WorldWideScience

Sample records for staggered spatial arrangement

  1. Response of Maize Crop to Spatial Arrangement and Staggered Interseeding of Haricot Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamiru Hirpa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Field studies conducted to determine the effects of intercrop row arrangements and staggered intercropping of haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on the performances of maize (Zea mays L. crop at Hallaba and Taba areas in 2013 cropping season, southern Ethiopia, revealed that there were significant effects of cropping patterns and staggered interseeding of the legume component on growth and yield components of maize crop. Significant interaction of row arrangement × intercropping time of haricot bean was observed with respect to leaf area index (LAI of the maize crop. Increasing trends of LAI of maize crop were observed as interseeding of haricot bean was delayed for 3 weeks after maize (WAM that stabilized during the 6 WAM interseeding time. Maize stover production was significantly high at 1:2 row ratio and delaying of the undersowing haricot bean in the already established maize crop for 6 weeks, 10.94 tha-1 and 11.39 t ha-1, respectively. Maize grain yield showed a significant variation with respect to the staggered sowing of haricot bean, whereby the highest (3.99 t ha-1 being recorded when haricot bean intercropping was delayed for 21 days after maize planting. The data of this study revealed that the larger maize plant canopy providing larger photosynthetic area, attained when haricot bean interseeding was delayed, probably resulted in higher grain yield of maize. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11072 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 126-138

  2. Experimental study of thermal–hydraulic performance of cam-shaped tube bundle with staggered arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Hamidreza; Lavasani, Arash Mirabdolah; Maarefdoost, Taher

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal–hydraulic performance of a non-circular tube bundle has been investigated experimentally. • Tubes were mounted in staggered arrangement with two longitudinal pitch ratios 1.5 and 2. • Drag coefficient and Nusselt number of tubes in second row was measured. • Friction factor of this tube bundle is lower than circular tube bundle. • Thermal–hydraulic performance of this tube bundle is greater than circular tube bundle. - Abstract: Flow and heat transfer from cam-shaped tube bank in staggered arrangement is studied experimentally. Tubes were located in test section of an open loop wind tunnel with two longitudinal pitch ratios 1.5 and 2. Reynolds number varies in range of 27,000 ⩽ Re D ⩽ 42,500 and tubes surface temperature is between 78 and 85 °C. Results show that both drag coefficient and Nusselt number depends on position of tube in tube bank and Reynolds number. Tubes in the first column have maximum value of drag coefficient, while its Nusselt number is minimum compared to other tubes in tube bank. Moreover, pressure drop from this tube bank is about 92–93% lower than circular tube bank and as a result thermal–hydraulic performance of this tube bank is about 6 times greater than circular tube bank

  3. Stress analysis of three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement with field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zimo; Chanda, Emmanuel; Zhao, Jingli; Wang, Zhihe

    2018-01-01

    Longwall top-coal caving (LTCC) has been a popular, more productive and cost-effective method for extracting thick (> 5 m) to ultra-thick coal seams in recent years. However, low-level recovery ratio of coal resources and top-coal loss above the supports at both ends of working face are long-term problems. Geological factors, such as large dip angle, soft rock, mining depth further complicate the problems. This paper proposes addressing this issue by adopting three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement (3-D RLSA). In this study, the first step was to analyse the stress environment surrounding head entry in the replacing working face based on the stress distribution characteristics at the triangular coal-pillar side in gob and the stress slip line field theory. In the second step, filed observation was conducted. Finally, an economic evaluation of the 3-D RLSA for extracting thick to ultra-thick seams was conducted.

  4. The interference between two flat plates normal to a stream in staggered arrangement, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kimitaka; Kawashima, Akira; Ohsako, Hideyuki.

    1983-01-01

    The clarification of the mutual interference characteristics between the bodies with sharp corners, such as flat plates and rectangular prisms placed perpendicularly to flow, is a fundamental and important problem. But it has not yet been sufficiently clarified. In flat plates, the points of breaking away do not move, a large breaking away region is in the wake, and the thickness is very thin in the direction of main flow. Moreover, a moment arises around the center of flat plates. In this study, a new parameter expressing the influence of channel walls on a single flat plate in the measuring part of two-dimensional wind tunnel experiment was proposed. The change of steady drag coefficient and Strouhal number corresponding to the series and parallel arrangements of two plates was clarified, and the patterns of the mutual interference were classified by using the results of visualizing flow in a circulation tank together. By the experimental results in the widely changed staggered arrangements, the isodrag contour diagram and isomoment contour diagram were drawn, and the general characteristics of mutual interference related to steady drag and moment were clarified. The experimental setup and method and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. Cellular uptake of magnetite nanoparticles enhanced by NdFeB magnets in staggered arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Ching; Chang, Fan-Yu; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Ma, Yunn-Hwa

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic force may greatly enhance uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by cultured cells; however, the effects of non-uniformity of magnetic field/ magnetic gradient on MNP internalization in culture has not been elucidated. Cellular uptake of polyacrylic acid coated-MNP by LN229 cells was measured with cylindrical NdFeB magnets arranged in a staggered pattern. The magnetic field generated by placing a magnet underneath (H-field) elicited a homogenous distribution of MNPs on the cells in culture; whereas the field without magnet underneath (L-field) resulted in MNP distribution along the edge of the wells. Cell-associated MNP (MNPcell) appeared to be magnetic field- and concentration-dependent. In H-field, MNPcell reached plateau within one hour of exposure to MNP with only one-min application of the magnetic force in the beginning of incubation; continuous presence of the magnet for 2 h did not further increase MNPcell, suggesting that magnetic force-induced uptake may be primarily contributed to enhanced MNP sedimentation. Although MNP distribution was much inhomogeneous in L-field, averaged MNPcell in the L-field may reach as high as 80% of that in H-field during 1-6 h incubation, suggesting high capacity of MNP internalization. In addition, no significant difference was observed in MNPcell analyzed by flow cytometry with the application of H-field of staggered plate vs. filled magnet plate. Therefore, biological variation may dominate MNP internalization even under relatively uniformed magnetic field; whereas non-uniformed magnetic field may serve as a model for tumor targeting with MNPs in vivo.

  6. Cellular uptake of magnetite nanoparticles enhanced by NdFeB magnets in staggered arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yi-Ching; Chang, Fan-Yu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology & Healthy Aging Research Center, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tu, Shu-Ju [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ma, Yunn-Hwa, E-mail: yhma@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology & Healthy Aging Research Center, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic force may greatly enhance uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by cultured cells; however, the effects of non-uniformity of magnetic field/ magnetic gradient on MNP internalization in culture has not been elucidated. Cellular uptake of polyacrylic acid coated-MNP by LN229 cells was measured with cylindrical NdFeB magnets arranged in a staggered pattern. The magnetic field generated by placing a magnet underneath (H-field) elicited a homogenous distribution of MNPs on the cells in culture; whereas the field without magnet underneath (L-field) resulted in MNP distribution along the edge of the wells. Cell-associated MNP (MNP{sub cell}) appeared to be magnetic field- and concentration-dependent. In H-field, MNP{sub cell} reached plateau within one hour of exposure to MNP with only one-min application of the magnetic force in the beginning of incubation; continuous presence of the magnet for 2 h did not further increase MNP{sub cell}, suggesting that magnetic force-induced uptake may be primarily contributed to enhanced MNP sedimentation. Although MNP distribution was much inhomogeneous in L-field, averaged MNP{sub cell} in the L-field may reach as high as 80% of that in H-field during 1–6 h incubation, suggesting high capacity of MNP internalization. In addition, no significant difference was observed in MNP{sub cell} analyzed by flow cytometry with the application of H-field of staggered plate vs. filled magnet plate. Therefore, biological variation may dominate MNP internalization even under relatively uniformed magnetic field; whereas non-uniformed magnetic field may serve as a model for tumor targeting with MNPs in vivo. - Graphical abstract: Averaged MNP uptake by glioma cells in the low and non-uniformed magnetic field reached as high as 80% of that in uniformed magnetic field, which is probably due to both heterogeneous distributions of MNPs in the non-uniformed magnetic field and high capacity of the MNP uptake by these cells. - Highlights:

  7. Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Lamarche, J.; Gauthier, B. D. M.; Dunne, W. M.; Sanderson, David J.

    2018-03-01

    Spatial arrangement is a fundamental characteristic of fracture arrays. The pattern of fault and opening-mode fracture positions in space defines structural heterogeneity and anisotropy in a rock volume, governs how faults and fractures affect fluid flow, and impacts our understanding of the initiation, propagation and interactions during the formation of fracture patterns. This special issue highlights recent progress with respect to characterizing and understanding the spatial arrangements of fault and fracture patterns, providing examples over a wide range of scales and structural settings. Five papers describe new methods and improvements of existing techniques to quantify spatial arrangement. One study unravels the time evolution of opening-mode fracture spatial arrangement, which are data needed to compare natural patterns with progressive fracture growth in kinematic and mechanical models. Three papers investigate the role of evolving diagenesis in localizing fractures by mechanical stratigraphy and nine discuss opening-mode fracture spatial arrangement. Two papers show the relevance of complex cluster patterns to unconventional reservoirs through examples of fractures in tight gas sandstone horizontal wells, and a study of fracture arrangement in shale. Four papers demonstrate the roles of folds in fracture localization and the development spatial patterns. One paper models along-fault friction and fluid pressure and their effects on fault-related fracture arrangement. Contributions address deformation band patterns in carbonate rocks and fault size and arrangement above a detachment fault. Three papers describe fault and fracture arrangements in basement terrains, and three document fracture patterns in shale. This collection of papers points toward improvement in field methods, continuing improvements in computer-based data analysis and creation of synthetic fracture patterns, and opportunities for further understanding fault and fracture attributes in

  8. Editorial: Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Stephen E.; Lamarche, Juliette; Gauthier, Bertand D. M.; Dunne, William M.

    2018-03-01

    This issue of the Journal of Structural Geology titled Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures explores a fundamental characteristic of fault and fracture arrays. The pattern of fault and opening-mode fracture positions in space defines structural heterogeneity and anisotropy in a rock volume, governs how faults and fractures affect fluid flow, and impacts our understanding of the initiation, propagation and interactions during the formation of fracture patterns. This special issue highlights recent progress with respect to characterizing and understanding the spatial arrangements of fault and fracture patterns, providing examples over a wide range of scales and structural settings.

  9. Effect of maize density, bean cultivar and bean spatial arrangement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of maize density, bean cultivar and bean spatial arrangement on intercrop performance. ... L'impact de plantes de maïs à 37000 et 24000 plantes ha-1 et des variétés de " Natal sugar" et "carioca" de haricots plantées dans et entre les lignes de maïs était évalué dans une disposition du type factoriel. La densité de ...

  10. Towards the development of a fully coupled arterial-venous 1D model: suitability of using a 1D finite volume method with staggered spatial discretization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline the development of a 1D finite volume model to solve for blood flow through the arterial system. The model is based on a staggered spatial discretization which leads to a stable solution scheme. This scheme can accurately...

  11. Seed quality and optimal spatial arrangement of fodder radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Besides the use of fodder radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus Metzg. as green manure plant cover crops and animal feed, the seeds have high oil content and low viscosity, ideal characteristics for the production of biodiesel. Studies related to the technology of seed production for this species are insufficient to define the best spatial arrangement of plants in the field that provides higher yields associated with high-quality seeds. Thus, we investigated the space and density between plants that would be ideal for the production of high quality fodder radish seeds. We evaluated the agronomic characteristics and physical, physiological and seed health quality in recently harvested fodder radish in row spacings of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 m and densities of 10, 30, 50 and 70 seeds m-2. The quality and productivity of the fodder radish's seeds were affected by the spatial arrangement of plants in the field. Seeds harvested under the spacing of 0.2 m and density of 30 seeds m-2 had better performance and physical, physiological and health quality. Alternaria sp. incidence increased with greater spacing, while Fusarium sp. incidence decreased.

  12. Influence of spatial arrangements in maize/solanum potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solanum tuberosum L.) on the incidence of potato aphids and leafhoppers was conducted at Namulonge in Uganda during the two growing seasons of 1995. Three potato varieties and one maize variety were intercropped in six spatial ...

  13. SPATIAL ARRANGEMENTS IN TRADITIONAL M'ZABITE HOUSES

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    T BELLAL

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the morphology of M'zabite traditional houses. The study uses the space syntax method. Space syntax proposes a fundamental relationship between the configuration of space in a house and the way that it functions. It is the aim of this research work to test this proposition in an M'zab cross settlement sample. The study particularly focuses on the measure known as " difference factor ". The concept of difference factor has been widely used as a technique to measure the strength of a spatial genotype. As a preliminary conclusion, four characteristic patterns of integration are found, the first one centred on the Ammas N'tadart  [Berber for Wast Eddar], the second on the Ikoumar or arched portico, the third on the stairs, and the last but not the least, is centred on the Tigharghart or upper courtyard.

  14. Spatial arrangements affect suppression of invasive Alternanthera philoxeroides by native Hemarthria compressa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianxiong; Tao, Min; Jiang, Mingxi

    2014-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that differences in spatial arrangements change the relative frequency of intra- and interspecific encounters between plant species. Manipulating spatial arrangement may play a role in invasive plant suppression when native species are used as competitors against introduced species. In this study, a replacement series experiment was performed to investigate the effects of intraspecifically random and aggregated spatial arrangements on interactions between the native plant Hemarthria compressa and the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides, to test the possibility and effectiveness of H. compressa in suppressing A. philoxeroides. When both species were planted in intraspecifically random spatial patterns, H. compressa had a competitive advantage over A. philoxeroides at relative densities of 2:2 and 3:1. However, aggregation increased the strength, and therefore the cost, of intraspecific competition in H. compressa, resulting in lower biomass production, which reduced its effectiveness as an interspecific competitor. As the relative density of H. compressa in mixtures decreased, plants allocated more biomass to belowground parts, but fewer interspecific encounters lowered its inhibitory effects on A. philoxeroides. The results not only confirm that the frequency of conspecific and heterospecific encounters can influence competitive outcomes, but also suggest that a reduction in the degree of spatial aggregation in H. compressa and an increase in its relative densities may be essential to increase the suppression of A. philoxeroides.

  15. Spatial congruency between stimulus presentation and response key arrangements in arithmetic fact retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Marco

    2011-01-01

    It is known that number and space representations are connected to one another in numerical and arithmetic abilities. Numbers are represented using the metaphor of a mental number line, oriented along horizontal and vertical space. This number line also seems to be linked to mental arithmetic, which is based partly on arithmetic fact retrieval. It seems that number representation and mental arithmetic are linked together. The present study tested the effect of spatial contextual congruency between stimulus presentation and response key arrangements in arithmetic fact retrieval, using number-matching and addition verification tasks. For both tasks in Experiment 1, a contextual congruency effect was present horizontally (i.e., horizontal presentation of stimuli and horizontal response key alignments) but not vertically (i.e., vertical presentation of stimuli but horizontal response key alignments). In Experiment 2, both tasks showed a contextual congruency effect for both spatial conditions. Experiment 1 showed that the interference and distance effects were found in the horizontal condition, probably because of the spatial congruency between stimulus presentation and response key arrangements. This spatial congruency could be related to the activation of the horizontal number line. Experiment 2 showed similar interference and distance effects for both spatial conditions, suggesting that the congruency between stimulus presentation and response alignment could facilitate the retrieval of arithmetic facts. This facilitation could be related to the activation of both horizontal and vertical number lines. The results are discussed in light of the possible role of a mental number line in arithmetic fact retrieval.

  16. Spatial arrangement and size distribution of normal faults, Buckskin detachment upper plate, Western Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, S. E.; Hundley, T. H.; Hooker, J. N.; Marrett, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Fault arrays typically include a wide range of fault sizes and those faults may be randomly located, clustered together, or regularly or periodically located in a rock volume. Here, we investigate size distribution and spatial arrangement of normal faults using rigorous size-scaling methods and normalized correlation count (NCC). Outcrop data from Miocene sedimentary rocks in the immediate upper plate of the regional Buckskin detachment-low angle normal-fault, have differing patterns of spatial arrangement as a function of displacement (offset). Using lower size-thresholds of 1, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 m, displacements range over 5 orders of magnitude and have power-law frequency distributions spanning ∼ four orders of magnitude from less than 0.001 m to more than 100 m, with exponents of -0.6 and -0.9. The largest faults with >1 m displacement have a shallower size-distribution slope and regular spacing of about 20 m. In contrast, smaller faults have steep size-distribution slopes and irregular spacing, with NCC plateau patterns indicating imposed clustering. Cluster widths are 15 m for the 0.1-m threshold, 14 m for 0.01-m, and 1 m for 0.001-m displacement threshold faults. Results demonstrate normalized correlation count effectively characterizes the spatial arrangement patterns of these faults. Our example from a high-strain fault pattern above a detachment is compatible with size and spatial organization that was influenced primarily by boundary conditions such as fault shape, mechanical unit thickness and internal stratigraphy on a range of scales rather than purely by interaction among faults during their propagation.

  17. Effect of Spatial Arrangement on Growth and Yield of Cowpea in a Cowpea-maize Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaya, CP.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea growth and yield performance when intercropped with maize was studied for 3 consecutive seasons under three spatial arrangements, i. e., maize planted at 90 x 30, 100 x 27, and 120 x 22.5 cm, with 2 rows of cowpea between the maize rows. Growth and yield of cowpea was improved significantly by widening maize intra-row distances as compared to the 90 x 30 cm spacing. Hence, intercropped cowpea needs to be sown where maize rows are wide apart, but the maize rows should not be too wide as this would lower the grain yield of maize.

  18. Response of rainfed chickpea (cicer arietnum L.) to tween row spatial arrangement at multiple densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Plant density and arrangement are important factors affecting rainfed chickpea yield. A field experiment was conducted under the Eastern Mediterranean conditions for two consecutive growing seasons (2009-2010 and 2010-2011) to evaluate the effects of plant density (20, 25, 35 and 55 plants per m 2) and spatial configuration (conventional single 36-cm row width vs 18-cm twin rows spaced 72-cm between paired-rows). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Light interception (LI) and leaf area index (LAI) were significantly affected by plant density. Twin-row arrangement had higher light interception efficiency (LIE) than the single-row. Plants grown in the higher plant densities had greater LAI and LI; however, they had inefficient use of incident solar radiation. The number of primary branches was significantly affected by both planting patterns and plant densities, but the number of secondary branches was significantly affected only by the plant densities. The number of pods and seeds/plant decreased with the increasing plant density. The highest seed weight/plant was recorded at the lowest density (20 plants/m2) while the lowest one was recorded at the highest plant density (55 plants/m2). Seed weight and harvest index in the twin row were significantly higher in tween row than in the single row. (author)

  19. Three-dimensional interstitial space mediates predator foraging success in different spatial arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Stephen G; Duckett, C Cole; Salewski, Elizabeth A; Bell, Susan S

    2017-04-01

    Identifying and quantifying the relevant properties of habitat structure that mediate predator-prey interactions remains a persistent challenge. Most previous studies investigate effects of structural density on trophic interactions and typically quantify refuge quality using one or two-dimensional metrics. Few consider spatial arrangement of components (i.e., orientation and shape) and often neglect to measure the total three-dimensional (3D) space available as refuge. This study tests whether the three-dimensionality of interstitial space, an attribute produced by the spatial arrangement of oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shells, impacts the foraging success of nektonic predators (primary blue crab, Callinectes sapidus) on mud crab prey (Eurypanopeus depressus) in field and mesocosm experiments. Interstices of 3D-printed shell mimics were manipulated by changing either their orientation (angle) or internal shape (crevice or channel). In both field and mesocosm experiments, under conditions of constant structural density, predator foraging success was influenced by 3D aspects of interstitial space. Proportional survivorship of tethered mud crabs differed significantly as 3D interstitial space varied by orientation, displaying decreasing prey survivorship as angle of orientation increased (0° = 0.76, 22.5° = 0.13, 45° = 0.0). Tethered prey survivorship was high when 3D interstitial space of mimics was modified by internal shape (crevice survivorship = 0.89, channel survivorship = 0.96) and these values did not differ significantly. In mesocosms, foraging success of blue crabs varied with 3D interstitial space as mean proportional survivorship (± SE) of mud crabs was significantly lower in 45° (0.27 ± 0.06) vs. 0° (0.86 ± 0.04) orientations and for crevice (0.52 ± 0.11) vs. channel shapes (0.95 ± 0.02). These results suggest that 3D aspects of interstitial space, which have direct relevance to refuge quality, can strongly influence

  20. Tool kit for staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcup, G.W.; Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The symmetries of staggered fermions are analyzed both discrete and continuous. Tools are presented that allow a simple decomposition of representations of the continuum symmetries into representations of the discrete lattice symmetries, both at zero and non-zero spatial momenta. These tools are used to find the lattice transcriptions of the operators that appear in the weak interaction Hamiltonian. The lattice Ward Identities are derived that follow from the single partially conserved axial symmetry. Using these identities, the lattice equivalents of the continuum PCAC relations are found. Combining all these tools, Ward Identities are obtained, for the matrix elements of the weak interaction Hamiltonian, from which the behavior of the matrix elements as the pion and kaon masses vanish are derived. The same behavior as in the continuum is found

  1. Spatial Arrangement of Coastal Sama-Bajau Houses Based on Adjacency Diagram

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    Iziq Eafifi Ismail

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the diversification of space distribution in selected Sama-Bajau dwellings along the north coast of Sabah: Kudat and Pitas; and east coast of Sabah: Mabul Island. This study investigates the frequency of spatial arrangements in Sama-Bajau coastal houses as a preliminary step in understanding their ideal home based on the existing socio-culture and economic practice. Adjacency Distribution Diagram by Mushtaha et al (2011 is used for simpler and compact visual diagram that explains the space distribution in each house attended. This paper is exploratory and applies a qualitative method. This study suggests that the spatial distribution amongst coastal Sama-Bajau consists of Dynamic interconnectivity (Type A, linear configuration (Type B, Anarchy configuration (Type C and D and Modernist influence (Type E. The frequency of given types is found to weighs more on Type B, which is a linear configuration from the entrance towards guest area and ending up to the living area.

  2. A park on new land ? transformations in the spatial arrangement of the SPA Park in Świnoujście

    OpenAIRE

    Bożena Łukasik

    2016-01-01

    An unusual history of the Spa Park in Świnoujście is closely related to the town his­tory, its strategic location and development of the spa function. Since the beginning the spatial arrangement of the park has been undergoing changes in its structure and area. The aim of this study was to determine the stages of development of the park and factors affecting changes in its spatial arrangement. As a result of the investigations, four stages in the development of the park composition were i...

  3. Spatial Arrangement of Colonies in Intact Biofilms from a Model Cooling Water System

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    Michael Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is disagreement among microbiologists about whether Legionella requires a protozoan host in order to replicate. This research sought to determine where in biofilm Legionellae are found and whether all biofilm associated Legionella would be located within protozoan hosts. While it is accepted that Legionella colonizes biofilm, its life cycle and nutritional fastidiousness suggest that Legionella employs multiple survival strategies to persist within microbial systems. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM demonstrated an undulating biofilm surface architecture and a roughly homogenous distribution of heterotrophic bacteria with clusters of protozoa. Legionella displayed 3 distinct spatial arrangements either contained within or directly associated with protozoa, or dispersed in loosely associated clusters or in tightly packed aggregations of cells forming dense colonial clusters. The formation of discreet clusters of tightly packed Legionella suggests that colony formation is influenced by specific environmental conditions allowing for limited extracellular replication. This work represents the first time that an environmentally representative, multispecies biofilm containing Legionella has been fluorescently tagged and Legionella colony morphology noted within a complex microbial system.

  4. BACK TO BASICS: TOWARDS NOVEL COMPUTATION AND ARRANGEMENT OF SPATIAL SENSORY IN IMAGES

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    Wei Wen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current camera has made a huge progress in the sensor resolution and the lowluminance performance. However, we are still far from having an optimal camera as powerful as our eye is. The study of the evolution process of our visual system indicates attention to two major issues: the form and the density of the sensor. High contrast and optimal sampling properties of our visual spatial arrangement are related directly to the densely hexagonal form. In this paper, we propose a novel software-based method to create images on a compact dense hexagonal grid, derived from a simulated square sensor array by a virtual increase of the fill factor and a half a pixel shifting. After that, the orbit functions are proposed for a hexagonal image processing. The results show it is possible to achieve an image processing in the orbit domain and the generated hexagonal images are superior, in detection of curvature edges, to the square images. We believe that the orbit domain image processing has a great potential to be the standard processing for hexagonal images.

  5. Size, chlorophyll retention and protein and oil contents of grains from soybean plants grown in different spatial arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Werner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial arrangement of soybean plants, determined by row spacing and seeding rate, affects the intraspecific competition for water, light, and nutrients, as well as plant architecture and grain development, quality, and chemical composition. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of row spacing and seeding rate on the grain size produced, and the influence of these three factors on chlorophyll retention and protein and oil content in grain. Two experiments were conducted in the 2013/14 and 2014/15 growing seasons, using a 4 × 3 factorial randomized block design with three replications. Four different row spacings [20 cm (narrow row, 50 cm (conventional, 20/80 cm (twin rows and crossed lines (50 cm] and three seeding rates (150, 300, and 450 thousand viable seeds ha-1 were evaluated. The grains were classified by size using oblong sieves and then the effects of spatial arrangements and size of grain on the percentage of green grains and protein and oil contents were evaluated. Higher plant densities were associated with larger grain size, whereas the effects of spacing between the rows on the grain size varied between growing seasons. The arrangement in cross-rows and high plant density produced a higher percentage of green grains under weather conditions favorable to the development of this attribute. The effects of plant spatial arrangements on the contents of protein and oil in grains were variable, and it was not possible to determine whether the spatial arrangement of plants had an effect on the levels of protein and oil in grains. Larger grains had higher protein content, but oil contents were not affected by grain size.

  6. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement; Desempenho agronomico de mucuna-verde em diferentes arranjos espaciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aijanio Gomes de Brito; Goncalves Junior, Murilo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Costa, Janaina Ribeiro; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva, E-mail: gmguerra@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: janaina@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: ednaldo@cnpab.EMBRAP [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m{sup -1}). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m{sup -1} density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m{sup -1}1density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  7. Effects of Spatial Patch Arrangement and Scale of Covarying Resources on Growth and Intraspecific Competition of a Clonal Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Jian; Shi, Xue-Ping; Meng, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Luo, Fang-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in two co-variable resources such as light and water availability is common and can affect the growth of clonal plants. Several studies have tested effects of spatial heterogeneity in the supply of a single resource on competitive interactions of plants, but none has examined those of heterogeneous distribution of two co-variable resources. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew one (without intraspecific competition) or nine isolated ramets (with competition) of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica under a homogeneous environment and four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal and parallel patchiness of light and soil water) and patch scale (large and small patches of light and water). Intraspecific competition significantly decreased the growth of I. japonica, but at the whole container level there were no significant interaction effects of competition by spatial heterogeneity or significant effect of heterogeneity on competitive intensity. Irrespective of competition, the growth of I. japonica in the high and the low water patches did not differ significantly in the homogeneous treatments, but it was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the heterogeneous treatments with large patches. For the heterogeneous treatments with small patches, the growth of I. japonica was significantly larger in the high than in the low water patches in the presence of competition, but such an effect was not significant in the absence of competition. Furthermore, patch arrangement and patch scale significantly affected competitive intensity at the patch level. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity in light and water supply can alter intraspecific competition at the patch level and such effects depend on patch arrangement and patch scale.

  8. Staggering but not knocked out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-11-01

    Italy's PV market is staggering like a boxer almost knocked out. It has been hit hard by the country's deep economic recession. Conto Energia V has been yet another blow with cuts of up to 40 % in the solar feed-in tariffs. But the situation is not hopeless.

  9. Taste changing in staggered quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin Mason

    2004-01-01

    The authors present results from a systematic perturbative investigation of taste-changing in improved staggered quarks. They show one-loop taste-changing interactions can be removed perturbatively by an effective four-quark term and calculate the necessary coefficients

  10. Spatial arrangement of organic compounds on a model mineral surface: implications for soil organic matter stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Loukas; Ambaye, Haile; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Kilbey, S Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Lauter, Valeria; Mayes, Melanie A

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the mineral-organic carbon interface may influence the extent of stabilization of organic carbon compounds in soils, which is important for global climate futures. The nanoscale structure of a model interface was examined here by depositing films of organic carbon compounds of contrasting chemical character, hydrophilic glucose and amphiphilic stearic acid, onto a soil mineral analogue (Al2O3). Neutron reflectometry, a technique which provides depth-sensitive insight into the organization of the thin films, indicates that glucose molecules reside in a layer between Al2O3 and stearic acid, a result that was verified by water contact angle measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the thermodynamic driving force behind glucose partitioning on the mineral interface: The entropic penalty of confining the less mobile glucose on the mineral surface is lower than for stearic acid. The fundamental information obtained here helps rationalize how complex arrangements of organic carbon on soil mineral surfaces may arise.

  11. INFLUENCE OF THE SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OF SEISMIC DETECTORS ON THE ACCURACY OF EARTHQUAKE HYPOCENTRE DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Aslanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the coordinates of the seismic focus of an earthquake with a minimum margin of error with the use of an optimal selection of seismic sensors. Method. Seismic wave velocity data, relying on the time discrepancies between the registering of seismic waves on the seismic sensor and the defined error in determining the time difference, were used to identify errors in the location of an earthquake's hypocenter depending on the respective positions of three seismic sensors. Discrepancies between data containing an error and those without it used to determine two hypocenters provide information about the hypocenter locating error. An analysis of the influence of the respective arrangements of the seismic sensors and the earthquake epicentre on the accuracy of determination of epicentre coordinates was carried out. Results. It is established that, in order to improve the accuracy of epicenter and hypocenter earthquake coordinate determination, it is preferable to use different combinations of seismic sensors. The present recommendations are based on the desire to reduce errors in determining the earthquake source coordinates. Due to earthquake epicenter distance determination errors found in different seismic sensors both with increasing and decreasing distance, the hypocenter coordinate determining error has been found to depend on the respective arrangement of seismic sensors and on the earthquake source's geographical location. In order to determine the dependence of the source coordinate determining error on the relative position of three seismic sensors, the third seismic sensor was displaced on a horizontal plane at the location centered at the coordinate of the origin. Conclusion. When selecting seismic sensors it is essential that one of them be located perpendicular to the center of the segment formed by the other two seismic sensors. The probability of a multidirectional error of measurement at the moment of arrival of

  12. Selection and spatial arrangement of rest sites within northern tamandua home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D. D.; Montgomery, R. A.; Millspaugh, J. J.; Jansen, P. A.; Garzon-Lopez, C. X.; Kays, R.

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  13. Selection and spatial Arrangement of rest sites within Northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) home ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D.D.; Montgomery, R.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.; Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Kays, R.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of suitable rest sites is considered to be a key determinant of spatial patterns in animal activity. However, it is not immediately evident which landscape features satisfy rest site requirements or how these sites are configured within the home range. We used Global Positioning

  14. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytoelae, Kalle; Ridout, David

    2009-06-01

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)

  15. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kytölä, Kalle; Ridout, David

    2009-12-01

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be nondiagonalizable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank 2. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the "left module," and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the "right module." Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centers on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension 0, 1, or 2, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulas as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit.

  16. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoelae, Kalle [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Ridout, David [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)

  17. Spatial arrangement of an RNA zipcode identifies mRNAs under post-transcriptional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek L; Mitra, Somdeb; Harris, Richard; Buxbaum, Adina R; Lionnet, Timothée; Brenowitz, Michael; Girvin, Mark; Levy, Matthew; Almo, Steven C; Singer, Robert H; Chao, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    How RNA-binding proteins recognize specific sets of target mRNAs remains poorly understood because current approaches depend primarily on sequence information. In this study, we demonstrate that specific recognition of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by RNA-binding proteins requires the correct spatial positioning of these sequences. We characterized both the cis-acting sequence elements and the spatial restraints that define the mode of RNA binding of the zipcode-binding protein 1 (ZBP1/IMP1/IGF2BP1) to the β-actin zipcode. The third and fourth KH (hnRNP K homology) domains of ZBP1 specifically recognize a bipartite RNA element comprised of a 5' element (CGGAC) followed by a variable 3' element (C/A-CA-C/U) that must be appropriately spaced. Remarkably, the orientation of these elements is interchangeable within target transcripts bound by ZBP1. The spatial relationship of this consensus binding site identified conserved transcripts that were verified to associate with ZBP1 in vivo. The dendritic localization of one of these transcripts, spinophilin, was found to be dependent on both ZBP1 and the RNA elements recognized by ZBP1 KH34.

  18. Spatial arrangement overrules environmental factors to structure native and non-native assemblages of synanthropic harvestmen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Muster

    Full Text Available Understanding how space affects the occurrence of native and non-native species is essential for inferring processes that shape communities. However, studies considering spatial and environmental variables for the entire community - as well as for the native and non-native assemblages in a single study - are scarce for animals. Harvestmen communities in central Europe have undergone drastic turnovers during the past decades, with several newly immigrated species, and thus provide a unique system to study such questions. We studied the wall-dwelling harvestmen communities from 52 human settlements in Luxembourg and found the assemblages to be largely dominated by non-native species (64% of specimens. Community structure was analysed using Moran's eigenvector maps as spatial variables, and landcover variables at different radii (500 m, 1000 m, 2000 m in combination with climatic parameters as environmental variables. A surprisingly high portion of pure spatial variation (15.7% of total variance exceeded the environmental (10.6% and shared (4% components of variation, but we found only minor differences between native and non-native assemblages. This could result from the ecological flexibility of both, native and non-native harvestmen that are not restricted to urban habitats but also inhabit surrounding semi-natural landscapes. Nevertheless, urban landcover variables explained more variation in the non-native community, whereas coverage of semi-natural habitats (forests, rivers at broader radii better explained the native assemblage. This indicates that some urban characteristics apparently facilitate the establishment of non-native species. We found no evidence for competitive replacement of native by invasive species, but a community with novel combination of native and non-native species.

  19. Optical Arrangement and Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Processing of electromagnetic radiation is described, said incoming electromagnetic radiation comprising radiation in a first wavelength interval and a plurality of spatial frequencies. An arrangement comprises a focusing arrangement for focusing the incoming electromagnetic radiation, a first ca...

  20. Effect of spatial arrangement and density on weed infestation and yield of maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.; Huang, Z.; Huang, H.; Wei, S.

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during summer season 2012 and consequently repeated in 2013 to assess the efficacy of row and plant spacing on weed infestation and yield of maize crop. The experiments were carried out in Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with split plot arrangements. Three row spacings i.e. 60, 75 and 90 cm were assigned to main plots while different plant spacings i.e. 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm were allotted to subplots, respectively. The results showed that for both the years narrow row and plant spacing effectively suppressed weeds while wider row and plant spacing resulted in higher weed density. The data showed that the maximum weed density (202.07 and 218.70 m-2) was recorded in 90 cm row spacing in 2012 and 2013, respectively. However, among plant spacing highest weed density of 214.89 m-2 and 219.83 m-2 was recorded in 30 cm plant spacing during 2012 and 2013, respectively. The data regarding biological yield showed maximum biological yield in 60 cm row spacing while among plant spacing the highest biological yield was resulted in narrow plant spacing of 10 cm during both years. Furthermore, highest grain yield of 4928.9 kg ha-1 in 2012 and 5063.9 kg ha-1 in 2013 was recorded in 75 cm row spacing while lowest grain yield of 3026 kg ha-1 in 2012 and 3989 kg ha-1 in 2013 was observed for 90 cm row spacing. Among plant spacing highest grain yield of 4474.8 kg ha-1 and 5228.5 kg ha-1 was recorded in 15 cm plant spacing whereas lowest grain yield of 3554 kg ha-1 and 4010.6 kg ha-1 was observed for 30 cm row spacing in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The regression analysis also showed highest grain yield form 15-20 cm plant spacing during both years. Similarly the correlation data showed that with increase in weed density the grain yield decreases accordingly. The two years of research showed that narrow spacing (15-20 x 75 cm) enhanced the competitive ability of maize crop and suppressed weed growth. (author)

  1. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Jochem B; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-05-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed plants for light compared to a random and a row planting pattern, and how this ability relates to crop and weed plant density as well as the relative time of emergence of the weed. To this end, we adopted the functional-structural plant modelling approach which allowed us to explicitly include the 3D spatial configuration of the crop-weed canopy and to simulate intra- and interspecific competition between individual plants for light. Based on results of simulated leaf area development, canopy photosynthesis and biomass growth of the crop, we conclude that differences between planting pattern were small, particularly if compared to the effects of relative time of emergence of the weed, weed density and crop density. Nevertheless, analysis of simulated weed biomass demonstrated that a uniform planting of the crop improved the weed-suppression ability of the crop canopy. Differences in weed suppressiveness between planting patterns were largest with weed emergence before crop emergence, when the suppressive effect of the crop was only marginal. With simultaneous emergence a uniform planting pattern was 8 and 15 % more competitive than a row and a random planting pattern, respectively. When weed emergence occurred after crop emergence, differences between crop planting patterns further decreased as crop canopy closure was reached early on regardless of planting pattern. We furthermore conclude that our modelling approach provides promising avenues to further explore crop-weed interactions and aid in the design of crop management strategies that aim at improving crop competitiveness with weeds.

  2. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  3. FLOW CHAMBER STUDY OF THE ADHESION OF PREVOTELLA-INTERMEDIA TO GLASS AFTER PRECONDITIONING WITH MUTANS STREPTOCOCCAL SPECIES - KINETICS AND SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    COWAN, M; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1993-01-01

    The adhesion kinetics and spatial arrangement of a clinical isolate of Prevotella intermedia on bare glass and on glass which had been previously exposed to Streptococcus rattus or Streptococcus cricetus were studied using a parallel plate flow system and image analysis. When S. cricetus was the

  4. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs

  6. An optimal staggered harvesting strategy for herbaceous biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, M.G.; English, B.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Biofuel research over the past two decades indicates lignocellulosic crops are a reliable source of feedstock for alternative energy. However, under the current technology of producing, harvesting and converting biomass crops, the cost of biofuel is not competitive with conventional biofuel. Cost of harvesting biomass feedstock is a single largest component of feedstock cost so there is a cost advantage in designing a biomass harvesting system. Traditional farmer-initiated harvesting operation causes over investment. This study develops a least-cost, time-distributed (staggered) harvesting system for example switch grass, that calls for an effective coordination between farmers, processing plant and a single third-party custom harvester. A linear programming model explicitly accounts for the trade-off between yield loss and benefit of reduced machinery overhead cost, associated with the staggered harvesting system. Total cost of producing and harvesting switch grass will decline by 17.94 percent from conventional non-staggered to proposed staggered harvesting strategy. Harvesting machinery cost alone experiences a significant reduction of 39.68 percent from moving from former to latter. The net return to farmers is estimated to increase by 160.40 percent. Per tonne and per hectare costs of feedstock production will decline by 17.94 percent and 24.78 percent, respectively. These results clearly lend support to the view that the traditional system of single period harvesting calls for over investment on agricultural machinery which escalates the feedstock cost. This social loss to the society in the form of escalated harvesting cost can be avoided if there is a proper coordination among farmers, processing plant and custom harvesters as to when and how biomass crop needs to be planted and harvested. Such an institutional arrangement benefits producers, processing plant and, in turn, end users of biofuels.

  7. Vineyard weeds control practices impact on surface water transfers: using numerical tracer experiment coupled to a distributed hydrological model to manage agricultural practices spatial arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, F.; Moussa, R.

    2009-04-01

    In rural basins, agricultural landscape management highly influences water and pollutants transfers. Landuse, agricultural practices and their spatial arrangements are at issue. Hydrological model are widely used to explore impacts of anthropogenic influences on experimental catchments. But planning all spatial arrangements leads to a possible cases count which cannot be considered. On the basis of the recent « numerical experiment » approach, we propose a « numerical tracer function » which had to be coupled to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This function simulate the transfer of a virtual tracer successively spread on each distributed unit inside the catchment. It allows to rank hydrological spatial units according to their hydrological contribution to the surface flows, particularly at the catchment outlet. It was used with the distributed model MHYDAS in an agricultural context. The case study concerns the experimental Roujan vine-growing catchment (1km², south of France) studied since 1992. In this Mediterranean context, we focus on the soil hydraulic conductivity distributed parameter because it highly depends on weed control practices (chemical weeding induces a lot more runoff than mechanical weeding). We checked model sensitivity analysis to soil hydraulic conductivity spatial arrangement on runoff coefficient, peak discharge and catchment lag-time. Results show (i) the use of the tracer function is more efficient than a random approach to improve sensitivity to spatial arrangements from point of view of simulated discharge range, (ii) the first factor explaining hydrological simulations variability was practices area ratio, (iii) variability induced by practices spatial arrangements was significant on runoff coefficient and peak discharge for balanced practices area ratio and on lag-time for low area ratio of chemical weeding practices. From the actual situation on the experimental Roujan catchment (40% of tilled and 60% of non tilled vineyard

  8. Correlation between spatial (3D) structure of pea and bean thylakoid membranes and arrangement of chlorophyll-protein complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumak, Izabela; Mazur, Radoslaw; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Koziol-Lipinska, Joanna; Kierdaszuk, Borys; Michalski, Wojtek P.; Shiell, Brian J.; Venema, Jan Henk; Vredenberg, Wim J.; Mostowska, Agnieszka; Garstka, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Background: The thylakoid system in plant chloroplasts is organized into two distinct domains: grana arranged in stacks of appressed membranes and non-appressed membranes consisting of stroma thylakoids and margins of granal stacks. It is argued that the reason for the development of appressed

  9. Agrupamentos preferenciais e não-preferenciais e arranjos espaciais em creches Preferential and no preferential groups and spatial arrangements in day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara I. Campos-de-Carvalho

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar o impacto do arranjo espacial para ocorrência de agrupamentos preferenciais e não-preferenciais, analisou-se a ocupação do espaço por crianças de 2-3 anos de duas creches da região de Ribeirão Preto (SP, que atendem famílias de baixa renda. Os dados foram obtidos por duas câmeras fotográficas automáticas, ativadas a cada 30 segundos, em três fases: I - arranjo aberto: habitual (4 sessões; II - arranjo aberto: introdução de estantes nas laterais (6 sessões; III - arranjo semi-aberto: montagem de duas zonas circunscritas (6 sessões. Proximidade física foi utilizada para registrar os agrupamentos, verificando-se: maior estruturação espacial acarretou aumento significativo nos agrupamentos, especialmente com três ou mais crianças; maior ocorrência de agrupamentos nas áreas das estantes (FII e nas zonas circunscritas (FIII, sendo significativa para os não-preferenciais; maior ocupação da zona do adulto na fase inicial, significativa para os não-preferenciais. Concluindo, há evidências da relevância do arranjo espacial para ocorrência de agrupamentos, principalmente para os não-preferenciais.The role of spatial arrangement in the occurrence of preferential and no preferential groups is examined. The spatial distribution of 2- to 3-year-old children from two day care centers serving low income families in the Ribeirão Preto (SP area was analyzed. Data were collected by two automatic photographic cameras shooting at every 30 seconds, in three phases: I - open arrangement: the usual space (4 sessions; II - open arrangement: inclusion of shelves along the periphery of the space (6 sessions; III - semi-open arrangement: formation of two circumscribed zones (6 sessions. Physical proximity was used to record the peer groups. The analysis showed: a significant increase in the occurrence of peer groups with increased spatial structure, especially with three or more children; a preferential occurrence of peer

  10. Spatial arrangement and functional role of α subunits of proteasome activator PA28 in hetero-oligomeric form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Masaaki, E-mail: sugiyama@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Sahashi, Hiroki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 467-8603 (Japan); Kurimoto, Eiji [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 467-8603 (Japan); Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya 468-8503 (Japan); Takata, Shin-ichi [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yagi, Hirokazu; Kanai, Keita; Sakata, Eri [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 467-8603 (Japan); Minami, Yasufumi [Department of Biotechnology, Maebashi Institute of Technology, Gunma 371-0816 (Japan); Tanaka, Keiji [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Kato, Koichi, E-mail: kkatonmr@ims.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 467-8603 (Japan); Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787 (Japan); Institute for Molecular Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8787 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Homologous α and β subunits are alternatively arranged in the PA28 heptameric ring. ► The flexible loops of the three α subunits surround the site of substrate entry. ► The loops serve as gatekeepers that selectively hinder passage of longer peptides. - Abstract: A major form of proteasome activator PA28 is a heteroheptamer composed of interferon-γ-inducible α and β subunits, which share approximately 50% amino acid identity and possess distinct insert loops. This activator forms a complex with the 20S proteasome and thereby stimulates proteasomal degradation of peptides in an ATP-independent manner, giving rise to smaller antigenic peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In this study, we performed biophysical and biochemical characterization of the structure and function of the PA28 hetero-oligomer. Deuteration-assisted small-angle neutron scattering demonstrated three α and four β subunits are alternately arranged in the heptameric ring. In this arrangement, PA28 loops surround the central pore of the heptameric ring (site for peptide entry). Activating the 20S proteasome with a PA28 mutant that lacked the α subunit loops cleaved model substrates longer than a nonapeptide with better efficiency when compared to wild-type PA28. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the flexible PA28 loops act as gatekeepers, which function to select the length of peptide substrates to be transported between the proteolytic chamber and the extra-proteasomal medium.

  11. Sanitation policy and spatial planning in urban East Africa: Diverging sanitation spaces and actor arrangements in Kampala and Kisumu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sanitation policies and spatial planning in Kampala (Uganda) and Kisumu (Kenya) from colonial times to date and their implications for the sitting of sanitation technologies and involving actors. During colonial times, a strict spatial duality was maintained between immigrants

  12. Beyond comparison: The influence of physical size on number estimation is modulated by notation, range and spatial arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovich, Tali; Al-Rubaiey Kadhim, Saja; Ansari, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Can physical size affect number estimation? Previous studies have shown that physical size influences non-symbolic numerosity in comparison tasks (e.g. which of two dots is larger). The current study investigated the conditions under which physical size can affect numerosity estimation. We employed a line mapping task in order to avoid the context of comparison and the need to provide a verbal label to estimate a quantity. Adult participants were briefly presented with the digits 2-8 or groups of 2-8 dots in 3 different physical sizes and were asked to estimate the position of a presented numerosity on a vertical line from 0 to 10. Physical size affected number estimation only above the subitizing range (i.e., >4) and only for non-symbolic numbers (e.g. dot arrays). Presenting non-symbolic numbers as canonical arrangements (like on a game die) reduced the effect of the physical size in the counting range (5-9). Accordingly, we suggest that the effect of task-irrelevant physical size on performance is modulated by the ability of participants to provide an accurate estimate of number: when the estimated number is easier to perceive (i.e., subitizing range or canonical arrangements), the influence of the physical size is smaller compared to when it is more difficult to give an accurate estimate of number (i.e., counting range, random arrangement). By doing so, we describe the factors that modulate the effect of physical size on number processing and provide another example of the important role continuous properties, such as physical size, play in non-symbolic number processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Weak interaction matrix elements with staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-08-01

    An overview of the results of the Los Alamos Advanced Computing Group is given. The theory behind the measurement of Weak Interaction Matrix Elements using staggered fermions is presented, and contrasted with that for Wilson fermions. This is followed by a preliminary discussion of numerical results on a 12 3 x 30 lattice. 10 refs., 4 figs

  14. Kaon decay amplitudes using staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    A status report is given of an attempt, using staggered fermions to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the amplitudes for K → ππ,. Semi-quantitative results are found for the imaginary parts, and these suggest that ε' might be smaller than previously expected in the standard model

  15. The use of staggered scheme and an absorbing buffer zone for computational aeroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.

    1995-01-01

    Various problems from those proposed for the Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) workshop were studied using second and fourth order staggered spatial discretizations in conjunction with fourth order Runge-Kutta time integration. In addition, an absorbing buffer zone was used at the outflow boundaries. Promising results were obtained and provide a basis for application of these techniques to a wider variety of problems.

  16. Gap states and edge properties of rectangular graphene quantum dot in staggered potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Y. H.; Eric Yang, S.-R.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate edge properties of a gapful rectangular graphene quantum dot in a staggered potential. In such a system gap states with discrete and closely spaced energy levels exist that are spatially located on the left or right zigzag edge. We find that, although the bulk states outside the energy gap are nearly unaffected, spin degeneracy of each gap state is lifted by the staggered potential. We have computed the occupation numbers of spin-up and -down gap states at various values of the strength of the staggered potential. The electronic and magnetic properties of the zigzag edges depend sensitively on these numbers. We discuss the possibility of applying this system as a single electron spintronic device.

  17. When a robot is social: spatial arrangements and multimodal semiotic engagement in the practice of social robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alac, Morana; Movellan, Javier; Tanaka, Fumihide

    2011-12-01

    Social roboticists design their robots to function as social agents in interaction with humans and other robots. Although we do not deny that the robot's design features are crucial for attaining this aim, we point to the relevance of spatial organization and coordination between the robot and the humans who interact with it. We recover these interactions through an observational study of a social robotics laboratory and examine them by applying a multimodal interactional analysis to two moments of robotics practice. We describe the vital role of roboticists and of the group of preverbal infants, who are involved in a robot's design activity, and we argue that the robot's social character is intrinsically related to the subtleties of human interactional moves in laboratories of social robotics. This human involvement in the robot's social agency is not simply controlled by individual will. Instead, the human-machine couplings are demanded by the situational dynamics in which the robot is lodged.

  18. Fan Stagger Angle for Dirt Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Rose, Becky E. (Inventor); Brilliant, Lisa I. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, a propulsor coupled to be rotated about an axis by the turbine through the spool, and a gear assembly coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extend from the hub. Each of the propulsor blades has a span between a root at the hub and a tip, and a chord between a leading edge and a trailing edge. The chord forms a stagger angle alpha with the axis, and the stagger angle alpha is less than 15 deg. at a position along the propulsor blade that is within an inboard 20% of the span.

  19. Staggered broad-band reflecting multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, O S; Liddell, H M

    1966-03-01

    Considerable broadening of the reflectance band of a multilayer stack may be obtained by staggering the layer thicknesses in such a way that they form either an arithmetic or geometric progression. Results are shown for asymmetric and symmetric filters of 15, 25, and 35 layers. The presence of the narrowband transmission peaks exhibited by the symmetric filters is explained, and the advantages of the use of this type of filter as an interference filter is discussed.

  20. Topography and spatial arrangement of reef-building corals on the fringing reefs of North Jamaica may influence their response to disturbance from bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, M J C

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of factors that are important in reef resilience helps us understand how reefs react following major environmental disturbances such as hurricanes and bleaching. Here we test factors that might have influenced Jamaican reef resilience to, and subsequent recovery from, the 2005 bleaching event, and which might help inform management policy for reefs in the future: reef rugosity and contact of corals with macroalgae. In addition, we test in the field, on Dairy Bull reef, whether aggregated Porites astreoides colonies exhibit enhanced growth when exposed to superior competition from Acopora palmata, as has been found by experiment with the Indo-Pacific corals Porites lobata and the superior competitor Porites rus [Idjadi, J.A., Karlson, R.H., 2007. Spatial arrangement of competitors influences coexistence of reef-building corals. Ecology 88, 2449-2454]. There were significant linear relationships between rugosity and the increase in smallest size classes for Sidastrea siderea, Colpophyllia natans, P. astreoides and Agaricia species, and between rugosity and cover of the branching coral Acropora cervicornis. Linear extension rates of A. cervicornis and radial growth rates of P. astreoides were significantly lower (p6) when in contact with macroalgae. Aggregated colonies of P. astreoides in contact with one another, one of which was in contact with the faster growing competitor A. palmata showed significantly greater growth rates than with just two aggregated P. astreoides colonies alone. These findings suggest that three dimensional topography and complexity is important for reef resilience and viability in the face of environmental stressors such as bleaching. Our findings also support the idea that aggregated spatial arrangements of corals can influence the outcome of interspecific competition and promote species coexistence, important in times of reef recovery after disturbance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Optimization of urban green space spatial arrangement based on supply-demand analysis: a case study in Nanjing City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Kun-Peng; Xu, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Urban green space has the functions of ecological and social services, and the two services levels are decided by the supply-demand relationship. However, the supply-demand of green space not only involves in quantity, but also refers to spatial distribution. Therefore, only greening indicators can not wholly reflect the true levels of green space services. Based on the supply-demand analysis and supported by the ArcGIS, this paper examined the ecological and social services levels of the urban green spaces in Nanjing City by using the evenness indicator and the rate the people could enjoy the public green space in their accessible area. Accordingly, the ecological and social services levels of the green space in the City were investigated. The results showed that in the east of Nanjing City, green spaces were rich, but high accessible ones were lack, which resulted in a moderate social service level. In the center of the City, green spaces were lack and distributed unevenly, resulting in the low levels of ecological and social services. In Hexi area, due to the shortage in ecological green space and its uneven distribution, the green spaces had a high level social service but a low level ecological service. In the southern and northern areas of the City, green spaces were in deficiency, uneven distribution, and lack in high accessible.

  2. Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.

  3. Facilitating Children’s Ability to Distinguish Symbols for Emotions: The Effects of Background Color Cues and Spatial Arrangement of Symbols on Accuracy and Speed of Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Snell, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Communication about feelings is a core element of human interaction. Aided augmentative and alternative communication systems must therefore include symbols representing these concepts. The symbols must be readily distinguishable in order for users to communicate effectively. However, emotions are represented within most systems by schematic faces in which subtle distinctions are difficult to represent. We examined whether background color cuing and spatial arrangement might help children identify symbols for different emotions. Methods Thirty nondisabled children searched for symbols representing emotions within an 8-choice array. On some trials, a color cue signaled the valence of the emotion (positive vs. negative). Additionally, symbols were either organized with the negatively-valenced symbols at the top and the positive symbols on the bottom of the display, or the symbols were distributed randomly throughout. Dependent variables were accuracy and speed of responses. Results The speed with which children could locate a target was significantly faster for displays in which symbols were clustered by valence, but only when the symbols had white backgrounds. Addition of a background color cue did not facilitate responses. Conclusions Rapid search was facilitated by a spatial organization cue, but not by the addition of background color. Further examination of the situations in which color cues may be useful is warranted. PMID:21813821

  4. Investigation of writing error in staggered heated-dot magnetic recording systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipcharoen, W.; Warisarn, C.; Tongsomporn, D.; Karns, D.; Kovintavewat, P.

    2017-05-01

    To achieve an ultra-high storage capacity, heated-dot magnetic recording (HDMR) has been proposed, which heats a bit-patterned medium before recording data. Generally, an error during the HDMR writing process comes from several sources; however, we only investigate the effects of staggered island arrangement, island size fluctuation caused by imperfect fabrication, and main pole position fluctuation. Simulation results demonstrate that a writing error can be minimized by using a staggered array (hexagonal lattice) instead of a square array. Under the effect of main pole position fluctuation, the writing error is higher than the system without main pole position fluctuation. Finally, we found that the error percentage can drop below 10% when the island size is 8.5 nm and the standard deviation of the island size is 1 nm in the absence of main pole jitter.

  5. Energy Stability Analysis of Some Fully Discrete Numerical Schemes for Incompressible Navier–Stokes Equations on Staggered Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huangxin

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we consider the energy stability estimates for some fully discrete schemes which both consider time and spatial discretizations for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. We focus on three kinds of fully discrete schemes, i.e., the linear implicit scheme for time discretization with the finite difference method (FDM) on staggered grids for spatial discretization, pressure-correction schemes for time discretization with the FDM on staggered grids for the solutions of the decoupled velocity and pressure equations, and pressure-stabilization schemes for time discretization with the FDM on staggered grids for the solutions of the decoupled velocity and pressure equations. The energy stability estimates are obtained for the above each fully discrete scheme. The upwind scheme is used in the discretization of the convection term which plays an important role in the design of unconditionally stable discrete schemes. Numerical results are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  6. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  7. Perturbative improvement of staggered fermions using fat links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Weonjong

    2002-01-01

    We study the possibility of improving staggered fermions using various fat links in order to reduce perturbative corrections to the gauge-invariant staggered fermion operators. We prove five theorems on SU(3) projection, triviality in renormalization, multiple SU(3) projections, uniqueness, and equivalence. As a result of these theorems, we show that, at the one-loop level, the renormalization of staggered fermion operators is identical between SU(3) projected Fat7 links and hypercubic links, as long as the action and operators are constructed by imposing the same perturbative improvement condition. In addition, we propose a new view of SU(3) projection as a tool of tadpole improvement for the staggered fermion doublers. As a conclusion, we present alternative choices of constructing fat links to improve the staggered fermion action and operators, which deserve further investigation

  8. X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F. E-mail: vfd217@ire216.msk.su; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A

    2004-09-21

    The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 {mu}A min/(Gy cm{sup 2}). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received.

  9. X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F.; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 μA min/(Gy cm 2 ). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received

  10. Staggered Pairing Phenomenology for UBe_13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martisovits, V.; Cox, D. L.

    1998-03-01

    The staggered-pairing Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology based upon Cooper pairs with a finite center-of-mass momentum was previously applied to the hexagonal heavy-fermion superconductors UPt_3,(R. Heid, Ya. B. Bazaliy, V. Martisovits, and D. L. Cox, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 2571 (1995). UPd_2Al_3, and UNi_2Al_3.(V. Martisovits and D. L. Cox (to be published); Report No. cond-mat/9706245.) Here we apply this phenomenology to study the cubic heavy-fermion superconductor UBe_13. We find the momentum of Cooper pairs to be at X points on the Brillouin-zone boundary and identify a three-component superconducting order parameter transforming as an X-point irreducible representation of the space group. Minimizing the free energy, we find possible superconducting phases and the upper critical field H_c2. We investigate coupling to strain fields and the possibility of magnetic order and charge-density waves induced by superconductivity. To explain multiple superconducting phases in the temperature-thorium-concentration phase diagram of U_1-xTh_xBe_13, we model the influence of thorium in terms of random tetragonal strain fields.

  11. A Study of a Powder Coating Gun Near Field: Particle Flow in an Isothermal Staggered Concentric Air Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Payne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of inert particle dispersion in an isothermal concentric air jet near field was conducted for cases of standard non-staggered and alternative staggered jet nozzles, each taken from a polymer powder flame deposition gun. The experimental work consisted of analysis of high speed digital images of the inert two phase isothermal jet flow, illuminated by a laser light sheet along and across the jet axis. The analysis of particle spread in the jet, represented by families of particle density distributions, clearly showed that the staggered nozzles resulted in a better-focused flow, with narrower distributions in the near field, and in the elimination of the recirculation zone that disrupted the particle flow in a non-staggered nozzle arrangement. In all cases, histograms of the cross-sectional particle area density were found to be approximately Gaussian. It was also found that there was a wide variation in the size and shape of the ground polymer particles used and these two characteristics caused a wide variation in the radial and axial velocities of the particles. Despite the differences between single-phase numerical simulations and experimental results, reported in Payne et al. [1], the introduction of particles into a numerical model produced satisfactory agreement with the particle velocities found experimentally.

  12. PUMP ARRANGEMENT COMPRISING A SAFETY VALVE ARRANGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Martin; Wackerle, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A pump arrangement comprises a microfluidic pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which is configured to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, wherein the pump inlet (22) and an inlet (46) of the pump arrangement are fluidically connected. The pump arrangement further comprises a safety valve arrangement having first safety valve (40), the first safety valve (40) being arranged between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comp...

  13. Estimation of Parameters of CCF with Staggered Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung-Ki; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    Common cause failures are extremely important in reliability analysis and would be dominant to risk contributor in a high reliable system such as a nuclear power plant. Of particular concern is common cause failure (CCF) that degrades redundancy or diversity implemented to improve a reliability of systems. Most of analyses of parameters of CCF models such as beta factor model, alpha factor model, and MGL(Multiple Greek Letters) model deal a system with a nonstaggered testing strategy. Non-staggered testing is that all components are tested at the same time (or at least the same shift) and staggered testing is that if there is a failure in the first component, all the other components are tested immediately, and if it succeeds, no more is done until the next scheduled testing time. Both of them are applied in the nuclear power plants. The strategy, however, is not explicitly described in the technical specifications, but implicitly in the periodic test procedure. For example, some redundant components particularly important to safety are being tested with staggered testing strategy. Others are being performed with non-staggered testing strategy. This paper presents the parameter estimator of CCF model such as beta factor model, MGL model, and alpha factor model with staggered testing strategy. In addition, a new CCF model, rho factor model, is proposed and its parameter is presented with staggered testing strategy

  14. Entropy Stable Staggered Grid Spectral Collocation for the Burgers' and Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [1, 2], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to a combination of tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semi-discrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for both Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly to implement. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinearly stability proof for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).

  15. LaMEM: a Massively Parallel Staggered-Grid Finite-Difference Code for Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Lithospheric Deformation with Visco-Elasto-Plastic Rheologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, B.; Popov, A.

    2014-12-01

    The complexity of lithospheric rheology and the necessity to resolve the deformation patterns near the free surface (faults and folds) sufficiently well places a great demand on a stable and scalable modeling tool that is capable of efficiently handling nonlinearities. Our code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model) is an attempt to satisfy this demand. The code utilizes a stable and numerically inexpensive finite difference discretization with the spatial staggering of velocity, pressure, and temperature unknowns (a so-called staggered grid). As a time discretization method the forward Euler, or a combination of the predictor-corrector and the fourth-order Runge-Kutta can be chosen. Elastic stresses are rotated on the markers, which are also used to track all relevant material properties and solution history fields. The Newtonian nonlinear iteration, however, is handled at the level of the grid points to avoid spurious averaging between markers and grid. Such an arrangement required us to develop a non-standard discretization of the effective strain-rate second invariant. Important feature of the code is its ability to handle stress-free and open-box boundary conditions, in which empty cells are simply eliminated from the discretization, which also solves the biggest problem of the sticky-air approach - namely large viscosity jumps near the free surface. We currently support an arbitrary combination of linear elastic, nonlinear viscous with multiple creep mechanisms, and plastic rheologies based on either a depth-dependent von Mises or pressure-dependent Drucker-Prager yield criteria.LaMEM is being developed as an inherently parallel code. Structurally all its parts are based on the building blocks provided by PETSc library. These include Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov nonlinear solvers with convergence globalization techniques (line search), equipped with different linear preconditioners. We have also implemented the coupled velocity-pressure multigrid

  16. Heavy-light semileptonic decays in staggered chiral perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, C.; Bernard, C.

    2007-07-01

    We calculate the form factors for the semileptonic decays of heavy-light pseudoscalar mesons in partially quenched staggered chiral perturbation theory (SχPT), working to leading order in 1/mQ, where mQ is the heavy-quark mass. We take the light meson in the final state to be a pseudoscalar corresponding to the exact chiral symmetry of staggered quarks. The treatment assumes the validity of the standard prescription for representing the staggered “fourth-root trick” within SχPT by insertions of factors of 1/4 for each sea-quark loop. Our calculation is based on an existing partially quenched continuum chiral perturbation theory calculation with degenerate sea quarks by Bećirević, Prelovsek, and Zupan, which we generalize to the staggered (and nondegenerate) case. As a byproduct, we obtain the continuum partially quenched results with nondegenerate sea quarks. We analyze the effects of nonleading chiral terms, and find a relation among the coefficients governing the analytic valence mass dependence at this order. Our results are useful in analyzing lattice computations of form factors B→π and D→K, when the light quarks are simulated with the staggered action.

  17. Effect of wall proximity of two staggered triangular cylinders on the transport process in a channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Farhadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the heat transfer and the flow field around two isothermal triangular cylinders of equal size placed staggered in a horizontal plane channel with adiabatic walls. Computations have been carried out for Reynolds numbers (based on triangle width 100, 250, and 350, lateral gap ratios (d/B 0, 0.5, and 1, and longitudinal gap ratios (S/B 1, 2, 3 and 4. The effect of longitudinal and lateral gap between obstacles and proximity of channel walls is investigated. Results show that when obstacles are placed in close vicinity of the channel's wall (d/B = 1, vortex shedding disappears at the downstream of triangles at Re = 100 and 250 at all S/B, but for Re = 350 creating and disappearing of the vortex shedding depend on the longitudinal gap ratio (S/B. Proximity of obstacles has more effect on the second triangle than the first triangle especially from longitudinal gap ratio equals 2, so that with approaching the channel wall, the Nusselt number for the first triangle decreases, while for the second triangle a different behavior is seen. Staggered arrangement causes the Nusselt number of the second triangle to become greater than the first triangle.

  18. Correlation analysis of fracture arrangement in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Randall; Gale, Julia F. W.; Gómez, Leonel A.; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2018-03-01

    We present new techniques that overcome limitations of standard approaches to documenting spatial arrangement. The new techniques directly quantify spatial arrangement by normalizing to expected values for randomly arranged fractures. The techniques differ in terms of computational intensity, robustness of results, ability to detect anti-correlation, and use of fracture size data. Variation of spatial arrangement across a broad range of length scales facilitates distinguishing clustered and periodic arrangements-opposite forms of organization-from random arrangements. Moreover, self-organized arrangements can be distinguished from arrangements due to extrinsic organization. Traditional techniques for analysis of fracture spacing are hamstrung because they account neither for the sequence of fracture spacings nor for possible coordination between fracture size and position, attributes accounted for by our methods. All of the new techniques reveal fractal clustering in a test case of veins, or cement-filled opening-mode fractures, in Pennsylvanian Marble Falls Limestone. The observed arrangement is readily distinguishable from random and periodic arrangements. Comparison of results that account for fracture size with results that ignore fracture size demonstrates that spatial arrangement is dominated by the sequence of fracture spacings, rather than coordination of fracture size with position. Fracture size and position are not completely independent in this example, however, because large fractures are more clustered than small fractures. Both spatial and size organization of veins here probably emerged from fracture interaction during growth. The new approaches described here, along with freely available software to implement the techniques, can be applied with effect to a wide range of structures, or indeed many other phenomena such as drilling response, where spatial heterogeneity is an issue.

  19. Effects of Front-Loading and Stagger Angle on Endwall Losses of High Lift Low Pressure Turbine Vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    length scale at z/H = 0.20 ………….… 131 Fig. E.1 Traverse arrangement to enable 3D movement inside the wind tunnel …..… 132 Fig. E.2 Diagram of in...2 ] USAF = United States Air Force 2D = two-dimensional 3D = three-dimensional 1 EFFECTS OF FRONT-LOADING AND STAGGER ANGLE ON ENDWALL...within the wakes. I used Druck LPM 5481 pressure transducers, calibrated using a Ruska 7250LP laboratory standard (the reported accuracy is within

  20. Voluntary Environmental Governance Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently

  1. Reaction mechanisms and staggering in S+Ni collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad.R.

    2011-01-01

    The reactions 32 S+ 58 Ni and 32 S+ 64 Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. After a selection of the collision mechanism, we show that important even-odd effects are present in the isotopic fragment distributions when the excitation energy is small. Close to the multifragmentation threshold this staggering appears hidden by the rapid variation of the production yields with the fragment size. Once this effect is accounted for, the staggering appears to be a universal feature of fragment production, slightly enhanced when the emission source is neutron poor. A closer look at the behavior of the production yields as a function of the neutron excess N-Z, reveals that odd-even effects cannot be explained by pairing effects in the nuclear masses alone, but depend in a more complex way on the de-excitation chain.

  2. LES investigation of infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    The layouts of turbines affect the turbine wake interactions and thus the wind farm performance. The wake interactions in infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays are investigated and compared with infinite aligned turbine arrays in this paper. From the numerical results we identify three types of wake behaviours, which are significantly different from wakes in aligned wind-turbine arrays. For the first type, each turbine wake interferes with the pair of staggered downstream turbine wakes and the aligned downstream turbine. For the second type, each turbine wake interacts with the first two downstream turbine wakes but does not show significant interference with the second aligned downstream turbine. For the third type, each turbine wake recovers immediately after passing through the gap of the first two downstream turbines and has little interaction with the second downstream turbine wakes The extracted power density and power efficiency are also studied and compared with aligned wind-turbine arrays

  3. MILC staggered conjugate gradient performance on Intel KNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruiz [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Detar, Carleton [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Doerfler, Douglas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Jha, Asish [Intel Corp., Hillsboro, OR (United States). Sofware and Services Group; Kalamkar, Dhiraj [Intel Labs., Bangalore (India). Parallel Computing Lab.; Toussaint, Doug [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Physics Dept.

    2016-11-03

    We review our work done to optimize the staggered conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm in the MILC code for use with the Intel Knights Landing (KNL) architecture. KNL is the second gener- ation Intel Xeon Phi processor. It is capable of massive thread parallelism, data parallelism, and high on-board memory bandwidth and is being adopted in supercomputing centers for scientific research. The CG solver consumes the majority of time in production running, so we have spent most of our effort on it. We compare performance of an MPI+OpenMP baseline version of the MILC code with a version incorporating the QPhiX staggered CG solver, for both one-node and multi-node runs.

  4. An interpretation of staggering effects by correlation observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiocco G.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The reactions 32S+58,64Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for odd-even effects in isotopic observables of the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique, showing that odd-even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.

  5. Specification and spatial arrangement of cells in the germline stem cell niche of the Drosophila ovary depend on the Maf transcription factor Traffic jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Trupti; Chen, Xi; Alchits, Ekaterina; Oh, Youjin; Poon, James; Kouptsova, Jane; Laski, Frank A; Godt, Dorothea

    2017-05-01

    Germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary are maintained by a somatic niche. The niche is structurally and functionally complex and contains four cell types, the escort, cap, and terminal filament cells and the newly identified transition cell. We find that the large Maf transcription factor Traffic jam (Tj) is essential for determining niche cell fates and architecture, enabling each niche in the ovary to support a normal complement of 2-3 germline stem cells. In particular, we focused on the question of how cap cells form. Cap cells express Tj and are considered the key component of a mature germline stem cell niche. We conclude that Tj controls the specification of cap cells, as the complete loss of Tj function caused the development of additional terminal filament cells at the expense of cap cells, and terminal filament cells developed cap cell characteristics when induced to express Tj. Further, we propose that Tj controls the morphogenetic behavior of cap cells as they adopted the shape and spatial organization of terminal filament cells but otherwise appeared to retain their fate when Tj expression was only partially reduced. Our data indicate that Tj contributes to the establishment of germline stem cells by promoting the cap cell fate, and controls the stem cell-carrying capacity of the niche by regulating niche architecture. Analysis of the interactions between Tj and the Notch (N) pathway indicates that Tj and N have distinct functions in the cap cell specification program. We propose that formation of cap cells depends on the combined activities of Tj and the N pathway, with Tj promoting the cap cell fate by blocking the terminal filament cell fate, and N supporting cap cells by preventing the escort cell fate and/or controlling the number of cap cell precursors.

  6. Specification and spatial arrangement of cells in the germline stem cell niche of the Drosophila ovary depend on the Maf transcription factor Traffic jam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti Panchal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary are maintained by a somatic niche. The niche is structurally and functionally complex and contains four cell types, the escort, cap, and terminal filament cells and the newly identified transition cell. We find that the large Maf transcription factor Traffic jam (Tj is essential for determining niche cell fates and architecture, enabling each niche in the ovary to support a normal complement of 2-3 germline stem cells. In particular, we focused on the question of how cap cells form. Cap cells express Tj and are considered the key component of a mature germline stem cell niche. We conclude that Tj controls the specification of cap cells, as the complete loss of Tj function caused the development of additional terminal filament cells at the expense of cap cells, and terminal filament cells developed cap cell characteristics when induced to express Tj. Further, we propose that Tj controls the morphogenetic behavior of cap cells as they adopted the shape and spatial organization of terminal filament cells but otherwise appeared to retain their fate when Tj expression was only partially reduced. Our data indicate that Tj contributes to the establishment of germline stem cells by promoting the cap cell fate, and controls the stem cell-carrying capacity of the niche by regulating niche architecture. Analysis of the interactions between Tj and the Notch (N pathway indicates that Tj and N have distinct functions in the cap cell specification program. We propose that formation of cap cells depends on the combined activities of Tj and the N pathway, with Tj promoting the cap cell fate by blocking the terminal filament cell fate, and N supporting cap cells by preventing the escort cell fate and/or controlling the number of cap cell precursors.

  7. Entropy Stable Staggered Grid Discontinuous Spectral Collocation Methods of any Order for the Compressible Navier--Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo

    2016-10-04

    Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for the compressible Euler and Navier--Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [M. H. Carpenter, T. C. Fisher, E. J. Nielsen, and S. H. Frankel, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 36 (2014), pp. B835--B867, M. Parsani, M. H. Carpenter, and E. J. Nielsen, J. Comput. Phys., 292 (2015), pp. 88--113], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre--Gauss--Lobatto (LGL), to a combination of tensor product Legendre--Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semidiscrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy, and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for the compressible Navier--Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly from a theoretical point of view. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinear stability proof for the compressible Navier--Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).

  8. Comparison of different digital elevation models and satellite imagery for lineament analysis: Implications for identification and spatial arrangement of fault zones in crystalline basement rocks of the southern Black Forest (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, J.; Grimmer, J. C.; Becker, A.; Schill, E.; Kohl, T.

    2018-03-01

    GIS-based remote sensing techniques and lineament mapping provide additional information on the spatial arrangement of faults and fractures in large areas with variable outcrop conditions. Due to inherent censoring and truncation bias mapping of lineaments is still a challenging task. In this study we show how statistical evaluations help to improve the reliability of lineament mappings by comparing two digital elevation models (ASTER, LIDAR) and satellite imagery data sets in the seismically active southern Black Forest. A statistical assessment of the orientation, average length, and the total length of mapped lineaments reveals an impact of the different resolutions of the data sets that allow to define maximum (censoring bias) and minimum (truncation bias) observable lineament length for each data set. The increase of the spatial resolution of the digital elevation model from 30 m × 30 m to 5 m × 5 m results in a decrease of total lineament length by about 40% whereby the average lineament lengths decrease by about 60%. Lineament length distributions of both data sets follow a power law distribution as documented elsewhere for fault and fracture systems. Predominant NE-, N-, NNW-, and NW-directions of the lineaments are observed in all data sets and correlate with well-known, mappable large-scale structures in the southern Black Forest. Therefore, mapped lineaments can be correlated with faults and hence display geological significance. Lineament density in the granite-dominated areas is apparently higher than in the gneiss-dominated areas. Application of a slip- and dilation tendency analysis on the fault pattern reveals largest reactivation potentials for WNW-ESE and N-S striking faults as strike-slip faults whereas normal faulting may occur along NW-striking faults within the ambient stress field. Remote sensing techniques in combination with highly resolved digital elevation models and a slip- and dilation tendency analysis thus can be used to quickly get

  9. On arrangements of pseudohyperplanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Orlik–Solomon but also gives a completely combinatorial proof. An important object missing in the context of pseudo-arrangements is an analogue of the space M(A). The aim of this paper is to introduce such a space. We represent oriented matroids using arrangements of pseudo-hyperplanes; these are collections of.

  10. On arrangements of pseudohyperplanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These arrangements arise as a consequence of the Folkman--Lawrence topological representation theorem. We propose a generalization of the complexification process in this context. In particular we construct a space naturally associated with these pseudo-arrangements which is homeomorphic to the complexified ...

  11. Towards an understanding of staggering effects in dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad.R.

    2012-01-01

    The reactions 32 S+ 58,64 Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for important odd–even effects in isotopic observables of selected peripheral collisions corresponding to the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique. It is shown that this method is a powerful tool to get experimental information on the evaporation chain, in order to constrain model calculations. Specifically, we show that odd–even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.

  12. Improving the quark number susceptibilities for staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavai, Rajiv V.

    2003-01-01

    Quark number susceptibilities approach their ideal gas limit at sufficiently high temperatures. As in the case of other thermodynamic quantities, this limit itself is altered substantially on lattices with small temporal extent, N t = 4-8, making it thus difficult to check the validity of perturbation theory. Unlike other observables, improving susceptibilities or number densities is subject to constraints of current conservation and absence of chemical potential (μ) dependent divergences. We construct such an improved number density and susceptibility for staggered fermions and show that they approximate the continuum ideal gas limit better on small temporal lattices

  13. Influence of nozzle arrangement on flow and heat transfer characteristics of arrays of circular impinging jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perapong Tekasakul

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of jet arrangements on flow and heat transfer characteristics was experimentally and numerically investigatedfor arrays of impinging jets. The air jets discharge from round orifices and perpendicularly impinge on a surface within arectangular duct. Both the in-line and staggered arrangements, which have an array of 6×4 nozzles, were examined. A jet-toplate distance (H and jet-to-jet distance (S were fixed at H=2D and S=3D, respectively (where D is the round orificediameter. The experiments were carried out at jet Reynolds number Re=5,000, 7,500 and 13,400. Temperature distributions onthe impingement surface were measured using a Thermochromic Liquid Crystal sheet, and Nusselt number distributions wereevaluated using an image processing method. The flow characteristics on the impingement surface were visualized using theoil film technique. The numerical simulation employed to gain insight into the fluid flow of jets between the orifice plate andthe impingement wall was via computational fluid dynamics. The results reveal that the effect of crossflow on the impingingjets for the staggered arrangement is stronger than that in the case of in-line arrangement. In the latter case of in-line arrangement, the crossflow could pass throughout the passage between the rows of jets, whereas in the former case the crossflowwas hampered by the downstream jets. The average Nusselt number of the in-line arrangement is higher than that of thestaggered arrangement by approx. 13-20% in this study.

  14. XFEM Modelling of Multi-holes Plate with Single-row and Staggered Holes Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar Khairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint efficiency is the key to composite structures assembly design, good structures response is dependent upon multi-holes behavior as subjected to remote loading. Current benchmarking work were following experimental testing series taken from literature on multi-holes problem. Eleven multi-hole configurations were investigated with various pitch and gage distance of staggered holes and non-staggered holes (single-row holes. Various failure modes were exhibited, most staggered holes demonstrates staggered crack path but non-staggered holes series displayed crack path along net-section plane. Stress distribution were carried out and good agreement were exhibited in experimental observation as reported in the respective literature. Consequently, strength prediction work were carried out under quasi-static loading, most showed discrepancy between 8% -31%, better prediction were exhibited in thicker and non-staggered holes plate combinations.

  15. Topics in hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Aguiar, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    This monograph studies the interplay between various algebraic, geometric and combinatorial aspects of real hyperplane arrangements. It provides a careful, organized and unified treatment of several recent developments in the field, and brings forth many new ideas and results. It has two parts, each divided into eight chapters, and five appendices with background material. Part I gives a detailed discussion on faces, flats, chambers, cones, gallery intervals, lunes and other geometric notions associated with arrangements. The Tits monoid plays a central role. Another important object is the category of lunes which generalizes the classical associative operad. Also discussed are the descent and lune identities, distance functions on chambers, and the combinatorics of the braid arrangement and related examples. Part II studies the structure and representation theory of the Tits algebra of an arrangement. It gives a detailed analysis of idempotents and Peirce decompositions, and connects them to the classical th...

  16. Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    companies. At times the premiums are set below actual costs as in a Ponzi scheme arrangement (described in the next section). State regulation does increase...assure that the organization is bona fide. Entrepreneurial Self-Insured Plans and " Ponzi Schemes " From our interviews, we learned that some TPA-initiated...impossible to know what percentage of all self-insured arrangements are " ponzi schemes " and how many are good faith efforts run by inexperienced

  17. Global phenomenological descriptions of nuclear odd-even mass staggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Dennis; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm; Riisager, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined ...... into a global phenomenological expression, ready to use in a binding energy formula. The results deviate from previous parametrizations, and in particular found to be significantly superior to a recent two term, A−1 dependence.......We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined...... by the main nuclear shells, and a clear change in this dependency is found at Z=50 for both neutrons and protons. A further separation into odd and even neutron (proton) number produces very accurate local descriptions of the mass differences for each type of nucleons. These odd-even effects are combined...

  18. ΔI = 2 Nuclear Staggering in Superdeformed Rotational Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okasha M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A four parameters model including collective rotational en ergies to fourth order is ap- plied to reproduce the ∆ I = 2 staggering in transition energies in four selected super deformed rotational bands, namely, 148 Gd (SD6, 194 Hg (SD1, SD2, SD3. The model parameters and the spin of the bandhead have been extracted a ssuming various val- ues to the lowest spin of the bandhead at nearest integer, in o rder to obtain a minimum root mean square deviation between calculated and the exper imental transition energies. This allows us to suggest the spin values for the energy level s which are experimentally unknown. For each band a staggering parameter represent the deviation of the transition energies from a smooth reference has been determined by calc ulating the fourth order derivative of the transition energies at a given spin. The st aggering parameter contains five consecutive transition energies which is denoted here a s the five-point formula. In order to get information about the dynamical moment of ine rtia, the two point for- mula which contains only two consecutive transition energi es has been also considered. The dynamical moment of inertia decreasing with increasing rotational frequency for A ∼ 150, while increasing for A ∼ 190 mass regions.

  19. National arrangements for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee

  20. Best connected rectangular arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendra Shekhawat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It can be found quite often in the literature that many well-known architects have employed either the golden rectangle or the Fibonacci rectangle in their works. On contrary, it is rare to find any specific reason for using them so often. Recently, Shekhawat (2015 proved that the golden rectangle and the Fibonacci rectangle are one of the best connected rectangular arrangements and this may be one of the reasons for their high presence in architectural designs. In this work we present an algorithm that generates n-4 best connected rectangular arrangements so that the proposed solutions can be further used by architects for their designs.

  1. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, E.; Andrews, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  2. Staggered and short-period solutions of the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, K.O.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2009-01-01

    We point out that the nonlinear Schrodinger lattice with a saturable nonlinearity also admits staggered periodic aswell as localized pulse-like solutions. Further, the same model also admits solutions with a short period. We examine the stability of these solutions and find that the staggered...

  3. Pesquisas contextuais e seus desafios: uma contribuição a partir de investigações sobre arranjos espaciais em creches Contextual research and its challenges: the contribution of investigations on day care center spatial arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara I. Campos-de-Carvalho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando caracterizar pesquisas ecológicas, diferenciando-as de pesquisas não ecológicas, são apresentados pressupostos compartilhados por vários autores, apesar de suas divergências na análise da relação pessoa-ambiente (nas dimensões focalizadas, metodologia ou teoria. Uma breve visão introdutória da abordagem ecológica em psicologia é descrita. São discutidos dois critérios, interligados entre si e conectados aos pressupostos básicos, que diferenciam pesquisas ecológicas ou contextuais das não ecológicas ou não contextuais. Nossa experiência de condução de pesquisas contextuais, sobre a relação entre arranjo espacial e ocupação do espaço por crianças em creches, ilustra vários aspectos abordados; são descritos, resumidamente, três conjuntos de variáveis contextuais adicionais, estudadas para verificar se afetariam a ocupação espacial. São apresentados certos desafios metodológicos em pesquisas contextuais.The assumptions of the ecological research are presented, with the objective of characterizing the ecological research and its differentiation from nonecological research. These assumptions are shared by several authors, in spite of their divergences in the analysis of man-environment relationship (such as the ones on focused dimensions, methodology and theory. A brief view of the introduction of ecological ideas into psychology is given. Two criteria connected to the shared assumptions are useful to distinguish ecological and nonecological research. Our experience in carrying out contextual research on the relationship between spatial arrangement and the use of space by children in day care centers is used to illustrate many of the focused aspects; three groups of additional contextual variables are briefly presented, which are studied to examine their influence on spatial distribution. Some methodological challenges in contextual research are presented.

  4. Hyperplane arrangements an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Dimca, Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an accessible introduction to the rich and beautiful area of hyperplane arrangement theory, where discrete mathematics, in the form of combinatorics and arithmetic, meets continuous mathematics, in the form of the topology and Hodge theory of complex algebraic varieties. The topics discussed in this book range from elementary combinatorics and discrete geometry to more advanced material on mixed Hodge structures, logarithmic connections and Milnor fibrations. The author covers a lot of ground in a relatively short amount of space, with a focus on defining concepts carefully and giving proofs of theorems in detail where needed. Including a number of surprising results and tantalizing open problems, this timely book also serves to acquaint the reader with the rapidly expanding literature on the subject. Hyperplane Arrangements will be particularly useful to graduate students and researchers who are interested in algebraic geometry or algebraic topology. The book contains numerous exercise...

  5. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  6. SBP-SAT finite difference discretization of acoustic wave equations on staggered block-wise uniform grids

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Longfei

    2018-02-16

    We consider the numerical simulation of the acoustic wave equations arising from seismic applications, for which staggered grid finite difference methods are popular choices due to their simplicity and efficiency. We relax the uniform grid restriction on finite difference methods and allow the grids to be block-wise uniform with nonconforming interfaces. In doing so, variations in the wave speeds of the subterranean media can be accounted for more efficiently. Staggered grid finite difference operators satisfying the summation-by-parts (SBP) property are devised to approximate the spatial derivatives appearing in the acoustic wave equation. These operators are applied within each block independently. The coupling between blocks is achieved through simultaneous approximation terms (SATs), which impose the interface condition weakly, i.e., by penalty. Ratio of the grid spacing of neighboring blocks is allowed to be rational number, for which specially designed interpolation formulas are presented. These interpolation formulas constitute key pieces of the simultaneous approximation terms. The overall discretization is shown to be energy-conserving and examined on test cases of both theoretical and practical interests, delivering accurate and stable simulation results.

  7. Spontaneous emission spectra from a staggered-array undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shigeki; Okada, Kouji; Masuda, Kai; Sobajima, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Ohnishi, Masami; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Toku, Hisayuki

    1997-01-01

    A staggered-array undulator set inside the superconducting solenoid coils is shown to be able to provide high undulator fields larger than the longitudinal magnetic fields, a small undulator period, easy tunability through the solenoid coil current, and compact and easy fabrication. The overall performance characteristics of this undulator were studied mainly with respect to iron and aluminum disk widths, and spontaneous emission spectra through the numerical calculations. The maximum undulator field is found to be obtained for the ratio of the aluminum disk width to the undulator period of 0.45. The line widths (FWHM) of the spontaneous emission spectra, however, do not show N w -1 dependence on the number of the undulator period N w for practical beams with a Gaussian distribution, compared with for a single electron. The energy spread among various parameters is seen to play an important role in reducing the FWHM with increase of N w . The large tunability of the wavelength is proved to cover 6-10 mm by changing the solenoid magnetic field from 0.4 T to 1.6 T. (author)

  8. High temperature QCD with three flavors of improved staggered quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Burch, T.; Tar, C.E. de; Gottlieb, Steven; Gregory, Eric; Heller, U.M.; Osborn, J.; Sugar, R.L.; Toussaint, D.

    2003-01-01

    We present an update of our study of high temperature QCD with three flavors of quarks, using a Symanzik improved gauge action and the Asqtad staggered quark action. Simulations are being carried out on lattices with N t = 4, 6 and 8 for the case of three degenerate quarks with masses less than or equal to the strange quark mass, m s and on lattices with N t = 6 and 8 for degenerate up and down quarks with masses in the range 0.2m s ≤ m u,d ≤ 0.6m s and the strange quark fixed near its physical value. We also report on first computations of quark number susceptibilities with the Asqtad action. These susceptibilities are of interest because they can be related to event-by-event fluctuations in heavy ion collision experiments. Use of the improved quark action leads to a substantial reduction in lattice artifacts. This can be seen already for free fermions and carries over into our results for QCD

  9. Research of heat transfer of staggered horizontal bundles of finned tubes at free air convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilova, A. V.; Maryna, Z. G.; Samorodov, A. V.; Lvov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The study of free-convective processes is important because of the cooling problem in many machines and systems, where other ways of cooling are impossible or impractical. Natural convective processes are common in the steam turbine air condensers of electric power plants located within the city limits, in dry cooling towers of circulating water systems, in condensers cooled by air and water, in radiators cooling oil of power electric transformers, in emergency cooling systems of nuclear reactors, in solar power, as well as in air-cooling of power semiconductor energy converters. All this makes actual the synthesis of the results of theoretical and experimental research of free convection for heat exchangers with finned tube bundles. The results of the study of free-convection heat transfer for two-, three- and four-row staggered horizontal bundles of industrial bimetallic finned tubes with finning factor of 16.8 and equilateral tubes arrangement are presented. Cross and diagonal steps in the bundles are the same: 58; 61; 64; 70; 76; 86; 100 mm, which corresponds to the relative steps: 1.042; 1.096; 1.152; 1.258; 1.366; 1.545; 1.797. These steps are standardized for air coolers. An equation for calculating the free-convection heat transfer, taking into account the influence of geometrical parameters in the range of Rayleigh number from 30,000 to 350,000 with an average deviation of ± 4.8%, has been obtained. The relationship presented in the article allows designing a wide range of air coolers for various applications, working in the free convection modes.

  10. Chiral phase transition of three flavor QCD with nonzero magnetic field using standard staggered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiya, Akio; Ding, Heng-Tong; Mukherjee, Swagato; Schmidt, Christian; Wang, Xiao-Dan

    2018-03-01

    Lattice simulations for (2+1)-flavor QCD with external magnetic field demon-strated that the quark mass is one of the important parameters responsible for the (inverse) magnetic catalysis. We discuss the dependences of chiral condensates and susceptibilities, the Polyakov loop on the magnetic field and quark mass in three degenerate flavor QCD. The lattice simulations are performed using standard staggered fermions and the plaquette action with spatial sizes Nσ = 16 and 24 and a fixed temporal size Nτ = 4. The value of the quark masses are chosen such that the system undergoes a first order chiral phase transition and crossover with zero magnetic field. We find that in light mass regime, the quark chiral condensate undergoes magnetic catalysis in the whole temperature region and the phase transition tend to become stronger as the magnetic field increases. In crossover regime, deconfinement transition temperature is shifted by the magnetic field when quark mass ma is less than 0:4. The lattice cutoff effects are also discussed.

  11. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for

  12. Systematics of the K suppi = 2+ gamma vibrational bands and odd-even staggering

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, J B

    2003-01-01

    The structure of the K suppi = 2+ gamma vibrational bands and the quasi-gamma bands of even-Z-even-N nuclei is investigated on a global scale, vis-a-vis the variation of band head, the moment of inertia of the band and the odd-even spin staggering. The variation with N and Z and with spin J of the odd-even spin energy staggering index is studied and a unified view of the same is presented. (author)

  13. Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, David

    2015-07-20

    The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking

  14. The Nucleon Axial Form Factor and Staggered Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Aaron Scott [Chicago U.

    2017-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillation physics is a major research goal of the worldwide particle physics program over the upcoming decade. Many new experiments are being built to study the properties of neutrinos and to answer questions about the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. These experiments need precise theoretical cross sections in order to access fundamental neutrino properties. Neutrino oscillation experiments often use large atomic nuclei as scattering targets, which are challenging for theorists to model. Nuclear models rely on free-nucleon amplitudes as inputs. These amplitudes are constrained by scattering experiments with large nuclear targets that rely on the very same nuclear models. The work in this dissertation is the rst step of a new initiative to isolate and compute elementary amplitudes with theoretical calculations to support the neutrino oscillation experimental program. Here, the eort focuses on computing the axial form factor, which is the largest contributor of systematic error in the primary signal measurement process for neutrino oscillation studies, quasielastic scattering. Two approaches are taken. First, neutrino scattering data on a deuterium target are reanalyzed with a model-independent parametrization of the axial form factor to quantify the present uncertainty in the free-nucleon amplitudes. The uncertainties on the free-nucleon cross section are found to be underestimated by about an order of magnitude compared to the ubiquitous dipole model parametrization. The second approach uses lattice QCD to perform a rst-principles computation of the nucleon axial form factor. The Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) action is employed for both valence and sea quarks. The results presented in this dissertation are computed at physical pion mass for one lattice spacing. This work presents a computation of the axial form factor at zero momentum transfer, and forms the basis for a computation of the axial form factor momentum dependence

  15. Comparison of the 2nd-order and 4th-order Staggered-Grid Finite-Difference Implementations of the TSN Method for Rupture Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristek, J.; Moczo, P.; Galis, M.

    2006-12-01

    The TSN (Traction-at-Split-Nodes) method has been developed independently by Andrews (1973, 1976, 1999) and Day (1977, 1982). Andrews implemented his TSN formulation in the finite-difference scheme in which spatial differentiation is equivalent to the 2nd-order finite-element method. Day implemented his slightly different formulation of the TSN method in the 2nd-order partly-staggered finite-difference scheme. Dalguer and Day (2006) adapted the TSN method to the velocity-stress staggered-grid finite-difference scheme. Whereas the 4th-order spatial differencing is applied outside the fault, the 2nd-order differencing is applied along the fault plane. We present two implementations of the Day's TSN formulation in the velocity-stress staggered-grid finite-difference scheme for a 3D viscoelastic medium. In the first one we apply the 2nd-order spatial differencing everywhere in the grid including derivatives at the fault in the direction perpendicular to the fault plane. In the second implementation we similarly apply the 4th-order spatial differencing. In both cases we use the adjusted finite-difference approximations (AFDA, Kristek et al. 2002, Moczo et al. 2004) to derivatives in the direction perpendicular to the fault plane in order to have the same order of approximation everywhere. We numerically investigate convergence rates of both implementations with respect to rupture-time, final-slip, and peak-slip-rate metrics. Moreover, we compare the numerical solutions to those obtained by the finite-element implementation of the TSN method.

  16. Thermally actuated linkage arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A reusable thermally actuated linkage arrangement includes a first link member having a longitudinal bore therein adapted to receive at least a portion of a second link member therein, the first and second members being sized to effect an interference fit preventing relative movement there-between at a temperature below a predetermined temperature. The link members have different coefficients of thermal expansion so that when the linkage is selectively heated by heating element to a temperature above the predetermined temperature, relative longitudinal and/or rotational movement between the first and second link members is enabled. Two embodiments of a thermally activated linkage are disclosed which find particular application in actuators for a grapple head positioning arm in a nuclear reactor fuel handling mechanism to facilitate back-up safety retraction of the grapple head independently from the primary fuel handling mechanism drive system. (author)

  17. Power distribution arrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An arrangement and a method for distributing power supplied by a power source to two or more of loads (e.g., electrical vehicular systems) is disclosed, where a representation of the power taken by a particular one of the loads from the source is measured. The measured representation of the amount...... of power taken from the source by the particular one of the loads is compared to a threshold to provide an overload signal in the event the representation exceeds the threshold. Control signals dependant on the occurring of the overload signal are provided such that the control signal decreases the output...... power of the power circuit in case the overload signal occurs...

  18. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  19. Staggered-grid finite-difference acoustic modeling with the Time-Domain Atmospheric Acoustic Propagation Suite (TDAAPS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David Franklin; Collier, Sandra L. (U.S. Army Research Laboratory); Marlin, David H. (U.S. Army Research Laboratory); Ostashev, Vladimir E. (NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory); Symons, Neill Phillip; Wilson, D. Keith (U.S. Army Cold Regions Research Engineering Lab.)

    2005-05-01

    This document is intended to serve as a users guide for the time-domain atmospheric acoustic propagation suite (TDAAPS) program developed as part of the Department of Defense High-Performance Modernization Office (HPCMP) Common High-Performance Computing Scalable Software Initiative (CHSSI). TDAAPS performs staggered-grid finite-difference modeling of the acoustic velocity-pressure system with the incorporation of spatially inhomogeneous winds. Wherever practical the control structure of the codes are written in C++ using an object oriented design. Sections of code where a large number of calculations are required are written in C or F77 in order to enable better compiler optimization of these sections. The TDAAPS program conforms to a UNIX style calling interface. Most of the actions of the codes are controlled by adding flags to the invoking command line. This document presents a large number of examples and provides new users with the necessary background to perform acoustic modeling with TDAAPS.

  20. Improved microgrid arrangement for integrated imaging polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaster, Daniel A; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-04-01

    For almost 20 years, microgrid polarimetric imaging systems have been built using a 2×2 repeating pattern of polarization analyzers. In this Letter, we show that superior spatial resolution is achieved over this 2×2 case when the analyzers are arranged in a 2×4 repeating pattern. This unconventional result, in which a more distributed sampling pattern results in finer spatial resolution, is also achieved without affecting the conditioning of the polarimetric data-reduction matrix. Proof is provided theoretically and through Stokes image reconstruction of synthesized data.

  1. Numerical properties of staggered quarks with a taste-dependent mass term

    CERN Document Server

    de Forcrand, Philippe; Panero, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The numerical properties of staggered Dirac operators with a taste-dependent mass term proposed by Adams [1,2] and by Hoelbling [3] are compared with those of ordinary staggered and Wilson Dirac operators. In the free limit and on (quenched) interacting configurations, we consider their topological properties, their spectrum, and the resulting pion mass. Although we also consider the spectral structure, topological properties, locality, and computational cost of an overlap operator with a staggered kernel, we call attention to the possibility of using the Adams and Hoelbling operators without the overlap construction. In particular, the Hoelbling operator could be used to simulate two degenerate flavors without additive mass renormalization, and thus without fine-tuning in the chiral limit.

  2. Single-molecule observation of helix staggering, sliding, and coiled coil misfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhiqun; Gao, Ying; Sirinakis, George; Guo, Honglian; Zhang, Yongli

    2012-01-01

    The biological functions of coiled coils generally depend on efficient folding and perfect pairing of their α-helices. Dynamic changes in the helical registry that lead to staggered helices have only been proposed for a few special systems and not found in generic coiled coils. Here, we report our observations of multiple staggered helical structures of two canonical coiled coils. The partially folded structures are formed predominantly by coiled coil misfolding and occasionally by helix sliding. Using high-resolution optical tweezers, we characterized their energies and transition kinetics at a single-molecule level. The staggered states occur less than 2% of the time and about 0.1% of the time at zero force. We conclude that dynamic changes in helical registry may be a general property of coiled coils. Our findings should have broad and unique implications in functions and dysfunctions of proteins containing coiled coils. PMID:22451899

  3. Urban experimentation and institutional arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raven, Rob; Sengers, Frans; Spaeth, Philipp; Xie, Linjun; Cheshmehzangi, Ali; de Jong, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Currently little is known about how institutional arrangements co-evolve with urban experimentation. This paper mobilizes neo-institutional literature and recent urban experimentation literature as a framework to explore how and why institutional arrangements differ across urban contexts.

  4. IAEA paper on institutional arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    At its fifth series of meetings, Working Group 3 received a background paper prepared by the IAEA which had a threefold purpose: firstly, to provide an overview on institutional arrangements under consideration by the INFCE Working Groups; secondly, to explore potential relationships between the various institutional arrangements under consideration; and thirdly, to identify areas where further analysis might be desirable

  5. Classic romance in electronic arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizin M.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available this article analyses the transformation of the performing arts of classical romance in the terms of electronic sound and performance via electronic sounds arrangements. The author focuses on the problem of synthesis of electronic sound arrangements and classical romance, offering to acquire the skills of the creative process in constantly changing conditions of live performances.

  6. Ergovaline does not alter the severity of ryegrass staggers induced by lolitrem B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, S C; Vlaming, J B; Sutherland, B L; van Koten, C; Mace, W J; Fletcher, L R

    2018-03-01

    To investigate a possible interaction between lolitrem B and ergovaline by comparing the incidence and severity of ryegrass staggers in sheep grazing ryegrass (Lolium perenne) containing lolitrem B or ryegrass containing both lolitrem B and ergovaline. Ninety lambs, aged approximately 6 months, were grazed on plots of perennial ryegrass infected with either AR98 endophyte (containing lolitrem B), standard endophyte (containing lolitrem B and ergovaline) or no endophyte, for up to 42 days from 2 February 2010. Ten lambs were grazed on three replicate plots per cultivar. Herbage samples were collected for alkaloid analysis and lambs were scored for ryegrass staggers (scores from 0-5) weekly during the study. Any animal which was scored ≥4 was removed from the study. Concentrations of lolitrem B did not differ between AR98 and standard endophyte-infected pastures during the study period (p=0.26), and ergovaline was present only in standard endophyte pastures. Ryegrass staggers was observed in sheep grazing both the AR98 and standard endophyte plots, with median scores increasing in the third week of the study. Prior to the end of the 42-day grazing period, 22 and 17 animals were removed from the standard endophyte and AR98 plots, respectively, because their staggers scores were ≥4. The cumulative probability of lambs having scores ≥4 did not differ between animals grazing the two pasture types (p=0.41). There was no evidence for ergovaline increasing the severity of ryegrass staggers induced by lolitrem B. In situations where the severity of ryegrass staggers appears to be greater than that predicted on the basis of concentrations of lolitrem B, the presence of other tremorgenic alkaloids should be investigated.

  7. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  8. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which we investigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability in making structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities by looking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children were able to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties either to determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structures to easily recognize number of objects.

  9. BIRTHDAY CAKE ACTIVITY STRUCTURED ARRANGEMENT FOR HELPING CHILDREN DETERMINING QUANTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Few researches have been concerned about relation between children’s spatialthinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused onone component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and onecomponent of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. Thisstudy focused on a design research that was conducted in Indonesia in which weinvestigated pre-school children’s (between 2 and 3.5 years old ability inmaking structured arrangement and their ability to determine the quantities bylooking at the arrangements. The result shows us that some of the children wereable to make such arrangement. However, the children found difficulties eitherto determine quantities from those arrangements or to compare some structuresto easily recognize number of objects.Keywords: structures, structured arrangement, cardinality DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.1.1.790.53-70

  10. 3D Staggered-Grid Finite-Difference Simulation of Acoustic Waves in Turbulent Moving Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, N. P.; Aldridge, D. F.; Marlin, D.; Wilson, D. K.; Sullivan, P.; Ostashev, V.

    2003-12-01

    Acoustic wave propagation in a three-dimensional heterogeneous moving atmosphere is accurately simulated with a numerical algorithm recently developed under the DOD Common High Performance Computing Software Support Initiative (CHSSI). Sound waves within such a dynamic environment are mathematically described by a set of four, coupled, first-order partial differential equations governing small-amplitude fluctuations in pressure and particle velocity. The system is rigorously derived from fundamental principles of continuum mechanics, ideal-fluid constitutive relations, and reasonable assumptions that the ambient atmospheric motion is adiabatic and divergence-free. An explicit, time-domain, finite-difference (FD) numerical scheme is used to solve the system for both pressure and particle velocity wavefields. The atmosphere is characterized by 3D gridded models of sound speed, mass density, and the three components of the wind velocity vector. Dependent variables are stored on staggered spatial and temporal grids, and centered FD operators possess 2nd-order and 4th-order space/time accuracy. Accurate sound wave simulation is achieved provided grid intervals are chosen appropriately. The gridding must be fine enough to reduce numerical dispersion artifacts to an acceptable level and maintain stability. The algorithm is designed to execute on parallel computational platforms by utilizing a spatial domain-decomposition strategy. Currently, the algorithm has been validated on four different computational platforms, and parallel scalability of approximately 85% has been demonstrated. Comparisons with analytic solutions for uniform and vertically stratified wind models indicate that the FD algorithm generates accurate results with either a vanishing pressure or vanishing vertical-particle velocity boundary condition. Simulations are performed using a kinematic turbulence wind profile developed with the quasi-wavelet method. In addition, preliminary results are presented

  11. A superlinearly convergent finite volume method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, D.; Segal, A.; Wesseling, P.

    2004-01-01

    A method for linear reconstruction of staggered vector fields with special treatment of the divergence is presented. An upwind-biased finite volume scheme for solving the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured triangular grids that uses this reconstruction is described. The scheme is applied to three benchmark problems and is found to be superlinearly convergent in space

  12. Weakly coupled S=1/2 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains in an effective staggered field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masahiro; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2002-01-01

    We study weakly coupled S=1/2 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains in an effective staggered field. Applying mean-field (MF) theory, spin-wave theory and chain MF (CMF) theory, we can see analytically some effects of the staggered field in this higher dimensional spin system. In particular, when the staggered field and the inter-chain inter-action compete with each other, we conjecture from the MF theory that a nontrivial phase is present. The spin wave theory predicts that the behavior of the gaps induced by a staggered field is different between the competitive case and the non-competitive case. When the inter-chain interactions are weak enough, we can improve the MF phase diagram by using CMF theory and the analytical results of field theories. The ordered phase region predicted by the CMF theory is fairly smaller than one of the MF theory. Cu-benzoate, CuCl 2 · 2DMSO (dimethylsulphoxide), BaCu 2 (Si 1-x Ge x ) 2 O 7 , etc., could be described by our model in enough low temperature. (author)

  13. Kinetics of full scrum and staggered scrum engagement in under 19 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and eight male Rugby Union players from 13 high schools, whose ages ranged from 16 to 19 years, were used to examine the kinetics of the full scrum versus staggered scrum engagement techniques. Telemetric pressure transducers were used to measure the engagement and sustained forces acting on the ...

  14. Enhancement of Radiative Efficiency with Staggered InGaN Quantum Well Light Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tansu, Nelson; Dierolf, Volkmar; Huang, Gensheng; Penn, Samson; Zhao, Hongping; Liu, Guangyu; Li, Xiaohang; Poplawsky, Jonathan

    2011-07-14

    The technology on the large overlap InGaN QWs developed in this program is currently implemented in commercial technology in enhancing the internal quantum efficiency in major LED industry in US and Asia. The scientific finding from this work supported by the DOE enabled the implementation of this step-like staggered quantum well in the commercial LEDs.

  15. Experimental study of induced staggered magnetic fields in dysprosium gallium garnet (DGG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Corliss, L.M.; Hastings, J.M.; Blume, M.; Giordano, N.; Wolf, W.P.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron diffraction techniques have been used to study induced staggered magnetic field effects in DGG. The application of a uniform magnetic field at temperatures much greater than the Neel temperature induces a significant amount of antiferromagnetic order. The temperature and field dependences of this effect are in good agreement with recent theoretical predicions

  16. Partial dynamical symmetry and odd-even staggering in deformed nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leviatan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial dynamical symmetry (PDS is shown to be relevant for describing the odd-even staggering in the γ-band of 156Gd while retaining solvability and good SU(3 symmetry for the ground and β bands. Several classes of interacting boson model Hamiltonians with SU(3 PDS are surveyed.

  17. Remarks on the determination of the odd--even staggering parameter in the spectrum of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenkorn, S.; Stroke, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    From an analysis of the isotope shifts in the Cd 3261, 4678, and 4416 A lines, it is pointed out that a precise determination of the odd--even staggering parameter is limited less by experimental error than by the lack of reliable knowledge of the specific mass effect

  18. A study of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine grain structure by stagger spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Qinxiang; Xiao, Gangfeng; Long, Hui; Cheng, Xiuquan; Yang, Baojian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing a method of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine crystal. • Obtaining the refined ferritic grains with an size of 500 nm after stagger spinning. • Obtaining the equiaxial ferritic grains with an size of 600 nm after annealing. - Abstract: A new method of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine grain structure by stagger spinning and recrystallization annealing is proposed in this study. Two methods of the stagger spinning process are developed, the corresponding macroforming quality, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the spun tubes made of ASTM 1020 steel are analysed. The results reveal that a good surface smoothness and an improved spin-formability of spun parts can be obtained by the process combining of 3-pass spinning followed by a 580 °C × 0.5 h static recrystallization and 2-pass spinning with a 580 °C × 1 h static recrystallization annealing under the severe thinning ratio of wall thickness reduction. The ferritic grains with an average initial size of 50 μm are refined to 500 nm after stagger spinning under the 87% thinning ratio of wall thickness reduction. The equiaxial ferritic grains with an average size of 600 nm are generated through re-nucleation and grain growth by subsequent recrystallization annealing at 580 °C for 1 h heat preservation. The tensile strength of spun tubes has been founded to be proportional to the reciprocal of layer spacing of pearlite (LSP), and the elongation is inversely proportional to the reciprocal of LSP. This study shows that the developed method of stagger power spinning has the potential to be used to manufacture bulk metal components with nano/ultrafine grain structure

  19. Experimental Investigation of Innovative Internal Trailing Edge Cooling Configurations with Pentagonal Arrangement and Elliptic Pin Fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tarchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a heat transfer experimental study of four different internal trailing edge cooling configurations based on pin fin schemes. The aim of the study is the comparison between innovative configurations and standard ones. So, a circular pin fin configuration with an innovative pentagonal scheme is compared to a standard staggered scheme, while two elliptic pin fin configurations are compared to each other turning the ellipse from the streamwise to the spanwise direction. For each configuration, heat transfer and pressure loss measurements were made keeping the Mach number fixed at 0.3 and varying the Reynolds number from 9000 to 27000. In order to investigate the overall behavior of both endwall and pedestals, heat transfer measurements are performed using a combined transient technique. Over the endwall surface, the classic transient technique with thermochromic liquid crystals allows the measurement of a detailed heat transfer coefficient (HTC map. Pin fins are made of high thermal conductivity material, and an inverse data reduction method based on a finite element code allows to evaluate the mean HTC of each pin fin. Results show that the pentagonal arrangement generates a nonuniform HTC distribution over the endwall surface, while, in terms of average values, it is equivalent to the staggered configuration. On the contrary, the HTC map of the two elliptic configurations is similar, but the spanwise arrangement generates higher heat transfer coefficients and pressure losses.

  20. Radial and staggered treatment patterns to correct hyperopia using noncontact holmium:YAG laser thermal keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, P; Kohnen, T; Azzolini, M; Radice, P; Epstein, D; Koch, D D

    1998-01-01

    To compare the effects of two treatment patterns in the correction of hyperopia by noncontact holmium:YAG laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK). Divisione Oculistica, Ospedale S. Gerardo, Monza, Italy. Using two treatment patterns, we performed noncontact LTK in one session in 16 eyes of 8 patients with isometropic hyperopic refractive errors; mean preoperative subjective cycloplegic refraction was +4.90 diopters (D) +/- 1.17 (SD). The treatment consisted of 24 spots in three concentric rings of eight spots each; ring diameters were 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 mm, respectively. Each spot received seven pulses of laser energy at 30 mJ/pulse. We treated one eye of each patient with a radial pattern (the spots of the three rings aligned on the eight semimeridians) and the fellow eye with a staggered pattern (the spots of the contiguous rings at 22.5 degrees from each other). Follow-up at 1, 15, 30, 90, 180, and 360 days included subjective cycloplegic refraction, uncorrected (UCVA) and spectacle-corrected visual acuity (SCVA), computerized videokeratography (CVK), and Scheimpflug camera examination. One year postoperatively, the mean subjective cycloplegic refraction was +2.75 +/- 1.6 D in the eyes treated with the radial pattern and +3.40 +/- 1.6 D in those treated with the staggered pattern; the mean change in subjective cycloplegic refraction was 2.15 and 1.50 D, respectively. Mean UCVA improved by five lines in the radial group and by four lines in the staggered group. Mean SCVA returned to preoperative levels by day 15 in the radial group and at 1 year in the staggered group; at 1 year, SCVA improved by one line in the radial group and remained unchanged in the staggered group. No eye lost one or more lines of SCVA. Refractive astigmatism was essentially unchanged in both groups. Scheimpflug photography and CVK indicated larger and more uniform corrected zones in the radial group. Radial and staggered patterns effectively corrected low hyperopia, although both were subject to a

  1. Arranged marriages annulled by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1996-06-01

    The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled.

  2. Patient positioning and supporting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, M.; James, R.C.; Slinn, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    This patent specification describes an E.M.I. claim relating to a patient positioning and support arrangement for a computerised axial tomography system, the arrangement comprising a curved platter upon which the patient can be disposed, a table having a curved groove to accommodate the platter, and means for driving the platter slidably along the groove; the platter being formed of a substantially rigid platform shaped to conform to the groove, and a shroud, secured to the platter and disposed between the platter and the surface of the groove, so as to permit the platter to slide smoothly. (U.K.)

  3. Localizing gene regulation reveals a staggered wood decay mechanism for the brown rot fungus Postia placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Presley, Gerald N.; Hammel, Kenneth E.; Ryu, Jae-San; Menke, Jon R.; Figueroa, Melania; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Schilling, Jonathan S.

    2016-09-12

    The fungi that cause brown rot of wood are essential contributors to biomass recycling in forest ecosystems. Their highly efficient cellulolytic systems, which may have practical applications, apparently depend on a combination of two mechanisms: nonselective oxidation of the lignocellulose by reactive oxygen species (ROS) coupled with hydrolysis of the polysaccharide components by a limited set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Since the production of strongly oxidizing ROS appears incompatible with the operation of GHs, it has been proposed that the fungi regulate ROS production by maintaining concentration gradients of the chelated metal ions they use to generate extracellular oxidants. However, calculations have indicated that this protective mechanism is physically infeasible. We examined a different hypothesis, that expression of ROS and GH components is temporally staggered by brown rot fungi in wood. We sectioned thin wafers of spruce and aspen that had been colonized directionally by Postia placenta and measured expression of relevant genes and some of the encoded enzymes, thus using the spatial distribution of fungal hyphae to resolve a fine-scale temporal sequence. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression for eight oxidoreductases thought to have a role in ROS production and of eight GHs revealed a zone of oxidoreductase upregulation at the hyphal front that persisted about 48 h before upregulation of the GHs. Additional evidence for differential expression was provided by localization of endoglucanase, xylanase, mannanase, and laccase activities in the colonized wood. Our results support a two-step mechanism for brown rot, in which substrate oxidation precedes enzymatic hydrolysis.

  4. Modeling seismic wave propagation using staggered-grid mimetic finite differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freysimar Solano-Feo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic finite difference (MFD approximations of continuous gradient and divergence operators satisfy a discrete version of the Gauss-Divergence theorem on staggered grids. On the mimetic approximation of this integral conservation principle, an unique boundary flux operator is introduced that also intervenes on the discretization of a given boundary value problem (BVP. In this work, we present a second-order MFD scheme for seismic wave propagation on staggered grids that discretized free surface and absorbing boundary conditions (ABC with same accuracy order. This scheme is time explicit after coupling a central three-level finite difference (FD stencil for numerical integration. Here, we briefly discuss the convergence properties of this scheme and show its higher accuracy on a challenging test when compared to a traditional FD method. Preliminary applications to 2-D seismic scenarios are also presented and show the potential of the mimetic finite difference method.

  5. Skew information in the XY model with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Liang, E-mail: lqiu@cumt.edu.cn [School of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Quan, Dongxiao [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Pan, Fei; Liu, Zhi [School of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2017-06-01

    We study the performance of the lower bound of skew information in the vicinity of transition point for the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction by use of quantum renormalization-group method. For a fixed value of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, there are two saturated values for the lower bound of skew information corresponding to the spin-fluid and Néel phases, respectively. The scaling exponent of the lower bound of skew information closely relates to the correlation length of the model and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction shifts the factorization point. Our results show that the lower bound of skew information can be a good candidate to detect the critical point of XY spin chain with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  6. Teaching Determinants Using Rook Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Anders O. F.

    2018-01-01

    Teaching determinants poses significant challenges to the instructor of a proof-based undergraduate linear algebra course. The standard definition by cofactor expansion is ugly, lacks symmetry, and is hard for students to use in proofs. We introduce a visual definition of the determinant that interprets permutations as arrangements of…

  7. Flow control arrangements for centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderton, G.W.; Davidge, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    In a centrifuge plant for the separation of uranium isotopes, when a centrifuge machine breaks down, light gas is produced. This gas can cause adjacent machines to break down, so propagating the fault. The present invention provides flow control arrangements in gas pipes to the centrifuge, whereby sudden egress of gas from a failed machine is inhibited. (author)

  8. Nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement is described wherein a plurality of actuators, disposed in a pattern laterally surrounding a group of elongated fuel assemblies, press against respective contiguous fuel assemblies on the periphery of the group to reduce the clearance between adjacent fuel assemblies thereby forming a more compacted, vibration resistant core structure. 7 claims, 4 drawing figures

  9. On the spectrum of the staggered Dirac operator at finite chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, J.C.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1988-12-01

    The spectrum of the staggered Dirac operator in two-dimensional QEDF is investigated at finite chemical potential. In the quenced model, it is shown that lattice artefacts cause a spurious scattering of eigenvalues. This scattering disappears when lattice distance is taken to zero. In the unquenced model, a new approach is used to show that similar effects are absent. (author). 17 refs.; 6 figs

  10. Diffraction of love waves by two staggered perfectly weak half-planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, S.; Zaman, F.D.; Sajida Asghar

    1989-01-01

    Love wave travelling in a layer of uniform thickness overlying a half-space is assumed to be incident on two parallel but staggered perfectly weak half-planes lying in the upper layer. The diffracted fields is calculated using the modified Wiener-Hopf technique and contour integration method. The diffracted waves satisfy the dispersion relations appropriate to different regions formed by the perfectly weak half-planes

  11. Bottleneck congestion and distribution of work start times: The economics of staggered work hours revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Henderson (1981), a number of studies examined the effect of staggered work hours by analyzing models of work start time choice that consider the trade-off between negative congestion externalities and positive production externalities. However, these studies described traffic congestion using flow congestion models. This study develops a model of work start time choice with bottleneck congestion and discloses the intrinsic properties of the model. To this end, this ...

  12. New 2D adaptive mesh refinement algorithm based on conservative finite-differences with staggered grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, T.; Duretz, T.; May, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    We present new 2D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm based on stress-conservative finite-differences formulated for non-uniform rectangular staggered grid. The refinement approach is based on a repetitive cell splitting organized via a quad-tree construction (every parent cell is split into 4 daughter cells of equal size). Irrespective of the level of resolution every cell has 5 staggered nodes (2 horizontal velocities, 2 vertical velocities and 1 pressure) for which respective governing equations, boundary conditions and interpolation equations are formulated. The connectivity of the grid is achieved via cross-indexing of grid cells and basic nodal points located in their corners: four corner nodes are indexed for every cell and up to 4 surrounding cells are indexed for every node. The accuracy of the approach depends critically on the formulation of the stencil used at the "hanging" velocity nodes located at the boundaries between different levels of resolution. Most accurate results are obtained for the scheme based on the volume flux balance across the resolution boundary combined with stress-based interpolation of velocity orthogonal to the boundary. We tested this new approach with a number of 2D variable viscosity analytical solutions. Our tests demonstrate that the adaptive staggered grid formulation has convergence properties similar to those obtained in case of a standard, non-adaptive staggered grid formulation. This convergence is also achieved when resolution boundary crosses sharp viscosity contrast interfaces. The convergence rates measured are found to be insensitive to scenarios when the transition in grid resolution crosses sharp viscosity contrast interfaces. We compared various grid refinement strategies based on distribution of different field variables such as viscosity, density and velocity. According to these tests the refinement allows for significant (0.5-1 order of magnitude) increase in the computational accuracy at the same

  13. Re: Penetration Behavior of Opposed Rows of Staggered Secondary Air Jets Depending on Jet Penetration Coefficient and Momentum Flux Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain why the extension of the previously published C = (S/Ho)sqrt(J) scaling for opposed rows of staggered jets wasn't directly successful in the study by Choi et al. (2016). It is not surprising that staggered jets from opposite sides do not pass each other at the expected C value, because Ho/D and sqrt(J) are much larger than the maximum in previous studies. These, and large x/D's, tend to suggest development of 2-dimensional flow. Although there are distinct optima for opposed rows of in-line jets, single-side injection, and opposed rows of staggered jets based on C, opposed rows of staggered jets provide as good or better mixing performance, at any C value, than opposed rows of in-line jets or jets from single-side injection.

  14. A Spatial Decision Support System to incorporate hydro-economic modeling results in the management of water resources under decentralized institutional arrangements in a semiarid reservoir region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado de Moraes, Márcia; Silva, Gerald; Siegmund-Schultze, Marianna

    2017-04-01

    The integration of economic and hydrological components in models, aimed to support evaluating alternatives of water allocation policies, is promising, though, challenging. Worldwide, these models have been used primarily in academia, and so far seldom by water managers for practical purposes. Ideally, the models should be available through a Decision Support System. The São Francisco River Basin in Northeast of Brazil has around 48% of its area in a semi-arid region. Irrigation and public water supply are the primary water use sectors, along with hydropower utilization. The water for electricity generation is stored in two large reservoirs, built 30 to 50 years ago under the premise of regulating flows for hydropower and controlling floods. Since 20 years, however, the law stipulates the multiple uses paradigm in a participatory and decentralized way. So far, only few rules laid down. Studies revealed that most of the respective institutions still needed to update their routines to the new paradigm. A hydro-economic model was developed and applied in order to determine the economically optimal water allocation of main users in that semiarid reservoir region. In order to make this model available to the decision makers, a minimum required is some form of manipulating data entry and output as well as some graphical interfaces. We propose and present the first features of a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) with dedicated hydro-economic modules in a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) environment for integrated water resource management. The open model platform should include geoprocessing tasks and water user related data management. The hydro-economic geoprocessing will link to generic optimization modeling systems, such as EXCEL Solver, GAMS and MATLAB. The institutions are deliberating or deciding over water allocation at different scales could use the generated information on potential economic benefits as a transparent basis for discussion. In

  15. Integral staggered point-matching method for millimeter-wave reflective diffraction gratings on electron cyclotron heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Donghui; Huang, Mei; Wang, Zhijiang; Zhang, Feng; Zhuang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The integral staggered point-matching method for design of polarizers on the ECH systems is presented. • The availability of the integral staggered point-matching method is checked by numerical calculations. • Two polarizers are designed with the integral staggered point-matching method and the experimental results are given. - Abstract: The reflective diffraction gratings are widely used in the high power electron cyclotron heating systems for polarization strategy. This paper presents a method which we call “the integral staggered point-matching method” for design of reflective diffraction gratings. This method is based on the integral point-matching method. However, it effectively removes the convergence problems and tedious calculations of the integral point-matching method, making it easier to be used for a beginner. A code is developed based on this method. The calculation results of the integral staggered point-matching method are compared with the integral point-matching method, the coordinate transformation method and the low power measurement results. It indicates that the integral staggered point-matching method can be used as an optional method for the design of reflective diffraction gratings in electron cyclotron heating systems.

  16. Pseudo-spectral method using rotated staggered grid for elastic wave propagation in 3D arbitrary anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Peng

    2017-05-10

    Staggering grid is a very effective way to reduce the Nyquist errors and to suppress the non-causal ringing artefacts in the pseudo-spectral solution of first-order elastic wave equations. However, the straightforward use of a staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method is problematic for simulating wave propagation when the anisotropy level is greater than orthorhombic or when the anisotropic symmetries are not aligned with the computational grids. Inspired by the idea of rotated staggered-grid finite-difference method, we propose a modified pseudo-spectral method for wave propagation in arbitrary anisotropic media. Compared with an existing remedy of staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method based on stiffness matrix decomposition and a possible alternative using the Lebedev grids, the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method possesses the best balance between the mitigation of artefacts and efficiency. A 2D example on a transversely isotropic model with tilted symmetry axis verifies its effectiveness to suppress the ringing artefacts. Two 3D examples of increasing anisotropy levels demonstrate that the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method can successfully simulate complex wavefields in such anisotropic formations.

  17. Integral staggered point-matching method for millimeter-wave reflective diffraction gratings on electron cyclotron heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Donghui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Huang, Mei [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Wang, Zhijiang, E-mail: wangzj@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zhang, Feng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Zhuang, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The integral staggered point-matching method for design of polarizers on the ECH systems is presented. • The availability of the integral staggered point-matching method is checked by numerical calculations. • Two polarizers are designed with the integral staggered point-matching method and the experimental results are given. - Abstract: The reflective diffraction gratings are widely used in the high power electron cyclotron heating systems for polarization strategy. This paper presents a method which we call “the integral staggered point-matching method” for design of reflective diffraction gratings. This method is based on the integral point-matching method. However, it effectively removes the convergence problems and tedious calculations of the integral point-matching method, making it easier to be used for a beginner. A code is developed based on this method. The calculation results of the integral staggered point-matching method are compared with the integral point-matching method, the coordinate transformation method and the low power measurement results. It indicates that the integral staggered point-matching method can be used as an optional method for the design of reflective diffraction gratings in electron cyclotron heating systems.

  18. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  19. Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.

  20. New arrangements in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, B.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Climate policy, its content and the way it is being organised, is changing, both nationally and internationally. The Kyoto Protocol and its effects form an important catalyst for this process. The focus in climate discourse is increasingly on 'differentiation' and 'flexibilisation', while the role of the industrial sectors involved has changed since 1997, among other things expressed in the increasing influence exerted by the business community and the declining power of the environmental movement. There is a transition underway, from pluralist to private policy arrangements

  1. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  2. Arrangement for selectively irradiating webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihme, B.

    1975-01-01

    The arrangement for selectively irradiating a web includes a perforated band of a radiation impermeable substance which is guided in an endless path via a pair of guide rollers and has two juxtaposed runs in this path. A take-up roller conveys a web of material past one of the runs at a side thereof remote from the other run, the direction of movement of the web being other than parallel to that of the band and, preferably, normal thereto. An electron accelerator is provided at the far side of the run remote from the web and is effective for directing a radiation beam at the web through the perforations

  3. EM reconstruction of dual isotope PET using staggered injections and prompt gamma positron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of dual isotope positron emission tomography (DIPET) is to create two separate images of two coinjected PET radiotracers. DIPET shortens the duration of the study, reduces patient discomfort, and produces perfectly coregistered images compared to the case when two radiotracers would be imaged independently (sequential PET studies). Reconstruction of data from such simultaneous acquisition of two PET radiotracers is difficult because positron decay of any isotope creates only 511 keV photons; therefore, the isotopes cannot be differentiated based on the detected energy. Methods: Recently, the authors have proposed a DIPET technique that uses a combination of radiotracer A which is a pure positron emitter (such as 18 F or 11 C) and radiotracer B in which positron decay is accompanied by the emission of a high-energy (HE) prompt gamma (such as 38 K or 60 Cu). Events that are detected as triple coincidences of HE gammas with the corresponding two 511 keV photons allow the authors to identify the lines-of-response (LORs) of isotope B. These LORs are used to separate the two intertwined distributions, using a dedicated image reconstruction algorithm. In this work the authors propose a new version of the DIPET EM-based reconstruction algorithm that allows the authors to include an additional, independent estimate of radiotracer A distribution which may be obtained if radioisotopes are administered using a staggered injections method. In this work the method is tested on simple simulations of static PET acquisitions. Results: The authors’ experiments performed using Monte-Carlo simulations with static acquisitions demonstrate that the combined method provides better results (crosstalk errors decrease by up to 50%) than the positron-gamma DIPET method or staggered injections alone. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that the authors’ new EM algorithm which combines information from triple coincidences with prompt gammas and staggered injections

  4. On the Quality of Velocity Interpolation Schemes for Marker-in-Cell Method and Staggered Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Popov, Anton A.

    2017-03-01

    The marker-in-cell method is generally considered a flexible and robust method to model the advection of heterogenous non-diffusive properties (i.e., rock type or composition) in geodynamic problems. In this method, Lagrangian points carrying compositional information are advected with the ambient velocity field on an Eulerian grid. However, velocity interpolation from grid points to marker locations is often performed without considering the divergence of the velocity field at the interpolated locations (i.e., non-conservative). Such interpolation schemes can induce non-physical clustering of markers when strong velocity gradients are present (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and this may, eventually, result in empty grid cells, a serious numerical violation of the marker-in-cell method. To remedy this at low computational costs, Jenny et al. (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and Meyer and Jenny (Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 4:466-467, 2004) proposed a simple, conservative velocity interpolation scheme for 2-D staggered grid, while Wang et al. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16(6):2015-2023, 2015) extended the formulation to 3-D finite element methods. Here, we adapt this formulation for 3-D staggered grids (correction interpolation) and we report on the quality of various velocity interpolation methods for 2-D and 3-D staggered grids. We test the interpolation schemes in combination with different advection schemes on incompressible Stokes problems with strong velocity gradients, which are discretized using a finite difference method. Our results suggest that a conservative formulation reduces the dispersion and clustering of markers, minimizing the need of unphysical marker control in geodynamic models.

  5. EM reconstruction of dual isotope PET using staggered injections and prompt gamma positron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of dual isotope positron emission tomography (DIPET) is to create two separate images of two coinjected PET radiotracers. DIPET shortens the duration of the study, reduces patient discomfort, and produces perfectly coregistered images compared to the case when two radiotracers would be imaged independently (sequential PET studies). Reconstruction of data from such simultaneous acquisition of two PET radiotracers is difficult because positron decay of any isotope creates only 511 keV photons; therefore, the isotopes cannot be differentiated based on the detected energy. Methods: Recently, the authors have proposed a DIPET technique that uses a combination of radiotracer A which is a pure positron emitter (such as 18F or 11C) and radiotracer B in which positron decay is accompanied by the emission of a high-energy (HE) prompt gamma (such as 38K or 60Cu). Events that are detected as triple coincidences of HE gammas with the corresponding two 511 keV photons allow the authors to identify the lines-of-response (LORs) of isotope B. These LORs are used to separate the two intertwined distributions, using a dedicated image reconstruction algorithm. In this work the authors propose a new version of the DIPET EM-based reconstruction algorithm that allows the authors to include an additional, independent estimate of radiotracer A distribution which may be obtained if radioisotopes are administered using a staggered injections method. In this work the method is tested on simple simulations of static PET acquisitions. Results: The authors’ experiments performed using Monte-Carlo simulations with static acquisitions demonstrate that the combined method provides better results (crosstalk errors decrease by up to 50%) than the positron-gamma DIPET method or staggered injections alone. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that the authors’ new EM algorithm which combines information from triple coincidences with prompt gammas and staggered injections improves

  6. Weak interaction matrix elements with staggered fermions. I: theory and a trial run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.; Patel, A.; Gupta, R.; Guralnik, G.; Kilsup, G.W.

    1986-08-01

    We present results of a preliminary study of the matrix elements of weak interaction operators using staggered fermions. We describe our method for transcribing the weak interaction Hamiltonian onto the lattice. This method preserves exact Ward Identities analogous to those of the continuum. The calculation uses operators involving 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 gauge links. We present results for all these operators obtained on 8 3 x 16 lattices generated both with the Wilson action (β = 5.6) and an improved action

  7. Nucleon structure in the chiral regime with domain wall fermions on an improved staggered sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.G. Edwards; G. Fleming; Ph. Hagler; J.W. Negele; K. Orginos; A.V. Pochinsky; D.B. Renner; D.G. Richards; W. Schroers

    2006-01-01

    Moments of unpolarized, helicity, and transversity distributions, electromagnetic form factors, and generalized form factors of the nucleon are presented from a preliminary analysis of lattice results using pion masses down to 359 MeV. The twist two matrix elements are calculated using a mixed action of domain wall valence quarks and asqtad staggered sea quarks and are renormalized perturbatively. Several observables are extrapolated to the physical limit using chiral perturbation theory. Results are compared with experimental moments of quark distributions and electromagnetic form factors and phenomenologically determined generalized form factors, and the implications on the transverse structure and spin content of the nucleon are discussed

  8. Aerodynamic drag of a staggered flat-oval finning tube banks at the small reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим Михайлович Вознюк

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations of aerodynamic drag of staggered bundles of flat-oval tubes with incomplete transversal fins in the range of Reynolds numbers 600 <  < 20000 are performed. New calculation correlations for determining of drag coefficients for 1<3000 are suggested, the impact of basic geometric and regime parameters on aerodynamic drag of bundles are determined. The received calculation depending is possible to use in developing of heat transfer surfaces for “dry” cooling towers and air cooling apparatus and economizers

  9. Calculation of cell face velocity of non-staggered grid system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang

    2012-07-28

    In this paper, the cell face velocities in the discretization of the continuity equation, the momentum equation, and the scalar equation of a non-staggered grid system are calculated and discussed. Both the momentum interpolation and the linear interpolation are adopted to evaluate the coefficients in the discretized momentum and scalar equations. Their performances are compared. When the linear interpolation is used to calculate the coefficients, the mass residual term in the coefficients must be dropped to maintain the accuracy and convergence rate of the solution. © Shanghai University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

  10. Calculation of the Nucleon Axial Form Factor Using Staggered Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Aaron S. [Fermilab; Hill, Richard J. [Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Kronfeld, Andreas S. [Fermilab; Li, Ruizi [Indiana U.; Simone, James N. [Fermilab

    2016-10-14

    The nucleon axial form factor is a dominant contribution to errors in neutrino oscillation studies. Lattice QCD calculations can help control theory errors by providing first-principles information on nucleon form factors. In these proceedings, we present preliminary results on a blinded calculation of $g_A$ and the axial form factor using HISQ staggered baryons with 2+1+1 flavors of sea quarks. Calculations are done using physical light quark masses and are absolutely normalized. We discuss fitting form factor data with the model-independent $z$ expansion parametrization.

  11. Radiation detector arrangements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.

    1989-01-01

    The patent describes a radiation detector arrangement. It comprises at least one detector element in the form of a temperature-sensitive resistor whose electrical resistance changes in response to radiation incident on the detector element, the resistor having a high positive temperature coefficient of electrical resistance at a transition in its electrical conductance, circuit means for applying a voltage across the resistor during operation of the detector arrangement, and temperature-regulation means for regulating the temperature of the resistor so as to operate the resistor in the transition, characterised in that the temperature-regulation means comprises the resistor and the circuit means which passes sufficient current through the resistor by resistance heating to a position in the transition at which a further increase in its temperature in response to incident radiation reduces the resistance heating by reducing the current, thereby stabilizing the temperature of the resistor at the position. The positive temperature coefficient at the position being sufficiently high that the change in the resistance heating produced by a change in the temperature of the resistor at the position is larger than a change in power of the incident radiation required to produce that same change in temperature of the resistor in the absence of any change in resistance heating

  12. Package and Assisted Travel Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the ordinary legislative procedure before the European Parliament and the Council, there is a proposal of the European Commission for the adoption of a new directive that would bring the regulation of the contract on organized tours into line with current market development of organized trips. The proposal is intended to regulate the various combinations of travel services that are today offered to passengers, particularly online, which are identical or comparable to the travel services provided in a classic pre-arranged package. The subject of the paper are the provisions of the proposal of the directive which govern the field of application of the proposed directive, in particular the proposed changes regarding the concept of "package" contained in the European Commission proposal and amendments of the European Parliament, as well as the analysis of the proposed new concept of "assisted travel arrangements." The paper also critically refers to the method of targeted maximum harmonization as a proposed new intensity of the harmonization. The conclusion is that, despite the welcome updating of an outdated text of the directive on package travel which is line with the current market needs, the proposed text of the new directive is burdened with technical and complex definitions that could lead to significant difficulties in their transposition into the provisions of national law of the Member States.

  13. 42 CFR 413.241 - Pharmacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pharmacy arrangements. 413.241 Section 413.241... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.241 Pharmacy arrangements. Effective January 1, 2011, an ESRD facility that enters into an arrangement with a pharmacy to furnish renal dialysis...

  14. Cas9-catalyzed DNA Cleavage Generates Staggered Ends: Evidence from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhicheng; Liu, Jin

    2016-11-01

    The CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (spCas9) along with a single guide RNA (sgRNA) has emerged as a versatile toolbox for genome editing. Despite recent advances in the mechanism studies on spCas9-sgRNA-mediated double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recognition and cleavage, it is still unclear how the catalytic Mg2+ ions induce the conformation changes toward the catalytic active state. It also remains controversial whether Cas9 generates blunt-ended or staggered-ended breaks with overhangs in the DNA. To investigate these issues, here we performed the first all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the spCas9-sgRNA-dsDNA system with and without Mg2+ bound. The simulation results showed that binding of two Mg2+ ions at the RuvC domain active site could lead to structurally and energetically favorable coordination ready for the non-target DNA strand cleavage. Importantly, we demonstrated with our simulations that Cas9-catalyzed DNA cleavage produces 1-bp staggered ends rather than generally assumed blunt ends.

  15. Parametric modeling and stagger angle optimization of an axial flow fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M X; Zhang, C H; Liu, Y; Zheng, S Y

    2013-01-01

    Axial flow fans are widely used in every field of social production. Improving their efficiency is a sustained and urgent demand of domestic industry. The optimization of stagger angle is an important method to improve fan performance. Parametric modeling and calculation process automation are realized in this paper to improve optimization efficiency. Geometric modeling and mesh division are parameterized based on GAMBIT. Parameter setting and flow field calculation are completed in the batch mode of FLUENT. A control program is developed in Visual C++ to dominate the data exchange of mentioned software. It also extracts calculation results for optimization algorithm module (provided by Matlab) to generate directive optimization control parameters, which as feedback are transferred upwards to modeling module. The center line of the blade airfoil, based on CLARK y profile, is constructed by non-constant circulation and triangle discharge method. Stagger angles of six airfoil sections are optimized, to reduce the influence of inlet shock loss as well as gas leak in blade tip clearance and hub resistance at blade root. Finally an optimal solution is obtained, which meets the total pressure requirement under given conditions and improves total pressure efficiency by about 6%

  16. Parametric modeling and stagger angle optimization of an axial flow fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. X.; Zhang, C. H.; Liu, Y.; Y Zheng, S.

    2013-12-01

    Axial flow fans are widely used in every field of social production. Improving their efficiency is a sustained and urgent demand of domestic industry. The optimization of stagger angle is an important method to improve fan performance. Parametric modeling and calculation process automation are realized in this paper to improve optimization efficiency. Geometric modeling and mesh division are parameterized based on GAMBIT. Parameter setting and flow field calculation are completed in the batch mode of FLUENT. A control program is developed in Visual C++ to dominate the data exchange of mentioned software. It also extracts calculation results for optimization algorithm module (provided by Matlab) to generate directive optimization control parameters, which as feedback are transferred upwards to modeling module. The center line of the blade airfoil, based on CLARK y profile, is constructed by non-constant circulation and triangle discharge method. Stagger angles of six airfoil sections are optimized, to reduce the influence of inlet shock loss as well as gas leak in blade tip clearance and hub resistance at blade root. Finally an optimal solution is obtained, which meets the total pressure requirement under given conditions and improves total pressure efficiency by about 6%.

  17. Mines rescue arrangements: future options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The principal objectives of the study were to examine alternative structures for the provision of mines rescue arrangements in the United Kingdom and to assess their relative merits against credible scenarios for the future coal mining industry. The study examined the current mines rescue structure and organisation in the UK and the range of mines rescue organisations around the world. In undertaking this international assessment cognisance was taken of the geographic spread of mines, the probable future for coal production, the cost of rescue provision and the potential for other country's rescue provisions to meet existing UK legislative requirements. In addition to mines rescue services, the study also examined other emergency and rescue service functions in the UK.

  18. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  19. Solving phase appearance/disappearance two-phase flow problems with high resolution staggered grid and fully implicit schemes by the Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin

    2016-04-01

    The phase appearance/disappearance issue presents serious numerical challenges in two-phase flow simulations. Many existing reactor safety analysis codes use different kinds of treatments for the phase appearance/disappearance problem. However, to our best knowledge, there are no fully satisfactory solutions. Additionally, the majority of the existing reactor system analysis codes were developed using low-order numerical schemes in both space and time. In many situations, it is desirable to use high-resolution spatial discretization and fully implicit time integration schemes to reduce numerical errors. In this work, we adapted a high-resolution spatial discretization scheme on staggered grid mesh and fully implicit time integration methods (such as BDF1 and BDF2) to solve the two-phase flow problems. The discretized nonlinear system was solved by the Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method, which does not require the derivation and implementation of analytical Jacobian matrix. These methods were tested with a few two-phase flow problems with phase appearance/disappearance phenomena considered, such as a linear advection problem, an oscillating manometer problem, and a sedimentation problem. The JFNK method demonstrated extremely robust and stable behaviors in solving the two-phase flow problems with phase appearance/disappearance. No special treatments such as water level tracking or void fraction limiting were used. High-resolution spatial discretization and second- order fully implicit method also demonstrated their capabilities in significantly reducing numerical errors.

  20. Analysis of the influence of the interlayer staggered zone in the basalt of Jinsha River Basin on the main buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiaona; Huang, Jiangwei

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the finite element software FEFLOW is used to simulate the seepage field of the interlayer staggered zone C2 in the basalt of Jinsha River Basin. The influence of the interlayer staggered zone C2 on the building is analyzed. Combined with the waterproof effect of current design scheme of anti-seepage curtain, the seepage field in the interlayer staggered zone C2 is discussed under different design schemes. The optimal design scheme of anti-seepage curtain is put forward. The results showed that the case four can effectively reduce the head and hydraulic gradient of underground powerhouse area, and improve the groundwater seepage field in the plant area.

  1. High‐order rotated staggered finite difference modeling of 3D elastic wave propagation in general anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the dispersion properties and stability conditions of the high‐order convolutional finite difference operators and compare them with the conventional finite difference schemes. We observe that the convolutional finite difference method has better dispersion properties and becomes more efficient than the conventional finite difference method with the increasing order of accuracy. This makes the high‐order convolutional operator a good choice for anisotropic elastic wave simulations on rotated staggered grids since its enhanced dispersion properties can help to suppress the numerical dispersion error that is inherent in the rotated staggered grid structure and its efficiency can help us tackle 3D problems cost‐effectively.

  2. Transfer arrangement for sealable enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxup, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    An arrangement for transferring items to or from e.g. a glovebox, in a closed moveable container. The glovebox port has a door having a non-rotatable outer portion and a rotatable inner portion. The container has a lid having a non-rotatable outer portion and a rotatable inner portion, the outer portion having a thin lip. The port has a thin lip which can be aligned with the lip of the lid. The outer portion of the door retains a peripheral sealing ring and the rim of the container retains a similar ring which can sandwich and bridge the two lips. The container is attached to the port by a rotatable locking ring. Via an externally rotatable and slidable shaft, lined at its inner end to the inner portion of the door, the latter is rotatable to disengage the door from the port, couple this inner portion to that of the lid, disengage the lid from the container, and move the coupled door and lid back and laterally away from the port, and vice versa. (author)

  3. Towards corrections to the strong coupling limit of staggered lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, Michael; Philipsen, Owe; de Forcrand, Philippe; Unger, Wolfgang; Miura, Kotaroh

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first steps of an ongoing project to add gauge observables and gauge corrections to the well-studied strong coupling limit of staggered lattice QCD, which has been shown earlier to be amenable to numerical simulations by the worm algorithm in the chiral limit and at finite density. Here we show how to evaluate the expectation value of the Polyakov loop in the framework of the strong coupling limit at finite temperature, allowing to study confinement properties along with those of chiral symmetry breaking. We find the Polyakov loop to rise smoothly, thus signalling deconfinement. The non-analytic nature of the chiral phase transition is reflected in the derivative of the Polyakov loop. We also discuss how to construct an effective theory for non-zero lattice coupling, which is valid to $O(\\beta)$.

  4. Field theory of a terahertz staggered double-grating arrays waveguide Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wenqiu; He, Fangming [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zicheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Ding; Liu, Qinglun [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Based on a rectilinear sheet electron beam propagating through the tunnel of a staggered double-grating arrays waveguide (SDGAW) slow-wave structure (SWS), a three dimensional field theory for describing the modes and the beam-wave interaction is presented, in which the higher order terms inside the grooves are retained. The fields' distribution and the conductivity losses are also calculated utilizing the theoretical model. With the optimized parameters of the SWS and the electron beam, a 1 THz SDGAW Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier may obtain a moderate net gain (the peak gain is 12.7 dB/cm) and an ultra 3 dB wideband (0.19 THz) considering the serious Ohmic losses. The theoretical results have been compared with those calculated by 3D HFSS code and CST STUDIO particle-in-cell simulations.

  5. N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields: staggered fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-12-10

    We investigate N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields on the lattice. The background field is introduced by means of the so-called Schrödinger functional. We adopt standard staggered fermions with constant bare mass am=0.025 and magnetic fields with constant magnetic flux up to a{sup 2}eH≃2.3562. We find that the the deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration temperatures do not depend on the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our method allow us to easily study the effects of the external magnetic fields on the QCD thermodynamics. We determine the influences of applied magnetic fields to the free energy, pressure, and equation of state of strongly interacting matter.

  6. Efficient gas-liquid contact using microfluidic membrane devices with staggered herringbone mixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femmer, Tim; Eggersdorfer, Max L; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Wessling, Matthias

    2015-08-07

    We describe a novel membrane based gas-liquid-contacting device with increased mass transport and reduced pressure loss by combining a membrane with a staggered herringbone static mixer. Herringbone structures are imposed on the microfluidic channel geometry via soft lithography, acting as mixers which introduce secondary flows at the membrane interface. Such flows include Dean vortices and Taylor flows generating effective mixing while improving mass transport and preventing concentration polarization in microfluidic channels. Furthermore, our static herringbone mixer membranes effectively reduce pressure losses leading to devices with enhanced transfer properties for microfluidic gas-liquid contact. We investigate the red blood cell distribution to tailor our devices towards miniaturised extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and improved comfort of patients with lung insufficiencies.

  7. Constitutive Modelling in Thermomechanical Processes, Using The Control Volume Method on Staggered Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Jesper

    -strain relation has been suggested. The intention of this method is to provide fast numerical results with reasonable accuracy in relation to the first order effects of the presented classical plasticity model. Application of the $J_2$ flow theory and the alternative method have shown some agreement...... of the method has been focused on high temperature processes such as casting and welding and the interest of using nonlinear constitutive stress-strain relations has grown to extend the applicability of the method. The work of implementing classical plasticity into the control volume formulation has been based...... on the $J_2$ flow theory describing an isotropic hardening material with a temperature dependent yield stress. This work has successfully been verified by comparing results to analytical solutions. Due to the comprehensive implementation in the staggered grid an alternative constitutive stress...

  8. An arbitrary-order staggered time integrator for the linear acoustic wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejoon; Park, Hyunseo; Park, Yoonseo; Shin, Changsoo

    2018-02-01

    We suggest a staggered time integrator whose order of accuracy can arbitrarily be extended to solve the linear acoustic wave equation. A strategy to select the appropriate order of accuracy is also proposed based on the error analysis that quantitatively predicts the truncation error of the numerical solution. This strategy not only reduces the computational cost several times, but also allows us to flexibly set the modelling parameters such as the time step length, grid interval and P-wave speed. It is demonstrated that the proposed method can almost eliminate temporal dispersive errors during long term simulations regardless of the heterogeneity of the media and time step lengths. The method can also be successfully applied to the source problem with an absorbing boundary condition, which is frequently encountered in the practical usage for the imaging algorithms or the inverse problems.

  9. Staggered-Grid Finite Difference Method with Variable-Order Accuracy for Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghuai Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical modeling of wave field in porous media generally requires more computation time than that of acoustic or elastic media. Usually used finite difference methods adopt finite difference operators with fixed-order accuracy to calculate space derivatives for a heterogeneous medium. A finite difference scheme with variable-order accuracy for acoustic wave equation has been proposed to reduce the computation time. In this paper, we develop this scheme for wave equations in porous media based on dispersion relation with high-order staggered-grid finite difference (SFD method. High-order finite difference operators are adopted for low-velocity regions, and low-order finite difference operators are adopted for high-velocity regions. Dispersion analysis and modeling results demonstrate that the proposed SFD method can decrease computational costs without reducing accuracy.

  10. A comparative study of Purkinje cells in two RORalpha gene mutant mice: staggerer and RORalpha(-/-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulazmi, M; Frédéric, F; Capone, F; Becker-André, M; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N; Mariani, J

    2001-04-30

    The staggerer (Rora(sg/sg)) mutation is a deletion in the RORalpha gene, one member of a family of nuclear receptor genes related to the retinoic acid receptor. Recently Steinmayr et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95 (1998) 3960) generated a RORalpha null-mutant mouse (Rora(-/-)) by using a targeting vector in which a beta-Gal gene replaces the second finger of the DNA-binding domain of RORalpha. The Rora(-/-) cerebellum is qualitatively a phenocopy of the Rora(sg/sg) one, but the two strains differ slightly in their motor skills. To address the question whether the morphological defects in the Rora(-/-) cerebellum are identical to the Rora(sg/sg) one, we compared number and size of Purkinje cells in both staggerer and RORalpha null-mutant mice, using calbindin (CaBP) immunohistochemistry and revelation of beta-Gal activity. Compared to control cerebella the Rora(sg/sg) cerebellum has 82% fewer CaBP-positive cells. In Rora(-/-) mouse, all the the beta-Gal-positive Purkinje cells also expressed CaBP, but the cerebellum contained 78% less CaBP-positive cells than control, a deficit not different from the one observed in Rora(sg/sg). We show similar mediolateral compartments in Purkinje cell number and cytological abnormality in Rora(sg/sg) and Rora(-/-) mice. These results provide quantitative support for the hypothesis that the cerebellar phenotype in the homozygous Rora(sg/sg) is due to the lack of function of the RORalpha gene.

  11. Investigation of analog/RF performance of staggered heterojunctions based nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Avik; Sarkar, Angsuman

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the analog/RF performance of an III-V semiconductor based staggered hetero-tunnel-junction (HETJ) n-type nanowire (NW) tunneling FET (n-TFET) is investigated, for the first time. The device performance figure-of-merits governing the analog/RF performance such as transconductance (gm), transconductance-to-drive current ratio (gm/IDS), output resistance (Rout), intrinsic gain and unity-gain cutoff frequency (fT) have been studied. The analog/RF performance parameters is compared between HETJ NW TFET and a homojunction (HJ) NW n-type TFET of similar dimensions. In addition to enhanced ION and subthreshold swing, a significant improvement in the analog/RF performance parameters obtained by the HETJ n-TFET over HJ counterpart for use in analog/mixed signal System-on-Chip (SoC) applications is reported. Moreover, the analog/RF performance parameters of a III-V based staggered HETJ NW TFET is also compared with a heterojunction (HETJ) NW n-type MOSFET having same material as HETJ n-TFET and equal dimension in order to provide a systematic comparison between HETJ-TFET and HETJ-MOSFET for use in analog/mixed-signal applications. The results reveal that HETJ n-TFET provides higher Rout and hence, a higher intrinsic gain, an improved gm/IDS ratio, and reasonable fT at lower values of gate-overdrive voltage as compared to the HETJ NW n-MOSFET.

  12. Flexible Working Time Arrangements in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Beleva, Iskra

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the flexible working time arrangements in Bulgaria, using a life-course perspective. Two important features have to be outlined, namely: underdeveloped flexible forms of employment in the country, including working time arrangement, and lack of previous analysis on flexible working time arrangements from the angle of life-course perspective. The author describes the regulatory framework, collective agreements at national and company level as a frame w...

  13. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an effective triage marker following staggered paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D G; Zafar, S; Reid, T W D J; Martin, K G; Davidson, J S; Hayes, P C; Simpson, K J

    2012-06-01

    The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an effective triage marker following single time point paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, but has not been evaluated following staggered (multiple supratherapeutic doses over >8 h, resulting in cumulative dose of >4 g/day) overdoses. To evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the SOFA score following staggered paracetamol overdose. Time-course analysis of 50 staggered paracetamol overdoses admitted to a tertiary liver centre. Individual timed laboratory samples were correlated with corresponding clinical parameters and the daily SOFA scores were calculated. A total of 39/50 (78%) patients developed hepatic encephalopathy. The area under the SOFA receiver operator characteristic for death/liver transplantation was 87.4 (95% CI 73.2-95.7), 94.3 (95% CI 82.5-99.1), and 98.4 (95% CI 84.3-100.0) at 0, 24 and 48 h, respectively, postadmission. A SOFA score of paracetamol overdose, is associated with a good prognosis. Both the SOFA and APACHE II scores could improve triage of high-risk staggered paracetamol overdose patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Staggered overdose pattern and delay to hospital presentation are associated with adverse outcomes following paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Darren G N; Bates, Caroline M; Davidson, Janice S; Martin, Kirsty G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2012-02-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning remains the major cause of severe acute hepatotoxicity in the UK. In this large single centre cohort study we examined the clinical impact of staggered overdoses and delayed presentation following paracetamol overdose. Between 1992 and 2008, 663 patients were admitted with paracetamol-induced severe liver injury, of whom 161 (24.3%) had taken a staggered overdose. Staggered overdose patients were significantly older and more likely to abuse alcohol than single time point overdose patients. Relief of pain (58.2%) was the commonest rationale for repeated supratherapeutic ingestion. Despite lower total ingested paracetamol doses and lower admission serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations, staggered overdose patients were more likely to be encephalopathic on admission, require renal replacement therapy or mechanical ventilation and had higher mortality rates compared with single time point overdoses (37.3% vs. 27.8%, P= 0.025), although this overdose pattern did not independently predict death. The King's College poor prognostic criteria had reduced sensitivity (77.6, 95% CI 70.8, 81.5) for this pattern of overdose. Of the 396/450 (88.0%) single time point overdoses in whom accurate timings could be obtained, 178 (44.9%) presented to medical services >24 h following overdose. Delayed presentation beyond 24 h post overdose was independently associated with death/liver transplantation (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.23, 4.12, P= 0.009). Both delayed presentation and staggered overdose pattern are associated with adverse outcomes following paracetamol overdose. These patients are at increased risk of developing multi-organ failure and should be considered for early transfer to specialist liver centres. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

  16. 78 FR 40131 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... INFORMATION: This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 302,188 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium..., Saskatchewan, Canada, to Springfields Fuels Ltd. in Lancashire, United Kingdom. The material, which is... arrangement concerning the retransfer of nuclear material of United States origin will not be inimical to the...

  17. 47 CFR 36.301 - Section arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Nonspecific Operations Expenses: General 36.351. Other Property Plant and Equipment Expenses—Account 6510... PROCEDURES; STANDARD PROCEDURES FOR SEPARATING TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES... arrangement. (a) This subpart is arranged in sections as follows: General 36.301 and 36.302. Plant Specific...

  18. An effective method for smoothing the staggered dose distribution of multi-leaf collimator field edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I.-M.; Lin, S.-Y.; Lee, M.-S.; Wang, C.-J.; Chuang, K.-S.; Ding, H.-J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To smooth the staggered dose distribution that occurs in stepped leaves defined by a multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Materials and methods: The MLC Shaper program controlled the stepped leaves, which were shifted in a traveling range, the pattern of shift was from the position of out-bound to in-bound with a one-segment (cross-bound), three-segment, and five-segment shifts. Film was placed at a depth of 1.5 cm and irradiated with the same irradiation dose used for the cerrobend block experiment. Four field edges with the MLC defining at 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg. angels relative to the jaw edge were performed, respectively, in this study. For the field edge defined by the multi-segment technique, the amplitude of the isodose lines for 50% isodose line and both the 80% and 20% isodose lines were measured. The effective penumbra widths with 90-10% and 80-20% distances for different irradiations were determined at four field edges with the MLC defining at 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg. angels relative to the jaw edge. Results: Use of the five-segment technique for multi-leaf collimation at the 60 deg. angle field edge smoothes each isodose line into an effectively straight line, similar to the pattern achieved using a cerrobend block. The separation of these lines is also important. The 80-20% effective penumbra width with five-segment techniques (8.23 mm) at 60 deg. angle relative to the jaw edge is little wider (1.9 times) than the penumbra of cerrobend block field edge (4.23 mm). We also found that the 90-10% effective penumbra width with five-segment techniques (12.68 mm) at 60 deg. angle relative to the jaw edge is little wider (1.28 times) than the penumbra of cerrobend block field edge (9.89 mm). Conclusion: The multi-segment technique is effective in smoothing the MLC staggered field edge. The effective penumbra width with more segment techniques at larger degree angles relative to the field edge is little wider than the penumbra for a

  19. A Study of a Powder Coating Gun near Field: A Case of Staggered Concentric Jet Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Grandmaison

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, experimentally and numerically, an isothermal coaxial air jet, created by an innovative nozzle design for an air propane torch, used for the thermal deposition of polymers. This design includes staggering the origins of the central and annular jets and creating an annular air jet with an inward radial velocity component. The experimental work used a Pitot tube to measure axial velocity on the jet centerline and in the fully developed flow. The static gauge pressure in the near field was also measured and found to be positive, an unexpected result. The numerical work used Gambit and Fluent. An extensive grid sensitivity study was conducted and it was found that results from a relatively coarse mesh were substantially the same as results from a mesh with almost 11 times the number of control volumes. A thorough evaluation of all of the RANS models in Fluent 6.3.26 found that the flow fields they calculated showed at most partial agreement with the experimental results. The greatest difference between numerical and experimental results was the incorrect prediction by all RANS models of a recirculation zone in the near field on the jet axis. Experimental work showed it did not exist.

  20. Natural convection heat transfer for a staggered array of heated, horizontal cylinders within a rectangular enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, C.E.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in a staggered array of heated cylinders, oriented horizontally within a rectangular enclosure. The main purpose of this research was to extend the knowledge of heat transfer within enclosed bundles of spent nuclear fuel rods sealed within a shipping or storage container. This research extends Canaan`s investigation of an aligned array of heated cylinders that thermally simulated a boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assembly sealed within a shipping or storage cask. The results are presented in terms of piecewise Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations of the form Nu = C(Ra){sup n}, where C and n are constants. Correlations are presented both for individual rods within the array and for the array as a whole. The correlations are based only on the convective component of the heat transfer. The radiative component was calculated with a finite-element code that used measured surface temperatures, rod array geometry, and measured surface emissivities as inputs. The correlation results are compared to Canaan`s aligned array results and to other studies of natural convection in horizontal tube arrays.

  1. Natural convection heat transfer for a staggered array of heated, horizontal cylinders within a rectangular enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, C.E.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in a staggered array of heated cylinders, oriented horizontally within a rectangular enclosure. The main purpose of this research was to extend the knowledge of heat transfer within enclosed bundles of spent nuclear fuel rods sealed within a shipping or storage container. This research extends Canaan's investigation of an aligned array of heated cylinders that thermally simulated a boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assembly sealed within a shipping or storage cask. The results are presented in terms of piecewise Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations of the form Nu = C(Ra) n , where C and n are constants. Correlations are presented both for individual rods within the array and for the array as a whole. The correlations are based only on the convective component of the heat transfer. The radiative component was calculated with a finite-element code that used measured surface temperatures, rod array geometry, and measured surface emissivities as inputs. The correlation results are compared to Canaan's aligned array results and to other studies of natural convection in horizontal tube arrays

  2. Development of Non-staggered, SMAC numerical scheme for a two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, H. Y.; Jeong, Jae Jun

    2007-06-01

    The SMAC(Simplified Marker And Cell) method, along with the SIMPLE, has long been used efficiently for the computational fluid dynamics. Usually, the majority of the applications are single phase compressible or incompressible fluids, and the numerical methods are to be modified to implement the following items for the analysis of two-phase flows. - Non-staggered grid for the analysis of a complex geometry - Application of the two-phase models - Coupling of the energy conservation equations - Two-phase flows with phase change. In this report, the SMAC Method is reviewed and extended to compressible two-phase flows with phase change. A pilot code CUPID-M is developed using the proposed numerical method. A set of verification calculations are carried out for th CUPID-M. At first, isothermal air-water flow is simulated to verify the numerical method against two-phase flow flow problems. Next, the two-phase flows with phase change are calculated using CUPID-M and the results are compared to that of CUPID-I, which is based on the coupled ICE method. The calculation time is shorter with CUPID-M than with CUPID-I, while the calculations are unstable with CUPID-M for the rapid phase change problems. Thus, CUPID-M and CUPID-I can be used as an user input considering the application problems

  3. An analytical solution for contact resistance of staggered organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Alavijeh, Hamidreza; Katebi-Jahromi, Alireza

    2017-03-01

    We have developed analytical models for bias dependent contact resistance (RC) and output characteristics of staggered organic field-effect transistors (OFETS) based on a bulk resistance-approximated and mobility-modified current-crowding method. Numerical evaluations of RC and its resistive components show that the bias dependency of the bulk resistance is negligible. Consequently, the properties of the active layer interfaces determine RC and its characteristics. Effective parameters include a normally constant charge injection barrier at the organic-metal interface (Eb) and a gate induced surface carrier-concentration (PS0) at the organic-insulator boundary. The energy barrier pertains to the fabrication process, and its related resistance (rc) can be determined as the fitting parameter of the theoretical model. However, PS0 is strongly gate bias dependent and the results of the numerical model indicate that the resulting component (rch) is dominant and has a considerable effect on RC and its characteristics. More importantly, PS0 as the key parameter of the contact resistance is analytically expressible and by using a proposed mobility-modified current-crowding model, the contact resistance can be analytically formulated. Accordingly, the output characteristics of the OFETs in the triode region can be also analytically modeled using the developed relation of RC.

  4. Large odd-even staggering in the very light platinum isotopes from laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Le Blanc, F; Cabaret, L A; Crawford, J E; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Krieg, M; Lee, J K P; Lettry, Jacques; Lunney, M D; Obert, J; Oms, J; Peru, S; Putaux, J C; Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V; Zemlyanoi, S G

    1998-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes with the COMPLIS experimental set-up on line with the ISOLDE-Booster facility. For the first time, Hg alpha -decay was exploited to extend the very light platinum chain. Using the 5d/sup 9/6s /sup 3/D/sub 3/ to 5d/sup 9/6p /sup 3/P /sub 2/ optical transition, hyperfine spectra of /sup 182,181,180,179,178/Pt and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were recorded for the first time. The variation of the mean square charge radius between these nuclei, the magnetic moments of the odd isotopes and the quadrupole moment of /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were thus measured. A large deformation change between /sup 183/Pt/sup 9/ and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/, an odd-even staggering of the charge radius and a deformation drop from A=179 are clearly observed. All these results are discussed and compared with microscopic theoretical predictions using Hartree-Fock- Bogolyubov calculations using the Gogny force. (20 refs).

  5. The Effect of First-Step Techniques from the Staggered Stance in American Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate 3 different starting techniques from the staggered stance with regards to sprint time, reaction time, linear impulse and power. 11 male amateur American football players volunteered to participate in a testing session consisting of twelve 5 m sprints, 4...... in each technique (normal (NORM), backwards false step (BFS) and forwards false step (FFS)) in random order. Sprint starts were performed on force plates to investigate ground reaction forces, reaction time and total sprint time. Analysis showed significant differences in sprint times, with NORM (1.......77±0.10 s) being faster than FFS (1.81±0.12 s) and BFS (2.01±0.13 s), and FFS being faster than BFS, although no differences were found in reaction time. In terms of mean force and power, NORM (331.1±39.2N, 542.2±72.3W) and FFS (320.8±43.2N, 550.9±81.4W) were significantly larger than BFS (256.9±36.2N, 443...

  6. Performance Analysis and Modeling of a Tubular Staggered-Tooth Transverse-Flux PM Linear Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohong Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance analysis and mathematical modeling of a staggered-tooth transverse-flux permanent magnet linear synchronous machine (STTF-PMLSM, which is characterized by simple structure and low flux leakage. Firstly, the structure advantages and operation principle of the STTF-PMLSM are introduced, and a simplified one phase model is established to investigate the performance of the machine in order to save the computation time. Then, the electromagnetic characteristics, including no-load flux linkage, electromotive force (EMF, inductance, detent force and thrust force, are simulated and analyzed in detail. After that, the theoretical analysis of the detent force, thrust force, and power factor are carried out. And the theoretical analysis results are validated with 3-D finite-element method (FEM. Finally, an improved mathematical model of the machine based on d-q rotating coordinate system is proposed, in which inductance harmonics and coupling between d- and q-axis inductance is considered. The results from the proposed mathematical model are in accordance with the results from 3-D FEM, which proves the validity and effectiveness of the proposed mathematical model. This provides a powerful foundation for the control of the machine.

  7. Dave Eggers's a heartbreaking work of staggering genius: memoir as a "pain-relief device".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elise

    2011-10-01

    Dave Eggers's memoir is an important addition to the tradition of autobiography in America, and offers significant contributions to our understanding of creativity, sublimation, and the psychology of the memoir-writing process. A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius is really two books--an autobiographical narrative about unbearable suffering, and a book of psychoanalytic commentary on the challenges of writing a memoir about catastrophic loss and trauma. The main narrative suggests the psychological resilience it takes to contain unbearable suffering. The metanarrative renders transparent the mind of someone who is both remembering his losses and constantly reflecting upon the process of writing about them. Eggers's identification with authorship, rather than bereavement or traumatization, may have played an important role in containing his affect and his sense of self when the heartbreaking events were originally unfolding. But a price is paid when a son uses his art to construct a new identity as an author--unconscious conflicts, primitive affect, anxieties about failing, as well as guilt about succeeding--consequences often missed by readers. Heartbreaking is a palimpsest, a story about story-telling superimposed on tales of death and survival, but its messages will be missed unless all its parts are preserved when being read or studied.

  8. Exploration of the horizontally staggered light guides for high concentration CPV applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimoglu, Ozgur; Turan, Rasit

    2012-08-13

    The material and processing costs are still the major drawbacks of the c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology. The wafer cost comprises up to 35-40% of the total module cost. New approaches and system designs are needed in order to reduce the share of the wafer cost in photovoltaic energy systems. Here we explore the horizontally staggered light guide solar optics for use in Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) applications. This optical system comprises a lens array system coupled to a horizontal light guide which directs the incoming light beam to its edge. We have designed and simulated this system using a commercial ray tracing software (Zemax). The system is more compact, thinner and more robust compared to the conventional CPV systems. Concentration levels as high as 1000x can easily be reached when the system is properly designed. With such a high concentration level, a good acceptance angle of + -1 degree is still be conserved. The analysis of the system reveals that the total optical efficiency of the system could be as high as %94.4 without any anti-reflection (AR) coating. Optical losses can be reduced by just accommodating a single layer AR coating on the initial lens array leading to a %96.5 optical efficiency. Thermal behavior of high concentration linear concentrator is also discussed and compared with a conventional point focus CPV system.

  9. Ginsparg-Wilson pions scattering in a sea of staggered quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.-W.; O'Connell, Donal; Van de Water, Ruth; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2006-01-01

    We calculate isospin 2 pion-pion scattering in chiral perturbation theory for a partially quenched, mixed action theory with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks and staggered sea quarks. We point out that for some scattering channels, the power-law volume dependence of two-pion states in nonunitary theories such as partially quenched or mixed action QCD is identical to that of QCD. Thus one can extract infinite-volume scattering parameters from mixed action simulations. We then determine the scattering length for both 2 and 2+1 sea quarks in the isospin limit. The scattering length, when expressed in terms of the pion mass and the decay constant measured on the lattice, has no contributions from mixed valence-sea mesons, thus it does not depend upon the parameter, C Mix , that appears in the chiral Lagrangian of the mixed theory. In addition, the contributions which nominally arise from operators appearing in the mixed action O(a 2 m q ) Lagrangian exactly cancel when the scattering length is written in this form. This is in contrast to the scattering length expressed in terms of the bare parameters of the chiral Lagrangian, which explicitly exhibits all the sicknesses and lattice spacing dependence allowed by a partially quenched mixed action theory. These results hold for both 2 and 2+1 flavors of sea quarks

  10. Animal physiology and genetic aspects of ryegrass staggers in grazing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C A; Wheeler, T T; Henderson, H V; Towers, N R; Phua, S H

    2017-07-01

    Ryegrass staggers (RGS) is a metabolic disease of herbivores, caused by the ingestion of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) containing a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii) which produces a tremorgenic toxin, lolitrem B. RGS has a major economic impact for agriculture in New Zealand as well as internationally. Management of RGS in grazing sheep can be problematic, and there is an incomplete knowledge of the interaction between the toxin and the grazing animal. This review is focused on recent advances in understanding the molecular physiology of RGS in the affected animal as well as the influence of animal genetics on the degree of susceptibility to RGS. Investigations to date suggest that the primary target for toxin is the large conductance, calcium-activated, potassium (BK) channel, resulting in disruption of neuromuscular junction signalling. Genetic investigation has established the existence of genes influencing resistance to RGS, however their identity has not been confirmed and their impact has not been established. Studies to date suggest that a multi-gene selection approach will be necessary in order to develop an effective selection tool for use in the agricultural industries.

  11. Nuclear shape staggering in very neutron deficient Hg isotopes detected by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabkiewicz, P.; Duke, C.; Fischer, H.; Kuehl, T.; Kluge, H.-J.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope shift in the lambda = 2537 A line of the even isotopes 206 Hg, 190 Hg, 188 Hg, 186 Hg, 184 Hg as well as of the I = 13/2 isomers of 191 Hg, 189 Hg, 187 Hg, 185 Hg has been measured by use of a tunable dye laser at the on-line masseparator ISOLDE at CERN. The resulting delta 2 > values follow the line, extrapolated from the chain 205 Hg- 187 Hg which is known to have spherical nuclear shape at the heavy end changing smoothly to slight oblate deformation for the lighter isotopes. Previous measurements of the I = 1/2 groundstates of 181 Hg. 183 Hg and 185 Hg revealed a sharp shape transition to strong deformation. Combined with the new results the following effects can be proved for the first time from the model-independent quantity delta 2 >: 1) the existence of odd even-shape staggering, 2) the coexistence of very different shapes in one and the same nucleus as manifested by the huge isomer shift in 185 Hg, 3) the absence of mixing of the different shapes. (author)

  12. Simulating dam-break over an erodible embankment using SWE-Exner model and semi-implicit staggered scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambara, M. D.; Gunawan, P. H.

    2018-03-01

    The impact of a dam-break wave on an erodible embankment with a steep slope has been studied recently using both experimental and numerical approaches. In this paper, the semi-implicit staggered scheme for approximating the shallow water-Exner model will be elaborated to describe the erodible sediment on a steep slope. This scheme is known as a robust scheme to approximate shallow water-Exner model. The results are shown in a good agreement with the experimental data. The comparisons of numerical results with data experiment using slopes Φ = 59.04 and Φ = 41.42 by coefficient of Grass formula Ag = 2 × 10‑5 and Ag = 10‑5 respectively are found the closest results to the experiment. This paper can be seen as the additional validation of semi-implicit staggered scheme in the paper of Gunawan, et al (2015).

  13. Tight-binding electrons on triangular and kagome lattices under staggered modulated magnetic fields: quantum Hall effects and Hofstadter butterflies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Juan; Wang Yifei; Gong Changde, E-mail: yfwang_nju@hotmail.com [Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, and Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2011-04-20

    We consider the tight-binding models of electrons on a two-dimensional triangular lattice and kagome lattice under staggered modulated magnetic fields. Such fields have two components: a uniform-flux part with strength {phi}, and a staggered-flux part with strength {Delta}{phi}. Various properties of the Hall conductances and Hofstadter butterflies are studied. When {phi} is fixed, variation of {Delta}{phi} leads to the quantum Hall transitions and Chern numbers of Landau subbands being redistributed between neighboring pairs. The energy spectra with nonzero {Delta}{phi}s have similar fractal structures but quite different energy gaps compared with the original Hofstadter butterflies of {Delta}{phi} = 0. Moreover, the fan-like structure of Landau levels in the low magnetic field region is also modified appreciably by {Delta}{phi}.

  14. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  15. 78 FR 76600 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... of computer science, including but not limited to survey, monitor, control, and protection systems; H... International Security, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed Subsequent Arrangement. SUMMARY: The Department... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Katie Strangis, Office of Nonproliferation and International Security, National...

  16. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczak, P.; Lewandowski, J.; Choryński, A.; Szwed, M.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2015-06-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differences between the selected EU Member States in terms of development and performance of flood risk governance arrangements. It also discusses the scientific and societal importance of these similarities and differences. Attention is paid to identification and characterization of shifts in flood risk governance arrangements and in flood risk management strategies and to determination of triggering factors and restraining factors. An assessment of a change of resilience and appropriateness (legitimacy, effectiveness, efficiency) of flood risk governance arrangements in Poland is presented and comparison with other European countries is offered.

  17. Environmentally Friendly Concept in Spatial Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Taryono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial order of a region include purpose of structure and interrelatedness of spatial order which as a unity of development mechanism. Spatial order can’t be part from law basic that is UUD’45 and GBHN, in order to the management can be integrated and keep the environment. Spatial order also take note of physical factor and non physical factor. Physical factor consist of soil, water, flora, and fauna. Non physical factors consist of environment, social, economic, and soon. The principle of arrangement of spatial order in a region include national region, regional and local, and a region as an administrative baoundary, that is local government authority, like province, district, subdistrict, and village. The effort for spatial ordering of the environment, for example ordering resource, arrangement of allocation and location, arrangement of environmental aesthetic  and arrangement of environmental quality.

  18. Postprandial effects of consuming a staggered meal on gut peptide and glycemic responses in obese women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lisa; Haddad, Ella H; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Eating slowly by staggering a meal may reduce energy intake. Our aim was to examine the effect of eating a portion of beans 15min before the rest of the meal, on gastrointestinal (GI) peptides, glucose and insulin concentrations and subsequent energy intake in obese adults. This was a randomised crossover design study with 28 obese subjects. Participants consumed a standardised breakfast on test days followed by test meals: (1) control meal containing 86g (0.5 cup) of beans, and (2) staggered meal in which 86g (0.5 cup) of beans were consumed 15min before the rest of the meal. Blood obtained prior to and at 30, 60, and 120min following the meals was analysed for acylated ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, glucose and insulin. Feelings of hunger and satiety were assessed using analog visual scales. Energy intake following the test meal was obtained by computer assisted dietary recalls. Mixed model statistical analysis of data showed time effects for unacylated ghrelin, GLP-1, glucose, insulin, hunger and fullness, however, meal effects were not shown for any of the parameters. GLP-1 area under the curve from baseline to 120min (AUC0-120) decreased by 19% (P=0.024) and that of glucose increased by 7% (P=0.046) following the staggered compared to the control bean meal. Energy intake subsequent to the test meals did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, lengthening meal times by staggering eating did not benefit hormonal, metabolic or appetite control in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. JIGSAW-GEO (1.0): locally orthogonal staggered unstructured grid generation for general circulation modelling on the sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engwirda, Darren

    2017-06-01

    An algorithm for the generation of non-uniform, locally orthogonal staggered unstructured spheroidal grids is described. This technique is designed to generate very high-quality staggered Voronoi-Delaunay meshes appropriate for general circulation modelling on the sphere, including applications to atmospheric simulation, ocean-modelling and numerical weather prediction. Using a recently developed Frontal-Delaunay refinement technique, a method for the construction of high-quality unstructured spheroidal Delaunay triangulations is introduced. A locally orthogonal polygonal grid, derived from the associated Voronoi diagram, is computed as the staggered dual. It is shown that use of the Frontal-Delaunay refinement technique allows for the generation of very high-quality unstructured triangulations, satisfying a priori bounds on element size and shape. Grid quality is further improved through the application of hill-climbing-type optimisation techniques. Overall, the algorithm is shown to produce grids with very high element quality and smooth grading characteristics, while imposing relatively low computational expense. A selection of uniform and non-uniform spheroidal grids appropriate for high-resolution, multi-scale general circulation modelling are presented. These grids are shown to satisfy the geometric constraints associated with contemporary unstructured C-grid-type finite-volume models, including the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS-O). The use of user-defined mesh-spacing functions to generate smoothly graded, non-uniform grids for multi-resolution-type studies is discussed in detail.

  20. Development of multi dimensional analysis code for containment safety and performance based on staggered semi-implicit finite volume method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Han, Tae Young; Lee, Byung Chul; Byun, Choong Sup

    2009-01-01

    A solver of 3-dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis code for a large building having multi rooms such as reactor containment was developed based on 2-phase and 3-field conservation equations. Three fields mean gas, continuous liquid, and dispersed drop. Gas field includes steam, air and hydrogen. Gas motion equation and state equation also considered. Homogeneous and equilibrium conditions were assumed for gas motion equation. Source terms related with phase change were explicitly expressed for the implicit scheme. Resultantly, total 17 independent equations were setup, and total 17 primitive unknowns were identified. Numerical scheme followed the FVM (Finite Volume Method) based on staggered orthogonal structured grid and semi-implicit method. Staggered grid system produces staggered numerical cells of a scalar cell and a vector cell. The porosity method was adopted for easy handling the complex structures inside a computational cell. Such porosity method has been known to be very effective in reducing mesh numbers and acquiring accurate results in spite of fewer meshes. In the actual programming C++ language of OOP (Object Oriented Programming) was used. The code developed by OOP has the features such as the information hiding, encapsulation, modularity and inheritance. These can offer code developers the more explicit and clearer development method. Classes were designed. Cell and Face, and Volume and Component are the bases of the largest Class, System. Class Solver was designed in order to run the solver. Sample runs showed physically reasonable results. The foundation of code was setup through a series of numerical development. (author)

  1. Distinct solvent- and temperature-dependent packing arrangements of anti-parallel β-sheet polyalanines studied with solid-state 13C NMR and MD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kametani, Shunsuke; Tasei, Yugo; Nishimura, Akio; Asakura, Tetsuo

    2017-08-09

    Polyalanine (polyA) sequences are well known as the simplest sequence that naturally forms anti-parallel β-sheets and constitute a key element in the structure of spider and wild silkworm silk fibers. We have carried out a systematic analysis of the packing of anti-parallel β-sheets for (Ala) n , n = 5, 6, 7 and 12, using primarily 13 C solid-state NMR and MD simulation. HFIP and TFA are frequently used as the dope solvents for recombinant silks, and polyA was solidified from both HFIP and TFA solutions by drying. An analysis of Ala Cβ peaks in the 13 C CP/MAS NMR spectra indicated that polyA from HFIP was mainly rectangular but polyA from TFA was mainly staggered. The transition from the rectangular to the staggered arrangement in (Ala) 6 was observed for the first time from the change in the Ala Cβ peak through heat treatment at 200 °C for 4 h. The removal of the bound water was confirmed by thermal analysis. This transition could be reproduced by MD simulation of (Ala) 6 molecules at 200 °C after removal of the bound water molecules. In this way, the origin of the stability of the different packing arrangements of polyA was clarified.

  2. Meiotic transmission of Drosophila pseudoobscura chromosomal arrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Meisel

    Full Text Available Drosophila pseudoobscura harbors a rich gene arrangement polymorphism on the third chromosome generated by a series of overlapping paracentric inversions. The arrangements suppress recombination in heterokaryotypic individuals, which allows for the selective maintenance of coadapted gene complexes. Previous mapping experiments used to determine the degree to which recombination is suppressed in gene arrangement heterozygotes produced non-recombinant progeny in non-Mendelian ratios. The deviations from Mendelian expectations could be the result of viability differences between wild and mutant chromosomes, meiotic drive because of achiasmate pairing of homologues in heterokaryotypic females during meiosis, or a combination of both mechanisms. The possibility that the frequencies of the chromosomal arrangements in natural populations are affected by mechanisms other than adaptive selection led us to consider these hypotheses. We performed reciprocal crosses involving both heterozygous males and females to determine if the frequency of the non-recombinant progeny deviates significantly from Mendelian expectations and if the frequencies deviate between reciprocal crosses. We failed to observe non-Mendelian ratios in multiple crosses, and the frequency of the non-recombinant classes differed in only one of five pairs of reciprocal crosses despite sufficient power to detect these differences in all crosses. Our results indicate that deviations from Mendelian expectations in recombination experiments involving the D. pseudoobscura inversion system are most likely due to fitness differences of gene arrangement karyotypes in different environments.

  3. Multiple Image Arrangement for Subjective Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhai, Guangtao

    2017-12-01

    Subjective quality assessment serves as the foundation for almost all visual quality related researches. Size of the image quality databases has expanded from dozens to thousands in the last decades. Since each subjective rating therein has to be averaged over quite a few participants, the ever-increasing overall size of those databases calls for an evolution of existing subjective test methods. Traditional single/double stimulus based approaches are being replaced by multiple image tests, where several distorted versions of the original one are displayed and rated at once. And this naturally brings upon the question of how to arrange those multiple images on screen during the test. In this paper, we answer this question by performing subjective viewing test with eye tracker for different types arrangements. Our research indicates that isometric arrangement imposes less duress on participants and has more uniform distribution of eye fixations and movements and therefore is expected to generate more reliable subjective ratings.

  4. Pump arrangement Comprising a Savety Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, M.; Kruckow, J.

    2009-01-01

    A pump arrangement comprises a pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which are designed to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, and it further comprises a safety valve (40), which is disposed between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comprises a valve set (42) and a valve cover (44). The valve seat, the pump outlet, and the pump inlet are structured in a first surface of a first single-piece part (14) of the pump arrangeme...

  5. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ortlepp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopted so as to ensure that the data collection process was dynamic and probing in nature. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were therefore used as instruments for data collection. Findings: The research findings indicate that virtual work arrangements such as home-based work arrangements have advantages for both employers and employees. For instance, reduction of costs associated with office space and facilities, decrease in absenteeism rates, increased employee job satisfaction and improvements in employees' general quality of life. However, a number of negative experiences related to this form of virtual work arrangement are also evident, for example, feelings of isolation as well as stress related to the inability to have firm boundaries between work and family responsibilities. Implications: Based on the insights gained from the findings in the empirical study, a number of areas that need to be given specific attention when organisations are introducing virtual workplace arrangements of this nature are identified. Recommendations made in this article are important for human resource management specialists as well as core business policy makers considering different forms of organisational design. Originality/Value: Maximising the quality of production and service provided has become the prime objective in most organisations in the 21st century. Technology has made it possible for some jobs to be performed at any place at any time and has facilitated the

  6. Thermal energy recycling fuel cell arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Paul R.

    2017-04-11

    An example fuel cell arrangement includes a fuel cell stack configured to receive a supply fluid and to provide an exhaust fluid that has more thermal energy than the supply fluid. The arrangement also includes an ejector and a heat exchanger. The ejector is configured to direct at least some of the exhaust fluid into the supply fluid. The heat exchanger is configured to increase thermal energy in the supply fluid using at least some of the exhaust fluid that was not directed into the supply fluid.

  7. The Relationship between Women's Working Arrangements and Their Child Care Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandenHeuvel, Audrey

    1996-01-01

    An Australian survey examined the child care and working arrangements (part time, shift work, overtime) of 2,890 mothers. Differences in use of formal child care or unmet child care needs depended on children's ages and full-time/overtime status. Those working in nontraditional arrangements may be more likely to use informal child care. (SK)

  8. Military Technology and Conventional Weapons Export Controls: The Wassenaar Arrangement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    This report provides background on the Wassenaar Arrangement, which was formally established in July 1996 as a multilateral arrangement aimed at controlling exports of conventional weapons and related...

  9. On How to Arrange Infinitely many Marriages!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. On How to Arrange Infinitely many Marriages! B Sury. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 71-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0071-0073. Author Affiliations.

  10. 29 CFR 779.229 - Other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments... specifically described in the proviso contained in the definition, an independently owned retail or service establishment will not be considered to be other than a separate and distinct enterprise, if other arrangements...

  11. Staff Issue Paper on Institutional Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of State, Washington, DC.

    Staff Issue Papers for the Secretary of State's Advisory Committee on the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, Sweden, are summarized in this compendium. Papers developed by the various sub-committees are included for: (1) institutional arrangements; (2) development and the environment; (3) human settlements; (4)…

  12. 75 FR 12738 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Department is providing notice of a proposed subsequent arrangement under the Agreement for Cooperation... Energy and the Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the United States... uranium, from Cameco in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada to Urenco in Capenhurst Works, Chester, United...

  13. 75 FR 4545 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Department is providing notice of a proposed subsequent arrangement under the Agreement for Cooperation... Energy and the Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy between the United States..., from Cameco in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada to Urenco in Capenhurst Works, Chester, United Kingdom...

  14. 76 FR 37343 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... arrangement under the Agreement for Cooperation Concerning Civil Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada and the Agreement for Cooperation in the..., from Cameco Corporation (Cameco) in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, to URENCO in Capenhurst Works...

  15. 75 FR 62121 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nyk ping, Sweden, to the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai-Mura, Japan. The... Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States and the European Atomic Energy... Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 573 g of U.S...

  16. 48 CFR 225.7306 - Offset arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offset arrangements. 225.7306 Section 225.7306 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisitions for Foreign Military Sales 225...

  17. 75 FR 346 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Uses of Nuclear Energy. This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 28,409 kg of U.S.-origin... Fuels in Kanakawa-ken, Japan. The material, which is currently located at Cameco, Port Hope, Ontario, will be transferred to Global Nuclear Fuel, Kanakawa-ken, Japan to be fabricated into fuel pellets and...

  18. 77 FR 35366 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... arrangement concerns the retransfer of 6,672,212 g of U.S.-origin enriched uranium fuel fabrications scrap, containing 233,977 g of the isotope U-235 (less than five percent enrichment), from Nuclear Fuel Industries... material, which is currently located at Nuclear Fuels Industries, Ltd. in Japan, will be transferred to...

  19. 78 FR 72072 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... g of U.S.-origin atomized low-enriched uranium-7wt. % molybdenum powder, containing 365.638 g in the..., which is located at and was prepared by KAERI, will be used for the irradiation test of full-size fuel... subsequent arrangement concerning the retransfer of nuclear material of United States origin will not be...

  20. 75 FR 82005 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... arrangement concerns the retransfer of 29,887 kg of U.S.-origin natural uranium dioxide (88.00% U), 26,300 kg... Fuel Co. Ltd. in Yuson-Gu, Taejon, South Korea. The material, which is currently located at Cameco, will be transferred for fuel fabrication by Korea Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd for final use in a civilian...

  1. Dual-mixed finite elements for the three-field Stokes model as a finite volume method on staggered grids

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2017-06-09

    In this paper, a new three-field weak formulation for Stokes problems is developed, and from this, a dual-mixed finite element method is proposed on a rectangular mesh. In the proposed mixed methods, the components of stress tensor are approximated by piecewise constant functions or Q1 functions, while the velocity and pressure are discretized by the lowest-order Raviart-Thomas element and the piecewise constant functions, respectively. Using quadrature rules, we demonstrate that this scheme can be reduced into a finite volume method on staggered grid, which is extensively used in computational fluid mechanics and engineering.

  2. Heat transfer of a staggered fining flat-oval tube banks in cross flow at the small Reynolds number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим Михайлович Вознюк

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations of heat transfer of staggered bundles of flat-oval tubes with incomplete transversal finning in the range of Reynolds numbers 500 < <20000 are performed. New calculation correlations for determining of heat transfer coefficients for 1<3000 are suggested, the impact of basic geometric and regime parameters on intensity of external heat transfer are determined. The received calculation depending is possible to use in developing of heat transfer surfaces for “dry” cooling towers and air cooling apparatuses

  3. Investigation of the optimal detector arrangement for the helmet-chin PET – A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Abdella M., E-mail: abdellanur@gmail.com; Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga, E-mail: yamaya.taiga@qst.go.jp

    2017-06-21

    High sensitivity and high spatial resolution dedicated brain PET scanners are in high demand for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases and studies of brain functions. To meet the demand, we have proposed the helmet-chin PET geometry which has a helmet detector and a chin detector. Our first prototype scanner used 54 4-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The helmet detector of the scanner had three detector rings with different radii arranged on a surface of a hemisphere (with a radius of 126.5 mm) and a top cover detector. Therefore, in this study, for our next development, we propose a spherical arrangement, in which the central axis of each detector points toward the center of the hemisphere, and we optimize the size of the detector crystal block to be arranged on the helmet detector. We simulate the spherical arrangement with the optimized crystal block size and compare its imaging performance with the multi-ring arrangement, which has a similar detector arrangement to that of our first prototype. We conduct Monte Carlo simulation to model the scanners having the 4-layer DOI detectors which consist of LYSO crystals. A dead space of 2 mm is assumed on each side of the crystal blocks such as for wrapping. The size of the crystal block is varied from 4×4 mm{sup 2} to 54×54 mm{sup 2} while fixing the thickness of the crystal block to 20 mm. We find that the crystal block sized at 42×42 mm{sup 2} has the highest sensitivity for a hemispherical phantom. The comparison of the two arrangements with the optimized crystal blocks show that, for the same number of crystal blocks, the spherical arrangement has 17% higher sensitivity for the hemispherical phantom than the multi-ring arrangement. We conclude that the helmet-chin PET with the spherical arrangement constructed from the crystal block sized at 42×42×20 mm{sup 3} has better imaging performance especially at the upper part of the brain compared to the multi-ring arrangement while keeping similar

  4. 46 CFR 180.150 - Survival craft embarkation arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation arrangements. 180.150 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 180.150 Survival craft embarkation arrangements. (a) A launching appliance approved under approval...

  5. Creating flexible work arrangements through idiosyncratic deals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Severin; Rousseau, Denise M; Glaser, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    A survey of 887 employees in a German government agency assessed the antecedents and consequences of idiosyncratic arrangements individual workers negotiated with their supervisors. Work arrangements promoting the individualization of employment conditions, such as part-time work and telecommuting, were positively related to the negotiation of idiosyncratic deals ("i-deals"). Worker personal initiative also had a positive effect on i-deal negotiation. Two types of i-deals were studied: flexibility in hours of work and developmental opportunities. Flexibility i-deals were negatively related and developmental i-deals positively related to work-family conflict and working unpaid overtime. Developmental i-deals were also positively related to increased performance expectations and affective organizational commitment, while flexibility i-deals were unrelated to either. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Three-dimensional viscoelastic time-domain finite-difference seismic modelling using the staggered Adams-Bashforth time integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Thomas; Wittkamp, Florian

    2016-03-01

    We analyse the performance of a higher order accurate staggered viscoelastic time-domain finite-difference method, in which the staggered Adams-Bashforth (ABS) third-order and fourth-order accurate time integrators are used for temporal discretization. ABS is a multistep method that uses previously calculated wavefields to increase the order of accuracy in time. The analysis shows that the numerical dispersion is much lower than that of the widely used second-order leapfrog method. Numerical dissipation is introduced by the ABS method which is significantly smaller for fourth-order than third-order accuracy. In 1-D and 3-D simulation experiments, we verify the convincing improvements of simulation accuracy of the fourth-order ABS method. In a realistic elastic 3-D scenario, the computing time reduces by a factor of approximately 2.4, whereas the memory requirements increase by approximately a factor of 2.2. The ABS method thus provides an alternative strategy to increase the simulation accuracy in time by investing computer memory instead of computing time.

  7. Joint Interference Alignment and Power Allocation for K-User Multicell MIMO Channel through Staggered Antenna Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaprabhu, Poongundran; Chinnadurai, Sunil; Sarker, Md Abdul Latif; Lee, Moon Ho

    2018-01-28

    In this paper, we characterise the joint interference alignment (IA) and power allocation strategies for a K -user multicell multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian interference channel. We consider a MIMO interference channel with blind-IA through staggered antenna switching on the receiver. We explore the power allocation and feasibility condition for cooperative cell-edge (CE) mobile users (MUs) by assuming that the channel state information is unknown. The new insight behind the transmission strategy of the proposed scheme is premeditated (randomly generated transmission strategy) and partial cooperative CE MUs, where the transmitter is equipped with a conventional antenna, the receiver is equipped with a reconfigurable multimode antenna (staggered antenna switching pattern), and the receiver switches between preset T modes. Our proposed scheme assists and aligns the desired signals and interference signals to cancel the common interference signals because the received signal must have a corresponding independent signal subspace. The capacity for a K -user multicell MIMO Gaussian interference channel with reconfigurable multimode antennas is completely characterised. Furthermore, we show that the proposed K -user multicell MIMO scheduling and K -user L -cell CEUs partial cooperation algorithms elaborate the generalisation of K -user IA and power allocation strategies. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed intercell interference scheme with partial-cooperative CE MUs achieves better capacity and signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) performance compared to noncooperative CE MUs and without intercell interference schemes.

  8. Joint Interference Alignment and Power Allocation for K-User Multicell MIMO Channel through Staggered Antenna Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poongundran Selvaprabhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we characterise the joint interference alignment (IA and power allocation strategies for a K-user multicell multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO Gaussian interference channel. We consider a MIMO interference channel with blind-IA through staggered antenna switching on the receiver. We explore the power allocation and feasibility condition for cooperative cell-edge (CE mobile users (MUs by assuming that the channel state information is unknown. The new insight behind the transmission strategy of the proposed scheme is premeditated (randomly generated transmission strategy and partial cooperative CE MUs, where the transmitter is equipped with a conventional antenna, the receiver is equipped with a reconfigurable multimode antenna (staggered antenna switching pattern, and the receiver switches between preset T modes. Our proposed scheme assists and aligns the desired signals and interference signals to cancel the common interference signals because the received signal must have a corresponding independent signal subspace. The capacity for a K-user multicell MIMO Gaussian interference channel with reconfigurable multimode antennas is completely characterised. Furthermore, we show that the proposed K-user multicell MIMO scheduling and K-user L-cell CEUs partial cooperation algorithms elaborate the generalisation of K-user IA and power allocation strategies. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed intercell interference scheme with partial-cooperative CE MUs achieves better capacity and signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR performance compared to noncooperative CE MUs and without intercell interference schemes.

  9. Risk-based decision making for staggered bioterrorist attacks : resource allocation and risk reduction in "reload" scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaster, Michelle Nicole; Gay, David M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ehlen, Mark Andrew (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Boggs, Paul T.; Ray, Jaideep

    2009-10-01

    Staggered bioterrorist attacks with aerosolized pathogens on population centers present a formidable challenge to resource allocation and response planning. The response and planning will commence immediately after the detection of the first attack and with no or little information of the second attack. In this report, we outline a method by which resource allocation may be performed. It involves probabilistic reconstruction of the bioterrorist attack from partial observations of the outbreak, followed by an optimization-under-uncertainty approach to perform resource allocations. We consider both single-site and time-staggered multi-site attacks (i.e., a reload scenario) under conditions when resources (personnel and equipment which are difficult to gather and transport) are insufficient. Both communicable (plague) and non-communicable diseases (anthrax) are addressed, and we also consider cases when the data, the time-series of people reporting with symptoms, are confounded with a reporting delay. We demonstrate how our approach develops allocations profiles that have the potential to reduce the probability of an extremely adverse outcome in exchange for a more certain, but less adverse outcome. We explore the effect of placing limits on daily allocations. Further, since our method is data-driven, the resource allocation progressively improves as more data becomes available.

  10. An experimental study on the effect of wind load around tall towers of square and hexagonal shapes in staggered form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Proma; Islam, Md. Quamrul; Ali, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    In this research work an experiment is conducted to observe the effect of wind load around square and hexagonal shaped cylinders in staggered form. The experiment is performed in an open circuit wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of 4.23×104 based on the face width of the cylinder across the flow direction. The flow velocity has been kept uniform at 14.3 m/s throughout the experiment. The test is conducted for single cylinders first and then in staggered form. The cylinders are rotated to create different angles of attack and the angles are chosen at a definite interval. The static pressure readings are taken at different locations of the cylinder by inclined multi-manometers. From the surface static pressure readings pressure coefficients, drag coefficients and lift coefficients are calculated using numerical integration method. These results will surely help engineers to design buildings more stable against wind load. All the results are expressed in non-dimensional form, so that they can be applied for prototype structures.

  11. Flood risk governance arrangements in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    P. Matczak; P. Matczak; J. Lewandowski; A. Choryński; M. Szwed; Z. W. Kundzewicz; Z. W. Kundzewicz

    2015-01-01

    The STAR-FLOOD (Strengthening and Redesigning European Flood Risk Practices Towards Appropriate and Resilient Flood Risk Governance Arrangements) project, funded by the European Commission, investigates strategies for dealing with flood risk in six European countries: Belgium, the UK, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden and in 18 vulnerable urban regions in these countries. The project aims to describe, analyse, explain, and evaluate the main similarities and differen...

  12. The making of local hospital discharge arrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burau, Viola; Bro, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies in the lite......Background Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies...... in the literature on hospital discharge that explicitly examine the role of professional groups. Recent contributions to the literature on organisational studies of the professions help to specify how professional groups in hospitals contribute to the introduction and routinisation of discharge arrangements...... for patients with prostate cancer in two hospitals in Denmark. This represents a typical case that involves changes in professional practice without being first and foremost a professional project. The multiple case design also makes the findings more robust. The analysis draws from 12 focus groups...

  13. Frequency Arrangement For 700 MHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancans G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 in ITU Region 1 (Europe included, to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT. At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15. In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.

  14. Core arrangement in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masayuki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the number of fuel assemblies whose locations are to be changed upon fuel exchange, as well as unify the power distribution in the core by arranging, in a chess board configuration, a plurality pattern of unit reactor lattices each containing fuel assemblies of different burnup degrees in orthogonal positions to each other. Constitution: A first pattern of unit reactor lattice is formed by disposing fuel assemblies of burnup degree 1 and fuel assemblies of burnup degree 3 at orthogonal positions to each other. A second pattern of unit reactor lattice is formed by disposing fuel assemblies of burnup degree 2 and fuel assemblies of burnup degree 1 at orthogonal positions to each other. The unit lattices each in such a dispositions are arranged in a chess board arrangement. Since, the fuel assemblies of the burnup degree 1 in the first pattern unit lattices proceed to the burnup degree 2 and the fuel assemblies of the burnup degree 2 in the second pattern unit lattices proceed to the burnup degree 3 up to the fuel exchange stage, fuel exchange and movement have only to be made, not for those fuel assemblies, but for another half of the fuel assemblies. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. Recurring part arrangements in shape collections

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2014-05-01

    Extracting semantically related parts across models remains challenging, especially without supervision. The common approach is to co-analyze a model collection, while assuming the existence of descriptive geometric features that can directly identify related parts. In the presence of large shape variations, common geometric features, however, are no longer sufficiently descriptive. In this paper, we explore an indirect top-down approach, where instead of part geometry, part arrangements extracted from each model are compared. The key observation is that while a direct comparison of part geometry can be ambiguous, part arrangements, being higher level structures, remain consistent, and hence can be used to discover latent commonalities among semantically related shapes. We show that our indirect analysis leads to the detection of recurring arrangements of parts, which are otherwise difficult to discover in a direct unsupervised setting. We evaluate our algorithm on ground truth datasets and report advantages over geometric similarity-based bottom-up co-segmentation algorithms. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Isospin transport phenomena and odd-even staggering in 84Kr+112,124Sn collisions at 35 AMeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piantelli S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results concerning isospin transport phenomena and odd-even staggering in Z and N distributions are presented. Data refer to 84Kr+112,124Sn collisions at 35AMeV and they were collected with a high resolution FAZIA telescope, able to isotopically resolve ions up to Z ∼ 20. Evidences of isospin diffusion and drift obtained from the /Z behaviour of the detected fragments are discussed. The odd-even staggering both in Z and N is compared with experimental data available in literature, finding that it shows a common trend in different reaction types.

  17. Isospin transport phenomena and odd-even staggering in 84Kr+112,124Sn collisions at 35 AMeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Carboni, S.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Valdré, S.; Bougault, R.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Gruyer, D.; Lopez, O.; Le Neindre, N.; Parlog, M.; Rivet, M.-F.; Vient, E.; Rosato, E.; Spadaccini, G.; Vigilante, M.; Bruno, M.; Marchi, T.; Morelli, L.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Gramegna, F.; Kozik, T.; Twarog, T.; Alba, R.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.

    2015-04-01

    Experimental results concerning isospin transport phenomena and odd-even staggering in Z and N distributions are presented. Data refer to 84Kr+112,124Sn collisions at 35AMeV and they were collected with a high resolution FAZIA telescope, able to isotopically resolve ions up to Z ˜ 20. Evidences of isospin diffusion and drift obtained from the /Z behaviour of the detected fragments are discussed. The odd-even staggering both in Z and N is compared with experimental data available in literature, finding that it shows a common trend in different reaction types.

  18. Corn plant arrangement and its effect on silage quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of the row spacing between corn plants on silage quality. Different spacing between corn rows (40, 60, and 80 cm was used, but the population of plants was maintained around 65,000/ha in all treatments. Analysis of variance was carried out and means were compared by Tukey's test at 5% of probability. A reduction in row spacing provided better spatial distribution of plants, but did not alter morphological composition or dry matter production. The corn with most equidistant spatial distribution (lowest row spacing showed an increase in lignin concentration, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates, and showed a decrease in total digestible nutrients when compared with 80 cm row spacing. However, the organic digestibility matter was not affected by the treatments. The content and quality of protein were higher for 80 cm row spacing compared with the other levels; also, protein content was reduced as the spacing between rows became smaller. The only mineral affected was calcium, which had the lowest value at higher levels of spacing. Although differences were detected for many variables, the most appropriate spacing between rows should also take into account economic and practical aspects when choosing the best plant arrangement.

  19. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Jack D.; Kadlec, Emil G.; Klimas, Paul C.

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  20. Revised criticality emergency arrangements at UKAEA Dounreay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, G.; Rankine, A. [UKAEA, Dounreay, Thurso, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    The UKAEA's Dounreay site in the North of Scotland has been in operation for over 40 years pioneering R and D in the fast reactor fuel cycle. With this programme completed the UKAEA is now undertaking a programme of work to restore the environment of the site for future generations. As the Nuclear Site Licensee, UKAEA is required to prepare and demonstrate the adequacy of the Site Emergency Arrangements. The storage and handling of fissile material on the site could give rise to a criticality if operations are inadequately controlled. As a part of our ongoing continuous improvement programme, a complete review of the plan for such an incident was instigated to ensure that it meets with best practice as we embark on our decommissioning programme. This led to a new set of arrangements based on the concept of STARBURST, which in essence requires a rapid evacuation of staff from any possible source of a criticality event. The evacuation and egress through a security fence adds an additional challenge and as does the existence of several possible sources of the initiating event. The actual routes taken were optimised to reduce dose uptake and a software package was utilised to undertake crowd modelling to ensure that the exists in the fence were appropriately placed and sized. Two buildings were carefully selected and adapted to act as Criticality Evacuation Centres having been assessed for their ability to provide adequate shelter and shielding for several hundred staff. Portable lead shield was designed and manufactured to allow for the immediate assessment of criticality lockets. The methodology of how best to process staff through the Criticality Evacuation Centres was keenly debated and tried. It proved most effective to monitor and assess staff who were close to the 'incident' building with confirmatory reassurance monitoring for other staff being undertaken when resource could be released. The need to prioritise and rank potentially exposed staff

  1. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  2. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  3. Tax issues in structuring gas process arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverach, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The current status of various tax issues regarding ownership, operation and financing of gas processing facilities in Canada was discussed. Frequently, energy companies are not taxed because of their large pools of un-depreciated capital cost and other resource related accounts. In addition, their time horizons for taxability are being extended in line with the expansion of their businesses. However, other investors are fully taxable, hence they wish to shelter their income through the use of tax efficient investment arrangements. This paper provides a detailed description of the tax treatment of gas processing facilities, tax implications of various structures between the producer and the investor such as lease, processing fee arrangements etc., and use of 'Canadian Renewable and Conservation Expense' (CRCE) for cogeneration projects within processing plants. All these need to be considered before completing a financing transaction involving a gas processing facility, since the manner in which the transaction is completed will determine the advantages and benefits from an income tax perspective. The accounting and legal aspects must be similarly scrutinized to ensure that the intended results for all parties are achieved. 8 figs

  4. Mathematical structure of arrangement channel quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    A non-Hermitian matrix Hamiltonian H appears in the wavefunction form of a variety of many-body scattering theories. This operator acts on an arrangement channel Banach or Hilbert space C = direct-sum/sub α/H where H is the N-particle Hilbert space and α are certain arrangement channels. Various aspects of the spectral and semigroup theory for H are considered. The normalizable and weak (wavelike) eigenvectors of H are naturally characterized as either physical or spurious. Typically H is scalar spectral and ''equivalent'' to H on an H-invariant subspace of physical solutions. If the eigenvectors form a basis, by constructing a suitable biorthogonal system, we show that H is scalar spectral on C. Other concepts including the channel space observables, trace class and trace, density matrix and Moeller operators are developed. The sense in which the theory provides a ''representation'' of N-particle quantum mechanics and its equivalence to the usual Hilbert space theory is clarified

  5. Investigating the iatrogenic effects of repeated suicidal ideation screening on suicidal and depression symptoms: A staggered sequential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Rogers, Megan L; Gallyer, Austin J; Dougherty, Sean P; Davis, Lisa; Joiner, Thomas E

    2018-02-21

    Research suggests that screening for suicidality does not have iatrogenic effects; however, less is known regarding the impact of repeatedly screening for suicidal ideation among individuals with varying levels of exposure to these screenings. This staggered sequential study evaluated whether suicidal ideation severity increases with repeated screening for suicidal ideation and depression symptoms. Undergraduates (N = 207) were recruited at one of four time points (baseline [n = 37], 1 month later [n = 61], 4 months later [n = 55], and 12 months later [n = 54]) to complete the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Participants completed the BDI at the time point at which they were recruited and all subsequent study time points. Non-parametric tests were employed to compare suicidal ideation severity (BDI Item 9) and depression symptom severity (BDI total score): (1) within each group across time points and (2) within each time point across groups. Suicidal ideation severity did not significantly differ within any group across time points, and for two groups, depression symptom severity decreased over time. For analyses between groups, suicidal ideation and depression symptom scores were, at times, significantly lower during subsequent BDI completion time points. This study utilized a relatively small sample size and participants of low clinical severity. Findings align with prior research indicating that suicidality screening is not iatrogenic. This study also expanded upon previous studies by leveraging a staggered sequential design to compare suicidal ideation and depression symptom severity among individuals with varying exposure to suicidal ideation screenings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 49 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart B of... - Example of Location and Staggering of Emergency Window Exits-§ 238.113

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of Location and Staggering of Emergency Window Exits-§ 238.113 1 Figure 1 to Subpart B of Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT...

  7. 49 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart B of... - Example of a Multi-Level Car Complying with Window Location and Staggering Requirements-§§ 238...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Example of a Multi-Level Car Complying with Window Location and Staggering Requirements-§§ 238.113 and 238.114 2 Figure 2 to Subpart B of Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...

  8. 29 CFR Appendix H to Subpart R of... - Double Connections: Illustration of a Clipped End Connection and a Staggered Connection: Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Connection and a Staggered Connection: Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Complying With § 1926.756(c)(1) H Appendix H to Subpart R of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection Pt. 1926, Subpt. R, App. H Appendix H to Subpart R of Part 1926—Double Connections...

  9. ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements was discussed specifically. These ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films.

  10. 42 CFR 408.90 - Termination of group billing arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination of group billing arrangement. 408.90... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE Direct Remittance: Group Payment § 408.90 Termination of group billing arrangement. (a) A group billing arrangement may be terminated...

  11. 46 CFR 108.525 - Survival craft number and arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft number and arrangement. 108.525 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.525 Survival craft number and arrangement. (a... arrangement of survival craft: (1) Lifeboats with an aggregate capacity to accommodate the total number of...

  12. 46 CFR 117.150 - Survival craft embarkation arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation arrangements. 117.150 Section... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.150 Survival craft embarkation... apparatus when either— (1) The embarkation station for the survival craft is on a deck more than 4.5 meters...

  13. European top managers' support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, work-life arrangements increasingly became an integral part of the organization of work. Arrangements such as telecommuting, flextime, part-time hours, and various types of leave arrangements are available to employees in many organizations. Top managers, such as CEOs, CFOs and

  14. Finding an optimal seating arrangement for employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninoslav Čerkez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modelling a specifc problem called the Optimal Seating Arrangement (OSA as an Integer Linear Program and demonstrated that the problem can be efficiently solved by combining branch-and-bound and cutting plane methods. OSA refers to a specific scenario that could possibly happen in a corporative environment, i.e. when a company endeavors to minimize travel costs when employees travel to an organized event. Each employee is free to choose the time to travel to and from an event and it depends on personal reasons. The paper differentiates between using different travel possibilities in the OSA problem, such as using company assigned or a company owned vehicles, private vehicles or using public transport, if needed. Also, a user-friendly web application was made and is available to the public for testing purposes.

  15. Stability of cylinder arrangement in potential flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benaouicha, M.; Longatte, E.; Baj, F.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid-structure interaction and flow-induced vibration in square cylinder arrangement under incompressible, ideal and irrotational cross flow are investigated in the present paper. The purpose of this study is to contribute to better understanding of external fluid loads exerted on long thin cylinders inducing the flow perturbations. Indeed, in presence of high flow confinement, the thin cylinders could be subjected to strong vibrations, which may lead to instability development and therefore to a risk of break or collision. The dynamic instability of the mobile tube, according to some geometric and flow parameters such as reduced velocity and pitch ratio, is then studied. A semi-analytical approach is used to determine a stability criterion of the dynamical system. In addition, the influence of key physical parameters on fluid-solid dynamics interaction is quantified in the studied configuration. (authors)

  16. Tendons Arrangement Effects on Reinforced Concrete Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad B. Bahnam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  The tendons arrangement effects on the response of reinforced concrete frame experiencing blast loads is investigated in this paper. The structure is modeled using nonlinear finite elements employing a bilinear hysteretic model. So that elements are used so that yielding of the structures could be accurately modeled and captured. The frame is analyzed using a non-linear, elastic-plastic finite element program written in code MATLAB. Six tendon architectures were investigated. A single tendon was placed between different floors and its effects investigated. From the obtained results, the ideal case which causes a reduction in the maximum displacement and the amount of permanent deflection without increase in the maximum structural shear forces greatly is obtained.

  17. Rim seal arrangement having pumping feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Myers, Caleb

    2017-04-25

    A rim seal arrangement for a gas turbine engine includes a first seal face on a rotor component, and a second seal face on a stationary annular rim centered about a rotation axis of the rotor component. The second seal face is spaced from the first seal face along an axial direction to define a seal gap. The seal gap is located between a radially outer hot gas path and a radially inner rotor cavity. The first seal face has a plurality of circumferentially spaced depressions, each having a depth in an axial direction and extending along a radial extent of the first seal face. The depressions influence flow in the seal gap such that during rotation of the rotor component, fluid in the seal gap is pumped in a radially outward direction to prevent ingestion of a gas path fluid from the hot gas path into the rotor cavity.

  18. How children arrange social communities across contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte

    different life contexts, contradictory demands and social conflicts. One point in the paper will be to illustrate that they are doing this together. Children’s developmental contexts are societal and historical structured and in the same time the children themselves are involved in organising, negotiating...... and contributing to different activities of their life. Following children in their everyday life across contexts has highlighted a theme about how children ‘arrange’ their social communities and their personal participation in varying and shifting activities. In this way the paper will emphasize the active...... observing and interviewing children in their different developmental settings as their family, kindergartens, schools, institutions for children’s leisure time and special help arrangements. In the observations the children seem deeply occupied with the common aspects of organising a child life across...

  19. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.

  20. High mass isotope separation process and arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules by either photon-induced pure rovibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically identical but isotopically different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope

  1. Biochar: An emerging policy arrangement in Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittl, Tatiana Francischinelli; Arts, Bas; Kuyper, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The Brazilian biochar debate is driven by Embrapa experts. • The dominant ADE/biochar discourse has been replaced by biochar/technology discourse. • The international biochar/climate change discourse hardly resonates in Brazil. • Biochar topic is not covered by any formal procedure in Brazil so far. - Abstract: Biochar, the solid product of pyrolysis, has emerged as a new technology and policy tool to address various environmental challenges (climate change, food production and agricultural waste management). The concept of biochar drew its inspiration from Amazonian practices that had led to the creation of Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE): fertile soils rich in (bio)char and human artefacts. In this article, we conceptualize biochar as an emerging policy arrangement, and examine it along the four dimensions of the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA), which are actors, discourse, power and rules. We focus on Brazil as an important player in the international biochar debate. Our analysis shows that science experts are the predominant players in the network, while policy-makers, businessmen and farmers are marginally positioned. Experts from Embrapa occupy central positions and thus exercise most power in the network. Moreover, experts linked to ADE have lost prominence in the network. The reason for this is to be found in the shift from the ADE/biochar to the biochar/technology discourse. The latter discourse includes different coalitions such as ‘climate change mitigation’, the ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’. Although the biochar/climate coalition is dominant at the international level, it is far less prominent in Brazil. Nationally, it is particularly the discourses of ‘improvement of soil fertility’ and ‘improving crop residue management’ which have prompted actors’ relationships and practices. However, the biochar/technology discourse has not (yet) been formally institutionalized in

  2. Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Ivar J.

    2001-07-01

    Distillation is the most widely used industrial separation technology and distillation units are responsible for a significant part of the total heat consumption in the world's process industry. In this work we focus on directly (fully thermally) coupled column arrangements for separation of multicomponent mixtures. These systems are also denoted Petlyuk arrangements, where a particular implementation is the dividing wall column. Energy savings in the range of 20-40% have been reported with ternary feed mixtures. In addition to energy savings, such integrated units have also a potential for reduced capital cost, making them extra attractive. However, the industrial use has been limited, and difficulties in design and control have been reported as the main reasons. Minimum energy results have only been available for ternary feed mixtures and sharp product splits. This motivates further research in this area, and this thesis will hopefully give some contributions to better understanding of complex column systems. In the first part we derive the general analytic solution for minimum energy consumption in directly coupled columns for a multicomponent feed and any number of products. To our knowledge, this is a new contribution in the field. The basic assumptions are constant relative volatility, constant pressure and constant molar flows and the derivation is based on Underwood's classical methods. An important conclusion is that the minimum energy consumption in a complex directly integrated multi-product arrangement is the same as for the most difficult split between any pair of the specified products when we consider the performance of a conventional two-product column. We also present the Vmin-diagram, which is a simple graphical tool for visualisation of minimum energy related to feed distribution. The Vmin-diagram provides a simple mean to assess the detailed flow requirements for all parts of a complex directly coupled arrangement. The main purpose in

  3. Comparative study on the influence of depth, number and arrangement of dimples on the flow and heat transfer characteristics at turbulent flow regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Saeed; Zamani, Mahdi; Moshizi, Sajad A.

    2018-03-01

    The ensuing study is dedicated to a series of numerical investigations concerning the effects of various geometric parameters of dimpled plates on the flow structure and heat transfer performance in a rectangular duct compared to the smooth plate. These parameters are the arrangement, number and depth of dimples. Two widely used staggered and square patterns in addition to a triangular arrangement, and three dimple depths (Δ = δ/d = 0.25, 0.375 and 0.5) have been chosen for this particular study. All studies have been conducted at three different Reynolds numbers Re = 25,000, 50,000 and 100,000. In order to capture the flow structures in the vicinity of dimples and contributing phenomena related to the boundary layer interactions, fully structured grids with y+ rims of dimples are the causes for improved average Nusselt number in the dimpled surface in comparison to the smooth plate. However, more pressure loss due to the higher friction drag and recirculation zones inside dimples will exist as a drawback in this system. Moreover, for all arrangements increasing dimple ratio Δ has a negative impact on the heat transfer augmentation and also deteriorates the pressure loss, which leads to this fact that Δ = 0.25 serves as the best option for the dimple depth.

  4. Toward automated formation of microsphere arrangements using multiplexed optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Keshav; Bollavaram, Manasa; Banerjee, Ashis G.

    2016-09-01

    Optical tweezers offer certain advantages such as multiplexing using a programmable spatial light modulator, flexibility in the choice of the manipulated object and the manipulation medium, precise control, easy object release, and minimal object damage. However, automated manipulation of multiple objects in parallel, which is essential for efficient and reliable formation of micro-scale assembly structures, poses a difficult challenge. There are two primary research issues in addressing this challenge. First, the presence of stochastic Langevin force giving rise to Brownian motion requires motion control for all the manipulated objects at fast rates of several Hz. Second, the object dynamics is non-linear and even difficult to represent analytically due to the interaction of multiple optical traps that are manipulating neighboring objects. As a result, automated controllers have not been realized for tens of objects, particularly with three dimensional motions with guaranteed collision avoidances. In this paper, we model the effect of interacting optical traps on microspheres with significant Brownian motions in stationary fluid media, and develop simplified state-space representations. These representations are used to design a model predictive controller to coordinate the motions of several spheres in real time. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the utility of the controller in automatically forming desired arrangements of varying configurations starting with randomly dispersed microspheres.

  5. Baltic Corporatist Arrangements. A Comparative Analysis of Tripartite Arrangements in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Sturle

    2003-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the development of tripartite arrangements between representatives of the trade union organisations, the employers’ organisations and the government or the state bureaucracy in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania after the three countries regained their independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. I have studied and compared the contents of tripartite agreements and the work of tripartite councils. I have divided the time into the two periods from 1991 to...

  6. Statin prescribing for people with severe mental illnesses: a staggered cohort study of 'real-world' impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, R; Osborn, D; Walters, K; Falcaro, M; Nazareth, I; Petersen, I

    2017-03-07

    To estimate the 'real-world effectiveness of statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for lipid modification in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI), including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Series of staggered cohorts. We estimated the effect of statin prescribing on CVD outcomes using a multivariable Poisson regression model or linear regression for cholesterol outcomes. 587 general practice (GP) surgeries across the UK reporting data to The Health Improvement Network. All permanently registered GP patients aged 40-84 years between 2002 and 2012 who had a diagnosis of SMI. Exclusion criteria were pre-existing CVD, statin-contraindicating conditions or a statin prescription within the 24 months prior to the study start. One or more statin prescriptions during a 24-month 'baseline' period (vs no statin prescription during the same period). The primary outcome was combined first myocardial infarction and stroke. All-cause mortality and total cholesterol concentration were secondary outcomes. We identified 2944 statin users and 42 886 statin non-users across the staggered cohorts. Statin prescribing was not associated with significant reduction in CVD events (incident rate ratio 0.89; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.15) or all-cause mortality (0.89; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.02). Statin prescribing was, however, associated with statistically significant reductions in total cholesterol of 1.2 mmol/L (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3) for up to 2 years after adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics. On average, total cholesterol decreased from 6.3 to 4.6 in statin users and 5.4 to 5.3 mmol/L in non-users. We found that statin prescribing to people with SMI in UK primary care was effective for lipid modification but not CVD events. The latter finding may reflect insufficient power to detect a smaller effect size than that observed in randomised controlled trials of statins in people without SMI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  7. Contractual arrangements for uranium exploration and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    Uranium exploration in WOCA, stabilized since 1985 at a level of annual expenditures of US $120-150 million. About half of this amount is funded by mining companies based in the uranium consumer countries such as the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the Republic of Korea, Japan, United Kingdom etc. and expended outside their home countries, mainly in Australia, Canada and USA, but also in a number of African countries. As WOCA's uranium production is concentrated in a few countries, in 1986, Australia, Canada, South Africa and USA had a combined share of nearly 70% of the total, a stronger diversification of uranium supplies may be desirable in the future. This expected trend may result in the planning or uranium exploration projects by international uranium companies in countries in Africa, Asia and South America. To provide information which can be helpful for both parties in the negotiations of cooperation agreement is the scope of this document. It contains a brief introductory part including an overview of the development of the different forms of international cooperation, a case history provided by Zambia, a report listing the essential subjects to be included in an uranium agreement as well as an example of a structure of contractual arrangements. This part is followed by an extensive annex with three ''no-names-no numbers'' contract texts, which were concluded in the later part of the 1970s and beginning of the 1980s

  8. Protection arrangements of nuclear materials and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-baroudy, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The physical protection measures aim at prrotecting the nuclear materials in use, during transport or when stored against diversion or theft. These measures should include urgent and comprehensive steps to find the place in which the lost or stolen nuclear materials are located and then retrieving them. The protection measures aim also at protecting the nuclear facilities against sabotage and mitigating the radiation effects resulting from or reducing thes effects as much as possible. The protection measures play an important role in supporting the objectives of nuclear non-proliferation and protection of the environment. The state shall have the responsibility of establishing and enforcing a comprehensive system for the protectionb of the environment. The state shall have the reponsibility of establishing and enforcing a comprehensive system for the protection of nuclear materials andnuclear facilities within its territory. The present study invloves the protection arrangements of nuclear materials and facilities, in two chapters. the first deals with the protection measures of nuclear materials, explaining the necessary measures to be undertaken inside the state as well as the international coolperation for protecting the nuclear materials. Chapter two involves a study on the protection of the nuclear facilities, explaning the systes for protecting the nuclear facilities inside the state and the international cooperation for protecting the nuclear facilities

  9. Nonstandard work arrangements and worker health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John

    2017-01-01

    Arrangements between those who perform work and those who provide jobs come in many different forms. Standard work arrangements now exist alongside several nonstandard arrangements: agency work, contract work, and gig work. While standard work arrangements are still the most prevalent types, the rise of nonstandard work arrangements, especially temporary agency, contract, and "gig" arrangements, and the potential effects of these new arrangements on worker health and safety have captured the attention of government, business, labor, and academia. This article describes the major work arrangements in use today, profiles the nonstandard workforce, discusses several legal questions about how established principles of labor and employment law apply to nonstandard work arrangements, summarizes findings published in the past 20 years about the health and safety risks for workers in nonstandard work arrangements, and outlines current research efforts in the area of healthy work design and worker well-being. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:1-10, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Optical properties of quasiperiodically arranged semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werchner, Marco

    2009-12-18

    This work consists of two parts which are entitled ''One-Dimensional Resonant Fibonacci Quasicrystals'' and ''Resonant Tunneling of Light in Silicon Nanostructures''. A microscopic theory has been applied to investigate the optical properties of the respective semiconductor nanostructures. The studied one-dimensional resonant Fibonacci quasicrystals consist of GaAs quantum wells (QW) that are separated by either a large spacer L or a small one S. These spacers are arranged according to the Fibonacci sequence LSLLSLSL.. The average spacing satisfies a generalized Bragg condition with respect to the 1s-exciton resonance of the QWs. A theory, that makes use of the transfer-matrix method and that allows for the microscopic description of many-body effects such as excitation-induced dephasing caused by the Coulomb scattering of carriers, has been applied to compute the optical spectra of such structures. A pronounced sharp reflectivity minimum is found in the vicinity of the heavy-hole resonance both in the measured as well as in the calculated linear 54-QW spectra. Specifically, the influence of the carrier density, of the QW arrangement, of a detuning away from the exact Bragg condition, of the average spacing as well as of the ratio of the optical path lengths of the large and small spacers L and S, respectively, and of the QW number on the optical properties of the samples have been studied. Additionally, self-similarity among reflection spectra corresponding to different QW numbers that exceed a Fibonacci number by one is observed, which identifies certain spectral features as true fingerprints of the Fibonacci spacing. In the second part, resonant tunneling of light in stacked structures consisting of alternating parallel layers of silicon and air have been studied theoretically.Light may tunnel through the air barrier due to the existence of evanescent waves inside the air layers if the neighboring silicon layer is close

  11. Concepts for institutional arrangements for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role of institutional arrangements in developing a consensus in international nuclear cooperation. Institutional arrangements are defined as undertakings and activities by governments or private entities to facilitate the efficient and secure functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle. The first two sections of the paper explore the historical role of cooperative arrangements, suggest criteria for evaluating the usefulness of institutional arrangements, and review the status of the discussion of institutional arrangements in INFCE Working Groups as of December 1978. The final section of the paper, explores potential relationships between various institutional arrangements and suggests that certain areas such as, the standardization of nuclear practices, joint commercial and development undertakings, nuclear supply assurances, and the settlement of disputes may have broad application for several stages of the fuel cycle and merit further study

  12. Electricity generation sectors under purchase obligation: support arrangement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    This report aims at assessing the operation of the support arrangement by which currently benefit some electricity production sectors in France (renewable energies, co-generation) with respect to the evolution of the energy mix within the frame of energy transition. Other support arrangements presently adopted in Europe are also addressed as lessons to be learned. Criteria are established for any support arrangement. The report presents the French and European context regarding such support arrangement with purchasing obligation, and addresses the future evolutions of the European Commission. It highlights challenges for the electric system and for the energy market (impact on investments, optimization of market operation), describes and assesses the French purchasing obligation arrangement, and describes and assesses other existing support arrangements

  13. Support mechanism for a mirrored surface or other arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    An adjustment mechanism such as a three point spherical mount for adjustably supporting a planer mirror or other type of arrangement relative to a plane defined by a given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes is disclosed herein. This mechanism includes first means for fixedly supporting the mirror or other arrangement such that the latter is positionable within the plane defined by the given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes. This latter means and the mirror or other such arrangement are supported by second means for limited movement back and forth about either of the intersecting axes. Moreover, this second means supports the first means and the mirror or other arrangement such that the latter is not movable in any other way whereby the point on the mirror or other arrangement coinciding with the intersection of the given axes does not move or float, thereby making the ability to adjust the mirror or other such arrangement more precise and accurate.

  14. Institutional arrangements for a multinational reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.B.; Chayes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper lists some of the major issues that would have to be faced in negotiating the institutional structure of a multinational nuclear-fuel center. None of the organization problems is inherently insoluble. Difficulties are exacerbated by the large number of questions, their interrelations, and the complexity of the assumed structure. However, the assumptions posed the most difficult case. A reduction in membership and in the ambitious scope of the enterprise, at least at the outset, would greatly reduce the complexity of the organizational structure and the difficulty of negotiations. The analysis suggests that multinational fuel-cycle activities should start out more modestly, perhaps only with joint appraisal by a relatively few countries with existing geographic or economic connections. If operations are contemplated it would seem that the first step should be joint arrangements for spent-fuel storage, with the decision to go forward to more elaborate activities deferred. This approach would not only be simpler and permit the parties to gain experience working together, but it would have the virtue of delaying reprocessing until it was clear that there was a real need for it. Even on this reduced basis, the negotiating task would not be easy. The key, of course, to overcoming difficult technical problems of institutional structure is politial will--the genuine commitment of the participants to the aims and values of the enterprise. This suggests that any effort to cajole--not to say coerce--participation in a multinational fuel-cycle enterprise would be wholly misplaced. A reluctant partner would have available an infinitude of points and issues to create plausible, irritating, and ultimately defeating delay and complication in the negotiating process. Only assent freely given in the perception that the enterprise really serves the interest of the countries involved will be able to surmount the many institutional problems that will inevitably arise

  15. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Masribut Sardol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article 1 paragraph (3 of the Constitution of 1945 (UUD 1945 stated that Indonesia is a Rule of Law. One feature of the Rule of Law is the existence of human rights in the state administration. Indonesia, since independence on August 17, 1945 has asserted the defense of human rights as stated in the opening clause and in the torso of the 1945 Constitution Article 27-34. In the era of reform, on the Government of President Habibie, the President and the Parliament ratified the UN convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading human dignity into Law number 5 of 1998. Then the MPR also publishes the statutes of MPR No. XVII/MPR/1998 on Human Rights, which was followed up with the appearance of Law No. 39 of 1999 on human rights. In accordance with the law in Indonesia based on the sort of Law No. 12 of 2011, the actual products that have been issued by the Government (the MPR, DPR and President that follow up the substance of Human Rights in the Constitution with established Assembly and the law is already correct. But when the MPR then does the second amendment to the Constitution on August 18, 2000 by adding a special article chapters and contains about Human Rights (as mentioned in Chapter X-A section 28 A-J, have made the complexity hierarchy of law in Indonesia because it is not in accordance with the substance of article 7 of Law No. 12 of 2011. How To Cite: Sardol, S. (2014. Human Rights Arrangement on Indonesian Law. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 85-100. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.105

  16. Periodically fully developed laminar flow and heat transfer in a two-dimensional horizontal channel with staggered fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Oğuz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2-D periodically fully developed laminar forced convection fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in a horizontal channel with staggered fins are investigated numerically under constant wall heat flux boundary condition. Study is performed using ANSYS Fluent 6.3.26 which uses finite volume method. Air (Pr @ 0.7 and Freon-12 (Pr @ 3.5 are used as working fluids. Effects of Reynolds number, Prandtl number, fin height, and distances between two fins on heat transfer and friction factor are examined. Results are given in the form of non-dimensional average Nusselt number and average Darcy friction factor as a function of Reynolds number for different fin distances and Prandtl numbers. The velocity and temperature profiles are also obtained. It is seen that as the fin distance increases, behavior approaches the finless channel, as expected. Also, thermal enhancement factors are given graphically for working fluids. It is seen that heat transfer dominates the friction as both the distance between two fins and Prandtl number increase. It is also seen that fins having blockage ratio of 0.10 in 2-D periodically fully developed laminar flow is not advantageous in comparison to smooth channel without fins.

  17. Interim analysis based on the weighted log-rank test for delayed treatment effects under staggered patient entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mizuki; Matsuyama, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Fleming and Harrington's G(ρ,γ) class of weighted log-rank tests is appropriate for detecting delayed treatment effects such as those seen in cancer vaccines. A conditional power (CP) and an alpha spending function (ASF) approach are useful for interim analyses that are conducted with the aim of early termination due to futility and efficacy, respectively. However, calculation of the CP and the total Type I error probability are often not considered for delayed effects under the staggered patient entry. In this article, we first propose methods for calculating the CP analytically based on the weighted log-rank test. We compared the performances of the proposed methods with two other methods (i.e., usual log-rank test and optimal one) under the delayed alternatives. Our simulations demonstrated that the CP based on the weighted log-rank test was more powerful than that of the usual log-rank test and was comparable to the CP based on the optimal log-rank test. Second, we quantitatively evaluated the degree to which the Type I error probability was inflated when an ASF approach with forced independent increments assumption was applied to the weighted log-rank test. The proposed method will provide valuable tools in the decision-making stage of the interim analysis.

  18. Numerical experiment about the arrangement determination of multiple bluff cylinders which obtain the most suitable new type stir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When developing the stirring rod for mixing two liquid with which the densities into which gas melted differ in little stirring operation, verification of the stirring effect was performed in the numerical simulation using a vortex method. Since it is calculation for specification examination of the preceding paragraph which creates a producing model, it becomes important to obtain a calculation result early and to feed back to the design. Two dimension calculation of the double file circular cylinder group which carried out staggered arrangement of the nine circular cylinders was performed. The aspects of the flow which strayed off from the design point or the design point were shown. The mixed degree was judged from the degree of the complexity of the flow pattern. In a design point, the complicated flow by a vortex is formed with oscillating 1 period, and interference stirring occurs. Adaptation ranges other than a design point are that the ranges of the value of P/L are 0.8–1.2.

  19. Analysis and Optimization of a Novel 2-D Magnet Array with Gaps and Staggers for a Moving-Magnet Planar Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuedong; Zeng, Lizhan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel 2-D magnet array with gaps and staggers, which is especially suitable for magnetically levitated planar motor with moving magnets. The magnetic flux density distribution is derived by Fourier analysis and superposition. The influences of gaps and staggers on high-order harmonics and flux density were analyzed, and the optimized design is presented. Compared with the other improved structures based on traditional Halbach magnet arrays, the proposed design has the lowest high-order harmonics percentage, and the characteristics of flux density meet the demand of high acceleration in horizontal directions. It is also lightweight and easy to manufacture. The proposed magnet array was built, and the calculation results have been verified with experiment. PMID:29300323

  20. Ulysses arrangements in psychiatry: a matter of good care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremmen, I; Widdershoven, G; Beekman, A; Zuijderhoudt, R; Sevenhuijsen, S

    2008-02-01

    This article concerns the issue of how an ethic of care perspective may contribute to both normative theory and mental health care policy discussions on so called Ulysses arrangements, a special type of advance directives in psychiatry. The debate on Ulysses arrangements has predominantly been waged in terms of autonomy conceived of as the right to non-intervention. On the basis of our empirical investigations into the experiences of persons directly involved with Ulysses arrangements, we argue that a care ethics perspective may broaden and deepen the debate on Ulysses arrangements, by introducing additional concepts, such as vulnerability, responsibility and mutuality, and by refining familiar concepts, such as autonomy.

  1. Theoretical investigation of GaAsBi/GaAsN tunneling field-effect transistors with type-II staggered tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibo; Liu, Yan; Han, Genquan; Wang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    We investigate GaAsBi/GaAsN system for the design of type-II staggered hetero tunneling field-effect transistor (hetero-TFET). Strain-symmetrized GaAsBi/GaAsN with effective lattice match to GaAs exhibits a type-II band lineup, and the effective bandgap EG,eff at interface is significantly reduced with the incorporation of Bi and N elements. The band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) rate and drive current of GaAsBi/GaAsN hetero-TFETs are boosted due to the utilizing of the type-II staggered tunneling junction with the reduced EG,eff. Numerical simulation shows that the drive current and subthreshold swing (SS) characteristics of GaAsBi/GaAsN hetero-TFETs are remarkably improved by increasing Bi and N compositions. The dilute content GaAs0.85Bi0.15/GaAs0.92N0.08 staggered hetero-nTFET achieves 7.8 and 550 times higher ION compared to InAs and In0.53Ga0.47As homo-TFETs, respectively, at the supply voltage of 0.3 V. GaAsBi/GaAsN heterostructure is a potential candidate for high performance TFET.

  2. A Study of the Transient Response of Duct Junctions: Measurements and Gas-Dynamic Modeling with a Staggered Mesh Finite Volume Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Torregrosa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Duct junctions play a major role in the operation and design of most piping systems. The objective of this paper is to establish the potential of a staggered mesh finite volume model as a way to improve the description of the effect of simple duct junctions on an otherwise one-dimensional flow system, such as the intake or exhaust of an internal combustion engine. Specific experiments have been performed in which different junctions have been characterized as a multi-port, and that have provided precise and reliable results on the propagation of pressure pulses across junctions. The results obtained have been compared to simulations performed with a staggered mesh finite volume method with different flux limiters and different meshes and, as a reference, have also been compared with the results of a more conventional pressure loss-based model. The results indicate that the staggered mesh finite volume model provides a closer description of wave dynamics, even if further work is needed to establish the optimal calculation settings.

  3. A Priori Estimates of Solution of a Homogeneous Boundary Value Problem for Parabolic Type Equations by the Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Staggered Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan V. Zhalnin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this paper, we present a priori error analysis of the solution of a homogeneous boundary value problem for a second-order differential equation by the discontinuous Galerkin method on staggered grids. Materials and Methods: This study is based on the unified hp-version error analysis of local discontinuous Galerkin method proposed by Castillo et al. [Optimal a priori error estimates for the hp-version of the local discontinuous Galerkin method for convection-diffusion problems, 2002]. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to the error analysis of the solution of parabolic equations by the discontinuous Galerkin method on staggered grids. Results: We suggest that approximation errors depend on the characteristic size of the cells and the degree of polynomials used in the basis functions. The necessary lemmas are formulated for the problem solution. The complete proof of the lemmas formulated is carried out. We formulated and proved a theorem, in which a priori error estimates are given for solving parabolic equations using the discontinuous Galerkin method on staggered grids Discussion and Conclusions: The obtained results are consistent with similar studies of other authors and complement them. Further work on this topic involves the study of diffusion-type equations of order higher than the first and the production of a posteriori error estimates.

  4. 42 CFR 408.86 - Responsibilities under group billing arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment § 408.86 Responsibilities under group billing arrangement. (a) Enrollee responsibilities. (1) The enrollee is still responsible for premium payments; the group payer simply acts as his agent. If the agent... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities under group billing arrangement...

  5. 29 CFR 779.230 - Franchise and other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise and other arrangements. 779.230 Section 779.230... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.230 Franchise and other.... The quotation in § 779.229 from the Senate Report shows that Congress recognized that some franchise...

  6. 28 CFR 550.44 - Procedures for arranging drug counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for arranging drug counseling... MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.44 Procedures for arranging drug counseling. The contract center staff shall hold a program...

  7. Ulysses arrangements in psychiatry: a matter of good care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, I.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Zuijderhoudt, R.H.; Sevenhuijsen, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns the issue of how an ethic of care perspective may contribute to both normative theory and mental health care policy discussions on so called Ulysses arrangements, a special type of advance directives in psychiatry. The debate on Ulysses arrangements has predominantly been waged

  8. Ulysses Arrangements in psychiatry: A matter of good care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, C.C.M.; Widdershoven, G.G; Beekman, A; Zuijderhoudt, R.; Sevenhuijsen, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article concerns the issue of how an ethic of care perspective may contribute to both normative theory and mental health care policy discussions on so called Ulysses arrangements, a special type of advance directives in psychiatry. The debate on Ulysses arrangements has predominantly been waged

  9. European top managers’ support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Wike M.; van der Lippe, Tanja; den Dulk, Laura; Das Dores Horta Guerreiro, Maria; Kanjuo Mrčela, Aleksandra; Niemistö, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    Top managers—defined as CEOs, CFOs and members of boards of directors—decide to what degree their organization offers employees work-life arrangements. This study focuses on the conditions under which they support such arrangements. A factorial survey of 202 top managers in five European countries

  10. 45 CFR 400.72 - Arrangements for employability services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arrangements for employability services. 400.72... Requirements for Employability Services and Employment § 400.72 Arrangements for employability services... to meet the requirements of, and receive the employability services specified in, this subpart. (b...

  11. On capital allocation for stochastic arrangement increasing actuarial risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the increasing convex ordering of the optimal discounted capital allocations for stochastic arrangement increasing risks with stochastic arrangement decreasing occurrence times. The application to optimal allocation of policy limits is presented as an illustration as well.

  12. Exploring living arrangements of divorced families in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.; Mulder, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    We aim to gain more insight into the characteristics of divorced families with different types of post-divorce living arrangements, and in particular with co-parenting arrangements in which the child alternates between the parents’ residences. Empirical evidence comes from a mixed- method research,

  13. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three texts…

  14. 33 CFR 157.19 - Cargo tank arrangement and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.19 Cargo tank arrangement and size. (a) This... of connection to the tank served to prevent oil outflow in the event of damage to the piping; and (2... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tank arrangement and size...

  15. Evolution of Land Rental Arrangements in Rural Ghana: Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such arrangements usually take variety of forms, broadly described in terms such as leasing, tenancy, share contracts, and loans. In West Africa, these rental arrangements have a long-standing tradition and have evolved dynamically in response to increased land scarcity (Deininger and. Mpula, 2003). These temporary ...

  16. Financial Arrangements and Relationship Quality in Low-Income Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Fenaba R.; Sassler, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the association between household financial arrangements and relationship quality using a representative sample of low-income couples with children. We detailed the banking arrangements couples utilize, assessed which factors relate to holding a joint account versus joint and separate, only separate, or no account, and analyzed…

  17. The effects of different source arrangement on the irradiation efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongyue; Shi Peixin; Lin Yin

    1999-01-01

    The effects of 8 different arrangements with 16 pencil sources on irradiation productivity were studied by using a self-designed computer program. The results showed that the fashion of decentralized arrangement had a higher irradiation productivity than that of centralized in a static and uniform field

  18. Stressing arrangement for pressure vessels with prestressed jacket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Previously used stressing arrangements for pressure vessels assembled from segments are improved by producing defined prestressing forces. The manufactured elements made, for example, of cast iron, which make up the containment wall, carry one (or more) of the prestressing arrangements described in detail on the outside. The stressing arrangements of one position of the wall elements lie in the same horizontal plane around the container. A stressing cable or rope without or with only small prestressing is positioned around the prestressing arrangements lying at the same height. By operating the stressing piston arrangement of each device a required pressure is exerted on each wall element, and is permanently fixed by tightening self locking wedges or screws. (ORU) [de

  19. A simple and universal ligation mediated fusion of genes based on hetero-staggered PCR for generating immunodominant chimeric proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Prakash K; Ramlal, Shylaja; Sripathy, Murali H; Batra, Harshvardhan

    2012-11-01

    We developed a simple T4 DNA ligase mediated strategy for inframe splicing of two or more cohesive genes generated by hetero-staggered PCR and directionally cloning the spliced product bearing sticky overhangs in to a correspondingly cut vector. For this, two pairs of primers are used in two different parallel PCRs, for generation of each cohesive gene product. We exemplified this strategy by splicing two major super-antigen genes of Staphylococcus aureus, namely, staphylococcal enterotoxin A (sea), and toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst-1) followed by its directional cloning into pre-digested pRSET A vector. The fusion gene encoding chimeric recombinant SEA-TSST protein (32kDa) was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) host strain. The recombinant chimeric protein retained the antigenicity of both toxins as observed by the strong immunoreactivity with commercial antibodies against both SEA and TSST-1 toxin components by Western blot analysis. We observed that the present method for gene splicing with cohesive ends is simple since it does not require elaborate standardization and a single fusion product is obtained consistently during nested PCR with forward primer of first gene and reverse primer of second gene. For comparison, we fused the same genes using splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR) and consistently obtained DNA smearing and multiple non-specific bands even after several rounds of PCRs from gel excised product. Moreover, the newly described method requires only two to six complimentary sticky ends between the genes to be spliced, in contrast to long stretch of overlapping nucleotides in case of SOE-PCR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Study on the Uncertainty of Flow-Induced Vibration in a Cross Flow over Staggered Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Su; Park, Jong-Woon [Dongguk univ, Gyeong Ju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeon-Kyeong [HanNam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Cross-flow in many support columns of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) lower plenum would have FIV issues under high speed flow jetting from the core. For a group of multiple circular cylinders subjected to a cross-flow, three types of potential vibration mechanisms may exist: (1) Vortex-induced vibration (VIV), (2) Fluid-elastic vibration (FEV) and (3) Turbulence-induced vibration (TIV). Kevalahan studied the free vibration of circular cylinders in a tightly packed periodic square inline array of cylinders. Pandey et al. studied the flue gas flow distribution in the Low Temperature Super Heater (LTSH) tube bundles situated in second pass of a utility boiler and the phenomenon of flow induced vibration. Nakamura et al. studied flow instability of cylinder arrays resembling U-bend tubes in steam generators. The FIV evaluation is usually performed with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis to obtain unknown frequency of oscillation of the multiple objects under turbulent flow and thus the uncertainty residing in the turbulence model used should be quantified. In this paper, potential FIV uncertainty arising from the turbulence phenomena are evaluated for a typical cross flow through staggered tube bundles resembling the VHTR lower plenum support columns. Flow induced vibration (FIV) is one of the important mechanical and fatigue issues in nuclear systems. Especially, cross-flow in many support structures of VHTR lower plenum would have FIV issues under highly turbulent jet flows from the core. The results show that the effect of turbulence parameters on FIV is not negligible and the uncertainty is 5 to 10%. Present method can be applied to future FIV evaluations of nuclear systems. More extensive studies on flow induced vibration in a plant scale by using more rigorous computational methods are under way.

  1. Tracking of chromosome and replisome dynamics in Myxococcus xanthus reveals a novel chromosome arrangement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Harms

    Full Text Available Cells closely coordinate cell division with chromosome replication and segregation; however, the mechanisms responsible for this coordination still remain largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the spatial arrangement and temporal dynamics of the 9.1 Mb circular chromosome in the rod-shaped cells of Myxococcus xanthus. For chromosome segregation, M. xanthus uses a parABS system, which is essential, and lack of ParB results in chromosome segregation defects as well as cell divisions over nucleoids and the formation of anucleate cells. From the determination of the dynamic subcellular location of six genetic loci, we conclude that in newborn cells ori, as monitored following the ParB/parS complex, and ter regions are localized in the subpolar regions of the old and new cell pole, respectively and each separated from the nearest pole by approximately 1 µm. The bulk of the chromosome is arranged between the two subpolar regions, thus leaving the two large subpolar regions devoid of DNA. Upon replication, one ori region remains in the original subpolar region while the second copy segregates unidirectionally to the opposite subpolar region followed by the rest of the chromosome. In parallel, the ter region of the mother chromosome relocates, most likely passively, to midcell, where it is replicated. Consequently, after completion of replication and segregation, the two chromosomes show an ori-ter-ter-ori arrangement with mirror symmetry about a transverse axis at midcell. Upon completion of segregation of the ParB/parS complex, ParA localizes in large patches in the DNA-free subpolar regions. Using an Ssb-YFP fusion as a proxy for replisome localization, we observed that the two replisomes track independently of each other from a subpolar region towards ter. We conclude that M. xanthus chromosome arrangement and dynamics combine features from previously described systems with new features leading to a novel spatiotemporal arrangement pattern.

  2. Spatial Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grande, John

    1990-01-01

    Describes seven spatial abilities related to mathematics including eye-motor coordination, figure-ground perception, perceptual constancy, position-in-space perception, perception of spatial relationships, visual discrimination, and visual memory. Discusses the relationship of the spatial abilities to the study of geometry. Lists 19 references.…

  3. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM ARRANGEMENT FACTOR OF FOOTWEAR PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRIŞCU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. Moreover, the results of this classical methodology may contain many inaccuracies with the most unpleasant consequences for the footwear producer. Thus, the costumer that buys a footwear product by taking into consideration the characteristics written on the product (size, width can notice after a period that the product has flaws because of the inadequate design. In order to avoid this kind of situations, the strictest scientific criteria must be followed when one designs a footwear product. The decisive step in this way has been made some time ago, when, as a result of powerful technical development and massive implementation of electronical calculus systems and informatics, This paper presents a product software for determining all possible arrangements of a footwear product’s reference points, in order to automatically acquire the maximum arrangement factor. The user multiplies the pattern in order to find the economic arrangement for the reference points. In this purpose, the user must probe few arrangement variants, in the translation and rotate-translation system. The same process is used in establishing the arrangement factor for the two points of reference of the designed footwear product. After probing several variants of arrangement in the translation and rotation and translation systems, the maximum arrangement factors are chosen. This allows the user to estimate the material wastes.

  4. Are the British electricity trading and transmission arrangements future-proof?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In Great Britain, electricity is traded in an energy-only market that relies upon bilateral trading until shortly before real time. The GB System Operator also uses bilateral trading to respond to changes in demand and generation and resolve transmission constraints. Prices are not explicitly spatial, although well-placed generators can charge the system operator more for their output. This paper argues that these arrangements are not well-suited for the challenges of accommodating nearly thirty percent of intermittent wind generation, often located far from demand. The market design already implemented in the north-eastern United States is likely to be more efficient. (author)

  5. Friendship Repertoires and Care Arrangement: A Praxeological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Friends are important companions and serve as sources for diverse dimensions of social support, including elderly care. Rather than researching populations that have already established care arrangements including friends, the author seeks to understand relationship systems with a focus on the inner logic friendship to consequently describe and understand involved care arrangements, be it with family members or friends. To illustrate the diversity of friendship repertoires, qualitative interviews with older adult Germans are analyzed regarding cognitive concepts of friendships in contrast to familiar ties as well as social practices around relationship systems. While some repertoires successfully include chosen ties in their care arrangements, others not only focus on family, they do not wish to receive care from friends. The article's praxeological approach highlights the need to reflect habitual differences when thinking about elderly informal care arrangements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Fuel arrangement for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel arrangement for a high temperature gas cooled reactor including fuel assemblies with separate directly cooled fissile and fertile fuel elements removably inserted in an elongated moderator block also having a passageway for control elements

  7. The new electricity trading arrangements: prospects for market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    1999-09-01

    This Briefing Paper from OXERA argues that the OFGEM proposals will not solve the fundamental market problems and might even make things worse. They focus too narrowly on the technical design of one small part of the market (the Balancing Mechanism and associated imbalance settlement process), without considering the market context and dynamics. OXERA argues that the central emphasis of the White Paper was misplaced: reform of the electricity trading arrangements, the basis of the government's strategy, will not solve the upstream and downstream market problems. The Briefing Paper includes analysis of: the structure and operation of the proposed new electricity trading arrangements; risk in the electricity wholesale market, and the responses of market participants; the interaction between the new trading arrangements and other energy market developments - in particular, vertical integration between generators and suppliers; energy supply competition, and wider government policy; the prospects for market development under the new electricity trading arrangements. (author)

  8. 22 CFR 92.63 - Arrangement of papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Letters Rogatory § 92.63 Arrangement of papers. Unless special instructions to the contrary are... of fees charged, if one is prepared on a separate sheet. (c) Record of the responses of the various...

  9. Children's postdivorce residence arrangements and parental experienced time pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Franciëlla; Poortman, Anne Rigt; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Although the rise in postdivorce joint physical custody has fueled scholarly interest in its impact on children, consequences for parents remain understudied. Because children's residence arrangements determine time and coordination demands associated with child care, this study investigated the

  10. Theoretical study of O- and Zn-face polarity effect on the optical properties of the conventional and staggered ZnO/Zn{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}O/ZnO quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtepliuk, I., E-mail: ivan.shtepliuk@liu.se; Khranovskyy, V.; Yakimova, R.

    2015-11-02

    In this work we present a comparative study of Zn-face and O-face polarity Zn{sub 1−x}CdxO-based conventional and staggered quantum-well (QW) structures. The calculation of optical properties of QWs was performed by means of self-consistent Schrodinger–Poisson solver with consideration of polarization-induced effects. The conventional Zn-face and O-face QWs possess similar values of transition energy and an overlap of electron and hole wave functions. A change of the polarity from Zn-face to O-face for the conventional QWs influences only a shape of the conduction and valence band edge profile. It is revealed that the utilization of the staggered QWs leads to an improvement of the confinement characteristics. In addition, the O-face staggered QW structure has larger values of transition energy and overlap integral compared to the Zn-face staggered QW structure. O-terminated staggered QW structure is less dependent on the well thickness and has lower sensitivity to Cd content in embedded Zn{sub 1−x}CdxO layer. Control of the material polarity and design of the staggered QWs provide cost-effective approach for engineering the QW band structures with enhanced QW performance. This enables constructing of the Zn{sub 1−x}CdxO-based light emission diodes with improved radiative efficiency emitting, applicable for solid state lighting. - Highlights: • Effect of polar face on properties of Zn{sub 1−x}Cd{sub x}O quantum wells (QWs) was studied. • O-face staggered QWs were found to possess improved optical properties. • Sensitivity of transition energy to well width was found to be weaker for O-face QW. • Using of the embedded layer in QW reduces quantum confinement Stark effect.

  11. Incremental change, transition or transformation? optimising change pathways for climate adaptation in spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggema, R.E.; Vermeend, T.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to incorporate climate adaptation in spatial planning change is required, because climate change impacts the way we live. This implies that spatial planning, as the arranger of the spatial organisation and layout needs to be able to support this change. Current spatial planning is not yet

  12. Modelling and arrangement of composite panels in modernized freight cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płaczek Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A process of modelling in a CAD system and designing of arrangement of composite panels used for freight cars’ body shell protection against corrosion and for easier unloading of transported cargo in winter conditions is presented in this work. Arrangement of used composite panels was designing in order to fulfil assumed criteria and thus to improve the process of freight cars modernization during periodic repairs.

  13. Modelling and arrangement of composite panels in modernized freight cars

    OpenAIRE

    Płaczek Marek; Wróbel Andrzej; Olesiejuk Maciej

    2017-01-01

    A process of modelling in a CAD system and designing of arrangement of composite panels used for freight cars’ body shell protection against corrosion and for easier unloading of transported cargo in winter conditions is presented in this work. Arrangement of used composite panels was designing in order to fulfil assumed criteria and thus to improve the process of freight cars modernization during periodic repairs.

  14. Labour Arrangements in Cassava Production in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abila, N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of labour arrangements on the profitability of cassava enterprises in Oyo North Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for data collection, while data were analysed using descriptive statistics and budgetary analysis. The results show that the prevalent labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are: a combination of Family, Hired and Contract labour (38.9%; Family-Hired labour (27.8%; Family-Contract labour (31.1%. The gross margin per hectares across labour arrangements are N279481.99 (all-labour, N286044.24 (family-hired, N216940.10 (familycontract, and N235000.00 (family only. The returns on a naira invested on variable costs across different labour arrangements for cassava enterprises are N2.04 (all-labour, N3.66 (family-hired, N2.37 (familycontract, and N2.61 (family only. This implies that a unit (N1 variable cost in the various labour arrangements of all-labour, family/hired, family/contract and family only in cassava production will yield a marginal return of N3.04, N3.66, N2.37 and N2.61 respectively. Family-hired labour arrangement yields higher marginal return per unit of manday and one naira spent than all other arrangements. The study recommends among others the application of laboursaving technologies and an optimum combination of various labour arrangements to reduce the cost of labour used in cassava production.

  15. Seal and bearing arrangement for use in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazan, J.M.; Ritz, W.C.; Sharbaugh, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A combination seal and bearing arrangement for use in a nuclear reactor including a vessel and vessel cover is disclosed herein. The vessel cover itself includes at least one rotatable plug which serves to perform certain position related functions within the reactor vessel and the combination seal and bearing arrangement is provided for sealing the annular opening around the rotation plug while, at the same time, providing a bearing support for the latter

  16. Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement in Consideration of Decommissioning

    OpenAIRE

    Won-Jun Choi; Myung-Sub Roh; Chang-Lak Kim

    2017-01-01

    A new concept termed the Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement (INBA) strategy is a new nuclear power plant building arrangement method which encompasses upfront consideration of more efficient decommissioning. Although existing decommissioning strategies such as immediate dismantling and differed dismantling has the advantage of either early site restoration or radioactive decommissioning waste reduction, the INBA strategy has the advantages of both strategies. In this research...

  17. Living Arrangements and Suicidal Ideation among the Korean Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Lee, Yun-Suk; Lee, Jinkook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines how living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for older adults in South Korea, which has the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, and a particularly high suicide rate for older persons. Methods Analyzing a sample of 5,795 women and 3,758 men aged 65 and older from a nationwide representative cross-sectional data set, we examined how many older adults think about suicide over a one-year period, why they think about suicide, and whether living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation. Results About one out of twelve respondents in our sample reported suicidal ideation. While women and men did not differ in the prevalence of suicidal ideation, women attributed their suicidal feelings to health problems, while men attributed theirs to economic difficulties. Logistic regression results indicated that living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for men but not women. Older men living with a spouse were less likely to have suicidal ideation than older men with other living arrangements (i.e., living alone, living with children without spouse, living with spouse and others). Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of living arrangements to older men’s suicidal ideation. We discuss gender differences in the implications of living arrangements to suicidal ideation within the context of Confucian culture. PMID:26317145

  18. Study on Pole Arrangement of the CEDM Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Seok; Lee, Myoung Goo; Kim, Hyun Min; Cho, Yeon Ho; Choi, Taek Sang

    2013-01-01

    The coil stack assembly is important for reliable operation of the CEDM, there have been efforts to improve the design by optimizing the design parameters such as dimensions and winding turns. However, magnetic forces of the CEDM can also change by different pole arrangement even if their design parameters are the same. Since the latch coil and lift coil are installed connected to each other, they produce magnetically coupled field when they are energized at the same time. This coupling field can affect the magnetic force of the CEDM significantly. In this paper, coil pole arrangement effects are studied. Electro-magnetic analysis is performed for the different pole arrangements of the CEDM coils to calculate the magnetic forces. Pole arrangement effects on magnetic forces were studied by static analysis of the CEDM magnetic field. Magnetic forces were calculated and compared for the two different pole arrangements of the coils. The results show that the magnetic poles of the lift coil and latch coil shall be arranged to have the same magnetic pole direction to achieve higher magnetic force

  19. Virological failure of staggered and simultaneous treatment interruption in HIV patients who began Efavirenz-based regimens after allergic reactions to nevirapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripassorn Krittaecho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this work was to study the virological outcomes associated with two different types of treatment interruption strategies in patients with allergic reactions to nevirapine (NVP. We compared the virological outcomes of (1 HIV-1-infected patients who discontinued an initial NVP-based regimen because of cutaneous allergic reactions to NVP; different types of interruption strategies were used, and second-line regimen was based on efavirenz (EFV; and (2 HIV-1-infected patients who began an EFV-based regimen as a first-line therapy (controls. Methods This retrospective cohort included patients who began an EFV-based regimen, between January 2002 and December 2008, as either an initial regimen or as a subsequent regimen after resolving a cutaneous allergic reaction against an initial NVP-based regimen. The study ended in March 2010. The primary outcome was virological failure, which was defined as either (a two consecutive plasma HIV-1 RNA levels >400 copies/mL or (b a plasma HIV-1 RNA level >1,000 copies/mL plus any genotypic resistance mutation. Results A total of 559 patients were stratified into three groups: (a Simultaneous Interruption, in which the subjects simultaneously discontinued all the drugs in an NVP-based regimen following an allergic reaction (n=161; (b Staggered Interruption, in which the subjects discontinued NVP treatment while continuing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI backbone therapy for a median of 7 days (n=82; and (c Control, in which the subjects were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (n=316. The overall median follow-up time was 43 months. Incidence of virological failure in Simultaneous Interruption was 12.9 cases per 1,000 person-years, which trended toward being higher than the incidences in Staggered Interruption (5.4 and Control (6.6. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the patients who had an acute allergic reaction to first

  20. Effects of spatial arrangement on tuber yields of some potato cultivars.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted in 1995 and 1996 to determine optimum spacing for potato cultivars Awash, Menagesha and Tolcha that differ in canopy morphology. There were significant varietal and spacing effects on seed tuber size, average tuber weight (ATW) and number (ATN) per square metre. Highest yields of 38.5, ...

  1. Spatial arrangement of chromosomes in oocytes and spermatocytes of malaria mosquitoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegnii, V.N.; Vasserlauf, I.E. [Tomsk State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-02-01

    It is shown that prophase chromosomes of oocytes in Anopheles messeae ovaries do not form local chromocenters, unlike spermatocytes, in which chromosomes fuse in a joint centromeric assembly. This fact reflects the dynamic nature of the system of chromocenter formation in generative tissues. During analysis of interspecific hybrids F{sub 1} A. maculipennis x A. subalpinus, no conjunction of homeologous chromosomes was observed, and the latter remained separated from one another. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Oviposition preferences for ethanol depend on spatial arrangement and differ dramatically among closely related Drosophila species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Sumethasorn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work on the model fly Drosophila melanogaster has reported inconsistencies in their preference for laying eggs on intermediate concentrations of ethanol. In this study, we resolve this discrepancy by showing that this species strongly prefers ovipositing on ethanol when it is close to a non-ethanol substrate, but strongly avoids ethanol when options are farther apart. We also show fluidity of these behaviors among other Drosophila species: D. melanogaster is more responsive to ethanol than close relatives in that it prefers ethanol more than other species in the close-proximity case, but avoids ethanol more than other species in the distant case. In the close-proximity scenario, the more ethanol-tolerant species generally prefer ethanol more, with the exception of the island endemic D. santomea. This species has the lowest tolerance in the clade, but behaves like D. melanogaster. We speculate that this could be an adaptation to protect eggs from parasites or predators such as parasitoid wasps, as larvae migrate to non-toxic substrates after hatching. These natural differences among species are an excellent opportunity to study how genes and brains evolve to alter ethanol preferences, and provide an interesting model for genetic variation in preferences in other organisms, including humans.

  3. Designing efficient surveys: spatial arrangement of sample points for detection of invasive species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Kean, J. M.; Epanchin-Niell, R.; Liebhold, A. M.; Haight, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2015), s. 445-459 ISSN 1387-3547 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0553768 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biosecurity * early pest detection * eradication Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.855, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10530-014-0742-x

  4. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Jochem B.; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-01-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed

  5. Spatial Heterogeneity of Glassy Polymer Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sîretanu, Igor; Saadaoui, Hassan; Chapel, Jean Paul; Drummond, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    By studying the morphology of polystyrene films subjected to a fast structuration method, we demonstrate the spatial heterogeneity of their surface viscoelasticity at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature, Tg. Our results point to a nonrandom arrangement of zones of different

  6. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  7. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  8. A representation of curved boundaries for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations on a staggered three-dimensional Cartesian grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, M.P.; Armfield, S.W.; Kent, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented for representing curved boundaries for the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations on a non-uniform, staggered, three-dimensional Cartesian grid. The approach involves truncating the Cartesian cells at the boundary surface to create new cells which conform to the shape of the surface. We discuss in some detail the problems unique to the development of a cut cell method on a staggered grid. Methods for calculating the fluxes through the boundary cell faces, for representing pressure forces and for calculating the wall shear stress are derived and it is verified that the new scheme retains second-order accuracy in space. In addition, a novel 'cell-linking' method is developed which overcomes problems associated with the creation of small cells while avoiding the complexities involved with other cell-merging approaches. Techniques are presented for generating the geometric information required for the scheme based on the representation of the boundaries as quadric surfaces. The new method is tested for flow through a channel placed oblique to the grid and flow past a cylinder at Re=40 and is shown to give significant improvement over a staircase boundary formulation. Finally, it is used to calculate unsteady flow past a hemispheric protuberance on a plate at a Reynolds number of 800. Good agreement is obtained with experimental results for this flow

  9. Universal scaling of Néel temperature, staggered magnetization density, and spin-wave velocity of three-dimensional disordered and clean quantum antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D.-R.; Jiang, F.-J.

    2017-02-01

    The Néel temperature, staggered magnetization density, as well as the spin-wave velocity of a three-dimensional (3D) quantum Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic disorder (randomness) are calculated using first-principles nonperturbative quantum Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we examine the validity of universal scaling relations that are related to these three studied physical quantities. These relations are relevant to experimental data and are firmly established for clean (regular) 3D dimerized spin-1/2 Heisenberg models. Remarkably, our numerical results show that the considered scaling relations remain true for the investigated model with the introduced disorder. In addition, while the presence of disorder may change the physical properties of regular dimerized models, hence leading to different critical theories, both the obtained data of Néel temperature and staggered magnetization density in our study are fully compatible with the expected critical behavior for clean dimerized systems. As a result, it is persuasive to conclude that the related quantum phase transitions of the considered disordered model and its clean analogues are governed by the same critical theory, which is not always the case in general. Finally, we also find smooth scaling curves even emerging when both the data of the investigated disordered model as well as its associated clean system are taken into account concurrently. This in turn implies that, while in a restricted sense, the considered scaling relations for 3D spin-1/2 antiferromagnets are indeed universal.

  10. Identical Bands and ΔI=2 Staggering in Superdeformed Nuclei in A~150 Mass Region Using Three Parameters Rotational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf A. M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By using a computer simulated search program, the experimental gamma transition en- ergies for superdeformed rotational bands (SDRB’s in A 150 region are fitted to proposed three-parameters model. The model parameters and the spin of the bandhead were obtained for the selected ten SDRB’s namely: 150 Gd (yrast and excited SD bands, 151 Tb (yrast and excited SD bands, 152 Dy (yrast SD bands, 148 Gd (SD-1,SD-6, 149 Gd (SD-1, 153 Dy (SD-1 and 148 Eu (SD-1. The Kinematic J (1 and dynamic J (2 moments of inertia are studied as a function of the rotational frequency ~ ω . From the calculated results, we notic that the excited SD bands have identical energies to their Z + 1 neigh- bours for the twinned SD bands in N = 86 nuclei. Also the analysis done allows us to confirm Δ I = 2 staggering in the yrast SD bands of 148 Gd, 149 Gd, 153 Dy, and 148 Eu and in the excited SD bands of 148 Gd, by performing a staggering parameter analysis. For each band, we calculated the deviation of the gamma ray energies from smooth ref- erence representing the finite di ff erence approximation to the fourth derivative of the gamma ray transition energies at a given spin.

  11. New arrangement for the air cleanup system to recover tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Takahashi, Kohsaku; Munakata, Kenzo; Fukada, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kenji; Takeishi, Toshiharu

    1997-01-01

    At present, the standard arrangement of the air cleanup system responsible for emergency tritium recovery from room air is a catalytic oxidation bed with a heater followed by an adsorption bed with a cooler. One disadvantage of this arrangement is that trouble with the heater or the cooler could result in a loss of capacity to recover tritium. Another disadvantage of the catalyst-adsorption-bed arrangement is that tritiated water must be recovered with a high decontamination factor after dilution with a large amount of water vapor in the working atmosphere. The performance of a new arrangement for the air cleanup system, which consists of a precious metal catalyst bed preceded by an adsorption bed without heating equipment, is discussed. According to calculations, most of the tritium released to the room air is recovered in the catalyst bed through oxidation, adsorption, and isotope exchange reaction when the new arrangement is applied. The adsorption bed placed before the catalyst bed dehumidifies the process gas to such a degree that the oxidation reaction of tritium in the catalyst bed is not hindered by water vapor. 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Support arrangements for core modules of nuclear reactors. [PWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1983-11-03

    A support arrangement is provided for the core modules of a nuclear reactor which provides support access through the control drive mechanisms of the reactor. This arrangement provides axial support of individual reactor core modules from the pressure vessel head in a manner which permits attachment and detachment of the modules from the head to be accomplished through the control drive mechanisms after their leadscrews have been removed. The arrangement includes a module support nut which is suspended from the pressure vessel head and screw threaded to the shroud housing for the module. A spline lock prevents loosening of the screw connection. An installation tool assembly, including a cell lifting and preloading tool and a torquing tool, fits through the control drive mechanism and provides lifting of the shroud housing while disconnecting the spline lock, as well as application of torque to the module support nut.

  13. Support arrangement for core modules of nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Lawrence R.

    1987-01-01

    A support arrangement is provided for the core modules of a nuclear reactor which provides support access through the control drive mechanisms of the reactor. This arrangement provides axial support of individual reactor core modules from the pressure vessel head in a manner which permits attachment and detachment of the modules from the head to be accomplished through the control drive mechanisms after their leadscrews have been removed. The arrangement includes a module support nut which is suspended from the pressure vessel head and screw threaded to the shroud housing for the module. A spline lock prevents loosening of the screw connection. An installation tool assembly, including a cell lifting and preloading tool and a torquing tool, fits through the control drive mechanism and provides lifting of the shroud housing while disconnecting the spline lock, as well as application of torque to the module support nut.

  14. Analysis of Buffer Arrangements in Low and High Dimensional Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Alzeidi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual channels have been introduced to enhance the performance of wormhole-switched networks. They are formed by arranging the buffer space dedicated to a given physical channel into multiple parallel buffers that share the physical bandwidth on a demand driven time-multiplexed manner. The question to be answered is: given a fixed amount of finite buffer what is the optimal way to arrange it into virtual channels. There have been few studies attempting to address this issue, however, these studies have so far resorted to simulation experiments and focused on deterministic routing algorithms. In this paper we use analytical performance models to investigate the optimal arrangement of the available buffer space into multiple virtual channels when adaptive routing is used in wormhole-switched k-ary ncubes.

  15. Do organizational and political-legal arrangements explain financial wrongdoing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechel, Harland; Zheng, Lu

    2016-12-01

    The 2008 financial crisis was a systemic problem with deep-rooted structural causes that created opportunities to engage in financial malfeasance, a form of corporate wrongdoing. However, few quantitative studies exist on the effects of organizational and political-legal arrangements on financial malfeasance. In this paper, we examine the effects of organizational and political-legal arrangements that emerged in the 1990s in the FIRE sector (i.e., financial, insurance, and real estate) on financial malfeasance. Our historical contextualization demonstrates how changes in the political-legal arrangements facilitate the emergence of new corporate structures and opportunities for financial malfeasance. Our longitudinal quantitative analysis demonstrates that US FIRE sector corporations with a more complex organizational structure, larger size, lower dividend payment, and higher executive compensation are more prone to commit financial malfeasance. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  16. 29 CFR 779.228 - Types of arrangements contemplated by exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.228 Types of arrangements... section 3(s) would not otherwise apply: (a) Any arrangement, whether by agreement, franchise or otherwise...

  17. The Danish national spatial planning framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Enemark, Stig

    This paper attempts to provide an analysis associated with the performance of the current Danish national spatial planning framework based on a descriptive overview of its changing institutional arrangements and policy instruments. The Danish planning system has been historically qualified...... as holding a comprehensive-integrated character, which depicts a harmonized and coherent institutional and policy framework across different levels of planning administration. However, spatial planning in Denmark has been increasingly exposed to profound reorientations over the past two decades, a situation...... which could be generally understood as the outcome of a series of interrelated political and economic factors shaping and re-shaping spatial planning in different European contexts. In Denmark, the effects of a recent structural reform that changed the geographies of inter-governmental arrangements...

  18. Concepts for institutional arrangements for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    These concepts deal with establishing a framework for the analysis of institutional arrangements, with institutional arrangements under consideration in the working groups on fuel and heavy water availability, enrichment availability, assurances of long-term supply, reprocessing-plutonium handling-recycling, fast breeder reactors, spent fuel management, waste management and disposal, and advanced reactor concepts. The standardization of nuclear practices, joint commercial and development undertakings, nuclear supply assurances, developing a consensus in international nuclear co-operation, and settlements of disputes are treated

  19. Six-strut arrangements for cartesian movements of mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, T.; Zeschke, Th.; Reichardt, G.; Lammert, H.; Gudat, W.

    2001-01-01

    At BESSY a new six-strut arrangement for general small travel mirror adjustment mechanisms has been developed. This patented (Patent DE 10042802.5) arrangement allows very simple movements in all six linear and rotational degrees of freedom. The movements of the mirror are simply determined by moving either one drive, or up to three drives by the same amount. The first mirror adjustment systems of this design is successfully in operation since the start of BESSY II. Their performance and reliability is very satisfactory. This contribution will present the concepts

  20. BEPS Action 2: Neutralizing the Effects on Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.; Marres, O.

    2015-01-01

    Curbing tax arbitrage is one of the main priorities of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (endorsed by the G20 and the G8) ever since the public debate on base erosion fully erupted. Neutralizing the effect of hybrid mismatch arrangements has become Action No. 2 of the

  1. Leaf arrangements are invalid in the taxonomy of orchid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jakubska-Busse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The selection and validation of proper distinguishing characters are of crucial importance in taxonomic revisions. The modern classifications of orchids utilize the molecular tools, but still the selection and identification of the material used in these studies is for the most part related to general species morphology. One of the vegetative characters quoted in orchid manuals is leaf arrangement. However, phyllotactic diversity and ontogenetic changeability have not been analysed in detail in reference to particular taxonomic groups. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of leaf arrangements in the taxonomy of the genus Epipactis Zinn, 1757. Typical leaf arrangements in shoots of this genus are described as distichous or spiral. However, in the course of field research and screening of herbarium materials, we indisputably disproved the presence of distichous phyllotaxis in the species Epipactis purpurata Sm. and confirmed the spiral Fibonacci pattern as the dominant leaf arrangement. In addition, detailed analyses revealed the presence of atypical decussate phyllotaxis in this species, as well as demonstrated the ontogenetic formation of pseudowhorls. These findings confirm ontogenetic variability and plasticity in E. purpurata. Our results are discussed in the context of their significance in delimitations of complex taxa within the genus Epipactis.

  2. 27 CFR 8.23 - Third party arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Prohibited Practices § 8.23 Third party arrangements. Industry member requirements, by agreement or otherwise, with non-retailers which result in a retailer being required to purchase the industry member's products are within the exclusive outlet provisions...

  3. 48 CFR 1.105-2 - Arrangement of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1.105-2 Arrangement of..., represent, in order, the subpart (one or two digits), and the section (two digits). The number to the right...)” outside the FAR and “9.106-4(d)” within the FAR. (4) Citations of authority (e.g., statutes or executive...

  4. Parental survival, living arrangements and school enrolment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parental survival, living arrangements and school enrolment of children in Malawi in the era of HIV/AIDS. ... The rural areas are home to the majority of the orphans and the southern region has a higher proportion of orphans than the northern and central regions. Girls and boys seem to be faced by the same constraints in ...

  5. Some Comments on the Scheme of Arrangement as an "Affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although scheme of arrangements, which can be used to achieve a takeover of a company, are a common occurrence, the Act provides no definition of such ... would result in an affected transaction is obliged to comply with all the relevant reporting and approval requirements in the Act, as well as the Takeover Regulations, ...

  6. Determinants of Choice of Institutional Marketing Arrangements by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Choice of Institutional Marketing Arrangements by Small Poultry Businesses in Tanzania: Application of Transaction Cost Theory. ... It indicates in addition that, probability of PFBs to enter into contractual businesses falls with increase in Transaction Costs (TCs). Linear regression analysis shows, in addition ...

  7. Parental Educational Involvement Conceived as the Arrangement of Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Robert C.; Moutavelis, Adrianos G.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the utility of a conception of parental educational involvement as the arrangement of contingency operations that normatively change: the frequency of children's school-related behaviour, the reinforcing potency of stimuli produced by studying, and children's tendencies to request parental intervention. A child-report measure…

  8. Contract Hog Production: A Case Study of Financial Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Brent; Barry, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A case study is presented about the financing arrangements, contract terms, and business relationships of a set of contract hog producers whose loans from community banks have been guaranteed by the Illinois Farm Development Authority. The results reflect the maturity and stability of contract hog production, although agribusiness and farmer integrators largely fill different market niches and contract with different types of producers.

  9. The 'last minute' tourist arrangements trend in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Began Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourist agencies in Serbia try to follow trends regarding the arrangements' offer. One must admit that the buses owned by the transporters are modern and of a high quality, that there exist good, educated and experienced tourist guides. If one sees the choice of the arrangements, types of the stationary arrangements, accommodation facilities at the destinations and compares them with the same or similar offers that other worldwide tourist agencies have, one will note that the offer in Serbia is not inferior to the offer of the world-known tour-operators such as Dertour. However - many Serbian tourist agencies have the same partners on the destinations (Spain, France, Italy, Greece... and the same accommmodation facilities (houses and hotels as the large tour operators. In such a quality offer, in a turbulent market, with the tourists that have limited power of payment, tourist agencies in Serbia are forced to go 'below the price'. The term of lowering the prices in tourism is often called 'last minute', and can be present in any form of tourist arrangement. In Serbia it begins to emerge in the last decade, and, after the abolition of visas for traveling abroad, it became omnipresent in tourist offers of Serbian tour operators.

  10. Arrangement of library materials models in Slovene public libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kobal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification and the alignment of library material represent an important part of the library science from its early beginnings onwards. The introduction of UDC into Slovene public libraries coincided with the alteration of the open access library collection.In Slovenia the public libraries in average take into account the references and recommendations for the arrangement of the free access library collection, considering the age groups of the users, adults and juniors. The next division is connected with the functional type of the material, which is divided into fiction, and scientific material,and then there is the UDC label for the arrangement of the material on the shelves or word systematic in one of the public libraries. In the junior department there is a need for a further division into four age/reading groups of books instead of three.Within the formed groups there is the further arrangement of books in an alphabetical order by means of author or subject headings. The public library is a unit, which services all the residents in its local area. The different needs and interests of users should take into account in the formation of a library material arrangement.

  11. Text and Tune in Nigerian Solo Folk Song Arrangements: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria stocks some amount of art music compositions for different media. Of these creative works vocal compositions dominates. Within the large number of vocal works however, very few works are for solo voices of different ranges. In addition, of the solo vocal works by Nigerian composers, creative arrangements of ...

  12. Accountability after Structural Disaggregation: Comparing Agency Accountability Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overman, Sjors; Van Genugten, Marieke; Van Thiel, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    New accountability instruments – performance indicators, audits, and financial incentives – are expected to replace traditional accountability instruments in NPM reforms. We test this expectation by looking at the accountability arrangements of semi-autonomous agencies as a typical example of NPM

  13. A qualitative analysis of main cross-border balancing arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.; Abbasy, A.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    The integration of balancing markets, i.e. market-based balance management arrangements, is regarded as an important next step in the development towards an Internal Electricity Market for Europe, and is expected to largely reduce the costs of real-time balancing by enhancing competition in

  14. 26 CFR 1.881-3 - Conduit financing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... satisfaction of a repayment obligation is not an advance of money or other property. A financing arrangement... actively engaged in a banking, insurance, financing or similar trade or business and such business consists predominantly of transactions with customers who are not related persons. An intermediate entity's trade or...

  15. A taxonomy of management challenges for developing shared services arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, A.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Sol, H.G.

    Shared service centres (SSCs) are an organisational arrangement to deliver services. During SSC development organisations encounter a variety of challenges affecting its success or failure. Yet in this embryonic research field a systematic insight into management challenges is absent. Drawing on

  16. Flexible Work Arrangements: Accessibility in a University Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafizad, Fleur; Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Attraction and retention of highly qualified employees has become an area of concern for Australian universities. It has been suggested that flexible work arrangements can be utilised to achieve this goal once the factors affecting their uptake have been identified. This mixed-method study of 495 academic and general staff at an Australian…

  17. Water supply arrangements in developing countries: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge with such an arrangement, however, is that it has been associated with high charges, provision of poor quality water, unreliable and intermittent water supply, and a general deterioration of water infrastructure. Based on the literature and data on the institutions, organizations and demographics of Malawi, this ...

  18. Parents' experiences of flexible work arrangements in changing European workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lewis (Suzan); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractVarious leaves and other forms of flexible working arrangements have been implemented in workplaces to support employees with family commitments. Some are a response to public policy, others developed voluntarily. However, research examining the effectiveness of these policies in a

  19. Valve arrangement for a nuclear plant residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidler, G.L.; Hill, R.A.; Carrera, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved valve arrangement for a two-train Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) of a nuclear reactor plant which ensures operational integrity of the system under single failure circumstances including loss of one of two electrical power sources

  20. 41 CFR 105-1.109-51 - Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrangement. 105-1.109-51 Section 105-1.109-51 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1...

  1. Equipment Arrangement Using Interactive Computer Graphics on Personal Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    GROUP section declares global variables (usable and accessable by all routines and processes, and having the same names and arguments), sets string... Buisness Machines Corporation (IBM) 1984,1985 40 [11] C.Chryssostomidis,C.Graham,M.Meyers,P.V.Prakash; "EQUIPMENT ARRANGEMENT USING INTERACTIVE COMPUTER

  2. 45 CFR 303.107 - Requirements for cooperative arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (d) Specify the financial arrangements including budget estimates, covered expenditures, methods of... requirements and limitations; (e) Specify the kind of records that must be maintained and the appropriate Federal, State and local reporting and safeguarding requirements; and (f) Specify the dates on which the...

  3. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  4. Marginal flow and gap flow in strongly staggered cascades of slightly convex profiles; Rand- und Spaltstroemungen in stark gestaffelten Verdichtergittern aus schwach gewoelbten Profilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasongko, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik

    1997-09-01

    Marginal flow and gap flow through a highly staggered cascade consisting of slightly convex profiles were investigated in two steps. Cascades without gap were investigated in the first step and cascades with gap in the second. In the first step, a slightly staggered cascade of identical geometry was used for comparison. In the second step, an external rotor cascade of 9C7/32,5C50 profiles with a division ratio t/l = 1.0 and a staggering angle of {lambda} = 50 was used. At a Reynolds number Re{sub j} = 3.5 x 10{sup 5} and gap widths of s/l = 0.0, 0.01 and 0.3, flows, wakes and pressure distributions were measured and diagrams made. The measurements were evaluated by mass averaging and with the aid of the pulse method. In addition to the averaged results of a standard investigation, the dissertation comprises extensive data on 3D flow near the blade ends and at the side wall as a function of blade angles and gap widths between blades and side wall. This was the first time that marginal flow and gap flow of strongly staggered cascades with slightly convex profiles were investigated in a cascade wind tunnel. The findings are therefore quite new and deviate strongly from the results of earlier investigations on strongly convex profiles. The findings were compared with the results of compressor investigations, and good agreement was found. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit berichtet ueber die in zwei Schritten durchgefuehrten Untersuchungen der Rand- und Spaltstroemungen eines hoch gestaffelten Verdichtergitters aus schwach gewoelbten Profilen. Im ersten Schritt wurde das Gitter ohne Spalt, im zweiten Schritt mit Spalt untersucht. Vergleichsgitter im ersten Schritt war ein zusaetzlich untersuchtes Gitter schwacher Staffelung mit sonst gleicher Geometrie. Vergleichsgitter im zweiten Schritt war das hoch gestaffelte Gitter aus dem ersten Schritt. Das untersuchte Verdichtergitter ist ein Rotor-Aussenschnitt-Gitter aus 9C7/32,5C50-Profilen mit einem

  5. Experimental process investigation of a latent heat energy storage system with a staggered heat exchanger with different phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolakoglou, Nikolas P.; Koukou, Maria K.; Vrachopoulos, Michalis Gr.; Tachos, Nikolaos; Lymberis, Kostas; Stathopoulos, Vassilis

    2017-11-01

    This work investigates melting and solidification processes of four different Phase Change Materials (PCM) used as latent heat thermal storage system. The experimental rig was consisted of an insulated tank, filled with the under investigation PCM, a staggered heat exchanger to supply or extract heat from the PCM cavity and a water pump to circulate Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF). Both charging (melting) and discharging (solidification) processes were conducted for two different HTF flow rates. The main scope of this work was to develop a first approach and to investigate the behaviour of PCM under various load conditions (different HTF flow rates). Results show that different HTF flow rates affect melting and solidification time periods; in both processes time was reduced while HTF flow rate was increased but in differentways due to the transition from conduction to convection heat transfer mechanisms.

  6. Experimental process investigation of a latent heat energy storage system with a staggered heat exchanger with different phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolakoglou Nikolas P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates melting and solidification processes of four different Phase Change Materials (PCM used as latent heat thermal storage system. The experimental rig was consisted of an insulated tank, filled with the under investigation PCM, a staggered heat exchanger to supply or extract heat from the PCM cavity and a water pump to circulate Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF. Both charging (melting and discharging (solidification processes were conducted for two different HTF flow rates. The main scope of this work was to develop a first approach and to investigate the behaviour of PCM under various load conditions (different HTF flow rates. Results show that different HTF flow rates affect melting and solidification time periods; in both processes time was reduced while HTF flow rate was increased but in differentways due to the transition from conduction to convection heat transfer mechanisms.

  7. Zig-zag arrangement of four electrodes for ac electro-osmotic micropumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdlička, J; Cervenka, P; Přibyl, M; Snita, D

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the mathematical modeling of traveling-wave ac electro-osmotic micropumps with a zig-zag arrangement of microelectrodes. A mathematical model based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Navier-Stokes description is used in this study within the physically relevant ranges of the model parameters. We present an extensive set of parametrical studies concerning the dependence of the net velocity on a variety of parameters. We also demonstrate limits of the validity of the commonly used Capacitor-Resistor-Capacitor model. In order to achieve high net velocities, we found that there are the optimal values of the electrode length, the shift between the top and bottom electrode arrays, and the signal frequency. Performance of the zig-zag micropumps is evaluated by the means of back-pressure loads. The suggested zig-zag design brings two main benefits: (i) it allows an easier construction of four-phase traveling-wave micropumps without the need of spatially complicated electrode connections, and (ii) the zig-zag pumps can provide higher flow rates than those with single-sided coplanar arrangements. Another robust feature of the proposed zig-zag system is that a single flow reversal is observed at the ac frequency approximately six times higher than the reciprocal resistor-capacitor time even in low-amplitude regimes.

  8. Spatial ecology of the aquatic garter snake, Thamnophis atratus, in a free-flowing stream environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. H. Welsh; C. A. Wheeler; A. J. Lind

    2010-01-01

    Spatial patterns of animals have important implications for population dynamics and can reveal other key aspects of a species' ecology. Movements and the resulting spatial arrangements have fitness and genetic consequences for both individuals and populations. We studied the spatial and dispersal patterns of the Oregon Gartersnake, Thamnophis atratus...

  9. Real time stagger of electric network advanced analysis functions of a modern control center; Escalonamento em tempo real das funcoes avancadas de analise de rede eletrica de um moderno centro de controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagari, Eduardo Nicola Ferraz

    1996-02-01

    This work presents two models for implementation of staggers for network analysis functions in real time for a control center. The methodology is described. Tests were performed in a electric power system of Campinas region, Sao Paulo sate - Southeast Brazil. Results are presented.

  10. Spatial interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The theory and practical application of techniques of statistical interpolation are studied in this thesis, and new developments in multivariate spatial interpolation and the design of sampling plans are discussed. Several applications to studies in soil science are

  11. Experimental arrangement to measure dispersion in optical fiber devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas Rivera, Ivan [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias de la Electronica (Mexico); Beltran Perez, Georgina; Castillo Mixcoatl, Juan; Munoz Aguirre, Severino [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas (Mexico); Zaca Moran, Placido, E-mail: ivan_rr1@hotmail.com [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Fisicoquimica de Materiales ICUAP (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    Dispersion is a quite important parameter in systems based on optical fiber, especially in pulsed emission lasers, where the temporal width is affected by such parameter. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the dispersion provoked by each component in the cavity. There are various experimental interferometric arrangements to evaluate this parameter. Generally, these systems modify the wavelength to obtain information about the n({lambda}) dependency, which is contained in the interferogram phase. However, this makes the system quite slow and it requires tunable and narrow bandwidth laser sources. In the present work, results obtained from an arrangement based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer where one of the arms is the optical fiber under study, while the reference one is air, are presented. In order to determine the n({lambda}) dependency, a wide spectrum light source was used in the wavelength range of interest. The phase information was evaluated from the interferometric signal measured by an optical spectrum analyzer.

  12. Self arrangements in occupational safety and health management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Bahari

    2002-01-01

    The book is written with the awareness of safe work culture where success does not lie to compliance with the law only. Instead it is more of an excellent management based on the principle of self organization. Self arrangements in the management of occupational safety and health do not rest on the shoulders of the employer or the safety management and safety communities, but are committed together with the leadership of the employer. Self arrangements will be more meaningful and successful if those involved have knowledge about the philosophy and principles of why and how this management is done, and so the method can be practiced and eventually cultivated as a working system. (author)

  13. Holographic stereogram using camera array in dense arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Oi, Ryutaro; Senoh, Takanori; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Kurita, Taiichiro

    2011-02-01

    Holographic stereograms can display 3D objects by using ray information. To display high quality representations of real 3D objects by using holographic stereograms, relatively dense ray information must be prepared as the 3D object information. One promising method of obtaining this information uses a combination of a camera array and view interpolation which is signal processing technique. However, it is still technically difficult to synthesize ray information without visible error by using view interpolation. Our approach uses a densely arranged camera array to reduce this difficulty. Even though view interpolation is a simple signal processing technique, the synthesized ray information produced by this camera array should be adequate. We designed and manufactured a densely arranged camera array and used it to generate holographic stereograms.

  14. MODEL OF VILLAGE HEAD ELECTION ARRANGEMENT IN VILLAGE GOVERNANCE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekar Anggun Gading Pinilih

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the right model in the arrangement of village head elections after the stipulation of Law No. 6 year 2014 on Village. This research is a normative law research by laws, historical, and conceptual approach. The result shows that a direct and simultaneous election model shall be the solution for the next Village Head Election. Simultaneous election model is designed since it is philosophically considered to make efficiency of the Village Head Elections, in terms of efficiency of budget, time and effort. The principle of this policy is an attempt to create a more equitable simultaneous democratization to minimize the chances of cheating. Since if the elections were not held simultaneously, it would give chance to the outsider to involve. The simultaneous election requires a coherent policy. This coherence will produce an effective synchronization of all types of elections implementation in Indonesia. Keywords: head of village, model, election, arrangement

  15. Development of the APR+ Auxiliary Building General Arrangement (GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Keun; Park, Young Sheop; Kang, Yong Chul

    2011-01-01

    The general arrangement (GA) drawing of a nuclear power plant is the most basic drawing which contains all of the plant equipment, systems, and rooms. Therefore, it should be issued at an early design stage to provide the contours of the overall plant structure. This type of drawing is typically used widely throughout the design stages. The development project of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor+), as a succeeding model of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) design, has its own GA that encompasses all of its power buildings. This was developed starting in October of 2009. Among several of the buildings in this design, the Auxiliary Building (AB) is one of the most important buildings to produce electricity, and to protect against undesirable radiation emissions. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the general arrangement of the AB

  16. Implementation of an Arranged Preventive Consultation in Danish General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Anne Gram; Kirkegaard, Pia; Thomsen, Janus Laust

    Background: In 2006 an arranged preventive consultation (0106-service) was implemented in Danish general practice. The purpose of the consultation is an attempt to improve the systematic prevention of the main chronic lifestyle diseases. Aim: This study examines the GP's experiences...... with the arranged preventive consultation with focus on facilitators and barriers in the implementation of the consultation. Material & Method: Semi-structured interviews with 10 GPs and nurses in general practice. Results & Conclusions: Economically lucrative services are not an isolated motivation for the GPs....../nurses, but must be accompanied with a basic belief in the effect of preventive consultations in general practice. The better payment of the 0106-service is used to spend more time per consultation and it makes the GPs/nurses feel rewarded for the preventive work they perform. The consultation frames a social...

  17. The chromosomal arrangement of six soybean leghemoglobin genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Kirsten; Abildsten, Dorte; Jensen, Erik Ø

    1983-01-01

    Clones containing six leghemoglobin (Lb) genes have been isolated from two genomic libraries of soybean. They encompass two independent DNA regions: a 40-kb region containing four genes in the order 5' Lba-Lbc(1)-[unk]Lb-Lbc(3) 3' with the same transcriptional polarity, and another 40-kb region...... containing two genes in the order 5' Lbc(4)-Lbc(2) 3' with the same polarity. The order in which the Lb genes are arranged in the soybean genome imply that they are activated in the opposite order to which they are arranged on the chromosome. There is a close similarity between corresponding DNA regions...... differs from that of the Lb genes. The existence of two very similar Lb gene clusters in soybean suggest that soybean may have evolved from an ancestral form by genome duplication. Udgivelsesdato: 1983-null...

  18. Development of the APR+ Reactor Containment Building General Arrangement (GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Keun; Kim, Dae Hun; Park, Young Sheop

    2011-01-01

    The general arrangement (GA) drawing of a nuclear power plant is the most basic drawing, containing all of the plant equipment, systems, and rooms. Therefore, it should be issued at an early design stage to provide the contours of the overall plant structure. This type of drawing is typically used widely throughout the design stages. The development project of the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor+), as a model to succeed the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) design, has its own GA that encompasses all of its power buildings. This drawing was developed starting in October of 2009. Among several of the buildings in this design, the Reactor Containment Building (RCB), Auxiliary Building (AB), and EDG (Emergency Diesel Generator) Building are some the most important buildings to produce electricity, and to protect against undesirable radiation emissions. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the general arrangement of the RCB

  19. Variable neighborhood search for minimum linear arrangement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum linear arrangement problem is widely used and studied in many practical and theoretical applications. It consists of finding an embedding of the nodes of a graph on the line such that the sum of the resulting edge lengths is minimized. This problem is one among the classical NP-hard optimization problems and therefore there has been extensive research on exact and approximative algorithms. In this paper we present an implementation of a variable neighborhood search (VNS for solving minimum linear arrangement problem. We use Skewed general VNS scheme that appeared to be successful in solving some recent optimization problems on graphs. Based on computational experiments, we argue that our approach is comparable with the state-of-the-art heuristic.

  20. How regional non-proliferation arrangements complement international verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation focuses on international verification in the form of IAEA Safeguards, and discusses the relationship between IAEA safeguards and the relevant regional arrangements, both the existing and the future. For most States the political commitment against acquisition of nuclear weapons has been carefully reached and strongly held. Their observance of treaty commitments does not depend on the deterrent effect of verification activities. Safeguards serve to assist States who recognise it is in their own interest to demonstrate their compliance to others. Thus safeguards are a vital confidence building measure in their own right, as well as being a major complement to the broader range of international confidence building measures. Safeguards can both complement other confidence building measures and in turn be complemented by them. Within consideration of how it could work it is useful to consider briefly current developments of IAEA safeguards, i.e. existing regional arrangements and nuclear weapon free zones

  1. Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement in Consideration of Decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Jun Choi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new concept termed the Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement (INBA strategy is a new nuclear power plant building arrangement method which encompasses upfront consideration of more efficient decommissioning. Although existing decommissioning strategies such as immediate dismantling and differed dismantling has the advantage of either early site restoration or radioactive decommissioning waste reduction, the INBA strategy has the advantages of both strategies. In this research paper, the concept and the implementation method of the INBA strategy will be described. Two primary benefits will be further described: (1 early site restoration; and (2 radioactive waste reduction. Several other potential benefits will also be identified. For the estimation of economic benefit, the INBA strategy, with two primary benefits, will be compared with the immediate dismantling strategy. The effect of a short life cycle nuclear power plant in combination with the INBA strategy will be reviewed. Finally, some of the major impediments to the realization of this strategy will be discussed.

  2. Nuclear yield determinations using isotope-separator-on-line arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.

    1975-01-01

    The delay between the formation of a nuclear reaction product and its collection in front of measuring equipment in ISOL arrangements using integrated target-ion source systems has been analyzed. It is shown that a typical delay function takes the form const x (1-esup(-γt))esup(-μt) with γ >> μ. The results can be used for decay corrections in nuclear yield determinations. (Auth.)

  3. The modern history of exchange rate arrangements: A reinterpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, Carmen; Rogoff, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    We develop a novel system of re-classifying historical exchange rate regimes. One difference between our study and previous classification efforts is that we employ an extensive data base on market-determined parallel exchange rates. Our 'natural' classification algorithm leads to a stark reassessment of the post-war history of exchange rate arrangements. When the official categorization is a form of peg, roughly half the time our classification reveals the true underlying monetary regime to ...

  4. The case for regional exchange rate arrangement in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Takuji Kinkyo

    2004-01-01

    The Asian crisis highlighted the difficulties for developing countries to actively manage exchange rates in an environment of high capital mobility. Now it became fashionable to argue that the exchange rate should be either allowed to float freely or irrevocably fixed. This paper examines the case for regional exchange rate arrangements as an instrument to enhance the manageability of exchange rates and discusses the options in East Asia. It critically assess the existing proposal of common b...

  5. Refrigeration arrangement and methods for reducing charge migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litch, Andrew D.; Wu, Guolian

    2017-04-11

    A refrigerator appliance including a refrigerant circuit between a condenser, an evaporator, and a compressor that includes two conduits and pressure reducing devices arranged in parallel between the evaporator and the condenser. The appliance also includes a valve system to direct refrigerant through one, both or none of the conduits and pressure reducing devices, and a heat exchanging member in thermal contact with either one pressure reducing device, or one conduit between the pressure reducing device and the valve system.

  6. Development of the Korean next generation reactor arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Soon Chul; Park, Koo Woun

    1996-01-01

    The Korean Next Generation Reactor(KNGR) is being developed as an evolutionary plant under the sponsorship of Korean government and KEPCO to meet the electricity requirements in the early part of the 21st century. The KNGR design is based on our successful experience of Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants design such as YGN 3 is 4 and UCN 3 and 4. The type of reactor, its generating capacity, and the plant design concept were determined based on the feasibility study during conducted Phase 1 of the KNGR. This led to the establishment of the overall requirements for plant arrangement and their incorporation into the preliminary design. The principle behind these requirements is to incorporate the Severe Accident Features, the Advanced Design Features(ADF), the Passive Design Features(PDF) as well as the conventional requirements applied to the existing plants. Utility requirements derived from constructional and operational experiences have also been incorporated into the basic design of the KNGR. The KNGR arrangement is primarily affected by a double cylindrical concrete containment building and the increased capacity(1,350 MWe) of the Nuclear Steam Supply System which requires the larger containment size than the existing Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant design. Additional aspects which could impact on the overall plant arrangement have been evaluated based on the criteria of separation, enhancement of safety, operability, maintainability, construct ability, and ALARA, and incorporated into the design as a result of the development process. Details of the preliminary arrangement including the requirements established for KNGR are discussed in the paper

  7. Circular seating arrangements: Approaching the social crux in language classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Falout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circular seating arrangements can help instill a sense of belonging within classroom communities with overall positive effects on learning, emotions, and wellbeing. Yet students and their teachers within certain language classroom contexts, due to sociocultural limitations, may be relegated to learning in antisocial environments instilled partly by rank-and-file seating. Attributions for teacher demotivation can often lie in student misbehaviors, while student demotivation, silence, and resistance relate strongly to lack of bodily displays and physical affordances of interpersonal care, understanding, and trust that, if present, would contribute positively to many social aspects of their learning and identity formation. Specifically, rank-and-file seating constricts the area in the classroom most likely to dispose attention and interest to the learning and to others, whereas circular seating potentially expands this area, known as the action zone, to the whole classroom. Seating arrangements therefore can play an important role in the formation of interpersonal dynamics and identity formation among students and their teachers. In this paper, the purposes and ways of using circular seating in language classrooms will be explored from a social psychological perspective. Language teachers are invited to imagine and experiment with possibilities for uses of different seating arrangements in their own classrooms.

  8. Unsteady Flow Interactions Between Pitching Wings In Schooling Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    In nature, many fish aggregate into large groups or schools for protection against predators, for social interactions and to save energy during migrations. Regardless of their prime motivation, fish experience three-dimensional flow interactions amongst themselves that can improve or hamper swimming performance and give rise to fluid-mediated forces between individuals. To date, the unsteady, three-dimensional flow interactions among schooling fish remains relatively unexplored. In order to study these interactions, the caudal fins of two interacting fish are idealized as two finite span pitching wings arranged in mixtures of canonical in-line and side-by-side arrangements. The forces and moments acting on the wings in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are quantified as the arrangement and the phase delay between the wings is altered. Particle image velocimetry is employed to characterize the flow physics during high efficiency locomotion. Finally, the forces and flowfields of two-dimensional pitching wings are compared with three-dimensional wings to distinguish how three-dimensionality alters the flow interactions in schools of fish.

  9. Review of arrangements for the recent transportation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codd, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    The terms of reference of this review were: to examine the adequacy of the arrangements made for the transport of contaminated material from Lucas Heights and St Marys to Woomera, in terms of compliance with the Australian Code for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Substances 1990; to report to the Minister for Industry, Science and Technology on the quality of the planning and preparation for the move; the safety and effectiveness of the move itself; the adequacy of response to any 'incidents' involved in the move, and of contingency arrangements; whether planning and transport arrangements might be improved for the future. Thus, the Review was focussed on movements of material in two specific cases - material owned by the CSIRO and stored at Lucas Heights and material owned by the Department of Defence and stored at St Marys. The report concludes that the movements of wastes were carried out consistent with the Transport Code, without any risk to public safety. Additional relevant information in support of the review is contained in 8 appendixes

  10. Optimal Design of Permanent Magnet Arrangement in Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A general pattern, which can include different types of permanent magnet (PM arrangement in PM synchronous motors (PMSMs is presented. By varying the geometric parameters of the general pattern, the template can automatically produce different types of PM arrangement in the rotor. By choosing the best arrangement of PMs using optimization method, one can obtain a better performance and lower manufacturing cost. Six of the most widely used conventional types of rotor structures can be obtained through the parameter variation of the general pattern. These types include five embedded PM types and a traditional surface-mounted PM type. The proposed approach combines optimization method embedded with finite element method (FEM for solving the multi-objective optimization for the PM structures. To save computing load, this paper employs a strategy of sub-group optimization, which is on account of the impact levels of the design parameters on the objective functions, and a parallel computation, which is a valid method to shorten the computing time. As an application example, a PMSM is optimally designed. Its simulation results and prototype experiments are provided to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Radiation-tight coupling arrangement for a machining laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, J.; Glachet, C.; Moulin, M.; Noel, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    A radiation-tight coupling arrangement for coupling a machining laser to a hot cell containing radioactive material, comprising a cell flange integrally formed on the confinement wall which defines a cell opening, a cell door formed to interlock tightly with the cell flange, thereby closing the cell opening, an elongated container movably arranged in the sleeve and having a container flange defining a container opening and connected by a sealing bellows, a container door formed to interlock tightly with the container flange and to interlock with the cell door when the container flange interlocks with the cell flange, and a machining line translationally arranged in the container. When the container is in a retracted position, a radiation blocking drum intervenes between the cell opening and the container opening. The radiation blocking drum is rotated to allow the container to translate toward the cell. As a result of rotation of the container, the container flange interlocks with the cell flange and the container door interlocks with the cell door. The container door and cell door are then removed in tandem, allowing the machine head of the machining line to be inserted into the hot cell. The laser beam passes through the machine head and impinges on the radioactive material to be cut

  12. Studies on optimal design and operation of integrated distillation arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Atle Christer

    1997-12-31

    During the last decades, there has been growing concern in the chemical engineering environment over the task of developing more cost- and energy efficient process equipment. This thesis discusses measures for improving the end-use energy efficiency of separation systems. It emphasises a certain class of integrated distillation arrangements, in particular it considers means for direct coupling of distillation columns so as to use the underlying physics to facilitate more energy efficient separations. The numerical methods discussed are well suited to solve models of distillation columns. A tear and grid method is proposed that to some extent exploits the sparsity, since the number of tear variables required for solving a distillation model usually is rather small. The parameter continuation method described is well suited for ill-conditioned problems. The analysis of integrated columns is extended beyond the scope of numerical simulations by means of analytical results that applies in certain limiting cases. The consept of preferred separation, which is important for prefractionator arrangements, is considered. From this analysis is derived information that is important for the practical operation of such columns. Finally, the proposed numerical methods are used to optimize Petlyuk arrangements for separating ternary and quaternary mixtures. 166 refs., 130 figs., 20 tabs.

  13. Linking better shiftwork arrangements with safety and health management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2004-12-01

    Various support measures useful for promoting joint change approaches to the improvement of both shiftworking arrangements and safety and health management systems were reviewed. A particular focus was placed on enterprise-level risk reduction measures linking working hours and management systems. Voluntary industry-based guidelines on night and shift work for department stores and the chemical, automobile and electrical equipment industries were examined. Survey results that had led to the compilation of practicable measures to be included in these guidelines were also examined. The common support measures were then compared with ergonomic checkpoints for plant maintenance work involving irregular nightshifts. On the basis of this analysis, a new night and shift work checklist was designed. Both the guidelines and the plant maintenance work checkpoints were found to commonly cover multiple issues including work schedules and various job-related risks. This close link between shiftwork arrangements and risk management was important as shiftworkers in these industries considered teamwork and welfare services to be essential for managing risks associated with night and shift work. Four areas found suitable for participatory improvement by managers and workers were work schedules, ergonomic work tasks, work environment and training. The checklist designed to facilitate participatory change processes covered all these areas. The checklist developed to describe feasible workplace actions was suitable for integration with comprehensive safety and health management systems and offered valuable opportunities for improving working time arrangements and job content together.

  14. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  15. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  16. An alternative arrangement of metered dosing fluid using centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Arafat; Ehsan, Md.

    2017-06-01

    Positive displacement dosing pumps are extensively used in various types of process industries. They are widely used for metering small flow rates of a dosing fluid into a main flow. High head and low controllable flow rates make these pumps suitable for industrial flow metering applications. However their pulsating flow is not very suitable for proper mixing of fluids and they are relatively more expensive to buy and maintain. Considering such problems, alternative techniques to control the fluid flow from a low cost centrifugal pump is practiced. These include - throttling, variable speed drive, impeller geometry control and bypass control. Variable speed drive and impeller geometry control are comparatively costly and the flow control by throttling is not an energy efficient process. In this study an arrangement of metered dosing flow was developed using a typical low cost centrifugal pump using bypass flow technique. Using bypass flow control technique a wide range of metered dosing flows under a range of heads were attained using fixed pump geometry and drive speed. The bulk flow returning from the system into the main tank ensures better mixing which may eliminate the need of separate agitators. Comparative performance study was made between the bypass flow control arrangement of centrifugal pump and a diaphragm type dosing pump. Similar heads and flow rates were attainable using the bypass control system compared to the diaphragm dosing pump, but using relatively more energy. Geometrical optimization of the centrifugal pump impeller was further carried out to make the bypass flow arrangement more energy efficient. Although both the systems run at low overall efficiencies but the capital cost could be reduced by about 87% compared to the dosing pump. The savings in capital investment and lower maintenance cost very significantly exceeds the relatively higher energy cost of the bypass system. This technique can be used as a cost effective solution for

  17. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    , the notion of aesthetics (taken in the original signification of aisthesis: sensory perception) helped to map the relations between city, human experience, and various forms of art and culture. Delving into our simultaneously optical and tactical reception of space (a dialectics pointed out by Walter...... Benjamin), studies in urbanity and aesthetics may highlight mul-tisensory everyday practices that pass unnoticed in the current era of visual domination. A humanistic approach to urban and spatial cultures should also learn from German sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel’s hypothesis of a modern need......: Memory”, and ”Staging and Interpretation: Places”....

  18. Progress with the Scottish Trading Arrangements Group (STAG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since November 1996 STAG has operated as a forum to allow traders in the Scottish market to consider trading arrangements which will facilitate competition while coping with foreseeable trading requirements beyond the 1998 franchise break. The author has promoted the interest of renewables generators on behalf of the Scottish Renewables Forum throughout this process. An Interim Report summarising the high level options considered was submitted to OFFER in June 1997. This paper summarises the interim report content and draws on other aspects of the Scottish market to review the future prospects in Scotland for trading electricity form wind energy schemes. (Author)

  19. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  20. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1980-12-02

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor

  1. TrayGen: Arranging objects for exhibition and packaging

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-10-01

    We present a framework, called TrayGen, to generate tray designs for the exhibition and packaging of a collection of objects. Based on principles from shape perception and visual merchandising, we abstract a number of design guidelines on how to organize the objects on the tray for the exhibition of their individual features and mutual relationships. Our framework realizes these guidelines by analyzing geometric shapes of the objects and optimizing their arrangement. We demonstrate that the resultant tray designs not only save space, but also highlight the characteristic of each object and the inter-relations between objects. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Engine Power Turbine and Propulsion Pod Arrangement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuck, Mark; Zhang, Yiyi

    2014-01-01

    A study has been conducted for NASA Glenn Research Center under contract NNC10BA05B, Task NNC11TA80T to identify beneficial arrangements of the turboshaft engine, transmissions and related systems within the propulsion pod nacelle of NASA's Large Civil Tilt-Rotor 2nd iteration (LCTR2) vehicle. Propulsion pod layouts were used to investigate potential advantages, disadvantages, as well as constraints of various arrangements assuming front or aft shafted engines. Results from previous NASA LCTR2 propulsion system studies and tasks performed by Boeing under NASA contracts are used as the basis for this study. This configuration consists of two Fixed Geometry Variable Speed Power Turbine Engines and related drive and rotor systems (per nacelle) arranged in tilting nacelles near the wing tip. Entry-into-service (EIS) 2035 technology is assumed for both the engine and drive systems. The variable speed rotor system changes from 100 percent speed for hover to 54 percent speed for cruise by the means of a two speed gearbox concept developed under previous NASA contracts. Propulsion and drive system configurations that resulted in minimum vehicle gross weight were identified in previous work and used here. Results reported in this study illustrate that a forward shafted engine has a slight weight benefit over an aft shafted engine for the LCTR2 vehicle. Although the aft shafted engines provide a more controlled and centered CG (between hover and cruise), the length of the long rotor shaft and complicated engine exhaust arrangement outweighed the potential benefits. A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) approach for transmission sizing was also explored for this study. This tool offers quick analysis of gear loads, bearing lives, efficiencies, etc., through use of commercially available RomaxDESIGNER software. The goal was to create quick methods to explore various concept models. The output results from RomaxDESIGNER have been successfully linked to Boeing

  3. Stochastic approach to determine spatial patterns of lizard community on a desert island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-Barrera, Crystian Sadiel; Morales-Bojórquez, Enrique; Arnaud, Gustavo

    2008-05-01

    One of the principal sources of error in identifying spatial arrangements is autocorrelation, since nearby points in space tend to have more similar values than would be expected by random change. When a Markovian approach is used, spatial arrangements can be measured as a transition probability between occupied and empty spaces in samples that are spatially dependent. We applied a model that incorporates first-order Markov chains to analyse spatial arrangement of numerical dominance, richness, and abundance on a lizard community at different spatial and temporal scales. We hypothesized that if a spatial dependence on abundance and richness exists in a diurnal desert community, then the Markov chains can predict the spatial arrangement. We found that each pair of values was dependent only on its immediate predecessor segment. In this sense, we found intergeneric differences at temporal and spatial scales of recurrence estimates. Also, in desert scrub, species show higher spatial aggregation and had lower species richness than at the island level; the inverse pattern occurred on rocky hillsides. At the species level, Uta stansburiana is the most abundant species in desert scrub, while Sauromalus slevini is the most abundant species on rocky hillsides. This report attempts to understand, using Markovian spatial models, the effect of nearby samples on local abundance and richness on different scales and over several seasons.

  4. Nucleosomal arrangement affects single-molecule transcription dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Veronika; Shin, Jaeoh; Ehrlich, Christoph; Farnung, Lucas; Cramer, Patrick; Zaburdaev, Vasily; Grill, Stephan W

    2016-10-24

    In eukaryotes, gene expression depends on chromatin organization. However, how chromatin affects the transcription dynamics of individual RNA polymerases has remained elusive. Here, we use dual trap optical tweezers to study single yeast RNA polymerase II (Pol II) molecules transcribing along a DNA template with two nucleosomes. The slowdown and the changes in pausing behavior within the nucleosomal region allow us to determine a drift coefficient, χ, which characterizes the ability of the enzyme to recover from a nucleosomal backtrack. Notably, χ can be used to predict the probability to pass the first nucleosome. Importantly, the presence of a second nucleosome changes χ in a manner that depends on the spacing between the two nucleosomes, as well as on their rotational arrangement on the helical DNA molecule. Our results indicate that the ability of Pol II to pass the first nucleosome is increased when the next nucleosome is turned away from the first one to face the opposite side of the DNA template. These findings help to rationalize how chromatin arrangement affects Pol II transcription dynamics.

  5. African American college women: constructing a hierarchy of sexual arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, F E

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the safer sex decision-making processes of a group of African American college women. The study participants consisted of 15 women aged 19 to 33, who were full-time students attending a four-year university in Texas. The women self-identified as having been sexually active with at least one male partner within the past year. Semi-structured in-depth interviews lasting approximately 1.5 hours provided data. Theme and domain analysis of the interviews and field notes revealed that women employed both emotional and philosophical strategies to determine their safer sex behaviour. These strategies involved the use of a 'self-defined' sexual arrangements hierarchy. This hierarchy served to define the way women ordered and valued different types of sexual arrangement, from casual to committed. The resulting hierarchy also guided the safer sex behaviour of these women. The implications for intervention programmes that are targeted at increasing safer sex behaviour and HIV risk reduction are discussed in light of these findings.

  6. Novel Arrangements for High Performance and Durable Dielectric Elastomer Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runan Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances the design of Rod Pre-strained Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (RP-DEAs in their capability to generate comparatively large static actuation forces with increased lifetime via optimized electrode arrangements. RP-DEAs utilize thin stiff rods to constrain the expansion of the elastomer and maintain the in-plane pre-strain in the rod longitudinal direction. The aim is to study both the force output and the durability of the RP-DEA. Initial design of the RP-DEA had poor durability, however, it generated significantly larger force compared with the conventional DEA due to the effects of pre-strain and rod constraints. The durability study identifies the in-electro-active-region (in-AR lead contact and the non-uniform deformation of the structure as causes of pre-mature failure of the RP-DEA. An optimized AR configuration is proposed to avoid actuating undesired areas in the structure. The results show that with the optimized AR, the RP-DEA can be effectively stabilized and survive operation at least four times longer than with a conventional electrode arrangement. Finally, a Finite Element simulation was also performed to demonstrate that such AR design and optimization can be guided by analyzing the DEA structure in the state of pre-activation.

  7. NMDA receptor structures reveal subunit arrangement and pore architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Lü, Wei; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Goehring, April; Du, Juan; Song, Xianqiang; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-07-10

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are Hebbian-like coincidence detectors, requiring binding of glycine and glutamate in combination with the relief of voltage-dependent magnesium block to open an ion conductive pore across the membrane bilayer. Despite the importance of the NMDA receptor in the development and function of the brain, a molecular structure of an intact receptor has remained elusive. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of the Xenopus laevis GluN1-GluN2B NMDA receptor with the allosteric inhibitor, Ro25-6981, partial agonists and the ion channel blocker, MK-801. Receptor subunits are arranged in a 1-2-1-2 fashion, demonstrating extensive interactions between the amino-terminal and ligand-binding domains. The transmembrane domains harbour a closed-blocked ion channel, a pyramidal central vestibule lined by residues implicated in binding ion channel blockers and magnesium, and a ∼twofold symmetric arrangement of ion channel pore loops. These structures provide new insights into the architecture, allosteric coupling and ion channel function of NMDA receptors.

  8. NMDA receptor structures reveal subunit arrangement and pore architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Hsueh; Lü, Wei; Michel, Jennifer Carlisle; Goehring, April; Du, Juan; Song, Xianqiang; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Summary N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are Hebbian-like coincidence detectors, requiring binding of glycine and glutamate in combination with the relief of voltage-dependent magnesium block to open an ion conductive pore across the membrane bilayer. Despite the importance of the NMDA receptor in the development and function of the brain, a molecular structure of an intact receptor has remained elusive. Here we present x-ray crystal structures of the GluN1/GluN2B NMDA receptor with the allosteric inhibitor, Ro25-6981, partial agonists and the ion channel blocker, MK-801. Receptor subunits are arranged in a 1-2-1-2 fashion, demonstrating extensive interactions between the amino terminal and ligand binding domains. The transmembrane domains harbor a closed-blocked ion channel, a pyramidal central vestibule lined by residues implicated in binding ion channel blockers and magnesium, and a ~2-fold symmetric arrangement of ion channel pore loops. These structures provide new insights into the architecture, allosteric coupling and ion channel function of NMDA receptors. PMID:25008524

  9. Factors affecting daughter cells' arrangement during the early bacterial divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Tzu Su

    Full Text Available On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the underneath substratum may affect the arrangement of the daughter bacteria. To test this hypothesis, bacterial division on hyaluronic acid (HA gel, as an alternative substratum, was examined. Consistent with our proposition, the HA gel differs from agar by suppressing the typical side-by-side alignments to a rare population. Examination of bacterial surface molecules that may contribute to the daughter cells' arrangement yielded an observation that, with disrupted lpp, the E. coli daughter cells increasingly formed non-typical patterns, i.e. neither sliding side-by-side in parallel nor forming elongated strings. Therefore, our results suggest strongly that the early cell patterning is affected by multiple interaction factors. With oscillatory optical tweezers, we further demonstrated that the interaction force decreased in bacteria without Lpp, a result substantiating our notion that the side-by-side sliding phenomenon directly reflects the strength of in-situ interaction between bacteria and substratum.

  10. NATIVE LANGUAGE INTERFERENCE IN ARRANGING ENGLISH TEXT BY INDONESIAN STUDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Kadek Restu Sumaranama

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted based on the goal for finding and analyzing the emergence of interference or integration in the English text arranged by student whose native language is Bahasa. The interference was found in the field of syntax, with some mistakes in picking the word with correct word category, such as mistakenly replaced noun by verb, adjective by noun, noun by verb, and noun by adjective. These all mistakes were all perceived as the interference of Indonesian as native language, since in Indonesian, the distinction between words in different categories or class is less-likely unseen. Besides, semantically, the lexical choice of the students in their arrangements was also observed. The dictionary meaning was chosen by the student and less-aware to the contextual meaning. The last one was the copula issue, that is about the relationship between subject and its to BE, where the students did mistakes in mistakenly put the BE, that is in Indonesian is commonly omitted. Based on the analysis, it was found that the interference was frequently found and unavoidably committed by the students in their English use. Therefore, expectantly this study may become the preliminary study that leads to the further intelligent tactic from the overall parties of people, linguists and the learners in responding and maintaining this phenomenon faced by the foreign language learners or Indonesian.

  11. The Impact of Living Arrangements on Dementia Caregivers' Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cherie; Carter, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    In the United States half of the 15 million informal caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia (PWDs) do not live with the PWD. This paper compares the sleep quality and health of 59 community-dwelling caregivers living with the PWD and 21 living apart from the PWD. Variables of interest were caregiving experience (hours caregiving, problematic behaviors of the PWD, caregivers' perception of dementia severity), sleep quality, and health (perceived health, stress, and depressive symptoms). Parametric unpaired t tests were used to calculate the differences between key variables. Multiple regression models were constructed, controlling for age, gender, behavior index, and dementia severity to examine the variance explained by living arrangements on sleep quality and health. Caregivers living apart from the PWD experienced the same level of poor sleep quality as did caregivers living with the PWD. The living arrangements of the caregiver did not make a unique contribution to sleep quality or health variables except for reports of unhealthy days. Given the importance of good quality sleep for health, the findings highlight the importance of evaluating caregivers living apart from the PWD for sleep problems with the same level of concern as one would have for those living with the PWD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. The Spatial Politics of Spatial Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the spatial politics of new governance landscapes and innovations in the use of spatial representations in planning. The central premise is that planning experiments with new relational approaches become enmeshed in spatial politics. The case of strategic...... spatial planning in Denmark reveals how fuzzy spatial representations and relational spatial concepts are being used to depoliticise strategic spatial planning processes and to camouflage spatial politics. The paper concludes that, while relational geography might play an important role in building...

  13. A Randomized controlled trial on safety and efficacy of single intramuscular versus staggered oral dose of 600 000IU Vitamin D in treatment of nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Krishanu; Seth, Anju; Marwaha, Raman K; Dhanwal, Dinesh; Aneja, Satinder; Singh, Ritu; Sonkar, Pitambar

    2014-06-01

    Comparison of efficacy and safety of two different regimens of vitamin D-600 000 IU as a single intramuscular dose, and 60 000IU orally once a week for 10 weeks-in treatment of nutritional rickets. Children with nutritional rickets (age: 0.5-5 years, n = 61) were randomized to receive either 60 000IU vitamin D orally once a week for 10 weeks or 600 000IU single intramuscular injection. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, urinary calcium/creatinine ratio, serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D and radiological score were compared at 12-week follow-up. No difference was found in efficacy of the two regimens on comparing biochemical and radiological parameters. Serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D >100 ng/ml was found in two children in the oral group and one child in the intramuscular group. No child developed hypercalcemia or hypercalciuria after starting treatment. Staggered oral and one-time intramuscular administrations of 600 000IU vitamin D are equally effective and safe in treatment of nutritional rickets. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Staggered-electromagnetophoresis with a Split-flow System for the Separation of Microparticles by a Hollow Fiber-embedded PDMS Microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiguni, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Ayaka; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    A novel microchip separation system for microparticles based on electromagnetophoresis (EMP) was developed. In this system, focusing and separation of flowing microparticles in a microchannel could be performed by staggered-EMP by controlling the electric current applied to the channel locally combined with the split-flow system for fractionation of eluates. To apply the electric current through the flushing medium in the microchannel, a hollow fiber-embedded microchip with multiple electrodes was fabricated. The hollow fiber was made by a semi-permeable membrane and could separate small molecules. This microchip allowed us to apply the electric current to a part of the microchannel without any pressure control device because a main channel contacted with the subchannels that had electrodes through the semi-permeable membrane. Moreover, the separation using this microchip was combined with the split-flow system at two outlets to improve separation efficiency. Using this system, with the split-flow ratio of 10:1, 87% of 3 μm polystyrene (PS) latex particles were isolated from a mixture of 3 and 10 μm particles. Even the separation of 6 and 10 μm PS particles was achieved with about 77% recovery and 100% purity. In addition, by controlling the applied current, size fractionation of polypropylene (PP) particles was demonstrated. Moreover, biological particles such as pollens could be separated with high separation efficiency by this technique.

  15. A Newton-Krylov method with approximate Jacobian for implicit solution of Navier-Stokes on staggered overset-curvilinear grids with immersed boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Borazjani, Iman

    2014-11-01

    Time step-size restrictions and low convergence rates are major bottle necks for implicit solution of the Navier-Stokes in simulations involving complex geometries with moving boundaries. Newton-Krylov method (NKM) is a combination of a Newton-type method for super-linearly convergent solution of nonlinear equations and Krylov subspace methods for solving the Newton correction equations, which can theoretically address both bottle necks. The efficiency of this method vastly depends on the Jacobian forming scheme e.g. automatic differentiation is very expensive and Jacobian-free methods slow down as the mesh is refined. A novel, computationally efficient analytical Jacobian for NKM was developed to solve unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes momentum equations on staggered curvilinear grids with immersed boundaries. The NKM was validated and verified against Taylor-Green vortex and pulsatile flow in a 90 degree bend and efficiently handles complex geometries such as an intracranial aneurysm with multiple overset grids, pulsatile inlet flow and immersed boundaries. The NKM method is shown to be more efficient than the semi-implicit Runge-Kutta methods and Jabobian-free Newton-Krylov methods. We believe NKM can be applied to many CFD techniques to decrease the computational cost. This work was supported partly by the NIH Grant R03EB014860, and the computational resources were partly provided by Center for Computational Research (CCR) at University at Buffalo.

  16. Classification for the universal scaling of Néel temperature and staggered magnetization density of three-dimensional dimerized spin-1/2 antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D.-R.; Li, C.-D.; Jiang, F.-J.

    2018-03-01

    Inspired by the recent theoretical development relevant to the experimental data of TlCuCl3, particularly those associated with the universal scaling between the Néel temperature TN and the staggered magnetization density Ms, we carry out a detailed investigation of three-dimensional (3D) dimerized quantum antiferromagnets using the first-principles quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Through this study we wish to better understand the microscopic effects on these scaling relations of TN and Ms, hence to shed light on some of the observed inconsistency between the theoretical and the experimental results. Remarkably, for the considered 3D dimerized models, we find that the established universal scaling relations are not only valid, but can each be categorized within its kind by the amount of stronger antiferromagnetic couplings connected to each spin. Convincing numerical evidence is provided to support the validity of this classification scheme. Based on all the related results known in the literature, we further argue that the proposed categorization for the universal scaling investigated in our paper should be applicable for 3D dimerized spin systems with (certain kinds of) quenched disorder and (or) on lattice geometries other than those considered here. The relevance of the outcomes presented in this investigation to the experiments of TlCuCl3 is briefly discussed as well.

  17. Microfluidic Manufacturing of Polymeric Nanoparticles: Comparing Flow Control of Multiscale Structure in Single-Phase Staggered Herringbone and Two-Phase Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheqi; Lu, Changhai; Riordon, Jason; Sinton, David; Moffitt, Matthew G

    2016-12-06

    We compare the microfluidic manufacturing of polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PCL-b-PEO) nanoparticles (NPs) in a single-phase staggered herringbone (SHB) mixer and in a two-phase gas-liquid segmented mixer. NPs generated from two different copolymer compositions in both reactors and at three different flow rates, along with NPs generated using a conventional bulk method, are compared with respect to morphologies, dimensions, and internal crystallinities. Our work, the first direct comparison between alternate microfluidic NP synthesis methods, shows three key findings: (i) NP morphologies and dimensions produced in the bulk are different from those produced in a microfluidic mixer, whereas NP crystallinities produced in the bulk and in the SHB mixer are similar; (ii) NP morphologies, dimensions, and crystallinities produced in the single-phase SHB and two-phase mixers at the lowest flow rate are similar; and (iii) NP morphologies, dimensions, and crystallinities change with flow rate in the two-phase mixer but not in the single-phase SHB mixer. These findings provide new insights into the relative roles of mixing and shear in the formation and flow-directed processing of polymeric NPs in microfluidics, informing future reactor designs for manufacturing NPs of low polydispersity and controlled multiscale structure and function.

  18. Institutional arrangements in the emerging biodiesel industry: Case studies from Minas Gerais—Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, K.; Bijman, J.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Connecting (small) family farmers to the emerging biodiesel industry requires careful design of the institutional arrangements between the producers of oil crops and the processing companies. According to institutional economics theory, the design of effective and efficient arrangements depends on

  19. Wavefront correction system based on an equilateral triangular arrangement of actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.T.; Bergum, J.W.; Kartz, M.W.; Presta, R.W.; Swift, C.D.

    1993-02-01

    Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) requires the copropagation of multiple beams at different wavelengths and at average powers exceeding 1 kW. Although mirror coatings are used that absorb less than one part in 10 5 , the beams still suffer from thermally induced phase distortions, both in the dye amplifiers and in transmissive optics, such as beam combiners and vacuum windows. These aberrations are 2nd-order and 3rd-order and can reach 5 waves peak-to-valley (p-v), which causes the beam to distort and break up when propagated over large distances. The magnitude of the aberrations scales with power, with time constants on the order of 30 seconds. Previous adaptive systems that have been developed corrected these thermally induced phase distortions of both 2nd-order and 3rd-order; however, these systems had limited spatial resolution and in some cases marginal stability. The authors have developed a new adaptive optics system where both the actuators of the deformable mirror and the lenslets of the Hartmann sensor are arranged with centers at the vertices of equilateral triangles. The wavefront sensor is a video Hartmann sensor that also uses an equilateral array of lenslets. The controller hardware uses a VME bus. The design minimizes the generation of reflected wavefronts higher than first order across each lenslet for large excursions of actuators from positions where the mirror is flat and, thus maximizes the precision of the slopes measured by the Hartmann sensor. The design is also immune to the waffle mode that is present in the reconstructors of adaptive optics systems where actuators are arranged in a square array

  20. Effect of fibre arrangement on the multiaxial fatigue of fibrous composites: a micromechanical computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Brighenti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural components made of fibre-reinforced materials are frequently used in engineering applications. Fibre-reinforced composites are multiphase materials, and complex mechanical phenomena take place at limit conditions but also during normal service situations, especially under fatigue loading, causing a progressive deterioration and damage. Under repeated loading, the degradation mainly occurs in the matrix material and at the fibre-matrix interface, and such a degradation has to be quantified for design structural assessment purposes. To this end, damage mechanics and fracture mechanics theories can be suitably applied to examine such a problem. Damage concepts can be applied to the matrix mechanical characteristics and, by adopting a 3-D mixed mode fracture description of the fibre-matrix detachment, fatigue fracture mechanics concepts can be used to determine the progressive fibre debonding responsible for the loss of load bearing capacity of the reinforcing phase. In the present paper, a micromechanical model is used to evaluate the unixial or multiaxial fatigue behaviour of structures with equi-oriented or randomly distributed fibres. The spatial fibre arrangement is taken into account through a statistical description of their orientation angles for which a Gaussian-like distribution is assumed, whereas the mechanical effect of the fibres on the composite is accounted for by a homogenization approach aimed at obtaining the macroscopic elastic constants of the material. The composite material behaves as an isotropic one for randomly distributed fibres, while it is transversally isotropic for unidirectional fibres. The fibre arrangement in the structural component influences the fatigue life with respect to the biaxiality ratio for multiaxial constant amplitude fatigue loading. One representative parametric example is discussed.

  1. Issues and dilemmas in preparation and implementation of the spatial plan of the municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disadvantages of the Serbian planning system and dilemmas about the role of spatial planning in Serbia mainly is reflected at the local level of spatial planning. The focus of the spatial plan of the municipality from the strategic to regulatory role has been shifted by the changes of legal basis. In this paper the key issues and dilemmas in the practice of preparation and implementation of the spatial plan of the municipality in Serbia are pointed out. The review of the three key issues of importance for the direct implementation of planning solutions and concepts: identification of the construction zone, the establishment of rules for the protection, arrangement and construction of physical (natural, landscape and functional entities and settlements, and elaboration of arrangement scheme for the settlement are presented. It has still not made clear what the arrangement scheme for the settlement should represent, so that in practice there is wide variety of schemes, usually completely unenforceable. Good examples of arrangement schemes elaboration within spatial plan of the municipality have been presented and analyzed. Suggestions for improving the content of the strategic and regulatory elements of the spatial plan of the municipality, as well as recommendations to the basic content of the arrangement scheme for settlement as a part of this spatial plan are proposed.

  2. Spatial data of landslide disasters in west Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadi, Dedi

    2018-02-01

    West Bandung has the potential for landslides and other disasters such as floods, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. One of the most frequent hazards in West Bandung Regency is landslide; some critical occurrences for landslides cover these important locations, including Lembang districts, Cililin: Padalarang, Cikalong Wetan, and Cipatat, etc. In this study the landslide data will be matched to spatial data, resulting in correction of spatial arrangement in west Bandung.

  3. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-18 - Split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Split-dollar life insurance arrangements. 1... life insurance arrangements. See §§ 1.61-22 and 1.7872-15 for rules relating to the treatment of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. ...

  4. 29 CFR 794.117 - Effect of franchises and other arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of franchises and other arrangements. 794.117... âindependently Owned and Controlled Local Enterpriseâ § 794.117 Effect of franchises and other arrangements. Whether a franchise or other contractual arrangement affects the status of the enterprise as “an...

  5. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances, franchise...

  6. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in every...

  7. 41 CFR 301-50.2 - How must I arrange my travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... travel? 301-50.2 Section 301-50.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES, PAYING TRAVEL EXPENSES, AND CLAIMING REIMBURSEMENT 50-ARRANGING FOR TRAVEL SERVICES § 301-50.2 How must I arrange my travel? You must...

  8. 46 CFR 167.20-17 - Bilge pumps, bilge piping and sounding arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps, bilge piping and sounding arrangements. 167... Ships § 167.20-17 Bilge pumps, bilge piping and sounding arrangements. The number, capacity, and arrangement of bilge pumps and bilge piping shall be in accordance with the requirements for cargo vessels...

  9. The Life Course of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers: Childhood Living Arrangements and Young Adult Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Explored living arrangements among children born to unmarried mothers and the impact of childhood living arrangements on the young adult's life course. Analyses showed that living arrangement patterns after birth to a single mother influenced the likelihood of high school completion, post secondary education, and other conditions. (RJM)

  10. 46 CFR 199.245 - Survival craft embarkation and launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft embarkation and launching arrangements... Passenger Vessels § 199.245 Survival craft embarkation and launching arrangements. (a) Each davit-launched liferaft must be arranged to be rapidly boarded by its full complement of persons. (b) All survival craft...

  11. 46 CFR 199.153 - Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements using falls and a winch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements using... Requirements for All Vessels § 199.153 Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements using falls and a winch. Survival craft launching and recovery arrangements, in addition to meeting the requirements in...

  12. NAIR: handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A revised handbook on the national arrangements for incidents involving radioactivity (NAIR) has been published. Following brief introductory sections on the administrative aspects and operational aspects, the main part of the handbook is devoted to operational and call-out lists including an index of police forces served by NAIR, an index of establishments providing assistance under NAIR, sources of stage 1 and stage 2 assistance for each police constabulary, hospitals prepared to accept contaminated casualties and to assist with decontamination of personnel, and hospitals prepared to advise on the treatment and admission of casualties exposed to large doses of radiation. Technical appendices are also given on radiological protection in NAIR incidents, instruments and equipment, radionuclide data and a guide to suitable detectors, package and source identification and disposal of radioactive materials involved in NAIR accidents. (U.K.)

  13. Licensing arrangements and the development of the solar energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.

    1979-06-01

    The process by which technology and information related to technology are transferred within industry is explored. Property rights in technology are part of the broader field of intellectual property. The general contours of legal protection for knowledge are explored. The four basic forms of intellectual property - patents, trade secrets (or know-how), trademarks, and copyrights - are covered in varying degrees of depth, depending on their relative applicability to the development of the solar industry. Once this background has been established, the legal aspects of licensing are examined. A license is a legal arrangement whereby a party (licensor) who controls the right to use an idea, invention, etc. shares the right to use the particular intellectual property with someone else (licensee). The advantages and disadvantages of licensing are described from the point of view of potential licensees and licensors. Barriers to licensing are discussed.

  14. Arrangement of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, G V

    1977-03-01

    Cross-linking of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in the erythrocyte membrane with the reagent difluorodinitrobenzene was studied as a function of temperature, time and concentration of difluorodinitrobenzene. The optimal extent of cross-linking of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylserine to phosphatidylserine was expressed as molar ratios of these three different cross-linked species. The experimental results were compared to different models of a phospholipid monolayer containing phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine in which phosphatidylserine was arranged primarily as singles (having 6 phosphatidylethanolamine neighbors) as clusters of dimers, trimer and tetramers or as large clusters. In the various model monolayers each lipid component has 6 neighbors. The models which are consistent with the experimental results are those in which phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine occur as small clusters in a non-random array.

  15. Evaluation of alternative institutional arrangements in public utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermishina Anna, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since early 2000s a policy of attracting private operators to public utilities, which should help to increase productivity, reduce costs, and as a result, reduce utility prices takes place in Russia. The aim of the study is to identify the relationship between institutional arrangements and pricing for water and wastewater services. Applying statistical and cluster analysis to empirical data on water utilities in 13 largest cities has revealed the differences in the level and dynamics of prices for water and wastewater services in the group of public utilities and public private water utilities. In 2011-2014 the level and growth price rates in the group of public private partnerships were higher than in group of municipal water utilities. Thus, the involvement of private operators has not yet lead to the expected reduction in prices.

  16. New arrangements in force in the field of transport

    CERN Multimedia

    Tom Wegelius

    2006-01-01

    Please take note of the following information concerning new arrangements in force in the field of transport: China: Regulations applying to wooden packaging materials as of 1st January 2006 As scheduled, China introduced standard ISPM No. 15 on 1st January 2006. This was officially confirmed in a letter from the Federal Minister for Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture. Henceforth, China will apply the same conditions to the importation of wooden packaging materials as various other countries, including the United States, Mexico and Brazil. This means that items shipped to China in wooden packaging will no longer need to be accompanied by a certificate relating to the protection of plant species or other phytosanitary documents (such as heat treatment certificates). However, a guarantee that the wooden packaging complies with standard ISPM No. 15 will be required. Phase II of US regulations concerning wooden packaging material Phase II of regulations concerning the importation of wooden packaging ma...

  17. International bilateral and multilateral arrangements in energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This document, the second report in the series, outlines current DOE international commitments under bilateral and multilateral arrangements, as of January 1, 1978. Included are bilateral agreements for cooperation in the civil uses of atomic energy with countries and international organizations, bilateral and multilateral technical exchanges in all energy technology areas, and multilateral agreements under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In addition to outlining the terms, scope, and status of these agreements, this document describes DOE's participation in the work of the major international energy organizations. IEA, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Future reports will update the status of ongoing cooperative projects and provide information on new energy R and D activities

  18. Implications of multinational arrangements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.

    1980-01-01

    In the recently concluded INFCE study a variety of possibilities to minimize the proliferation risk was discussed, and their applicability in the nuclear fuel cycle was investigated. It was found that safeguards still play a central part as an anti-proliferation measure. Aspect of institutional arrangements with the aim of placing nuclear material processing and storage facilities under multinational or international auspices is the basis and goal of this study, as in international discussions some degree of proliferation hindrance is attributed to such models. In the assessment of the internationalization of nuclear facilities as an anti-proliferation measure two aspects have to be emphasized: Firstly, internationalization may be understood as a political measure to hinder proliferation, and secondly, no additional control effort should be caused by the possible complementary character to safeguards. 5 refs

  19. Dementia prevalence, care arrangement, and access to care in Lebanon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Kieu T T; Chaaya, Monique; Prince, Martin

    2017-01-01

    .0%, respectively. People with dementia were mainly cared for by relatives at home. Access to formal care was very limited. DISCUSSION: Dementia prevalence in Lebanon ranks high within the global range of estimates. These first evidence-based data about disease burden and barriers to care serve to raise awareness...... care arrangement and access to care. METHODS: A random sample of 502 persons older than 65 years and their informant were recruited from Beirut and Mount Lebanon governorates through multistage cluster sampling. RESULTS: The crude and age-standardized dementia prevalences were 7.4% and 9...... and call for social and health care reform to tackle the dementia epidemic in Lebanon and in North Africa and the Middle East....

  20. Neoliberalism and criticisms of earthquake insurance arrangements in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, I

    1996-03-01

    Global collapse of the Fordist-Keynesian regime of accumulation and an attendant philosophical shift in New Zealand politics to neoliberalism have prompted criticisms of, and changes to, the Earthquake and War Damage Commission. Earthquake insurance arrangements made 50 years ago in an era of collectivist, welfarist political action are now set in an environment in which emphasis is given to competitive relations and individualism. Six specific criticisms of the Commission are identified, each of which is founded in the rhetoric and ideology of a neoliberal political project which has underpinned radical social and economic changes in New Zealand since the early 1980s. On the basis of those criticisms, and in terms of the Earthquake Commission Act 1993, the Commission has been restructured. The new Commission is withdrawing from its primary position as the nation's non-residential property hazards insurer and is restricting its coverage of residential properties.

  1. Spin-noise spectroscopy of randomly moving spins in the model of light scattering: Two-beam arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, G. G.; Ryzhov, I. I.; Zapasskii, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    A strict analytical solution of the problem of spin-noise signal formation in a volume medium with randomly moving spin carriers is presented. The treatment is carried out in the model of light scattering in a medium with fluctuating inhomogeneity. Along with conventional single-beam geometry, we consider the two-beam arrangement, with the scattering field of the auxiliary (tilted) beam heterodyned on the photodetector illuminated by the main beam. It is shown that the spin-noise signal detected in the two-beam arrangement is highly sensitive to motion (diffusion) of the spin carriers within the illuminated volume and thus can provide additional information about the spin dynamics and spatial correlations of spin polarization in the volume media. Our quantitative estimates show that, under real experimental conditions, spin diffusion may strongly suppress the spin-noise signal in the two-beam geometry. The mechanism of this suppression is similar to that of the time-of-flight broadening with the critical distance determined by the period of two-beam spatial interference rather than by the beam diameter.

  2. Extracting Time-Accurate Acceleration Vectors From Nontrivial Accelerometer Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Jennifer A; Blume, Janet; Crisco, Joseph J; Franck, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Sports-related concussions are of significant concern in many impact sports, and their detection relies on accurate measurements of the head kinematics during impact. Among the most prevalent recording technologies are videography, and more recently, the use of single-axis accelerometers mounted in a helmet, such as the HIT system. Successful extraction of the linear and angular impact accelerations depends on an accurate analysis methodology governed by the equations of motion. Current algorithms are able to estimate the magnitude of acceleration and hit location, but make assumptions about the hit orientation and are often limited in the position and/or orientation of the accelerometers. The newly formulated algorithm presented in this manuscript accurately extracts the full linear and rotational acceleration vectors from a broad arrangement of six single-axis accelerometers directly from the governing set of kinematic equations. The new formulation linearizes the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term with a finite-difference approximation and provides a fast and accurate solution for all six components of acceleration over long time periods (>250 ms). The approximation of the nonlinear centripetal acceleration term provides an accurate computation of the rotational velocity as a function of time and allows for reconstruction of a multiple-impact signal. Furthermore, the algorithm determines the impact location and orientation and can distinguish between glancing, high rotational velocity impacts, or direct impacts through the center of mass. Results are shown for ten simulated impact locations on a headform geometry computed with three different accelerometer configurations in varying degrees of signal noise. Since the algorithm does not require simplifications of the actual impacted geometry, the impact vector, or a specific arrangement of accelerometer orientations, it can be easily applied to many impact investigations in which accurate kinematics need to

  3. The Wassenaar Arrangement and Russian High-Tech Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia S. Revenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current military and political situation in the world raises the necessity of use by Russia of all existing tools to counter actions targeted against it. Participation of the country in international export control regimes, including the Wassenaar Arrangement (the WA, is one of these tools. Membership in the WA allows to Russia to maintain its international status, to contribute to strengthening of international stability, to ensure the non-targeting of this forum against the country, to participate in the development of decisions affecting its interests. Participation in the WA is also important from the view of modernizations of Russian economy towards transition to a new technological mode accompanied by emergence of new groups of innovative products and modification of existing ones. Control of crossing the country's borders by dual-use goods and services is one of conditions for carrying out their export. The Wassenaar Arrangement was established in 1995 to replace COCOM in order to contribute to regional and international security and stability. A huge work is carried out within the forum aimed at enhancing control over transfers of conventional weapons and high-tech dual-use goods. Russian export control system fully meets requirements of international export control regime, including the WA, and effectively functions. Export of the controlled goods from Russia or their transfer to foreign individuals and legal entities are possible only on the basis of decisions of the Export control Commission of the Russian Federation. The dilemma between the need to support exporters by reducing administrative barriers and the ensuring security interests of the country gain momentum in current stage of scientific-and-technological advance development.

  4. Towards a Spatial Data Infrastructure in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Cetl

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The term Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI is not new and has already been present in the world for quite a long time. President Clinton's Executive Order 12906 from April 1994 played a crucial role and was an initiative in establishing National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI. This Order induced briskly the building of NSDI and also of all additional counterparts in the USA and around the whole world. Besides NSDI, various other initiatives at regional (EUROGI, PCGIAP, … and global level (GSDI were also launched.In this paper, an overview of different initiatives and efforts in establishing SDI in Croatia will be presented. State bodies such as the Government and State Geodetic Administration have the main role in it in collaboration with public and commercial sector and also with academic community. As the main factor in creating a future SDI, State Geodetic Administration has launched several initiatives the goal of which is the installation of new technologies, equipment and procedures in map production and the establishment of digital topographic and cadastre databases. The arrangement and modernization of spatial records and the establishment of NSDI make the key factors for sustainable physical planning and land development at local and national level.In the next few years Croatia must solve numerous duties to arrange spatial records. These duties must be solved very conscientiously and in a reasonable period of time. It is very important for Croatian prosperity and for the fulfilment of the conditions set in the process of entering European and international integrations.

  5. How different institutional arrangements promote integrated river basin management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Frederiksen, Pia; Saarikoski, Heli

    2013-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive introduces the principle of integrated river basin management, incorporating both the idea of spatial fit between ecosystems and social systems and a requirement to integrate water management across scales and sectors. In designing their implementation setups...

  6. Innovative Nuclear Power Plant Building Arrangement Considering Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Jun; Roh, Myung Sub; Kim, Chang Lak

    2015-01-01

    There are mainly two decommissioning strategies for a nuclear power plant: immediate dismantling and deferred dismantling. In the immediate dismantling strategy, decommissioning is started immediately after the permanent shutdown of a nuclear power plant, giving a benefit of recovery and being able to reuse the decommissioned site quickly. The deferred dismantling strategy has 40-60 years safe storage period after permanent shutdown. It reduces radiation and radioactive decommissioning waste generation. A utility company planning to decommission its nuclear power plant should choose either immediate dismantling strategy for higher utilization of the site or deferred dismantling for lower radiation and less radioactive waste generation. Innovative nuclear power plant buildings arrangement (INBA) is proposed to solve a dilemma in choosing a decommissioning strategy by bringing out the advantage of immediate dismantling and deferred dismantling together. Recent studies about decommissioning cost show it to continually rise, and it is one of main causes to deteriorate economics of nuclear power. To recover it, we need a solution to improve the economics of a nuclear power plant over its entire life time including decommissioning

  7. The boundaries of public action: arranged and forced marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Danna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I deal with the political and cultural dilemma of the distinction between arranged and forced or imposed marriages. After a review of the literature, interviews collected in 2009 in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna are used to illustrate the views of the participants to the research. With the help of the theoretical tool of cultural materialism, I argue that the question can be approached from two different points of view: on the one hand, the distinction is clear as it is based on the recognition (even a late one of an imposition by physical or psychological violence on the part of the subject; on the other hand sociological analysis of the process of construction and of expression of consent reveals a vast gray area that is object of debate in the scientific literature as well as in everyday life. Only the first definition of forced marriage, the subjective one, can justify the start of a concrete intervention by the public authorities - but this cannot stop the debate on the actual value of the consent given in many cases of marriages.

  8. Cooperating internationally. US/Japan Civil Industrial Technologies (CIT) Arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Civil Industrial Technologies (CIT) Arrangement was signed in July 1994 between governments of the US and Japan. Areas of research range from scientific and technical databases and bioprocessing to precompetitive processing of functionally-gradient materials and ceramics. Papers presented in this symposium include studies on thin polymer films generated by vapor deposition polymerization, development of manufacturing technique of fusing 3D C/C composite materials, measurement and analysis for high performance computing systems, low-cost fabrication of ceramic components, bioprocessing, data exchange for mass spectral databases, development of high performance aluminum nitride ceramics, precompetitive processing of functionally-gradient materials, purity determination of organic reference materials, definitive methods traceable to SI unit, development of biocompatible artificial hard tissue materials, development of photoassisted catalysis technologies, surface analysis for catalysts by electron spectroscopy, development of ultra-solid lubricant with cluster diamond, precise determination of impurities in high-purity rare-earth metals, and highly accurate acceleration measurement system. 22 refs., 86 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. New perspectives about molecular arrangement of primary and permanent dentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches Borges, Ana Flavia [Department of Dental Materials at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Andrade Bitar, Renata [Biomedical Engineering, Valley of Paraiba University (UNIVAP) (Brazil); Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia [Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Bortollazo Correr, Americo [Department of Dental Materials at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Martin, Airton Abrahao [Biomedical Engineering Post Graduation, Valley of Paraiba University (UNIVAP) (Brazil); Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria [Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: rmpuppin@fop.unicamp.br

    2007-12-30

    The dentin quality of primary and permanent teeth was inspected by Fourier transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman); scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and hardness test. Middle dentin of crowns were reached by carbide bur abrading providing a uniform smear layer. Phosphoric acid was applied in order to simulate the etching of total etching adhesive systems. The groups were (n = 10): G1 (primary dentin smear layer); G2 (35% phosphoric acid etched primary dentin); G3 (permanent dentin smear layer); G4 (35% phosphoric acid etched permanent dentin). FT-Raman results were subjected to cluster analysis. SEM/EDS were made in order to add the data obtained by FT-Raman. The hardness data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey test. FT-Raman showed differences among groups, either to organic or inorganic content. For the organic content, primary and permanent dentin became similar after the etching; conversely, the inorganic content showed differences for the two substrates. Hardness test showed no significant differences between primary and permanent dentin, before or after etching, but the etching decreased these values. The mineral content arrangement of primary dentin is different from permanent dentin, independently of the etching. The substrate type did no influence the hardness, but the etching decreased it.

  10. New perspectives about molecular arrangement of primary and permanent dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches Borges, Ana Flavia; Andrade Bitar, Renata; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Bortollazo Correr, Americo; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2007-01-01

    The dentin quality of primary and permanent teeth was inspected by Fourier transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman); scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and hardness test. Middle dentin of crowns were reached by carbide bur abrading providing a uniform smear layer. Phosphoric acid was applied in order to simulate the etching of total etching adhesive systems. The groups were (n = 10): G1 (primary dentin smear layer); G2 (35% phosphoric acid etched primary dentin); G3 (permanent dentin smear layer); G4 (35% phosphoric acid etched permanent dentin). FT-Raman results were subjected to cluster analysis. SEM/EDS were made in order to add the data obtained by FT-Raman. The hardness data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey test. FT-Raman showed differences among groups, either to organic or inorganic content. For the organic content, primary and permanent dentin became similar after the etching; conversely, the inorganic content showed differences for the two substrates. Hardness test showed no significant differences between primary and permanent dentin, before or after etching, but the etching decreased these values. The mineral content arrangement of primary dentin is different from permanent dentin, independently of the etching. The substrate type did no influence the hardness, but the etching decreased it

  11. Eating together and eating alone: meal arrangements in British households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Luke; Warde, Alan

    2017-03-01

    Sociology traditionally accounts for eating in terms of the social organization of meals, their provision and consumption. A recurrent public concern is that the meal is being subverted. This paper examines meal arrangements in British households in 2012, drawing on an online survey in the format of a food diary administered to 2784 members of a supermarket consumer panel. It charts the organization of contemporary eating occasions, paying attention to socio-demographic variation in practice. Especially, it explores companionless meals, putting them in contexts of food provisioning and temporal rhythms. Findings show that eating alone is associated with simpler, quicker meals, and that it takes place most commonly in the morning and midday. Those living alone eat alone more often, but at similar meal times, and they take longer over their lone meals. Comparison with a similar study in 1955-6 suggests some fragmentation or relaxation in collective schedules. The implications are not straightforward, and the causes probably lie more in institutional shifts than personal preferences. Declining levels of commensality are, however, associated with a reduction in household size and, especially in households with children, difficulties of coordinating family members' schedules. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  12. Computerized simulation of sintering process through single geometric arrangements utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1995-01-01

    In materials science and engineering, microstructure is of crucial importance in determining the properties and therefore the performance of the designed products. However, the parameters and processes which control microstructural evolution in multi-phase polycrystalline systems have not been systematically examined yet. This is specially true in the case of powder processing of ceramics, where the final microstructure is related not only to the densification process, but also to the characteristics of the green compact, such as particle size distribution and packing density. One way to carry out the study of this problem with the of a computer is to consider the green compact as a periodic arrangement of mono-sized hard spheres, e.g., the simple cubic, the body-centered cubic (b.c.) and the face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) arrays. That simplification allows to foresee the resultant morphology when the array is sintered to full density through a simulation algorithm that allows the spheres to penetrate one another and conserve their mass. Typical powder compacts have a random, rather than regular, structures. An element of randomness is introduced and various parameters for this case (e.g. density, coordination number, morphology) are compared with the simple ones. Thermodynamic features of the simulated microstructures which may reveal which one resembles a more realistic equilibrium configuration are also included. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. Assessing operability of a novel polisher arrangement using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, S.W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A condensate polisher is intended to remove both particulate matter and ionic material from the condensate. Condensate polishers have normally been placed directly in the condensate system downstream of the condensate pumps. This inline location has certain disadvantages. These disadvantages are discussed. Placing the polisher in a sidestream location, where water is removed from the condensate system, pumped through the polisher, and then returned to the condensate system provides a solution to these disadvantages. Several possible types of sidestream installations is described. This has a polisher taking unpolished condensate from one compartment from one compartment of a divided hotwell in a specially modified condenser and returning polished condensate to the other compartment. The polisher is supplied by its own dedicated pumps, which have a head requirement sufficient only to overcome the pressure drop through the polisher circuit at a flow rate of 110% of maximum condensate flow. This concept is very attractive but has not yet been tested even though it is being installed in several new units. A simulation was, therefore, performed using MMS to provide confidence that this particular sidestream polisher arrangement was operationally viable

  14. General arrangement and systems integration of the BPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.G.; Mueller, J.P.; Shampinato, P.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the integration of Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) tokamak components, peripheral equipment, service lines, and the test cell facility which are being carried out to satisfy the functional requirements of all systems, maximize hands-on maintenance of peripheral equipment, and maximize access space around the machine for remote maintenance. The test cell configuration provides a center cell to house the tokamak device, close-in North and South Cells for locating peripheral equipment for hands-on maintenance and trenches are located in the test cell floor to carry away service lines to East, West, and South Diagnostic Areas. Equipment lines that service the device core components have been integrated in the design of the cryostat and locally arranged to maximize remote maintenance access to the device core and center cell peripheral equipment. a circular pipe corridor has been located in the basement to localize floor penetrations, prevent activation of the basement, and provide support structure directly under the machine. These and other configurational design details have been developed in the process of fully integrating all BPX systems and subsystems

  15. Marital Processes, Arranged Marriage, and Contraception to Limit Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

    2013-01-01

    An international transition away from familially-arranged marriages toward participation in spouse choice has endured for decades and continues to spread through rural Asia today. Though we know this transformation has important consequences for childbearing early in marriage, we know much less about longer-term consequences of this marital revolution. This study draws upon theories of family and fertility change and a rural Asian panel study designed to investigate changes in both marital and childbearing behaviors to investigate these long-term consequences. Controlling for social changes that shape both marital practices and childbearing behaviors, and explicitly considering multiple dimensions of marital processes, we find evidence consistent with an independent, long-standing association of participation in spouse choice with higher rates of contraception to terminate childbearing. These results add a new dimension to the evidence linking revolutions in marital behavior to long-term declines in fertility, but also motivate new research to consider a broader range of long-term consequences of changing marital processes. PMID:23709184

  16. Spatial displacement, but not temporal asynchrony, destroys figural binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahle, M; Koch, C

    1995-02-01

    What are the elementary features that the brain uses to bind spatially distinct parts in a visual scene into an unitary percept of an "object"? The Gestalt psychologists emphasized the extent to which motion, colour, luminance or spatial arrangement contribute towards object formation. Little is known about the role of time per se, rather than motion, in constituting an object. In particular, does the visibility or saliency of an object change if the various parts making up the object are not presented simultaneously? Using a simple experimental design, we show that very small spatial displacements can significantly influence the saliency of an object while large temporal asynchrony has no significant effect.

  17. The StaggerGrid project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Remo; Magic, Zazralt; Asplund, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we present the STAGGERGRID, a collaborative project for the construction of a comprehensive grid of time-dependent, three-dimensional (3-D), hydrodynamic model atmospheres of solar- and late-type stars with different effective temperatures, surface gravities, and chemical...

  18. Evaluation of random cascade hierarchical and statistical arrangement model in disaggregation of SMOS soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, M.; Magagi, R.; Goita, K.

    2013-12-01

    are applied to the soil moisture products before application of disaggregation method. The disaggregation is also done by using an improved version of the model, i.e. Random Cascade Hierarchical and Statistical Arrangement (RCHSA) model (Shrestha et al., 2004). In this model, the spatial correlation parameter is used to improve the reliability of the model. The results show that by comparison with RC model, the RCHSA method could improve the accuracy of disaggregation up to about 0.05 (m3/m3). References Over, T. M., and Gupta, V. K., A space-time theory of mesoscale rainfall using random cascades, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 101, No. D21, p. 26319-26331, 1996. Shrestha, R. K., Tachikawa, Y., and Takara, K., Downscaling spatial rainfall field from global scale to local scale using improved multiplicative random cascade method, Annuals of Disas. Prev. Res. Inst., Kyoto Univ., p. 47, 2004.

  19. Developing Students' Spatial Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jeanne E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing students' understanding of certain spatial aspects of important concepts. Piaget's contributions to the development of spatial conceptualization are included. Some examples for applying spatial techniques in earth sciences, physics, and chemistry are also presented. (HM)

  20. Spatial Management Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial management files combine all related and relevant spatial management files into an integrated fisheries management file. Overlaps of the redundant spatial...

  1. Linking better shiftwork arrangements with safety and health management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Kogi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Various support measures useful for promoting joint change approaches to the improvement of both shiftworking arrangements and safety and health management systems were reviewed. A particular focus was placed on enterprise-level risk reduction measures linking working hours and management systems. METHODS: Voluntary industry-based guidelines on night and shift work for department stores and the chemical, automobile and electrical equipment industries were examined. Survey results that had led to the compilation of practicable measures to be included in these guidelines were also examined. The common support measures were then compared with ergonomic checkpoints for plant maintenance work involving irregular nightshifts. On the basis of this analysis, a new night and shift work checklist was designed. RESULTS: Both the guidelines and the plant maintenance work checkpoints were found to commonly cover multiple issues including work schedules and various job-related risks. This close link between shiftwork arrangements and risk management was important as shiftworkers in these industries considered teamwork and welfare services to be essential for managing risks associated with night and shift work. Four areas found suitable for participatory improvement by managers and workers were work schedules, ergonomic work tasks, work environment and training. The checklist designed to facilitate participatory change processes covered all these areas. CONCLUSIONS: The checklist developed to describe feasible workplace actions was suitable for integration with comprehensive safety and health management systems and offered valuable opportunities for improving working time arrangements and job content together.OBJETIVOS: Foram revisados diversas medidas de apoio úteis para incentivar abordagens conjuntas para a melhoria na organização do trabalho por turnos e os processos de gestão de saúde e segurança. As medidas para redução de risco em n

  2. The STAGGER-grid: A grid of 3D stellar atmosphere models. V. Synthetic stellar spectra and broad-band photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavassa, A.; Casagrande, L.; Collet, R.; Magic, Z.; Bigot, L.; Thévenin, F.; Asplund, M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The surface structures and dynamics of cool stars are characterised by the presence of convective motions and turbulent flows which shape the emergent spectrum. Aims: We used realistic three-dimensional (3D) radiative hydrodynamical simulations from the STAGGER-grid to calculate synthetic spectra with the radiative transfer code OPTIM3D for stars with different stellar parameters to predict photometric colours and convective velocity shifts. Methods: We calculated spectra from 1000 to 200 000 Å with a constant resolving power of λ/Δλ = 20 000 and from 8470 and 8710 Å (Gaia Radial Velocity Spectrometer - RVS - spectral range) with a constant resolving power of λ/Δλ = 300 000. Results: We used synthetic spectra to compute theoretical colours in the Johnson-Cousins UBV (RI)C, SDSS, 2MASS, Gaia, SkyMapper, Strömgren systems, and HST-WFC3. Our synthetic magnitudes are compared with those obtained using 1D hydrostatic models. We showed that 1D versus 3D differences are limited to a small percent except for the narrow filters that span the optical and UV region of the spectrum. In addition, we derived the effect of the convective velocity fields on selected Fe I lines. We found the overall convective shift for 3D simulations with respect to the reference 1D hydrostatic models, revealing line shifts of between -0.235 and +0.361 km s-1. We showed a net correlation of the convective shifts with the effective temperature: lower effective temperatures denote redshifts and higher effective temperatures denote blueshifts. We conclude that the extraction of accurate radial velocities from RVS spectra need an appropriate wavelength correction from convection shifts. Conclusions: The use of realistic 3D hydrodynamical stellar atmosphere simulations has a small but significant impact on the predicted photometry compared with classical 1D hydrostatic models for late-type stars. We make all the spectra publicly available for the community through the POLLUX database

  3. Optimization of lamp arrangement in a closed-conduit UV reactor based on a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Tipu; Ahmad, Zeshan; Cho, Jinsoo

    2016-01-01

    The choice for the arrangement of the UV lamps in a closed-conduit ultraviolet (CCUV) reactor significantly affects the performance. However, a systematic methodology for the optimal lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor is not well established in the literature. In this research work, we propose a viable systematic methodology for the lamp arrangement based on a genetic algorithm (GA). In addition, we analyze the impacts of the diameter, angle, and symmetry of the lamp arrangement on the reduction equivalent dose (RED). The results are compared based on the simulated RED values and evaluated using the computational fluid dynamics simulations software ANSYS FLUENT. The fluence rate was calculated using commercial software UVCalc3D, and the GA-based lamp arrangement optimization was achieved using MATLAB. The simulation results provide detailed information about the GA-based methodology for the lamp arrangement, the pathogen transport, and the simulated RED values. A significant increase in the RED values was achieved by using the GA-based lamp arrangement methodology. This increase in RED value was highest for the asymmetric lamp arrangement within the chamber of the CCUV reactor. These results demonstrate that the proposed GA-based methodology for symmetric and asymmetric lamp arrangement provides a viable technical solution to the design and optimization of the CCUV reactor.

  4. Toward Eco-Friendly and Highly Efficient Solar Water Splitting Using In2S3/Anatase/Rutile TiO2Dual-Staggered-Heterojunction Nanodendrite Array Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jih-Sheng; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2018-01-31

    The TiO 2 -based heterojunction nanodendrite (ND) array composed of anatase nanoparticles (ANPs) on the surface of the rutile ND (RND) array is selected as the model photoanode to demonstrate the strategies toward eco-friendly and efficient solar water splitting using neutral electrolyte and seawater. Compared with the performances in alkaline electrolyte, a non-negligible potential drop across the electrolyte as well as impeded charge injection and charge separation is monitored in the ANP/RND array photoanode with neutral electrolyte, which are, respectively, ascribed to the series resistance of neutral electrolyte, the fundamentally pH-dependent water oxidation mechanism on TiO 2 surface, as well as the less band bending at the interface of TiO 2 and neutral electrolyte. Accordingly, a TiO 2 -based dual-staggered heterojunction ND array photoanode is further designed in this work to overcome the issue of less band bending with the neutral electrolyte. The improvement of charge separation efficiency is realized by the deposition of a transparent In 2 S 3 layer on the ANP/RND array photoanode for constructing additional staggered heterojunction. Under illumination of AM 1.5G (100 mW cm -2 ), the improved photocurrent densities acquired both in neutral electrolyte and seawater at 1.23 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), which approach the theoretical value for rutile TiO 2 , are demonstrated in the dual-staggered-heterojunction ND array photoanode. Faradaic efficiencies of ∼95 and ∼32% for solar water oxidation in neutral electrolyte and solar seawater oxidation for 2 h are acquired at 1.23 V vs RHE, respectively.

  5. Influence of presence and spatial arrangement of belowground insects on host-plant selection of aboveground insects: a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, J.J.; Schaper, S.V.; Bezemer, T.M.; Cortesero, A.M.; Hoffmeister, T.S.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Vet, L.E.M.; Harvey, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    1. Several studies have shown that above- and belowground insects can interact by influencing each others growth, development, and survival when they feed on the same host-plant. In natural systems, however, insects can make choices on which plants to oviposit and feed. A field experiment was

  6. Spatial attention systems in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2015-08-01

    It has been established that processes relating to 'spatial attention' are implemented at cortical level by goal-directed (top-down) and stimulus-driven (bottom-up) networks. Spatial neglect in brain-damaged individuals has been interpreted as a distinguished exemplar for a disturbance of these processes. The present paper elaborates this assumption. Functioning of the two attentional networks seem to dissociate in spatial neglect; behavioral studies of patients' orienting and exploration behavior point to a disturbed stimulus-driven but preserved goal-directed attention system. When a target suddenly appears somewhere in space, neglect patients demonstrate disturbed detection and orienting if it is located in contralesional direction. In contrast, if neglect patients explore a scene with voluntarily, top-down controlled shifts of spatial attention, they perform movements that are oriented into all spatial directions without any direction-specific disturbances. The paper thus argues that not the top-down control of spatial attention itself, rather a body-related matrix on top of which this process is executed, seems affected. In that sense, the traditional role of spatial neglect as a stroke model for 'spatial attention' requires adjustment. Beyond its insights into the human stimulus-driven attentional system, the disorder most notably provides vistas in how our brain encodes topographical information and organizes spatially oriented action - including the top-down control of spatial attention - in relation to body position. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconstructing skeletal fiber arrangement and growth mode in the coral Porites lutea (Cnidaria, Scleractinia: a confocal Raman microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nehrke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM mapping was used to investigate the microstructural arrangement and organic matrix distribution within the skeleton of the coral Porites lutea. Relative changes in the crystallographic orientation of crystals within the fibrous fan-system could be mapped, without the need to prepare thin sections, as required if this information is obtained by polarized light microscopy. Simultaneously, incremental growth lines can be visualized without the necessity of etching and hence alteration of sample surface. Using these methods two types of growth lines could be identified: one corresponds to the well-known incremental growth layers, whereas the second type of growth lines resemble denticle finger-like structures (most likely traces of former spines or skeletal surfaces. We hypothesize that these lines represent the outer skeletal surface before another growth cycle of elongation, infilling and thickening of skeletal areas continues. We show that CRM mapping with high spatial resolution can significantly improve our understanding of the micro-structural arrangement and growth patterns in coral skeletons.

  8. A spatially localized architecture for fast and modular DNA computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Gourab; Dalchau, Neil; Muscat, Richard A.; Phillips, Andrew; Seelig, Georg

    2017-09-01

    Cells use spatial constraints to control and accelerate the flow of information in enzyme cascades and signalling networks. Synthetic silicon-based circuitry similarly relies on spatial constraints to process information. Here, we show that spatial organization can be a similarly powerful design principle for overcoming limitations of speed and modularity in engineered molecular circuits. We create logic gates and signal transmission lines by spatially arranging reactive DNA hairpins on a DNA origami. Signal propagation is demonstrated across transmission lines of different lengths and orientations and logic gates are modularly combined into circuits that establish the universality of our approach. Because reactions preferentially occur between neighbours, identical DNA hairpins can be reused across circuits. Co-localization of circuit elements decreases computation time from hours to minutes compared to circuits with diffusible components. Detailed computational models enable predictive circuit design. We anticipate our approach will motivate using spatial constraints for future molecular control circuit designs.

  9. Spatial econometrics using microdata

    CERN Document Server

    Dubé, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to spatial analyses concerning disaggregated (or micro) spatial data.Particular emphasis is put on spatial data compilation and the structuring of the connections between the observations. Descriptive analysis methods of spatial data are presented in order to identify and measure the spatial, global and local dependency.The authors then focus on autoregressive spatial models, to control the problem of spatial dependency between the residues of a basic linear statistical model, thereby contravening one of the basic hypotheses of the ordinary least squares appr

  10. Regional Convergence of Income: Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ivanovna Ivanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia has a huge territory and a strong interregional heterogeneity, so we can assume that geographical factors have a significant impact on the pace of economic growth in Russian regions. Therefore the article is focused on the following issues: 1 correlation between comparative advantages of geographical location and differences in growth rates; 2 impact of more developed regions on their neighbors and 3 correlation between economic growth of regions and their spatial interaction. The article is devoted to the empirical analysis of regional per capita incomes from 1996 to 2012 and explores the dynamics of the spatial autocorrelation of regional development indicator. It is shown that there is a problem of measuring the intensity of spatial dependence: factor value of Moran’s index varies greatly depending on the choice of the matrix of distances. In addition, with the help of spatial econometrics the author tests the following hypotheses: 1 there is convergence between regions for a specified period; 2 the process of beta convergence is explained by the spatial arrangement of regions and 3 there is positive impact of market size on regional growth. The author empirically confirmed all three hypotheses

  11. Institutional Arrangement of Financial Markets Supervision: The Case of the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Musílek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with institutional arrangement of financial supervision in the Czech Republic. Financial markets are composed of partial financial segments specialized in individual types of financial instruments and individual customer groups. Financial institutions gradually transform into financial supermarkets. There are several models of institutional arrangement of financial supervision (integrated financial supervision model, sectional financial supervision model, financial supervision...

  12. Access to flexible work arrangements, working-time fit and job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Possenriede, D.S.; Plantenga, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the effects of access to flexible work arrangements, namely flexi-time, telehomework and part-time work, on employees’ satisfaction with the fit between paid work and private life and their overall job satisfaction. Having access to flexible work arrangements gives employees

  13. 14 CFR 294.32 - Security arrangements for operating Public Charters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security arrangements for operating Public... Registrants § 294.32 Security arrangements for operating Public Charters. When a Canadian charter air taxi operator performs a Public Charter under part 380 of this chapter, either: (a) The Canadian charter air...

  14. 14 CFR 298.38 - Financial security arrangements for operating Public Charters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... security arrangements for operating Public Charters. When an air taxi operator or commuter air carrier... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial security arrangements for operating Public Charters. 298.38 Section 298.38 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT...

  15. Review of External Examining Arrangements in Universities and Colleges in the UK: Final Report and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report outlines the final recommendations of the review of external examining arrangements undertaken by UUK and GuildHE and chaired by Professor Dame Janet Finch, former Vice-Chancellor of Keele University. The review found that, on the whole, external examining arrangements in the UK are working well, but the report offers recommendations…

  16. Adolescent Summer Care Arrangements and Risk for Obesity the Following School Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study identified common summer care arrangements for adolescents and examined whether those arrangements predicted risk for obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85th percentile for age and gender) the following school year. Participants were a nationally representative sample of 1766 adolescents ages 10-18…

  17. 26 CFR 1.61-22 - Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a split-dollar life insurance arrangement (or the estate or beneficiary of that party) that are not... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of split-dollar life insurance..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-22 Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (a) Scope—(1) In...

  18. Clinical success of shade guides arranged according to lightness measured digitally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khashayar, G.; Dozic, A.; Kleverlaan, C.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the VITA Classical shade guide arranged according to lightness allows clinicians to more often obtain a shade match than with an arrangement based on hue groups. A panel of 50 students determined the shade of the maxillary right central incisors of three

  19. User Choice Resourcing Arrangements in Australia in March 2004. Working Paper No. 57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby Smith, C.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a charge to assist the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) to co-ordinate the development of relevant User Choice resourcing arrangements, CEET documented existing User Choice resourcing arrangements in each jurisdiction as of March 31, 2004. Emails were sent to each jurisdiction asking them to provide information on the User…

  20. 46 CFR 199.220 - Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements. 199.220 Section 199.220 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING... Passenger Vessels § 199.220 Survival craft and rescue boat embarkation arrangements. (a) Survival craft...