.6-21.7 mm in males, 22.1-24.5 mm in females), thighs dorsally dark grey with cream blotches without bright yellow patch, absence of dorsolateral and canthal stripe, and an advertisement call comprising trills (length 0.30-0.35 s) composed of notes emitted at a rate of 131-144 notes/s, generally followed by click series of 2-3 notes. Its tadpole is also singular by having fused lateral marginal papillae and absence of both labial teeth and submarginal papillae. Genetic distances (p-distance) are >5.3% on the 12S and >9.3% on the 16S from D. brevifrons, its closest relative. This species occurs from the Brazilian state of Amapá, across French Guiana and Suriname to central Guyana and is likely to also occur in adjacent Brazilian states and eastern Venezuela. This species is not rare but is difficult to collect because of its arboreal habits and seasonal activity peaks.

  18. De novo reconstruction of consensus master genomes of plant RNA and DNA viruses from siRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Jonathan; Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Martin, Robert R; Kasschau, Kristin; Dolja, Valerian V; Otten, Patricia; Farinelli, Laurent; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2014-01-01

    Virus-infected plants accumulate abundant, 21-24 nucleotide viral siRNAs which are generated by the evolutionary conserved RNA interference (RNAi) machinery that regulates gene expression and defends against invasive nucleic acids. Here we show that, similar to RNA viruses, the entire genome sequences of DNA viruses are densely covered with siRNAs in both sense and antisense orientations. This implies pervasive transcription of both coding and non-coding viral DNA in the nucleus, which generates double-stranded RNA precursors of viral siRNAs. Consistent with our finding and hypothesis, we demonstrate that the complete genomes of DNA viruses from Caulimoviridae and Geminiviridae families can be reconstructed by deep sequencing and de novo assembly of viral siRNAs using bioinformatics tools. Furthermore, we prove that this 'siRNA omics' approach can be used for reliable identification of the consensus master genome and its microvariants in viral quasispecies. Finally, we utilized this approach to reconstruct an emerging DNA virus and two viroids associated with economically-important red blotch disease of grapevine, and to rapidly generate a biologically-active clone representing the wild type master genome of Oilseed rape mosaic virus. Our findings show that deep siRNA sequencing allows for de novo reconstruction of any DNA or RNA virus genome and its microvariants, making it suitable for universal characterization of evolving viral quasispecies as well as for studying the mechanisms of siRNA biogenesis and RNAi-based antiviral defense.

  19. Dynamic transcription profiles of “Qinguan” apple (Malus × domestica) leaves in response to Marssonina coronaria inoculation

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    Xu, Jianhua; Li, Miaomiao; Jiao, Peng; Tao, Hongxia; Wei, Ningning; Ma, Fengwang; Zhang, Junke

    2015-01-01

    Marssonina apple blotch, caused by the fungus Marssonina coronaria, is one of the most destructive apple diseases in China and East Asia. A better understanding of the plant's response to fungi during pathogenesis is urgently needed to improve plant resistance and to breed resistant cultivars. To address this, the transcriptomes of “Qinguan” (a cultivar with high resistance to M. coronaria) apple leaves were sequenced at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-inoculation (hpi) with Marssonina coronaria. The comparative results showed that a total of 1956 genes were differentially expressed between the inoculated and control samples at the 4 time points. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed changes in cellular component, secondary metabolism including chalcone isomerase activity, phytoalexin biosynthetic process, anthocyanin-containing compound biosynthetic process, lignin biosynthetic process, positive regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process; and molecular functions or biological processes related to the defense response, biotic stimulus response, wounding response and fungus response. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis pathways. Furthermore, the importance of changes in cellular components and partial polyphenol compounds when encountering M. coronaria are discussed. PMID:26528306

  20. Comparative Programs for Arthropod, Disease and Weed Management in New York Organic Apples

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    Arthur Agnello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic apple production in the eastern US is small and is mostly based on existing varieties, which are susceptible to scab, and rootstocks, which are susceptible to fire blight. This requires numerous sprays per year of various pesticides to produce acceptable fruit. From 2014 to 2016, we tested different arthropod, disease and weed management programs in an advanced tall spindle high-density production system that included disease-resistant cultivars and rootstocks, in an organic research planting of apples in Geneva, New York. Arthropod and disease management regimens were characterized as Advanced Organic, Minimal Organic, or Untreated Control. Results varied by year and variety, but, in general, the Advanced program was more effective than the Minimal program in preventing damage from internal-feeding Lepidoptera, plum curculio, and obliquebanded leafroller, and less effective than the Minimal program against damage by foliar insects. Both organic programs provided comparable control of sooty blotch, cedar apple rust, and fire blight, with some variability across cultivars and years. The advanced selection CC1009 and Modi seemed to possess complete resistance to cedar apple rust, while Pristine had partial resistance. For weed control, bark chip mulch, organic soap sprays, and limonene sprays tended to be most effective, while mechanical tillage and flame weeding had lower success.

  1. Development of a rapid multiplex SSR genotyping method to study populations of the fungal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

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    Gautier, Angélique; Marcel, Thierry C; Confais, Johann; Crane, Charles; Kema, Gert; Suffert, Frédéric; Walker, Anne-Sophie

    2014-06-18

    Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus causing leaf blotch of wheat that often decreases yield severely. Populations of the fungus are known to be highly diverse and poorly differentiated from each other. However, a genotyping tool is needed to address further questions in large collections of isolates, regarding regional population structure, adaptation to anthropogenic selective pressures, and dynamics of the recently discovered accessory chromosomes. This procedure is limited by costly and time-consuming simplex PCR genotyping. Recent development of genomic approaches and of larger sets of SSRs enabled the optimization of microsatellite multiplexing. We report here a reliable protocol to amplify 24 SSRs organized in three multiplex panels, and covering all Z. tritici chromosomes. We also propose an automatic allele assignment procedure, which allows scoring alleles in a repeatable manner across studies and laboratories. All together, these tools enabled us to characterize local and worldwide populations and to calculate diversity indexes consistent with results reported in the literature. This easy-to-use, accurate, repeatable, economical, and faster technical strategy can provide useful genetic information for evolutionary inferences concerning Z. tritici populations. Moreover, it will facilitate the comparison of studies from different scientific groups.

  2. Pogonophryne neyelovi, a new species of Antarctic short-barbeled plunderfish (Perciformes, Notothenioidei, Artedidraconidae from the deep Ross Sea

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    Gennadiy Shandikov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues descriptions of new deep-water Antarctic barbeled plunderfishes of the poorly known and the most speciose notothenioid genus Pogonophryne. It is based on a comprehensive collection obtained by the authors in 2009–2010 during an Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni fishing trip. A new species, the hopbeard plunderfish P. neyelovi, the twenty-second species of the genus, is described. The new species belongs to dorsally-spotted short-barbeled species forming the “P. mentella” group. Pogonophryne neyelovi sp.n. is characterized by the following combination of characters: a very short and small mental barbel with an ovaloid and short terminal expansion covered by flattened scale-like processes that are mostly bluntly palmate; a moderately protruding lower jaw; a high second dorsal fin almost uniformly black and lacking a sharply elevated anterior lobe; pectoral fins striped anteriorly and uniformly light posteriorly; the anal and pelvic fins light; the dorsal surface of the head and the area anterior to the first dorsal fin covered with large, irregular dark brown blotches and spots; the ventral surface of the head, breast and belly without sharp dark markings. The new species is compared to the closest species P. brevibarbata, P. tronio, and P. ventrimaculata. English vernacular names are proposed for all species of the genus.

  3. Identification of QoI fungicide-resistant genotypes of the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici in Algeria

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    Nora ALLIOUI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septoria tritici blotch caused by Zymoseptoria tritici is currently one of the most damaging diseases on bread and durum wheat crops worldwide. A total of 120 monoconidial isolates of this fungus were sampled in 2012 from five distinct geographical locations of Algeria (Guelma, Annaba, Constantine, Skikda and Oran and assessed for resistance to Quinone outside Inhibitors (QoI, a widely used class of fungicides for the control of fungal diseases of wheat. Resistance was screened using a mismatch PCR assay that identified the G143A mitochondrial cytochrome b substitution associated with QoI resistance. The isolates were QoI-sensitive, since all possessed the G143 wild-type allele, except for three isolates (two from Guelma and one from Annaba, which had fungicide resistance and possessed the A143 resistant allele. QoI resistance was confirmed phenotypically using a microplate bioassay in which the resistant isolates displayed high levels of half-maximal inhibitory azoxystrobin concentrations (IC50s when compared to sensitive reference isolates. Genetic fingerprinting of all isolates with microsatellite markers revealed that the three resistant isolates were distinct haplotypes, and were are not genetically distinguishable from the sensitive isolates. This study highlights QoI-resistant genotypes of Z. tritici in Algeria for the first time, and proposes a management strategy for QoI fungicide application to prevent further spread of resistance across the country or to other areas of Northern Africa.

  4. Silver nanoparticles mediated altered gene expression of melanin biosynthesis genes in Bipolaris sorokiniana.

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    Mishra, Sandhya; Singh, H B

    2015-03-01

    Melanin production in many fungal phytopathogens has been investigated to play direct or indirect role in pathogenesis. However, in Bipolaris sorokiniana, the spot blotch pathogen of wheat, much less is known about the role melanin play in pathogenesis. As an extension of our previous report, the present study aims to investigate the plausible association between melanin production and virulence factor in B. sorokiniana. In the previous study, we carried out analysis on the antifungal efficacy of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against B. sorokiniana. The present investigation revealed the gene expression analysis of melanin biosynthesis genes viz. polyketide synthase (PKS1) and scytalone dehydratase (SCD1) under the influence of AgNPs. The 0.05mg/ml concentration of AgNPs yielded noticeable inhibition of B. sorokiniana growth, while 0.1mg/ml concentration of AgNPs accounted for complete inhibition of pathogen growth. In addition, the semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis exhibited reduced expression of PKS1 and SCD1 under the influence of AgNPs treatment. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR demonstrated 6.47 and 1.808 fold significant decrease in the expression pattern of PKS1 and SCD1, respectively, in B. sorokiniana treated with AgNPs. The present study provides probable understanding of molecular events underlying the antifungal role of AgNPs against B. sorokiniana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection and validation of single feature polymorphisms in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp using a soybean genome array

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    Wanamaker Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp is an important food and fodder legume of the semiarid tropics and subtropics worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. High density genetic linkage maps are needed for marker assisted breeding but are not available for cowpea. A single feature polymorphism (SFP is a microarray-based marker which can be used for high throughput genotyping and high density mapping. Results Here we report detection and validation of SFPs in cowpea using a readily available soybean (Glycine max genome array. Robustified projection pursuit (RPP was used for statistical analysis using RNA as a surrogate for DNA. Using a 15% outlying score cut-off, 1058 potential SFPs were enumerated between two parents of a recombinant inbred line (RIL population segregating for several important traits including drought tolerance, Fusarium and brown blotch resistance, grain size and photoperiod sensitivity. Sequencing of 25 putative polymorphism-containing amplicons yielded a SFP probe set validation rate of 68%. Conclusion We conclude that the Affymetrix soybean genome array is a satisfactory platform for identification of some 1000's of SFPs for cowpea. This study provides an example of extension of genomic resources from a well supported species to an orphan crop. Presumably, other legume systems are similarly tractable to SFP marker development using existing legume array resources.

  6. Impact of environmental chemistry on mycogenic Mn oxide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, C. M.; Farfan, G. A.; Post, A.; Post, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestrial environments and their presence can have broad environmental consequences. In particular, Mn oxides scavenge nutrients and metals, degrade complex organics, and oxidize a variety of inorganic contaminants. The "reactivity" of Mn oxides, however, is highly dependent upon crystallite size, composition, and structure, which are largely determined by environmental factors such as solution chemistry. It is has been suggested that most Mn oxides in terrestrial and aquatic environments are formed by microbial activity; indeed, a diversity of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria and fungi have been isolated and their mineral byproducts are consistent with those observed in natural systems. Previous studies showed that Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi produce highly-disordered, nanocrystalline Mn oxides that are structurally similar to synthetic δ-MnO2 or natural vernadite. Unlike related studies with Mn-oxidizing bacteria, Mn oxides produced by these fungi did not "age" or transform to more crystalline mineral phases with time. We hypothesize that fungal growth conditions, in particular the low concentration of cations, are inhibiting secondary mineral formation. The overall goal of this research is to examine the structure and speciation of fungally-precipitated Mn oxides with respect to fungal species, time, and concentration of soluble Mn(II), Na, and Ca - three environmentally relevant cations that promote the transformation of δ-MnO2 to more crystalline mineral phases such as feitknechtite, birnessite, or ranciéite. For this study, we examined the Mn oxides formed by different species of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi (Pyrenochaeta sp., Stagonospora sp., Plectosphaerella cucumerina., and Acremonium strictum). Isolates were grown for 8 or 16 days in a nutrient lean media consisting of yeast extract, trace elements and 0.2 mM MnCl2 supplemented with varying concentrations of Na, Ca, or Mn(II) compounds. The

  7. Further molecular characterization of weed-associated begomoviruses in Brazil with an emphasis on Sida spp Caracterização molecular adicional de begomovírus associados a plantas daninhas no Brasil, com ênfase em Sida spp

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    S.S. Tavares

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted, single-stranded DNA viruses that are often associated with weed plants. The aim of this study was to further characterize the diversity of begomoviruses infecting weeds (mostly Sida spp. in Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from weed samples collected in Viçosa (Minas Gerais state and in some municipalities of Alagoas state in 2009 and 2010. Viral genomes were amplified by RCA, cloned and sequenced. A total of 26 DNA-A clones were obtained. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of 10 begomoviruses. All viral isolates from Blainvillea rhomboidea belonged to the same species, Blainvillea yellow spot virus (BlYSV , thereby suggesting that BlYSV may be the only begomovirus present in this weed species. Four isolates represent new species, for which the following names are proposed: Sida yellow blotch virus (SiYBV, Sida yellow net virus (SiYNV, Sida mottle Alagoas virus (SiMoAV and Sida yellow mosaic Alagoas virus (SiYMAV. Recombination events were detected among the SiYBV isolates and in the SiYNV isolate. These results constitute further evidence of the high species diversity of begomoviruses in Sida spp. However, the role of this weed species as a source of begomoviruses infecting crop plants remains to be determined.Begomovírus são vírus de DNA circular fita simples transmitidos por mosca branca, os quais são frequentemente associados com plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a diversidade de begomovírus infectando plantas daninhas (principalmente Sida spp. no Brasil. DNA total foi extraído a partir de plantas daninhas coletadas em Viçosa (Minas Gerais e em alguns municípios do estado de Alagoas em 2009 e 2010. Os genomas virais foram amplificados por RCA, clonados e sequenciados. Um total de 26 clones de DNA-A foram obtidos. A análise das sequências indicou a presença de dez diferentes begomovírus. Todos os isolados originários de Blainvillea rhomboidea pertencem a uma

  8. Faraón-INIA, a new Winter Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack for Southern Chile Faraón-INIA, un nuevo Triticale de Inviern o (×Triticosecale Wittmack para el Sur de Chile

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    Claudio Jobet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Faraón-INIA is a new winter triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack cultivar released by the National Wheat Program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA in Chile. It is derived from an F9 material received from Nordsaat, Germany, under a germplasm exchange agreement signed in 2006 by both institutions. The crossing was Piano/Focus with Nord93.7548 pedigree. Faraón-INIA has a winter growth habit, a short stem (semi-dwarf, with a mean height of 106 cm. The spike is long, compact, decumbent, white, and awned. The grain is soft, yellow, with 1000-grain weight of 36 g, and a mean of hectoliter weight of 76 kg hL-1. It is resistant to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss. as well as moderately resistant to septoria leaf blotch. Its mean yield for four seasons in three different locations: Temuco (38º50´ S, 72º25´ W, Traiguén (38º45´ S, 72º38´ W, and Purranque (36°31’ S, 71°54’ W varied between 8.2 and 15.0 t ha-1 with a general mean of 11.0 t ha-1. Bromatological analysis of the grain showed good protein content (10.6% and a generally better quality than other triticale cultivars. Based on the above information, Faraón-INIA is recommended for use as animal feed in Southern Chile.Faraón-INIA es un nuevo cultivar de triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack liberado por el Programa Nacional de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, Chile. Este cultivar deriva de un material F9 recibido de la empresa Nordsaat, Alemania, bajo un convenio formal firmado en el 2006 entre ambas instituciones. La cruza es Piano/Focus, y el pedigrí Nord-93.7548. Faraón-INIA tiene un hábito de desarrollo invernal y caña corta (semienano, con un promedio de altura de 106 cm. La espiga es larga, compacta, decumbente, blanca y barbada. El grano es blando, amarillo, con un peso de 100 granos de 36 g y un promedio de 76 kg hL-1 de peso del hectolitro. Es resistente a roya

  9. Genetic differentiation in Pyrenophora teres f. teres populations from Syria and Tunisia as assessed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajila, A; Zoghlami, N; Murad, S; Baum, M; Ghorbel, A; Nazari, K

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the level of genetic differentiation and diversity among Pyrenophora teres isolate populations originating from different agro-ecological areas of Syria and Tunisia and to determine the potential of AFLP profiling in genotyping Pyrenophora teres f. teres. In this study, AFLP markers have been employed to identify patterns of population structure in 20 Pyrenophora teres f. teres populations from Syria and Tunisia. Ninety-four isolates were studied by the use of a protocol that involved stringent PCR amplification of fragments derived from digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes EcoRI and MesI. Based on 401 amplified polymorphic DNA markers (AFLP), variance analyses indicated that most of the variation was partitioned within rather than between populations. Genotypic diversity (GD) was high for populations from Rihane, local landraces and different agro-ecological zones (GD = 0·75-0·86). There was high genetic differentiation among pathogen populations from different host populations in Syria (Gst  = 0·31, ht = 0·190) and Tunisia (Gst  = 0·39, ht = 0·263), which may be partly explained by the low gene flow around the areas sampled. A phenetic tree revealed three groups with high bootstrap values (55, 68, 76) and reflected the grouping of isolates based on host, or agro-ecological areas. AFLP profiling is an effective method for typing the genetically diverse pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres. The study represents a comparative analysis of the genetic diversity in P. teres isolates from two countries spanning two continents and also shows that several distinct P. teres genotypes may be found in a given environment. The implications of these findings for Pyrenophora teres f. teres evolutionary potential and net blotch-resistance breeding in Syria and Tunisia were also discussed. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. A role for random, humidity-dependent epiphytic growth prior to invasion of wheat by Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones, Helen N; Eyles, Chris J; Kay, William; Cowper, Josh; Gurr, Sarah J

    2017-09-01

    Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria leaf blotch of wheat. The prevailing paradigm of the Z. tritici-wheat interaction assumes fungal ingress through stomata within 24-48h, followed by days of symptomless infection. This is extrapolated from studies testing the mode of fungal ingress under optimal infection conditions. Here, we explicitly assess the timing of entry, using GFP-tagged Z. tritici. We show that early entry is comparatively rare, and extended epiphytic growth possible. We test the hypotheses that our data diverge from earlier studies due to: i. random ingress of Z. tritici into the leaf, with some early entry events; ii. previous reliance upon fungal stains, combined with poor attachment of Z. tritici to the leaf, leading to increased likelihood of observing internal versus external growth, compared to using GFP; iii. use of exceptionally high humidity to promote entry in previous studies. We combine computer simulation of leaf-surface growth with thousands of in planta observations to demonstrate that while spores germinate rapidly on the leaf, over 95% of fungi remain epiphytic, growing randomly over the leaf for ten days or more. We show that epiphytic fungi are easily detached from leaves by rinsing and that humidity promotes epiphytic growth, increasing infection rates. Together, these results explain why epiphytic growth has been dismissed and early ingress assumed. The prolonged epiphytic phase should inform studies of pathogenicity and virulence mutants, disease control strategies, and interpretation of the observed low in planta growth, metabolic quiescence and evasion of plant defences by Zymoseptoria during symptomless infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Antibody array in a multiwell plate format for the sensitive and multiplexed detection of important plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Elliott, Christopher T; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-07-15

    The global seed market is considered to be an important industry with a total value of $10,543 million US dollars in 2012. Because plant pathogens such as bacteria and viruses cause a significant economic loss to both producers and exporters, the seed export industry urgently requires rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive testing for the pathogens to prevent disease spreading worldwide. This study developed an antibody array in a multiwell plate format to simultaneously detect four crucial plant pathogens, namely, a bacterial fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV, potyvirus), Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV), and Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). The capture antibodies specific to the pathogens were immobilized on each well at preassigned positions by an automatic microarrayer. The antibodies on the arrays specifically captured the corresponding pathogens present in the sample extracts. The presence of pathogens bound on the capture antibodies was subsequently detected by a cocktail of fluorescently conjugated secondary antibodies. The limits of detection of the developed antibody array for the detection of Aac, ChiVMV, WSMoV, and MYSV were 5 × 10(5) CFU/mL, 30 ng/mL, 1000 ng/mL, and 160 ng/mL, respectively, which were very similar to those of the conventional ELISA method. The antibody array in a multiwell plate format accurately detected plant pathogens in single and multiple detections. Moreover, this format enables easy handling of the assay at a higher speed of operation.

  12. Rapid and Specific Detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Using SYBR Green-Based Real-Time PCR Amplification of the YD-Repeat Protein Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Seok; Park, Duck Hwan; Ahn, Tae-Young; Park, Dong Suk

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay for the rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, which causes bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a serious disease of cucurbit plants. The molecular and serological methods currently available for the detection of this pathogen are insufficiently sensitive and specific. Thus, a novel SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay targeting the YD-repeat protein gene of A. avenae subsp. citrulli was developed. The specificity of the primer set was evaluated using DNA purified from 6 isolates of A. avenae subsp. citrulli, 7 other Acidovorax species, and 22 of non-targeted strains, including pathogens and non-pathogens. The AC158F/R primer set amplified a single band of the expected size from genomic DNA obtained from the A. avenae subsp. citrulli strains but not from the genomic DNA of other Acidovorax species, including that of other bacterial genera. Using this assay, it was possible to detect at least one genomeequivalents of the cloned amplified target DNA using 5 × 10(0) fg/μl of purified genomic DNA per reaction or using a calibrated cell suspension, with 6.5 colony-forming units per reaction being employed. In addition, this assay is a highly sensitive and reliable method for identifying and quantifying the target pathogen in infected samples that does not require DNA extraction. Therefore, we suggest that this approach is suitable for the rapid and efficient diagnosis of A. avenae subsp. citrulli contaminations of seed lots and plants.

  13. Development of surface plasmon resonance imaging for detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac) using specific monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttharugsa, Chokchai; Wangkam, Thidarat; Huangkamhang, Nongluck; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Himananto, Orawan; Sutapun, Boonsong; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2011-01-15

    An immunosensor based on surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) using a specific monoclonal antibody 11E5 (MAb 11E5) was developed for the detection of the seed-borne bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), which causes fruit blotch in watermelons and cantaloupes, and compared to the conventional ELISA technique. The 1:40 mixed self-assembled monolayer (mixed SAM) surface was used for the immobilized MAb 11E5 on sensor surface for the detection of Aac. Both whole cells and broken cells of Aac were tested by using direct and sandwich detection assay. The limit of detection (LOD) of Aac using the SPR imaging technique and a direct detection assay was 10(6)cfu/ml and a subsequent amplification of the SPR signal using a polyclonal antibody (PAb) lowered the LOD to 5×10(5) cfu/ml. The LOD for the ELISA technique was 5×10(4) cfu/ml for the detection of Aac, which was slightly better than that for the SPR technique. However, the sensor surface based on SPR imaging offered a major advantage in terms of surface regeneration, allowing at least five cycles with a shorter time assay, multi-channel analysis with an application on multiplex detection, and an ease of the surface usage for the detection of Aac in the naturally infected plant. The surface was tested against the naturally infected sample and showed good selectivity toward the Aac bacteria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous detection of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Didymella bryoniae in cucurbit seedlots using magnetic capture hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Y; Fessehaie, A; Ling, K S; Wechter, W P; Keinath, A P; Walcott, R R

    2009-06-01

    To improve the simultaneous detection of two pathogens in cucurbit seed, a combination of magnetic capture hybridization (MCH) and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Single-stranded DNA hybridization capture probes targeting DNA of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch, and Didymella bryoniae, causal agent of gummy stem blight, were covalently attached to magnetic particles and used to selectively concentrate template DNA from cucurbit seed samples. Sequestered template DNAs were subsequently amplified by multiplex real-time PCR using pathogen-specific TaqMan PCR assays. The MCH multiplex real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold of A. avenae subsp. citrulli at 10 CFU/ml and D. bryoniae at 10(5) conidia/ml in mixtures of pure cultures of the two pathogens, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the direct real-time PCR assays for the two pathogens separately. Although the direct real-time PCR assay displayed a detection threshold for A. avenae subsp. citrulli DNA of 100 fg/microl in 25% (1/4 samples) of the samples assayed, MCH real-time PCR demonstrated 100% detection frequency (4/4 samples) at the same DNA concentration. MCH did not improve detection sensitivity for D. bryoniae relative to direct real-time PCR using conidial suspensions or seed washes from D. bryoniae-infested cucurbit seed. However, MCH real-time PCR facilitated detection of both target pathogens in watermelon and melon seed samples (n = 5,000 seeds/sample) in which 0.02% of the seed were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli and 0.02% were infested with D. bryoniae.

  15. A new species ofPhrynopus(Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Edgar; von May, Rudolf; Moravec, Jiří; Cusi, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna) of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru) and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus . Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2-35.2 mm in males (n = 6), and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis . For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorum , P. miroslawae , P. tautzorum , and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

  16. Revision of the jawfish genus Lonchopisthus with description of a new Atlantic species (Teleostei: Opistognathidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Synonymies, diagnoses, descriptions, illustrations, an identification key, and meristic frequency tables are provided for all species of Lonchopisthus. Most of the skeletal anatomy of L. higmani is also illustrated. A new jawfish, Lonchopisthus ancistrus n. sp., is described from the Gulf of Mexico and off Honduras based on 21 specimens 41–89 mm SL. The new species differs from other congeners by the following combination of characters: the posterior end of the maxilla strongly hooked; the membrane connecting the maxilla and premaxilla and the inner membrane covering the posterior part of the dentary pale; segmented dorsal-fin rays 11–13, with unbranched rays 2–5; longitudinal body-scale rows 33–39; and very long pelvic fins, 39.4–75.3% SL. Lonchopisthus lemur (and its synonym L. meadi) shares most characters with L. ancistrus, but differs in having shorter pelvic fins, 19.2–29.9% SL; fewer longitudinal body-scale rows, 26–33; and 5 infraorbitals (vs. 4). Both are relatively deep-water species, occurring from 100 m to at least 375 m (vs. 3–139 m in the other species). Lonchopisthus micrognathus is unique in having no branched caudal-fin rays at any size and the middle caudal-fin rays with free tips that may be used to maintain tactile contact with the substrate while hovering over its burrow. The western Atlantic Lonchopisthus higmani and eastern Pacific L. sinuscalifornicus are sister species that differ from the other Atlantic species in having the posterior end of the maxilla with a notch instead of a strong hook, the opercle with a large dark blotch, and one supraneural (vs. no supraneural).

  17. Three new species of Gladiolus (Iridaceae from South Africa, a major range extension for G. rubellus and taxonomic notes for the genus in southern and tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Gladiolus L. are described from South Africa.  G. dolichosiphon is the second known member of series Blandus from the mountains of the Little Karoo in Western Cape, and is distinguished from other members of the long tubed, pink-flowered G. carneus complex by its 5 or 6 linear leaves, creamy pink to salmon flowers with a tube 30-50 mm long and longer than the dorsal tepal, and its late summer flowering. G. karooicus from the Klein Roggeveld and the northern foothills of the Witteberg, is a spring-flowering species allied to G. permeabilis but has bright, canary-yellow flowers with the lower part of the lower tepals involute and conspicuously auriculate.  G. reginae is an edaphic endemic of the Sekhuk- huneland Centre of Floristic Endemism in Mpumalanga, and flowers in autumn. It is evidently a glabrous member of section Densiflorus series Scabridus, distinguished by its long-tubed flowers, streaked with red on the lower tepals and blotched with red in the throat. Anomalously, however, it has the tubular inner bracts and large capsules diagnostic of section Ophiolyza series Oppositiflorus. A re-examination of the morphology suggests that series Scabridus is better placed in section Ophiolyza and a slightly revised classification of Gladiolus in southern Africa is proposed. We also propose the replacement name G. sulculatus for the Tanzanian species, G. sulcatus Goldblatt, a later homonym of G. sulcatus Lam. Finally, a recent sighting of what appears to be G. rubellus from northern Namibia constitutes the first record of this species in the country and a major range extension from its previous known occurrence in southeastern Botswana.

  18. Fast neutron radiography and tomography of wood as compared to photon based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Radel, Ch.; Zscherpel, U.; Meinel, D.; Weidemann, G.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Bucherl, Th.; Hasenstab, A.

    2007-01-01

    It is a well known fact that neutron radiation has absorption properties complementary to photons. While dense materials are capable to absorbing both, X- and gamma rays, they are apparently transparent to neutrons. Vice verse, organic materials containing large amounts of hydrogen are well penetrated by photons, but not by neutrons. This property of being easily absorbed by light elements such as hydrogen makes them predestined to imaging e.g. the distribution of water within a specimen. The content of moisture is of concern in wood, particularly in lumber or in girders, since this could make them prone to rot. If wet and dry wood differs in its overall content of hydrogen rather than in its matrix of hydrocarbons, then this should result in an observable contrast in neutron radiographs. Usually, best radiographic results are obtainable with thermal neutrons. However, since wood by itself constitutes a hydrogen containing material, it absorbs them considerably from a certain thickness on; i.e, they would hardly penetrate e.g. a girder. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to use fast neutrons with a more efficient penetration capability for this purpose. Digital imaging technologies are essential for radiographs of wooden specimens since structural details appear rather faintly in the original images requiring some processing to display them clearly. Particularly large samples like trunks or girders leave poor signal to noise ratios. The noise has been compensated successfully by dedicated filtering. In addition, neutron radiographs are blotched with white spots caused by unavoidable ubiquitous radiation while the beam is open. Specially developed algorithms have been applied to remove selectively these flaws within the image while leaving other fine structures untouched, i.e. avoiding the loss of filigree like features by smoothing. Samples will be shown subjected both to neutron and X-ray radiography, and tomography as well. The differences between the

  19. Impact of Climate Change on Five Major Crop Fungal Diseases: Building Climatic Indicators of Infection Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, M.; Caubel, J.; Bourgeois, G.; Huard, F.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.

    2013-12-01

    The climate change will modify the severity and occurrence of fungal crop diseases, as the bioclimatic niches of pathogens will shift according to temperature and rainfall patterns evolution. Therefore it becomes necessary to integrate fungal disease pressure assessment into evaluation tools of crop suitability at the regional level. The aim of this study was to build two climatic indicators, the Average Infection Efficiency (AIE) and the Number of Infection Days (NID), quantifying the potential effect of climate on infection intensity and occurrence. A simple and continuous function was developed to calculate them, which is easy to parameterize from experimental measurements, usable on large spatial scales and adaptable to various pathogens. The evolution of those climatic indicators was then studied for five major fungal crop diseases in Northern France, the phoma of oilseed rape, the potato late blight, the downy mildew of grape, the leaf rust of wheat and the net blotch of barley. These indicators were applied on a multisite analysis in Northern France. They were calculated during the crop cycle when the host plant is able to be infected, over the period between 1970 and 2100 for the balanced scenario of climate change A1B. In late spring and summer, higher temperatures combined with lower humidity reduced the risk of infection of potato late blight and downy mildew of grape. In autumn and spring the balance between warmer temperatures and lower humidity determined the risk of infection on oilseed rape and cereals: increased risk in late autumn and early spring, and decreased risk in early autumn and mid-spring when low humidity becomes limiting. This statement highlighted the need for using between year scale for a relevant analysis of climate change impact on infection risk. The indicators we developed are thus useful for land management at regional scale and medium term, in particular for stakeholders who need decision support tools through which they could

  20. Emaravirus-specific degenerate PCR primers allowed the identification of partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequences of Maize red stripe virus and Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Whitfield, Anna; Sharma, Mamta; Digiaro, Michele

    2013-03-01

    Emaravirus is a recently established viral genus that includes two approved virus species: European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV) and Fig mosaic virus (FMV). Other described but unclassified viruses appear to share biological characteristics similar to emaraviruses, including segmented, negative-single stranded RNA genomes with enveloped virions approximately 80-200nm in diameter. Sequence analysis of emaravirus genomes revealed the presence of conserved amino acid sequences in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp) denoted as pre-motif A, motifs A and C. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were developed to these conserved sequences and were shown to amplify in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) DNA fragments of 276bp and 360bp in size. These primers efficiently detected emaraviruses with known sequences available in the database (FMV and EMARaV); they also detected viruses with limited sequence information such as Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV) and Maize red stripe virus (MRSV). The degenerate primers designed on pre-motif A and motif A sequences successfully amplified the four species used as positive controls (276bp), whereas those of motifs A and C failed to detect only MRSV. The amino acid sequences obtained from PPSMV and MRSV shared the highest identity with those of two other tentative species of the Emaravirus genus, Rose rosette virus (RRV) (69%) and Redbud yellow ringspot virus (RYRV) (60%), respectively. The phylogenetic tree constructed with 92 amino acid-long portions of polypeptide putatively encoded by RNA1 of definitive and tentative emaravirus species clustered PPSMV and MRSV in two separate clades close to RRV and Raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV), respectively. The newly developed degenerate primers have proved their efficacy in amplifying new emaravirus-specific sequences; accordingly, they could be useful in identifying new emaravirus-like species in nature. Copyright © 2012

  1. Detection of Mycosphaerella graminicola in Wheat Leaves by a Microsatellite Dinucleotide Specific-Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph-Alexander Verreet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of infection is very important for efficient management of Mycosphaerella graminicola leaf blotch. To monitor and quantify the occurrence of this fungus during the growing season, a diagnostic method based on real-time PCR was developed. Standard and real-time PCR assays were developed using SYBR Green chemistry to quantify M. graminicola in vitro or in wheat samples. Microsatellite dinucleotide specific-primers were designed based on microsatellite repeats of sequences present in the genome of M. graminicola. Specificity was checked by analyzing DNA of 55 M. graminicola isolates obtained from different geographical origins. The method appears to be highly specific for detecting M. graminicola; no fluorescent signals were observed from 14 other closely related taxa. Primer (CT 7 G amplified a specific amplicon of 570 bp from all M. graminicola isolates. The primers did not amplify DNA extracted from 14 other fungal species. The approximate melting temperature (Tm of the (CT 7 G primer was 84.2 °C. The detection limit of the real-time PCR assay with the primer sets (CT 7 G is 10 fg/25 µL, as compared to 10 pg/25 µL using conventional PCR technology. From symptomless leaves, a PCR fragment could be generated two days after inoculation. Both conventional and real-time PCR could successfully detect the fungus from artificially inoculated wheat leaves. However, real-time PCR appeared much more sensitive than conventional PCR. The developed quantitative real-time PCR method proved to be rapid, sensitive, specific, cost-effective and reliable for the identification and quantification of M. graminicola in wheat.

  2. A new Liopropoma sea bass (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Liopropomini) from deep reefs off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, with comments on depth distributions of western Atlantic liopropomins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carole C.; Robertson, D. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Collecting reef-fish specimens using a manned submersible diving to 300 m off Curaçao, southern Caribbean, is resulting in the discovery of numerous new fish species. The new Liopropoma sea bass described here differs from other western Atlantic members of the genus in having VIII, 13 dorsal-fin rays; a moderately indented dorsal-fin margin; a yellow-orange stripe along the entire upper lip; a series of approximately 13 white, chevron-shaped markings on the ventral portion of the trunk; and a reddish-black blotch on the tip of the lower caudal-fin lobe. The new species, with predominantly yellow body and fins, closely resembles the other two “golden basses” found together with it at Curaçao: L. aberransand L. olneyi. It also shares morphological features with the other western Atlantic liopropomin genus,Bathyanthias. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins, includingBathyanthias, are monophyletic with respect to Indo-Pacific Liopropoma, and that Bathyanthias is nested within Liopropoma, indicating a need for further study of the generic limits of Liopropoma. The phylogenetic data also suggest that western Atlantic liopropomins comprise three monophyletic clades that have overlapping depth distributions but different depth maxima (3–135 m, 30–150 m, 133–411 m). The new species has the deepest depth range (182–241 m) of any known western Atlantic Liopropomaspecies. Both allopatric and depth-mediated ecological speciation may have contributed to the evolution of western Atlantic Liopropomini.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  4. Parapercis nigrodorsalis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), a new species of sandperch from northern New Zealand and the Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea and remarks on P. binivirgata (Waite, 1904).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Struthers, Carl D; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2014-08-26

    A new species of pinguipedid fish, Parapercis nigrodorsalis, is described from 17 specimens collected off the North Island of New Zealand and Wanganella Bank, Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea, in depths of 56-280 m. The species has also been photographed underwater off the Poor Knights Islands Reserve and Burgess Island, Mokohinau Group, in New Zealand. It is most similar to Parapercis binivirgata (Waite, 1904) in morphology, coloration and meristic values, but is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays V, 23, anal-fin rays I, 19, lateral-line scales 57-63, vomer with 1-2 irregular rows of robust conical teeth, palatines with 1-2 rows of small teeth, angle of subopercle smooth, 10 abdominal and 22 caudal vertebrae, and coloration, including seven broad reddish-brown bands on the upper body between the spinous dorsal-fin and the caudal peduncle, most bands bifurcated into close-set double bars with black smudge-like blotches below, and membrane of the spinous dorsal fin black. Comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO 1) genetic marker utilised in DNA barcoding produced a genetic divergence of 5.38% and 7.63% between the new species and its two closest sampled congeners. The holotype of P. binivirgata is identified from two specimens previously regarded as syntypes, some revisions are made to meristic data in the original description of the latter, and a detailed description of the revised geographic range of P. binivirgata is provided.  

  5. Characterization of New Isolates of Apricot vein clearing-associated virus and of a New Prunus-Infecting Virus: Evidence for Recombination as a Driving Force in Betaflexiviridae Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Marais

    Full Text Available Double stranded RNAs from Prunus samples gathered from various surveys were analyzed by a deep-sequencing approach. Contig annotations revealed the presence of a potential new viral species in an Azerbaijani almond tree (Prunus amygdalus and its genome sequence was completed. Its genomic organization is similar to that of the recently described Apricot vein clearing associated virus (AVCaV for which two new isolates were also characterized, in a similar fashion, from two Japanese plums (Prunus salicina from a French germplasm collection. The amino acid identity values between the four proteins encoded by the genome of the new virus have identity levels with those of AVCaV which fall clearly outside the species demarcation criteria. The new virus should therefore be considered as a new species for which the name of Caucasus prunus virus (CPrV has been proposed. Phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide comparisons suggested that together with AVCaV, CPrV could define a new genus (proposed name: Prunevirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. A molecular test targeting both members of the new genus was developed, allowing the detection of additional AVCaV isolates, and therefore extending the known geographical distribution and the host range of AVCaV. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees reconstructed with the amino acid sequences of replicase, movement and coat proteins of representative Betaflexiviridae members suggest that Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV, type member of the genus Citrivirus may have evolved from a recombination event involving a Prunevirus, further highlighting the importance of recombination as a driving force in Betaflexiviridae evolution. The sequences reported in the present manuscript have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KM507061-KM504070.

  6. A new genus of Anostomidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes): Diversity, phylogeny and biogeography based on cytogenetic, molecular and morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jorge L; Birindelli, José L O; Galetti, Pedro M

    2017-02-01

    A new genus of Anostomidae (Characiformes) is described to include ten valid extant species previously classified in Leporinus or Hypomasticus and distributed throughout most major river basins in South America: L. brinco, L. conirostris, L. elongatus, H. garmani, L. macrocephalus, L. muyscorum, L. obtusidens, L. piavussu, L. reinhardti, and L. trifasciatus. The monophyly of Megaleporinus is well-supported in a phylogenetic analysis based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, as well as its sister group relationship to Abramites. Megaleporinus is diagnosed by having the exclusive combination of three unicuspid teeth on each premaxillary and dentary bone and a color pattern composed of one to four dark midlateral blotches. Additional distinguishing features and possible synapomorphies include a unique ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system confirmed for six congeners and a drumming apparatus wherein the first rib is elongated and associated with hypertrophied intercostal muscles, which was confirmed for three congeners as exclusive to mature males. Furthermore, our study identified at least four undescribed cryptic species, emphasizing the need for further taxonomic work and genetic analyses. A time-calibrated phylogenetic and biogeographical analysis of the new genus suggests that speciation in the proto-Amazon-Orinoco lineage was primarily driven by paleogeographic processes, such as the formation of the Orinoco and Tocantins basins. Dispersal and diversification of the genus in coastal basins draining the Eastern Brazilian Shield appears to have been facilitated by connections between paleo-basins during low sea level periods and headwater captures between coastal and inland watersheds. The present contribution demonstrates the importance of integrating data from morphology, DNA sequences and cytogenetics to advance the taxonomy and systematics of any complex species group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

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    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  8. A new species of limestone karst inhabiting forest frog, genus Platymantis (Amphibia: Anura: Ceratobatrachidae: subgenus Lupacolus) from southern Luzon Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; De Layola, Louise Abigail; Lorenzo, Antonio; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2015-11-25

    We describe a new species of limestone karst dwelling forest frog of the genus Platymantis from the Quezon Protected Landscape in southeastern Luzon Island, Philippines. We assign Platymantis quezoni, sp. nov., to the diverse assemblage of terrestrial species in the Platymantis dorsalis Group, subgenus Lupacolus on the basis of its body size and proportions, only slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, and its terrestrial microhabitat. The new species is distinguished from these and all other Philippine congeners by features of its external morphology, its restriction to a distinctive limestone karst microhabitat, and its advertisement call, which is unique among frogs of the family Ceratobatrachidae. Several distinguishing morphological characters include its moderate body size (22.1-33.9 mm SVL for 16 adult males and 32.4-39.7 mm SVL for five adult females), slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, smooth skin with limited dermal tuberculation, and a dorsal color pattern of mottled tan to dark brown with black blotches. The new species is the sixth Philippine Platymantis known to occur exclusively on limestone karst substrates (previously known karst-obligate species include: P. bayani, P. biak, P. insulatus, P. paengi, and P. speleaus). Recently accelerated discovery of limestone karst anurans across the Philippines suggests that numerous additional species may await discovery on the hundreds of scattered karst formations throughout the archipelago. This possibility suggests that a major conservation priority in coming years will be to study, characterize, describe, and preserve the endemic species supported by this patchy, unique and imperiled type of forest ecosystem in the Philippines.

  9. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Truter, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e.g. Alternaria porri, A. solani and A. tomatophila). We constructed a multi-gene phylogeny on parts of the ITS, GAPDH, RPB2, TEF1 and Alt a 1 gene regions, which, supplemented with morphological and cultural studies, forms the basis for species recognition in sect. Porri. Our data reveal 63 species, of which 10 are newly described in sect. Porri, and 27 species names are synonymised. The three known Alternaria pathogens causing early blight on tomato all cluster in one clade, and are synonymised under the older name, A. linariae. Alternaria protenta, a species formerly only known as pathogen on Helianthus annuus, is also reported to cause early blight of potato, together with A. solani and A. grandis. Two clades with isolates causing purple blotch of onion are confirmed as A. allii and A. porri, but the two species cannot adequately be distinguished based on the number of beaks and branches as suggested previously. This is also found among the pathogens of Passifloraceae, which are reduced from four to three species. In addition to the known pathogen of sweet potato, A. bataticola, three more species are delineated of which two are newly described. A new Alternaria section is also described, comprising two large-spored Alternaria species with concatenate conidia. PMID:25492985

  10. Gamma-ray induced mutation breeding in tree fruit crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    In many vegetatively propagated crops and tree fruit crops, spontaneous mutations have played an important role in the development of cultivars. Thus, induced mutation breeding has been thought to be a promising way to improve commercially important cultivars. At the Institute of Radiation Breeding (IRB), studies on induced mutation breeding of temperate zone fruit trees using gamma-rays have been performed since 1962. Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most serious diseases of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia NAKAI var. culta NAKAI) in Japan. It is known that some Japanese pear cultivars are completely resistant to the disease. The pathogenic fungi produces host-specific toxins (named AK-toxin) (Tanaka 1993, Otani et al. 1973). The susceptibility of Japanese pear is controlled by a single dominant gene (Kozaki 1973). To improve the Japanese pear cultivar 'Nijisseiki', which is highly susceptible to black spot disease, young grafted plants of 'Nijisseiki' have been irradiated chronically in the Gamma Field of the IRB since 1962. In 1981, one twig of a tree planted at a distance of 53 m from the 60 Co source with an exposure rate of 0.138 Gy/day (20hr-irradiation) was selected as the first resistant mutant. It was designated as cultivar 'Gold Nijisseiki' and released in 1990. A selection method for mutants resistant to black spot disease using the pathogen produced toxin and pear leaf disks was established. It is a simple and stable selection method. Up to the present, three mutant cultivars resistant to black spot disease have been bred at the IRB by chronic and acute gamma-ray irradiation. They showed intermediate resistance compared with the completely resitan cultivar 'Choujuurou' and highly susceptible cultivar 'Nijisseiki'. We obtained some apple mutants resistant to alternaria leaf blotch disease using toxin and leaf disks and are also attempting to obtain mutant resistant to some disease in other temperate

  11. Defining the predicted protein secretome of the fungal wheat leaf pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.

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    Alexandre Morais do Amaral

    Full Text Available The Dothideomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola is the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch, a devastating disease of wheat leaves that causes dramatic decreases in yield. Infection involves an initial extended period of symptomless intercellular colonisation prior to the development of visible necrotic disease lesions. Previous functional genomics and gene expression profiling studies have implicated the production of secreted virulence effector proteins as key facilitators of the initial symptomless growth phase. In order to identify additional candidate virulence effectors, we re-analysed and catalogued the predicted protein secretome of M. graminicola isolate IPO323, which is currently regarded as the reference strain for this species. We combined several bioinformatic approaches in order to increase the probability of identifying truly secreted proteins with either a predicted enzymatic function or an as yet unknown function. An initial secretome of 970 proteins was predicted, whilst further stringent selection criteria predicted 492 proteins. Of these, 321 possess some functional annotation, the composition of which may reflect the strictly intercellular growth habit of this pathogen, leaving 171 with no functional annotation. This analysis identified a protein family encoding secreted peroxidases/chloroperoxidases (PF01328 which is expanded within all members of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. Further analyses were done on the non-annotated proteins for size and cysteine content (effector protein hallmarks, and then by studying the distribution of homologues in 17 other sequenced Dothideomycete fungi within an overall total of 91 predicted proteomes from fungal, oomycete and nematode species. This detailed M. graminicola secretome analysis provides the basis for further functional and comparative genomics studies.

  12. Location of Acidovorax citrulli in infested watermelon seeds is influenced by the pathway of bacterial invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, B; Avci, U; Hahn, M G; Walcott, R R

    2012-05-01

    Watermelon seeds can become infested by Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits via penetration of the ovary pericarp or by invasion of the pistil. This study investigated the effect of these invasion pathways on A. citrulli localization in seeds. Seed samples (n = 20 or 50 seeds/lot) from pistil- and pericarp-inoculated lots were dissected into testa, perisperm-endosperm (PE) layer, and embryo tissues and tested for A. citrulli by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by plating on semiselective media. Less than 8% of the testa samples were A. citrulli-positive regardless of the method of seed inoculation. Additionally, the difference in percentages of contaminated testae between the two seed lot types was not significant (P = 0.64). The percentage of A. citrulli-positive PE layer samples as determined by real-time PCR assay was significantly greater for seeds from pistil-inoculated lots (97%) than for seeds from pericarp-inoculated lots (80.3%). The mean percentage of A. citrulli-positive embryo samples was significantly greater for seeds from pistil-inoculated lots (94%) than for seeds from pericarp-inoculated lots (≈8.8%) (P = 0.0001). Removal of PE layers and testae resulted in a significant reduction in BFB seed-to-seedling transmission percentage for seeds from pericarp-inoculated lots (14.8%) relative to those from pistil-inoculated lots (72%). Additionally, using immunofluorescence microscopy, A. citrulli cells were observed in the PE layers and the cotyledons of pistil-inoculated seeds but only in the PE layers of pericarp-inoculated seeds. These results suggest that pericarp invasion results in superficial contamination of the testae and PE layers while pistil invasion results in the deposition of A. citrulli in seed embryos.

  13. Características e desempenho agronômico da cultivar de trigo BRS 229 no Paraná Characteristics and agronomic performance of wheat cultivar BRS 229 in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Dionisio Brunetta

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar BRS 229, indicada para o Paraná, apresenta glúten médio a forte, e é considerada apropriada para fazer pão. É moderadamente resistente à brusone, às manchas marrom e bronzeada e ao vírus do nanismo amarelo da cevada, além de moderadamente suscetível à ferrugem da folha, ao oídio, ao vírus do mosaico e à giberela. Apresenta ciclo médio, moderada resistência ao acamamento e tolerância ao alumínio tóxico. No Paraná, na média de cinco anos, o rendimento de grãos foi de 4.633 kg ha-1, na região 6 (norte; 3.233 kg ha-1, na região 7 (centro-oeste e oeste; e 4.349 kg ha-1, na região 8 (sul.The wheat cultivar BRS 229, released for the State of Paraná, has a gluten strength suitable for baking. The cultivar is moderately resistant to wheat blast and spot blotch, and it is also moderately susceptible to leaf rust, powdery mildew, wheat soilborne mosaic and scab. The cultivar belongs to the medium maturity group, presents moderate resistance to lodging and tolerance to aluminum toxicity. In the State of Paraná, in five years of yield testing, BRS 229 presented a grain yield average of 4,633 kg ha-1, in the region 6 (north; 3,233 kg ha-1, in the region 7 (west-central and west; and 4,349 kg ha-1, in the region 8 (south.

  14. Symbiodinium associations with diseased and healthy scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, A. M. S.; Brandt, M. E.; Smith, T. B.; Thornhill, D. J.; Baker, A. C.

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent advances in identifying the causative agents of disease in corals and understanding the impact of epizootics on reef communities, little is known regarding the interactions among diseases, corals, and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts ( Symbiodinium spp.). Since the genotypes of both corals and their resident Symbiodinium contribute to colony-level phenotypes, such as thermotolerance, symbiont genotypes might also contribute to the resistance or susceptibility of coral colonies to disease. To explore this, Symbiodinium were identified using the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of ribosomal DNA from diseased and healthy tissues within individual coral colonies infected with black band disease (BB), dark spot syndrome (DSS), white plague disease (WP), or yellow blotch disease (YB) in the Florida Keys (USA) and the US Virgin Islands. Most of the diseased colonies sampled contained B1, B5a, or C1 (depending on host species), while apparently healthy colonies of the same coral species frequently hosted these types and/or additional symbiont diversity. No potentially “parasitic” Symbiodinium types, uniquely associated with diseased coral tissue, were detected. Within most individual colonies, the same dominant Symbiodinium type was detected in diseased and visually healthy tissues. These data indicate that specific Symbiodinium types are not correlated with the infected tissues of diseased colonies and that DSS and WP onset do not trigger symbiont shuffling within infected tissues. However, few diseased colonies contained clade D symbionts suggesting a negative correlation between hosting Symbiodinium clade D and disease incidence in scleractinian corals. Understanding the influence of Symbiodinium diversity on colony phenotypes may play a critical role in predicting disease resistance and susceptibility in scleractinian corals.

  15. Two new species of Trimma (Pisces; Gobiidae) from Fiji, south-western Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Richard

    2017-05-24

    Two new species of Trimma are described from Fiji. Trimma bathum n. sp. lacks scales on the cheeks, opercle and predorsal midline, has 18-19 unbranched pectoral fin rays, an unbranched 5th pelvic fin ray that is 40-56% the length of the 4th ray, 17-18 gill rakers on the outer surface of the first gill arch, a U-shaped interorbital and a narrow slit-like postorbital trench, a low, median fleshy ridge extending half-way towards the orbit from the origin of the first dorsal fin, and, when freshly collected, a pink head and body with most body scales having an orange-brown spot or short bar at their centres. The species is currently known only from off Suva Harbour, Viti Levu, Fiji. Trimma finistrinum n. sp. has a bony interorbital equal to the pupil diameter, a fully scaled nape of 12-14 scales, a second dorsal spine that may reach posteriorly to the middle of the second dorsal fin, the papillae in the longitudinal row immediately below the eye either single or with two papillae in a vertical row, unbranched pectoral fin rays, usually a branched fifth pelvic-fin ray that is about half length of the fourth ray, and a large diffuse dark blotch on the posterior part of the caudal peduncle. A colour pattern of a brownish body with most body scales having golden- to greenish-yellow (pale in preservative) centres is unique among species of the genus. The species is currently recorded only from off the north and east coasts of Viti Levu, Fiji.

  16. A new species of Oochoristica (Cyclophyllidea: Linstowiidae) from non-native Mediterranean geckos, Hemidactylus turcicus (Sauria: Gekkonidae), from Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R

    2017-06-01

    A new species of cyclophyllidean tapeworm, Oochoristica harschi sp. nov. is described from 2 of 18 (11%) non-native Mediterranean geckos (Hemidactylus turcicus) collected in June 2016 from Tom Green County, Texas, USA The new species has few characteristics in common with 17 species of Oochoristica previously described from Nearctic reptiles. Of this group, O. harschi is most similar to O. macallisteri Bursey and Goldberg, 1996 from the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana from Arizona and California, USA, in number of testes, 14-20 vs. 12-20. However, O. harschi has oval suckers and a long neck compared to the circular suckers and absent neck in O. macallisteri. On comparison with other species of Oochoristica, it was found O. chinensis Jensen, Schmidt and Kuntz, 1983 from the Sino-Japanese realm, O. iguanae Bursey and Goldberg, 1996 from the Neotropical realm, and O. maccoyi Bursey and Goldberg, 1966 from the Panamanian realm were most similar to the new species. However, O. harschi can be differentiated by possessing a much longer neck and a shorter cirrus pouch. It can be further differentiated from O. chinensis by possessing an ovoid vs. an irregular vitellarium, from O. iguanae by having a smaller strobilus (65 vs. 110 mm) as well as an ovoid vs. a triangular vitellarium, and from O. maccoyi by having significantly more proglottids (145 vs. 89) and a longer strobilus (65 vs. 20 mm). The new species is the fifth species of Oochoristica reported from non-native H. turcicus and the 18th species described from the Nearctic region.

  17. A new species of Phrynopus (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru

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    Edgar Lehr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus. Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2–35.2 mm in males (n = 6, and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis. For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorum, P. miroslawae, P. tautzorum, and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

  18. Using epidemiological principles to explain fungicide resistance management tactics: why do mixtures outperform alternations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderfield, James A; Lopez Ruiz, Fran; van den Bosch, Frank; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2018-01-29

    Whether fungicide resistance management is optimised by spraying chemicals with different modes of action as a mixture (i.e. simultaneously) or in alternation (i.e. sequentially) has been studied by experimenters and modellers for decades. However results have been inconclusive. We use previously-parameterised and validated mathematical models of wheat septoria leaf blotch and grapevine powdery mildew to test which tactic provides better resistance management, using the total yield before resistance causes disease control to become economically-ineffective ("lifetime yield") to measure effectiveness. We focus on tactics involving the combination of a low-risk and a high-risk fungicide, and the case in which resistance to the high-risk chemical is complete (i.e. in which there is no partial resistance). Lifetime yield is then optimised by spraying as much low-risk fungicide as is permitted, combined with slightly more high-risk fungicide than needed for acceptable initial disease control, applying these fungicides as a mixture. That mixture rather than alternation gives better performance is invariant to model parameterisation and structure, as well as the pathosystem in question. However if comparison focuses on other metrics, e.g. lifetime yield at full label dose, either mixture or alternation can be optimal. Our work shows how epidemiological principles can explain the evolution of fungicide resistance, and also highlights a theoretical framework to address the question of whether mixture or alternation provides better resistance management. It also demonstrates that precisely how spray tactics are compared must be given careful consideration.

  19. Identification of Pathogenicity-Related Genes in Biofilm-Defective Acidovorax citrulli by Transposon Tn5 Mutagenesis

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    Jinyan Luo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation is important for virulence of a large number of plant pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, some virulence genes have been found to be involved in the formation of biofilm in bacterial fruit blotch pathogen Acidovorax citrulli. However, some virulent strains of A. citrulli were unable to format biofilm, indicating the complexity between biofilm formation and virulence. In this study, virulence-related genes were identified in the biofilm-defective strain A1 of A. citrulli by using Tn5 insertion, pathogenicity test, and high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (hiTAIL-PCR. Results from this study indicated that 22 out of the obtained 301 mutants significantly decreased the virulence of strain A1 compared to the wild-type. Furthermore, sequence analysis indicated that the obtained 22 mutants were due to the insertion of Tn5 into eight genes, including Aave 4244 (cation diffusion facilitator family transporter, Aave 4286 (hypothetical protein, Aave 4189 (alpha/beta hydrolase fold, Aave 1911 (IMP dehydrogenase/GMP reductase domain, Aave 4383 (bacterial export proteins, family 1, Aave 4256 (Hsp70 protein, Aave 0003 (histidine kinase, DNA gyrase B, and HSP90-like ATPase, and Aave 2428 (pyridoxal-phosphate dependent enzyme. Furthermore, the growth of mutant Aave 2428 was unaffected and even increased by the change in incubation temperature, NaCl concentration and the pH of the LB broth, indicating that this gene may be directly involved in the bacterial virulence. Overall, the determination of the eight pathogenicity-related genes in strain A1 will be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of biofilm-defective A. citrulli.

  20. Teratosphaeria nubilosa, a serious leaf disease pathogen of Eucalyptus spp. in native and introduced areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gavin C; Crous, Pedro W; Carnegie, Angus J; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Teratosphaeria nubilosa is a serious leaf pathogen of several Eucalyptus spp. This review considers the taxonomic history, epidemiology, host associations and molecular biology of T. nubilosa. Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Class Dothideomycetes; Order Capnodiales; Family Teratosphaeriaceae; genus Teratosphaeria; species nubilosa. Pseudothecia hypophyllous, less so amphigenous, ascomata black, globose becoming erumpent, asci aparaphysate, fasciculate, bitunicate, obovoid to ellipsoid, straight or incurved, eight-spored, ascospores hyaline, non-guttulate, thin walled, straight to slightly curved, obovoid with obtuse ends, medially one-septate, slightly constricted at the median septum, tapering to both ends, ascospore germination type F, germinating from both ends, germ tubes growing parallel to the long axis of the spore with distortion of the primary ascospore cell. Teratosphaeria nubilosa is a primary pathogen of several Eucalyptus spp., including E. botryoides, E. bicostata, E. bridgesiana, E. cypellocarpa, E. dunnii, E. globulus ssp. bicostata, E. globulus ssp. globulus, E. globulus ssp. maidenii, E. globulus ssp. pseudoglobulus, E. grandis, E. gunnii, E. nitens, E. pilularis, E. quadrangulata, E. viminalis, E. grandis x E. resinifera and E. urophylla x E. globulus. Leaf spots predominantly occur on juvenile Eucalyptus foliage; however, T. nubilosa has also recently been found on mature Eucalyptus foliage. Leaf spots are amphigenous, varying in size from small spots that are round to irregular. Lesions enlarge and coalesce to form larger blotches over the leaf surface. Initial lesions appear as pale-green spots surrounded by purple margins and, once mature, are generally yellow to pale brown with dark-brown raised borders. Mycobank, http://www.mycobank.org; Mycosphaerella identification website, http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/mycosphaerella/BioloMICS.aspx.

  1. Cultivar architecture modulates spore dispersal by rain splash: A new perspective to reduce disease progression in cultivar mixtures.

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    Tiphaine Vidal

    Full Text Available Cultivar mixtures can be used to improve the sustainability of disease management within farming systems by growing cultivars that differ in their disease resistance level in the same field. The impact of canopy aerial architecture on rain-splash dispersal could amplify disease reduction within mixtures. We designed a controlled conditions experiment to study single splash-dispersal events and their consequences for disease. We quantified this impact through the spore interception capacities of the component cultivars of a mixture. Two wheat cultivars, differing in their aerial architecture (mainly leaf area density and resistance to Septoria tritici blotch, were used to constitute pure stands and mixtures with 75% of resistant plants that accounted for 80% of the canopy leaf area. Canopies composed of 3 rows of plants were exposed to standardized spore fluxes produced by splashing calibrated rain drops on a linear source of inoculum. Disease propagation was measured through spore fluxes and several disease indicators. Leaf susceptibility was higher for upper than for lower leaves. Dense canopies intercepted more spores and mainly limited horizontal spore transfer to the first two rows. The presence of the resistant and dense cultivar made the mixed canopy denser than the susceptible pure stand. No disease symptoms were observed on susceptible plants of the second and third rows in the cultivar mixture, suggesting that the number of spores intercepted by these plants was too low to cause disease symptoms. Both lesion area and disease conditional severity were significantly reduced on susceptible plants within mixtures on the first row beside the inoculum source. Those reductions on one single-splash dispersal event, should be amplified after several cycle over the full epidemic season. Control of splash-dispersed diseases within mixtures could therefore be improved by a careful choice of cultivars taking into consideration both resistance and

  2. Dos nuevas especies de Phrynopus(Anura: Leptodactylidae de los bosques nublados de Bolivia

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    Cidar Rodrigo Aguayo Vedia

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe dos nuevas especies de Phrynopus de la Ceja de monte Yungueña de Cochabamba, Bolivia, P. adenopleurus y P. iatamasi. Ambas especies son asignables al grupo peruanus y se diferencian de las otras cuatro especies que existen en el país por presentar el primer dedo más corto que el segundo, tener membrana basal y por sus colores y diseños dorsales y ventrales. La musculatura ha sido pocas veces descrita para especies de Phrynopus. Phrynopus adenopleurus, especie nueva, posee una inusual musculatura mandibular y del muslo, muy poco parecida a lo descrito para otras especies del género.We describe two new species of Phrynopus from cloud forests in Cochabamba, Bolivia. The new species are assigned to the P. peruanus group and are characterized by the presence of basal webbing, distinctive coloration, and by having the first finger shorter than the second. The first of these new species was collected near Montepunko in Parque Nacional Carrasco and is known from eight males and six females. Among its distinctive characteristics are round cream-colored glands on its flanks. A second species is known from one male and one female collected near "Zona de Aguirre" near the northwest border of the park. V and X-shaped blotches and a dorsum that is smooth except for dorsolateral and scapular folds characterize this species. Musculature has rarely been described for species of Phrynopus. The species from Montepunko has unusual gular and thigh musculature that is quite unlike other species of the genus.

  3. Sfp-type 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase is required for lysine synthesis, tolerance to oxidative stress and virulence in the plant pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yueqiang; Zhong, Shaobin

    2012-05-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are the major enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, which have diverse activities, including roles as pathogenicity/virulence factors in plant pathogenic fungi. These enzymes are activated by 4'-phosphopantetheinylation at the conserved serine residues, which is catalysed by 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase). PPTase is also required for primary metabolism (α-aminoadipate reductase, AAR). In the genome sequence of the cereal fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus, we identified a gene (PPT1) orthologous to the PPTase-encoding genes found in other filamentous ascomycetes. The deletion of PPT1 in C. sativus generated mutants (Δppt1) that were auxotrophic for lysine, unable to synthesize melanin, hypersensitive to oxidative stress and significantly reduced in virulence to barley cv. Bowman. To analyse the pleiotropic effects of PPT1, we also characterized deletion mutants for PKS1 (involved in melanin synthesis), AAR1 (for AAR) and NPS6 (involved in siderophore-mediated iron metabolism). The melanin-deficient strain (Δpks1) showed no differences in pathogenicity and virulence compared with the wild-type strain. Lysine-auxotrophic mutants (Δaar1) induced spot blotch symptoms, as produced by the wild-type strain, when inoculated on wounded barley leaves or when lysine was supplemented. The Δnps6 strain showed a slightly reduced virulence compared with the wild-type strain, but exhibited significantly higher virulence than the Δppt1 strain. Our results suggest that an unknown virulence factor, presumably synthesized by PKSs or NRPSs which are activated by PPTase, is directly responsible for high virulence of C. sativus on barley cv. Bowman. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2011 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  4. Métodos de preservação de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Preservation of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

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    Dário Venâncio de Araújo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, agente da mancha-aquosa, causa grandes prejuízos ao melão e outras cucurbitáceas no Brasil e no mundo. Os métodos dessecação em papel de filtro, repicagens periódicas, água esterilizada e folhas herborizadas foram testados para preservação de Aac1 e Aac1.12 durante 180 dias. Mensalmente, a viabilidade de Aac foi avaliada pelo crescimento em meio de cultura e a patogenicidade das culturas viáveis foi avaliada pela incidência e severidade da doença em plântulas de melão. A preservação em papel de filtro resultou em 100% de viabilidade dos isolados durante o período, enquanto que nos demais métodos houve perda de viabilidade no decorrer das avaliações. Os métodos de dessecação em papel de filtro e o de repicagens periódicas foram mais eficientes que a água esterilizada e folhas herborizadas na manutenção da patogenicidade dos isolados durante os 180 dias.The phytopathogenic bacteria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, agent of bacterial blotch, causes severe damages to melon and other cucurbits in Brazil and worlwide. The methods desiccation in filter paper, periodic transfer, sterile water and dried leaves were tested for preserving the strains Aac1 and Aac1.12 of this bacterium during 180 days. Evaluations of bacterial viability were performed monthly by growing strains on culture media. The pathogenicity of viable cultures was evaluated by disease incidence and severity on melon seedlings. The desiccation in filter paper maintained 100% viability of the strains during the period while using the other methods, viability was lost during evaluations. Desiccation in filter paper and periodic transfer were more efficient than sterile water and dried leaves in maintening strain pathogenicity during the time evaluated 180 days.

  5. Two new 'legumoviruses' (genus Begomovirus) naturally infecting soybean in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Kumar, P Lava; Mgbechi-Ezeri, J U; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2010-05-01

    Two new 'legumoviruses' (genus Begomovirus; family Geminiviridae) naturally infecting soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in Nigeria were molecularly characterized. Based on characteristic symptoms in soybean, the two viruses are provisionally designated as Soybean mild mottle virus (SbMMV) and Soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV). SbCBV has a bipartite genome, whereas SbMMV has only a DNA A component. The DNA A component of SbMMV is 2,768 nucleotides (nt) long and the DNA A and DNA B components of SbCBV are 2,708 and 2,647 nt long, respectively. In pairwise comparisons, the DNA A component of SbMMV and SbCBV showed 62% nt sequence identity, indicating that these two viruses are distinct. Whereas the DNA A of SbMMV contains two virion- and four complementary-sense open reading frames, that of SbCBV lacks the virus-sense AV2, a signature gene present in 'Old World' begomoviruses. A pairwise comparison with the corresponding nucleotide sequence of other begomoviruses in the databases indicated that SbCBV had a maximum of 74% identity with cowpea golden mosaic virus and SbMMV had a maximum of 65% identity with mungbean yellow mosaic India virus and kudzu mosaic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA A component of SbCBV and SbMMV together with those of other begomoviruses available in the databases showed clustering of the two viruses within the 'legumovirus' clade of the begomovirus phylogenetic tree. In addition, the DNA A and B components of SbCBV from Centrosema pubescens Benth were found to be identical to those from soybean, indicating that leguminous wild species are a potential alternative host for the virus. Since soybean is an introduced crop, the identification of two distinct begomoviruses naturally infecting soybean in Nigeria suggests the occurrence of 'legumoviruses' in plant species indigenous to Africa and underscores their potential threat to sustainable cultivation of soybean on the African continent.

  6. Morfología externa del desarrollo larvario de Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus (Pisces: Carangidae del sur del Golfo de México

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    César Flores Coto

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo larvario de Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus con especímenes capturados en el sur del Golfo de México. Los ejemplares presentaron tallas desde 1.87 mm hasta 16.43 mm. Los ejemplares más pequeños presentan una cresta supraoccipital aserrada que se distingue todavía en el espécimen de 5.7 mm de LP y desaparece en los de talla superior. El cuerpo es moderadamente alto en la preflexión y aumenta ligeramente durante el desarrollo. Las aletas dorsal y anal son visibles a partir del espécimen de 2.65 mm de LN; el número de espinas y radios está casi completo alrededor de los 9.0 mm LP. Las larvas de H. amblyrhynchus pueden reconocerse por una mancha de pigmentos en la punta del hocico, que está conformada, entre otros, por melanóforos en el palatino.Larval development of Hemicaranx amblyrhynchus is described from wild specimens (standard length SL: 1.8-16.4 mm caught in the southern Gulf of Mexico (N=25. A serrated occipital crest was present only in specimens smaller than 5.73 mm SL and a supraocular crest with a small spine in those between 4 and 5 mm. As in all larval carangids, the angle preopercle spine was conspicuous since the first stages. Supracleithral and posttemporal spines were present during flexion stage, and then disappeared in transformation stage. Body depth is moderate, increasing with development. The dorsal and anal fins start to be evident in the 2.65 mm NL specimen; total number of spines and soft rays are almost complete around 9.0 mm SL. The pelvic bud was observed in the 3.16 mm LP specimens. From the early stages, the larvae are very pigmented and could be recognized by a pigmentation blotch on the tip of nose, which is conformed by palatine melanophores among others. Larvae of H. amblyrhynchus occurred scarcely in the area; they were essentially recorded on the inner shelf, in surface waters, not deeper than 30 m. The present paper is the first larval record for the species in the southern Gulf

  7. Geoscience Data Puzzles: Developing Students' Ability to Make Meaning from Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Turrin, M.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most fundamental aspects of geoscience expertise is the ability to extract insights from observational earth data. Where an expert might see trends, patterns, processes, and candidate causal relationships, a novice could look at the same data representation and see dots, wiggles and blotches of color. The problem is compounded when the student was not personally involved in collecting the data or samples and thus has no experiential knowledge of the Earth setting that the data represent. In other words, the problem is especially severe when students tap into the vast archives of professionally-collected data that the geoscience community has worked so hard to make available for instructional use over the internet. Moreover, most high school and middle school teachers did not themselves learn Earth Science through analyzing data, and they may lack skills and/or confidence needed to scaffold students through the process of learning to interpret realistically-complex data sets. We have developed “Geoscience Data Puzzles” with the paired goals of (a) helping students learn about the earth from data, and (b) helping teachers learn to teach with data. Geoscience Data Puzzles are data-using activities that purposefully present a low barrier-to-entry for teachers and a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses authentic geoscience data, but the data are carefully pre-selected in order to illuminate a fundamental Earth process within tractable snippets of data. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" moments, when the connection between data and process comes clear in a rewarding burst of insight. Every Puzzle is accompanied by a Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) guide, which explicates the chain of reasoning by which the puzzle-solver can use the evidence provided by the data to construct scientific claims. Four types of reasoning are stressed: spatial reasoning, in which students make inferences from observations about location, orientation, shape

  8. A systematic revision of Tatia (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae: Centromochlinae

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    Luisa Maria Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available The auchenipterid catfish genus Tatia is revised. Twelve species are recognized including three described as new. Tatia is diagnosed by the hyomandibula elongated anterodorsally, the anal-fin base of adult males reduced in length, and the caudal peduncle laterally compressed and deep with a middorsal keel. Tatia aulopygia occurs in the Madeira river drainage and is distinguished by the reduced cranial fontanel in adults and male modified anal fin with middle rays reduced in length. Tatia boemia, known from the upper Uruguay river drainage, is distinguished by its unique color pattern with dark chromatophores on the sides of body. Tatia brunnea from river basins in Suriname and French Guiana and the Negro river drainage, Amazon basin, is recognized by its wide head and mouth and by the male modified anal fin with sharply pointed tip. Tatia dunni, from the upper Amazon basin, is recognized by its narrow head, long postcleithral process in some specimens, and body coloration with irregular blotches or stripes. Tatia galaxias, endemic to the Orinoco river basin, is distinguished by its large eye and short snout. Tatia gyrina, distributed in the upper and central Amazon basin and in northern Suriname, has a uniquely reduced mesethmoid, slightly protruding lower jaw, second nuchal plate with slightly concave lateral borders, third nuchal plate reduced, small prevomer, low number of ribs, low number of vertebrae and sexual dimorphism regarding intumescent male genital papilla. Tatia intermedia, recorded from central and lower Amazon basin, Tocantins river, and coastal drainages in Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, and eastern Pará State, Brazil, is distinguished by the short postcleithral process, small eye and long snout. Tatia neivai, from the upper Paraná river , Paraguay river and upper Paraíba do Sul river basin, is distinguished by its unique vertebral count and caudal-fin coloration consisting of transverse dark bars. Tatia strigata, from

  9. Quantifying the non-fungicidal effects of foliar applications of fluxapyroxad (Xemium) on stomatal conductance, water use efficiency and yield in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Grimmer, M; Waterhouse, S; Paveley, N

    2013-01-01

    The active ingredient fluxapyroxad belongs to the chemical group of carboxamides and is a new generation succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) in complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It has strong efficacy against the key foliar diseases of winter wheat in the UK: Septoria leaf blotch, yellow stripe rust and brown rust. Fluxapyroxad is marketed under the brand name of Xemium, was launched in 2012 and is available in the UK as a solo product (Imtrex) for co-application with triazoles, in co-formulation with epoxiconazole (Adexar), or in a three way formulation with epoxiconazole and pyraclostrobin (Ceriax). The objective of the study was to quantify the direct effects of Xemium on stomatal conductance and yield, mediated through stimulation of host physiology. Three field experiments and two controlled environment (CE) experiments were conducted across three cropping seasons (2010-2012) in Herefordshire and Cambridge, in the UK. Xemium was evaluated against boscalid, pyraclostrobin (F500), epoxiconazole and an untreated control. Across site-seasons, disease severity was significantly reduced when Xemium was applied as a foliar spray. Healthy canopy size and duration was increased by Xemium and canopy greening effects were seen shortly after application. Stomatal conductance was found to be consistently lower in Xemium treated plants but reduced stomatal opening was not found to be detrimental to yield in these experiments. Large, beneficial effects of Xemium on water use efficiency were found at the canopy level and this finding was supported by measurements of instantaneous water use efficiency at the leaf level. Effects on season long water use efficiency were largely driven by improvements in yield for a given amount of water uptake. Foliar applications of Xemium reduced the water required to produce 1.0 t grain per hectare by 82,330 L(82 t) when compared with an untreated crop. Yield was significantly higher in Xemium treatments and this was

  10. A new species of Atractus (Serpentes: Dipsadidae from Serra do Cipó, Espinhaço Range, Southeastern Brazil, with proposition of a new species group to the genus

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    Paulo Passos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Atractus from Serra do Cipó, at the southeastern versant of Serra do Espinhaço, an inland mountain range nearly parallel to the Brazilian Atlantic coast. The new species is morphologically similar to A. paraguayensis and A. potschi with which it shares: 15 dorsal scale rows; white occipital region in juvenile specimens; dorsal ground color reddish pink to red (in life with alternate black transversal spots, blotches or transversal bands; seven upper and lower labial scales; ventrals and subcaudals creamish white; hemipenis slightly bilobed, semicapitate and semicalyculate. The new species differs from both taxa mainly on the basis of exclusive coloration characters (number and shape of transversal bands and hemipenial morphology (median face of the lobes without ornamentation, besides punctual meristic (number of ventral scales and maxillary teeth and morphometric (adult snout-vent length differences. Finally, we provide a discussion regarding the potential affinities of the new species and we redefine some Atractus species groups in order to better accommodate species sharing unique combinations of morphological characters.Descrevemos uma nova espécie de Atractus da Serra do Cipó, na vertente sudeste da Serra do Espinhaço, uma cadeia montanhosa continental aproximadamente paralela à costa Atlântica brasileira. A nova espécie é morfologicamente similar a A. paraguayensis e A. potschi com as quais compartilha: 15 séries de escamas dorsais; região occipital branca em espécimes jovens; coloração dorsal de fundo variando de rosa avermelhado a vermelho (em vida com pontuações, manchas e/ou bandas transversais pretas; sete supralabiais e infralabiais; ventrais e subcaudais creme esbranquiçado; hemipênis levemente bilobado, semicapitulado e semicaliculado. A nova espécie difere de ambos os táxons principalmente a partir de caracteres exclusivos de coloração (número e forma das bandas transversais, da

  11. A review of the Pseudobarbus afer (Peters, 1864 species complex (Teleostei, Cyprinidae in the eastern Cape Fold Ecoregion of South Africa

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    Albert Chakona

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eastern Cape redfin, Pseudobarbus afer, has long been considered to be a single widespread and variable species occurring in multiple isolated river systems in the Cape Fold Ecoregion (CFE at the southern tip of Africa. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequence data of individuals from populations currently assigned to P. afer across the species’ distribution range revealed existence of four deeply divergent taxonomic units: (i the Mandela lineage confined to the Sundays, Swartkops and Baakens river systems, (ii the Krom lineage endemic to the Krom River system, (iii the St Francis lineage occurring in the Gamtoos and adjacent river systems, and (iv the Forest lineage occurring in several coastal river systems from the Tsitsikamma to the Klein Brak River system. The Forest lineage is closely related to P. phlegethon from the Olifants River system on the west coast of South Africa, suggesting that it does not belong to P. afer s.l. Herein we focus on the three lineages within the P. afer s.l. complex and provide new diagnosis for P. afer s.s (Mandela lineage, revalidate P. senticeps (Krom lineage as a distinct species, and describe a new species P. swartzi (St Francis lineage. The three species exhibit subtle differences, which explains why they were previously considered to represent a single variable and widespread species. Pseudobarbus senticeps differs from both P. afer and P. swartzi by having fewer (i.e. larger scales (25–33, mode 29 lateral line scale series; 10–12, mode 11 circumpeduncular scales and presence of a lateral stripe which terminates in a conspicuous triangular blotch at the base of the caudal fin. Long barbels which reach or surpass the vertical through the posterior edge of the eye further separate P. senticeps from P. afer s.s. which possesses simple short barbels which do not reach the vertical through the posterior margin of the eye. Pseudobarbus afer s.s differs from P. swartzi sp. n. by possession

  12. Embryo Localization Enhances the Survival of Acidovorax citrulli in Watermelon Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bhabesh; Schneider, Raymond W; Robertson, Clark L; Walcott, Ronald R

    2016-04-01

    Acidovorax citrulli, the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits has been observed to survive for >34 years in stored melon and watermelon seeds. To better understand this remarkable longevity, we investigated the bacterium's tolerance to desiccation and the effect of bacterial localization in different watermelon seed tissues on its survival. We compared the ability of A. citrulli to tolerate desiccation on filter paper discs and on host (watermelon) and nonhost (cabbage, corn and tomato) seeds to two seedborne (Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii) and one soilborne (Ralstonia solanacearum) plant-pathogenic bacteria. A. citrulli survival on dry filter paper (>12 weeks) was similar to that of X. campestris pv. campestris but longer than P. stewartii subsp. stewartii. Ralstonia solanacearum survived longer than all other bacteria tested. On all seeds tested, A. citrulli and X. campestris pv. campestris populations declined by 5 orders of magnitude after 12 weeks of incubation at 4°C and 50% relative humidity, while R. solanacearum populations declined by 3 orders. P. stewartii subsp. stewartii was not recovered after 12 weeks of incubation. To determine the effect of tissue localization on bacterial survival, watermelon seeds infested with A. citrulli by flower stigma inoculation (resulting in bacterial localization in the embryo/endosperm) or by ovary pericarp inoculations (resulting in bacterial localization under the testa) were treated with peroxyacetic acid or chlorine (Cl2) gas. Following these treatments, a significantly higher reduction in BFB seed-to-seedling transmission was observed for seeds generated by ovary pericarp inoculation (≥89.5%) than for those generated by stigma inoculation (≤76.5%) (Pseed coat, suggesting that tissue localization is important for bacterial survival in seed. This observation was confirmed when P. stewartii subsp. stewartii survived significantly longer in stigma

  13. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan; Rosmana, Ade; Junaid, Muhammad; Guest, David; McMahon, Peter; Keane, Philip; Purwantara, Agus; Lambert, Smilja; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Cubeta, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex, and blackening of infected xylem in the vascular traces at the leaf scars resulting from the abscission of infected leaves. Eventually the shoot apex is killed and infected branches die. In susceptible cacao the fungus may grow through the xylem down into the main stem and kill a mature cacao tree. Infections in the stem of young plants prior to the formation of the first 3-4 lateral branches usually kill the plant. Basidiospores released from corticioid basidiomata developed on leaf scars or along cracks in the main vein of infected leaves infect young leaves. The pathogen commonly infects cacao but there are rare reports from avocado. As both crops are introduced to the region, the pathogen is suspected to occur asymptomatically in native vegetation. The pathogen is readily isolated but cultures cannot be maintained. In this study, DNA was extracted from pure cultures of O. theobromae obtained from infected cacao plants sampled from Indonesia. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), consisting of ITS1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA and ITS2, and a portion of nuclear large subunit (LSU) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences placed O. theobromae sister to Ceratobasidium anastomosis groups AG-A, AG-Bo, and AG-K with high posterior probability. Therefore the new combination Ceratobasidium theobromae is proposed. A PCR-based protocol was developed to detect and identify C. theobromae in plant tissue of cacao enabling early detection of the pathogen in plants. A second species of Ceratobasidium, Ceratobasidium ramicola

  14. Io Eclipse Montage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    New Horizons took this montage of images of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io, glowing in the dark of Jupiter's shadow, as the Pluto-bound spacecraft sped through the Jupiter system on Feb. 27, 2007. (A): In this picture from the Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), dark blotches and straight lines are artifacts. The brightest spots (including the volcanoes Pele [P] and East Girru [EG]) are incandescent lava from active volcanoes. The more diffuse glows, and the many faint spots, are from gas in the plumes and atmosphere, glowing due to bombardment by plasma in Jupiter's magnetosphere, in a display similar to the Earth's aurorae. (B): The same image with a latitude/longitude grid, showing that the cluster of faint spots is centered near longitude 0 degrees, the point on Io that faces Jupiter. The image also shows the locations of the plumes seen in sunlit images (indicated by red diamonds), which glow with auroral emission in eclipse. (C): Simulated sunlit view of Io with the same geometry, based on sunlit LORRI images. (D): A combination of the sunlit image (in cyan) and the eclipse image (in red), showing that all point-like glows in the eclipse image arise from dark volcanoes in the eclipse image. (E): This infrared image, at a wavelength of 2.3 microns, obtained by New Horizons Linear Etalon Spectral Imaging Array (LEISA) an hour after the LORRI image, showing thermal emission from active volcanoes. Elongation of the hot spots is an artifact. (F): Combined visible albedo (cyan) and LEISA thermal emission (red) image, showing the sources of the volcanic emission. That most of the faint point-like glows near longitude zero, seen in visible light in images A, B, and D, do not appear in the infrared view of volcanic heat radiation, is one reason scientists believe that these glows are due to auroral emission, not heat radiation. This image appears in the Oct. 12, 2007, issue of Science magazine, in a paper by John Spencer, et al.

  15. Status of the Island Night Lizard and Two Non-Native Lizards on Outlying Landing Field San Nicolas Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Drost, Charles A.; Murphey, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    More than 900 individually marked island night lizards (Xantusia riversiana) were captured on San Nicolas Island, California, between 1984 and 2007 as part of an ongoing study to monitor the status of this threatened species. Our data suggest that at least a few lizards are probably more than 20 years old, and one lizard would be 31.5 years old if it grew at an average rate for the population. Ages of 20 and 30 years seem reasonable given the remarkably slow growth during capture intervals of more than a decade for five of the lizards which we estimated to be 20 or more years old. Like other lizards, island night lizard growth rates vary by size, with larger lizards growing more slowly. In general, growth rates were somewhat greater on San Nicolas Island (compared with Santa Barbara Island), and this increase was sustained through all of the intermediate size classes. The higher growth rate may account for the somewhat larger lizards present on San Nicolas Island, although we cannot discount the possibility that night lizards on San Nicolas are merely living longer. The high percentage of small lizards in the Eucalyptus habitat might seem to reflect a healthy population in that habitat, but the high proportion of small lizards appears to be caused by good reproduction in the 1900s and substantially poorer reproduction in subsequent years. The Eucalyptus habitat has dried quite a bit in recent years. Night lizards in the Haplopappus/Grassland habitat have shown an increase in the proportion of larger lizards since 2000. There has also been an increase in the proportion of large lizards in the Rock Cobble habitat at Redeye Beach. However, there are has been some change in habitat with more elephant seals occupying the same area just above the high tide as do the night lizards. Southern alligator lizards and side-blotched lizards are both non-native on San Nicolas Island. Neither lizard causes obvious harm to island night lizards, and management time and effort should

  16. Avaliação do potencial agronômico de introduções de amendoim com vistas ao melhoramento genético Agronomic potential of peanut germplasm of interest to breeding

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    Ignâcio José de Godoy

    1990-01-01

    características. Resistente à verrugose e resistente à mancha-barrenta e à ferrugem. Pela produtividade e nível de resistência à doença, ambas estão sendo incluídas em cruzamentos com linhagens de bom padrão comercial e qualidade de vagens, por suas limitações para essas características.In order to select parental lines for the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. breeding program, twenty three lines of the Instituto Agronômico peanut collection, as well as cultivars Tatuí and Tatu, were evaluated for pod yield, reactions to foliar diseases, seed oil content and other plant characters. The evaluations were carried out during the spring-summer growing seasons of 1985 and 1986 at the Centro Experimental de Campinas and Pindorama Experimental farm and, 1985, at the Ribeirão Preto, Experimental farm. State of São Paulo, Brazil. Lines 5475, 5207, 5249 and H-69, and the cultivar Tatuí significantly higher than the control (cv. Tatu. The best yields were observed in lines 5475 (an erect, short-cycle line of the Valência group and 5207 (a "bunch" type, long-cycle line of the Virginia group which showed average yields 30% higher than the cultivar Tatu. Lines 269 and 70 were the only ones to present seed oil contents superior to the control, in 3%. The good yielders, 5207 and 5249, presented oil contents significantly lower than the control. Some of the lines showed to bear, in their genotypes, along with the yield potential, some level of resistance to the main foliar diseases. That was the case of line 5207, rated as moderately suscetible to late leafspot and scab, and moderately resistant to web blotch, and line 5475, as moderately suscetible to late leafspot, moderately resistant to scab and resistant to web blotch and rust. For their yielding ability and levels of disease resistance, these lines have already been included in crosses with lines that have trait for good pod type and quality, as both present limitations on these characteristics.

  17. Identification of Bipolaris bicolor and Bipolaris sorokiniana on wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L. in Brazil Identificação de Bipolaris bicolor e Bipolaris sorokiniana sobre sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra R. Morejon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused in wheat by Helminthosporium spp. have led to considerable yield and production losses. Different species in this genus are associated with wheat seeds. In Brazil, spot blotch in wheat is caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc Schoem, and another fungus Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem that has been also isolated from wheat seeds. The current study was undertaken to identify the most frequent fungus species that normaly infects wheat seeds and compared them with B. sorokiniana. The fungus Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem., isolated from wheat seeds cultivar IAPAR, was identified by taxonomic methods and compared with the fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. Shoem., in relation to growth characteristics on the seeds, as well as to growth characteristics in PDA and morphology of the structures. Type of colony observed on the seeds is important for the differentiation between the fungus species. Bipolaris sorokiniana presented black colonies, which were well-adherent to the seeds, whereas B. bicolor presented grayish, aerial, cotton-like colonies. The size of the conidia also differed in length and width, and B. bicolor presented the smallest dimensions. In relation to septa, B. bicolor conidia presented deep ones, with dark color bases, but seldom presented dark apex. Bipolaris sorokiniana presented homogenous color.Doenças causadas por Helminthosporium spp. em trigo, causam consideráveis perdas na produção. Diferentes espécies do gênero do fungo podem ser encontradas em sementes. No caso do Brasil, a mancha foliar do trigo tem sido causada por Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc Schoem, entretanto, outro fungo como Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem tem sido isolado de sementes do trigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar as espécies de fungo que normalmente infectam sementes de trigo e comparar com a mais comum B. sorokiniana. O fungo Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem., isolado de sementes de trigo var. IAPAR, foi identificado por

  18. A redescription of Anomaloglossus praderioi (La Marca, 1998 (Anura: Aromobatidae: Anomaloglossinae, with description of its tadpole and call

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    Philippe J.R. Kok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anomaloglossus praderioi was originally described as Colostethus praderioi by E. La Marca in 1998 on the basis of two male specimens. The present paper provides a redescription of the species on the basis of new material from Maringma Tepui in Guyana and an additional specimen from Sierra de Lema in Venezuela. The redescription includes descriptions of the tadpole and vocalisation. Anomaloglossus praderioi is a medium-sized species mainly distinguished from its known congeners in having Fingers I, II and IV equal in length, the tip of Finger IV barely reaching the base of the distal subarticular tubercle on Finger III when fingers are adpressed, Fingers II and III with preaxial keel-like lateral folds, toes basally webbed with folded flaplike fringing except on Toes IV-V, symmetrical cloacal tubercles present, thin pale dorsolateral stripe present from tip of snout to tip of urostyle, ventrolateral stripe inconspicuous, never straight, oblique lateral stripe absent, throat in male grey to very dark grey, almost solid black, with black blotches, throat in female bright orange, almost immaculate. The tadpole is dark brown to black, exotrophic, benthic, LTRF 2(2/3. The advertisement call consists of long trains of a single note repeated at a rate of 61-76 notes/min with a dominant frequency ranging from 3,562 to 3,856 Hz. The species is reported from eastern Venezuela and western Guyana and inhabits montane medium-canopy forest at elevations between 1,310-1,950 m above sea level.Anomaloglossus praderioi fue originalmente descrito como Colostethus praderioi por E. La Marca en 1998 con dos ejemplares machos. El presente artículo ofrece una redescripción detallada de la especie basada en nuevos ejemplares de Maringma Tepui, en Guyana y ejemplares adicionales de la Sierra de Lema, en Venezuela. La redescripción incluye la vocalización y descripción del renacuajo. Anomaloglossus praderioi es de tamaño mediano y se distingue principalmente de sus

  19. Biologia reprodutiva de Suiriri affinis e S. islerorum (Aves: Tyrannidae no cerrado do Brasil central

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    Leonardo Esteves Lopes

    2005-01-01

    and sides between two or more divergent branches. Although superficially similar, the nest of S. islerorum present many differences, being shorter, shallower, and supported only by its sides between a forked branch. Its interior is also lined by an additional layer of vegetable fibers over the silk cotton layer. The nest of both species is constructed exclusively by the females. The eggs of S. affinis (mean of 20.8 x 15.1 mm, 2.5 g are pearl white, and those of S. islerorum (20.4 x 15.4 mm, 2.4 g are light cream, presenting a wreath of small brown blotches around its thicker end. The fledglings of S. islerorum are very similar to the adults, while those of S. affinis present the head, back and wing coverts largely tipped white. The incubation is performed only by the female, lasting 15.2 days for both species. The nestling period of S. affinis and S. islerorum is of 18.9 and 18.3 days, respectively. Some evidences suggests that S. affinis may be a cooperative breeder.

  20. New records of parasites for culture Cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Perciformes: Rachycentridae in Puerto Rico

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    Lucy Bunkley-Williams

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensive aquaculture sometimes provides conditions favorable for parasites that are not ordinarily found on culture fishes in the wild, and the use of introduced stocks sometimes introduces non-indigenous species to the habitat. When officially asked about the culture of Cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus in Puerto Rico, the authors responded that it was unlikely to cause harm. It was assumed that a well-known culture facility in Florida would assure parasite-free stocks. Subsequent examinations of stocked juveniles surprisingly found parasites new to this fish. An outbreak of Slime-blotch disease, Brooklynella hostilis Lom & Nigrilli, 1970 (Dysteriida: Hartmannulidae occurred in juvenile Cobia after they were shipped from Florida and stocked. This apparently represents a local parasite that took advantage of the weakened and/or crowded fish. The universal aquarium and culture superparasite, Marine Ich, Cryptocaryon irritans Brown, 1951 (Colpodia: Ichthyophthiriidae was introduced with a shipment of juvenile Cobia from Florida. This may not be serious, since the parasite occurs worldwide, unless it represents a new strain to Puerto Rico. Marine Costia, Ichthyobodo sp. (Kinetoplastida: Bodonidae was introduced into Puerto Rico with juvenile Cobia shipped from Florida. This parasite has caused some severe problems in aquaculture hatcheries in Hawaii and Texas after it was introduced with cultured organisms. Thus far, it has not caused any problems locally, but Puerto Rico lacks the marine hatchery facilities where such outbreaks would occur. The question of whether it is established locally will have to wait the development of similar facilities in Puerto Rico. These three species of parasites represent new host records for Cobia. The non-indigenous Ichthyobodo sp. represents new locality records for the tropical Atlantic, Caribbean, and Florida and Puerto Rico. Cobia mature more quickly in culture than in the wild and thus female Cobia

  1. What Do Geoscience Experts and Novices Look At and What Do They See When Viewing and Interpreting Data Visualizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Shipley, T. F.; Boone, A.

    2012-12-01

    When geoscience experts look at data visualizations, they can "see" structures, and processes and traces of Earth history. When students look at those same visualizations, they may see only blotches of color, dots or squiggles. What are those experts doing, and how can students learn to do the same? We report on a study in which experts (>10 years of geoscience research experience) and novices (undergrad psychology students) examine shaded-relief/color-coded images of topography/bathymetry, while answering questions aloud and being eye-tracked. Images were a global map, two high-res images of continental terrain and two of oceanic terrain, with hi-res localities chosen to display distinctive traces of important earth processes. The differences in what they look at as recorded by eye-tracking are relatively subtle. On the global image, novices tend to focus on continents, whereas experts distribute their attention more evenly across continents and oceans. Experts universally access the available scale information (distance scale, lat/long axes), whereas most students do not. Novices do attend substantially and spontaneously to the salient geomorphological features in the high-res images: seamounts, mid-ocean ridge/transform intersection, erosional river channels, and compressional ridges and valley system. The more marked differences come in what respondents see, as captured in video recordings of their words and gestures in response to experimenter's questions. When their attention is directed to a small and distinctive part of a high-res image and they are asked to "….describe what you see…", experts typically produce richly detailed descriptions that may include the regional depth/altitude, local relief, shape and spatial distribution of major features, symmetry or lack thereof, cross-cutting relationships, presence of lineations and their orientations, and similar geomorphological details. Following or interwoven with these rich descriptions, some experts

  2. Four new species of eastern tropical Pacific jawfishes (Opistognathus: Opistognathidae

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    William A. Bussing

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Three of four new jawfishes described herein have sexually dimorphic jaws and dichromatic maxillary markings: O. smithvanizi, with a simple nasal cirrus, buccal pigmentation and other traits similar to members of the O. macrognathus group, is known only from Isla del Caño, a continental shelf island off southern Costa Rica; O. fossoris, with a multifid nasal cirrus, a broaddorsal membranous subopercular flap and a black spot on tips of first dorsal-fin spines lives in the Gulf of California and is a sister-species of O. galapagensis; the maxilla of O. walkeri terminates in a flexible scimitar-shaped lamina in adults of both sexes, but is longer in males, the species lacks nasal cirri and is also restricted to the Gulf of California. Opistognathus brochus is a small species with dark speckling on head and body, and several dark blotches along the dorsal fin and two bars on the tail; it is found in moderately deep water on the Costa Rican coast and Gulf of California. Opistognathus mexicanus is placed in the synonymy of O. punctatus. Opistognathus galapagensis, O. rhomaleus and O. fenmutis are recorded for the first time from Costa Rica and a description of the latter is given and an identification key and summary table are provided for all known eastern Pacific species of Opistognathus.Tres de las cuatro especies nuevas presentan dimorfismo sexual respecto a la longitud maxilar: O. smithvanizi, con un cirro nasal sencillo, pigmentación bucal, y otras características similares a las de los miembros del grupo O. macrognathus, fue descubierto únicamente frente a la Isla del Caño, una isla de la plataforma continental de Costa Rica; O. fossoris, con un cirro nasal ramificado, una lengüeta carnosa ancha en el borde dorsal del subopérculo, y una manchita negra en las primeras puntas de la aleta dorsal, habita en el Golfo de California y es la especie-hermana de O. galapagensis; la maxila de O. walkeri termina posteriormente en una l

  3. Incidência de insetos e doenças em cultivares e populações de cebola Incidence of insects and diseases in onion cultivars and populations

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    Germano LD Leite

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A cebola é uma das hortaliças mais importantes no Brasil. Contudo, é atacada por insetos e doenças, tais como Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Botrytis squamosa, Alternaria porri e Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. cepae. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a incidência de tripes, queima-das-pontas, mancha-de-alternaria e mal-de-sete-voltas em oito populações elite do programa de melhoramento genético de cebola da Embrapa ("CNPH 6415", "CNPH 6074", "CNPH 6244", "CNPH 6400 Chata", "CNPH 6400 Redonda", "Valencianita" x "Aurora", "Primavera" x "Pera Norte" e "Pera Norte" x "Primavera" e oito variedades comerciais (Granex 429, BRS Cascata, Belém IPA 9, Crioula Alto Vale, Bola Precoce, Primavera, Régia e 1015 Y. Em regiões de alta incidência de C. gloeosporioides, os materiais recomendados são "CNPH 6415", "CNPH 6074" e "CNPH 6244"; de A. porri são "CNPH 6415", "CNPH 6074", "CNPH 6244", "BRS Cascata", "Valencianita" x "Aurora", "Primavera" x "Pera Norte", "Belém IPA 9", "Bola Precoce", "Primavera" e "Régia"; e de T. tabaci são "CNPH 6415", "CNPH 6074", "Granex 429", "Bola Precoce", "Primavera" e "Régia". As populações "CNPH 6415" e "CNPH 6074" apresentam resistência a esses três agentes etiológicos. Por outro lado, "CNPH 6400 Chata", "CNPH 6400 Redonda" e "1015 Y" são suscetíveis a C. gloeosporioides, A. porri e T. tabaci. Todos os materiais estudados sofrem ataque considerável de B. squamosa.Onion (Allium cepa L. is one of the most important vegetable crops in Brazil. It is attacked by insects and diseases, such as Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, Botrytis squamosa (J.C. Walker, Alternaria porri (Ellis and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.sp. cepae Penz. This work evaluated the incidence of thrips, onion leaf blight, purple blotch, and smudge in eight elite populations of the Embrapa's onion breeding program ("CNPH 6415", "CNPH 6074", "CNPH 6244", "CNPH 6400 Chata", "CNPH 6400 Redonda", "Valencianita" x

  4. Control biológico de enfermedades mediante el tratamiento de semillas de cucurbitáceas con rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento de las plantas (PGPR./Biological control of diseases by cucurbits seeds treatment with rhizobacteria plant growth promoting (PGPR.

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    Gilda Jiménez Montejo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Las regulaciones sobre la producción de alimentos sanos limitan actualmente el uso de fungicidas sintéticos para el tratamiento de semillas y, por otra parte, no se dispone de bactericidas efectivos. Se condujeron experimentos en condiciones controladas para evaluar el efecto de las cepas de rizobacterias antagonistas Bacillus subtilis F16/95, B. subtilis Xph y Pseudomonas putida 14A en el control biológico de la Mancha bacteriana de las cucurbitáceas, la Mancha bacteriana del fruto de melón y la pudrición de la raíz, provocadas por Xanthomonas cucurbitae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli y Fusarium oxysporum, respectivamente. Se realizó el tratamiento de semillas de pepino (C. sativus, L. var. Poinsett, calabaza (Cucurbita moschata, Duch. var. INIVIT C-88, y melón de Castilla (Cucumis melo, L. var. Hale’s Best. Los tratamientos biológicos mostraron una reducción en la incidencia de las enfermedades e incrementos de longitud del tallo y peso fresco de hojas y raíces, en todas las interacciones planta-patógeno-antagonista. La colonización de raíces alcanzó rangos de 8,9-8,0 y 7,8-7,0 log (ufc cm-1 de raíz a los 4 y 15 días después de la siembra. Estos resultados caracterizaron las cepas aplicadas como rizobacterias promotoras del crecimiento vegetal (PGPR y aconsejan la realización de ensayos de campo./Abstract:Nowadays the regulations about the production of healthy foods limit the use of synthetic fungicides for seeds treatment and, on the other hand, effective bactericides are not available. Experiments under controlled conditions were conducted to evaluate the effect of rhizobacterial antagonistic strains Bacillus subtilis F16/95, B. subtilis Xph and Pseudomonas putida 14A on the biological control of Cucurbits bacterial spot, Watermelon bacterial fruit blotch and Fusarium root rot caused by Xanthomonas cucurbitae, Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli and Fusarium oxysporum, respectively. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus

  5. Phylogenetic diagnosis and expanded description of the genus Mazarunia Kullander, 1990 (Teleostei: Cichlidae from the upper Mazaruni River, Guyana, with description of two new species

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    Hernán López-Fernández

    fainter and almost disappear in adults. Many specimens show only bar number 3 (midlateral bar. Mazarunia mazarunii can be distinguished from all other species of Mazarunia by the presence of two foramina (vs. one on the lateral face of the ascending process of the premaxilla, a lachrymal bone that is longer than deep (vs. deeper than long, an infraorbital 3 that is contiguous but not overlapping with the lachrymal (vs. overlapping, ctenoid scales (vs. cycloid on the subopercle, interopercle and chest, and by its unique coloration, including complete suborbital and supraorbital stripes, and being the only species of Mazarunia with a discernible lateral band formed by the mid-line blotching pattern associated with lateral bars. In large adults, M. mazarunii has a black or dark bar behind the head that produces the impression of a collar. Mazarunia pala, new species, can be distinguished from its congeners by the absence of a parhypurapophysis, the presence of a dorsal-fin scaly pad with ctenoid scales (vs. no scaly pad in M. charadrica and M. mazarunii, a small suborbital stripe limited to the preopercle, the absence of clearly discernible lateral bars on the body, and by its general pinkish coloration with midlateral spot as the only melanic marking. All known species of Mazarunia are restricted to the upper reaches of the Mazaruni River basin in Guyana.

  6. A new species of the genus Salaria Forsskål, 1775 (Actinopterygii, Blennidae in Morocco

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    Yahyaoui, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The North African freshwater fish fauna is scarce compared to other regions of the world, probably due to historical and climatic factors. The western part of North Africa is more diverse than central or eastern areas. Populations of freshwater blennids that have been traditionally ascribed to the species Salaria fluviatilis nowadays inhabit the Sebou basin in Morocco. In this study we demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that these Moroccan populations constitute a new species, for which we provide a formal description. The following diagnostic characters distinguish the newly described species from other freshwater blennids: head without diagonal rows of dark dots or blotches on cheeks; supra-ocular tentacle thick and simple (not branched; 13-15 teeth on the upper jaw and 14-16 on the lower jaw; 16-17 soft anal fin rays; short pre-orbital distance (cephalic index: 2.9-3.8; height of the anterior (spiny part of the dorsal fin short (dorsal fin index: 0.8-1.3 and 34 vertebrae. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic distances between the new Salaria species and either S. economidisi or S. fluviatilis are high, especially in the mitochondrial control region (18%, while these genetic distances range from 2 to 3% when the nuclear S7 marker is compared. These morphological and molecular characters differentiate the new species from the remaining freshwater species of the genus (Salaria economidisi and S. fluviatilis. The new species is confined to a small restricted area of the Sebou basin in Morocco and should be considered endangered (EN according to the IUCN Red List.La fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África es escasa comparada con otras regiones del mundo debido fundamentalmente a factores históricos y climáticos. El oeste del norte de África es más diverso que las regiones del centro y del este. En la cuenca del río Sebou habitan actualmente poblaciones de blenios de agua dulce que han sido tradicionalmente adscritas a la

  7. Hospedeiros alternativos de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Alternative hosts of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

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    Ana Rosa P. Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças que afeta o meloeiro é a mancha-aquosa, causada pela bactéria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Visando conhecer hospedeiros alternativos de Aac, plantas no estágio de primeiras folhas definitivas, de várias espécies/cultivares, incluindo cucurbitáceas, solanáceas, gramíneas, leguminosas e caricáceas, foram inoculadas pela atomização da parte aérea com suspensão dos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13, oriundos de melão e melancia, respectivamente. A suscetibilidade das plantas aos isolados foi avaliada pelo período de incubação (PI e incidência da doença (INC. Caupi, feijão, fumo e milho não apresentaram sintomas. Os menores PIs foram observados em cucurbitáceas (3,0 d, com exceção da bucha (6,83 d. Incidências da doença acima de 90% foram observadas em cucurbitáceas, excetuando a bucha e em solanáceas, para ambos os isolados de Aac. Em outro experimento, frutos de abóbora, abobrinha, berinjela, mamão, maxixe, melancia, melão, pepino, pimentão e tomate foram analisados quanto à suscetibilidade aos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Os frutos foram inoculados pelo método de injeção subepidérmica, determinando-se PI, INC e severidade, avaliada pelo diâmetro da lesão externa (DLE e profundidade da lesão (PL. Menores PIs (2,0 d foram detectados em frutos de mamão, melancia, melão e pimentão. Incidência de 100% foi observada em todos os frutos inoculados, com exceção da abobrinha (93,75% e da abóbora (34,37%. Maiores DLEs foram observados em pepino (1,47 cm para o isolado Aac 1.49 e em melancia (1,60 cm e melão (1,07 cm para Aac 12.13. As maiores PL foram constatadas em melancia (1,72 e 0,75 cm respectivamente para Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Frutos de berinjela não apresentaram sintomas externos embora as lesões internas tenham sido profundas.One of the most important melon diseases is the bacterial blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Alternative hosts of this

  8. Grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator): a fascinating system for the study of the biology, ecology and epidemiology of an obligate biotroph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadoury, David M; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Wilcox, Wayne F; Dry, Ian B; Seem, Robert C; Milgroom, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    ) numbers of asci; and (ii) morphology of the appendages, in particular the appendage tips. The foregoing has been supplanted by phylogeny inferred from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA sequences (Saenz and Taylor, 1999), which correlates with conidial ontogeny and morphology (Braun et al., 2002). The pathogen is obligately parasitic on genera within the Vitaceae, including Vitis, Cissus, Parthenocissus and Ampelopsis (Pearson and Gadoury, 1992). The most economically important host is grapevine (Vitis), particularly the European grape, V. vinifera, which is highly susceptible to powdery mildew. Disease symptoms and signs: In the strictest sense, macroscopically visible mildew colonies are signs of the pathogen rather than symptoms resulting from its infection, but, for convenience, we describe the symptoms and signs together as the collective appearance of colonized host tissues. All green tissues of the host may be infected. Ascospore colonies are most commonly found on the lower surface of the first-formed leaves near the bark of the vine, and may be accompanied by a similarly shaped chlorotic spot on the upper surface. Young colonies appear whitish and those that have not yet sporulated show a metallic sheen. They are roughly circular, ranging in size from a few millimetres to a centimetre or more in diameter, and can occur singly or in groups that coalesce to cover much of the leaf. Senescent colonies are greyish, and may bear cleistothecia in various stages of development. Dead epidermal cells often subtend the colonized area, as natural mortality in the mildew colony, the use of fungicides, mycoparasites or resistance responses in the leaf result in the deaths of segments of the mildew colony and infected epidermal cells. Severely affected leaves usually senesce, develop necrotic blotches and fall prematurely. Infection of stems initially produces symptoms similar to those on leaves, but colonies on shoots are eventually killed as periderm forms

  9. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    willow leaf blotch miner in boreal Alaska are likely to have resulted in decreased NDVI (Parent and Verbyla 2010). The NDVI browning trend has expanded in area in boreal North America (Beck and Goetz 2011). If the trend towards a warmer and drier climate continues, these areas may represent a future tipping point where drought-induced mortality across a boreal region may occur. Such events have already occurred in the western United States (van Mantgem et al 2009) and the aspen parklands of the southern Canadian boreal forest (Michaelian et al 2010). References Alcaraz-Segura D, Chuvieco E, Epstein H E, Kasischke E S and Trishchenko A 2010 Debating the greening vs. browning of the North American boreal forest: differences between satellite datasets Glob. Change Biol. 16 760-70 Anderson L, Abbott M B, Finney B P and Burns S J 2007 Late Holocene moisture balance variability in the southwest Yukon Territory, Canada Quatern. Sci. Rev. 26 130-41 Barber V A, Juday G P and Finney B P 2000 Reduced growth of Alaskan white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress Nature 405 668-73 Barber V A, Juday G P, Finney B P and Wilmking M 2004 Reconstruction of summer temperatures in interior Alaska from tree-ring proxies: evidence for changing synoptic climate regimes Clim. Change 63 91-120 Beck P S A and Goetz S J 2011 Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences Environ. Res. Lett. 6 045501 Beck P S A, Juday G P, Alix C, Barber V A, Winslow S E, Sousa E E, Heiser P, Herriges J D and Goetz S J 2011 Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift Ecol. Lett. 14 373-9 Berg E E, Henry J D, Fastie C L, De Volder A D and Matsuoka S M 2006 Spruce beetle outbreaks on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, and Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon Territory: relationship to summer temperatures and regional differences in disturbance regimes

  10. Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans

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    Bikić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    the glass fragments there were parts of bottles with a ring around the neck and a ribbed body (Rippenflaschen, generally known in domestic scholarship under the term Panik type bottle (fig. 10/8. Also identifiable among the recovered glass fragments are drinking vessels of several types, beakers with small or large prunts (Nuppenbecher and Krautstrunk and ribbed (Rippenbecher, common especially in the 15th and 16th centuries (figs. 12/1, 3, 5, 6. There are also pieces with a blue thread applied around the rim and body, similar to the examples from Stalać reproduced herein (fig. 12/3. Quite rarely found are drinking vessels of cobalt blue glass, which are mostly small, except for a few examples of up to 14 cm in height, which is also the height of the abovementioned bottles. Apart from Venice and Dubrovnik (Ragusa, glassware was imported from Hungary. The discovered pottery vessels show a greater diversity, mostly in terms of shape. In addition to liquid containers - jugs, pitchers and beakers, there occur bowls, pots and even apothecary vessels. A vast majority belong to the Serbian ware of the 14th and 15th centuries. Most are glazed, and frequently painted with spirals, bands and blotches in white, green and dark brown or decorated with simple sgrafitto patterns, such as the finds from Novo Brdo (fig. 1, St Peter’s (figs 9; 13/1, 4 and the monastery of Gradac. By far the most interesting of them is the beaker from Končulić with an openwork edge around the base (fig. 12/2, which is commonly found in glass beakers of the same period. Deserving of particular attention are three cylindrical ceramic bottles from Novo Brdo (fig. 2. The presented material allows us to recognize the central issues surrounding the occurrence of vessels in the cemeteries of the 14th to 17th century in Serbia. Given the small number of recorded cases, the presence of vessels in graves as grave goods appears to have been utterly sporadic. Being based on the processed and published results