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Sample records for staggered fermion action

  1. Perturbative improvement of staggered fermions using fat links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Weonjong

    2002-01-01

    We study the possibility of improving staggered fermions using various fat links in order to reduce perturbative corrections to the gauge-invariant staggered fermion operators. We prove five theorems on SU(3) projection, triviality in renormalization, multiple SU(3) projections, uniqueness, and equivalence. As a result of these theorems, we show that, at the one-loop level, the renormalization of staggered fermion operators is identical between SU(3) projected Fat7 links and hypercubic links, as long as the action and operators are constructed by imposing the same perturbative improvement condition. In addition, we propose a new view of SU(3) projection as a tool of tadpole improvement for the staggered fermion doublers. As a conclusion, we present alternative choices of constructing fat links to improve the staggered fermion action and operators, which deserve further investigation

  2. Tool kit for staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcup, G.W.; Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The symmetries of staggered fermions are analyzed both discrete and continuous. Tools are presented that allow a simple decomposition of representations of the continuum symmetries into representations of the discrete lattice symmetries, both at zero and non-zero spatial momenta. These tools are used to find the lattice transcriptions of the operators that appear in the weak interaction Hamiltonian. The lattice Ward Identities are derived that follow from the single partially conserved axial symmetry. Using these identities, the lattice equivalents of the continuum PCAC relations are found. Combining all these tools, Ward Identities are obtained, for the matrix elements of the weak interaction Hamiltonian, from which the behavior of the matrix elements as the pion and kaon masses vanish are derived. The same behavior as in the continuum is found

  3. Weak interaction matrix elements with staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-08-01

    An overview of the results of the Los Alamos Advanced Computing Group is given. The theory behind the measurement of Weak Interaction Matrix Elements using staggered fermions is presented, and contrasted with that for Wilson fermions. This is followed by a preliminary discussion of numerical results on a 12 3 x 30 lattice. 10 refs., 4 figs

  4. Kaon decay amplitudes using staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    A status report is given of an attempt, using staggered fermions to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the amplitudes for K → ππ,. Semi-quantitative results are found for the imaginary parts, and these suggest that ε' might be smaller than previously expected in the standard model

  5. Improving the quark number susceptibilities for staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavai, Rajiv V.

    2003-01-01

    Quark number susceptibilities approach their ideal gas limit at sufficiently high temperatures. As in the case of other thermodynamic quantities, this limit itself is altered substantially on lattices with small temporal extent, N t = 4-8, making it thus difficult to check the validity of perturbation theory. Unlike other observables, improving susceptibilities or number densities is subject to constraints of current conservation and absence of chemical potential (μ) dependent divergences. We construct such an improved number density and susceptibility for staggered fermions and show that they approximate the continuum ideal gas limit better on small temporal lattices

  6. Weak interaction matrix elements with staggered fermions. I: theory and a trial run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.; Patel, A.; Gupta, R.; Guralnik, G.; Kilsup, G.W.

    1986-08-01

    We present results of a preliminary study of the matrix elements of weak interaction operators using staggered fermions. We describe our method for transcribing the weak interaction Hamiltonian onto the lattice. This method preserves exact Ward Identities analogous to those of the continuum. The calculation uses operators involving 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 gauge links. We present results for all these operators obtained on 8 3 x 16 lattices generated both with the Wilson action (β = 5.6) and an improved action

  7. Chiral phase transition of three flavor QCD with nonzero magnetic field using standard staggered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiya, Akio; Ding, Heng-Tong; Mukherjee, Swagato; Schmidt, Christian; Wang, Xiao-Dan

    2018-03-01

    Lattice simulations for (2+1)-flavor QCD with external magnetic field demon-strated that the quark mass is one of the important parameters responsible for the (inverse) magnetic catalysis. We discuss the dependences of chiral condensates and susceptibilities, the Polyakov loop on the magnetic field and quark mass in three degenerate flavor QCD. The lattice simulations are performed using standard staggered fermions and the plaquette action with spatial sizes Nσ = 16 and 24 and a fixed temporal size Nτ = 4. The value of the quark masses are chosen such that the system undergoes a first order chiral phase transition and crossover with zero magnetic field. We find that in light mass regime, the quark chiral condensate undergoes magnetic catalysis in the whole temperature region and the phase transition tend to become stronger as the magnetic field increases. In crossover regime, deconfinement transition temperature is shifted by the magnetic field when quark mass ma is less than 0:4. The lattice cutoff effects are also discussed.

  8. Duality group actions on fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantev, Tony; Sharpe, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this short paper we look at the action of T-duality and string duality groups on fermions, in maximally-supersymmetric theories and related theories. Briefly, we argue that typical duality groups such as SL(2,ℤ) have sign ambiguities in their actions on fermions, and propose that pertinent duality groups be extended by ℤ 2 , to groups such as the metaplectic group. Specifically, we look at duality groups arising from mapping class groups of tori in M theory compactifications, T-duality, ten-dimensional type IIB S-duality, and (briefly) four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills, and in each case, propose that the full duality group is a nontrivial ℤ 2 extension of the duality group acting on bosonic degrees of freedom, to more accurately describe possible actions on fermions. We also walk through U-duality groups for toroidal compactifications to nine, eight, and seven dimensions, which enables us to perform cross-consistency tests of these proposals.

  9. Improved lattice fermion action for heavy quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Yong-Gwi; Jüttner, Andreas; Kaneko, Takashi; Marinkovic, Marina; Noaki, Jun-Ichi; Tsang, Justus Tobias

    2015-01-01

    We develop an improved lattice action for heavy quarks based on Brillouin-type fermions, that have excellent energy-momentum dispersion relation. The leading discretization errors of $O(a)$ and $O(a^2)$ are eliminated at tree-level. We carry out a scaling study of this improved Brillouin fermion action on quenched lattices by calculating the charmonium energy-momentum dispersion relation and hyperfine splitting. We present a comparison to standard Wilson fermions and domain-wall fermions.

  10. N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields: staggered fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-12-10

    We investigate N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields on the lattice. The background field is introduced by means of the so-called Schrödinger functional. We adopt standard staggered fermions with constant bare mass am=0.025 and magnetic fields with constant magnetic flux up to a{sup 2}eH≃2.3562. We find that the the deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration temperatures do not depend on the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our method allow us to easily study the effects of the external magnetic fields on the QCD thermodynamics. We determine the influences of applied magnetic fields to the free energy, pressure, and equation of state of strongly interacting matter.

  11. Nucleon structure in the chiral regime with domain wall fermions on an improved staggered sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.G. Edwards; G. Fleming; Ph. Hagler; J.W. Negele; K. Orginos; A.V. Pochinsky; D.B. Renner; D.G. Richards; W. Schroers

    2006-01-01

    Moments of unpolarized, helicity, and transversity distributions, electromagnetic form factors, and generalized form factors of the nucleon are presented from a preliminary analysis of lattice results using pion masses down to 359 MeV. The twist two matrix elements are calculated using a mixed action of domain wall valence quarks and asqtad staggered sea quarks and are renormalized perturbatively. Several observables are extrapolated to the physical limit using chiral perturbation theory. Results are compared with experimental moments of quark distributions and electromagnetic form factors and phenomenologically determined generalized form factors, and the implications on the transverse structure and spin content of the nucleon are discussed

  12. The effective action for chiral fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports on recent work which given an exact characterization of the imaginary part of the effective action for chiral fermions in 2n dimensions in terms of the spectral asymmetry of a suitable (2n+1)-dimensional operator. In order to keep the discussion as simple as possible, the author concentrates on four dimensional fermions with arbitrary external gauge fields. This approach can be extended without difficulty to higher dimensions and also to include external gravitational fields

  13. Average action for models with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornholdt, S.; Wetterich, C.

    1993-01-01

    The average action is a new tool for investigating spontaneous symmetry breaking in elementary particle theory and statistical mechanics beyond the validity of standard perturbation theory. The aim of this work is to provide techniques for an investigation of models with fermions and scalars by means of the average potential. In the phase with spontaneous symmetry breaking, the inner region of the average potential becomes flat as the averaging extends over infinite volume and the average potential approaches the convex effective potential. Fermion fluctuations in this region necessitate a calculation of the fermion determinant in a spin wave background. We also compute the fermionic contribution to the wave function renormalization in the scalar kinetic term. (orig.)

  14. Simulating lattice fermions by microcanonically averaging out the nonlocal dependence of the fermionic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcoiti, V.; Cruz, A.; Di Carlo, G.; Grillo, A.F.; Vladikas, A.

    1991-01-01

    We attempt to increase the efficiency of simulations of dynamical fermions on the lattice by calculating the fermionic determinant just once for all the values of the theory's gauge coupling and flavor number. Our proposal is based on the determination of an effective fermionic action by the calculation of the fermionic determinant averaged over configurations at fixed gauge energy. The feasibility of our method is justified by the observed volume dependence of the fluctuations of the logarithm of the determinant. The algorithm we have used in order to calculate the fermionic determinant, based on the determination of all the eigenvalues of the fermionic matrix at zero mass, also enables us to obtain results at any fermion mass, with a single fermionic simulation. We test the method by simulating compact lattice QED, finding good agreement with other standard calculations. New results on the phase transition of compact QED with massless fermions on 6 4 and 8 4 lattices are also presented

  15. Krein Spectral Triples and the Fermionic Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungen, Koen van den

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the space of spinors on a Lorentzian manifold, we define Krein spectral triples, which generalise spectral triples from Hilbert spaces to Krein spaces. This Krein space approach allows for an improved formulation of the fermionic action for almost-commutative manifolds. We show by explicit calculation that this action functional recovers the correct Lagrangians for the cases of electrodynamics, the electro-weak theory, and the Standard Model. The description of these examples does not require a real structure, unless one includes Majorana masses, in which case the internal spaces also exhibit a Krein space structure.

  16. Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm with fat link fermion actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in lattice fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as flat link irrelevant clover (FLIC) fermions. The FLIC fermion formalism makes use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarization is often performed using an iterative maximization of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants. The necessary equations of motion for FLIC fermions are derived, and some initial simulation results are presented. The technique is more general however, and is straightforwardly applicable to other smearing techniques or fat link actions

  17. Scaling study of an improved fermion action on quenched lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Yong-Gwi; Noaki, Jun-Ichi; Kaneko, Takashi; Jüttner, Andreas; Tsang, Justus; Marinkovic, Marina

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling studies for heavy-quark observables calculated with an $O(a^2)$-improved fermion action on tree-level Symanzik improved gauge configurations. Lattices of $1/a = $ 2.0-3.8 GeV with an equal physical volume 1.6 fm are used. The results are compared with the standard domain-wall and naive Wilson fermions.

  18. Chiral fermion action with (8,0) worldsheet supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Sokatchev, E.

    1994-06-01

    We propose an action describing chiral fermions with an arbitrary gauge group and with manifest (8,0) worldsheet supersymmetry. The form of the action is inspired by and adapted for completing the twistor-like formulation of the D=10 heterotic superstring. (orig.)

  19. Novel fat-link fermion actions for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti, J.; Bilson-Thompson, S.; Bonnet, F.; Leinweber, D.; Melnitchouk, W.; Williams, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We are currently exploring new ideas for lattice fermion actions. Naive implementations of fermion actions encounter the well known fermion-doubling problem. In order to solve this problem, Wilson introduced an irrelevant (energy) dimension-five operator (the so-called Wilson term) which explicitly breaks chiral symmetry. The scaling properties of this Wilson action can be improved by introducing any number of irrelevant operators of increasing dimension which also vanish in the continuum limit. In this manner, one can improve fermion actions at finite 'a' by combining operators to eliminate O(a) and perhaps O(a 2 ) errors etc. A popular formulation of a lattice fermion action that achieves this is the Clover action which removes the O(a) error introduced by the Wilson term by introducing an additional irrelevant dimension-five operator. The Clover action can be O(a) improved to all orders in the strong coupling 'g'. While the Clover action displays excellent scaling, it is responsible for revealing the exceptional configuration problem where the quark propagator encounters singular behaviour particularly as the quark mass becomes small. Moreover, its free dispersion relation between energy and momentum is unchanged from the standard Wilson action dispersion and shows a continuum like behaviour only for relatively small momenta [F. X. Lee and D. B. Leinweber, Phys. Rev. D59, 074504 (1999), hep-lat/9711044]. Finally, significant chiral symmetry breaking is apparent as the renormalised quark mass differs significantly from the bare mass of the theory. Hence we propose a different approach to fermion action improvement. One in which the additive renormalisations become small while expressing good chiral behaviour. This can be achieved through the consideration of 'fat-link' fermion actions [T. DeGrand (the MILC collaboration, Phys. Rev. D60, 094501 (1999)]. Fat links are created by averaging or smearing links on the lattice with their nearest neighbours in

  20. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs

  2. Negative-Parity Baryon Masses Using O(a)-improved Fermion Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gockeler; R. Horsley; D. Pleiter; P.E.L. Rakow; G. Schierholz; C.M. Maynard; D.G. Richards

    2001-06-01

    We present a calculation of the mass of the lowest-lying negative-parity J=1/2{sup {minus}} state in quenched QCD. Results are obtained using a non-perturbatively {Omicron}(a)-improved clover fermion action, and a splitting found between the masses of the nucleon, and its parity partner. The calculation is performed on two lattice volumes, and at three lattice spacings, enabling a study of both finite-volume and finite lattice-spacing uncertainties. A comparison is made with results obtained using the unimproved Wilson fermion action.

  3. Strong coupling QED with two fermionic flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.C.

    1990-11-01

    We report the recent results of our simulation of strong coupling QED, with non-compact action, on lattices 10{sup 4} and 16{sup 4}. Since we are dealing with two staggered fermionic flavors, we use hybrid algorithm to do the simulation. In addition to the measurement of the chiral order parameter {l angle}{bar {psi}}{psi}{r angle}, we also measure magnetic monopole susceptibility, {chi}, throughout the region of chiral transition. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Perturbative calculations for the HISQ action: the gluon action at Ο(Nfαsa2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, A.; Hippel, G.M. von; Horgan, R.R.

    2008-08-01

    We present a new (and general) algorithm for deriving lattice Feynman rules which is capable of handling actions as complex as the Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) action. This enables us to perform a perturbative calculation of the influence of dynamical HISQ fermions on the perturbative improvement of the gluonic action in the same way as we have previously done for asqtad fermions. We find the fermionic contributions to the radiative corrections in the Luescher-Weisz gauge action to be somewhat larger for HISQ fermions than for asqtad. (orig.)

  5. Perturbative calculations for the HISQ action. The gluon action at O(N{sub f}{alpha}{sub s}a{sup 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Hippel, G.M. von [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Horgan, R.R. [DAMTP, CMS, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    We present a new (and general) algorithm for deriving lattice Feynman rules which is capable of handling actions as complex as the Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) action. This enables us to perform a perturbative calculation of the influence of dynamical HISQ fermions on the perturbative improvement of the gluonic action in the same way as we have previously done for asqtad fermions. We find the fermionic contributions to the radiative corrections in the Luescher-Weisz gauge action to be somewhat larger for HISQ fermions than for asqtad. (orig.)

  6. Actions and fermionic symmetries for D-branes in bosonic backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marolf, Donald; Martucci, Luca; Silva, Pedro J.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we derive the full interacting effective actions for supersymmetric D-branes in arbitrary bosonic type II supergravity backgrounds. The actions are presented in terms of component fields up to second order in fermions. As one expects, the actions are built from the supercovariant derivative operator and the κ -symmetry projector. The results take a compact and elegant form exhibiting κ-symmetry, as well as supersymmetry in a background with Killing spinors. We give the explicit transformation rules for these symmetries in all cases, including the M2-brane. As an example, we analyze the N = 2 super-worldvolume field theory defined by a test D4-brane in the supergravity background produced by a large number of D0-branes. This example displays rigid supersymmetry in a curved spacetime. (author)

  7. Dynamical fermions in lattice quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Kalman

    2007-01-01

    The thesis presentS results in Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) with dynamical lattice fermions. The topological susceptibilty in QCD is determined, the calculations are carried out with dynamical overlap fermions. The most important properties of the quark-gluon plasma phase of QCD are studied, for which dynamical staggered fermions are used. (orig.)

  8. Dynamical fermions in lattice quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Kalman

    2007-07-01

    The thesis presentS results in Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) with dynamical lattice fermions. The topological susceptibilty in QCD is determined, the calculations are carried out with dynamical overlap fermions. The most important properties of the quark-gluon plasma phase of QCD are studied, for which dynamical staggered fermions are used. (orig.)

  9. Exact pseudofermion action for Monte Carlo simulation of domain-wall fermion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an exact pseudofermion action for hybrid Monte Carlo simulation (HMC of one-flavor domain-wall fermion (DWF, with the effective 4-dimensional Dirac operator equal to the optimal rational approximation of the overlap-Dirac operator with kernel H=cHw(1+dγ5Hw−1, where c and d are constants. Using this exact pseudofermion action, we perform HMC of one-flavor QCD, and compare its characteristics with the widely used rational hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm (RHMC. Moreover, to demonstrate the practicality of the exact one-flavor algorithm (EOFA, we perform the first dynamical simulation of the (1+1-flavors QCD with DWF.

  10. Fermion production despite fermion number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, W.; Hetrick, J.E.; Smit, J.

    1995-01-01

    Lattice proposals for a nonperturbative formulation of the Standard Model easily lead to a global U(1) symmetry corresponding to exactly conserved fermion number. The absence of an anomaly in the fermion current would then appear to inhibit anomalous processes, such as electroweak baryogenesis in the early universe. One way to circumvent this problem is to formulate the theory such that this U(1) symmetry is explicitly broken. However we argue that in the framework of spectral flow, fermion creation and annihilation still in fact occurs, despite the exact fermion number conservation. The crucial observation is that fermions are excitations relative to the vacuum, at the surface of the Dirac sea. The exact global U(1) symmetry prohibits a state from changing its fermion number during time evolution, however nothing prevents the fermionic ground state from doing so. We illustrate our reasoning with a model in two dimensions which has axial-vector couplings, first using a sharp momentum cutoff, then using the lattice regulator with staggered fermions. The difference in fermion number between the time evolved state and the ground state is indeed in agreement with the anomaly. Both the sharp momentum cutoff and the lattice regulator break gauge invariance. In the case of the lattice model a mass counterterm for the gauge field is sufficient to restore gauge invariance in the perturbative regime. A study of the vacuum energy shows however that the perturbative counterterm is insufficient in a nonperturbative setting and that further quartic counterterms are needed. For reference we also study a closely related model with vector couplings, the Schwinger model, and we examine the emergence of the θ-vacuum structure of both theories. ((orig.))

  11. Nucleon structure from mixed action calculations using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bratt, J.D.; Engelhardt, M.; Hagler, Ph.; Lin, H.W.; Lin, M.F.; Meyer, H.B.; Musch, B.; Negele, J.W.; Orginos, K.; Pochinsky, A.V.; Procura, M.; Richards, D.G.; Schroers, W.; Syritsyn, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    We present high statistics results for the structure of the nucleon from a mixed-action calculation using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions. We perform extrapolations of our data based on different chiral effective field theory schemes and compare our results with available information from phenomenology. We discuss vector and axial form factors of the nucleon, moments of generalized parton distributions, including moments of forward parton distributions, and implications for the decomposition of the nucleon spin.

  12. Nucleon structure from mixed action calculations using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratt, Jonathan; Engelhardt, Michael; Haegler, Philipp; Huey-Wen, Lin; Lin, Meifeng; Meyer, Harvey; Musch, Bernhard; Negele, John; Orginos, Konstantinos; Pochinsky, Andrew; Procura, Massimiliano; Richards, David; Schroers, Wolfram; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2010-11-01

    We present high statistics results for the structure of the nucleon from a mixed-action calculation using 2+1 flavors of asqtad sea and domain wall valence fermions. We perform extrapolations of our data based on different chiral effective field theory schemes and compare our results with available information from phenomenology. We discuss vector and axial form factors of the nucleon, moments of generalized parton distributions, including moments of forward parton distributions, and implications for the decomposition of the nucleon spin.

  13. The symplectic fermion ribbon quasi-Hopf algebra and the SL(2,Z)-action on its centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farsad, Vanda

    2017-06-14

    This thesis is concerned with ''N pairs of symplectic fermions'' which are examples of logarithmic conformal field theories in two dimensions. The mathematical language of two-dimensional conformal field theories (on Riemannian surfaces of genus zero) are vertex operator algebras. The representation category of the even part of the symplectic fermion vertex operator super-algebra Rep V{sub ev} is conjecturally a factorisable finite ribbon tensor category. This determines an isomorphism of projective representations between two SL(2,Z)-actions associated to V{sub ev}. The first action is obtained by modular transformations on the space of so-called pseudo-trace functions of a vertex operator algebra. For V{sub ev} this was developed by A.M.Gaberdiel and I. Runkel. For the action one uses that Rep V{sub ev} is conjecturally a factorisable finite ribbon tensor category and thus carries a projective SL(2,Z)-action on a certain Hom-space [Ly1,Ly2,KL]. To do so we calculate the SL(2,Z)-action on the representation category of a general factorisable quasi-Hopf algebras. Then we show that Rep V{sub ev} is conjecturally ribbon equivalent to Rep Q, for Q a factorisable quasi-Hopf algebra, and calculate the SL(2,Z)-action explicitly on Rep Q. The result is that the two SL(2,Z)-action indeed agree. This poses the first example of such comparison for logarithmic conformal field theories.

  14. High temperature QCD with three flavors of improved staggered quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Burch, T.; Tar, C.E. de; Gottlieb, Steven; Gregory, Eric; Heller, U.M.; Osborn, J.; Sugar, R.L.; Toussaint, D.

    2003-01-01

    We present an update of our study of high temperature QCD with three flavors of quarks, using a Symanzik improved gauge action and the Asqtad staggered quark action. Simulations are being carried out on lattices with N t = 4, 6 and 8 for the case of three degenerate quarks with masses less than or equal to the strange quark mass, m s and on lattices with N t = 6 and 8 for degenerate up and down quarks with masses in the range 0.2m s ≤ m u,d ≤ 0.6m s and the strange quark fixed near its physical value. We also report on first computations of quark number susceptibilities with the Asqtad action. These susceptibilities are of interest because they can be related to event-by-event fluctuations in heavy ion collision experiments. Use of the improved quark action leads to a substantial reduction in lattice artifacts. This can be seen already for free fermions and carries over into our results for QCD

  15. Dynamical FLIC fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, W.; Leinweber, D.B.; Williams, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. The FLIC fermion formalism makes use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard. Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants

  16. Direct construction of the effective action of chiral gauge fermions in the anomalous sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcedo, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The anomaly implies an obstruction to a fully chiral covariant calculation of the effective action in the abnormal-parity sector of chiral theories. The standard approach then is to reconstruct the anomalous effective action from its covariant current. In this work, we use a recently introduced formulation which allows one to directly construct the non-trivial chiral invariant part of the effective action within a fully covariant formalism. To this end we develop an appropriate version of Chan's approach to carry out the calculation within the derivative expansion. The result to four derivatives, i.e., to leading order in two and four dimensions and next-to-leading order in two dimensions, is explicitly worked out. Fairly compact expressions are found for these terms. (orig.)

  17. Exact effective action for (1+1)-dimensional fermions in an Abelian background at finite temperature and chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, Soraya G.; Perez, Silvana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects of a nonzero chemical potential in (1+1)-dimensional quantum field models at finite temperature. We particularly consider massless fermions in an Abelian gauge field background and calculate the effective action by evaluating the n-point functions. We find that the structure of the amplitudes corresponds to a generalization of the structure noted earlier in a calculation without a chemical potential (the associated integrals carry the dependence on the chemical potential). Our calculation shows that the chiral anomaly is unaffected by the presence of a chemical potential at finite temperature. However, unlike in the absence of a chemical potential, odd point functions do not vanish. We trace this to the fact that in the presence of a chemical potential the generalized charge conjugation symmetry of the theory allows for such amplitudes. In fact, we find that all the even point functions are even functions of μ, while the odd point functions are odd functions of μ which is consistent with this generalized charge conjugation symmetry. We show that the origin of the structure of the amplitudes is best seen from a formulation of the theory in terms of left- and right-handed spinors. The calculations are also much simpler in this formulation and it clarifies many other aspects of the theory.

  18. Staggered Pairing Phenomenology for UBe_13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martisovits, V.; Cox, D. L.

    1998-03-01

    The staggered-pairing Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology based upon Cooper pairs with a finite center-of-mass momentum was previously applied to the hexagonal heavy-fermion superconductors UPt_3,(R. Heid, Ya. B. Bazaliy, V. Martisovits, and D. L. Cox, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 2571 (1995). UPd_2Al_3, and UNi_2Al_3.(V. Martisovits and D. L. Cox (to be published); Report No. cond-mat/9706245.) Here we apply this phenomenology to study the cubic heavy-fermion superconductor UBe_13. We find the momentum of Cooper pairs to be at X points on the Brillouin-zone boundary and identify a three-component superconducting order parameter transforming as an X-point irreducible representation of the space group. Minimizing the free energy, we find possible superconducting phases and the upper critical field H_c2. We investigate coupling to strain fields and the possibility of magnetic order and charge-density waves induced by superconductivity. To explain multiple superconducting phases in the temperature-thorium-concentration phase diagram of U_1-xTh_xBe_13, we model the influence of thorium in terms of random tetragonal strain fields.

  19. High-loop perturbative renormalization constants for Lattice QCD (II): three-loop quark currents for tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and nf =2 Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.; Di Renzo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory was able to get three- (and even four-) loop results for finite Lattice QCD renormalization constants. More recently, a conceptual and technical framework has been devised to tame finite size effects, which had been reported to be significant for (logarithmically) divergent renormalization constants. In this work we present three-loop results for fermion bilinears in the Lattice QCD regularization defined by tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and n f =2 Wilson fermions. We discuss both finite and divergent renormalization constants in the RI'-MOM scheme. Since renormalization conditions are defined in the chiral limit, our results also apply to Twisted Mass QCD, for which non-perturbative computations of the same quantities are available. We emphasize the importance of carefully accounting for both finite lattice space and finite volume effects. In our opinion the latter have in general not attracted the attention they would deserve. (orig.)

  20. Hadron masses in lattice gauge theories: The inclusions of dynamical fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hadron masses are calculated on an 8 3 /times/ 16 lattice using four flavors of staggered fermion to generate the gauge configurations, but using Wilson fermions to calculate the hadron propagators. The identification of a value of the Wilson hopping parameter with the value of the bare quark mass used in the simulations is discussed

  1. Staggering but not knocked out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-11-01

    Italy's PV market is staggering like a boxer almost knocked out. It has been hit hard by the country's deep economic recession. Conto Energia V has been yet another blow with cuts of up to 40 % in the solar feed-in tariffs. But the situation is not hopeless.

  2. Taste changing in staggered quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin Mason

    2004-01-01

    The authors present results from a systematic perturbative investigation of taste-changing in improved staggered quarks. They show one-loop taste-changing interactions can be removed perturbatively by an effective four-quark term and calculate the necessary coefficients

  3. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytoelae, Kalle; Ridout, David

    2009-06-01

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)

  4. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kytölä, Kalle; Ridout, David

    2009-12-01

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be nondiagonalizable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank 2. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the "left module," and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the "right module." Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centers on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension 0, 1, or 2, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulas as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit.

  5. On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kytoelae, Kalle [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Ridout, David [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)

  6. Heavy-light semileptonic decays in staggered chiral perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, C.; Bernard, C.

    2007-07-01

    We calculate the form factors for the semileptonic decays of heavy-light pseudoscalar mesons in partially quenched staggered chiral perturbation theory (SχPT), working to leading order in 1/mQ, where mQ is the heavy-quark mass. We take the light meson in the final state to be a pseudoscalar corresponding to the exact chiral symmetry of staggered quarks. The treatment assumes the validity of the standard prescription for representing the staggered “fourth-root trick” within SχPT by insertions of factors of 1/4 for each sea-quark loop. Our calculation is based on an existing partially quenched continuum chiral perturbation theory calculation with degenerate sea quarks by Bećirević, Prelovsek, and Zupan, which we generalize to the staggered (and nondegenerate) case. As a byproduct, we obtain the continuum partially quenched results with nondegenerate sea quarks. We analyze the effects of nonleading chiral terms, and find a relation among the coefficients governing the analytic valence mass dependence at this order. Our results are useful in analyzing lattice computations of form factors B→π and D→K, when the light quarks are simulated with the staggered action.

  7. Non-perturbative renormalization in coordinate space for N{sub f}=2 maximally twisted mass fermions with tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof, E-mail: krzysztof.cichy@desy.de [NIC, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Jansen, Karl, E-mail: karl.jansen@desy.de [NIC, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Korcyl, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.korcyl@desy.de [NIC, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-12-11

    We present results of a Lattice QCD application of a coordinate space renormalization scheme for the extraction of renormalization constants for flavour non-singlet bilinear quark operators. The method consists in the analysis of the small-distance behaviour of correlation functions in Euclidean space and has several theoretical and practical advantages, in particular: it is gauge invariant, easy to implement and has relatively low computational cost. The values of renormalization constants in the X-space scheme can be converted to the MS{sup Macron} scheme via 4-loop continuum perturbative formulae. Our results for N{sub f}=2 maximally twisted mass fermions with tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action are compared to the ones from the RI-MOM scheme and show full agreement with this method.

  8. Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierl, Dieter

    2008-05-15

    In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)

  9. Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierl, Dieter

    2008-05-01

    In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the Θ + pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)

  10. Fermion frontiers in vector lattice gauge theories: Proceedings. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The inclusion of fermions into simulations of lattice gauge theories is very difficult both theoretically and numerically. With the presence of Teraflops-scale computers for lattice gauge theory, the authors wanted a forum to discuss new approaches to lattice fermions. The workshop concentrated on approaches which are ripe for study on such large machines. Although lattice chiral fermions are vitally important to understand, there is not technique at hand which is viable on these Teraflops-scale machines for real-world problems. The discussion was therefore focused on recent developments and future prospects for QCD-like theories. For the well-known fermion formulations, the Aoki phase in Wilson fermions, novelties of U A (1) symmetry and the η' for staggered fermions and new approaches for simulating the determinant for Wilson fermions were discussed. The newer domain-wall fermion formulation was reviewed, with numerical results given by many speakers. The fermion proposal of Friedberg, Lee and Pang was introduced. They also were able to compare and contrast the dependence of QCD and QCD-like SUSY theories on the number of quark flavors. These proceedings consist of several transparencies and a summary page from each speaker. This should serve to outline the major points made in each talk

  11. Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffler, David

    2015-07-20

    The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking

  12. FLIC-overlap fermions and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, W.; Kusterer, D.J.; Leinweber, D.B.; Williams, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    APE smearing the links in the irrelevant operators of clover fermions (Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermions) provides significant improvement in the condition number of the Hermitian-Dirac operator and gives rise to a factor of two savings in computing the overlap operator. This report investigates the effects of using a highly-improved definition of the lattice field-strength tensor F μν in the fermion action, made possible through the use of APE-smeared fat links in the construction of the irrelevant operators. Spurious double-zero crossings in the spectral flow of the Hermitian-Wilson Dirac operator associated with lattice artifacts at the scale of the lattice spacing are removed with FLIC fermions composed with an O(α 4 )-improved lattice field strength tensor. Hence, FLIC-Overlap fermions provide an additional benefit to the overlap formalism: a correct realization of topology in the fermion sector on the lattice

  13. Wilson Fermions with Four Fermion Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    We present a lattice study of a four fermion theory, known as Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) theory, via Wilson fermions. Four fermion interactions naturally occur in several extensions of the Standard Model as a low energy parameterisation of a more fundamental theory. In models of dynamical electroweak...

  14. Wilson fermion determinant in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the contraction formula for the fermion matrix is explained. The contraction formula is partly executed analytically only for the imaginary time component of the fermion matrices. It is utilized because the fermion matrices calculations are executed very effectively and it is also possible to get the analytical representation of the chemical potential. It is often used in the simulations of the finite density lattice QCD. The method to analytically calculate the imaginary time component of the fermion matrices is described in the case of fermion action called as the Wilson fermion. To explain the situation, the meaning of QCD, its non-perturbative properties, the sign problem of the quark chemical potentials etc. are mentioned. Then it is explained 'Why the fermion matrices are considered?' Then in the overall contraction formula explanation of the Wilson fermion matrices, the structure of the fermion matrices is described and the matrices calculations by using the exchange matrices are shown. The physical meaning of the contraction formula is given at the end. Finally some examples of the applications of this method are related for explanation. (S. Funahashi)

  15. Two-body spectra of pseudoscalar mesons with an O(a2)-improved lattice action using Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiebig, H.R.; Mihaly, A.; Woloshyn, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    We extend our calculations with the second-order tree-level and tadpole improved next-nearest-neighbor action to meson-meson systems. Correlation matrices built from interpolating fields representing two pseudoscalar mesons (π-π) with relative momenta vector-p are diagonalized, and the mass spectrum is extracted. Link variable fuzzing and operator smearing at both sinks and sources is employed. Calculations are presented for two values of the hopping parameter. The spectrum is used to discuss the residual interaction in the meson-meson system. (orig.)

  16. Two-body spectra of pseudoscalar mesons with an O(a{sup 2})-improved lattice action using Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebig, H.R. [FIU-University Park, Miami, FL (United States). Phys. Dept.; Markum, H.; Rabitsch, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Mihaly, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Lajos Kossuth University, 4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Woloshyn, R.M. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    1998-04-01

    We extend our calculations with the second-order tree-level and tadpole improved next-nearest-neighbor action to meson-meson systems. Correlation matrices built from interpolating fields representing two pseudoscalar mesons ({pi}-{pi}) with relative momenta vector-p are diagonalized, and the mass spectrum is extracted. Link variable fuzzing and operator smearing at both sinks and sources is employed. Calculations are presented for two values of the hopping parameter. The spectrum is used to discuss the residual interaction in the meson-meson system. (orig.). 6 refs.

  17. Mirror fermions and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg

    1984-07-01

    Extended supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein theory and family unification all suggest the existence of mirror fermions, with same quantum numbers but opposite helicities from ordinary fermions. The laboratory and especially cosmological implications of such particles are reviewed and summarized. (author)

  18. Realistic split fermion models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wall fermions, namely, a bulk scalar field with non-trivial VEV that couples to the fermions. In addition, the ... yields the flavor hierarchy. We consider a model with two scalar fields that couple to the fermions [5]. .... model will correctly reproduce the quark flavor parameters the following relation should hold [2]:. Γ-1Щmax ~03.

  19. Composite vectorlike fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan A. Dobrescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We study a dynamical mechanism that generates a composite vectorlike fermion, formed by the binding of an N-tuplet of elementary chiral fermions to an N-tuplet of scalars. Deriving the properties of the composite fermion in the large N limit, we show that its mass is much smaller than the compositeness scale when the binding coupling is near a critical value. We compute the contact interactions involving four composite fermions, and find that their coefficients scale as 1/N. Physics beyond the Standard Model may include composite vectorlike fermions arising from this mechanism.

  20. Continuum-limit scaling of overlap fermions as valence quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Herdoiza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2009-10-15

    We present the results of a mixed action approach, employing dynamical twisted mass fermions in the sea sector and overlap valence fermions, with the aim of testing the continuum limit scaling behaviour of physical quantities, taking the pion decay constant as an example. To render the computations practical, we impose for this purpose a fixed finite volume with lattice size L{approx}1.3 fm. We also briefly review the techniques we have used to deal with overlap fermions. (orig.)

  1. Amplified fermion production from overpopulated Bose fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, J.; Gelfand, D.; Sexty, D.

    2014-01-01

    We study the real-time dynamics of fermions coupled to scalar fields in a linear sigma model, which is often employed in the context of preheating after inflation or as a low-energy effective model for quantum chromodynamics. We find a dramatic amplification of fermion production in the presence of highly occupied bosonic quanta for weak as well as strong effective couplings. For this we consider the range of validity of different methods: lattice simulations with male/female fermions, the mode functions approach and the quantum 2PI effective action with its associated kinetic theory. For strongly coupled fermions we find a rapid approach to a Fermi-Dirac distribution with time-dependent temperature and chemical potential parameters, while the bosons are still far from equilibrium.

  2. Interacting composite fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    nrc762, nrc762

    2016-01-01

    dominates. The interaction between composite fermions in the second Λ level (composite fermion analog of the electronic Landau level) satisfies this property, and recent studies have supported unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect of composite fermions at ν∗=4/3 and 5/3, which manifests...... are conventional. The underlying reason is that the interaction between composite fermions depends substantially on both the number and the direction of the vortices attached to the electrons. I also study in detail the states with different spin polarizations at 6/17 and 6/7 and predict the critical Zeeman...

  3. Lattice degeneracies of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszillier, H.

    1983-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the minimal degeneracies of geometric (Kaehler) fermions on all the lattices of maximal symmetries in n = 1, ..., 4 dimensions. We also determine the isolated orbits of the maximal symmetry groups, which are related to the minimal numbers of ''naive'' fermions on the reciprocals of these lattices. It turns out that on the self-reciprocal lattices the minimal numbers of naive fermions are equal to the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions. The description we give relies on the close connection of the maximal lattice symmetry groups with (affine) Weyl groups of root systems of (semi-) simple Lie algebras. (orig.)

  4. Worldline path integrals for fermions with general couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hoker, E.; Gagne, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    We derive a worldline path integral representation for the effective action of a multiplet of Dirac fermions coupled to the most general set of matrix-valued scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, axial vector and antisymmetric tensor background fields. By representing internal degrees of freedom in terms of worldline fermions as well, we obtain a formulation which manifestly exhibits chiral gauge invariance. (orig.)

  5. Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruschke, Jens

    2010-06-16

    The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio

  6. Fan Stagger Angle for Dirt Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Rose, Becky E. (Inventor); Brilliant, Lisa I. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, a propulsor coupled to be rotated about an axis by the turbine through the spool, and a gear assembly coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extend from the hub. Each of the propulsor blades has a span between a root at the hub and a tip, and a chord between a leading edge and a trailing edge. The chord forms a stagger angle alpha with the axis, and the stagger angle alpha is less than 15 deg. at a position along the propulsor blade that is within an inboard 20% of the span.

  7. Staggered broad-band reflecting multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, O S; Liddell, H M

    1966-03-01

    Considerable broadening of the reflectance band of a multilayer stack may be obtained by staggering the layer thicknesses in such a way that they form either an arithmetic or geometric progression. Results are shown for asymmetric and symmetric filters of 15, 25, and 35 layers. The presence of the narrowband transmission peaks exhibited by the symmetric filters is explained, and the advantages of the use of this type of filter as an interference filter is discussed.

  8. Arbitrary spin fermions on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullinaria, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lattice actions are constructed for free Dirac and Majorana fermions of arbitrary (half-integer) spin various extensions of the spin 1/2 Kogut-Susskind, Kaehler and Wilson formalisms. In each case, the spectrum degeneracy and preservation of gauge invariance is analysed, and the equivalence or non-equivalence to previously constructed actions is determined. The Kogut-Susskind and lattice Kaehler actions are then written explicitly in terms of spinors to demonstrate how the degenerate fermions couple on the lattice and how the original spinorial actions are recovered (or to recovered) in the continuum limit. Both degenerate and non-degenerate mass terms are dealt with and the various U(1) invariances of the lattice actions are pointed out

  9. Fermion masses and multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1986-01-01

    A general survey and analysis of fermion masses is presented in terms of both the known low energy gauge structure and of the simplest GUT structure. The replication of fermion families is discussed in the context of possible family group structures. Sample family gauge groups are presented in the cases of three and four chiral families, using ABJ and Witten anomalies to restrict the maximal gauged family group. The possible relevance of the family group to the fermion mass hierarchy is discussed in the context of various models. (author)

  10. Fermion bag approach to Hamiltonian lattice field theories in continuous time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Emilie; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2017-12-01

    We extend the idea of fermion bags to Hamiltonian lattice field theories in the continuous time formulation. Using a class of models we argue that the temperature is a parameter that splits the fermion dynamics into small spatial regions that can be used to identify fermion bags. Using this idea we construct a continuous time quantum Monte Carlo algorithm and compute critical exponents in the 3 d Ising Gross-Neveu universality class using a single flavor of massless Hamiltonian staggered fermions. We find η =0.54 (6 ) and ν =0.88 (2 ) using lattices up to N =2304 sites. We argue that even sizes up to N =10 ,000 sites should be accessible with supercomputers available today.

  11. Fermion number in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    1975-01-01

    The two known methods for introducing a conserved fermion number into supersymmetric models are discussed. While the introduction of a conserved fermion number often requires that the Lagrangian be massless or that bosons carry fermion number, a model is discussed in which masses can be introduced via spontaneous symmetry breaking and fermion number is conserved at all stages without assigning fermion number to bosons. (U.S.)

  12. Superstrings fermionic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    1990-06-01

    The solutions proposed by the superstring theory are classified and compared. In order to obtain some of the equivalences, the demonstration is based on the coincidence of the excitation spectrum and the quantum numbers from different states. The fermionic representation of the heterotical strings is discussed. The conformal invariance and the supersymmetric results extended to two dimensions are investigated. Concerning the fermionic strings, the formalism and a phenomenological solution involving three families of quarks, chiral leptons and leptons from the E 6 gauge group are presented. The equivalence between real and complex fermions is discussed. The similarity between some of the solutions of the Wess-Zumino-Witten model and the orbifolds is considered. The formal calculation program developed for reproducing the theory's low energy spectra, in the fermionic string formalism is given [fr

  13. Fermions from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states τ of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p τ amounts to a rotation of the wave function q τ (t)=±√(p τ (t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.

  14. A gauge field theory of fermionic continuous-spin particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekaert, X., E-mail: xavier.bekaert@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity and Strings, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Najafizadeh, M., E-mail: mnajafizadeh@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS, Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kurdistan, 66177-15177 Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Kurdistan, 66177-15177 Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-10

    In this letter, we suggest a local covariant action for a gauge field theory of fermionic Continuous-Spin Particles (CSPs). The action is invariant under gauge transformations without any constraint on both the gauge field and the gauge transformation parameter. The Fang–Fronsdal equations for a tower of massless fields with all half-integer spins arise as a particular limit of the equation of motion of fermionic CSPs.

  15. A gauge field theory of fermionic continuous-spin particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekaert, X.; Najafizadeh, M.; Setare, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we suggest a local covariant action for a gauge field theory of fermionic Continuous-Spin Particles (CSPs). The action is invariant under gauge transformations without any constraint on both the gauge field and the gauge transformation parameter. The Fang–Fronsdal equations for a tower of massless fields with all half-integer spins arise as a particular limit of the equation of motion of fermionic CSPs.

  16. Link fermions in Euclidean lattice gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, R.; Giles, R.; Maturana, G.

    1984-02-15

    The representation of the Wilson lattice fermion propagator as a sum over classical particle trajectories is discussed. A simple generalization of this path sum leads to an extended set of fermion theories characterized by one (or more) additional parameters. Such theories are nonlocal when written in terms of the usual four-component Dirac field. They are more naturally characterized by a local action functional whose degrees of freedom are those of a set of two-component Fermi fields defined on directed links of the lattice. Such lattice fields correspond to the direct product of a four-vector and Dirac spinor. For a suitable choice of parameters, the extended fermion theory offers a precocious approach to the continuum dispersion relation as the lattice spacing goes to zero and is therefore of interest for numerical studies of QCD.

  17. Weakly coupled S=1/2 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains in an effective staggered field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masahiro; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2002-01-01

    We study weakly coupled S=1/2 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains in an effective staggered field. Applying mean-field (MF) theory, spin-wave theory and chain MF (CMF) theory, we can see analytically some effects of the staggered field in this higher dimensional spin system. In particular, when the staggered field and the inter-chain inter-action compete with each other, we conjecture from the MF theory that a nontrivial phase is present. The spin wave theory predicts that the behavior of the gaps induced by a staggered field is different between the competitive case and the non-competitive case. When the inter-chain interactions are weak enough, we can improve the MF phase diagram by using CMF theory and the analytical results of field theories. The ordered phase region predicted by the CMF theory is fairly smaller than one of the MF theory. Cu-benzoate, CuCl 2 · 2DMSO (dimethylsulphoxide), BaCu 2 (Si 1-x Ge x ) 2 O 7 , etc., could be described by our model in enough low temperature. (author)

  18. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.)

  19. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-10-11

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.).

  20. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  1. The Yang-Mills gradient flow and SU(3) gauge theory with 12 massless fundamental fermions in a colour-twisted box

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, C -J David; Ramos, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We perform the step-scaling investigation of the running coupling constant, using the gradient-flow scheme, in SU(3) gauge theory with twelve massless fermions in the fundamental representation. The Wilson plaquette gauge action and massless unimproved staggered fermions are used in the simulations. Our lattice data are prepared at high accuracy, such that the statistical error for the renormalised coupling, g_GF, is at the subpercentage level. To investigate the reliability of the continuum extrapolation, we employ two different lattice discretisations to obtain g_GF. For our simulation setting, the corresponding gauge-field averaging radius in the gradient flow has to be almost half of the lattice size, in order to have this extrapolation under control. We can determine the renormalisation group evolution of the coupling up to g^2_GF ~ 6, before the onset of the bulk phase structure. In this infrared regime, the running of the coupling is significantly slower than the two-loop perturbative prediction, altho...

  2. Fermionic coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescure, Monique; Robert, Didier

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a self-contained and unified presentation of a fermionic coherent state theory with the necessary mathematical details, discussing their definition, properties and some applications. After defining Grassmann algebras, it is possible to get a classical analog for the fermionic degrees of freedom in a quantum system. Following the basic work of Berezin (1966 The Method of Second Quantization (New York: Academic); 1987 Introduction to Superanalysis (Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing Company)), we show that we can compute with Grassmann numbers as we do with complex numbers: derivation, integration, Fourier transform. After that we show that we have quantization formulas for fermionic observables. In particular, there exists a Moyal product formula. As an application, we consider explicit computations for propagators with quadratic Hamiltonians in annihilation and creation operators. We prove a Mehler formula for the propagator and Mehlig-Wilkinson-type formulas for the covariant and contravariant symbols of ‘metaplectic’ transformations for fermionic states. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  3. Fermion Number Fractionization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 8. Fermion Number Fractionization. Kumar Rao Narendra Sahu Prasanta K ... Author Affiliations. Kumar Rao1 Narendra Sahu1 Prasanta K Panigrahi1. Theoretical Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009, India ...

  4. Renormalization of fermion mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiopu, R.

    2007-05-11

    Precision measurements of phenomena related to fermion mixing require the inclusion of higher order corrections in the calculation of corresponding theoretical predictions. For this, a complete renormalization scheme for models that allow for fermion mixing is highly required. The correct treatment of unstable particles makes this task difficult and yet, no satisfactory and general solution can be found in the literature. In the present work, we study the renormalization of the fermion Lagrange density with Dirac and Majorana particles in models that involve mixing. The first part of the thesis provides a general renormalization prescription for the Lagrangian, while the second one is an application to specific models. In a general framework, using the on-shell renormalization scheme, we identify the physical mass and the decay width of a fermion from its full propagator. The so-called wave function renormalization constants are determined such that the subtracted propagator is diagonal on-shell. As a consequence of absorptive parts in the self-energy, the constants that are supposed to renormalize the incoming fermion and the outgoing antifermion are different from the ones that should renormalize the outgoing fermion and the incoming antifermion and not related by hermiticity, as desired. Instead of defining field renormalization constants identical to the wave function renormalization ones, we differentiate the two by a set of finite constants. Using the additional freedom offered by this finite difference, we investigate the possibility of defining field renormalization constants related by hermiticity. We show that for Dirac fermions, unless the model has very special features, the hermiticity condition leads to ill-defined matrix elements due to self-energy corrections of external legs. In the case of Majorana fermions, the constraints for the model are less restrictive. Here one might have a better chance to define field renormalization constants related by

  5. Axial gravity, massless fermions and trace anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonora, L. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); KEK, Tsukuba (Japan). KEK Theory Center; INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cvitan, M.; Giaccari, S.; Stemberga, T. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Prester, P.D. [Rijeka Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Pereira, A.D. [UERJ-Univ. Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; UFF-Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2017-08-15

    This article deals with two main topics. One is odd parity trace anomalies in Weyl fermion theories in a 4d curved background, the second is the introduction of axial gravity. The motivation for reconsidering the former is to clarify the theoretical background underlying the approach and complete the calculation of the anomaly. The reference is in particular to the difference between Weyl and massless Majorana fermions and to the possible contributions from tadpole and seagull terms in the Feynman diagram approach. A first, basic, result of this paper is that a more thorough treatment, taking account of such additional terms and using dimensional regularization, confirms the earlier result. The introduction of an axial symmetric tensor besides the usual gravitational metric is instrumental to a different derivation of the same result using Dirac fermions, which are coupled not only to the usual metric but also to the additional axial tensor. The action of Majorana and Weyl fermions can be obtained in two different limits of such a general configuration. The results obtained in this way confirm the previously obtained ones. (orig.)

  6. Link fermions and dynamically correlated paths for lattice gauge theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, R.C. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Lyman Lab. of Physics); Giles, R.C. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge (USA). Lab. for Nuclear Science); Kessler, D.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA). Theoretical Div.); Maturana, G. (California Univ., Santa Cruz (USA). Physics Dept.)

    1983-07-07

    The calculation of fermion bound states in lattice QCD is discussed from the point of view of the Feynman path integral and the corresponding lattice 'path sum' representation of the fermion propagator. Path sum methods which correlate the trajectories of valence fermion and antifermion constituents of a meson bound state are presented. The resultant Monte Carlo algorithm for the meson propagator samples predominantly those configurations which are expected to be most important for a tightly bound system. Relative to other techniques, this procedure anticipates cancellations due to gauge field averaging, and in addition, allows a more detailed examination of the bound state wavefunction. Inspired by the fermionic path representation of the 2D Ising model, we also introduce a new class of lattice fermion actions with nearest neighbor interactions between Grassman variables associated with links. These link fermions are a simple generalization of Wilson's fermions. They have an additional corner weight parameter which can be adjusted to obtain a much improved dispersion relation for moderate and parge lattice momenta.

  7. Quartet condensation of fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Aseem; Ma, Michael; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2007-10-01

    We investigate quartet condensation in fermion systems with four internal states. This is the generalization of the well known BCS superconductor formed by Cooper pair (CP) condensation. Physical examples include spin-3/2 fermionic atoms, bi-layered systems with electrons and holes, quadra-layer spin polarized electron hole system, and two band electronic system. We derive the Landau Ginzberg (LG) free energy for such system in terms of the CP amplitudes. The LG free energy is found to contain attractive interactions among different types of CP's. This will allow them to form bound states of CP's called Cooper quartets (CQ). Using a variational calculation based on the Bogoliubov inequality, we find that CQ condensation may be favored over pair condensation at low temperature. We also study the pairing structures in such systems when pair condensation is preferred.

  8. Hamiltonian Cycle Enumeration via Fermion-Zeon Convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, G. Stacey

    2017-12-01

    Beginning with a simple graph having finite vertex set V, operators are induced on fermion and zeon algebras by the action of the graph's adjacency matrix and combinatorial Laplacian on the vector space spanned by the graph's vertices. When the graph is simple (undirected with no loops or multiple edges), the matrices are symmetric and the induced operators are self-adjoint. The goal of the current paper is to recover a number of known graph-theoretic results from quantum observables constructed as linear operators on fermion and zeon Fock spaces. By considering an "indeterminate" fermion/zeon Fock space, a fermion-zeon convolution operator is defined whose trace recovers the number of Hamiltonian cycles in the graph. This convolution operator is a quantum observable whose expectation reveals the number of Hamiltonian cycles in the graph.

  9. Fermionic localization of the schwarzian theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Douglas; Witten, Edward

    2017-10-01

    The SYK model is a quantum mechanical model that has been proposed to be holographically dual to a 1 + 1-dimensional model of a quantum black hole. An emergent "gravitational" mode of this model is governed by an unusual action that has been called the Schwarzian action. It governs a reparametrization of a circle. We show that the path integral of the Schwarzian theory is one-loop exact. The argument uses a method of fermionic localization, even though the model itself is purely bosonic.

  10. Estimation of Parameters of CCF with Staggered Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung-Ki; Hong, Sung-Yull

    2006-01-01

    Common cause failures are extremely important in reliability analysis and would be dominant to risk contributor in a high reliable system such as a nuclear power plant. Of particular concern is common cause failure (CCF) that degrades redundancy or diversity implemented to improve a reliability of systems. Most of analyses of parameters of CCF models such as beta factor model, alpha factor model, and MGL(Multiple Greek Letters) model deal a system with a nonstaggered testing strategy. Non-staggered testing is that all components are tested at the same time (or at least the same shift) and staggered testing is that if there is a failure in the first component, all the other components are tested immediately, and if it succeeds, no more is done until the next scheduled testing time. Both of them are applied in the nuclear power plants. The strategy, however, is not explicitly described in the technical specifications, but implicitly in the periodic test procedure. For example, some redundant components particularly important to safety are being tested with staggered testing strategy. Others are being performed with non-staggered testing strategy. This paper presents the parameter estimator of CCF model such as beta factor model, MGL model, and alpha factor model with staggered testing strategy. In addition, a new CCF model, rho factor model, is proposed and its parameter is presented with staggered testing strategy

  11. Running coupling in SU(2) gauge theory with two adjoint fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Rantalaiho, Teemu; Rummukainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    We study SU(2) gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation of the gauge group on the lattice. Using clover improved Wilson fermion action with hypercubic truncated stout smearing we perform simulations at larger coupling than before. We measure the evolution of the coupling...

  12. Fermion masses from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is assumed that the E 8 gauge group of the E 8 x E 8 heterotic superstring can be broken into SO(10) x SU(4). The mass relations among fermions m/sub u//m/sub d/ = m/sub c//m/sub s/ = m/sub t//m/sub b/ and m/sub ν e//m/sub e/ = m/sub ν mu//m/sub μ/ = m/sub ν tau//m/sub tau/ are discussed. 18 refs

  13. BEH fermionic decays

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Asta, Lidia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of a Higgs-like boson by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC, the emphasis has shifted towards measurements of its properties and the search in the less sensitive channels in order to determine whether the new particle is the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson. Of particular importance is the direct observation of the coupling of the Higgs boson to fermions. In this presentation a review of ATLAS and CMS results in the search for the Higgs boson in muon, tau-lepton, b-quark pair decay channels will be given. Moreover, the searches for lepton flavor violating decays will be presented.

  14. Composite fermion mass hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.; Yasue, M.

    1985-01-01

    We discuss a supersymmetric preon model which predicts three families of quarks and leptons. An acceptable mass hierarchy among the three fermion generations arises from a combination of mass protection mechanism due to supersymmetry and chiral symmetry on the one hand, and a hierarchy in the sizes of the composites on the other hand. A metacolor force with a scale Λsub(MC) >> 1 TeV binds the e- and the μ-families while a hypercolor force with a scale Λsub(HC) proportional 1 TeV binds the tau-bamily; it also breaks chiral symmetry dynamically. (orig.)

  15. Gravity and the fermion mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, K.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that gravity generates mass for the fermion. It does so by coupling directly the spinor field. The coupling term is invariant with respect to the electroweak gauge group U(1) SU(2) L . It replaces the fermion mass term mψψ.

  16. Heavy fermion and actinide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    During this period, 1/N expansions have been systematically applied to the calculation of the properties of highly correlated electron systems. These studies include examinations of (a) the class of materials known as heavy fermion semi-conductors, (b) the high energy spectra of heavy fermion systems, and (c) the doped oxide superconductors

  17. The Nucleon Axial Form Factor and Staggered Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Aaron Scott [Chicago U.

    2017-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillation physics is a major research goal of the worldwide particle physics program over the upcoming decade. Many new experiments are being built to study the properties of neutrinos and to answer questions about the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. These experiments need precise theoretical cross sections in order to access fundamental neutrino properties. Neutrino oscillation experiments often use large atomic nuclei as scattering targets, which are challenging for theorists to model. Nuclear models rely on free-nucleon amplitudes as inputs. These amplitudes are constrained by scattering experiments with large nuclear targets that rely on the very same nuclear models. The work in this dissertation is the rst step of a new initiative to isolate and compute elementary amplitudes with theoretical calculations to support the neutrino oscillation experimental program. Here, the eort focuses on computing the axial form factor, which is the largest contributor of systematic error in the primary signal measurement process for neutrino oscillation studies, quasielastic scattering. Two approaches are taken. First, neutrino scattering data on a deuterium target are reanalyzed with a model-independent parametrization of the axial form factor to quantify the present uncertainty in the free-nucleon amplitudes. The uncertainties on the free-nucleon cross section are found to be underestimated by about an order of magnitude compared to the ubiquitous dipole model parametrization. The second approach uses lattice QCD to perform a rst-principles computation of the nucleon axial form factor. The Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) action is employed for both valence and sea quarks. The results presented in this dissertation are computed at physical pion mass for one lattice spacing. This work presents a computation of the axial form factor at zero momentum transfer, and forms the basis for a computation of the axial form factor momentum dependence

  18. Majorana and Majorana-Weyl fermions in lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Teruaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    In various dimensional Euclidean lattice gauge theories, we examine a compatibility of the Majorana decomposition and the charge conjugation property of lattice Dirac operators. In 8n and 1 + 8n dimensions, we find a difficulty to decompose a classical lattice action of the Dirac fermion into a system of the Majorana fermion and thus to obtain a factorized form of the Dirac determinant. Similarly, in 2 + 8n dimensions, there is a difficulty to decompose a classical lattice action of the Weyl fermion into a system of the Majorana-Weyl fermion and thus to obtain a factorized form of the Weyl determinant. Prescriptions based on the overlap formalism do not remove these difficulties. We argue that these difficulties are reflections of the global gauge anomaly associated to the real Weyl fermion in 8n dimensions. For this reason (besides other well-known reasons), a lattice formulation of the N = 1 super Yang-Mills theory in these dimensions is expected to be extremely difficult to find. (author)

  19. Dynamical symmetries for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E 2 ) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and ''exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Low energy fermion number violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    After a brief aside on charge quantization in the standard electroweak theory, I concentrate on various aspects of anomaly induced fermion number violation in the standard model. A critical analysis of the role of sphalerons for the universe's baryon asymmetry is presented and the importance of calculating directly fermion number violating Green's functions is stressed. A physical interpretation of the recent observation of Ringwald, that coherent effects in the electroweak theory lead to catastrophic fermion number violation at 100 TeV, is discussed. Possible quantum effects which might spoil this semi-classical picture are examined

  1. Surface description of QCD with fermionic quark boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The flux sheet description of pure gauge theories proposed by Bardakci and Greensite is extended to include fermionic quark fields defined on the sheet boundaries. The quark fields are sources and sinks of colour flux and the action remains gauge invariant. It is shown that the partition function contains colour singlet contributions with the quantum numbers of mesons, baryons and exotics. (author)

  2. Production of massless fermions during inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Woodard, Richard Paul

    2003-01-01

    We compute the one loop self energy, in a locally de Sitter background, for a massless fermion which is Yukawa-coupled to a massless, minimally coupled scalar. We then solve the modified Dirac equation resulting from inclusion of the self energy. We find faster- than-exponential growth in the fermion wave function, consistent with the production of fermions through a process in which a scalar and a fermion-anti-fermion pair are ripped out of the vacuum by inflation. (author)

  3. Production of Massless Fermions during Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Prokopec, T

    2003-01-01

    We compute the one loop self energy, in a locally de Sitter background, for a massless fermion which is Yukawa-coupled to a massless, minimally coupled scalar. We then solve the modified Dirac equation resulting from inclusion of the self energy. We find faster-than-exponential growth in the fermion wave function, consistent with the production of fermions through a process in which a scalar and a fermion-anti-fermion pair are ripped out of the vacuum by inflation.

  4. Fermion bag approach to the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with Wilson fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Li, Anyi

    2010-01-01

    We explore the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with one flavor of Wilson fermions in four dimensions using the fermion bag formulation. We construct rules to compute the weight of a fermion bag and show that even though the fermions are confined into bosons, fermion bags with negative weights do exist. By classifying fermion bags as either simple or complex, we find numerical evidence that complex bags with positive and negative weights come with almost equal probabilities and th...

  5. The fermion propagator in cosmological spaces with constant deceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koksma, Jurjen F; Prokopec, Tomislav, E-mail: J.F.Koksma@uu.n, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.n [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-06-21

    We calculate the fermion propagator in Friedmann-LemaItre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetimes with constant deceleration q=epsilon-1, epsilon=-H-dot/H{sup 2} for excited states. For fermions whose mass is generated by a scalar field through a Yukawa coupling m = g{sub Y}phi, we assume phi approx H. We first solve the mode functions by splitting the spinor into a direct product of helicity and chirality spinors. We also allow for non-vacuum states. We normalize the spinors using a consistent canonical quantization and by requiring orthogonality of particle and anti-particle spinors. We apply our propagator to calculate the one-loop effective action and renormalize using dimensional regularization. Since the Hubble parameter is now treated dynamically, this paves the way to study the dynamical backreaction of fermions on the background spacetime.

  6. Actinides and heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Ott, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    The actinide series of elements begins with f-shell electrons forming energy bands, contributing to the bonding, and possessing no magnetic moments. At americium the series switches over to localized f electrons with magnetic moments. In metallic compounds this crossover of behavior can be modified and studied. In this continuum of behavior a few compounds on the very edge of localized f-electron behavior exhibit enormous electronic heat capacities at low temperatures. This is associated with an enhanced thermal mass of the conduction electrons, which is well over a hundred times the free electron mass, and is what led to the label heavy fermion for such compounds. A few of these become superconducting at even lower temperatures. The excitement in this field comes from attempting to understand how this heaviness arises and from the likelihood that the superconductivity is different from that of previously known superconductors. The effects of thorium impurities in UBe 13 were studied as a representative system for studying the nature of the superconductivity

  7. Fermion production during and after axion inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adshead, Peter; Sfakianakis, Evangelos I.

    2015-01-01

    We study derivatively coupled fermions in axion-driven inflation, specifically m ϕ 2 ϕ 2 and monodromy inflation, and calculate particle production during the inflationary epoch and the post-inflationary axion oscillations. During inflation, the rolling axion acts as an effective chemical potential for helicity which biases the gravitational production of one fermion helicity over the other. This mechanism allows for efficient gravitational production of heavy fermion states that would otherwise be highly suppressed. Following inflation, the axion oscillates and fermions with both helicities are produced as the effective frequency of the fermion field changes non-adiabatically. For certain values of the fermion mass and axion-fermion coupling strength, the two helicity states are produced asymmetrically, resulting in unequal number-densities of left- and right-helicity fermions

  8. Null-plane quantization of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaki, D.

    1990-01-01

    Massive Dirac fermions are canonically quantized on the null plane using the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm. The procedure is carried out in the framework of quantum electrodynamics as an illustration of a rigorous treatment of interacting fermion fields

  9. Fermionic relatives of Stirling and Lah numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schork, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    In this paper certain 'fermionic' Stirling numbers introduced recently are discussed. Roughly speaking, these numbers are obtained by taking the 'fermionic' limit q →-1 of the q-deformed Stirling numbers. The usual Stirling numbers correspond in this language to the 'bosonic' limit q → 1. It is shown that the fermionic Stirling numbers are given by binomial coefficients and that they satisfy the same relations as the undeformed Stirling numbers. The fermionic relatives of Lah numbers are also very briefly discussed

  10. Reaction mechanisms and staggering in S+Ni collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad.R.

    2011-01-01

    The reactions 32 S+ 58 Ni and 32 S+ 64 Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. After a selection of the collision mechanism, we show that important even-odd effects are present in the isotopic fragment distributions when the excitation energy is small. Close to the multifragmentation threshold this staggering appears hidden by the rapid variation of the production yields with the fragment size. Once this effect is accounted for, the staggering appears to be a universal feature of fragment production, slightly enhanced when the emission source is neutron poor. A closer look at the behavior of the production yields as a function of the neutron excess N-Z, reveals that odd-even effects cannot be explained by pairing effects in the nuclear masses alone, but depend in a more complex way on the de-excitation chain.

  11. LES investigation of infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    The layouts of turbines affect the turbine wake interactions and thus the wind farm performance. The wake interactions in infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays are investigated and compared with infinite aligned turbine arrays in this paper. From the numerical results we identify three types of wake behaviours, which are significantly different from wakes in aligned wind-turbine arrays. For the first type, each turbine wake interferes with the pair of staggered downstream turbine wakes and the aligned downstream turbine. For the second type, each turbine wake interacts with the first two downstream turbine wakes but does not show significant interference with the second aligned downstream turbine. For the third type, each turbine wake recovers immediately after passing through the gap of the first two downstream turbines and has little interaction with the second downstream turbine wakes The extracted power density and power efficiency are also studied and compared with aligned wind-turbine arrays

  12. MILC staggered conjugate gradient performance on Intel KNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruiz [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Detar, Carleton [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Doerfler, Douglas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Jha, Asish [Intel Corp., Hillsboro, OR (United States). Sofware and Services Group; Kalamkar, Dhiraj [Intel Labs., Bangalore (India). Parallel Computing Lab.; Toussaint, Doug [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Physics Dept.

    2016-11-03

    We review our work done to optimize the staggered conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm in the MILC code for use with the Intel Knights Landing (KNL) architecture. KNL is the second gener- ation Intel Xeon Phi processor. It is capable of massive thread parallelism, data parallelism, and high on-board memory bandwidth and is being adopted in supercomputing centers for scientific research. The CG solver consumes the majority of time in production running, so we have spent most of our effort on it. We compare performance of an MPI+OpenMP baseline version of the MILC code with a version incorporating the QPhiX staggered CG solver, for both one-node and multi-node runs.

  13. Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...

  14. On the disordered fermion couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaschi, M.; Cabasino, S.; Marinari, E.; Rome-2 Univ.; Sarno, R.; Rome-1 Univ.

    1989-01-01

    We study the possibility of avoiding the fermion doubling problem by using a random coupling. We use numerical simulations in order to study the theory in the strong disorder region. We find a sharp crossover as a function of the strength of the disorder. For weak quenched disorder we find that the species doubling survives, while for strong quenched disorder only with a particular choice of the random term (antihermitian) it is possible to get a theory that seems to avoid fermion doubling. (orig.)

  15. Fermions as generalized Ising models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We establish a general map between Grassmann functionals for fermions and probability or weight distributions for Ising spins. The equivalence between the two formulations is based on identical transfer matrices and expectation values of products of observables. The map preserves locality properties and can be realized for arbitrary dimensions. We present a simple example where a quantum field theory for free massless Dirac fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space is represented by an asymmetric Ising model on a euclidean square lattice.

  16. An interpretation of staggering effects by correlation observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiocco G.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The reactions 32S+58,64Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for odd-even effects in isotopic observables of the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique, showing that odd-even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.

  17. An optimal staggered harvesting strategy for herbaceous biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, M.G.; English, B.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Biofuel research over the past two decades indicates lignocellulosic crops are a reliable source of feedstock for alternative energy. However, under the current technology of producing, harvesting and converting biomass crops, the cost of biofuel is not competitive with conventional biofuel. Cost of harvesting biomass feedstock is a single largest component of feedstock cost so there is a cost advantage in designing a biomass harvesting system. Traditional farmer-initiated harvesting operation causes over investment. This study develops a least-cost, time-distributed (staggered) harvesting system for example switch grass, that calls for an effective coordination between farmers, processing plant and a single third-party custom harvester. A linear programming model explicitly accounts for the trade-off between yield loss and benefit of reduced machinery overhead cost, associated with the staggered harvesting system. Total cost of producing and harvesting switch grass will decline by 17.94 percent from conventional non-staggered to proposed staggered harvesting strategy. Harvesting machinery cost alone experiences a significant reduction of 39.68 percent from moving from former to latter. The net return to farmers is estimated to increase by 160.40 percent. Per tonne and per hectare costs of feedstock production will decline by 17.94 percent and 24.78 percent, respectively. These results clearly lend support to the view that the traditional system of single period harvesting calls for over investment on agricultural machinery which escalates the feedstock cost. This social loss to the society in the form of escalated harvesting cost can be avoided if there is a proper coordination among farmers, processing plant and custom harvesters as to when and how biomass crop needs to be planted and harvested. Such an institutional arrangement benefits producers, processing plant and, in turn, end users of biofuels.

  18. Multi-boson block factorization of fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusti Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical computations of many quantities of theoretical and phenomenological interest are plagued by statistical errors which increase exponentially with the distance of the sources in the relevant correlators. Notable examples are baryon masses and matrix elements, the hadronic vacuum polarization and the light-by-light scattering contributions to the muon g – 2, and the form factors of semileptonic B decays. Reliable and precise determinations of these quantities are very difficult if not impractical with state-of-the-art standard Monte Carlo integration schemes. I will review a recent proposal for factorizing the fermion determinant in lattice QCD that leads to a local action in the gauge field and in the auxiliary boson fields. Once combined with the corresponding factorization of the quark propagator, it paves the way for multi-level Monte Carlo integration in the presence of fermions opening new perspectives in lattice QCD. Exploratory results on the impact on the above mentioned observables will be presented.

  19. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  20. 2-fermion and 4-fermion production at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    van Vulpen, Ivo B

    2000-01-01

    We present the measurements on 2-fermion and 4-fermion production in e + e - collisions at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 192 to 202 Ge V as collected by the 4 LEP experiments in 1999. For processes with 2-fermions in the final state we present both production cross sections and asymmetries for event samples at low and high effective centre-of-mass energies, where the latter process is sensitive to possible contributions from various non-SM physics, like contact interactions or Z' exchange, and can therefore be used to set limits on parameters in those models. We also report on the measured cross sections for a subset of processes leading to 4 fermions in the final state: pair production of heavy vector bosons w+w- (NC03) and ZZ (NC02) followed by single-W production. A measurement of the leptonic branching ratio of the W-boson is used to extract information on IV c• I

  1. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  2. The continuum limit of causal fermion systems from Planck scale structures to macroscopic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Finster, Felix

    2016-01-01

    This monograph introduces the basic concepts of the theory of causal fermion systems, a recent approach to the description of fundamental physics. The theory yields quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases and is therefore a candidate for a unified physical theory. From the mathematical perspective, causal fermion systems provide a general framework for describing and analyzing non-smooth geometries and "quantum geometries". The dynamics is described by a novel variational principle, called the causal action principle. In addition to the basics, the book provides all the necessary mathematical background and explains how the causal action principle gives rise to the interactions of the standard model plus gravity on the level of second-quantized fermionic fields coupled to classical bosonic fields. The focus is on getting a mathematically sound connection between causal fermion systems and physical systems in Minkowski space. The book is intended for graduate students e...

  3. Fermion mixing in quasifree states

    CERN Document Server

    Hannabuss, K C

    2003-01-01

    Quantum field-theoretic treatments of fermion oscillations are typically restricted to calculations in Fock space. In this letter, we extend the oscillation formulae to include more general quasifree states, and also consider the case when the mixing is not unitary. (letter to the editor)

  4. Sextet Model with Wilson Fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Pica, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    We present new results from our ongoing study of the SU(3) sextet model with two flavors in the two-index symmetric representation of the gauge group. In the simulations use unimproved Wilson fermions to investigate the infrared properties of the model. We have previously presented results...

  5. Lattices, supersymmetry and Kaehler fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that a graded extension of the space group of a (generalised) simple cubic lattice exists in any space dimension, D. The fermionic variables which arise admit a Kaehlerian interpretation. Each graded space group is a subgroup of a graded extension of the appropriate Euclidean group, E(D). The relevance of this to the construction of lattice theories is discussed. (author)

  6. Look-ahead fermion algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, M.

    1986-01-01

    I describe a fast fermion algorithm which utilizes pseudofermion fields but appears to have little or no systematic error. Test simulations on two-dimensional gauge theories are described. A possible justification for the algorithm being exact is discussed. 8 refs

  7. Singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.A.; Kallosh, R.E.; Rahmanov, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate under which conditions singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries which are "square roots of gravity" can exist. Their existence is non-trivial because there are no fields neutral in gravity. We tabulate several examples of singlets of global and local supersymmetry and κ-symmetry and

  8. The Gaussian entropy of fermionic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav, E-mail: T.Prokopec@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Schmidt, Michael G., E-mail: M.G.Schmidt@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg University, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Weenink, Jan, E-mail: J.G.Weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    We consider the entropy and decoherence in fermionic quantum systems. By making a Gaussian Ansatz for the density operator of a collection of fermions we study statistical 2-point correlators and express the entropy of a system fermion in terms of these correlators. In a simple case when a set of N thermalised environmental fermionic oscillators interacts bi-linearly with the system fermion we can study its time dependent entropy, which also represents a quantitative measure for decoherence and classicalization. We then consider a relativistic fermionic quantum field theory and take a mass mixing term as a simple model for the Yukawa interaction. It turns out that even in this Gaussian approximation, the fermionic system decoheres quite effectively, such that in a large coupling and high temperature regime the system field approaches the temperature of the environmental fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct the Gaussian density operator for relativistic fermionic systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Gaussian entropy of relativistic fermionic systems is described in terms of 2-point correlators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explicitly show the growth of entropy for fermionic fields mixing with a thermal fermionic environment.

  9. Ginsparg-Wilson pions scattering in a sea of staggered quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.-W.; O'Connell, Donal; Van de Water, Ruth; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2006-01-01

    We calculate isospin 2 pion-pion scattering in chiral perturbation theory for a partially quenched, mixed action theory with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks and staggered sea quarks. We point out that for some scattering channels, the power-law volume dependence of two-pion states in nonunitary theories such as partially quenched or mixed action QCD is identical to that of QCD. Thus one can extract infinite-volume scattering parameters from mixed action simulations. We then determine the scattering length for both 2 and 2+1 sea quarks in the isospin limit. The scattering length, when expressed in terms of the pion mass and the decay constant measured on the lattice, has no contributions from mixed valence-sea mesons, thus it does not depend upon the parameter, C Mix , that appears in the chiral Lagrangian of the mixed theory. In addition, the contributions which nominally arise from operators appearing in the mixed action O(a 2 m q ) Lagrangian exactly cancel when the scattering length is written in this form. This is in contrast to the scattering length expressed in terms of the bare parameters of the chiral Lagrangian, which explicitly exhibits all the sicknesses and lattice spacing dependence allowed by a partially quenched mixed action theory. These results hold for both 2 and 2+1 flavors of sea quarks

  10. One-Loop Renormalizable Wess-Zumino Model on Bosonic-Fermionic Noncommutative Superspace

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Wang, Xu-Dong

    2014-01-01

    We construct a deformed Wess-Zumino model on the noncommutative superspace where the Bosonic and Fermionic coordinates are no longer commutative with each other. Using the background field method, we calculate the primary one-loop effective action based on the deformed action. By comparing the two actions, we find that the deformed Wess-Zumino model is not renormalizable. To obtain a renormalizable model, we combine the primary one-loop effective action with the deformed action, and then calc...

  11. Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmanaj (Zeqirllari Rudina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks – Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss – Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.

  12. Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanaj (Zeqirllari), Rudina; Hyka (Xhako), Dafina

    2018-03-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks - Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss - Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.

  13. Majorana Fermions, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Born-Infeld Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Yeranyan, Armen

    2015-01-01

    This review is devoted to highlight some aspects of the relevance of Majorana fermions in rigid supersymmetry breaking in four spacetime dimensions. After introducing some basic facts on spinors, and on their symmetries and reality properties, we consider Goldstino actions describing partial breaking of rigid supersymmetry, then focussing on Born-Infeld non-linear theory, its duality symmetry, and its supersymmetric extensions, also including multi-field generalizations exhibiting doubly self-duality.

  14. Heavy-quark meson spectrum tests of the Oktay-Kronfeld action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Jon A.; Lee, Weonjong [Seoul National University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lattice Gauge Theory Research Center, FPRD, and CTP, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); DeTar, Carleton [University of Utah, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Jang, Yong-Chull [Seoul National University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lattice Gauge Theory Research Center, FPRD, and CTP, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Theoretical Division T-2, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kronfeld, Andreas S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Advanced Study, Garching (Germany); Oktay, Mehmet B. [University of Utah, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    The Oktay-Kronfeld (OK) action extends the Fermilab improvement program for massive Wilson fermions to higher order in suitable power-counting schemes. It includes dimension-six and -seven operators necessary for matching to QCD through order O(Λ{sup 3}{sub QCD}/m{sub Q}{sup 3}) in HQET power counting, for applications to heavy-light systems, and O(v{sup 6}) in NRQCD power counting, for applications to quarkonia. In the Symanzik power counting of lattice gauge theory near the continuum limit, the OK action includes all O(a{sup 2}) and some O(a{sup 3}) terms. To assess whether the theoretical improvement is realized in practice, we study combinations of heavy-strange and quarkonia masses and mass splittings, designed to isolate heavy-quark discretization effects. We find that, with one exception, the results obtained with the tree-level-matched OK action are significantly closer to the continuum limit than those obtained with the Fermilab action. The exception is the hyperfine splitting of the bottom-strange system, for which our statistical errors are too large to draw a firm conclusion. These studies are carried out with data generated with the tadpole-improved Fermilab and OK actions on 500 gauge configurations from one of MILC's a ∼ 0.12 fm, N{sub f} = 2 + 1-flavor, asqtad-staggered ensembles. (orig.)

  15. Transport properties of chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhr, Matthias

    2017-04-26

    Anomalous transport phenomena have their origin in the chiral anomaly, the anomalous non-conservation of the axial charge, and can arise in systems with chiral fermions. The anomalous transport properties of free fermions are well understood, but little is known about possible corrections to the anomalous transport coefficients that can occur if the fermions are strongly interacting. The main goal of this thesis is to study anomalous transport effects in media with strongly interacting fermions. In particular, we investigate the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in a Weyl Semimetal (WSM) and the Chiral Separation Effect (CSE) in finite-density Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The recently discovered WSMs are solid state crystals with low-energy excitations that behave like Weyl fermions. The inter-electron interaction in WSMs is typically very strong and non-perturbative calculations are needed to connect theory and experiment. To realistically model an interacting, parity-breaking WSM we use a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian with Wilson-Dirac fermions. This model features a non-trivial phase diagram and has a phase (Aoki phase/axionic insulator phase) with spontaneously broken CP symmetry, corresponding to the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry for interacting continuum Dirac fermions. We use a mean-field ansatz to study the CME in spatially modulated magnetic fields and find that it vanishes in the Aoki phase. Moreover, our calculations show that outside of the Aoki phase the electron interaction has only a minor influence on the CME. We observe no enhancement of the magnitude of the CME current. For our non-perturbative study of the CSE in QCD we use the framework of lattice QCD with overlap fermions. We work in the quenched approximation to avoid the sign problem that comes with introducing a finite chemical potential on the lattice. The overlap operator calls for the evaluation of the sign function of a matrix with a dimension proportional to the volume

  16. Kaon semileptonic decays with $N_f=2+1+1$ HISQ fermions and physical light-quark masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gámiz, E. [Granada U., Theor. Phys. Astrophys.; Bazavov, A. [Brookhaven; Bernard, C. [Washington U., St. Louis; DeTar, C. [Utah U.; Du, D. [Syracuse U.; El-Khadra, A. X. [Illinois U., Urbana; Freeland, E. D. [Art Inst. of Chicago; Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana U.; Heller, U. M. [APS, New York; Komijani, J. [TUM-IAS, Munich; Kronfeld, A. S. [Fermilab; Laiho, J. [Syracuse U.; Mackenzie, P. B. [Fermilab; Neil, E. T. [Colorado U.; Primer, T. [Arizona U.; Simone, J. N. [Fermilab; Sugar, R. [UC, Santa Barbara; Toussaint, D. [Arizona U.; Van de Water, R. S. [Fermilab; Zhou, Ran [Fermilab

    2016-11-13

    We discuss the reduction of errors in the calculation of the form factor $f_+^{K \\pi}(0)$ with HISQ fermions on the $N_f=2+1+1$ MILC configurations from increased statistics on some key ensembles, new data on ensembles with lattice spacings down to 0.042 fm and the study of finite-volume effects within staggered ChPT. We also study the implications for the unitarity of the CKM matrix in the first row and for current tensions with leptonic determinations of $\\vert V_{us}\\vert$.

  17. Search for Majorana Fermions in S-Wave Fermionic Superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    respect to the in-plane Zeeman field. (Right) The quasiparticle excitation at the critical point from normal superfluids to topological superfluids...instead of a normal metal lead can suppress the thermal broadening effects in tunneling conductance from Majorana fermions, helping reveal the quantized...utilizing two additional components: spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman fields. In the last year grant period, we have made the following important

  18. Searches for Fourth Generation Fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    We present the results from searches for fourth generation fermions performed using data samples collected by the CDF II and D0 Detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. Many of these results represent the most stringent 95% C. L. limits on masses of new fermions to-date. A fourth chiral generation of massive fermions with the same quantum numbers as the known fermions is one of the simplest extensions of the SM with three generations. The fourth generation is predicted in a number of theories, and although historically have been considered disfavored, stands in agreement with electroweak precision data. To avoid Z {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}} constraint from LEP I a fourth generation neutrino {nu}{sub 4} must be heavy: m({nu}{sub 4}) > m{sub Z}/2, where m{sub Z} is the mass of Z boson, and to avoid LEP II bounds a fourth generation charged lepton {ell}{sub 4} must have m({ell}{sub 4}) > 101 GeV/c{sup 2}. At the same time due to sizeable radiative corrections masses of fourth generation fermions cannot be much higher the current lower bounds and masses of new heavy quarks t' and b' should be in the range of a few hundred GeV/c{sup 2}. In the four-generation model the present bounds on the Higgs are relaxed: the Higgs mass could be as large as 1 TeV/c{sup 2}. Furthermore, the CP violation is significantly enhanced to the magnitude that might account for the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Additional chiral fermion families can also be accommodated in supersymmetric two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the SM with equivalent effect on the precision fit to the Higgs mass. Another possibility is heavy exotic quarks with vector couplings to the W boson Contributions to radiative corrections from such quarks with mass M decouple as 1/M{sup 2} and easily evade all experimental constraints. At the Tevatron p{bar p} collider 4-th generation chiral or vector-like quarks can be either produced strongly in pairs or singly via electroweak production, where the

  19. Towards an understanding of staggering effects in dissipative binary collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad.R.

    2012-01-01

    The reactions 32 S+ 58,64 Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for important odd–even effects in isotopic observables of selected peripheral collisions corresponding to the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique. It is shown that this method is a powerful tool to get experimental information on the evaporation chain, in order to constrain model calculations. Specifically, we show that odd–even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.

  20. Relativistic time-dependent Fermion-mass renormalization using statistical regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutnink, Timothy; McMurray, Christian; Santrach, Amelia; Hockett, Sarah; Barcus, Scott; Petridis, Athanasios

    2017-09-01

    The time-dependent electromagnetically self-coupled Dirac equation is solved numerically by means of the staggered-leap-frog algorithm with reflecting boundary conditions. The stability region of the method versus the interaction strength and the spatial-grid size over time-step ratio is established. The expectation values of several dynamic operators are then evaluated as functions of time. These include the fermion and electromagnetic energies and the fermion dynamic mass. There is a characteristic, non-exponential, oscillatory dependence leading to asymptotic constants of these expectation values. In the case of the fermion mass this amounts to renormalization. The dependence of the expectation values on the spatial-grid size is evaluated in detail. Furthermore, the contribution of positive and negative energy states to the asymptotic values and the gauge fields is analyzed. Statistical regularization, employing a canonical ensemble whose temperature is the inverse of the grid size, is used to remove the grid-size and momentum-dependence and produce a finite result in the continuum limit.

  1. XFEM Modelling of Multi-holes Plate with Single-row and Staggered Holes Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar Khairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint efficiency is the key to composite structures assembly design, good structures response is dependent upon multi-holes behavior as subjected to remote loading. Current benchmarking work were following experimental testing series taken from literature on multi-holes problem. Eleven multi-hole configurations were investigated with various pitch and gage distance of staggered holes and non-staggered holes (single-row holes. Various failure modes were exhibited, most staggered holes demonstrates staggered crack path but non-staggered holes series displayed crack path along net-section plane. Stress distribution were carried out and good agreement were exhibited in experimental observation as reported in the respective literature. Consequently, strength prediction work were carried out under quasi-static loading, most showed discrepancy between 8% -31%, better prediction were exhibited in thicker and non-staggered holes plate combinations.

  2. Classical field theory with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsanyi, Sz.; Hindmarsh, M.

    2009-01-01

    Classical field theory simulations have been essential for our understanding of non-equilibrium phenomena in particle physics. In this talk we discuss the possible extension of the bosonic classical field theory simulations to include fermions. In principle we use the inhomogeneous mean field approximation as introduced by Aarts and Smit. But in practice we turn from their deterministic technique to a stochastic approach. We represent the fermion field as an ensemble of pairs of spinor fields, dubbed male and female. These c-number fields solve the classical Dirac equation. Our improved algorithm enables the extension of the originally 1+1 dimensional analyses and is suitable for large-scale inhomogeneous settings, like defect networks.

  3. Triplet pairing in fermionic droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, E. Susana; Barranco Gómez, Manuel

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated, in the L-S coupling scheme, the appearance of triplet pairing in fermionic droplets in which a single nl shell is active. The method is applied to a constant-strength model, for which we discuss the different phase transitions that take place as the number of particles in the shell is varied. Drops of 3He atoms can be plausible physical scenarios for the realization of the model.

  4. Composite Nambu-Goldstone fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1983-12-01

    The possibility that quarks and leptons are composite Nambu-Goldstone fermions of spontaneously broken supersymmetry is investigated in the minimal subquark model. The formulas for the quark and lepton masses are derived from the partially conserved supercurrent hypothesis and subquark current algebra. They suggest that there may exist excited quarks and leptons whose masses are relatively small (of order 50 GeV). (author)

  5. Ising ferromagnetism of composite fermions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Výborný, Karel; Čertík, Ondřej; Pfannkuche, D.; Wodzinski, D.; Wójs, A.; Quinn, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 3 (2006), s. 409-415 ISSN 0587-4246 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC510 Grant - others:Ministry of Science and High Eductaion(PL) 1PO3B03330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum Hall ferromagnets * composite fermions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.371, year: 2006

  6. Composite fermions on a torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Songyang; Wu, Ying-Hai; Jain, J. K.

    2017-11-01

    We achieve an explicit construction of the lowest Landau level (LLL) projected wave functions for composite fermions in the periodic (torus) geometry. To this end, we first demonstrate how the vortex attachment of the composite fermion (CF) theory can be accomplished in the torus geometry to produce the "unprojected" wave functions satisfying the correct (quasi)periodic boundary conditions. We then consider two methods for projecting these wave functions into the LLL. The direct projection produces valid wave functions but can be implemented only for very small systems. The more powerful and more useful projection method of Jain and Kamilla fails in the torus geometry because it does not preserve the periodic boundary conditions and thus takes us out of the original Hilbert space. We have succeeded in constructing a modified projection method that is consistent with both the periodic boundary conditions and the general structure of the CF theory. This method is valid for a large class of states of composite fermions, called "proper states," which includes the incompressible ground states at electron filling factors ν =n/2 p n +1 , their charged and neutral excitations, and also the quasidegenerate ground states at arbitrary filling factors of the form ν =ν/*2pν*+1 , where n and p are integers and ν* is the CF filling factor. Comparison with exact results known for small systems for the ground and excited states at filling factors ν =1 /3 , 2/5, and 3/7 demonstrates our LLL-projected wave functions to be extremely accurate representations of the actual Coulomb eigenstates. Our construction enables the study of large systems of composite fermions on the torus, thereby opening the possibility of investigating numerous interesting questions and phenomena.

  7. Fermion pairing and the scalar boson of the 2D conformal anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Daniel N. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States); Carballo-Rubio, Raúl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC),Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Mottola, Emil [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States)

    2014-12-23

    We analyze the phenomenon of fermion pairing into an effective boson associated with anomalies and the anomalous commutators of currents, bilinear in the fermion fields. In two spacetime dimensions the chiral bosonization of the Schwinger model is determined by the chiral current anomaly of massless Dirac fermions. A similar bosonized description applies to the 2D conformal trace anomaly of the fermion stress-energy tensor. For both the chiral and conformal anomalies, correlation functions involving anomalous currents, j{sub 5}{sup μ} or T{sup μν} of massless fermions exhibit a massless boson 1/k{sup 2} pole, and the associated spectral functions obey a UV finite sum rule, becoming δ-functions in the massless limit. In both cases the corresponding effective action of the anomaly is non-local, but may be expressed in a local form by the introduction of a new bosonic field, which becomes a bona fide propagating quantum field in its own right. In both cases this is expressed in Fock space by the anomalous Schwinger commutators of currents becoming the canonical commutation relations of the corresponding boson. The boson has a Fock space operator realization as a coherent superposition of massless fermion pairs, which saturates the intermediate state sums in quantum correlation functions of fermion currents. The Casimir energy of fermions on a finite spatial interval [0,L] can also be described as a coherent scalar condensation of pairs, and the one-loop correlation function of any number n of fermion stress-energy tensors 〈TT…T〉 may be expressed as a combinatoric sum of n!/2 linear tree diagrams of the scalar boson.

  8. New one-flavor hybrid Monte Carlo simulation method for lattice fermions with γ5 hermiticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new method for Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) simulations with odd numbers of dynamical fermions on the lattice. It employs a different approach from polynomial or rational HMC. In this method, γ 5 hermiticity of the lattice Dirac operators is crucial and it can be applied to Wilson, domain-wall, and overlap fermions. We compare HMC simulations with two degenerate flavors and (1+1) degenerate flavors using optimal domain-wall fermions. The ratio of the efficiency, (number of accepted trajectories)/(simulation time), is about 3:2. The relation between pseudofermion action of chirally symmetric lattice fermions in four-dimensional (overlap) and five-dimensional (domain-wall) representation are also analyzed.

  9. Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...

  10. Superdeformations and fermion dynamical symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Li

    1990-01-01

    In this talk, I will present a link between nuclear collective motions and their underlying fermion dynamical symmetries. In particular, I will focus on the microscopic understanding of deformations. It is shown that the SU 3 of the one major shell fermion dynamical symmetry model (FDSM) is responsible for the physics of low and high spins in normal deformation. For the recently observed phenomena of superdeformation, the physics of the problem dictates a generalization to a supershell structure (SFDSM), which also has an SU 3 fermion dynamical symmetry. Many recently discovered feature of superdeformation are found to be inherent in such an SU 3 symmetry. In both cases the dynamical Pauli effect plays a vital role. A particularly noteworthy discovery from this model is that the superdeformed ground band is not the usual unaligned band but the D-pair aligned (DPA) band, which sharply crosses the excited bands. The existence of such DPA band is a key point to understand many properties of superdeformation. Our studies also poses new experimental challenge. This is particularly interesting since there are now plans to build new and exciting γ-ray detecting systems, like the GAMMASPHERE, which could provide answers to some of these challenges. 34 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Global phenomenological descriptions of nuclear odd-even mass staggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Dennis; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm; Riisager, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined ...... into a global phenomenological expression, ready to use in a binding energy formula. The results deviate from previous parametrizations, and in particular found to be significantly superior to a recent two term, A−1 dependence.......We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined...... by the main nuclear shells, and a clear change in this dependency is found at Z=50 for both neutrons and protons. A further separation into odd and even neutron (proton) number produces very accurate local descriptions of the mass differences for each type of nucleons. These odd-even effects are combined...

  12. ΔI = 2 Nuclear Staggering in Superdeformed Rotational Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okasha M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A four parameters model including collective rotational en ergies to fourth order is ap- plied to reproduce the ∆ I = 2 staggering in transition energies in four selected super deformed rotational bands, namely, 148 Gd (SD6, 194 Hg (SD1, SD2, SD3. The model parameters and the spin of the bandhead have been extracted a ssuming various val- ues to the lowest spin of the bandhead at nearest integer, in o rder to obtain a minimum root mean square deviation between calculated and the exper imental transition energies. This allows us to suggest the spin values for the energy level s which are experimentally unknown. For each band a staggering parameter represent the deviation of the transition energies from a smooth reference has been determined by calc ulating the fourth order derivative of the transition energies at a given spin. The st aggering parameter contains five consecutive transition energies which is denoted here a s the five-point formula. In order to get information about the dynamical moment of ine rtia, the two point for- mula which contains only two consecutive transition energi es has been also considered. The dynamical moment of inertia decreasing with increasing rotational frequency for A ∼ 150, while increasing for A ∼ 190 mass regions.

  13. Update on Heavy-Meson Spectrum Tests of the Oktay--Kronfeld Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Jon A. [Seoul Natl. U.; Jang, Yong-Chull [Seoul Natl. U.; Lee, Weonjong [Seoul Natl. U.; DeTar, Carleton [Utah U.; Kronfeld, Andreas S. [TUM-IAS, Munich; Oktay, Mehmet B. [Iowa U.

    2016-01-18

    We present updated results of a numerical improvement test with heavy-meson spectrum for the Oktay--Kronfeld (OK) action. The OK action is an extension of the Fermilab improvement program for massive Wilson fermions including all dimension-six and some dimension-seven bilinear terms. Improvement terms are truncated by HQET power counting at $\\mathrm{O}(\\Lambda^3/m_Q^3)$ for heavy-light systems, and by NRQCD power counting at $\\mathrm{O}(v^6)$ for quarkonium. They suffice for tree-level matching to QCD to the given order in the power-counting schemes. To assess the improvement, we generate new data with the OK and Fermilab action that covers both charm and bottom quark mass regions on a MILC coarse $(a \\approx 0.12~\\text{fm})$ $2+1$ flavor, asqtad-staggered ensemble. We update the analyses of the inconsistency quantity and the hyperfine splittings for the rest and kinetic masses. With one exception, the results clearly show that the OK action significantly reduces heavy-quark discretization effects in the meson spectrum. The exception is the hyperfine splitting of the heavy-light system near the $B_s$ meson mass, where statistics are too low to draw a firm conclusion, despite promising results.

  14. Finite Temperature Qcd With Domain Wall Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, G T

    2001-01-01

    Domain wall fermions are a new lattice fermion formulation which preserves the full chiral symmetry of the continuum at finite lattice spacing, up to terms exponentially small in an extra parameter. We discuss the main features of the formulation and its application to study of QCD with two light fermions of equal mass. We also present numerical studies of the two flavor QCD thermodynamics with aT = 1/4.

  15. Staggered and short-period solutions of the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, K.O.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2009-01-01

    We point out that the nonlinear Schrodinger lattice with a saturable nonlinearity also admits staggered periodic aswell as localized pulse-like solutions. Further, the same model also admits solutions with a short period. We examine the stability of these solutions and find that the staggered...

  16. Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.

  17. Muon studies of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recent muon spin relaxation (μSR) studies have been particularly effective in revealing important properties of the unusual magnetism and superconductivity found in heavy fermion (HF) systems. In this paper μSR experiments elucidating the symmetry of superconducting order parameter in UPt 3 and UBe 13 doped with thorium and reviewed. Also discussed is the correlation between the enhanced superconducting specific heat jump and the reduced Kondo temperature in B-doped UBe 13 , indicating possible direct experimental evidence for a magnetic pairing mechanism in HF superconductors. 23 refs., 3 figs

  18. Fermionic quantum mechanics and superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnelius, R.

    1990-01-01

    The explicit forms of consistent eigenstate representations for finite dimensional fermionic quantum theories are considered in detail. In particular are the possible Grassmann characters of the eigenstates determined. A straightforward Schrodinger representation is shown to exist if they are even or odd. For an odd number of real eigenvalues, the eigenstates cannot be even or odd. Still a consistent Schrodinger picture is shown to exist provided the basic canonical operators are antilinearly represented. Since the wave functions within the Schrodinger picture are super-fields, the class of superfields which also are first quantized wave functions is determined

  19. Fermion Pairing and the Scalar Boson of the 2D Conformal Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Emil; Blaschke, Daniel; Carballo-Rubio, Raul

    2015-04-01

    We analyze the phenomenon of fermion pairing into an effective boson associated with anomalies and the anomalous commutators of currents, bilinear in the fermion fields. In 2D the chiral bosonization of the Schwinger model is determined by the chiral current anomaly of massless Dirac fermions. A similar bosonized description applies to the 2D conformal trace anomaly of the fermion stress tensor. For both the chiral and conformal anomalies, correlation functions involving anomalous currents, j5m or Tmn of massless fermions exhibit a massless boson 1 /k2 pole, and the associated spectral functions obey a UV finite sum rule, becoming d-functions in the massless limit. In both cases the effective action of the anomaly is non-local, but may be expressed in a local form by the introduction of a new bosonic field, which becomes a bona fide propagating quantum field in its own right. In both cases this is expressed in Fock space by the anomalous Schwinger commutators of currents becoming the canonical commutation relations of the corresponding boson. The Casimir energy of fermions on a finite interval can also be described as a coherent scalar condensation of pairs, and the one-loop correlation function of stress tensors can be expressed as tree diagrams.

  20. Fermion localization in higher curvature spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sayantan; Mitra, Joydip; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2018-01-01

    Fermion localization in a braneworld model in presence of dilaton coupled higher curvature Gauss–Bonnet bulk gravity is discussed. It is shown that the lowest mode of left handed fermions can be naturally localized on the visible brane due to the dilaton coupled higher curvature term without the necessity of any external localizing bulk field.

  1. Exploring a hidden fermionic dark sector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... Fermions in the dark sector also carry a global U ( 1 ) H charge while the gauge bosons and dark scalar do not have any global U ( 1 ) H charge. The lightest fermion in dark sector can serve as a potential dark matter candidate. We investigate whether the proposed dark matter candidate can explain indirect ...

  2. Coherent states in the fermionic Fock space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeckl, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We construct the coherent states in the sense of Gilmore and Perelomov for the fermionic Fock space. Our treatment is from the outset adapted to the infinite-dimensional case. The fermionic Fock space becomes in this way a reproducing kernel Hilbert space of continuous holomorphic functions. (paper)

  3. S-wave scattering of fermion revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Anisur

    2011-01-01

    A model where a Dirac fermion is coupled to background dilaton field is considered to study s-wave scattering of fermion by a back ground dilaton black hole. It is found that an uncomfortable situation towards information loss scenario arises when one loop correction gets involved during bosonization.

  4. Fermion-boson interactions and quantum algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, A.; Herranz, F.J.; Civitarese, O.; Reboiro, M.

    2002-01-01

    Quantum algebras (q algebras) are used to describe interactions between fermions and bosons. Particularly, the concept of a su q (2) dynamical symmetry is invoked in order to reproduce the ground state properties of systems of fermions and bosons interacting via schematic forces. The structure of the proposed su q (2) Hamiltonians, and the meaning of the corresponding deformation parameters, are discussed

  5. Dynamic origins of fermionic D -terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jonathan; Schweitzer, Peter

    2018-03-01

    The D -term is defined through matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor, similarly to mass and spin, yet this important particle property is experimentally not known any fermion. In this work we show that the D -term of a spin 1/2 fermion is of dynamical origin: it vanishes for a free fermion. This is in pronounced contrast to the bosonic case where already a free spin-0 boson has a non-zero intrinsic D -term. We illustrate in two simple models how interactions generate the D -term of a fermion with an internal structure, the nucleon. All known matter is composed of elementary fermions. This indicates the importance to study this interesting particle property in more detail, which will provide novel insights especially on the structure of the nucleon.

  6. Fermion condensation and gapped domain walls in topological orders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yidun [Department of Physics and Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University,Nanjing 210093 (China); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo N2L 2Y5, Ontario (Canada); Wang, Chenjie [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo N2L 2Y5, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-03-31

    We study fermion condensation in bosonic topological orders in two spatial dimensions. Fermion condensation may be realized as gapped domain walls between bosonic and fermionic topological orders, which may be thought of as real-space phase transitions from bosonic to fermionic topological orders. This picture generalizes the previous idea of understanding boson condensation as gapped domain walls between bosonic topological orders. While simple-current fermion condensation was considered before, we systematically study general fermion condensation and show that it obeys a Hierarchy Principle: a general fermion condensation can always be decomposed into a boson condensation followed by a minimal fermion condensation. The latter involves only a single self-fermion that is its own anti-particle and that has unit quantum dimension. We develop the rules of minimal fermion condensation, which together with the known rules of boson condensation, provides a full set of rules for general fermion condensation.

  7. Fermion hierarchy from sfermion anarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni

    2014-12-01

    We present a framework to generate the hierarchical flavor structure of Standard Model quarks and leptons from loops of superpartners. The simplest model consists of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with tree level Yukawa couplings for the third generation only and anarchic squark and slepton mass matrices. Agreement with constraints from low energy flavor observables, in particular Kaon mixing, is obtained for supersymmetric particles with masses at the PeV scale or above. In our framework both the second and the first generation fermion masses are generated at 1-loop. Despite this, a novel mechanism generates a hierarchy among the first and second generations without imposing a symmetry or small parameters. A second-to-first generation mass ratio of order 100 is typical. The minimal supersymmetric standard model thus includes all the necessary ingredients to realize a fermion spectrum that is qualitatively similar to observation, with hierarchical masses and mixing. The minimal framework produces only a few quantitative discrepancies with observation, most notably the muon mass is too low. We discuss simple modifications which resolve this and also investigate the compatibility of our model with gauge and Yukawa coupling Unification.

  8. A fermionic de Finetti theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumnow, Christian; Zimborás, Zoltán; Eisert, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Quantum versions of de Finetti's theorem are powerful tools, yielding conceptually important insights into the security of key distribution protocols or tomography schemes and allowing one to bound the error made by mean-field approaches. Such theorems link the symmetry of a quantum state under the exchange of subsystems to negligible quantum correlations and are well understood and established in the context of distinguishable particles. In this work, we derive a de Finetti theorem for finite sized Majorana fermionic systems. It is shown, much reflecting the spirit of other quantum de Finetti theorems, that a state which is invariant under certain permutations of modes loses most of its anti-symmetric character and is locally well described by a mode separable state. We discuss the structure of the resulting mode separable states and establish in specific instances a quantitative link to the quality of the Hartree-Fock approximation of quantum systems. We hint at a link to generalized Pauli principles for one-body reduced density operators. Finally, building upon the obtained de Finetti theorem, we generalize and extend the applicability of Hudson's fermionic central limit theorem.

  9. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V ub /V cb = √m u /m c and V td /V ts = √m d /m s , are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanΒ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model

  10. Fermions on the worldsheet of effective strings via coset construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Ali

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the detailed Coleman-Callan-Wess-Zumino procedure for introducing fermions on the world sheet of a string propagating in flat space-time is presented. The theory of nonlinear realizations is used to derive the transformation as well as the interactions of fermionic matter fields under arbitrary spinorial representations of the unbroken subgroup. This demonstrates that even for nonsupersymmetric spinors, the interactions are still severely restricted by the nonlinearly realized symmetry. We also explain how supersymmetric models provide an example for this construction with Goldstinos as matter fields, and how one can use the κ -symmetry of the Green Schwarz action in particular, to verify this nonlinear transformation for a specific matter field representation. We finally restrict the target space dimension without reference to supersymmetry, but rather by imposing one-loop integrability on a fermionic string that nonlinearly realizes Poincare symmetry. This singles out the critical dimension D =10 for heterotic, Green-Schwarz and Ramond-Neveu-Schwarz supersymmetric strings.

  11. Fermionic expressions for minimal model virasoro characters

    CERN Document Server

    Welsh, Trevor A

    2005-01-01

    Fermionic expressions for all minimal model Virasoro characters $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ are stated and proved. Each such expression is a sum of terms of {\\em fundamental fermionic form} type. In most cases, all these terms are written down using certain trees which are constructed for $s$ and $r$ from the Takahashi lengths and truncated Takahashi lengths associated with the continued fraction of $p'/p$. In the remaining cases, in addition to such terms, the fermionic expression for $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ contains a different character $\\chi^{\\hat p, \\hat p'}_{\\hat r,\\hat s}$, and is thus recursive in nature. Bosonic-fermionic $q$-series identities for all characters $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$ result from equating these fermionic expressions with known bosonic expressions. In the cases for which $p=2r$, $p=3r$, $p'=2s$ or $p'=3s$, Rogers-Ramanujan type identities result from equating these fermionic expressions with known product expressions for $\\chi^{p, p'}_{r, s}$. The fermionic expressions are proved by first obta...

  12. The other effective fermion compositeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzini, Brando; Riva, Francesco; Serra, Javi; Sgarlata, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    We discuss the only two viable realizations of fermion compositeness described by a calculable relativistic effective field theory consistent with unitarity, crossing symmetry and analyticity: chiral-compositeness vs goldstino-compositeness. We construct the effective theory of N Goldstini and show how the Standard Model can emerge from this dynamics. We present new bounds on either type of compositeness, for quarks and leptons, using dilepton searches at LEP, dijets at the LHC, as well as low-energy observables and precision measurements. Remarkably, a scale of compositeness for Goldstino-like electrons in the 2 TeV range is compatible with present data, and so are Goldstino-like first generation quarks with a compositeness scale in the 10 TeV range. Moreover, assuming maximal R-symmetry, goldstino-compositeness of both right- and left-handed quarks predicts exotic spin-1/2 colored sextet particles that are potentially within the reach of the LHC.

  13. Gravitational fermion production in inflationary cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Daniel J.H.; Everett, Lisa L.; Yoo, Hojin [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zhou Peng, E-mail: pzhou@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-06-06

    We revisit the gravitational production of massive Dirac fermions in inflationary cosmology with a focus on clarifying the analytic computation of the particle number density in both the large and the small mass regimes. For the case in which the masses of the gravitationally produced fermions are small compared to the Hubble expansion rate at the end of inflation, we obtain a universal result for the number density that is nearly independent of the details of the inflationary model. The result is identical to the case of conformally coupled scalars up to an overall multiplicative factor of order unity for reasons other than just counting the fermionic degrees of freedom.

  14. Fermionic NNLO contributions to Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actis, S.; Riemann, T.; Czakon, M.; Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice; Gluza, J.

    2007-10-01

    We derive the two-loop corrections to Bhabha scattering from heavy fermions using dispersion relations. The double-box contributions are expressed by three kernel functions. Convoluting the perturbative kernels with fermionic threshold functions or with hadronic data allows to determine numerical results for small electron mass m e , combined with arbitrary values of the fermion mass m f in the loop, m 2 e 2 f , or with hadronic insertions. We present numerical results for m f =m μ , m τ ,m top at typical small- and large-angle kinematics ranging from 1 GeV to 500 GeV. (orig.)

  15. Grassmann phase space theory for fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, Bryan J. [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); Jeffers, John [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G4 ONG (United Kingdom); Barnett, Stephen M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    A phase space theory for fermions has been developed using Grassmann phase space variables which can be used in numerical calculations for cold Fermi gases and for large fermion numbers. Numerical calculations are feasible because Grassmann stochastic variables at later times are related linearly to such variables at earlier times via c-number stochastic quantities. A Grassmann field version has been developed making large fermion number applications possible. Applications are shown for few mode and field theory cases. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Grassmann phase space theory for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Bryan J.; Jeffers, John; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    A phase space theory for fermions has been developed using Grassmann phase space variables which can be used in numerical calculations for cold Fermi gases and for large fermion numbers. Numerical calculations are feasible because Grassmann stochastic variables at later times are related linearly to such variables at earlier times via c-number stochastic quantities. A Grassmann field version has been developed making large fermion number applications possible. Applications are shown for few mode and field theory cases. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  18. Fermionic quantum critical point of spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Corboz, Philippe; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice provide a minimal realization of lattice Dirac fermions. Repulsive interactions between nearest neighbors drive a quantum phase transition from a Dirac semimetal to a charge-density-wave state through a fermionic quantum critical point, where the coupling of the Ising order parameter to the Dirac fermions at low energy drastically affects the quantum critical behavior. Encouraged by a recent discovery (Huffman and Chandrasekharan 2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 111101) of the absence of the fermion sign problem in this model, we study the fermionic quantum critical point using the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method with a worm-sampling technique. We estimate the transition point V/t=1.356(1) with the critical exponents ν=0.80(3) and η=0.302(7). Compatible results for the transition point are also obtained with infinite projected entangled-pair states. (paper)

  19. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasin, Andrija [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, Vub/Vcb = √mu/mc and Vtd/Vts = √md/ms, are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanβ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model.

  20. Spontaneous emission spectra from a staggered-array undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shigeki; Okada, Kouji; Masuda, Kai; Sobajima, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Ohnishi, Masami; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Toku, Hisayuki

    1997-01-01

    A staggered-array undulator set inside the superconducting solenoid coils is shown to be able to provide high undulator fields larger than the longitudinal magnetic fields, a small undulator period, easy tunability through the solenoid coil current, and compact and easy fabrication. The overall performance characteristics of this undulator were studied mainly with respect to iron and aluminum disk widths, and spontaneous emission spectra through the numerical calculations. The maximum undulator field is found to be obtained for the ratio of the aluminum disk width to the undulator period of 0.45. The line widths (FWHM) of the spontaneous emission spectra, however, do not show N w -1 dependence on the number of the undulator period N w for practical beams with a Gaussian distribution, compared with for a single electron. The energy spread among various parameters is seen to play an important role in reducing the FWHM with increase of N w . The large tunability of the wavelength is proved to cover 6-10 mm by changing the solenoid magnetic field from 0.4 T to 1.6 T. (author)

  1. X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F. E-mail: vfd217@ire216.msk.su; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A

    2004-09-21

    The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 {mu}A min/(Gy cm{sup 2}). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received.

  2. X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F.; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 μA min/(Gy cm 2 ). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received

  3. Fermion number non-conservation and cold neutral fermionic matter in (V-A) gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.A.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tavkhelidze, A.N.; Tokarev, V.F.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that in four-dimensional abelian (V-A) theories, the ground state of cold neutral fermionic matter is an anomalous state containing domains of abnormal phase surrounded by the normal vacuum. Inside these domains, there exists a gauge field condensate which makes real fermions disappear both inside and outside the domains. In non-abelian theories, the abnormal matter is unstable in its turn, and the system rolls back down into the normal state with a small number of fermions above the topologically non-trivial vacuum. Thus, in several non-abelian gauge theories, the fermion number density of cold neutral matter cannot exceed some critical value. (orig.)

  4. Chiral fermions in asymptotically safe quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meibohm, J. [Gothenburg University, Department of Physics, Goeteborg (Sweden); Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Pawlowski, J.M. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    We study the consistency of dynamical fermionic matter with the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity using the functional renormalisation group. Since this scenario suggests strongly coupled quantum gravity in the UV, one expects gravity-induced fermion self-interactions at energies of the Planck scale. These could lead to chiral symmetry breaking at very high energies and thus to large fermion masses in the IR. The present analysis which is based on the previous works (Christiansen et al., Phys Rev D 92:121501, 2015; Meibohm et al., Phys Rev D 93:084035, 2016), concludes that gravity-induced chiral symmetry breaking at the Planck scale is avoided for a general class of NJL-type models. We find strong evidence that this feature is independent of the number of fermion fields. This finding suggests that the phase diagram for these models is topologically stable under the influence of gravitational interactions. (orig.)

  5. Pseudoclassical fermionic model and classical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailagic, A.

    1981-08-01

    We study classical limit of fermionic fields seen as Grassmann variables and deduce the proper quantization prescription using Dirac's method for constrained systems and investigate quantum meaning of classical solutions for the Thirring model. (author)

  6. Composite Fermions with Tunable Fermi Contour Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamburov, D.; Liu, Yang; Shayegan, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.

    2013-05-01

    The composite fermion formalism elegantly describes some of the most fascinating behaviors of interacting two-dimensional carriers at low temperatures and in strong perpendicular magnetic fields. In this framework, carriers minimize their energy by attaching two flux quanta and forming new quasiparticles, the so-called composite fermions. Thanks to the flux attachment, when a Landau level is half-filled, the composite fermions feel a vanishing effective magnetic field and possess a Fermi surface with a well-defined Fermi contour. Our measurements in a high-quality two-dimensional hole system confined to a GaAs quantum well demonstrate that a parallel magnetic field can significantly distort the hole-flux composite fermion Fermi contour.

  7. The principle of the Fermionic projector

    CERN Document Server

    Finster, Felix

    2006-01-01

    The "principle of the fermionic projector" provides a new mathematical framework for the formulation of physical theories and is a promising approach for physics beyond the standard model. This book begins with a brief review of relativity, relativistic quantum mechanics, and classical gauge theories, emphasizing the basic physical concepts and mathematical foundations. The external field problem and Klein's paradox are discussed and then resolved by introducing the fermionic projector, a global object in space-time that generalizes the notion of the Dirac sea. At the mathematical core of the book is a precise definition of the fermionic projector and the use of methods of hyperbolic differential equations for detailed analysis. The fermionic projector makes it possible to formulate a new type of variational principle in space-time. The mathematical tools are developed for the analysis of the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations. A particular variational principle is proposed that gives rise to an effective...

  8. Search for inhomogeneous phases in fermionic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jens; Finkbeiner, Stefan; Karbstein, Felix; Roscher, Dietrich

    2015-06-01

    We revisit the Gross-Neveu model with N fermion flavors in 1 +1 dimensions and compute its phase diagram at finite temperature and chemical potential in the large-N limit. To this end, we double the number of fermion degrees of freedom in a specific way which allows us to detect inhomogeneous phases in an efficient manner. We show analytically that this "fermion doubling trick" predicts correctly the position of the boundary between the chirally symmetric phase and the phase with broken chiral symmetry. Most importantly, we find that the emergence of an inhomogeneous ground state is predicted correctly. We critically analyze our approach based on this trick and discuss its applicability to other theories, such as fermionic models in higher dimensions, where it may be used to guide the search for inhomogeneous phases.

  9. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  10. Rectification effect in Majorana fermion SQUID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Hu, Xiao

    2013-03-01

    We investigated a SQUID structure formed by a spin-orbit coupling nanowire Josephson junction which contains Majorana fermions, and a conventional superconductor-insulator-superconductor junction, motivated by a recent experimental progress in realizing Majorana fermions in a heterostructure of a spin-orbit coupling nanowire and superconductor. It is shown that the critical current of the SQUID is different for two flowing directions, due to the unconventional current-phase relation of the nanowire junction. This asymmetric critical current serves as a simple and direct signature of the Majorana fermion existence. Since the asymmetric Josephson current forms a ratchet potential for the dynamics of superconducting phase, a rectification effect is expected when the SQUID is driven by an ac current. That is, a rectified dc voltage appears when a pure ac current is applied. This rectification effect is expected to be useful for probing the Majorana fermion dynamics.

  11. Novel foamy origin for singlet fermion masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    2017-10-01

    We show how masses for singlet fermions can be generated by interactions with a D-particle model of space-time foam inspired by brane theory. It has been shown previously by one of the authors (N. E. M.) that such interactions may generate dynamically small masses for charged fermions via the recoils of D-particle defects interacting with photons. In this work we consider the direct interactions of D-particle with uncharged singlet fermions such as right-handed neutrinos. Quantum fluctuations of the lattice of D-particles have massless vector (spin-one) excitations that are analogues of phonons. These mediate forces with the singlet fermions, generating large dynamical masses that may be communicated to light neutrinos via the seesaw mechanism.

  12. Pairing in asymmetric many-fermion systems: Functional renormalisation group approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krippa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional renormalisation group approach is applied to a imbalanced many-fermion system with a short-range attractive force. We introduce a composite boson field to describe pairing effects, and assume a simple ansatz for the effective action. A set of approximate flow equations for the effective coupling including boson and fermionic fluctuations is derived and solved. We identify the critical values of particle number density mismatch when the system undergoes a normal state. We determine the phase diagram both at unitarity and around. The obtained phase diagram is in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  13. The physics and chemistry of heavy Fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, Z.; Sarrao, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The heavy Fermions are a subset of the f-element intermetallics straddling the magnetic/non-magnetic boundary. Their low temperature properties are characterized by an electronic energy scale of order 1--10 K. Among the low temperature ground states observed in heavy Fermion compounds are exotic superconductors and magnets, as well as unusual semiconductors. We review here the current experimental and theoretical understanding of these systems

  14. Superfluid response in heavy fermion superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Lan; Shao, Can; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by a recent London penetration depth measurement [H. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027003 (2015)] and novel composite pairing scenario [O. Erten, R. Flint, and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027002 (2015)] of the Yb-doped heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, we revisit the issue of superfluid response in the microscopic heavy fermion lattice model. However, from the literature, an explicit expression for the superfluid response function in heavy fermion superconductors is rare. In this paper, we investigate the superfluid density response function in the celebrated Kondo-Heisenberg model. To be specific, we derive the corresponding formalism from an effective fermionic large- N mean-field pairing Hamiltonian whose pairing interaction is assumed to originate from the effective local antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Interestingly, we find that the physically correct, temperature-dependent superfluid density formula can only be obtained if the external electromagnetic field is directly coupled to the heavy fermion quasi-particle rather than the bare conduction electron or local moment. Such a unique feature emphasizes the key role of the Kondo-screening-renormalized heavy quasi-particle for low-temperature/energy thermodynamics and transport behaviors. As an important application, the theoretical result is compared to an experimental measurement in heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn5 and Yb-doped Ce1- x Yb x CoIn5 with fairly good agreement and the transition of the pairing symmetry in the latter material is explained as a simple doping effect. In addition, the requisite formalism for the commonly encountered nonmagnetic impurity and non-local electrodynamic effect are developed. Inspired by the success in explaining classic 115-series heavy fermion superconductors, we expect the present theory will be applied to understand other heavy fermion superconductors such as CeCu2Si2 and more generic multi-band superconductors.

  15. Anomalous diffusion of fermions in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Srokowski, T.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1996-03-01

    Diffusion of fermions in the periodic two-dimensional lattice of fermions is studied. It is shown that effects connected with antisymmetrization of the wave function increase chaoticness of motion. Various types of anomalous diffusion, characterized by a power spectral analysis are found. The nonlocality of the Pauli potential destroys cantori in the phase space. Consequently, the diffusion process is dominated by long free paths and the power spectrum is logarithmic at small frequency limit. (author)

  16. Averages of operators in finite Fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The important ingredients in the spectral analysis of Fermion systems are the average of operators. In this paper we shall derive expressions for averages of operators in truncated Fermion spaces in terms of the minimal information needed about the operator. If we take the operator to be powers of the Hamiltonian we can then study the conditions on a Hamiltonian for the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian in the truncated space to be Gaussian distributed. The theory of scalar traces is reviewed, and the dependence on nucleon number and single-particle states is reviewed. These results are used to show that a dilute non-interacting system will have Gaussian distributed eigenvalues, i.e., its cumulants will tend to zero, for a large number of Fermions. The dominant terms in the cumulants of a dilute interacting Fermion system are derived. In this case the cumulants depend crucially on the interaction even for a large number of Fermions. Configuration averaging is briefly discussed. Finally, comments are made on averaging for a fixed number of Fermions and angular momentum

  17. Fermion-induced quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Xiang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong

    2017-08-22

    A unified theory of quantum critical points beyond the conventional Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm remains unknown. According to Landau cubic criterion, phase transitions should be first-order when cubic terms of order parameters are allowed by symmetry in the Landau-Ginzburg free energy. Here, from renormalization group analysis, we show that second-order quantum phase transitions can occur at such putatively first-order transitions in interacting two-dimensional Dirac semimetals. As such type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points are induced by gapless fermions, we call them fermion-induced quantum critical points. We further introduce a microscopic model of SU(N) fermions on the honeycomb lattice featuring a transition between Dirac semimetals and Kekule valence bond solids. Remarkably, our large-scale sign-problem-free Majorana quantum Monte Carlo simulations show convincing evidences of a fermion-induced quantum critical points for N = 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, consistent with the renormalization group analysis. We finally discuss possible experimental realizations of the fermion-induced quantum critical points in graphene and graphene-like materials.Quantum phase transitions are governed by Landau-Ginzburg theory and the exceptions are rare. Here, Li et al. propose a type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points induced by gapless fermions in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals.

  18. Fermionic topological quantum states as tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, C.; Buerschaper, O.; Eisert, J.

    2017-06-01

    Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states, play an important role in the description of strongly correlated quantum lattice systems. They do not only serve as variational states in numerical simulation methods, but also provide a framework for classifying phases of quantum matter and capture notions of topological order in a stringent and rigorous language. The rapid development in this field for spin models and bosonic systems has not yet been mirrored by an analogous development for fermionic models. In this work, we introduce a tensor network formalism capable of capturing notions of topological order for quantum systems with fermionic components. At the heart of the formalism are axioms of fermionic matrix-product operator injectivity, stable under concatenation. Building upon that, we formulate a Grassmann number tensor network ansatz for the ground state of fermionic twisted quantum double models. A specific focus is put on the paradigmatic example of the fermionic toric code. This work shows that the program of describing topologically ordered systems using tensor networks carries over to fermionic models.

  19. Systematics of the K suppi = 2+ gamma vibrational bands and odd-even staggering

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, J B

    2003-01-01

    The structure of the K suppi = 2+ gamma vibrational bands and the quasi-gamma bands of even-Z-even-N nuclei is investigated on a global scale, vis-a-vis the variation of band head, the moment of inertia of the band and the odd-even spin staggering. The variation with N and Z and with spin J of the odd-even spin energy staggering index is studied and a unified view of the same is presented. (author)

  20. Tuning for three flavors of anisotropic clover fermions with stout-link smearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Robert G.; Joo, Balint; Lin, H.-W.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we perform the parameter tuning of three flavors of dynamical clover quarks on anisotropic lattices. The fermion action uses three-dimensional spatial stout-link smearing. The gauge anisotropy is determined in a small box with Schroedinger background using Wilson-loop ratios. The fermion anisotropy is obtained from studying the meson dispersion relation with antiperiodic boundary conditions in the time direction. The spatial and temporal clover coefficients are fixed to the tree-level tadpole-improved values, and we demonstrate that they satisfy the nonperturbative conditions as determined by the Schroedinger-functional method. For the desired lattice spacing a s ≅0.12 fm and renormalized anisotropy ξ=3.5, we find the gauge and fermionic anisotropies can be fixed to quark mass independent values up through the strange quark mass. This work lays the foundation needed for further studies of the excited-state hadron spectrum.

  1. Effective hadronic lagrangian in the strong coupling expansion of lattice QCD with Susskind fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakov, S.I.; Aliev, E.S.

    1987-12-01

    The effective hadronic action in lattice QCD with U(N) and SU(N) gauge groups and with Susskind fermions is constructed in the framework of the strong coupling approximation. For arbitrary finite (odd) N (in particular N=3) we find an effective potential, vacuum expectation value of the (χ-barχ) and an effective action for the physical meson field π(x). (author). 19 refs

  2. Iterants, Fermions and Majorana Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Louis H.

    Beginning with an elementary, oscillatory discrete dynamical system associated with the square root of minus one, we study both the foundations of mathematics and physics. Position and momentum do not commute in our discrete physics. Their commutator is related to the diffusion constant for a Brownian process and to the Heisenberg commutator in quantum mechanics. We take John Wheeler's idea of It from Bit as an essential clue and we rework the structure of that bit to a logical particle that is its own anti-particle, a logical Marjorana particle. This is our key example of the amphibian nature of mathematics and the external world. We show how the dynamical system for the square root of minus one is essentially the dynamics of a distinction whose self-reference leads to both the fusion algebra and the operator algebra for the Majorana Fermion. In the course of this, we develop an iterant algebra that supports all of matrix algebra and we end the essay with a discussion of the Dirac equation based on these principles.

  3. Fermionic pentagons and NMHV hexagon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the near-collinear limit of the null polygonal hexagon super Wilson loop in the planar N=4 super-Yang–Mills theory. We focus on its Grassmann components which are dual to next-to-maximal helicity-violating (NMHV scattering amplitudes. The kinematics in question is studied within a framework of the operator product expansion that encodes propagation of excitations on the background of the color flux tube stretched between the sides of Wilson loop contour. While their dispersion relation is known to all orders in 't Hooft coupling from previous studies, we find their form factor couplings to the Wilson loop. This is done making use of a particular tessellation of the loop where pentagon transitions play a fundamental role. Being interested in NMHV amplitudes, the corresponding building blocks carry a nontrivial charge under the SU(4 R-symmetry group. Restricting the current consideration to twist-two accuracy, we analyze two-particle contributions with a fermion as one of the constituents in the pair. We demonstrate that these nonsinglet pentagons obey bootstrap equations that possess consistent solutions for any value of the coupling constant. To confirm the correctness of these predictions, we calculate their contribution to the super Wilson loop demonstrating agreement with recent results to four-loop order in 't Hooft coupling.

  4. Staggered-grid finite-difference acoustic modeling with the Time-Domain Atmospheric Acoustic Propagation Suite (TDAAPS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David Franklin; Collier, Sandra L. (U.S. Army Research Laboratory); Marlin, David H. (U.S. Army Research Laboratory); Ostashev, Vladimir E. (NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory); Symons, Neill Phillip; Wilson, D. Keith (U.S. Army Cold Regions Research Engineering Lab.)

    2005-05-01

    This document is intended to serve as a users guide for the time-domain atmospheric acoustic propagation suite (TDAAPS) program developed as part of the Department of Defense High-Performance Modernization Office (HPCMP) Common High-Performance Computing Scalable Software Initiative (CHSSI). TDAAPS performs staggered-grid finite-difference modeling of the acoustic velocity-pressure system with the incorporation of spatially inhomogeneous winds. Wherever practical the control structure of the codes are written in C++ using an object oriented design. Sections of code where a large number of calculations are required are written in C or F77 in order to enable better compiler optimization of these sections. The TDAAPS program conforms to a UNIX style calling interface. Most of the actions of the codes are controlled by adding flags to the invoking command line. This document presents a large number of examples and provides new users with the necessary background to perform acoustic modeling with TDAAPS.

  5. The hidden fermions in Z(2) theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srednicki, M.

    1983-01-01

    Low dimensional Z(2) gauge theories have been rewritten in terms of locally coupled fermionic degrees of freedom by means of the Jordan-Wigner transformation. In this paper it is shown that higher dimensional Z(2) gauge theories are also fermionic theories in disguise. The SML solution to the 1+1 dimension Ising model is reviewed. Psi operators are represented pictorially as arrows, psi 1 points to the left, psi 2 to the right, each site of H a multiple of two operators. The 2+1 dimension Ising model is then considered. A fermion plaquette operator is introduced as the generator of a gauge symmetry for the fermionic H. Findings in 1+1 and 2+1 are then applied to 3+1 dimensional Z(2) gauge theory. A construction of this lattice is undertaken. Psi formalism replaces sigma formalism, as it permits extremely simple duality transformations to be made on any Z(2) Hamiltonian. It is shown that the fermionic formalism will lead to new ideas in Z(2) theories

  6. Fermion zero-modes on brane-worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar-Daemi, Seif; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2000-08-01

    We study localization of bulk fermions on a brane with inclusion of Yang-Mills and scalar backgrounds in higher dimensions and give the conditions under which localized chiral fermions can be obtained. (author)

  7. Simulation of strongly correlated fermions in two spatial dimensions with fermionic projected entangled-pair states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corboz, Philippe; Orús, Román; Bauer, Bela; Vidal, Guifré

    2010-04-01

    We explain how to implement, in the context of projected entangled-pair states (PEPSs), the general procedure of fermionization of a tensor network introduced in P. Corboz and G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. B 80, 165129 (2009). The resulting fermionic PEPS, similar to previous proposals, can be used to study the ground state of interacting fermions on a two-dimensional lattice. As in the bosonic case, the cost of simulations depends on the amount of entanglement in the ground state and not directly on the strength of interactions. The present formulation of fermionic PEPS leads to a straightforward numerical implementation that allowed us to recycle much of the code for bosonic PEPS. We demonstrate that fermionic PEPS are a useful variational ansatz for interacting fermion systems by computing approximations to the ground state of several models on an infinite lattice. For a model of interacting spinless fermions, ground state energies lower than Hartree-Fock results are obtained, shifting the boundary between the metal and charge-density wave phases. For the t-J model, energies comparable with those of a specialized Gutzwiller-projected ansatz are also obtained.

  8. Exotic fermions and electric dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshipura, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The contributions of mirror fermions to the electric dipole moments (EDM's) of leptons and neutrons are studied using the available limits on the mixing of the relevant fermions to their mirror partners. These limits imply EDM's several orders of magnitude larger than the current experimental bounds in the case of the electron and the neutron if the relevant CP-violating phases are not unnaturally small. If these phases are large, then the bounds on the EDM's can be used to improve upon the limits on mixing between the ordinary (f) and the mirror (F) fermions. In the specific case of the latter mixing angle being given by (m f /M F ) 1/2 , one can obtain the electron and the neutron EDM's close to experimental bounds

  9. Weak antilocalization of composite fermions in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Antti; Kumar, Manohar; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that composite fermions in monolayer graphene display weak antilocalization. Our experiments deal with fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states in high-mobility, suspended graphene Corbino disks in the vicinity of ν =1 /2 . We find a strong temperature dependence of conductivity σ away from half filling, which is consistent with the expected electron-electron interaction-induced gaps in the FQH state. At half filling, however, the temperature dependence of conductivity σ (T ) becomes quite weak, as anticipated for a Fermi sea of composite fermions, and we find a logarithmic dependence of σ on T . The sign of this quantum correction coincides with the weak antilocalization of graphene composite fermions, indigenous to chiral Dirac particles.

  10. Vacuum polarization and chiral lattice fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.

    1995-09-01

    The vacuum polarization due to chiral fermions on a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice is calculated according to the overlap prescription. The fermions are coupled to weak and slowly varying background gauge and Higgs fields, and the polarization tensor is given by second order perturbation theory. In this order the overlap constitutes a gauge invariant regularization of the fermion vacuum amplitude. Its low energy - long wavelength behaviour can be computed explicitly and we verify that it coincides with the Feynman graph result obtainable, for example, by dimensional regularization of continuum gauge theory. In particular, the Standard Model Callan-Symanzik, RG functions are recovered. Moreover, there are no residual lattice artefacts such as a dependence on Wilson-type mass parameters. (author). 16 refs

  11. Thermopower of Uranium-Based Heavy Fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauel, A.; Fromm, D.; Geibel, C.; Steglich, F.; Sato, N.; Komatsubara, T.

    The thermoelectric power S(T) of single crystals of the antiferromagnetically ordered heavy-fermion superconductor UPd2Al3 (TN = 14K, Tc = 2K) as well as of polycrystalline UNi2Al3 (TN = 4.6K, Tc = 1K), UPd2Al3 and of the ternary heavy-fermion system UCu4+xAl8-x has been measured in the temperature range 2K ≤ T ≤ 350K. A temperature dependence of the thermopower, S(T) = A · T/(1+T/T‧), was found at sufficiently high temperatures for all of these systems and for the well known heavy-fermion compounds UBe13 and UPt3.

  12. The bosonic mother of fermionic D-branes

    OpenAIRE

    Chattaraputi, Auttakit; Englert, Francois; Houart, Laurent; Taormina, Anne

    2002-01-01

    We extend the search for fermionic subspaces of the bosonic string compactified on E8 X SO(16) lattices to include all fermionic D-branes. This extension constraints the truncation procedure previously proposed and relates the fermionic strings, supersymmetric or not, to the global structure of the SO(16) group. The specific properties of all the fermionic D-branes are found to be encoded in its universal covering, whose maximal toroid defines the configuration space torus of their mother bos...

  13. Spinor techniques for massive fermions with arbitrary polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.V.

    1999-12-01

    We present a new variant of spinor techniques for calculating the amplitudes of processes involving massive fermions with arbitrary polarization. It is relatively simple and leads to basic spinor products. Our procedure is riot more complex than CALCUL spinor techniques for massless fermions. We obtained spinor Chisholm identities for massive fermions. As an illustration, expressions are given for the amplitudes of elect ron- positron annihilation into fermions-pairs for several polarizations. (author)

  14. Fermion boson metamorphosis in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Y.K.

    1982-01-01

    In two-dimensional field theories many features are especially transparent if the Fermi fields are represented by non-local expressions of the Bose fields. Such a procedure is known as boson representation. Bilinear quantities appear in the Lagrangian of a fermion theory transform, however, as simple local expressions of the bosons so that the resulting theory may be written as a theory of bosons. Conversely, a theory of bosons may be transformed into an equivalent theory of fermions. Together they provide a basis for generating many interesting equivalences between theories of different types. In the present work a consistent scheme for constructing a canonical Fermi field in terms of a real scalar field is developed and such a procedure is valid and consistent with the tenets of quantum field theory is verified. A boson formulation offers a unifying theme in understanding the structure of many theories. This is illustrated by the boson formulation of a multifermion theory with chiral and internal symmetries. The nature of dynamical generation of mass when the theory undergoes boson transmutation and the preservation of continuous chiral symmetry in the massive case are examined. The dynamics of the system depends to a great extent on the specific number of fermions and different models of the same system can have very different properties. Many unusual symmetries of the fermion theory, such as hidden symmetry, duality and triality symmetries, are only manifest in the boson formulation. The underlying connections between some models with U(N) internal symmetry and another class of fermion models built with Majorana fermions which have O(2N) internal symmetry are uncovered

  15. Fermion-fermion scattering in quantum field theory with superconducting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, L; Casanova, J; Mezzacapo, A; Egusquiza, I L; Lamata, L; Romero, G; Solano, E

    2015-02-20

    We propose an analog-digital quantum simulation of fermion-fermion scattering mediated by a continuum of bosonic modes within a circuit quantum electrodynamics scenario. This quantum technology naturally provides strong coupling of superconducting qubits with a continuum of electromagnetic modes in an open transmission line. In this way, we propose qubits to efficiently simulate fermionic modes via digital techniques, while we consider the continuum complexity of an open transmission line to simulate the continuum complexity of bosonic modes in quantum field theories. Therefore, we believe that the complexity-simulating-complexity concept should become a leading paradigm in any effort towards scalable quantum simulations.

  16. A Search for Excited Fermions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Hoprich, W.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Kutuev, R.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Negri, I.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; von Dombrowski, S.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2000-01-01

    A search for excited fermions f^* of the first generation in e^+p scattering at the collider HERA is presented using H1 data with an integrated luminosity of 37 pb^(-1). All electroweak decays of excited fermions, f^* -> f gamma, f W, f Z are considered and all possible final states resulting from the Z or W hadronic decays or decays into leptons of the first two generations are taken into account. No evidence for f^* production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits on cross-sections and on the ratio of coupling constants to the compositeness scale are derived.

  17. Fermion path integrals and topological phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases of matter have been interpreted in terms of anomalies, and it has been expected that a similar picture should hold for SPT phases with fermions. Here a description is given in detail of what this picture means for phases of quantum matter that can be understood via band theory and free fermions. The main examples considered are time-reversal invariant topological insulators and superconductors in two or three space dimensions. Along the way, the precise meaning of the statement that in the bulk of a 3D topological insulator, the electromagnetic θ angle is equal to π , is clarified.

  18. Fermionic determinant in two and four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    The fermionic determinant of the two-dimensional Schwinger model and QCD and a four-dimensional model with a pseudo-vectorial coupling are discussed. It is observed that in both cases the Dirac operator can be expressed as a path-ordered product of the gauge field and the fermionic determinant is computed exactly without reference to a particular gauge. The two point Green's function is obtained in all cases as a free particle two point function times a model dependent term. (Author) [pt

  19. Parametrization relating the fermionic mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    1993-01-01

    When parametrizing the fermionic mass spectra in terms of the unit matrix and a recursive matrix scrR 0 , which corresponds to an underlying scaling pattern in the mass spectra, each fermionic sector is characterized by three parameters: k, α, and R. Using the set of relations displayed by the parameters of the different sectors, it is possible to formulate a ''family Lagrangian'' which for each sector encompasses all the families. Relations between quark masses are furthermore deduced from these ''family Lagrangians.'' Using the relations between the parameters of the different charge sectors, it is also possible to ''derive'' the quark mass spectra from the (charged) leptonic mass spectrum

  20. Naturally light fermions from dimensional reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietenholz, W.; Gfeller, A.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2004-03-01

    We consider the 3-d Gross-Neveu model in the broken phase and construct a stable brane world by means of a domain wall and an anti-wall. Fermions of opposite chirality are localized on the walls and coupled through the 3-d bulk. At large wall separation β the 2-d correlation length diverges exponentially, hence a 2-d observer cannot distinguish this situation from a 2-d space-time. The 3-d 4-fermion coupling and β fix the effective 2-d coupling such that the asymptotic freedom of the 2-d model arises. This mechanism provides criticality without fine tuning.

  1. On the magnetoresistance of heavy fermion compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chengchung; Chen Chung

    1992-09-01

    Starting from two-conduction-band Anderson lattice model, the magneto-transport properties of heavy fermion systems are studied in the slave boson mean field theory. The residual magnetoresistivity induced by different kinds of impurities is calculated, and the experimentally detected positive maximum structure in the residual magnetoresistance of heavy fermion systems is reproduced. The transition of field-dependent resistivity from nonmonotonic to monotonic behaviour with increasing temperature can be explained naturally by including the charge fluctuation effect. The influence of applied pressure is also investigated. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  2. Improved Monte Carlo methods for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrand, T.A.; Dreitlein, J.; Toms, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    We describe an improved version of the Kuti-Von Neumann-Ulam algorithm useful for fermion contributions in lattice field theories. This is done by sampling the Neumann series for the propagator, which may be thought of as a sum over a set of weighted paths between two points on the lattice. Rather than selecting paths by a locally determined random walk, we average over sets of paths globally preselected for their importance in evaluating the few needed elements of the inverse. We also describe a method for the calculation of ratios of fermion determinants which is considerably less time consuming than the conventional one. (orig.)

  3. q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, Hyper-charged fermion coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Sanru; Li Guanghua; Long Junyan

    1994-01-01

    By virtue of the algebra of the q-deformed fermion oscillators, the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are discussed. The explicit forms of the two kinds of coherent states mentioned above are obtained by making use of the completeness of base vectors in the q-fermion Fock space. By comparing the q-deformed results with the ordinary results, it is found that the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are automatically reduced to the ordinary charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged hyper-charged fermion coherent states if the deformed parameter q→1

  4. Mass terms and mass renormalization for Susskind fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the symmetry properties of a geometrically motivated mass term giving different masses to the four flavours of Susskind fermions. Using this mass term we calculate the fermion self-energy in weak coupling perturbation theory at the one-loop level as well as the relation between the fermion masses on the lattice and in the continuum. (orig.)

  5. Extra Z neutral bosons, families and heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-08-01

    The minimal Grand Unified Theories with three-family should include two extra Z neufral bosons which belong to the different broken scales. Georgi's argument on heavy Dirac fermions has been realized. These fermions should not be bizarre. The extra Z and Dirac fermions are not too heavy. The difficulty of the proton decay may be resolved

  6. Numerical properties of staggered quarks with a taste-dependent mass term

    CERN Document Server

    de Forcrand, Philippe; Panero, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The numerical properties of staggered Dirac operators with a taste-dependent mass term proposed by Adams [1,2] and by Hoelbling [3] are compared with those of ordinary staggered and Wilson Dirac operators. In the free limit and on (quenched) interacting configurations, we consider their topological properties, their spectrum, and the resulting pion mass. Although we also consider the spectral structure, topological properties, locality, and computational cost of an overlap operator with a staggered kernel, we call attention to the possibility of using the Adams and Hoelbling operators without the overlap construction. In particular, the Hoelbling operator could be used to simulate two degenerate flavors without additive mass renormalization, and thus without fine-tuning in the chiral limit.

  7. Gap states and edge properties of rectangular graphene quantum dot in staggered potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Y. H.; Eric Yang, S.-R.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate edge properties of a gapful rectangular graphene quantum dot in a staggered potential. In such a system gap states with discrete and closely spaced energy levels exist that are spatially located on the left or right zigzag edge. We find that, although the bulk states outside the energy gap are nearly unaffected, spin degeneracy of each gap state is lifted by the staggered potential. We have computed the occupation numbers of spin-up and -down gap states at various values of the strength of the staggered potential. The electronic and magnetic properties of the zigzag edges depend sensitively on these numbers. We discuss the possibility of applying this system as a single electron spintronic device.

  8. Single-molecule observation of helix staggering, sliding, and coiled coil misfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhiqun; Gao, Ying; Sirinakis, George; Guo, Honglian; Zhang, Yongli

    2012-01-01

    The biological functions of coiled coils generally depend on efficient folding and perfect pairing of their α-helices. Dynamic changes in the helical registry that lead to staggered helices have only been proposed for a few special systems and not found in generic coiled coils. Here, we report our observations of multiple staggered helical structures of two canonical coiled coils. The partially folded structures are formed predominantly by coiled coil misfolding and occasionally by helix sliding. Using high-resolution optical tweezers, we characterized their energies and transition kinetics at a single-molecule level. The staggered states occur less than 2% of the time and about 0.1% of the time at zero force. We conclude that dynamic changes in helical registry may be a general property of coiled coils. Our findings should have broad and unique implications in functions and dysfunctions of proteins containing coiled coils. PMID:22451899

  9. Ergovaline does not alter the severity of ryegrass staggers induced by lolitrem B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, S C; Vlaming, J B; Sutherland, B L; van Koten, C; Mace, W J; Fletcher, L R

    2018-03-01

    To investigate a possible interaction between lolitrem B and ergovaline by comparing the incidence and severity of ryegrass staggers in sheep grazing ryegrass (Lolium perenne) containing lolitrem B or ryegrass containing both lolitrem B and ergovaline. Ninety lambs, aged approximately 6 months, were grazed on plots of perennial ryegrass infected with either AR98 endophyte (containing lolitrem B), standard endophyte (containing lolitrem B and ergovaline) or no endophyte, for up to 42 days from 2 February 2010. Ten lambs were grazed on three replicate plots per cultivar. Herbage samples were collected for alkaloid analysis and lambs were scored for ryegrass staggers (scores from 0-5) weekly during the study. Any animal which was scored ≥4 was removed from the study. Concentrations of lolitrem B did not differ between AR98 and standard endophyte-infected pastures during the study period (p=0.26), and ergovaline was present only in standard endophyte pastures. Ryegrass staggers was observed in sheep grazing both the AR98 and standard endophyte plots, with median scores increasing in the third week of the study. Prior to the end of the 42-day grazing period, 22 and 17 animals were removed from the standard endophyte and AR98 plots, respectively, because their staggers scores were ≥4. The cumulative probability of lambs having scores ≥4 did not differ between animals grazing the two pasture types (p=0.41). There was no evidence for ergovaline increasing the severity of ryegrass staggers induced by lolitrem B. In situations where the severity of ryegrass staggers appears to be greater than that predicted on the basis of concentrations of lolitrem B, the presence of other tremorgenic alkaloids should be investigated.

  10. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  11. SU(3) sextet model with Wilson fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Drach, Vincent; Pica, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    to be inside or very close to the lower boundary of the conformal window. We use the Wilson discretization for the fermions and map the phase structure of the lattice model. We study several spectral and gradient flow observables both in the bulk and the weak coupling phases. While in the bulk phase we find...

  12. Multiple superconducting phases in heavy fermion compounds ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we show that multiple superconducting phases are present in heavy fermion superconductors, CeCoIn5 [2] and PrOs4Sb12 [3] , both of which were discovered very recently. The superconducting gap function of PrOs4Sb12 was investigated using thermal transport measurements in magnetic field rotated relative to the.

  13. Supersymmetric Extension of Technicolor & Fermion Mass Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antola, Matti; Di Chiara, Stefano; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We provide a complete extension of Minimal Walking Technicolor able to account for the standard model fermion masses. The model is supersymmetric at energies greater or equal to the technicolor compositeness scale. We integrate out, at the supersymmetry breaking scale, the elementary Higgses. We...

  14. Asymptotically Safe Standard Model via Vectorlike Fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, R. B.; Meffe, J. R.; Sannino, F.

    2017-01-01

    We construct asymptotically safe extensions of the standard model by adding gauged vectorlike fermions. Using large number-of-flavor techniques we argue that all gauge couplings, including the hypercharge and, under certain conditions, the Higgs coupling, can achieve an interacting ultraviolet...

  15. Dual of QCD with One Adjoint Fermion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Nardecchia, Marco; Pica, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    We construct the magnetic dual of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. The dual is a consistent solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions, allows for flavor decoupling and remarkably constitutes the first nonsupersymmetric dual valid for any number of colors. The dual allows to bound...

  16. Fermions Living in a Flat World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Anguiano-Galicia, Ma. de; Bashir, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a plane, parity transformation, which changes the sign of only one spatial coordinate, swaps the fermion fields living in two inequivalent representations. A parity invariant Lagrangian thus contains fields corresponding to both the representations. For such a Lagrangian, we show that we can also define a chiral symmetry

  17. Fractional fermion number and its thermal effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Shoichi.

    1984-06-01

    We give the general method to calculate fermion numbers induced on solitons in quantum field theory. Our method preserves the symmetry of the Lagrangian. We also extend our analysis to the case of finite temperatures, where we compare our analysis with others. (author)

  18. Can fermions save large N dimensional reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Buchoff, Michael I.; Cherman, Aleksey; Springer, Roxanne P.

    2009-10-01

    This paper explores whether Eguchi-Kawai reduction for gauge theories with adjoint fermions is valid. The Eguchi-Kawai reduction relates gauge theories in different numbers of dimensions in the large N limit provided that certain conditions are met. In principle, this relation opens up the possibility of learning about the dynamics of 4D gauge theories through techniques only available in lower dimensions. Dimensional reduction can be understood as a special case of large N equivalence between theories related by an orbifold projection. In this work, we focus on the simplest case of dimensional reduction, relating a 4D gauge theory to a 3D gauge theory via an orbifold projection. A necessary condition for the large N equivalence between the 4D and 3D theories to hold is that certain discrete symmetries in the two theories must not be broken spontaneously. In pure 4D Yang-Mills theory, these symmetries break spontaneously as the size of one of the spacetime dimensions shrinks. An analysis of the effect of adjoint fermions on the relevant symmetries of the 4D theory shows that the fermions help stabilize the symmetries. We consider the same problem from the point of view of the lower dimensional 3D theory and find that, surprisingly, adjoint fermions are not generally enough to stabilize the necessary symmetries of the 3D theory. In fact, a rich phase diagram arises, with a complicated pattern of symmetry breaking. We discuss the possible causes and consequences of this finding.

  19. Born-Kothari Condensation for Fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Ghosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of Bose–Einstein condensation, we present a detailed account of the statistical description of the condensation phenomena for a Fermi–Dirac gas following the works of Born and Kothari. For bosons, while the condensed phase below a certain critical temperature, permits macroscopic occupation at the lowest energy single particle state, for fermions, due to Pauli exclusion principle, the condensed phase occurs only in the form of a single occupancy dense modes at the highest energy state. In spite of these rudimentary differences, our recent findings [Ghosh and Ray, 2017] identify the foregoing phenomenon as condensation-like coherence among fermions in an analogous way to Bose–Einstein condensate which is collectively described by a coherent matter wave. To reach the above conclusion, we employ the close relationship between the statistical methods of bosonic and fermionic fields pioneered by Cahill and Glauber. In addition to our previous results, we described in this mini-review that the highest momentum (energy for individual fermions, prerequisite for the condensation process, can be specified in terms of the natural length and energy scales of the problem. The existence of such condensed phases, which are of obvious significance in the context of elementary particles, have also been scrutinized.

  20. Bosonic and fermionic dipoles on a ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zöllner, Sascha; Pethick, C. J.; Bruun, Georg Morten

    2011-01-01

    We show that dipolar bosons and fermions confined in a quasi-one-dimensional ring trap exhibit a rich variety of states because their interaction is inhomogeneous. For purely repulsive interactions, with increasing strength of the dipolar coupling there is a crossover from a gaslike state...

  1. Exploring a hidden fermionic dark sector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debasish Majumdar

    2017-10-09

    2)H symmetry. ... 67 Page 2 of 8. Pramana – J. Phys. (2017) 89:67 sector can serve as a potential candidate for dark matter assuming these fermions are in mass basis or follow ..... (19), mr = mmp/(m + mp) denotes the reduced.

  2. Geometry of non-degenerate Susskind fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Dirac-Kaehler equation on the lattice is known to describe the degenerate ''flavours'' appering in Susskind's approach to lattice fermions. We study the modification that has to be made in this equation in order to lift the degeneracy and give the flavours arbitrary different masses. (orig.)

  3. Hidden symmetry of a free fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhanov, V.V.; Stroganov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    A well-known eight-vertex free fermion model on a plane lattice is considered. Solving triangle equations and using the symmetry properties of the model, an elliptic parametrization for Boltzmann vertex weights is constructed. In the parametrization the weights are meromorphic functions of three complex variables

  4. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a pseudo-gap due to superconductivity and the signature of a hybridization gap at the. Fermi level. For the choice of the model parameters, the DOS shows that the HFS is a metal and undergoes a transition to the gap-less superconducting state. Keywords. Heavy fermion superconductor; Narrow band system; Valence ...

  5. Superconductivity in Correlated Fermions System | Babalola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have studied the Hubbard model which is a model that is used to describe the physics of strongly correlated Fermions systems. Using the Hubbard model, we worked on some systems in one dimension (1-D) at half fillings. We employed the numerical exact diagonalization technique and found out that there was a ...

  6. Fermion-boson scattering in ladder approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarov, R.G.; Hadjiev, S.A.

    1992-10-01

    A method of calculation of forward scattering amplitude for fermions and scalar bosons with exchanging of scalar particle is suggested. The Bethe-Salpeter ladder equation for the imaginary part of the amplitude is constructed and a solution in Regge asymptotical form is found and the corrections to the amplitude due to the exit from mass shell are calculated. (author). 8 refs

  7. Relativistic quantum correlations in bipartite fermionic states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... Relativistic quantum correlations in bipartite fermionic states. S KHAN1,∗ and N A KHAN2. 1Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Tarlai Kalan 45550,. Islamabad, Pakistan. 2CFP and Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, ...

  8. Partial dynamical symmetry in a fermion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher; Leviatan

    2000-02-28

    The relevance of the partial dynamical symmetry concept for an interacting fermion system is demonstrated. Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the symplectic shell model of nuclei and shown to be closely related to the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. Implications are discussed for the deformed light nucleus 20Ne.

  9. Exploring a hidden fermionic dark sector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debasish Majumdar

    2017-10-09

    handed fermion .... where i(hi → xx) is the decay width of hi for xx final state while i gives the total decay width of hi. Using ... i , i = 1,2 denotes the invisible decay width of scalar hi into dark matter pair which can be written as inv. 1.

  10. Universal relations with fermionic dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krut A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently introduced a new model for the distribution of dark matter (DM in galaxies, the Ruffini-Argüelles-Rueda (RAR model, based on a self-gravitating system of massive fermions at finite temperatures. The RAR model, for fermion masses above keV, successfully describes the DM halos in galaxies, and predicts the existence of a denser quantum core towards the center of each configuration. We demonstrate here, for the first time, that the introduction of a cutoff in the fermion phase-space distribution, necessary to account for galaxies finite size and mass, defines a new solution with a compact quantum core which represents an alternative to the central black hole (BH scenario for SgrA*. For a fermion mass in the range 48keV ≤ mc2 ≤ 345keV, the DM halo distribution fulfills the most recent data of the Milky Way rotation curves while harbors a dense quantum core of 4×106M⊙ within the S2 star pericenter. In particular, for a fermion mass of mc2 ∼ 50keV the model is able to explain the DM halos from typical dwarf spheroidal to normal elliptical galaxies, while harboring dark and massive compact objects from ∼ 103M⊙ tp to 108M⊙ at their respective centers. The model is shown to be in good agreement with different observationally inferred universal relations, such as the ones connecting DM halos with supermassive dark central objects. Finally, the model provides a natural mechanism for the formation of supermassive BHs as heavy as few ∼ 108M⊙. We argue that larger BH masses (few ∼ 109−10M⊙ may be achieved by assuming subsequent accretion processes onto the above heavy seeds, depending on accretion efficiency and environment.

  11. Excited baryons from Bayesian priors and overlap fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.X. Lee; S.J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; K.F. Liu; N. Mathur; J.B. Zhang

    2003-05-01

    Using the constrained-fitting method based on Bayesian priors, we extract the masses of the two lowest states of octet and decouplet baryons with both parities. The calculation is done on quenched 163 x 28 lattices of a = 0.2 fm using an improved gauge action and overlap fermions, with the pion mass as low as 180 MeV. The Roper state N(1440)+ is clearly observed for the first time as the 1st-excited state of the nucleon from the standard interpolating field. Together with other baryons, our preliminary results indicate that the level-ordering of the low-lying baryon states on the lattice is largely consistent with experiment. The realization is helped by cross-overs between the excited + and - states in the region of mp 300 to 400 MeV.

  12. A superlinearly convergent finite volume method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, D.; Segal, A.; Wesseling, P.

    2004-01-01

    A method for linear reconstruction of staggered vector fields with special treatment of the divergence is presented. An upwind-biased finite volume scheme for solving the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured triangular grids that uses this reconstruction is described. The scheme is applied to three benchmark problems and is found to be superlinearly convergent in space

  13. Determination of csw in Nf=3+1 lattice QCD with massive Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Patrick; Stollenwerk, Felix; Wolff, Ulli; Sommer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    We develop a strategy for the non-perturbative determination of the O(a)-improvement coefficient c sw for Wilson fermions with massive sea quarks. The improvement condition is defined via the PCAC relation in the Schroedinger functional. It is imposed along a line of constant physics designed to be close to the correct mass of the charm quark. The numerical work uses the tree-level improved Luescher-Weisz gauge action in N f =3+1 Lattice QCD.

  14. Kinetics of full scrum and staggered scrum engagement in under 19 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and eight male Rugby Union players from 13 high schools, whose ages ranged from 16 to 19 years, were used to examine the kinetics of the full scrum versus staggered scrum engagement techniques. Telemetric pressure transducers were used to measure the engagement and sustained forces acting on the ...

  15. Enhancement of Radiative Efficiency with Staggered InGaN Quantum Well Light Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tansu, Nelson; Dierolf, Volkmar; Huang, Gensheng; Penn, Samson; Zhao, Hongping; Liu, Guangyu; Li, Xiaohang; Poplawsky, Jonathan

    2011-07-14

    The technology on the large overlap InGaN QWs developed in this program is currently implemented in commercial technology in enhancing the internal quantum efficiency in major LED industry in US and Asia. The scientific finding from this work supported by the DOE enabled the implementation of this step-like staggered quantum well in the commercial LEDs.

  16. The use of staggered scheme and an absorbing buffer zone for computational aeroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.

    1995-01-01

    Various problems from those proposed for the Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) workshop were studied using second and fourth order staggered spatial discretizations in conjunction with fourth order Runge-Kutta time integration. In addition, an absorbing buffer zone was used at the outflow boundaries. Promising results were obtained and provide a basis for application of these techniques to a wider variety of problems.

  17. Experimental study of induced staggered magnetic fields in dysprosium gallium garnet (DGG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Corliss, L.M.; Hastings, J.M.; Blume, M.; Giordano, N.; Wolf, W.P.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron diffraction techniques have been used to study induced staggered magnetic field effects in DGG. The application of a uniform magnetic field at temperatures much greater than the Neel temperature induces a significant amount of antiferromagnetic order. The temperature and field dependences of this effect are in good agreement with recent theoretical predicions

  18. Partial dynamical symmetry and odd-even staggering in deformed nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leviatan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial dynamical symmetry (PDS is shown to be relevant for describing the odd-even staggering in the γ-band of 156Gd while retaining solvability and good SU(3 symmetry for the ground and β bands. Several classes of interacting boson model Hamiltonians with SU(3 PDS are surveyed.

  19. Remarks on the determination of the odd--even staggering parameter in the spectrum of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenkorn, S.; Stroke, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    From an analysis of the isotope shifts in the Cd 3261, 4678, and 4416 A lines, it is pointed out that a precise determination of the odd--even staggering parameter is limited less by experimental error than by the lack of reliable knowledge of the specific mass effect

  20. Magnetic Structure of the Heavy-fermion Compound CeAuSb2 in Zero-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Guy G.; Kim, Dae-Jeong; Lee, Hannoh; Fisk, Zachary; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A.; Broholm, Collin L.

    2015-03-01

    We have used neutron diffraction to determine the zero-field magnetic structure of the heavy-fermion compound CeAuSb2. Below TN ~ 6 . 2 K, we observe the development of antiferromagnetic Bragg diffraction consistent with previous transport and magnetization measurements. The intensities observed at 7 magnetic satellite locations indicate the staggered magnetization is predominantly along the c-axis. The maximum moment size is 1 . 15 +/- 0 . 08μB which is large compared with the 0 . 4μB moment in the iso-structural heavy fermion ferromagnet CeAgSb2. This suggests that the antiferromagnetic CeAuSb2 is deeper into a magnetic phase. The spin structure, due mainly to the Ce-4f sites, is described as a transverse polarized spin density wave with an incommensurate component of the wave vector in the basal plane. We will discuss these results and bulk measurements in terms of an ANNNI model and effective near neighbor exchange interactions. The work at IQM was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering under Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER46544. GGM also acknowledges support from the NSF-GRFP Grant No. DGE-1232825.

  1. A study of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine grain structure by stagger spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Qinxiang; Xiao, Gangfeng; Long, Hui; Cheng, Xiuquan; Yang, Baojian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing a method of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine crystal. • Obtaining the refined ferritic grains with an size of 500 nm after stagger spinning. • Obtaining the equiaxial ferritic grains with an size of 600 nm after annealing. - Abstract: A new method of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine grain structure by stagger spinning and recrystallization annealing is proposed in this study. Two methods of the stagger spinning process are developed, the corresponding macroforming quality, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the spun tubes made of ASTM 1020 steel are analysed. The results reveal that a good surface smoothness and an improved spin-formability of spun parts can be obtained by the process combining of 3-pass spinning followed by a 580 °C × 0.5 h static recrystallization and 2-pass spinning with a 580 °C × 1 h static recrystallization annealing under the severe thinning ratio of wall thickness reduction. The ferritic grains with an average initial size of 50 μm are refined to 500 nm after stagger spinning under the 87% thinning ratio of wall thickness reduction. The equiaxial ferritic grains with an average size of 600 nm are generated through re-nucleation and grain growth by subsequent recrystallization annealing at 580 °C for 1 h heat preservation. The tensile strength of spun tubes has been founded to be proportional to the reciprocal of layer spacing of pearlite (LSP), and the elongation is inversely proportional to the reciprocal of LSP. This study shows that the developed method of stagger power spinning has the potential to be used to manufacture bulk metal components with nano/ultrafine grain structure

  2. A nonperturbative fermion-boson vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Raya, A.

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the massive fermion propagator at one-loop order in QED3. The Ward-Takahashi identity (WTI) relates the propagator to the vertex. This allows us to split the vertex into its longitudinal and transverse parts. The former is fixed by the WTI. Following the scheme of Ball and Chiu later modified by Kizilersue et. al., we calculate the full vertex at one-loop order. A mere subtraction of the longitudinal part of the vertex gives us the transverse part. The α dependence in the transverse vertex can be eliminated by making use of the perturbative expressions for the wavefunction renormalization function and the mass function of complicated arguments of the incoming and outgoing fermion momenta. This leads us to a vertex which is nonperturbative in nature. We also calculate an effective vertex for which the arguments of the unknown functions have no angular dependence, making it particularly suitable for numerical studies of dynamical symmetry breaking

  3. The analytic bootstrap in fermionic CFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Mark

    2018-01-01

    We apply the method of the large spin bootstrap to analyse fermionic conformal field theories with weakly broken higher spin symmetry. Through the study of correlators of composite operators, we find the anomalous dimensions and OPE coefficients in the GrossNeveu model in d = 2 + ɛ dimensions and the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model in d = 4 - ɛ dimensions, based only on crossing symmetry. Furthermore a non-trivial solution in the d = 2 + ɛ expansion is found for a fermionic theory in which the fundamental field is not part of the spectrum. The results are perturbative in ɛ and valid to all orders in the spin, reproducing known results for operator dimensions and providing some new results for operator dimensions and OPE coefficients.

  4. Dual fermion approach to disordered correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Disorder is ubiquitous in real materials and influences the physical properties like the conductivity to varying degrees. If electron-electron interactions are strong, theoretical and numerical treatment of these systems becomes challenging. In this thesis a numerical approach is developed to address these systems, treating both interactions and disorder on equal footing. The approach is based on the dual fermion approach for interacting systems developed by Rubtsov et al. Terletska et al. applied the ideas of the dual fermion approach to disordered non-interacting systems. In this approach, the replica trick is used to integrate out the disorder in favor of an effective electron-electron interaction. We extended the approach from Terletska et al. to treat disordered interacting systems. Dual Fermions allow to take into account non-local fluctuations by means of a perturbative expansion around an impurity problem. The impurity reference system is determined self-consistently, analogously to the dynamical mean-field theory. The perturbative expansion is expected to yield good results for small and large values of interaction strength and disorder. A priori, it is not clear what to expect for intermediate values, but experience shows that oftentimes good results are obtained for this region. An advantage of the dual fermion approach is that there is no sign-problem for a single orbital model if quantum Monte Carlo is used to solve the interacting reference system. Additionally, perturbation theory is usually numerically much cheaper than fully solving an interacting lattice or cluster problem. Thus, the dual fermion approach allows to address regions of parameter space that are not accessible to lattice quantum Monte Carlo calculations or cluster extension of dynamical mean-field theory. Cluster extensions of the dynamical mean-field theory are for example the dynamical cluster approximation or the cellular dynamical mean-field theory. The new approach is benchmarked

  5. Extended nonabelian symmetries for free fermionic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikov, R.P.

    1993-08-01

    The higher spin symmetry for both Dirac and Majorana massless free fermionic field models are considered. An infinite Lie algebra which is a linear realization of the higher spin extension of the cross products of the Virasoro and affine Kac-Moody algebras is obtained. The corresponding current algebra is closed which is not the case of analogous current algebra in the WZNW model. The gauging procedure for the higher spin symmetry is also given. (author). 12 refs

  6. Masses and Majorana fermions in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamon, Claudio; Hou Changyu; Mudry, Christopher; Ryu, Shinsei; Santos, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    We review the classification of all the 36 possible gap-opening instabilities in graphene, i.e. the 36 relativistic masses of the two-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian when the spin, valley, and superconducting channels are included. We then show that in graphene it is possible to realize an odd number of Majorana fermions attached to vortices in superconducting order parameters if a proper hierarchy of mass scales is in place.

  7. Majorana fermions coupled to electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Christoph; Hassler, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We consider a voltage-biased Josephson junction between two nanowires hosting Majorana zero modes which occur as topological protected zero-energy excitations at the junction. We show that two Majorana fermions localized at the junction, even though being neutral particles, interact with the electromagnetic field and generate coherent radiation similar to the conventional Josephson radiation. Within a semiclassical analysis of the radiation field, we find that the optical phase gets locked to...

  8. Magnetic properties of heavy-fermion superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauchschwalbe, U.

    1986-01-01

    In the present thesis the magnetic properties of heavy-fermion superconductors are investigated. The magnetoresistance and the critical magnetic fields show a variety of anomalous phenomena. The Kondo lattices CeCu 2 Si and CeAl 3 are analysed by magnetoresistance and the field dependence of the resistivitis of UBe 13 , UPt 3 , URu 2 Si 2 and CeRu 3 Si are measured for temperatures < or approx. 1 K. (BHO)

  9. Fermionic currents flowing along extended objects

    OpenAIRE

    Ringeval, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    This PhD thesis discusses the internal structure of topological defects, and branes in extra-dimensions, carrying fermionic currents. The general framework in which these objects may appear is presented in the first part while the second part is devoted to the dynamic of cosmic strings, a class of topological defects of uttermost importance to modern cosmology, as it can be obtained from a macroscopic covariant formalism. This formalism offers a unified description of cosmic strings, includin...

  10. Coulomb’s law corrections and fermion field localization in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, Roberto; Escalante, Alberto [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla,Apdo. postal J-48, 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Germán, Gabriel [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road,Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla,Apdo. postal J-48, 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Institutode Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2016-05-11

    Following recent studies which show that it is possible to localize gravity as well as scalar and gauge vector fields in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld, we investigate the solution of the gauge hierarchy problem, the localization of fermion fields in this model, the recovering of the Coulomb law on the non-relativistic limit of the Yukawa interaction between bulk fermions and gauge bosons localized in the brane, and confront the predicted 5D corrections to the photon mass with its upper experimental/observational bounds, finding the model physically viable since it passes these tests. In order to achieve the latter aims we first consider the Yukawa interaction term between the fermionic and the tachyonic scalar fields MF(T)ΨΨ-bar in the action and analyze four distinct tachyonic functions F(T) that lead to four different structures of the respective fermionic mass spectra with different physics. In particular, localization of the massless left-chiral fermion zero mode is possible for three of these cases. We further analyze the phenomenology of these Yukawa interactions among fermion fields and gauge bosons localized on the brane and obtain the crucial and necessary information to compute the corrections to Coulomb’s law coming from massive KK vector modes in the non-relativistic limit. These corrections are exponentially suppressed due to the presence of the mass gap in the mass spectrum of the bulk gauge vector field. From our results we conclude that corrections to Coulomb’s law in the thin brane limit have the same form (up to a numerical factor) as far as the left-chiral massless fermion field is localized on the brane. Finally we compute the corrections to the Coulomb’s law for an arbitrarily thick brane scenario which can be interpreted as 5D corrections to the photon mass. By performing consistent estimations with brane phenomenology, we found that the predicted corrections to the photon mass, which are well bounded by the experimentally

  11. Effect of quintessence on holographic fermionic spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Xiao-Mei [Yangzhou University, Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou (China); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Wu, Jian-Pin [Bohai University, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Jinzhou (China)

    2017-10-15

    In this letter, we investigate the holographic fermionic spectrum without/with dipole coupling dual to the Reissner-Nordstroem anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) black brane surrounded by quintessence. We find that the low energy excitation of this fermionic system without dipole coupling behaves as a non-Fermi liquid. In particular, the introduction of quintessence aggravates the degree of deviation from a Fermi liquid. For the system with dipole coupling, the phase transition from (non-)Fermi liquid to Mott phase can be observed. The ratio between the width of gap and the critical temperature, beyond which the gap closes, is also worked out. We find that this ratio is larger than that of the holographic fermionic system dual to the RN-AdS black brane and even the material of V O{sub 2}. It means that our holographic system with quintessence can model new phenomena of the condensed matter system and provide some new insights in their regard. (orig.)

  12. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  13. Scaling behavior of heavy fermion metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R., E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.r [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation); CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, 3a, Chernova str. Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are fundamental systems in physics that are best studied experimentally, which until very recently have lacked theoretical explanations. This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as heavy-fermion (HF) metals and two-dimensional (2D) Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the scaling behavior of HF metals can be described within the framework of a fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT) and an extended quasiparticle paradigm that allow us to explain the non-Fermi liquid behavior observed in strongly correlated Fermi systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Having analyzed the collected facts on strongly correlated Fermi systems with quite a different microscopic nature, we find these to exhibit the same non-Fermi liquid behavior at FCQPT. We show both analytically and using arguments based entirely on the experimental grounds that the data collected on very different strongly correlated Fermi systems have a universal scaling behavior, and materials with strongly correlated fermions can unexpectedly be uniform in their diversity. Our analysis of strongly correlated systems such as HF metals and 2D Fermi systems is in the context of salient experimental results. Our calculations of the non-Fermi liquid behavior, the scales and thermodynamic, relaxation and transport properties are in good agreement with experimental facts.

  14. Verifying non-Abelian statistics by numerical braiding Majorana fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Qiu-Bo [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); He, Jing [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Hebei, 050024 (China); Kou, Su-Peng, E-mail: spkou@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Recently, Majorana fermions have attracted intensive attention because of their possible non-Abelian statistics and potential applications in topological quantum computation. This paper describes an approach to verify the non-Abelian statistics of Majorana fermions in topological superconductors. From the relationship between the braiding operator of Majorana fermions and that of Bogoliubov–de Gennes states, we determine that Majorana fermions in one-dimensional and two-dimensional topological superconductors both obey non-Abelian statistics. - Highlights: • The braiding of Majorana fermions is an adiabatic evolution. • The approach to calculate Berry phase in the braiding is proposed. • Verifying non-Abelian statistics of Majorara Fermions induced in different systems.

  15. FCNC Effects in a Minimal Theory of Fermion Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Pokorski, Stefan; Ziegler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As a minimal theory of fermion masses we extend the SM by heavy vectorlike fermions, with flavor-anarchical Yukawa couplings, that mix with chiral fermions such that small SM Yukawa couplings arise from small mixing angles. This model can be regarded as an effective description of the fermionic sector of a large class of existing flavor models and thus might serve as a useful reference frame for a further understanding of flavor hierarchies in the SM. Already such a minimal framework gives rise to FCNC effects through exchange of massive SM bosons whose couplings to the light fermions get modified by the mixing. We derive general formulae for these corrections and discuss the bounds on the heavy fermion masses. Particularly stringent bounds, in a few TeV range, come from the corrections to the Z couplings.

  16. Fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory for supernonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jipeng; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the superprincipal bundle and its associated superbundle. The super(nonlinear)connection on the superfiber bundle is constructed. Then by means of the connection theory, we establish the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory of the supernonlinear evolution equation. In this geometry theory, the fermionic covariant fundamental equations determining the prolongation structure are presented. As an example, the supernonlinear Schroedinger equation is analyzed in the framework of this fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We obtain its Lax pairs and Baecklund transformation.

  17. Semiclassical fermion pair creation in de Sitter spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Clément, E-mail: clement.stahl@icranet.org; Eckhard, Strobel, E-mail: eckhard.strobel@irap-phd.eu [ICRANet, Piazzale della Repubblica 10, 65122 Pescara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, 28 Avenue de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-12-17

    We present a method to semiclassically compute the pair creation rate of bosons and fermions in de Sitter spacetime. The results in the bosonic case agree with the ones in the literature. We find that for the constant electric field the fermionic and bosonic pair creation rate are the same. This analogy of bosons and fermions in the semiclassical limit is known from several flat spacetime examples.

  18. Pole mass, width, and propagators of unstable fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of pole mass and width are extended to unstable fermions in the general framework of parity-nonconserving gauge theories, such as the Standard Model. In contrast with the conventional on-shell definitions, these concepts are gauge independent and avoid severe unphysical singularities, properties of great importance since most fundamental fermions in nature are unstable particles. General expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of unstable fermions and their field-renormalization constants are presented. (orig.)

  19. Spin-excited oscillations in two-component fermion condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Bertsch, George F.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate collective spin excitations in two-component fermion condensates with special consideration of unequal populations of the two components. The frequencies of monopole and dipole modes are calculated using Thomas-Fermi theory and the scaling approximation. As the fermion-fermion coupling is varied, the system shows various phases of the spin configuration. We demonstrate that spin oscillations have more sensitivity to the spin phase structures than the density oscillations

  20. Radial and staggered treatment patterns to correct hyperopia using noncontact holmium:YAG laser thermal keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, P; Kohnen, T; Azzolini, M; Radice, P; Epstein, D; Koch, D D

    1998-01-01

    To compare the effects of two treatment patterns in the correction of hyperopia by noncontact holmium:YAG laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK). Divisione Oculistica, Ospedale S. Gerardo, Monza, Italy. Using two treatment patterns, we performed noncontact LTK in one session in 16 eyes of 8 patients with isometropic hyperopic refractive errors; mean preoperative subjective cycloplegic refraction was +4.90 diopters (D) +/- 1.17 (SD). The treatment consisted of 24 spots in three concentric rings of eight spots each; ring diameters were 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 mm, respectively. Each spot received seven pulses of laser energy at 30 mJ/pulse. We treated one eye of each patient with a radial pattern (the spots of the three rings aligned on the eight semimeridians) and the fellow eye with a staggered pattern (the spots of the contiguous rings at 22.5 degrees from each other). Follow-up at 1, 15, 30, 90, 180, and 360 days included subjective cycloplegic refraction, uncorrected (UCVA) and spectacle-corrected visual acuity (SCVA), computerized videokeratography (CVK), and Scheimpflug camera examination. One year postoperatively, the mean subjective cycloplegic refraction was +2.75 +/- 1.6 D in the eyes treated with the radial pattern and +3.40 +/- 1.6 D in those treated with the staggered pattern; the mean change in subjective cycloplegic refraction was 2.15 and 1.50 D, respectively. Mean UCVA improved by five lines in the radial group and by four lines in the staggered group. Mean SCVA returned to preoperative levels by day 15 in the radial group and at 1 year in the staggered group; at 1 year, SCVA improved by one line in the radial group and remained unchanged in the staggered group. No eye lost one or more lines of SCVA. Refractive astigmatism was essentially unchanged in both groups. Scheimpflug photography and CVK indicated larger and more uniform corrected zones in the radial group. Radial and staggered patterns effectively corrected low hyperopia, although both were subject to a

  1. On the polarization of fermion in an intermediate state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloshin, A. E.; Lomov, V. P.

    2017-06-01

    We show that calculation of a final fermion polarization (for a pure initial state) is equivalent to the problem of looking for complete polarization axis of bispinor. This gives the method for calculation of polarization applicable both for final and intermediate state fermions. We suggest to use fermion propagator (bare or dressed) in form of spectral representation, which gives the orthogonal off-shell energy projectors. This representation leads to covariant separation of particle and antiparticle contributions and gives a natural definition for polarization of intermediate state fermion. The most evident application is related with consistent description of t-quark polarization.

  2. Non-perturbative renormalization of static-light four-fermion operators in quenched lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palombi, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Papinutto, M.; Pena, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept., Theory Div.; Wittig, H. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2007-06-15

    We perform a non-perturbative study of the scale-dependent renormalization factors of a multiplicatively renormalizable basis of {delta}B=2 parity-odd four-fermion operators in quenched lattice QCD. Heavy quarks are treated in the static approximation with various lattice discretizations of the static action. Light quarks are described by nonperturbatively O(a) improved Wilson-type fermions. The renormalization group running is computed for a family of Schroedinger functional (SF) schemes through finite volume techniques in the continuum limit. We compute non-perturbatively the relation between the renormalization group invariant operators and their counterparts renormalized in the SF at a low energy scale. Furthermore, we provide non-perturbative estimates for the matching between the lattice regularized theory and all the SF schemes considered. (orig.)

  3. Critical temperature transition of an interacting Boson-Fermion mixture gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tuan Anh

    2007-01-01

    We study the self-consistent theory of Bose-Einstein condensation in the dilute interacting boson-fermion mixture gas at finite temperature. First, we generalize the idea of the theory using the 2PI effective action formalism. Second, we show the effects of repulsive interactions on the critical temperature for the Bose-Einstein transition. The calculations provide the lowest order correction of the critical temperature (at constant density) by a positive amount proportional to the scattering length a bf and the fermion density n f . The change of the critical temperature yields T c ≅ T 0 + c 1 .a bf /m bf .n f , with c 1 = 2.342. (author)

  4. Modeling seismic wave propagation using staggered-grid mimetic finite differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freysimar Solano-Feo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mimetic finite difference (MFD approximations of continuous gradient and divergence operators satisfy a discrete version of the Gauss-Divergence theorem on staggered grids. On the mimetic approximation of this integral conservation principle, an unique boundary flux operator is introduced that also intervenes on the discretization of a given boundary value problem (BVP. In this work, we present a second-order MFD scheme for seismic wave propagation on staggered grids that discretized free surface and absorbing boundary conditions (ABC with same accuracy order. This scheme is time explicit after coupling a central three-level finite difference (FD stencil for numerical integration. Here, we briefly discuss the convergence properties of this scheme and show its higher accuracy on a challenging test when compared to a traditional FD method. Preliminary applications to 2-D seismic scenarios are also presented and show the potential of the mimetic finite difference method.

  5. Skew information in the XY model with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Liang, E-mail: lqiu@cumt.edu.cn [School of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Quan, Dongxiao [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Pan, Fei; Liu, Zhi [School of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2017-06-01

    We study the performance of the lower bound of skew information in the vicinity of transition point for the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction by use of quantum renormalization-group method. For a fixed value of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, there are two saturated values for the lower bound of skew information corresponding to the spin-fluid and Néel phases, respectively. The scaling exponent of the lower bound of skew information closely relates to the correlation length of the model and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction shifts the factorization point. Our results show that the lower bound of skew information can be a good candidate to detect the critical point of XY spin chain with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  6. Investigation of writing error in staggered heated-dot magnetic recording systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipcharoen, W.; Warisarn, C.; Tongsomporn, D.; Karns, D.; Kovintavewat, P.

    2017-05-01

    To achieve an ultra-high storage capacity, heated-dot magnetic recording (HDMR) has been proposed, which heats a bit-patterned medium before recording data. Generally, an error during the HDMR writing process comes from several sources; however, we only investigate the effects of staggered island arrangement, island size fluctuation caused by imperfect fabrication, and main pole position fluctuation. Simulation results demonstrate that a writing error can be minimized by using a staggered array (hexagonal lattice) instead of a square array. Under the effect of main pole position fluctuation, the writing error is higher than the system without main pole position fluctuation. Finally, we found that the error percentage can drop below 10% when the island size is 8.5 nm and the standard deviation of the island size is 1 nm in the absence of main pole jitter.

  7. On the spectrum of the staggered Dirac operator at finite chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, J.C.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1988-12-01

    The spectrum of the staggered Dirac operator in two-dimensional QEDF is investigated at finite chemical potential. In the quenced model, it is shown that lattice artefacts cause a spurious scattering of eigenvalues. This scattering disappears when lattice distance is taken to zero. In the unquenced model, a new approach is used to show that similar effects are absent. (author). 17 refs.; 6 figs

  8. Diffraction of love waves by two staggered perfectly weak half-planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, S.; Zaman, F.D.; Sajida Asghar

    1989-01-01

    Love wave travelling in a layer of uniform thickness overlying a half-space is assumed to be incident on two parallel but staggered perfectly weak half-planes lying in the upper layer. The diffracted fields is calculated using the modified Wiener-Hopf technique and contour integration method. The diffracted waves satisfy the dispersion relations appropriate to different regions formed by the perfectly weak half-planes

  9. Bottleneck congestion and distribution of work start times: The economics of staggered work hours revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Henderson (1981), a number of studies examined the effect of staggered work hours by analyzing models of work start time choice that consider the trade-off between negative congestion externalities and positive production externalities. However, these studies described traffic congestion using flow congestion models. This study develops a model of work start time choice with bottleneck congestion and discloses the intrinsic properties of the model. To this end, this ...

  10. New 2D adaptive mesh refinement algorithm based on conservative finite-differences with staggered grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, T.; Duretz, T.; May, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    We present new 2D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm based on stress-conservative finite-differences formulated for non-uniform rectangular staggered grid. The refinement approach is based on a repetitive cell splitting organized via a quad-tree construction (every parent cell is split into 4 daughter cells of equal size). Irrespective of the level of resolution every cell has 5 staggered nodes (2 horizontal velocities, 2 vertical velocities and 1 pressure) for which respective governing equations, boundary conditions and interpolation equations are formulated. The connectivity of the grid is achieved via cross-indexing of grid cells and basic nodal points located in their corners: four corner nodes are indexed for every cell and up to 4 surrounding cells are indexed for every node. The accuracy of the approach depends critically on the formulation of the stencil used at the "hanging" velocity nodes located at the boundaries between different levels of resolution. Most accurate results are obtained for the scheme based on the volume flux balance across the resolution boundary combined with stress-based interpolation of velocity orthogonal to the boundary. We tested this new approach with a number of 2D variable viscosity analytical solutions. Our tests demonstrate that the adaptive staggered grid formulation has convergence properties similar to those obtained in case of a standard, non-adaptive staggered grid formulation. This convergence is also achieved when resolution boundary crosses sharp viscosity contrast interfaces. The convergence rates measured are found to be insensitive to scenarios when the transition in grid resolution crosses sharp viscosity contrast interfaces. We compared various grid refinement strategies based on distribution of different field variables such as viscosity, density and velocity. According to these tests the refinement allows for significant (0.5-1 order of magnitude) increase in the computational accuracy at the same

  11. Entropy Stable Staggered Grid Spectral Collocation for the Burgers' and Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [1, 2], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to a combination of tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semi-discrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for both Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly to implement. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinearly stability proof for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).

  12. Re: Penetration Behavior of Opposed Rows of Staggered Secondary Air Jets Depending on Jet Penetration Coefficient and Momentum Flux Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain why the extension of the previously published C = (S/Ho)sqrt(J) scaling for opposed rows of staggered jets wasn't directly successful in the study by Choi et al. (2016). It is not surprising that staggered jets from opposite sides do not pass each other at the expected C value, because Ho/D and sqrt(J) are much larger than the maximum in previous studies. These, and large x/D's, tend to suggest development of 2-dimensional flow. Although there are distinct optima for opposed rows of in-line jets, single-side injection, and opposed rows of staggered jets based on C, opposed rows of staggered jets provide as good or better mixing performance, at any C value, than opposed rows of in-line jets or jets from single-side injection.

  13. Clifford Algebra Implying Three Fermion Generations Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    2002-01-01

    The author's idea of algebraic compositeness of fundamental particles, allowing to understand the existence in Nature of three fermion generations, is revisited. It is based on two postulates. Primo, for all fundamental particles of matter the Dirac square-root procedure √p 2 → Γ (N) ·p works, leading to a sequence N=1, 2, 3, ... of Dirac-type equations, where four Dirac-type matrices Γ (N) μ are embedded into a Clifford algebra via a Jacobi definition introducing four ''centre-of-mass'' and (N - 1) x four ''relative'' Dirac-type matrices. These define one ''centre-of-mass'' and N - 1 ''relative'' Dirac bispinor indices. Secundo, the ''centre-of-mass'' Dirac bispinor index is coupled to the Standard Model gauge fields, while N - 1 ''relative'' Dirac bispinor indices are all free indistinguishable physical objects obeying Fermi statistics along with the Pauli principle which requires the full antisymmetry with respect to ''relative'' Dirac indices. This allows only for three Dirac-type equations with N = 1, 3, 5 in the case of N odd, and two with N = 2, 4 in the case of N even. The first of these results implies unavoidably the existence of three and only three generations of fundamental fermions, namely leptons and quarks, as labelled by the Standard Model signature. At the end, a comment is added on the possible shape of Dirac 3 x 3 mass matrices for four sorts of spin-1/2 fundamental fermions appearing in three generations. For charged leptons a prediction is m τ = 1776.80 MeV, when the input of experimental m e and m μ is used. (author)

  14. Universal fermionic spectral functions from string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P; Sonner, Julian; Waldram, Daniel

    2011-12-09

    We carry out the first holographic calculation of a fermionic response function for a strongly coupled d=3 system with an explicit D=10 or D=11 supergravity dual. By considering the supersymmetry current, we obtain a universal result applicable to all d=3 N=2 SCFTs with such duals. Surprisingly, the spectral function does not exhibit a Fermi surface, despite the fact that the system is at finite charge density. We show that it has a phonino pole and at low frequencies there is a depletion of spectral weight with a power-law scaling which is governed by a locally quantum critical point.

  15. Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Martin, E-mail: marlohmann@gmail.com [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.

  16. Fermions, Skyrmions and the 3-sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goatham, Stephen W; Krusch, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a background charge one Skyrme field chirally coupled to light fermions on the 3-sphere. The Dirac equation for the system commutes with a generalized angular momentum or grand spin. It can be solved explicitly for a Skyrme configuration given by the hedgehog form. The energy spectrum and degeneracies are derived for all values of the grand spin. Solutions for non-zero grand spin are each characterized by a set of four polynomials. The paper also discusses the energy of the Dirac sea using zeta-function regularization.

  17. A possible model of heavy fermion superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liyuan.

    1986-08-01

    We have used the periodic Anderson Hamiltonian to study the behaviour of heavy fermion systems. It has been argued that the properly large mixing between f and the conduction electrons, the strong Coulomb correlation between f electrons and the related renormalization effect are the main causes of the large effective mass of the quasiparticle. Further, we have introduced phenomenologically the BCS attractive interaction between the heavy quasiparticles and explained that the value of ΔC/γT c and T c may be quite different from that of the BCS theory as a result of the interaction between two branches of the quasiparticles. (author)

  18. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  19. Instanton induced compactification and fermion chirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.

    1983-07-01

    The question of fermion chirality in Kaluza-Klein theories with coupling to Yang-Mills fields is discussed. The argument is illustrated in eight dimensions where an SU(2) Yang-Mills field assumes the 1-instanton form on the internal space. This serves not only to trigger spontaneous compactification of the internal space but will ensure the emergence of nsub(L)-nsub(R)=2/3t(t+1) (2t+1) zero modes in an irreducible 8-spinor belonging to the (2t+1)-dimensional representation of SU(2). (author)

  20. Zero-point energy of confined fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    A closed form for the reduced Green's function of massless fermions in the interior of a spherical bag is obtained. In terms of this Green's function, the corresponding zero-point or Casimir energy is computed. It is proposed that a resulting quadratic divergence can be absorbed by renormalizing a suitable parameter in the bag model (that is, absorbed by a contact term). The residual Casimir stress is attractive, but smaller than the repulsive Casimir stress of gluons in the model. The result for the total zero-point energy is in substantial disagreement with bag model phenomenological values

  1. Leading logarithms in four fermion theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koschinski, Julia

    2016-06-02

    In this thesis we examine leading logarithm in four-fermion theories. For this aim we consider exemplary the Gross-Neveu model and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We constrain ourselves for these considerations to effective field theories in the massless case. For this we use especially properties of analyticity, unitarity and crossing. In this process the Roy equation is consulted as a dispersion relation. In addition, we study the behavior of a nonrenormalizable recursive equation for leading logarithms in the large N limit of the special unitary group SU(N).

  2. Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with Wilson fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Drach, Vincent; Pica, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    We present a lattice study of a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model using Wilson fermions. Four-fermion interactions are a natural part of several extensions of the Standard Model, appearing as a low-energy description of a more fundamental theory. In models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking...

  3. Fermion helicity flip in higher-derivative electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accioly, A.J. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mukai, H. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    1996-10-01

    It is shown that massive fermions have their helicity flipped on account of their interaction with an electromagnetic field described by Podolsky`s generalized electrodynamics. Massless fermions, in turn, seem to be unaffected by the electromagnetic field as far as their helicity is concerned. (author).

  4. The fermion propagator in cosmological spaces with constant deceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koksma, J.F.; Prokopec, T.

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the fermion propagator in Friedmann–Lemaˆıtre–Robertson– Walker (FLRW) spacetimeswith constant deceleration q = −1, = −H˙ /H2 for excited states. For fermions whose mass is generated by a scalar field through a Yukawa coupling m = gYφ, we assume φ ∝α H. We first solve the mode functions

  5. Parameters of the lowest order chiral Lagrangian from fermion eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrand, T.; Schaefer, S.

    2007-08-01

    Recent advances in Random Matrix Theory enable one to determine the pseudoscalar decay constant from the response of eigenmodes of quenched fermions to an imaginary isospin chemical potential. We perform a pilot test of this idea, from simulations with two flavors of dynamical overlap fermions. (orig.)

  6. Composite fermions a unified view of the quantum Hall regime

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    One of the most exciting recent developments to have emerged from the quantum Hall effect is the subject of composite fermions. This important volume gives a self-contained, comprehensive description of the subject, including fundamentals, more advanced theoretical work, and results from experimental observations of composite fermions.

  7. Fermionic construction of vertex operators for twisted affine algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappat, L.; Sorba, P.; Sciarrino, A.

    1988-03-01

    We construct vertex operator representations of the twisted affine algebras in terms of fermionic (or parafermionic in some cases) elementary fields. The folding method applied to the extended Dynkin diagrams of the affine algebras allows us to determine explicitly these fermionic fields as vertex operators

  8. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low- and high- mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflatons decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use. CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the ...

  9. Geometric interpretation for the interacting-boson-fermion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.

    1988-08-11

    A geometric oriented approach for studying the interacting-boson-fermion model for odd-A nuclei is presented. A deformed single-particle hamiltonian is derived by means of an algebraic Born-Oppenheimer treatment. Observables concerning spectrum and transitions are calculated for the case of a single-j fermion coupled to a prolate core charge boson number and arbitrary deformations.

  10. A geometric interpretation for the interacting-boson-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1988-01-01

    A geometric oriented approach for studying the interacting-boson-fermion model for odd-A nuclei is presented. A deformed single-particle hamiltonian is derived by means of an algebraic Born-Oppenheimer treatment. Observables concerning spectrum and transitions are calculated for the case of a single-j fermion coupled to a prolate core charge boson number and arbitrary deformations

  11. Fermions in light front transverse lattice quantum chromodynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We briefly describe motivations for studying transverse lattice QCD. Presence of constraint equation for fermion field on the light front allows different methods to put fermions on a transverse lattice. We summarize our numerical investigation of two approaches using (a) forward and backward derivatives and (b) symmetric ...

  12. Integral staggered point-matching method for millimeter-wave reflective diffraction gratings on electron cyclotron heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Donghui; Huang, Mei; Wang, Zhijiang; Zhang, Feng; Zhuang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The integral staggered point-matching method for design of polarizers on the ECH systems is presented. • The availability of the integral staggered point-matching method is checked by numerical calculations. • Two polarizers are designed with the integral staggered point-matching method and the experimental results are given. - Abstract: The reflective diffraction gratings are widely used in the high power electron cyclotron heating systems for polarization strategy. This paper presents a method which we call “the integral staggered point-matching method” for design of reflective diffraction gratings. This method is based on the integral point-matching method. However, it effectively removes the convergence problems and tedious calculations of the integral point-matching method, making it easier to be used for a beginner. A code is developed based on this method. The calculation results of the integral staggered point-matching method are compared with the integral point-matching method, the coordinate transformation method and the low power measurement results. It indicates that the integral staggered point-matching method can be used as an optional method for the design of reflective diffraction gratings in electron cyclotron heating systems.

  13. Pseudo-spectral method using rotated staggered grid for elastic wave propagation in 3D arbitrary anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Peng

    2017-05-10

    Staggering grid is a very effective way to reduce the Nyquist errors and to suppress the non-causal ringing artefacts in the pseudo-spectral solution of first-order elastic wave equations. However, the straightforward use of a staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method is problematic for simulating wave propagation when the anisotropy level is greater than orthorhombic or when the anisotropic symmetries are not aligned with the computational grids. Inspired by the idea of rotated staggered-grid finite-difference method, we propose a modified pseudo-spectral method for wave propagation in arbitrary anisotropic media. Compared with an existing remedy of staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method based on stiffness matrix decomposition and a possible alternative using the Lebedev grids, the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method possesses the best balance between the mitigation of artefacts and efficiency. A 2D example on a transversely isotropic model with tilted symmetry axis verifies its effectiveness to suppress the ringing artefacts. Two 3D examples of increasing anisotropy levels demonstrate that the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method can successfully simulate complex wavefields in such anisotropic formations.

  14. Integral staggered point-matching method for millimeter-wave reflective diffraction gratings on electron cyclotron heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Donghui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Huang, Mei [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Wang, Zhijiang, E-mail: wangzj@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zhang, Feng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Zhuang, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The integral staggered point-matching method for design of polarizers on the ECH systems is presented. • The availability of the integral staggered point-matching method is checked by numerical calculations. • Two polarizers are designed with the integral staggered point-matching method and the experimental results are given. - Abstract: The reflective diffraction gratings are widely used in the high power electron cyclotron heating systems for polarization strategy. This paper presents a method which we call “the integral staggered point-matching method” for design of reflective diffraction gratings. This method is based on the integral point-matching method. However, it effectively removes the convergence problems and tedious calculations of the integral point-matching method, making it easier to be used for a beginner. A code is developed based on this method. The calculation results of the integral staggered point-matching method are compared with the integral point-matching method, the coordinate transformation method and the low power measurement results. It indicates that the integral staggered point-matching method can be used as an optional method for the design of reflective diffraction gratings in electron cyclotron heating systems.

  15. Lattice QCD with mixed actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowler, Ken C.; Joo, Balint; Kenway, Richard D.; Maynard, Chris M.; Tweedie, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss some of the implications of simulating QCD when the action used for the sea quarks is different from that used for the valence quarks. We present exploratory results for the hadron mass spectrum and pseudoscalar meson decay constants using improved staggered sea quarks and HYP-smeared overlap valence quarks. We propose a method for matching the valence quark mass to the sea quark mass and demonstrate it on UKQCD clover data in the simpler case where the sea and valence actions are the same

  16. Search for Majorana fermions in topological superconductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shi, Xiaoyan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hawkins, Samuel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klem, John Frederick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this project is to search for Majorana fermions (a new quantum particle) in a topological superconductor (a new quantum matter achieved in a topological insulator proximitized by an s-wave superconductor). Majorana fermions (MFs) are electron-like particles that are their own anti-particles. MFs are shown to obey non-Abelian statistics and, thus, can be harnessed to make a fault-resistant topological quantum computer. With the arrival of topological insulators, novel schemes to create MFs have been proposed in hybrid systems by combining a topological insulator with a conventional superconductor. In this LDRD project, we will follow the theoretical proposals to search for MFs in one-dimensional (1D) topological superconductors. 1D topological superconductor will be created inside of a quantum point contact (with the metal pinch-off gates made of conventional s-wave superconductors such as niobium) in a two-dimensional topological insulator (such as inverted type-II InAs/GaSb heterostructure).

  17. Quantum phases of AB2 fermionic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murcia-Correa, L S; Franco, R; Silva-Valencia, J

    2016-01-01

    A fermionic chain is a one-dimensional system with fermions that interact locally and can jump between sites in the lattice, in particular an AB n chain type, where A and B are sites that exhibit a difference in energy level of Δ and site B is repeated n-times, such that the unit cell has n +1 sites. A limit case of this model, called the ionic Hubbard model (n = 1), has been widely studied due to its interesting physics and applications. In this paper, we study the ground state of an AB 2 chain, which describes the material R 4 [Pt 2 (P 2 O 5 H 2 ) 4 X] · nH 2 O. Specifically, we consider a filling with two electrons per unit cell, and using the density matrix renormalization group method we found that the system exhibits the band insulator and Mott correlated insulator phases, as well as an intermediate phase between them. For couplings of Δ = 2,10 and 20, we estimate the critical points that separate these phases through the structure factor and the energy gap in the sector of charge and spin, finding that the position of the critical point rises as a function of Δ. (paper)

  18. The interacting boson-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachello, F.; Van Isacker, P.

    1990-01-01

    The interacting boson-fermion model has become in recent years the standard model for the description of atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons and/or neutrons. This book describes the mathematical framework on which the interacting boson-fermion model is built and presents applications to a variety of situations encountered in nuclei. The book addresses both the analytical and the numerical aspects of the problem. The analytical aspect requires the introduction of rather complex group theoretic methods, including the use of graded (or super) Lie algebras. The first (and so far only) example of supersymmetry occurring in nature is also discussed. The book is the first comprehensive treatment of the subject and will appeal to both theoretical and experimental physicists. The large number of explicit formulas for level energies, electromagnetic transition rates and intensities of transfer reactions presented in the book provide a simple but detailed way to analyze experimental data. This book can also be used as a textbook for advanced graduate students

  19. Monotop signature from a fermionic top partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Dorival; Kong, Kyoungchul; Sakurai, Kazuki; Takeuchi, Michihisa

    2018-01-01

    We investigate monotop signatures arising from phenomenological models of fermionic top partners, which are degenerate in mass and decay into a bosonic dark matter candidate, either spin 0 or spin 1. Such a model provides a monotop signature as a smoking gun, while conventional searches with t t ¯ + missing transverse momentum are limited. Two such scenarios, (i) a phenomenological third generation extradimensional model with excited top and electroweak sectors, and (ii) a model where only a top partner and a dark matter particle are added to the standard model, are studied in the degenerate mass regime. We find that in the case of extra dimension a number of different processes give rise to effectively the same monotop final state, and a great gain can be obtained in the sensitivity for this channel. We show that the monotop search can explore top-partner masses up to 630 and 300 GeV for the third generation extradimensional model and the minimal fermionic top-partner model, respectively, at the high luminosity LHC.

  20. Field theories with multiple fermionic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The reason for the existence of the muon has been an enigma since its discovery. Since that time there has been a continuing proliferation of elementary particles. It is proposed that this proliferation of leptons and quarks is comprehensible if there are only four fundamental particles, the leptons ν/sub e/ and e - , and the quarks u and d. All other leptons and quarks are imagined to be excited states of these four fundamental entities. Attention is restricted to the charged leptons and the electromagnetic interactions only. A detailed study of a field theory in which there is only one fundamental charged fermionic field having two (or more) excitations is made. When the electromagnetic interactions are introduced and the theory is second quantized, under certain conditions this theory reproduces the S matrix obtained from usual OED. In this case no electromagnetic transitions are allowed. A leptonic charge operator is defined and a superselection rule for this leptonic charge is found. Unfortunately, the mass spectrum cannot be obtained. This theory has many renormalizable generalizations including non-abelian gauge theories, Yukawa-type theories, and Fermi-type theories. Under certain circumstances the Yukawa- and Fermi-type theories are finite in perturbation theory. It is concluded that there are no fundamental objections to having fermionic fields with more than one excitation

  1. Introduction to topological superconductivity and Majorana fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijnse, Martin; Flensberg, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This short review paper provides a pedagogical introduction to the rapidly growing research field of Majorana fermions in topological superconductors. We first discuss in some detail the simplest ‘toy model’ in which Majoranas appear, namely a one-dimensional tight-binding representation of a p-wave superconductor, introduced more than 10 years ago by Kitaev. We then give a general introduction to the remarkable properties of Majorana fermions in condensed matter systems, such as their intrinsically non-local nature and exotic exchange statistics, and explain why these quasiparticles are suspected to be especially well suited for low-decoherence quantum information processing. We also discuss the experimentally promising (and perhaps already successfully realized) possibility of creating topological superconductors using semiconductors with strong spin–orbit coupling, proximity-coupled to standard s-wave superconductors and exposed to a magnetic field. The goal is to provide an introduction to the subject for experimentalists or theorists who are new to the field, focusing on the aspects which are most important for understanding the basic physics. The text should be accessible for readers with a basic understanding of quantum mechanics and second quantization, and does not require knowledge of quantum field theory or topological states of matter. (invited paper)

  2. Free Fermions and the Classical Compact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunden, Fabio Deelan; Mezzadri, Francesco; O'Connell, Neil

    2018-04-01

    There is a close connection between the ground state of non-interacting fermions in a box with classical (absorbing, reflecting, and periodic) boundary conditions and the eigenvalue statistics of the classical compact groups. The associated determinantal point processes can be extended in two natural directions: (i) we consider the full family of admissible quantum boundary conditions (i.e., self-adjoint extensions) for the Laplacian on a bounded interval, and the corresponding projection correlation kernels; (ii) we construct the grand canonical extensions at finite temperature of the projection kernels, interpolating from Poisson to random matrix eigenvalue statistics. The scaling limits in the bulk and at the edges are studied in a unified framework, and the question of universality is addressed. Whether the finite temperature determinantal processes correspond to the eigenvalue statistics of some matrix models is, a priori, not obvious. We complete the picture by constructing a finite temperature extension of the Haar measure on the classical compact groups. The eigenvalue statistics of the resulting grand canonical matrix models (of random size) corresponds exactly to the grand canonical measure of free fermions with classical boundary conditions.

  3. UPt3, heavy fermions and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A. de.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis an experimental study is presented of one of the heavy-fermion superconductors: UPt 3 (T c =0.5 K). The normal-state properties of this material are governed by pronounced spin-fluctuation effects. The unusual coexistence of spin-fluctuations and superconductivity is strongly suggestive for an unconventional type of superconductivity, mediated by spin-fluctuations instead of phonons, with the condensate formed out of odd-parity electron states. In the first chapter a general introduction is given to the field of the heavy-fermions. In the second chapter a theoretical background for the properties of UPt 3 is presented. Chapter 3 deals with the sample preparation and measuring techniques. In chapter 4 a series of experiments is presented on the normal-phase of UPt 3 , among which are studies of the specific heat, thermal expansion, sound velocity, magnetization, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistivity and magnetostriction. Also the influence of high-magnetic fields (35 T) and high-pressures (5 kbar) has been studied. The superconducting phase of UPt 3 has been discussed in chapter 5. In chapter 6 a series of pseudobinary U(Pt 1-x Pd x ) 3 compounds (x≤0.30) are studied. In the last chapter some final remarks and conclusions are presented. (Auth.)

  4. Path integral for gauge theories with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, K.

    1980-01-01

    The Atiyah-Singer index theorem indicates that a naive unitary transformation of basis vectors for fermions interacting with gauge fields is not allowed in general. On the basis of this observation, it was previously shown that the path-integral measure of a gauge-invariant fermion theory is transformed nontrivially under the chiral transformation, and thus leads to a simple derivation of ''anomalous'' chiral Ward-Takahashi identities. We here clarify some of the technical aspects associated with the discussion. It is shown that the Jacobian factor in the path-integral measure, which corresponds to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, is independent of any smooth regularization procedure of large eigenvalues of D in Euclidean theory; this property holds in any even-dimensional space-time and also for the gravitational anomaly. The appearance of the anomaly and its connection with the index theorem are thus related to the fact that the primary importance is attached to the Lorentz-covariant ''energy'' operator D and that D and γ 5 do not commute. The abnormal behavior of the path-integral measure at the zero-frequency sector in the presence of instantons and its connection with spontaneous symmetry breaking is also clarified. We comment on several other problems associated with the anomaly and on the Pauli-Villars regularization method

  5. EM reconstruction of dual isotope PET using staggered injections and prompt gamma positron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of dual isotope positron emission tomography (DIPET) is to create two separate images of two coinjected PET radiotracers. DIPET shortens the duration of the study, reduces patient discomfort, and produces perfectly coregistered images compared to the case when two radiotracers would be imaged independently (sequential PET studies). Reconstruction of data from such simultaneous acquisition of two PET radiotracers is difficult because positron decay of any isotope creates only 511 keV photons; therefore, the isotopes cannot be differentiated based on the detected energy. Methods: Recently, the authors have proposed a DIPET technique that uses a combination of radiotracer A which is a pure positron emitter (such as 18 F or 11 C) and radiotracer B in which positron decay is accompanied by the emission of a high-energy (HE) prompt gamma (such as 38 K or 60 Cu). Events that are detected as triple coincidences of HE gammas with the corresponding two 511 keV photons allow the authors to identify the lines-of-response (LORs) of isotope B. These LORs are used to separate the two intertwined distributions, using a dedicated image reconstruction algorithm. In this work the authors propose a new version of the DIPET EM-based reconstruction algorithm that allows the authors to include an additional, independent estimate of radiotracer A distribution which may be obtained if radioisotopes are administered using a staggered injections method. In this work the method is tested on simple simulations of static PET acquisitions. Results: The authors’ experiments performed using Monte-Carlo simulations with static acquisitions demonstrate that the combined method provides better results (crosstalk errors decrease by up to 50%) than the positron-gamma DIPET method or staggered injections alone. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that the authors’ new EM algorithm which combines information from triple coincidences with prompt gammas and staggered injections

  6. On the Quality of Velocity Interpolation Schemes for Marker-in-Cell Method and Staggered Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Popov, Anton A.

    2017-03-01

    The marker-in-cell method is generally considered a flexible and robust method to model the advection of heterogenous non-diffusive properties (i.e., rock type or composition) in geodynamic problems. In this method, Lagrangian points carrying compositional information are advected with the ambient velocity field on an Eulerian grid. However, velocity interpolation from grid points to marker locations is often performed without considering the divergence of the velocity field at the interpolated locations (i.e., non-conservative). Such interpolation schemes can induce non-physical clustering of markers when strong velocity gradients are present (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and this may, eventually, result in empty grid cells, a serious numerical violation of the marker-in-cell method. To remedy this at low computational costs, Jenny et al. (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and Meyer and Jenny (Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 4:466-467, 2004) proposed a simple, conservative velocity interpolation scheme for 2-D staggered grid, while Wang et al. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16(6):2015-2023, 2015) extended the formulation to 3-D finite element methods. Here, we adapt this formulation for 3-D staggered grids (correction interpolation) and we report on the quality of various velocity interpolation methods for 2-D and 3-D staggered grids. We test the interpolation schemes in combination with different advection schemes on incompressible Stokes problems with strong velocity gradients, which are discretized using a finite difference method. Our results suggest that a conservative formulation reduces the dispersion and clustering of markers, minimizing the need of unphysical marker control in geodynamic models.

  7. Response of Maize Crop to Spatial Arrangement and Staggered Interseeding of Haricot Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamiru Hirpa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Field studies conducted to determine the effects of intercrop row arrangements and staggered intercropping of haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on the performances of maize (Zea mays L. crop at Hallaba and Taba areas in 2013 cropping season, southern Ethiopia, revealed that there were significant effects of cropping patterns and staggered interseeding of the legume component on growth and yield components of maize crop. Significant interaction of row arrangement × intercropping time of haricot bean was observed with respect to leaf area index (LAI of the maize crop. Increasing trends of LAI of maize crop were observed as interseeding of haricot bean was delayed for 3 weeks after maize (WAM that stabilized during the 6 WAM interseeding time. Maize stover production was significantly high at 1:2 row ratio and delaying of the undersowing haricot bean in the already established maize crop for 6 weeks, 10.94 tha-1 and 11.39 t ha-1, respectively. Maize grain yield showed a significant variation with respect to the staggered sowing of haricot bean, whereby the highest (3.99 t ha-1 being recorded when haricot bean intercropping was delayed for 21 days after maize planting. The data of this study revealed that the larger maize plant canopy providing larger photosynthetic area, attained when haricot bean interseeding was delayed, probably resulted in higher grain yield of maize. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11072 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 126-138

  8. EM reconstruction of dual isotope PET using staggered injections and prompt gamma positron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of dual isotope positron emission tomography (DIPET) is to create two separate images of two coinjected PET radiotracers. DIPET shortens the duration of the study, reduces patient discomfort, and produces perfectly coregistered images compared to the case when two radiotracers would be imaged independently (sequential PET studies). Reconstruction of data from such simultaneous acquisition of two PET radiotracers is difficult because positron decay of any isotope creates only 511 keV photons; therefore, the isotopes cannot be differentiated based on the detected energy. Methods: Recently, the authors have proposed a DIPET technique that uses a combination of radiotracer A which is a pure positron emitter (such as 18F or 11C) and radiotracer B in which positron decay is accompanied by the emission of a high-energy (HE) prompt gamma (such as 38K or 60Cu). Events that are detected as triple coincidences of HE gammas with the corresponding two 511 keV photons allow the authors to identify the lines-of-response (LORs) of isotope B. These LORs are used to separate the two intertwined distributions, using a dedicated image reconstruction algorithm. In this work the authors propose a new version of the DIPET EM-based reconstruction algorithm that allows the authors to include an additional, independent estimate of radiotracer A distribution which may be obtained if radioisotopes are administered using a staggered injections method. In this work the method is tested on simple simulations of static PET acquisitions. Results: The authors’ experiments performed using Monte-Carlo simulations with static acquisitions demonstrate that the combined method provides better results (crosstalk errors decrease by up to 50%) than the positron-gamma DIPET method or staggered injections alone. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that the authors’ new EM algorithm which combines information from triple coincidences with prompt gammas and staggered injections improves

  9. Aerodynamic drag of a staggered flat-oval finning tube banks at the small reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим Михайлович Вознюк

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations of aerodynamic drag of staggered bundles of flat-oval tubes with incomplete transversal fins in the range of Reynolds numbers 600 <  < 20000 are performed. New calculation correlations for determining of drag coefficients for 1<3000 are suggested, the impact of basic geometric and regime parameters on aerodynamic drag of bundles are determined. The received calculation depending is possible to use in developing of heat transfer surfaces for “dry” cooling towers and air cooling apparatus and economizers

  10. Calculation of cell face velocity of non-staggered grid system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang

    2012-07-28

    In this paper, the cell face velocities in the discretization of the continuity equation, the momentum equation, and the scalar equation of a non-staggered grid system are calculated and discussed. Both the momentum interpolation and the linear interpolation are adopted to evaluate the coefficients in the discretized momentum and scalar equations. Their performances are compared. When the linear interpolation is used to calculate the coefficients, the mass residual term in the coefficients must be dropped to maintain the accuracy and convergence rate of the solution. © Shanghai University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

  11. Calculation of the Nucleon Axial Form Factor Using Staggered Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Aaron S. [Fermilab; Hill, Richard J. [Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Kronfeld, Andreas S. [Fermilab; Li, Ruizi [Indiana U.; Simone, James N. [Fermilab

    2016-10-14

    The nucleon axial form factor is a dominant contribution to errors in neutrino oscillation studies. Lattice QCD calculations can help control theory errors by providing first-principles information on nucleon form factors. In these proceedings, we present preliminary results on a blinded calculation of $g_A$ and the axial form factor using HISQ staggered baryons with 2+1+1 flavors of sea quarks. Calculations are done using physical light quark masses and are absolutely normalized. We discuss fitting form factor data with the model-independent $z$ expansion parametrization.

  12. Fermion-number violation in regularizations that preserve fermion-number symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal

    2003-01-01

    There exist both continuum and lattice regularizations of gauge theories with fermions which preserve chiral U(1) invariance ('fermion number'). Such regularizations necessarily break gauge invariance but, in a covariant gauge, one recovers gauge invariance to all orders in perturbation theory by including suitable counterterms. At the nonperturbative level, an apparent conflict then arises between the chiral U(1) symmetry of the regularized theory and the existence of 't Hooft vertices in the renormalized theory. The only possible resolution of the paradox is that the chiral U(1) symmetry is broken spontaneously in the enlarged Hilbert space of the covariantly gauge-fixed theory. The corresponding Goldstone pole is unphysical. The theory must therefore be defined by introducing a small fermion-mass term that breaks explicitly the chiral U(1) invariance and is sent to zero after the infinite-volume limit has been taken. Using this careful definition (and a lattice regularization) for the calculation of correlation functions in the one-instanton sector, we show that the 't Hooft vertices are recovered as expected

  13. Numerical experiments using deflation with the HISQ action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christine; DeTar, Carleton; McNeile, Craig; Vaquero, Alejandro

    2018-03-01

    We report on numerical experiments using deflation to compute quark propagators for the highly improved staggered quark (HISQ) action. The method is tested on HISQ gauge configurations, generated by the MILC collaboration, with lattice spacings of 0.15 fm, with a range of volumes, and sea quark masses down to the physical quark mass.

  14. Diagrammatic Monte Carlo approach for diagrammatic extensions of dynamical mean-field theory: Convergence analysis of the dual fermion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gukelberger, Jan; Kozik, Evgeny; Hafermann, Hartmut

    2017-07-01

    The dual fermion approach provides a formally exact prescription for calculating properties of a correlated electron system in terms of a diagrammatic expansion around dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). Most practical implementations, however, neglect higher-order interaction vertices beyond two-particle scattering in the dual effective action and further truncate the diagrammatic expansion in the two-particle scattering vertex to a leading-order or ladder-type approximation. In this work, we compute the dual fermion expansion for the two-dimensional Hubbard model including all diagram topologies with two-particle interactions to high orders by means of a stochastic diagrammatic Monte Carlo algorithm. We benchmark the obtained self-energy against numerically exact diagrammatic determinant Monte Carlo simulations to systematically assess convergence of the dual fermion series and the validity of these approximations. We observe that, from high temperatures down to the vicinity of the DMFT Néel transition, the dual fermion series converges very quickly to the exact solution in the whole range of Hubbard interactions considered (4 ≤U /t ≤12 ), implying that contributions from higher-order vertices are small. As the temperature is lowered further, we observe slower series convergence, convergence to incorrect solutions, and ultimately divergence. This happens in a regime where magnetic correlations become significant. We find, however, that the self-consistent particle-hole ladder approximation yields reasonable and often even highly accurate results in this regime.

  15. Ambiguities of functional integrals for fermionic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, P.

    1981-01-01

    We study the path integral quantization of a purely fermionic system in the semiclassical approximation. It is crucial that the analogue of the usual method of stationary phase works for integrals over Grassmann variables. Our analysis is based on a quite trivial example (the exact solution is known), and therefore we can check when the results make sense. It is shown that just as in the boson case the path integral method depends on the discretization (we use the Faddeev discretization) and some attempts to do the same derivations directly in the continuous time limit are shown to yield either ill-defined objects or simply wrong results. It seems correct to conclude that the key point is the discretization

  16. Majorana fermions coupled to electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Christoph; Hassler, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    We consider a voltage-biased Josephson junction between two nanowires hosting Majorana zero modes which occur as topological protected zero-energy excitations at the junction. We show that two Majorana fermions localized at the junction, despite being neutral particles, interact with the electromagnetic field and generate coherent radiation similar to the conventional Josephson radiation. Within a semiclassical analysis of the radiation field, we find that the phase of the radiation gets locked to the superconducting phase difference and that the radiation is emitted at half the Josephson frequency. In order to confirm the coherence of the radiation, we study correlations of the radiation emitted by two spatially separated junctions in a dc-SQUID geometry taking into account decoherence due to spontaneous state-switches as well as due to quasi-particle poisoning.

  17. Bootstrapping 3D fermions with global symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2018-01-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for 4-point functions of fermions 〈 ψ i ψ j ψ k ψ ℓ 〉 in parity-preserving 3d CFTs, where ψ i transforms as a vector under an O( N ) global symmetry. We compute bounds on scaling dimensions and central charges, finding features in our bounds that appear to coincide with the O( N ) symmetric Gross-Neveu-Yukawa fixed points. Our computations are in perfect agreement with the 1 /N expansion at large N and allow us to make nontrivial predictions at small N . For values of N for which the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa universality classes are relevant to condensed-matter systems, we compare our results to previous analytic and numerical results.

  18. Interacting fermions in one spatial dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis contains in its first part a critical survey about the method of the bosonization of fermi fields in one spatial dimension and its application to the Luttinger and the massive Thirring model. The first chapter served for the explanation of the term of the unitary inequivalence. Thereby two generally valid facts could be demonstrated very illustratively by the example of a fermion algebra and its representations, namely first that infinite, direct product space are not separable, and second that weak equivalence of the vacua is equivalent to the unitary equivalence of the corresponding representations of the field algebra. In the second part the statement first studied by Luther (1976) and since then often cited, that the continuum limit of the Heisenberg model is the massive Thirring model. It is concluded that it can up to today not be considered as proved although indications for its validity can be found. (orig./HSI) [de

  19. Multiplicities of states od equivalent fermion shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savukinas, A.Yu.; Glembotskij, I.I.

    1980-01-01

    Classification of states of three or four equivalent fermions has been studied, i.e. possible terms and their multiplicities have been determined. For this purpose either the group theory or evident expressions for the fractional-parentage coefficients have been used. In the first approach the formulas obtained by other authors for the multiplicities of terms through the characters of the transformation matrices of bond moments have been used. This approach happens to be more general as compared with the second one, as expressions for the fractional-parentage coefficients in many cases are not known. The multiplicities of separate terms have been determined. It has been shown that the number of terms of any multiplicity becomes constant when l or j is increased [ru

  20. Fermionic functional integrals and the renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Joel; Trubowitz, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    This book, written by well-known experts in the field, offers a concise summary of one of the latest and most significant developments in the theoretical analysis of quantum field theory. The renormalization group is the name given to a technique for analyzing the qualitative behavior of a class of physical systems by iterating a map on the vector space of interactions for the class. In a typical nonrigorous application of this technique, one assumes, based on one's physical intuition, that only a certain finite dimensional subspace (usually of dimension three or less) is important. The material in this book concerns a technique for justifying this approximation in a broad class of fermionic models used in condensed matter and high energy physics. This volume is based on the Aisenstadt Lectures given by Joel Feldman at the Centre de Recherches Mathematiques (Montreal, Canada). It is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in mathematical physics. Included are many problems and so...

  1. Reasonable fermionic quantum information theories require relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Nicolai

    2016-03-01

    We show that any quantum information theory based on anticommuting operators must be supplemented by a superselection rule deeply rooted in relativity to establish a reasonable notion of entanglement. While quantum information may be encoded in the fermionic Fock space, the unrestricted theory has a peculiar feature: the marginals of bipartite pure states need not have identical entropies, which leads to an ambiguous definition of entanglement. We solve this problem, by proving that it is removed by relativity, i.e., by the parity superselection rule that arises from Lorentz invariance via the spin-statistics connection. Our results hence unveil a fundamental conceptual inseparability of quantum information and the causal structure of relativistic field theory.

  2. Reasonable fermionic quantum information theories require relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friis, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    We show that any quantum information theory based on anticommuting operators must be supplemented by a superselection rule deeply rooted in relativity to establish a reasonable notion of entanglement. While quantum information may be encoded in the fermionic Fock space, the unrestricted theory has a peculiar feature: the marginals of bipartite pure states need not have identical entropies, which leads to an ambiguous definition of entanglement. We solve this problem, by proving that it is removed by relativity, i.e., by the parity superselection rule that arises from Lorentz invariance via the spin-statistics connection. Our results hence unveil a fundamental conceptual inseparability of quantum information and the causal structure of relativistic field theory. (paper)

  3. Standard model fermions and N=8 supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolai, Hermann [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In a scheme originally proposed by Gell-Mann, and subsequently shown to be realized at the SU(3) x U(1) stationary point of maximal gauged SO(8) supergravity, the 48 spin-1/2 fermions of the theory remaining after the removal of eight Goldstinos can be identified with the 48 quarks and leptons (including right-chiral neutrinos) of the Standard model, provided one identifies the residual SU(3) with the diagonal subgroup of the color group SU(3){sub c} and a family symmetry SU(3){sub f}. However, there remained a systematic mismatch in the electric charges by a spurion charge of ± 1/6. We here identify the ''missing'' U(1) that rectifies this mismatch, and that takes a surprisingly simple, though unexpected form, and show how it is related to the conjectured R symmetry K(E10) of M Theory.

  4. Machine Learning Phases of Strongly Correlated Fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ch’ng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning offers an unprecedented perspective for the problem of classifying phases in condensed matter physics. We employ neural-network machine learning techniques to distinguish finite-temperature phases of the strongly correlated fermions on cubic lattices. We show that a three-dimensional convolutional network trained on auxiliary field configurations produced by quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model can correctly predict the magnetic phase diagram of the model at the average density of one (half filling. We then use the network, trained at half filling, to explore the trend in the transition temperature as the system is doped away from half filling. This transfer learning approach predicts that the instability to the magnetic phase extends to at least 5% doping in this region. Our results pave the way for other machine learning applications in correlated quantum many-body systems.

  5. The path integral model of D-pairing for HTSC, heavy fermion superconductors, and superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusov, P.N.; Brusova, N.P.

    1996-01-01

    A model of d-pairing for superconducting and superfluid Fermi-systems has been formulated within the path integration technique. By path integration over open-quote fastclose quotes and open-quotes slowclose quotes Fermi-fields, the action functional (which determines all properties of model system) has been obtained. This functional could be used for the determination of different superconducting (superfluid) states, for calculation of the transition temperatures for these states, and for the calculation of the collective mode spectrum for HTSC, as well as for heavy fermion superconductors

  6. Boundary effects and gapped dispersion in rotating fermionic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Ebihara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the importance of boundary effects on fermionic matter in a rotating frame. By explicit calculations at zero temperature we show that the scalar condensate of fermion and anti-fermion cannot be modified by the rotation once the boundary condition is properly implemented. The situation is qualitatively changed at finite temperature and/or in the presence of a sufficiently strong magnetic field that supersedes the boundary effects. Therefore, to establish an interpretation of the rotation as an effective chemical potential, it is crucial to consider further environmental effects such as the finite temperature and magnetic field.

  7. Massless fermions and Kaluza--Klein theory with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Zee, A.

    1984-01-01

    A pure Kaluza--Klein theory contains no massless fermion in four-dimensional theory. We investigate the effect of introducing torsion on the internal manifold and find that there are massless fermions. The hope is that given an isometry group the representation to which these fermions belong is fixed, in contrast to the situation in Yang--Mills theory. We show that this is indeed the case, but the representations do not appear to be the ones favored by current theoretical prejudice. The cases with parallelizable torsions on a group manifold as the internal manifold are analyzed in detail

  8. Identity for propagator in four-fermion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, S.

    1993-08-01

    The method of exact evaluation of quantum partition function (QPF) in some four fermion models is proposed. The calculations are carried out by the path integral method. The integral is evaluated by introducing the additional fields (called Hubbard-Stratanovich transformation in some models), integration over fermionic variables, and considering the finite-dimensional approximation of the rest integral over bosonic fields in the infinite limit. The non-standard representation of propagator is proposed for the Fermi-theory of four-fermion interaction. This representation seems to be more convenient for the nonperturbative analysis. (author). 7 refs

  9. Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. A group property for the coherent state representation of fermionic squeezing operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-yi; Li, Chao

    2004-06-01

    For the two-mode fermionic squeezing operators we find that their coherent state projection operator representation make up a loyal representation, which is homomorphic to an SO(4) group, though the fermionic coherent states are not mutual orthogonal. Thus the result of successively operating with many fermionic squeezing operators on a state can be equivalent to a single operation. The fermionic squeezing operators are mappings of orthogonal transformations in Grassmann number pseudo-classical space in the fermionic coherent state representation.

  11. A group property for the coherent state representation of fermionic squeezing operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongyi; Li Chao

    2004-01-01

    For the two-mode fermionic squeezing operators we find that their coherent state projection operator representation make up a loyal representation, which is homomorphic to an SO(4) group, though the fermionic coherent states are not mutual orthogonal. Thus the result of successively operating with many fermionic squeezing operators on a state can be equivalent to a single operation. The fermionic squeezing operators are mappings of orthogonal transformations in Grassmann number pseudo-classical space in the fermionic coherent state representation

  12. Cas9-catalyzed DNA Cleavage Generates Staggered Ends: Evidence from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhicheng; Liu, Jin

    2016-11-01

    The CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (spCas9) along with a single guide RNA (sgRNA) has emerged as a versatile toolbox for genome editing. Despite recent advances in the mechanism studies on spCas9-sgRNA-mediated double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recognition and cleavage, it is still unclear how the catalytic Mg2+ ions induce the conformation changes toward the catalytic active state. It also remains controversial whether Cas9 generates blunt-ended or staggered-ended breaks with overhangs in the DNA. To investigate these issues, here we performed the first all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the spCas9-sgRNA-dsDNA system with and without Mg2+ bound. The simulation results showed that binding of two Mg2+ ions at the RuvC domain active site could lead to structurally and energetically favorable coordination ready for the non-target DNA strand cleavage. Importantly, we demonstrated with our simulations that Cas9-catalyzed DNA cleavage produces 1-bp staggered ends rather than generally assumed blunt ends.

  13. Parametric modeling and stagger angle optimization of an axial flow fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M X; Zhang, C H; Liu, Y; Zheng, S Y

    2013-01-01

    Axial flow fans are widely used in every field of social production. Improving their efficiency is a sustained and urgent demand of domestic industry. The optimization of stagger angle is an important method to improve fan performance. Parametric modeling and calculation process automation are realized in this paper to improve optimization efficiency. Geometric modeling and mesh division are parameterized based on GAMBIT. Parameter setting and flow field calculation are completed in the batch mode of FLUENT. A control program is developed in Visual C++ to dominate the data exchange of mentioned software. It also extracts calculation results for optimization algorithm module (provided by Matlab) to generate directive optimization control parameters, which as feedback are transferred upwards to modeling module. The center line of the blade airfoil, based on CLARK y profile, is constructed by non-constant circulation and triangle discharge method. Stagger angles of six airfoil sections are optimized, to reduce the influence of inlet shock loss as well as gas leak in blade tip clearance and hub resistance at blade root. Finally an optimal solution is obtained, which meets the total pressure requirement under given conditions and improves total pressure efficiency by about 6%

  14. Parametric modeling and stagger angle optimization of an axial flow fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. X.; Zhang, C. H.; Liu, Y.; Y Zheng, S.

    2013-12-01

    Axial flow fans are widely used in every field of social production. Improving their efficiency is a sustained and urgent demand of domestic industry. The optimization of stagger angle is an important method to improve fan performance. Parametric modeling and calculation process automation are realized in this paper to improve optimization efficiency. Geometric modeling and mesh division are parameterized based on GAMBIT. Parameter setting and flow field calculation are completed in the batch mode of FLUENT. A control program is developed in Visual C++ to dominate the data exchange of mentioned software. It also extracts calculation results for optimization algorithm module (provided by Matlab) to generate directive optimization control parameters, which as feedback are transferred upwards to modeling module. The center line of the blade airfoil, based on CLARK y profile, is constructed by non-constant circulation and triangle discharge method. Stagger angles of six airfoil sections are optimized, to reduce the influence of inlet shock loss as well as gas leak in blade tip clearance and hub resistance at blade root. Finally an optimal solution is obtained, which meets the total pressure requirement under given conditions and improves total pressure efficiency by about 6%.

  15. Effect of wall proximity of two staggered triangular cylinders on the transport process in a channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Farhadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the heat transfer and the flow field around two isothermal triangular cylinders of equal size placed staggered in a horizontal plane channel with adiabatic walls. Computations have been carried out for Reynolds numbers (based on triangle width 100, 250, and 350, lateral gap ratios (d/B 0, 0.5, and 1, and longitudinal gap ratios (S/B 1, 2, 3 and 4. The effect of longitudinal and lateral gap between obstacles and proximity of channel walls is investigated. Results show that when obstacles are placed in close vicinity of the channel's wall (d/B = 1, vortex shedding disappears at the downstream of triangles at Re = 100 and 250 at all S/B, but for Re = 350 creating and disappearing of the vortex shedding depend on the longitudinal gap ratio (S/B. Proximity of obstacles has more effect on the second triangle than the first triangle especially from longitudinal gap ratio equals 2, so that with approaching the channel wall, the Nusselt number for the first triangle decreases, while for the second triangle a different behavior is seen. Staggered arrangement causes the Nusselt number of the second triangle to become greater than the first triangle.

  16. Experimental study of thermal–hydraulic performance of cam-shaped tube bundle with staggered arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Hamidreza; Lavasani, Arash Mirabdolah; Maarefdoost, Taher

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal–hydraulic performance of a non-circular tube bundle has been investigated experimentally. • Tubes were mounted in staggered arrangement with two longitudinal pitch ratios 1.5 and 2. • Drag coefficient and Nusselt number of tubes in second row was measured. • Friction factor of this tube bundle is lower than circular tube bundle. • Thermal–hydraulic performance of this tube bundle is greater than circular tube bundle. - Abstract: Flow and heat transfer from cam-shaped tube bank in staggered arrangement is studied experimentally. Tubes were located in test section of an open loop wind tunnel with two longitudinal pitch ratios 1.5 and 2. Reynolds number varies in range of 27,000 ⩽ Re D ⩽ 42,500 and tubes surface temperature is between 78 and 85 °C. Results show that both drag coefficient and Nusselt number depends on position of tube in tube bank and Reynolds number. Tubes in the first column have maximum value of drag coefficient, while its Nusselt number is minimum compared to other tubes in tube bank. Moreover, pressure drop from this tube bank is about 92–93% lower than circular tube bank and as a result thermal–hydraulic performance of this tube bank is about 6 times greater than circular tube bank

  17. Fermionic wigs for AdS-Schwarzschild black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, L. G. C.; Grassi, P. A.; Mezzalira, A.

    2013-10-01

    We provide the metric, the gravitino fields and the gauge fields to all orders in the fermionic zero modes for D = 5 and D = 4 ,N = 2 gauged supergravity solutions starting from non-extremal AdS-Schwarzschild black holes. We compute the Brown-York stress-energy tensor on the boundary of AdS 5 /AdS 4 spaces and we discuss some implications of the fermionic corrections to perfect fluid interpretation of the boundary theory. The complete non-linear solution, which we denote as fermionic wig, is achieved by acting with supersymmetry transformations upon the supergravity fields and that expansion naturally truncates at some order in the fermionic zero modes.

  18. Theory of Green functions of free Dirac fermions in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Van Hieu; Nguyen, Bich Ha; Dinh, Ngoc Dung

    2016-01-01

    This work is the beginning of our research on graphene quantum electrodynamics (GQED), based on the application of the methods of traditional quantum field theory to the study of the interacting system of quantized electromagnetic field and Dirac fermions in single-layer graphene. After a brief review of the known results concerning the lattice and electronic structures of single-layer graphene we perform the construction of the quantum fields of free Dirac fermions and the establishment of the corresponding Heisenberg quantum equations of these fields. We then elaborate the theory of Green functions of Dirac fermions in a free Dirac fermion gas at vanishing absolute temperature T = 0, the theory of Matsubara temperature Green functions and the Keldysh theory of non-equilibrium Green functions. (paper)

  19. The GL(1 vertical stroke 1)-symplectic fermion correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Roenne, Peter B.

    2008-12-15

    In this note we prove a correspondence between the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model of the Lie supergroup GL(1 vertical stroke 1) and a free model consisting of two scalars and a pair of symplectic fermions. This model was discussed earlier by LeClair. Vertex operators for the symplectic fermions include twist fields, and correlation functions of GL(1 vertical stroke 1) agree with the known results for the scalars and symplectic fermions. We perform a detailed study of boundary states for symplectic fermions and apply them to branes in GL(1 vertical stroke 1). This allows us to compute new amplitudes of strings stretching between branes of different types and confirming Cardy's condition. (orig.)

  20. Exotic fermions in the left-right symmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.; Volkas, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study is made of non-standard fermion multiplets in left-right symmetric models with gauge group SU(3) x SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) BL . Constraints from gauge anomaly cancellation and invariance of Yukawa coupling terms are used to define interesting classes of exotic fermions. The standard quark lepton spectrum of left-right symmetric models was identified as the simplest member of an infinite class. Phenomenological implications of the next simplest member of this class are then studied. Classes of exotic fermions which may couple to the standard fermions through doublet Higgs bosons were also considered, then shown that some of these exotics may be used to induce a generalised universal see-saw mechanism. 12 refs., 1 tab

  1. Strongly-interacting mirror fermions at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantaphyllou George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of mirror fermions corresponding to an interchange of leftwith right-handed fermion quantum numbers of the Standard Model can lead to a model according to which the BEH mechanism is just an effective manifestation of a more fundamental theory while the recently-discovered Higgs-like particle is composite. This is achieved by a non-abelian gauge symmetry encompassing three mirror-fermion families strongly coupled at energies near 1 TeV. The corresponding non-perturbative dynamics lead to dynamical mirror-fermion masses between 0.14 - 1.2 TeV. Furthermore, one expects the formation of composite states, i.e. “mirror mesons”, with masses between 0.1 and 3 TeV. The number and properties of the resulting new degrees of freedom lead to a rich and interesting phenomenology, part of which is analyzed in the present work.

  2. Production and decay of exotic fermions in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz Filho, Pedro Pacheco de

    1995-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the production and decay of exotic fermions predicted by some extensions of the standard model. We select for our study the more popular models: vector singlet, vector doublet and Fermion Mirror-Fermion. We want to establish the differences between these models and also in relation to the Standard Model. We make investigations by Monte Carlo simulations, to study the phenomenology of the particles expected in these models, particularly the exotic fermions. These studies were done for electron-proton collisions at DESY HERA energies. We considered the investigation of exotic quark production, electron-positron collisions in LEP II and NLC energies in order to study the production of exotic leptons, and virtual exotic lepton contribution in the specific process e + e - → ιν-bar ι W + . (author)

  3. Quarks and leptons as quasi Nambu-Goldstone fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; Peccei, R.D.; Yanagida, T.

    1983-01-01

    We discuss a new idea for constructing composite quarks and leptons which have (approximately) vanishing mass. They are associated with fermionic partners of Goldstone bosons arising from the spontaneous breakdown of an internal symmetry Gsub(f) in a supersymmetric preon theory. For Gsub(f)=SU(5) being broken to SU(3) x U(1)sub(em) there arise as quasi Goldstone fermions, naturally and unequivocally, precisely the quarks and leptons of one family. The dynamics of these quasi Goldstone fermions is explored by constructing a general supersymmetric nonlinear effective lagrangian. By means of a reduced model, we show that the first nontrivial interactions of the quasi Goldstone fermions can give rise, in an effective way, to the weak interactions. Issues connected with the incorporation of families in the scheme and the generation of masses, as well as the possible structure of the underlying preon theory are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  4. Ambiguities and symmetry relations associated with fermionic tensor densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallabona, G.; Battistel, O. A.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the consistent evaluation of perturbative (divergent) Green functions associated with fermionic tensor densities and the derivation of symmetry relations for them. We show that, in spite of current algebra methods being not applicable, it is possible to derive symmetry properties analogous to the Ward identities of vector and axial-vector densities. The proposed method, which is applicable to any previously chosen order of perturbative calculation, gives the same results as those of current algebra when such a tool is applicable. By using a very general calculational strategy, concerning the manipulations and calculations involving divergent Feynman integrals, we evaluate the purely fermionic two-point functions containing tensor vertices and derive their symmetry properties. The present investigation is the first step in the study and characterization of possible anomalies involving fermionic tensor densities, particularly in purely fermionic three-point functions

  5. Diffusion in higher dimensional SYK model with complex fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenhe; Ge, Xian-Hui; Yang, Guo-Hong

    2018-01-01

    We construct a new higher dimensional SYK model with complex fermions on bipartite lattices. As an extension of the original zero-dimensional SYK model, we focus on the one-dimension case, and similar Hamiltonian can be obtained in higher dimensions. This model has a conserved U(1) fermion number Q and a conjugate chemical potential μ. We evaluate the thermal and charge diffusion constants via large q expansion at low temperature limit. The results show that the diffusivity depends on the ratio of free Majorana fermions to Majorana fermions with SYK interactions. The transport properties and the butterfly velocity are accordingly calculated at low temperature. The specific heat and the thermal conductivity are proportional to the temperature. The electrical resistivity also has a linear temperature dependence term.

  6. Constraints on a system of two neutral fermions from cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.; Girardi, G.; Salati, P.

    1983-07-01

    Using the standard model of cosmology we study the evolution of the population of a coupled system of two neutral fermions in which the lighter one is stable. During the expansion their population can be frozen at a certain level which makes them contribute to the mass density of the universe. The details of the freezing depend crucially on the couplings and on the masses of these two fermions, so that, comparison with the measured mass density in the universe gives constraints on the parameters of the physical system we examine. We discuss in detail different configurations for the couplings among these fermions; in particular in the case of large mixing we obtain restrictive bounds on both masses. Our study is relevant to supersymmetric grand unified models which predict the occurence of light interacting neutral fermions, particularly Higgsinos

  7. Quasi-relativistic fermions and dynamical flavour oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean; Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce new Lorentz-symmetry violating kinematics for a four-fermion interaction model, where dynamical mass generation is allowed, irrespectively of the strength of the coupling. In addition, these kinematics lead to a quasi-relativistic dispersion relation, in the sense that it is relativistic in both the infrared and the ultraviolet, but not in an intermediate regime, characterized by the mass $M$. For two fermions, we show that a flavour-mixing mass matrix is generated dynamically, and the Lorentz symmetric limit $M\\to\\infty$ leads to two free relativistic fermions, with flavour oscillations. This model, valid for either Dirac or Majorana fermions, can describe any set of phenomenological values for the eigen masses and the mixing angle.

  8. Four-Fermion Limit of Gauge-Yukawa Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jens; Mojaza, Matin; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We elucidate and extend the conditions that map gauge-Yukawa theories at low energies into time-honoured gauged four-fermion interactions at high energies. These compositeness conditions permit to investigate theories of composite dynamics through gauge-Yukawa theories. Here we investigate whether...... perturbative gauge-Yukawa theories can have a strongly coupled limit at high-energy, that can be mapped into a four-fermion theory. Interestingly, we are able to precisely carve out a region of the perturbative parameter space supporting such a composite limit. This has interesting implications on our current...... view on models of particle physics. As a template model we use an $SU(N_C)$ gauge theory with $N_F$ Dirac fermions transforming according to the fundamental representation of the gauge group. The fermions further interact with a gauge singlet complex $N_F\\times N_F$ Higgs that ceases to be a physical...

  9. Analysis of the influence of the interlayer staggered zone in the basalt of Jinsha River Basin on the main buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiaona; Huang, Jiangwei

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the finite element software FEFLOW is used to simulate the seepage field of the interlayer staggered zone C2 in the basalt of Jinsha River Basin. The influence of the interlayer staggered zone C2 on the building is analyzed. Combined with the waterproof effect of current design scheme of anti-seepage curtain, the seepage field in the interlayer staggered zone C2 is discussed under different design schemes. The optimal design scheme of anti-seepage curtain is put forward. The results showed that the case four can effectively reduce the head and hydraulic gradient of underground powerhouse area, and improve the groundwater seepage field in the plant area.

  10. Energy Stability Analysis of Some Fully Discrete Numerical Schemes for Incompressible Navier–Stokes Equations on Staggered Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huangxin

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we consider the energy stability estimates for some fully discrete schemes which both consider time and spatial discretizations for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. We focus on three kinds of fully discrete schemes, i.e., the linear implicit scheme for time discretization with the finite difference method (FDM) on staggered grids for spatial discretization, pressure-correction schemes for time discretization with the FDM on staggered grids for the solutions of the decoupled velocity and pressure equations, and pressure-stabilization schemes for time discretization with the FDM on staggered grids for the solutions of the decoupled velocity and pressure equations. The energy stability estimates are obtained for the above each fully discrete scheme. The upwind scheme is used in the discretization of the convection term which plays an important role in the design of unconditionally stable discrete schemes. Numerical results are given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  11. The derivative expansion of the fermion number current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hoker, E.; Goldstone, J.

    1985-01-01

    The fermion number current is evaluated to leading order in the derivative expansion for chiral fermions in the background of arbitrary Higgs and chiral gauge fields. This current is given by the gauged topological current plus a total divergence term. The total divergence term is absent in Weinberg-Salam theory with one scalar Higgs doublet, even for an arbitrary mass matrix, but appears when several Higgs doublets are present. (orig.)

  12. Quenched scalar-meson correlator with domain wall fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prelovsek, S.; Orginos, K

    2003-05-01

    We study the q-barq singlet and non-singlet scalar-meson masses using domain wall fermions and the quenched approximation. The singlet mass is found to be smaller than the non-singlet mass and indicates that the lowest singlet meson state could be lighter than 1 GeV. The two-point functions for very small quark masses are compared with expectations from the small-volume chiral perturbation theory and the presence of fermionic zero modes.

  13. Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, B.J., E-mail: bdalton@swin.edu.au [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Jeffers, J. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4ONG (United Kingdom); Barnett, S.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.

  14. Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. II. Field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B.J.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggests the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. This paper presents a phase space theory for fermion systems based on distribution functionals, which replace the density operator and involve Grassmann fields representing anti-commuting fermion field annihilation, creation operators. It is an extension of a previous phase space theory paper for fermions (Paper I) based on separate modes, in which the density operator is replaced by a distribution function depending on Grassmann phase space variables which represent the mode annihilation and creation operators. This further development of the theory is important for the situation when large numbers of fermions are involved, resulting in too many modes to treat separately. Here Grassmann fields, distribution functionals, functional Fokker–Planck equations and Ito stochastic field equations are involved. Typical applications to a trapped Fermi gas of interacting spin 1/2 fermionic atoms and to multi-component Fermi gases with non-zero range interactions are presented, showing that the Ito stochastic field equations are local in these cases. For the spin 1/2 case we also show how simple solutions can be obtained both for the untrapped case and for an optical lattice trapping potential.

  15. The Dirac-Kaehler equation and fermions on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, P.

    1982-05-01

    The geometrical description of spinor fields by E. Kaehler is used to formulate a consistent lattice approximation of fermions. The relation to free simple Dirac fields as well as to Susskind's description of lattice fermions is clarified. The first steps towards a quantized interacting theory are given. The correspondence between the calculus of differential forms and concepts of algebraic topology is shown to be a useful method for a completely analogous treatment of the problems in the continuum and on the lattice. (orig.)

  16. Fermion Bag Approach to Lattice Hamiltonian Field Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huffman Emilie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a model in the Gross-Neveu Ising universality class, we show how the fermion bag idea can be applied to develop algorithms to Hamiltonian lattice field theories. We argue that fermion world lines suggest an alternative method to the traditional techniques for calculating ratios of determinants in a stable manner. We show the power behind these ideas by extracting the physics of the model on large lattices.

  17. Fermion Bag Approach to Lattice Hamiltonian Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Emilie

    2018-03-01

    Using a model in the Gross-Neveu Ising universality class, we show how the fermion bag idea can be applied to develop algorithms to Hamiltonian lattice field theories. We argue that fermion world lines suggest an alternative method to the traditional techniques for calculating ratios of determinants in a stable manner. We show the power behind these ideas by extracting the physics of the model on large lattices.

  18. Simple Z2 lattice gauge theories at finite fermion density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosko, Christian; Lee, Shu-Ping; Maciejko, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    Lattice gauge theories are a powerful language to theoretically describe a variety of strongly correlated systems, including frustrated magnets, high-Tc superconductors, and topological phases. However, in many cases gauge fields couple to gapless matter degrees of freedom, and such theories become notoriously difficult to analyze quantitatively. In this paper we study several examples of Z2 lattice gauge theories with gapless fermions at finite density, in one and two spatial dimensions, that are either exactly soluble or whose solution reduces to that of a known problem. We consider complex fermions (spinless and spinful) as well as Majorana fermions and study both theories where Gauss' law is strictly imposed and those where all background charge sectors are kept in the physical Hilbert space. We use a combination of duality mappings and the Z2 slave-spin representation to map our gauge theories to models of gauge-invariant fermions that are either free, or with on-site interactions of the Hubbard or Falicov-Kimball type that are amenable to further analysis. In 1D, the phase diagrams of these theories include free-fermion metals, insulators, and superconductors, Luttinger liquids, and correlated insulators. In 2D, we find a variety of gapped and gapless phases, the latter including uniform and spatially modulated flux phases featuring emergent Dirac fermions, some violating Luttinger's theorem.

  19. High‐order rotated staggered finite difference modeling of 3D elastic wave propagation in general anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the dispersion properties and stability conditions of the high‐order convolutional finite difference operators and compare them with the conventional finite difference schemes. We observe that the convolutional finite difference method has better dispersion properties and becomes more efficient than the conventional finite difference method with the increasing order of accuracy. This makes the high‐order convolutional operator a good choice for anisotropic elastic wave simulations on rotated staggered grids since its enhanced dispersion properties can help to suppress the numerical dispersion error that is inherent in the rotated staggered grid structure and its efficiency can help us tackle 3D problems cost‐effectively.

  20. Monopole-fermion and dyon-fermion bound states. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osland, P.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA; Schultz, C.L.; Wu, T.T.

    1985-02-01

    We present explicit, approximate, remarkably precise results for the Kazama-Yang hamiltonian, which describes a Dirac monopole interacting with a spin-1/2 fermion that has an extra magnetic moment. The results are valid for bound states of angular momentum j >= Zvertical strokeegvertical stroke+1/2, where the radial wave functions are determined by four coupled differential equations. These equations have been solved analytically for M - E << M, which is a limit of considerable practical interest. Binding energies and wave functions are given. (orig.)

  1. Heavy-fermion superconductivity in UPt3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putikka, W.O.

    1988-01-01

    A phenomenological spin fluctuation model for superconductivity in the heavy-fermion metal UPt 3 is presented. The wavevector dependence of the interaction is assumed to be the same as the wavevector dependent magnetic susceptibility extracted from the neutron scattering experiments. The other input for the calculation is the Fermi surface of UPt 3 . UPt 3 can thus be described at low temperatures in its normal state as a Fermi liquid, with very massive quasiparticles. The model considered here for the superconducting state is the pairing of the heavy quasiparticles by means of the spin fluctuation mediated interaction. A phase diagram is derived in terms of two dimensionless parameters giving the relative strength of the local repulsive part of the interaction and in the plane ferromagnetic interaction compared to the nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic interaction. s-, p- and d-wave phases are possible. The symmetry of the gap function favored by this model is the E 1g representation of D 6h . To determine the symmetry of the gap function for this two dimensional representation the fourth order terms in the Ginzburg-Landau free energy are considered. The resulting gap function has a line of nodes in the basal plane and point nodes along the c-axis. A qualitative comparison of calculated properties for UPt 3 with this d-wave gap function to measured properties is given. A discussion of the limitations of the model and future improvements and extensions of the model is also given

  2. Free fermion resolution of supergroup WZNW models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, T.; Schomerus, V.

    2007-06-15

    Extending our earlier work on PSL(2 vertical stroke 2), we explain how to reduce the solution of WZNW models on general type I supergroups to those defined on the bosonic subgroup. The new analysis covers in particular the supergroups GL(M vertical stroke N) along with several close relatives such as PSL(N vertical stroke N), certain Poincar'e supergroups and the series OSP(2 vertical stroke 2N). This remarkable progress relies on the use of a special Feigin-Fuchs type representation. In preparation for the field theory analysis, we shall exploit a minisuperspace analogue of a free fermion construction to deduce the spectrum of the Laplacian on type I supergroups. The latter is shown to be non-diagonalizable. After lifting these results to the full WZNW model, we address various issues of the field theory, including its modular invariance and the computation of correlation functions. In agreement with previous findings, supergroup WZNW models allow to study chiral and non-chiral aspects of logarithmic conformal field theory within a geometric framework. We shall briefly indicate how insights from WZNW models carry over to non-geometric examples, such as e.g. the W(p) triplet models.

  3. Fermionic greybody factors in dilaton black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi, Jahed; Arfaei, Hessamaddin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the question of the emission of fermions in the process of dilaton black hole evolution and its characteristics for different dilaton coupling constants α are studied. The main quantity of interest, the greybody factors, are calculated both numerically and in analytical approximation. The dependence of the rates of evaporation and behaviour on the dilaton coupling constant is analysed. Having calculated the greybody factors, we are able to address the question of the final fate of the dilaton black hole. For that we also need to perform dynamical treatment of the solution by considering the backreaction, which will show a crucial effect on the final result. We find a transition line in the (Q/M,α) plane that separates the two regimes for the fate of the black hole, decay regime and extremal regime. In the decay regime the black hole completely evaporates, while in the extremal regime the black hole approaches the extremal limit by radiation and becomes stable. (paper)

  4. Algorithms for Monte Carlo calculations with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingarten, D.

    1985-01-01

    We describe a fermion Monte Carlo algorithm due to Petcher and the present author and another due to Fucito, Marinari, Parisi and Rebbi. For the first algorithm we estimate the number of arithmetic operations required to evaluate a vacuum expectation value grows as N 11 /msub(q) on an N 4 lattice with fixed periodicity in physical units and renormalized quark mass msub(q). For the second algorithm the rate of growth is estimated to be N 8 /msub(q) 2 . Numerical experiments are presented comparing the two algorithms on a lattice of size 2 4 . With a hopping constant K of 0.15 and β of 4.0 we find the number of operations for the second algorithm is about 2.7 times larger than for the first and about 13 000 times larger than for corresponding Monte Carlo calculations with a pure gauge theory. An estimate is given for the number of operations required for more realistic calculations by each algorithm on a larger lattice. (orig.)

  5. Electron scattering by trapped fermionic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun; Jhe, Wonho

    2002-01-01

    Considering the Fermi gases of alkali-metal atoms that are trapped in a harmonic potential, we study theoretically the elastic and inelastic scattering of the electrons by the trapped Fermi atoms and present the corresponding differential cross sections. We also obtain the stopping power for the cases that the electronic state as well as the center-of-mass state are excited both separately and simultaneously. It is shown that the elastic scattering process is no longer coherent in contrast to the electron scattering by the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). For the inelastic scattering process, on the other hand, the differential cross section is found to be proportional to the 2/3 power of the number of the trapped atoms. In particular, the trapped fermionic atoms display the effect of ''Fermi surface,'' that is, only the energy levels near the Fermi energy have dominant contributions to the scattering process. Moreover, it is found that the stopping power scales as the 7/6 power of the atomic number. These results are fundamentally different from those of the electron scattering by the atomic BEC, mainly due to the different statistics obeyed by the trapped atomic systems

  6. Quantum Numbers of Eigenstates of Generalized de Broglie-Bargmann- Wigner Equations for Fermions with Partonic Substructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, H.

    2003-01-01

    Generalized de Broglie-Bargmann-Wigner (BBW) equations are relativistically invariant quantum mechanical many body equations with nontrivial interaction, selfregularization and probability interpretation. Owing to these properties these equations are a suitable means for describing relativistic bound states of fermions. In accordance with de Broglie's fusion theory and modern assumptions about the partonic substructure of elementary fermions, i.e., leptons and quarks, the three-body generalized BBW-equations are investigated. The transformation properties and quantum numbers of the three-parton equations under the relevant group actions are elaborated in detail. Section 3 deals with the action of the isospin group SU(2), a U(1) global gauge group for the fermion number, the hypercharge and charge generators. The resulting quantum numbers of the composite partonic systems can be adapted to those of the phenomenological particles to be described. The space-time transformations and in particular rotations generated by angular momentum operators are considered in Section 4. Based on the compatibility of the BBW-equations and the group theoretical constraints, in Sect. 5 integral equations are formulated in a representation with diagonal energy and total angular momentum variables. The paper provides new insight into the solution space and quantum labels of resulting integral equations for three parton states and prepares the ground for representing leptons and quarks as composite systems.

  7. Finite size effects in lattice QCD with dynamical Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, B.

    2004-06-01

    Due to limited computing resources choosing the parameters for a full lattice QCD simulation always amounts to a compromise between the competing objectives of a lattice spacing as small, quarks as light, and a volume as large as possible. Aiming at pushing unquenched simulations with the standard Wilson action towards the computationally expensive regime of small quark masses, the GRAL project addresses the question whether computing time can be saved by sticking to lattices with rather modest numbers of grid sites and extrapolating the finite-volume results to the infinite volume (prior to the usual chiral and continuum extrapolations). In this context we investigate in this work finite-size effects in simulated light hadron masses. Understanding their systematic volume dependence may not only help saving computer time in light quark simulations with the Wilson action, but also guide future simulations with dynamical chiral fermions which for a foreseeable time will be restricted to rather small lattices. We analyze data from hybrid Monte Carlo simulations with the N{sub f} = 2 Wilson action at two values of the coupling parameter, {beta} = 5.6 (lattice spacing {alpha} {approx} 0.08 fm) and {beta} = 5.32144 ({alpha} {approx} 0.13 fm). The larger {beta} corresponds to the coupling used previously by SESAM/T{chi}L. The considered hopping parameters {kappa} = 0.1575, 0.158 (at the larger {beta}) and {kappa} = 0.1665 (at the smaller {beta}) correspond to quark masses of 85, 50 and 36% of the strange quark mass, respectively. At each quark mass we study at least three different lattice extents in the range from L = 10 to L = 24 (0.85-2.04 fm). Estimates of autocorrelation times in the stochastic updating process and of the computational cost of every run are given. For each simulated sea quark mass we calculate quark propagators and hadronic correlation functions in order to extract the pion, rho and nucleon masses as well as the pion decay constant and the quark mass

  8. Towards corrections to the strong coupling limit of staggered lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, Michael; Philipsen, Owe; de Forcrand, Philippe; Unger, Wolfgang; Miura, Kotaroh

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first steps of an ongoing project to add gauge observables and gauge corrections to the well-studied strong coupling limit of staggered lattice QCD, which has been shown earlier to be amenable to numerical simulations by the worm algorithm in the chiral limit and at finite density. Here we show how to evaluate the expectation value of the Polyakov loop in the framework of the strong coupling limit at finite temperature, allowing to study confinement properties along with those of chiral symmetry breaking. We find the Polyakov loop to rise smoothly, thus signalling deconfinement. The non-analytic nature of the chiral phase transition is reflected in the derivative of the Polyakov loop. We also discuss how to construct an effective theory for non-zero lattice coupling, which is valid to $O(\\beta)$.

  9. Field theory of a terahertz staggered double-grating arrays waveguide Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wenqiu; He, Fangming [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zicheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Ding; Liu, Qinglun [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Based on a rectilinear sheet electron beam propagating through the tunnel of a staggered double-grating arrays waveguide (SDGAW) slow-wave structure (SWS), a three dimensional field theory for describing the modes and the beam-wave interaction is presented, in which the higher order terms inside the grooves are retained. The fields' distribution and the conductivity losses are also calculated utilizing the theoretical model. With the optimized parameters of the SWS and the electron beam, a 1 THz SDGAW Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier may obtain a moderate net gain (the peak gain is 12.7 dB/cm) and an ultra 3 dB wideband (0.19 THz) considering the serious Ohmic losses. The theoretical results have been compared with those calculated by 3D HFSS code and CST STUDIO particle-in-cell simulations.

  10. Efficient gas-liquid contact using microfluidic membrane devices with staggered herringbone mixers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femmer, Tim; Eggersdorfer, Max L; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Wessling, Matthias

    2015-08-07

    We describe a novel membrane based gas-liquid-contacting device with increased mass transport and reduced pressure loss by combining a membrane with a staggered herringbone static mixer. Herringbone structures are imposed on the microfluidic channel geometry via soft lithography, acting as mixers which introduce secondary flows at the membrane interface. Such flows include Dean vortices and Taylor flows generating effective mixing while improving mass transport and preventing concentration polarization in microfluidic channels. Furthermore, our static herringbone mixer membranes effectively reduce pressure losses leading to devices with enhanced transfer properties for microfluidic gas-liquid contact. We investigate the red blood cell distribution to tailor our devices towards miniaturised extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and improved comfort of patients with lung insufficiencies.

  11. Constitutive Modelling in Thermomechanical Processes, Using The Control Volume Method on Staggered Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Jesper

    -strain relation has been suggested. The intention of this method is to provide fast numerical results with reasonable accuracy in relation to the first order effects of the presented classical plasticity model. Application of the $J_2$ flow theory and the alternative method have shown some agreement...... of the method has been focused on high temperature processes such as casting and welding and the interest of using nonlinear constitutive stress-strain relations has grown to extend the applicability of the method. The work of implementing classical plasticity into the control volume formulation has been based...... on the $J_2$ flow theory describing an isotropic hardening material with a temperature dependent yield stress. This work has successfully been verified by comparing results to analytical solutions. Due to the comprehensive implementation in the staggered grid an alternative constitutive stress...

  12. An arbitrary-order staggered time integrator for the linear acoustic wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejoon; Park, Hyunseo; Park, Yoonseo; Shin, Changsoo

    2018-02-01

    We suggest a staggered time integrator whose order of accuracy can arbitrarily be extended to solve the linear acoustic wave equation. A strategy to select the appropriate order of accuracy is also proposed based on the error analysis that quantitatively predicts the truncation error of the numerical solution. This strategy not only reduces the computational cost several times, but also allows us to flexibly set the modelling parameters such as the time step length, grid interval and P-wave speed. It is demonstrated that the proposed method can almost eliminate temporal dispersive errors during long term simulations regardless of the heterogeneity of the media and time step lengths. The method can also be successfully applied to the source problem with an absorbing boundary condition, which is frequently encountered in the practical usage for the imaging algorithms or the inverse problems.

  13. Staggered-Grid Finite Difference Method with Variable-Order Accuracy for Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghuai Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical modeling of wave field in porous media generally requires more computation time than that of acoustic or elastic media. Usually used finite difference methods adopt finite difference operators with fixed-order accuracy to calculate space derivatives for a heterogeneous medium. A finite difference scheme with variable-order accuracy for acoustic wave equation has been proposed to reduce the computation time. In this paper, we develop this scheme for wave equations in porous media based on dispersion relation with high-order staggered-grid finite difference (SFD method. High-order finite difference operators are adopted for low-velocity regions, and low-order finite difference operators are adopted for high-velocity regions. Dispersion analysis and modeling results demonstrate that the proposed SFD method can decrease computational costs without reducing accuracy.

  14. Stress analysis of three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement with field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zimo; Chanda, Emmanuel; Zhao, Jingli; Wang, Zhihe

    2018-01-01

    Longwall top-coal caving (LTCC) has been a popular, more productive and cost-effective method for extracting thick (> 5 m) to ultra-thick coal seams in recent years. However, low-level recovery ratio of coal resources and top-coal loss above the supports at both ends of working face are long-term problems. Geological factors, such as large dip angle, soft rock, mining depth further complicate the problems. This paper proposes addressing this issue by adopting three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement (3-D RLSA). In this study, the first step was to analyse the stress environment surrounding head entry in the replacing working face based on the stress distribution characteristics at the triangular coal-pillar side in gob and the stress slip line field theory. In the second step, filed observation was conducted. Finally, an economic evaluation of the 3-D RLSA for extracting thick to ultra-thick seams was conducted.

  15. Cellular uptake of magnetite nanoparticles enhanced by NdFeB magnets in staggered arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Ching; Chang, Fan-Yu; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Ma, Yunn-Hwa

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic force may greatly enhance uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by cultured cells; however, the effects of non-uniformity of magnetic field/ magnetic gradient on MNP internalization in culture has not been elucidated. Cellular uptake of polyacrylic acid coated-MNP by LN229 cells was measured with cylindrical NdFeB magnets arranged in a staggered pattern. The magnetic field generated by placing a magnet underneath (H-field) elicited a homogenous distribution of MNPs on the cells in culture; whereas the field without magnet underneath (L-field) resulted in MNP distribution along the edge of the wells. Cell-associated MNP (MNPcell) appeared to be magnetic field- and concentration-dependent. In H-field, MNPcell reached plateau within one hour of exposure to MNP with only one-min application of the magnetic force in the beginning of incubation; continuous presence of the magnet for 2 h did not further increase MNPcell, suggesting that magnetic force-induced uptake may be primarily contributed to enhanced MNP sedimentation. Although MNP distribution was much inhomogeneous in L-field, averaged MNPcell in the L-field may reach as high as 80% of that in H-field during 1-6 h incubation, suggesting high capacity of MNP internalization. In addition, no significant difference was observed in MNPcell analyzed by flow cytometry with the application of H-field of staggered plate vs. filled magnet plate. Therefore, biological variation may dominate MNP internalization even under relatively uniformed magnetic field; whereas non-uniformed magnetic field may serve as a model for tumor targeting with MNPs in vivo.

  16. A comparative study of Purkinje cells in two RORalpha gene mutant mice: staggerer and RORalpha(-/-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulazmi, M; Frédéric, F; Capone, F; Becker-André, M; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N; Mariani, J

    2001-04-30

    The staggerer (Rora(sg/sg)) mutation is a deletion in the RORalpha gene, one member of a family of nuclear receptor genes related to the retinoic acid receptor. Recently Steinmayr et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95 (1998) 3960) generated a RORalpha null-mutant mouse (Rora(-/-)) by using a targeting vector in which a beta-Gal gene replaces the second finger of the DNA-binding domain of RORalpha. The Rora(-/-) cerebellum is qualitatively a phenocopy of the Rora(sg/sg) one, but the two strains differ slightly in their motor skills. To address the question whether the morphological defects in the Rora(-/-) cerebellum are identical to the Rora(sg/sg) one, we compared number and size of Purkinje cells in both staggerer and RORalpha null-mutant mice, using calbindin (CaBP) immunohistochemistry and revelation of beta-Gal activity. Compared to control cerebella the Rora(sg/sg) cerebellum has 82% fewer CaBP-positive cells. In Rora(-/-) mouse, all the the beta-Gal-positive Purkinje cells also expressed CaBP, but the cerebellum contained 78% less CaBP-positive cells than control, a deficit not different from the one observed in Rora(sg/sg). We show similar mediolateral compartments in Purkinje cell number and cytological abnormality in Rora(sg/sg) and Rora(-/-) mice. These results provide quantitative support for the hypothesis that the cerebellar phenotype in the homozygous Rora(sg/sg) is due to the lack of function of the RORalpha gene.

  17. Investigation of analog/RF performance of staggered heterojunctions based nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Avik; Sarkar, Angsuman

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the analog/RF performance of an III-V semiconductor based staggered hetero-tunnel-junction (HETJ) n-type nanowire (NW) tunneling FET (n-TFET) is investigated, for the first time. The device performance figure-of-merits governing the analog/RF performance such as transconductance (gm), transconductance-to-drive current ratio (gm/IDS), output resistance (Rout), intrinsic gain and unity-gain cutoff frequency (fT) have been studied. The analog/RF performance parameters is compared between HETJ NW TFET and a homojunction (HJ) NW n-type TFET of similar dimensions. In addition to enhanced ION and subthreshold swing, a significant improvement in the analog/RF performance parameters obtained by the HETJ n-TFET over HJ counterpart for use in analog/mixed signal System-on-Chip (SoC) applications is reported. Moreover, the analog/RF performance parameters of a III-V based staggered HETJ NW TFET is also compared with a heterojunction (HETJ) NW n-type MOSFET having same material as HETJ n-TFET and equal dimension in order to provide a systematic comparison between HETJ-TFET and HETJ-MOSFET for use in analog/mixed-signal applications. The results reveal that HETJ n-TFET provides higher Rout and hence, a higher intrinsic gain, an improved gm/IDS ratio, and reasonable fT at lower values of gate-overdrive voltage as compared to the HETJ NW n-MOSFET.

  18. A Study of a Powder Coating Gun Near Field: Particle Flow in an Isothermal Staggered Concentric Air Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Payne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of inert particle dispersion in an isothermal concentric air jet near field was conducted for cases of standard non-staggered and alternative staggered jet nozzles, each taken from a polymer powder flame deposition gun. The experimental work consisted of analysis of high speed digital images of the inert two phase isothermal jet flow, illuminated by a laser light sheet along and across the jet axis. The analysis of particle spread in the jet, represented by families of particle density distributions, clearly showed that the staggered nozzles resulted in a better-focused flow, with narrower distributions in the near field, and in the elimination of the recirculation zone that disrupted the particle flow in a non-staggered nozzle arrangement. In all cases, histograms of the cross-sectional particle area density were found to be approximately Gaussian. It was also found that there was a wide variation in the size and shape of the ground polymer particles used and these two characteristics caused a wide variation in the radial and axial velocities of the particles. Despite the differences between single-phase numerical simulations and experimental results, reported in Payne et al. [1], the introduction of particles into a numerical model produced satisfactory agreement with the particle velocities found experimentally.

  19. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an effective triage marker following staggered paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D G; Zafar, S; Reid, T W D J; Martin, K G; Davidson, J S; Hayes, P C; Simpson, K J

    2012-06-01

    The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an effective triage marker following single time point paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, but has not been evaluated following staggered (multiple supratherapeutic doses over >8 h, resulting in cumulative dose of >4 g/day) overdoses. To evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the SOFA score following staggered paracetamol overdose. Time-course analysis of 50 staggered paracetamol overdoses admitted to a tertiary liver centre. Individual timed laboratory samples were correlated with corresponding clinical parameters and the daily SOFA scores were calculated. A total of 39/50 (78%) patients developed hepatic encephalopathy. The area under the SOFA receiver operator characteristic for death/liver transplantation was 87.4 (95% CI 73.2-95.7), 94.3 (95% CI 82.5-99.1), and 98.4 (95% CI 84.3-100.0) at 0, 24 and 48 h, respectively, postadmission. A SOFA score of paracetamol overdose, is associated with a good prognosis. Both the SOFA and APACHE II scores could improve triage of high-risk staggered paracetamol overdose patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Coupled fermion-kink system in Jackiw-Rebbi model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado, A.; Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Fisica, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    In this paper, we study Jackiw-Rebbi model, in which a massless fermion is coupled to the kink of λφ{sup 4} theory through a Yukawa interaction. In the original Jackiw-Rebbi model, the soliton is prescribed. However, we are interested in the back-reaction of the fermion on the soliton besides the effect of the soliton on the fermion. Also, as a particular example, we consider a minimal supersymmetric kink model in (1 + 1) dimensions. In this case, the bosonic self-coupling, λ, and the Yukawa coupling between fermion and soliton, g, have a specific relation, g = √(λ/2). As the set of coupled equations of motion of the system is not analytically solvable, we use a numerical method to solve it self-consistently. We obtain the bound energy spectrum, bound states of the system and the corresponding shape of the soliton using a relaxation method, except for the zero mode fermionic state and threshold energies which are analytically solvable. With the aid of these results, we are able to show how the soliton is affected in general and supersymmetric cases. The results we obtain are consistent with the ones in the literature, considering the soliton as background. (orig.)

  1. Dynamical twisted mass fermions and baryon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drach, V.

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work is an ab initio computation of the baryon masses starting from quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This theory describes the interaction between quarks and gluons and has been established at high energy thanks to one of its fundamental properties: the asymptotic freedom. This property predicts that the running coupling constant tends to zero at high energy and thus that perturbative expansions in the coupling constant are justified in this regime. On the contrary the low energy dynamics can only be understood in terms of a non perturbative approach. To date, the only known method that allows the computation of observables in this regime together with a control of its systematic effects is called lattice QCD. It consists in formulating the theory on an Euclidean space-time and to evaluating numerically suitable functional integrals. First chapter is an introduction to the QCD in the continuum and on a discrete space time. The chapter 2 describes the formalism of maximally twisted fermions used in the European Twisted Mass (ETM) collaboration. The chapter 3 deals with the techniques needed to build hadronic correlator starting from gauge configuration. We then discuss how we determine hadron masses and their statistical errors. The numerical estimation of functional integral is explained in chapter 4. It is stressed that it requires sophisticated algorithm and massive parallel computing on Blue-Gene type architecture. Gauge configuration production is an important part of the work realized during my Ph.D. Chapter 5 is a critical review on chiral perturbation theory in the baryon sector. The two last chapter are devoted to the analysis in the light and strange baryon sector. Systematics and chiral extrapolation are extensively discussed. (author)

  2. Doping Experiments on Magnetic Heavy Fermion Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Weonwoo

    We present experimental results of non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior in U_{rm x} Th_{rm 1-x}Ru _2Si_2 and in U_{0.9}M_ {0.1}Ni_2Al _3 (M = Y, Th, and Pr), and the hydrogen effects on UPd_2Al_3 . The objective of this work is to understand the origin of the NFL behavior and how hydrogen changes the heavy fermion system. In U_{rm x}Th _{rm 1-x}Ru _2Si_2, we have observed the NFL behavior in thermodynamic, transport, and magnetic measurements for 0.07 x x x}Th _{rm 1-x}Ru _2Si_2 for 0.07 x UPd_2 Al_3 with hydrogen by improving the activation and poisoning of the parent samples. In the normal state, the increase in both chi (0) and gamma(0) with hydrogen uptake can be interpreted as an enhancement of the effective mass supported by the Sommerfeld free-electron behavior of these physical values. On the other hand, magnetic correlations are proposed as a possible origin of the behavior in both chi(0) and gamma (0) based on the observed relations among theta _{rm C.W., } chi(0), and gamma(0) around the critical hydrogen concentration C_ {rm C}. The peak in chi for UPd_2Al_3 seems to be due to the short range magnetic correlations; we observe the shift of the peak to lower T for more hydrogen uptake and at higher magnetic fields for a given hydrogen concentration. In the superconducting state, T _{rm C} decreases with hydrogen uptake along with a broadening of the transition width.

  3. Staggered overdose pattern and delay to hospital presentation are associated with adverse outcomes following paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Darren G N; Bates, Caroline M; Davidson, Janice S; Martin, Kirsty G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2012-02-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning remains the major cause of severe acute hepatotoxicity in the UK. In this large single centre cohort study we examined the clinical impact of staggered overdoses and delayed presentation following paracetamol overdose. Between 1992 and 2008, 663 patients were admitted with paracetamol-induced severe liver injury, of whom 161 (24.3%) had taken a staggered overdose. Staggered overdose patients were significantly older and more likely to abuse alcohol than single time point overdose patients. Relief of pain (58.2%) was the commonest rationale for repeated supratherapeutic ingestion. Despite lower total ingested paracetamol doses and lower admission serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations, staggered overdose patients were more likely to be encephalopathic on admission, require renal replacement therapy or mechanical ventilation and had higher mortality rates compared with single time point overdoses (37.3% vs. 27.8%, P= 0.025), although this overdose pattern did not independently predict death. The King's College poor prognostic criteria had reduced sensitivity (77.6, 95% CI 70.8, 81.5) for this pattern of overdose. Of the 396/450 (88.0%) single time point overdoses in whom accurate timings could be obtained, 178 (44.9%) presented to medical services >24 h following overdose. Delayed presentation beyond 24 h post overdose was independently associated with death/liver transplantation (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.23, 4.12, P= 0.009). Both delayed presentation and staggered overdose pattern are associated with adverse outcomes following paracetamol overdose. These patients are at increased risk of developing multi-organ failure and should be considered for early transfer to specialist liver centres. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. A fermionic loop wave functional for quantum chromodynamics at N sub(c) = + infinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, L.C.L.

    1985-01-01

    A fermionic loop wave functional for euclidean QCD in the t'Hooft topological limit is considered. Arguments are given that this equation leads to a fermionic (supersymmetric) string representation for the above theory. (Author) [pt

  5. AdS5 black holes with fermionic hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.; Sabra, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of new Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) objects in AdS 5 has led to a deeper understanding of AdS/CFT. To help complete this picture, and to fully explore the consequences of the supersymmetry algebra, it is also important to obtain new solutions with bulk fermions turned on. In this paper we construct superpartners of the 1/2 BPS black hole in AdS 5 using a natural set of fermion zero modes. We demonstrate that these superpartners, carrying fermionic hair, have conserved charges differing from the original bosonic counterpart. To do so, we find the R-charge and dipole moment of the new system, as well as the mass and angular momentum, defined through the boundary stress tensor. The complete set of superpartners fits nicely into a chiral representation of AdS 5 supersymmetry, and the spinning solutions have the expected gyromagnetic ratio, g=1

  6. Particle-hole symmetry and the Dirac composite fermion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dam

    Composite fermion is a central notion in quantum Hall physics. For a long time, field theories of the composite fermion suffers from the lack of particle-hole symmetry, an exact symmetry of the lowest Landau level. I will describe how recent theoretical ideas have lead to a new understanding of the physics of the half-filled Landau level. According to the new picture, the composite fermion at half filling is a Dirac particle with a nontrivial pi Berry phase around the Fermi surface. Consequences of the new proposal are outlined. Supported by Simons Investigator Grant from the Simons Foundation, NSF Grant No. DMR-1420709, and ARO MURI Grant No. 63834-PH-MUR.

  7. Fermion generations, masses and mixing angles from extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggio, Carla E-mail: biggio@pd.infn.it; Feruglio, Ferruccio; Masina, Isabella; Perez-Victoria, Manuel

    2004-01-19

    We discuss a toy model in six dimensions that predicts two fermion generations, natural mass hierarchy and intergenerational mixing. Matter is described by vector-like six-dimensional fermions, one per each irreducible standard model representation. Two fermion generations arise from the compactification mechanism, through orbifold projection. They are localized in different regions of the compact space by a six-dimensional mass term. Flavour symmetry is broken via Yukawa couplings, with a Higgs vacuum expectation value not constant in the extra space. A hierarchical spectrum is obtained from order one dimensionless parameters of the six-dimensional theory. The Cabibbo angle arises from the soft breaking of six-dimensional parity symmetry. We also briefly discuss how the present model could be extended to cover the realistic case.

  8. Fermion generations, masses and mixing angles from extra dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggio, Carla; Feruglio, Ferruccio; Masina, Isabella; Pérez-Victoria, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a toy model in six dimensions that predicts two fermion generations, natural mass hierarchy and intergenerational mixing. Matter is described by vector-like six-dimensional fermions, one per each irreducible standard model representation. Two fermion generations arise from the compactification mechanism, through orbifold projection. They are localized in different regions of the compact space by a six-dimensional mass term. Flavour symmetry is broken via Yukawa couplings, with a Higgs vacuum expectation value not constant in the extra space. A hierarchical spectrum is obtained from order one dimensionless parameters of the six-dimensional theory. The Cabibbo angle arises from the soft breaking of six-dimensional parity symmetry. We also briefly discuss how the present model could be extended to cover the realistic case.

  9. Cubic interaction vertices for fermionic and bosonic arbitrary spin fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2012-06-01

    Using the light-cone gauge approach to relativistic field dynamics, we study arbitrary spin fermionic and bosonic fields propagating in flat space of dimension greater than or equal to four. Generating functions of parity invariant cubic interaction vertices for totally symmetric and mixed-symmetry massive and massless fields are obtained. For the case of totally symmetric fields, we derive restrictions on the allowed values of spins and the number of derivatives. These restrictions provide a complete classification of parity invariant cubic interaction vertices for totally symmetric fermionic and bosonic fields. As an example of application of the light-cone formalism, we obtain simple expressions for the Yang-Mills and gravitational interactions of massive arbitrary spin fermionic fields. For some particular cases, using our light-cone cubic vertices, we discuss the corresponding manifestly Lorentz invariant and on-shell gauge invariant cubic vertices.

  10. Magnetotransport in Layered Dirac Fermion System Coupled with Magnetic Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshiki; Morinari, Takao

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the magnetotransport of Dirac fermions coupled with localized moments to understand the physical properties of the Dirac material EuMnBi2. Using an interlayer hopping form, which simplifies the complicated interaction between the layers of Dirac fermions and the layers of magnetic moments in EuMnBi2, the theory reproduces most of the features observed in this system. The hysteresis observed in EuMnBi2 can be caused by the valley splitting that is induced by the spin-orbit coupling and the external magnetic field with the molecular field created by localized moments. Our theory suggests that the magnetotransport in EuMnBi2 is due to the interplay among Dirac fermions, localized moments, and spin-orbit coupling.

  11. Fermion masses without symmetry breaking in two spacetime dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BenTov, Yoni

    2015-01-01

    I study the prospect of generating mass for symmetry-protected fermions without breaking the symmetry that forbids quadratic mass terms in the Lagrangian. I focus on 1+1 spacetime dimensions in the hope that this can provide guidance for interacting fermions in 3+1 dimensions. I first review the SO(8) Gross-Neveu model and emphasize a subtlety in the triality transformation. Then I focus on the “m=0” manifold of the SO(7) Kitaev-Fidkowski model. I argue that this theory exhibits a phenomenon similar to “parity doubling” in hadronic physics, and this leads to the conclusion that the fermion propagator vanishes when p μ =0. I also briefly explore a connection between this model and the two-channel, single-impurity Kondo effect. This paper may serve as an introduction to topological superconductors for high energy theorists, and perhaps as a taste of elementary particle physics for condensed matter theorists.

  12. Mixing of fermions and spectral representation of propagator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloshin, A. E.; Lomov, V. P.

    2016-03-01

    We develop the spectral representation of propagator for n mixing fermion fields in the case of P-parity violation. The approach based on the eigenvalue problem for inverse matrix propagator makes possible to build the system of orthogonal projectors and to represent the matrix propagator as a sum of poles with positive and negative energies. The procedure of multiplicative renormalization in terms of spectral representation is investigated and the renormalization matrices are obtained in a closed form without the use of perturbation theory. Since in theory with P-parity violation the standard spin projectors do not commute with the dressed propagator, they should be modified. The developed approach allows us to build the modified (dressed) spin projectors for a single fermion and for a system of fermions.

  13. Models of light singlet fermion and neutrino phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, E.J.; Joshipura, A.S.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1995-05-01

    We suggest that a single fermion S exists beyond the standard see-saw structure. It mixes with light neutrinos via interactions with the right-handed neutrino components, so that ν e → S conversion solves the solar neutrino problem. Supersymmetry endowed with R-symmetry is shown to give a natural framework for existence, mass scale (∼ 3 · 10 -3 eV) and mixing (sin 2 2θ es ∼ (0.1 - 1.5) · 10 -2 ) of such a fermion. Models with an approximate horizontal symmetry are constructed, which embed the fermion S and explain simultaneously solar, atmospheric, hot dark matter problems as well as may predict the oscillation ν-bar μ → ν-bar e in the region of sensitivity of KARMEN and LSND experiments. (author). 24 refs

  14. Holographic Fermions in Anisotropic Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qing Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the properties of the holographic Fermionic system dual to an anisotropic charged black brane bulk in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion gravity theory. We consider the minimal coupling between the Dirac field and the gauge field in the bulk gravity theory and mainly explore the dispersion relation exponents of the Green functions of the dual Fermionic operators in the dual field theory. We find that along both the anisotropic and the isotropic directions the Fermi momentum will be effected by the anisotropy of the bulk theory. However, the anisotropy has influence on the dispersion relation which is almost linear for massless Fermions with charge q=2. The universal properties that the mass and the charge of the Fermi possibly correspond to nonlinear dispersion relation are also investigated.

  15. Solitons with half-integral fermionic charge in 1+1 dimensional Hamiltonian lattice models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, J.; Schiller, A.

    1984-03-01

    Hamiltonian lattice models with fermions, gauge bosons and Higgs scalars are studied in 1+1 dimensions using the local Hamiltonian Monte Carlo method. In particular we study a Schwinger type model of interacting Higgs scalars, fermions and Abelian gauge bosons with spontaneous symmetry breaking and a Wess-Zumino type supersymmetric model with only fermions and scalars. In both models for suitable values of the parameters we find free solitons with fractional fermionic charge. (author)

  16. The Emergence of Fermions and the E11 Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, François; Houart, Laurent

    Claudio's warm and endearing personality adds to our admiration for his achievements in physics a sense of friendliness. His constant interest in fundamental questions motivated the following presentation of our attempt to understand the nature of fermions. This problem is an essential element of the quantum world and might be related to the quest for quantum gravity. We shall review how space-time fermions can emerge out of bosons in string theory and how this fact affects the extended Kac-Moody approach to the M-theory project.

  17. Energy-momentum tensor in the fermion-pairing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawati, S.; Miyata, H.

    1980-01-01

    The symmetric energy-momentum tensor for the self-interacting fermion theory (psi-barpsi) 2 is expressed in terms of the collective mode within the Hartree approximation. The divergent part of the energy-momentum tensor for the fermion theory induces an effective energy-momentum tensor for the collective mode, and this effective energy-momentum tensor automatically has the Callan-Coleman-Jackiw improved form. The renormalized energy-momentum tensor is structurally equivalent to the Callan-Coleman-Jackiw improved tensor for the Yukawa theory

  18. Superconductive pairing of fermions and semions in two dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canright, G.S.; Girvin, S.M. (Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (USA)); Brass, A. (Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (USA))

    1989-11-13

    We have observed, in exact numerical solutions of small systems, the microscopic precursors of superconductive pairing of fermions and semions (half-statistics quasiparticles) in two dimensions. We recognize the paired state by flux quantization at intervals of {ital hc}/2{ital e}. We find that the fermions pair only for values of an interparticle potential {ital u} which is large and negative, while the semions pair for a wide range of {ital u}, including strong repulsion. We also find that the semions, in the paired state, prefer quantized flux in {ital odd} multiples of {ital hc}/4{ital e}.

  19. Casimir energy of massless fermions in the Slab-bag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paola, R.D.M. de; Rodrigues, R.B.; Svaiter, N.F.

    1999-04-01

    The zero-point energy of a massless fermion field in the interior of two parallel plates in a D-dimensional space-time at zero temperature is calculated. In order to regularize the model, a mix between dimensional and zeta function regularization procedure is used and it is founded that the regularized zero-point energy density is finite for any number of space-time dimensions. We present a general expression for the Casimir energy for the fermionic field in such a situation. (author)

  20. BCS superconductivity in mixed valence and heavy fermion superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, Lev P.; Barzykin, Victor

    2005-03-01

    We consider competition of Kondo effect and s-wave superconductivity in heavy fermion and mixed valence superconductors, using the slave boson 1/N approach for the periodic Anderson model. Similar to the well known results for single-impurity Kondo effect in superconductors, we have found that re-entrant behavior of the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, should be observed in heavy fermion superconductors as a function of model parameters or concentration of impurities. Suppression of Tc in mixed valence superconductors is much weaker, without re-entrant behavior of Tc. Our results have most validity in the low-temperature regime.

  1. Direct Measurement of the Higgs Boson Fermionic Couplings at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The couplings between the Higgs and fermionic fields can be accessed directly through processes in which the Higgs boson decays into fermions, or is produced in association with a top-quark pair. Several analyses based on the full dataset collected by CMS at 7 and 8 TeV are presented. In particular, the final results of searches for a Higgs boson decaying into a b-quark or a tau-lepton pair are presented, together with a preliminary combination of these results.

  2. Remark on Kalnay theory of fermions constructed from bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbaczewski, P.

    1976-01-01

    Theories of Bose description for fermions developed by Kalnay and the present author (Garbaczewski) are compared. It is proved that the underlying constructions can be in principle summarized as follows: CAR and CCR implies new CAR (1) CCR implies CAR (2) where CCR and CAR are abbreviations for representations of the canonical commutation (and anticommutation, respectively) relations algebra. According to this result (1), though independent of (2), can appear as a secondary step only in the quantum theory of fermions constructed from bosons. (author)

  3. Para-bosons and Para-fermions in Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.S.D.; Fernandes, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Within the framework of the ordinary quantum mechanics, a detailed study of the energy eigenfunctions of N identical particles using the irreducible representations of the permutation group in the Hilbert space is performed. It is shown that the para-states, as occurs with the boson and fermion states, are compatible with the postulates of quantum mechanics and with the principle of indistinguishability. A mathematical support for the existence of para-bosons and para-fermions is given. Gentile's quantum statistics is, in a certain sense, justified. (Author) [pt

  4. Component separation in harmonically trapped boson-fermion mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Nicolai; Mølmer, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    We present a numerical study of mixed boson-fermion systems at zero temperature in isotropic and anise tropic harmonic traps. We investigate the phenomenon of component separation as a function of the strength ut the interparticle interaction. While solving a Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field equation ...... for the boson distribution in the trap, we utilize two different methods to extract the density profile of the fermion component; a semiclassical Thomas-Fermi approximation and a quantum-mechanical Slater determinant Schrodinger equation....

  5. On attempts to avoid fermion doubling by giving up hermiticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.; Lepage, G.P.; Rakow, P.E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Alessandrini and Krzywicki's (AK's) approximation to Weingarten and Velikson's (WV's) disordered coupling, non-hermitian fermion model is analysed and found to exhibit doubling. Thus the non-hermitian regular lattice model of Alonso and Cortes must also be discarded. We show that in the general hon-hermitian regular lattice case there are extra zero modes and that in two dimensions the net chirality is zero. A better approximation of WV's model allows for the possibility of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the doubled fermions in that model as in the random lattice case. (orig.)

  6. Definition and density operator for unpolarized fermion state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, H.

    1981-04-01

    The unpolarized state of fermions is defined as one which does not change in rotations in the spin space. It is shown that, for a fermion field with a specified value of momentum of particles, the density operator is of the form, rho = (1-2a-b)|0,0> 1 , n 2 > is the occupation number state having occupancies n 1 and n 2 in the two spin modes, and a and b are positive quantities which are less than one and give 1-2a-b>=0. (author)

  7. Two-dimensional fermionic correlations in topologically nontrivial backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, M.V.; Naon, C.M.; Trobo, M.L. (Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo No. 67, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-04-15

    By using a path-integral approach to the study of two-dimensional massless fermionic models in nontrivial sectors, we compute certain special correlation functions which are nonvanishing only when nontrivial topology is taken into account. In particular, we derive the first explicit expression for the so-called nonminimal Green's function. We introduce one specific topological charge distribution for which this correlation function takes a simple form. We also comment on the application of our results to the analysis of massive fermions in topological backgrounds.

  8. Remarks on Fermion-Boson equivalence in three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, A. de Souza [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Natividade, C.P. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1998-06-01

    Starting from a decomposition of the self-dual field in (2+1) dimensions, we build up an alternative quantum theory which consists of a self-dual model coupled to a Maxwell-generalized Chern-Simons theory. We discuss the fermion-boson equivalence of this quantum theory by comparing it to the Thirring model. Using these results we were able to compute the mass of the bosonized fermions up to third order in (1/m). Some problems related to the number of poles of the effective propagator are also addressed. (author) 13 refs.

  9. Partial Dynamical Symmetry in a Many-Fermion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escher, J.; Leviatan, A.

    1999-01-01

    Partial dynamical symmetry (PDS) describes a situation in which some eigenstates exhibit a symmetry which the associated Hamiltonian does not share. We present a family of fermionic Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry in the framework of the Symplectic Shell Model. We briefly review the symplectic theory and establish a relation between the PDS Hamiltonians and commonly employed symplectic Hamiltonians. Characteristics of the PDS eigenstates are discussed and the resulting spectra are compared to those of real nuclei. We point out similarities and differences between the fermion case and a recently established partial SU(3) symmetry in the Interacting Boson Model

  10. Dynamics of fermions and inhomogeneous Bose fields on a spacetime lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Aarts, G.A.P.T.; Smit, J.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of the $1+1$ abelian Higgs model with fermions is studied in the large $N_f$ approximation, on a real-time lattice. The Bose fields obey effective classical equations of motion which include the fermion back reaction. The dynamics of the quantized fermion field is treated with a mode

  11. Cellular uptake of magnetite nanoparticles enhanced by NdFeB magnets in staggered arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yi-Ching; Chang, Fan-Yu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology & Healthy Aging Research Center, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tu, Shu-Ju [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ma, Yunn-Hwa, E-mail: yhma@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology & Healthy Aging Research Center, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic force may greatly enhance uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by cultured cells; however, the effects of non-uniformity of magnetic field/ magnetic gradient on MNP internalization in culture has not been elucidated. Cellular uptake of polyacrylic acid coated-MNP by LN229 cells was measured with cylindrical NdFeB magnets arranged in a staggered pattern. The magnetic field generated by placing a magnet underneath (H-field) elicited a homogenous distribution of MNPs on the cells in culture; whereas the field without magnet underneath (L-field) resulted in MNP distribution along the edge of the wells. Cell-associated MNP (MNP{sub cell}) appeared to be magnetic field- and concentration-dependent. In H-field, MNP{sub cell} reached plateau within one hour of exposure to MNP with only one-min application of the magnetic force in the beginning of incubation; continuous presence of the magnet for 2 h did not further increase MNP{sub cell}, suggesting that magnetic force-induced uptake may be primarily contributed to enhanced MNP sedimentation. Although MNP distribution was much inhomogeneous in L-field, averaged MNP{sub cell} in the L-field may reach as high as 80% of that in H-field during 1–6 h incubation, suggesting high capacity of MNP internalization. In addition, no significant difference was observed in MNP{sub cell} analyzed by flow cytometry with the application of H-field of staggered plate vs. filled magnet plate. Therefore, biological variation may dominate MNP internalization even under relatively uniformed magnetic field; whereas non-uniformed magnetic field may serve as a model for tumor targeting with MNPs in vivo. - Graphical abstract: Averaged MNP uptake by glioma cells in the low and non-uniformed magnetic field reached as high as 80% of that in uniformed magnetic field, which is probably due to both heterogeneous distributions of MNPs in the non-uniformed magnetic field and high capacity of the MNP uptake by these cells. - Highlights:

  12. An effective method for smoothing the staggered dose distribution of multi-leaf collimator field edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I.-M.; Lin, S.-Y.; Lee, M.-S.; Wang, C.-J.; Chuang, K.-S.; Ding, H.-J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To smooth the staggered dose distribution that occurs in stepped leaves defined by a multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Materials and methods: The MLC Shaper program controlled the stepped leaves, which were shifted in a traveling range, the pattern of shift was from the position of out-bound to in-bound with a one-segment (cross-bound), three-segment, and five-segment shifts. Film was placed at a depth of 1.5 cm and irradiated with the same irradiation dose used for the cerrobend block experiment. Four field edges with the MLC defining at 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg. angels relative to the jaw edge were performed, respectively, in this study. For the field edge defined by the multi-segment technique, the amplitude of the isodose lines for 50% isodose line and both the 80% and 20% isodose lines were measured. The effective penumbra widths with 90-10% and 80-20% distances for different irradiations were determined at four field edges with the MLC defining at 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg. angels relative to the jaw edge. Results: Use of the five-segment technique for multi-leaf collimation at the 60 deg. angle field edge smoothes each isodose line into an effectively straight line, similar to the pattern achieved using a cerrobend block. The separation of these lines is also important. The 80-20% effective penumbra width with five-segment techniques (8.23 mm) at 60 deg. angle relative to the jaw edge is little wider (1.9 times) than the penumbra of cerrobend block field edge (4.23 mm). We also found that the 90-10% effective penumbra width with five-segment techniques (12.68 mm) at 60 deg. angle relative to the jaw edge is little wider (1.28 times) than the penumbra of cerrobend block field edge (9.89 mm). Conclusion: The multi-segment technique is effective in smoothing the MLC staggered field edge. The effective penumbra width with more segment techniques at larger degree angles relative to the field edge is little wider than the penumbra for a

  13. A Study of a Powder Coating Gun near Field: A Case of Staggered Concentric Jet Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Grandmaison

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, experimentally and numerically, an isothermal coaxial air jet, created by an innovative nozzle design for an air propane torch, used for the thermal deposition of polymers. This design includes staggering the origins of the central and annular jets and creating an annular air jet with an inward radial velocity component. The experimental work used a Pitot tube to measure axial velocity on the jet centerline and in the fully developed flow. The static gauge pressure in the near field was also measured and found to be positive, an unexpected result. The numerical work used Gambit and Fluent. An extensive grid sensitivity study was conducted and it was found that results from a relatively coarse mesh were substantially the same as results from a mesh with almost 11 times the number of control volumes. A thorough evaluation of all of the RANS models in Fluent 6.3.26 found that the flow fields they calculated showed at most partial agreement with the experimental results. The greatest difference between numerical and experimental results was the incorrect prediction by all RANS models of a recirculation zone in the near field on the jet axis. Experimental work showed it did not exist.

  14. The interference between two flat plates normal to a stream in staggered arrangement, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kimitaka; Kawashima, Akira; Ohsako, Hideyuki.

    1983-01-01

    The clarification of the mutual interference characteristics between the bodies with sharp corners, such as flat plates and rectangular prisms placed perpendicularly to flow, is a fundamental and important problem. But it has not yet been sufficiently clarified. In flat plates, the points of breaking away do not move, a large breaking away region is in the wake, and the thickness is very thin in the direction of main flow. Moreover, a moment arises around the center of flat plates. In this study, a new parameter expressing the influence of channel walls on a single flat plate in the measuring part of two-dimensional wind tunnel experiment was proposed. The change of steady drag coefficient and Strouhal number corresponding to the series and parallel arrangements of two plates was clarified, and the patterns of the mutual interference were classified by using the results of visualizing flow in a circulation tank together. By the experimental results in the widely changed staggered arrangements, the isodrag contour diagram and isomoment contour diagram were drawn, and the general characteristics of mutual interference related to steady drag and moment were clarified. The experimental setup and method and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Natural convection heat transfer for a staggered array of heated, horizontal cylinders within a rectangular enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, C.E.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in a staggered array of heated cylinders, oriented horizontally within a rectangular enclosure. The main purpose of this research was to extend the knowledge of heat transfer within enclosed bundles of spent nuclear fuel rods sealed within a shipping or storage container. This research extends Canaan`s investigation of an aligned array of heated cylinders that thermally simulated a boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assembly sealed within a shipping or storage cask. The results are presented in terms of piecewise Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations of the form Nu = C(Ra){sup n}, where C and n are constants. Correlations are presented both for individual rods within the array and for the array as a whole. The correlations are based only on the convective component of the heat transfer. The radiative component was calculated with a finite-element code that used measured surface temperatures, rod array geometry, and measured surface emissivities as inputs. The correlation results are compared to Canaan`s aligned array results and to other studies of natural convection in horizontal tube arrays.

  16. Natural convection heat transfer for a staggered array of heated, horizontal cylinders within a rectangular enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, C.E.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in a staggered array of heated cylinders, oriented horizontally within a rectangular enclosure. The main purpose of this research was to extend the knowledge of heat transfer within enclosed bundles of spent nuclear fuel rods sealed within a shipping or storage container. This research extends Canaan's investigation of an aligned array of heated cylinders that thermally simulated a boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assembly sealed within a shipping or storage cask. The results are presented in terms of piecewise Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations of the form Nu = C(Ra) n , where C and n are constants. Correlations are presented both for individual rods within the array and for the array as a whole. The correlations are based only on the convective component of the heat transfer. The radiative component was calculated with a finite-element code that used measured surface temperatures, rod array geometry, and measured surface emissivities as inputs. The correlation results are compared to Canaan's aligned array results and to other studies of natural convection in horizontal tube arrays

  17. Development of Non-staggered, SMAC numerical scheme for a two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, H. Y.; Jeong, Jae Jun

    2007-06-01

    The SMAC(Simplified Marker And Cell) method, along with the SIMPLE, has long been used efficiently for the computational fluid dynamics. Usually, the majority of the applications are single phase compressible or incompressible fluids, and the numerical methods are to be modified to implement the following items for the analysis of two-phase flows. - Non-staggered grid for the analysis of a complex geometry - Application of the two-phase models - Coupling of the energy conservation equations - Two-phase flows with phase change. In this report, the SMAC Method is reviewed and extended to compressible two-phase flows with phase change. A pilot code CUPID-M is developed using the proposed numerical method. A set of verification calculations are carried out for th CUPID-M. At first, isothermal air-water flow is simulated to verify the numerical method against two-phase flow flow problems. Next, the two-phase flows with phase change are calculated using CUPID-M and the results are compared to that of CUPID-I, which is based on the coupled ICE method. The calculation time is shorter with CUPID-M than with CUPID-I, while the calculations are unstable with CUPID-M for the rapid phase change problems. Thus, CUPID-M and CUPID-I can be used as an user input considering the application problems

  18. An analytical solution for contact resistance of staggered organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Alavijeh, Hamidreza; Katebi-Jahromi, Alireza

    2017-03-01

    We have developed analytical models for bias dependent contact resistance (RC) and output characteristics of staggered organic field-effect transistors (OFETS) based on a bulk resistance-approximated and mobility-modified current-crowding method. Numerical evaluations of RC and its resistive components show that the bias dependency of the bulk resistance is negligible. Consequently, the properties of the active layer interfaces determine RC and its characteristics. Effective parameters include a normally constant charge injection barrier at the organic-metal interface (Eb) and a gate induced surface carrier-concentration (PS0) at the organic-insulator boundary. The energy barrier pertains to the fabrication process, and its related resistance (rc) can be determined as the fitting parameter of the theoretical model. However, PS0 is strongly gate bias dependent and the results of the numerical model indicate that the resulting component (rch) is dominant and has a considerable effect on RC and its characteristics. More importantly, PS0 as the key parameter of the contact resistance is analytically expressible and by using a proposed mobility-modified current-crowding model, the contact resistance can be analytically formulated. Accordingly, the output characteristics of the OFETs in the triode region can be also analytically modeled using the developed relation of RC.

  19. Large odd-even staggering in the very light platinum isotopes from laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Le Blanc, F; Cabaret, L A; Crawford, J E; Duong, H T; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Krieg, M; Lee, J K P; Lettry, Jacques; Lunney, M D; Obert, J; Oms, J; Peru, S; Putaux, J C; Roussière, B; Sauvage, J; Sebastian, V; Zemlyanoi, S G

    1998-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on very neutron-deficient platinum isotopes with the COMPLIS experimental set-up on line with the ISOLDE-Booster facility. For the first time, Hg alpha -decay was exploited to extend the very light platinum chain. Using the 5d/sup 9/6s /sup 3/D/sub 3/ to 5d/sup 9/6p /sup 3/P /sub 2/ optical transition, hyperfine spectra of /sup 182,181,180,179,178/Pt and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were recorded for the first time. The variation of the mean square charge radius between these nuclei, the magnetic moments of the odd isotopes and the quadrupole moment of /sup 183/Pt/sup m/ were thus measured. A large deformation change between /sup 183/Pt/sup 9/ and /sup 183/Pt/sup m/, an odd-even staggering of the charge radius and a deformation drop from A=179 are clearly observed. All these results are discussed and compared with microscopic theoretical predictions using Hartree-Fock- Bogolyubov calculations using the Gogny force. (20 refs).

  20. The Effect of First-Step Techniques from the Staggered Stance in American Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate 3 different starting techniques from the staggered stance with regards to sprint time, reaction time, linear impulse and power. 11 male amateur American football players volunteered to participate in a testing session consisting of twelve 5 m sprints, 4...... in each technique (normal (NORM), backwards false step (BFS) and forwards false step (FFS)) in random order. Sprint starts were performed on force plates to investigate ground reaction forces, reaction time and total sprint time. Analysis showed significant differences in sprint times, with NORM (1.......77±0.10 s) being faster than FFS (1.81±0.12 s) and BFS (2.01±0.13 s), and FFS being faster than BFS, although no differences were found in reaction time. In terms of mean force and power, NORM (331.1±39.2N, 542.2±72.3W) and FFS (320.8±43.2N, 550.9±81.4W) were significantly larger than BFS (256.9±36.2N, 443...

  1. Performance Analysis and Modeling of a Tubular Staggered-Tooth Transverse-Flux PM Linear Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohong Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance analysis and mathematical modeling of a staggered-tooth transverse-flux permanent magnet linear synchronous machine (STTF-PMLSM, which is characterized by simple structure and low flux leakage. Firstly, the structure advantages and operation principle of the STTF-PMLSM are introduced, and a simplified one phase model is established to investigate the performance of the machine in order to save the computation time. Then, the electromagnetic characteristics, including no-load flux linkage, electromotive force (EMF, inductance, detent force and thrust force, are simulated and analyzed in detail. After that, the theoretical analysis of the detent force, thrust force, and power factor are carried out. And the theoretical analysis results are validated with 3-D finite-element method (FEM. Finally, an improved mathematical model of the machine based on d-q rotating coordinate system is proposed, in which inductance harmonics and coupling between d- and q-axis inductance is considered. The results from the proposed mathematical model are in accordance with the results from 3-D FEM, which proves the validity and effectiveness of the proposed mathematical model. This provides a powerful foundation for the control of the machine.

  2. Dave Eggers's a heartbreaking work of staggering genius: memoir as a "pain-relief device".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elise

    2011-10-01

    Dave Eggers's memoir is an important addition to the tradition of autobiography in America, and offers significant contributions to our understanding of creativity, sublimation, and the psychology of the memoir-writing process. A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius is really two books--an autobiographical narrative about unbearable suffering, and a book of psychoanalytic commentary on the challenges of writing a memoir about catastrophic loss and trauma. The main narrative suggests the psychological resilience it takes to contain unbearable suffering. The metanarrative renders transparent the mind of someone who is both remembering his losses and constantly reflecting upon the process of writing about them. Eggers's identification with authorship, rather than bereavement or traumatization, may have played an important role in containing his affect and his sense of self when the heartbreaking events were originally unfolding. But a price is paid when a son uses his art to construct a new identity as an author--unconscious conflicts, primitive affect, anxieties about failing, as well as guilt about succeeding--consequences often missed by readers. Heartbreaking is a palimpsest, a story about story-telling superimposed on tales of death and survival, but its messages will be missed unless all its parts are preserved when being read or studied.

  3. Exploration of the horizontally staggered light guides for high concentration CPV applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimoglu, Ozgur; Turan, Rasit

    2012-08-13

    The material and processing costs are still the major drawbacks of the c-Si based photovoltaic (PV) technology. The wafer cost comprises up to 35-40% of the total module cost. New approaches and system designs are needed in order to reduce the share of the wafer cost in photovoltaic energy systems. Here we explore the horizontally staggered light guide solar optics for use in Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) applications. This optical system comprises a lens array system coupled to a horizontal light guide which directs the incoming light beam to its edge. We have designed and simulated this system using a commercial ray tracing software (Zemax). The system is more compact, thinner and more robust compared to the conventional CPV systems. Concentration levels as high as 1000x can easily be reached when the system is properly designed. With such a high concentration level, a good acceptance angle of + -1 degree is still be conserved. The analysis of the system reveals that the total optical efficiency of the system could be as high as %94.4 without any anti-reflection (AR) coating. Optical losses can be reduced by just accommodating a single layer AR coating on the initial lens array leading to a %96.5 optical efficiency. Thermal behavior of high concentration linear concentrator is also discussed and compared with a conventional point focus CPV system.

  4. Animal physiology and genetic aspects of ryegrass staggers in grazing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C A; Wheeler, T T; Henderson, H V; Towers, N R; Phua, S H

    2017-07-01

    Ryegrass staggers (RGS) is a metabolic disease of herbivores, caused by the ingestion of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) containing a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii) which produces a tremorgenic toxin, lolitrem B. RGS has a major economic impact for agriculture in New Zealand as well as internationally. Management of RGS in grazing sheep can be problematic, and there is an incomplete knowledge of the interaction between the toxin and the grazing animal. This review is focused on recent advances in understanding the molecular physiology of RGS in the affected animal as well as the influence of animal genetics on the degree of susceptibility to RGS. Investigations to date suggest that the primary target for toxin is the large conductance, calcium-activated, potassium (BK) channel, resulting in disruption of neuromuscular junction signalling. Genetic investigation has established the existence of genes influencing resistance to RGS, however their identity has not been confirmed and their impact has not been established. Studies to date suggest that a multi-gene selection approach will be necessary in order to develop an effective selection tool for use in the agricultural industries.

  5. Nuclear shape staggering in very neutron deficient Hg isotopes detected by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabkiewicz, P.; Duke, C.; Fischer, H.; Kuehl, T.; Kluge, H.-J.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope shift in the lambda = 2537 A line of the even isotopes 206 Hg, 190 Hg, 188 Hg, 186 Hg, 184 Hg as well as of the I = 13/2 isomers of 191 Hg, 189 Hg, 187 Hg, 185 Hg has been measured by use of a tunable dye laser at the on-line masseparator ISOLDE at CERN. The resulting delta 2 > values follow the line, extrapolated from the chain 205 Hg- 187 Hg which is known to have spherical nuclear shape at the heavy end changing smoothly to slight oblate deformation for the lighter isotopes. Previous measurements of the I = 1/2 groundstates of 181 Hg. 183 Hg and 185 Hg revealed a sharp shape transition to strong deformation. Combined with the new results the following effects can be proved for the first time from the model-independent quantity delta 2 >: 1) the existence of odd even-shape staggering, 2) the coexistence of very different shapes in one and the same nucleus as manifested by the huge isomer shift in 185 Hg, 3) the absence of mixing of the different shapes. (author)

  6. Standard electromagnetically driven cosmology coupled with fermionic source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, M. M. C., E-mail: mmcmello@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do ABC - UFABC Santo André (Brazil); Klippert, R., E-mail: klippert@unifei.edu.br [Instituto de Matemática e Computação, Universidade Federal de Itajubá Av. BPS 1303 Pinheirinho, 37500-903, Itajubá (Brazil)

    2015-03-10

    Dirac fermions and electromagnetic fields are considered as the source of gravitation in the framework of standard Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. It is shown that all solutions for the scale-factor a(t) are non-singular, provided the cosmological constant Λ is set to be less than the positive inverse of a quantum scale.

  7. Borromean ground state of fermions in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Volosniev, A.; V. Fedorov, D.; S. Jensen, A.

    2014-01-01

    -polarized (spinless) identical fermions in two spatial dimensions. The ground state with zero orbital (planar) angular momentum exists in a borromean window between critical two- and three-body strengths. The doubly degenerate first excited states of angular momentum one appears only very close to the two...

  8. Higgs interchange and bound states of superheavy fermions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hypothetical superheavy fourth-generation fermions with a very small coupling with the rest of the Standard Model can give rise to long enough lived bound states. The production and the detection of these bound states would be experimentally feasible at the LHC. Extending, in the present study, the analysis of other ...

  9. Ultracold Superstrings in atomic Boson-Fermion mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, M.; Haque, M.; Vandoren, S.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a setup with ultracold atomic gases that can be used to make a nonrelativistic superstring in four spacetime dimensions. In particular, we consider for the creation of the superstring a fermionic atomic gas that is trapped in the core of a vortex in a Bose-Einstein condensate. We

  10. Topological px+ipy superfluid phase of fermionic polar molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsen, J.; Cooper, N.R.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the topological px+ipy superfluid phase in a 2D gas of single-component fermionic polar molecules dressed by a circularly polarized microwave field. This phase emerges because the molecules may interact with each other via a potential Vo(r) that has an attractive dipole-dipole 1/r^3 tail,

  11. Heavy-fermion superconductivity | Ekpekpo | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... whose f-shell electrons are strongly correlated. The theories presented in this paper were developed mainly to describe effects in heavy fermion superconductors. Nevertheless, the general aspects of these theories may also be applicable to the class of CUD or organic superconductors. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol.

  12. Mediation of entanglement and nonlocality of a single fermion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bertúlio de Lima

    2018-01-01

    Entanglement is one of the most distinctive features of quantum mechanics and is now considered a fundamental resource in quantum information processing, such as in the protocols of quantum teleportation and quantum key distribution. In general, to extract its power in a useful form, it is necessary to generate entanglement between two or more quantum systems separated by long distances, which is not an easy task due to its fragility under environmental disturbance. Here, we propose a method to create entanglement between two distant fermionic particles, which never interact directly by using a third fermion to mediate the correlation. The protocol initiates with three indistinguishable fermions in a separable state, which are allowed to interact in pairs according to the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. As a result, it is demonstrated that bipartite maximally entangled states can be generated with an efficiency of about 56%, which makes the method a potential candidate for practical quantum information applications. Furthermore, we use the same protocol to show how the mediator fermion exhibits nonlocal properties, giving a new insight on the long-standing discussion about nonlocality of a single particle.

  13. Susy quantum cosmology with matrix representation for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.

    1996-01-01

    Quantization of Bianchi IX supersymmetric cosmology with a matrix representation for the fermionic variables is performed. The supersymmetry and Lorentz constraints, and implicitly the Hamiltonian constraint, are explicitly solved. It is shown that the resulting wave function has only two independent components. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Interacting-string picture of the fermionic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelstam, S.

    1986-01-01

    This report gives a review of the interacting-string picture of the Bose string. In the present lecture, the author outlines a similar treatment of the Fermionic string. The quantization of the free Fermionic string is carried out to the degrees of freedom x, representing the displacement of the string. Also presented are Grassman degrees of freedom S distributed along the string. The report pictures the fermionic string as a string of dipoles. The general picture of the interaction of such strings by joining and splitting is the same as for the Bose string. The author does not at present have the simplest formula for fermion string scattering amplitudes. A less detailed treatment is given than for the Bose string. The report sets up the functional-integration formalism, derives the analog mode, and indicates in general, terms how the conformal transformation to the z-plane may be performed. The paper concludes by stating without proof the formula for the N-article tree amplitude in the manifestly supersymmetric formalism

  15. A fermion-boson composite model of quarks and leptons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Koide

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Quark and lepton masses and flavor-mixing angles are estimated on the basis of a fermion-boson composite model where the (u, d, (c, s and (t, b quarks are assigned to the diagonal elements π8, η8 and η1, respectively, in3 × 3* = 8 + 1 of the SU(3-generation symmetry.

  16. Higgs interchange and bound states of superheavy fermions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (D.C.), Colombia. E-mail: mdesanctis@unal.edu.co. MS received 11 September 2012; revised 31 March 2013; accepted 2 May 2013. Abstract. Hypothetical superheavy fourth-generation fermions with a very small coupling with the rest of the Standard ...

  17. The semi-classical limit of large fermionic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, Mathieu; Fournais, Søren; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2018-01-01

    the convergence to the Thomas-Fermi minimizers in the limit $N\\to\\infty$. The limit is expressed using many-particle coherent states and Wigner functions. The method of proof is based on a fermionic de Finetti-Hewitt-Savage theorem in phase space and on a careful analysis of the possible lack of compactness...

  18. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where ± sign respectively correspond to fermions and bosons. The number of particles produced at time after crossing tj [4] is given by nj+1 k. = |βj+1 k. |2. (27). We will use expression (25) to calculate the CWKB envelope while calculating the occupation number using expression (66), where χ is obtained through Runge–.

  19. On bare and induced masses of Susskind fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, P.; Weisz, P.

    1983-03-01

    It is shown that the mass matrix for Susskind fermions on the lattice cannot have more than two distinct eigenvalues if cubic symmetry is enforced. If the standard interaction is replaced by one proposed by Becher and Joos, degeneracy-lifting mass counterterms are induced. The #betta#-parameter is calculated. (orig.)

  20. Fermionization of strings, and their conformal invariant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.

    1987-01-01

    The fermionic description of bosonic string theory, which turns out to be a Thirring model, is given. The relation of continuous spin to compactification is discussed, and regular solutions with finitely many fields can be found if the spin is a rational number. The relation between W.Z.W. theory and SU (n) Thirring model is also treated. (Author) [pt

  1. Symmetry properties of fermionic bilinears in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstegen, D.

    1985-01-01

    The 256 fermionic bilinears anti psiγTpsi appearing in the Kogut-Susskind/Kaehler-Dirac theory are classified into representations of the hypercubic rotation reflection group; charge conjugation and U(1)sub(A) are also considered. Applications to the study of the normalization of lattice currents are suggested. (orig.)

  2. Toward the classification of the realistic free fermionic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-08-01

    The realistic free fermionic models have had remarkable success in providing plausible explanations for various properties of the Standard Model which include the natural appearance of three generations, the explanation of the heavy top quark mass and the qualitative structure of the fermion mass spectrum in general, the stability of the proton and more. These intriguing achievements makes evident the need to understand the general space of these models. While the number of possibilities is large, general patterns can be extracted. In this paper the author presents a detailed discussion on the construction of the realistic free fermionic models with the aim of providing some insight into the basic structures and building blocks that enter the construction. The role of free phases in the determination of the phenomenology of the models is discussed in detail. The author discusses the connection between the free phases and mirror symmetry in (2,2) models and the corresponding symmetries in the case of (2,0) models. The importance of the free phases in determining the effective low energy phenomenology is illustrated in several examples. The classification of the models in terms of boundary condition selection rules, real world-sheet fermion pairings, exotic matter states and the hidden sector is discussed

  3. Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubský, Vít; Krejčiřík, David

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 349, OCT (2014), s. 268-287 ISSN 0003-4916 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : graphene * Dirac fermion * confinement * Varitional principle Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.103, year: 2014

  4. Neutral fermion possessing by electric and magnetic moments in external electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalilov, V.R.

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that in 2+1 dimensions the Dirac equations for a neutral fermion, specified by electric and magnetic dipole moments, is reduced in the electromagnetic field to the Dirac equation for the charged fermion in the external field, characterized by some pseudovector potential. The neutral fermion charge is determined by its dipole moments. The exact solution is found for the Dirac equation for the massive neutral fermion with magnetic and electric dipole moments in the external electromagnetic plane-wave field. The problem on the neutral fermion vacuum polarization in presence of external electromagnetic fields is considered [ru

  5. The Fermion boson interaction within the linear sigma model at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, H.C.G. [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais (DCNAT)

    2000-07-01

    We study the interaction of massless bosons at finite temperature. Specifically, we calculate the self-energy of massless fermions due to interaction with massless bosons at high temperature, which is the region where thermal effects are maximal. The calculations are concentrated in the limit of vanishing fermion three momentum and after considering the effective boson dressed mass, we obtain the damping rate of the fermion. It is shown that in the limit k{sub O} <fermion acquire a thermal mass of order gT and the leading term of the fermion damping rate is of order g{sup 2} T + g{sup 3} T. (author)

  6. Simulating dam-break over an erodible embankment using SWE-Exner model and semi-implicit staggered scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambara, M. D.; Gunawan, P. H.

    2018-03-01

    The impact of a dam-break wave on an erodible embankment with a steep slope has been studied recently using both experimental and numerical approaches. In this paper, the semi-implicit staggered scheme for approximating the shallow water-Exner model will be elaborated to describe the erodible sediment on a steep slope. This scheme is known as a robust scheme to approximate shallow water-Exner model. The results are shown in a good agreement with the experimental data. The comparisons of numerical results with data experiment using slopes Φ = 59.04 and Φ = 41.42 by coefficient of Grass formula Ag = 2 × 10‑5 and Ag = 10‑5 respectively are found the closest results to the experiment. This paper can be seen as the additional validation of semi-implicit staggered scheme in the paper of Gunawan, et al (2015).

  7. Tight-binding electrons on triangular and kagome lattices under staggered modulated magnetic fields: quantum Hall effects and Hofstadter butterflies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Juan; Wang Yifei; Gong Changde, E-mail: yfwang_nju@hotmail.com [Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, and Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2011-04-20

    We consider the tight-binding models of electrons on a two-dimensional triangular lattice and kagome lattice under staggered modulated magnetic fields. Such fields have two components: a uniform-flux part with strength {phi}, and a staggered-flux part with strength {Delta}{phi}. Various properties of the Hall conductances and Hofstadter butterflies are studied. When {phi} is fixed, variation of {Delta}{phi} leads to the quantum Hall transitions and Chern numbers of Landau subbands being redistributed between neighboring pairs. The energy spectra with nonzero {Delta}{phi}s have similar fractal structures but quite different energy gaps compared with the original Hofstadter butterflies of {Delta}{phi} = 0. Moreover, the fan-like structure of Landau levels in the low magnetic field region is also modified appreciably by {Delta}{phi}.

  8. Postprandial effects of consuming a staggered meal on gut peptide and glycemic responses in obese women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lisa; Haddad, Ella H; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Eating slowly by staggering a meal may reduce energy intake. Our aim was to examine the effect of eating a portion of beans 15min before the rest of the meal, on gastrointestinal (GI) peptides, glucose and insulin concentrations and subsequent energy intake in obese adults. This was a randomised crossover design study with 28 obese subjects. Participants consumed a standardised breakfast on test days followed by test meals: (1) control meal containing 86g (0.5 cup) of beans, and (2) staggered meal in which 86g (0.5 cup) of beans were consumed 15min before the rest of the meal. Blood obtained prior to and at 30, 60, and 120min following the meals was analysed for acylated ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, glucose and insulin. Feelings of hunger and satiety were assessed using analog visual scales. Energy intake following the test meal was obtained by computer assisted dietary recalls. Mixed model statistical analysis of data showed time effects for unacylated ghrelin, GLP-1, glucose, insulin, hunger and fullness, however, meal effects were not shown for any of the parameters. GLP-1 area under the curve from baseline to 120min (AUC0-120) decreased by 19% (P=0.024) and that of glucose increased by 7% (P=0.046) following the staggered compared to the control bean meal. Energy intake subsequent to the test meals did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, lengthening meal times by staggering eating did not benefit hormonal, metabolic or appetite control in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. JIGSAW-GEO (1.0): locally orthogonal staggered unstructured grid generation for general circulation modelling on the sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engwirda, Darren

    2017-06-01

    An algorithm for the generation of non-uniform, locally orthogonal staggered unstructured spheroidal grids is described. This technique is designed to generate very high-quality staggered Voronoi-Delaunay meshes appropriate for general circulation modelling on the sphere, including applications to atmospheric simulation, ocean-modelling and numerical weather prediction. Using a recently developed Frontal-Delaunay refinement technique, a method for the construction of high-quality unstructured spheroidal Delaunay triangulations is introduced. A locally orthogonal polygonal grid, derived from the associated Voronoi diagram, is computed as the staggered dual. It is shown that use of the Frontal-Delaunay refinement technique allows for the generation of very high-quality unstructured triangulations, satisfying a priori bounds on element size and shape. Grid quality is further improved through the application of hill-climbing-type optimisation techniques. Overall, the algorithm is shown to produce grids with very high element quality and smooth grading characteristics, while imposing relatively low computational expense. A selection of uniform and non-uniform spheroidal grids appropriate for high-resolution, multi-scale general circulation modelling are presented. These grids are shown to satisfy the geometric constraints associated with contemporary unstructured C-grid-type finite-volume models, including the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS-O). The use of user-defined mesh-spacing functions to generate smoothly graded, non-uniform grids for multi-resolution-type studies is discussed in detail.

  10. Development of multi dimensional analysis code for containment safety and performance based on staggered semi-implicit finite volume method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Han, Tae Young; Lee, Byung Chul; Byun, Choong Sup

    2009-01-01

    A solver of 3-dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis code for a large building having multi rooms such as reactor containment was developed based on 2-phase and 3-field conservation equations. Three fields mean gas, continuous liquid, and dispersed drop. Gas field includes steam, air and hydrogen. Gas motion equation and state equation also considered. Homogeneous and equilibrium conditions were assumed for gas motion equation. Source terms related with phase change were explicitly expressed for the implicit scheme. Resultantly, total 17 independent equations were setup, and total 17 primitive unknowns were identified. Numerical scheme followed the FVM (Finite Volume Method) based on staggered orthogonal structured grid and semi-implicit method. Staggered grid system produces staggered numerical cells of a scalar cell and a vector cell. The porosity method was adopted for easy handling the complex structures inside a computational cell. Such porosity method has been known to be very effective in reducing mesh numbers and acquiring accurate results in spite of fewer meshes. In the actual programming C++ language of OOP (Object Oriented Programming) was used. The code developed by OOP has the features such as the information hiding, encapsulation, modularity and inheritance. These can offer code developers the more explicit and clearer development method. Classes were designed. Cell and Face, and Volume and Component are the bases of the largest Class, System. Class Solver was designed in order to run the solver. Sample runs showed physically reasonable results. The foundation of code was setup through a series of numerical development. (author)

  11. Entropy Stable Staggered Grid Discontinuous Spectral Collocation Methods of any Order for the Compressible Navier--Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo

    2016-10-04

    Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for the compressible Euler and Navier--Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [M. H. Carpenter, T. C. Fisher, E. J. Nielsen, and S. H. Frankel, SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 36 (2014), pp. B835--B867, M. Parsani, M. H. Carpenter, and E. J. Nielsen, J. Comput. Phys., 292 (2015), pp. 88--113], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre--Gauss--Lobatto (LGL), to a combination of tensor product Legendre--Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semidiscrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy, and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for the compressible Navier--Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly from a theoretical point of view. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinear stability proof for the compressible Navier--Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).

  12. Nucleon form factors from high statistics mixed-action calculations with 2+1 flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroers, Wolfram; Edwards, Robert G; Engelhardt, Michael; Fleming, George Taminga; Hagler, Philipp; Lin, Huey-Wen; Lin, Mei-Feng; Meyer, Harvey B; Musch, Bernhard; Negele, John W; Orginos, Kostas; Pochinsky, Andrew V; Procura, Massimiliano; Renner, Dru B; Richards, David G; Syritsyn, Sergey N

    2009-12-01

    We present new high-statistics results for nucleon form factors at pion masses of approximately 290, 350, 500, and 600 MeV using a mixed action of domain wall valence quarks on an improved staggered sea. We perform chiral fits to both vector and axial form factors and compare our results to experiment.

  13. Simulating QCD at the physical point with Nf=2 Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rehim, A.; Alexandrou, C.; Cyprus Univ. Nicosia; Burger, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present simulations of QCD using N f =2 dynamical Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with physical value of the pion mass and at one value of the lattice spacing. Such simulations at a∼0.09 fm became possible by adding the clover term to the action. While O(a) improvement is still guaranteed by Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist, the introduction of the clover term reduces O(a 2 ) cutoff effects related to isospin symmetry breaking. We give results for a set of phenomenologically interesting observables like pseudo-scalar masses and decay constants, quark masses and the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons. We mostly find remarkably good agreement with phenomenology, even though we cannot take the continuum and thermodynamic limits.

  14. Baryon spectrum with Nƒ=2+1+1 twisted mass fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrou, C.; Drach, V.; Jansen, K.

    2014-01-01

    The masses of the low-lying baryons are evaluated using a total of ten ensembles of dynamical twisted mass fermion gauge configurations. The simulations are performed using two degenerate flavors of light quarks, and a strange and a charm quark fixed to approximately their physical values....... The light sea quarks correspond to pseudo scalar masses in the range of about 210 to 430 MeV. We use the Iwasaki improved gluonic action at three values of the coupling constant corresponding to lattice spacing a = 0.094, 0.082 and 0.065 fm determined from the nucleon mass. We check for both finite volume...... and cutoff effects on the baryon masses. We examine the issue of isospin symmetry breaking for the octet and decuplet baryons and its dependence on the lattice spacing. We show that in the continuum limit isospin breaking is consistent with zero, as expected. We performed a chiral extrapolation of the forty...

  15. Research of heat transfer of staggered horizontal bundles of finned tubes at free air convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilova, A. V.; Maryna, Z. G.; Samorodov, A. V.; Lvov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The study of free-convective processes is important because of the cooling problem in many machines and systems, where other ways of cooling are impossible or impractical. Natural convective processes are common in the steam turbine air condensers of electric power plants located within the city limits, in dry cooling towers of circulating water systems, in condensers cooled by air and water, in radiators cooling oil of power electric transformers, in emergency cooling systems of nuclear reactors, in solar power, as well as in air-cooling of power semiconductor energy converters. All this makes actual the synthesis of the results of theoretical and experimental research of free convection for heat exchangers with finned tube bundles. The results of the study of free-convection heat transfer for two-, three- and four-row staggered horizontal bundles of industrial bimetallic finned tubes with finning factor of 16.8 and equilateral tubes arrangement are presented. Cross and diagonal steps in the bundles are the same: 58; 61; 64; 70; 76; 86; 100 mm, which corresponds to the relative steps: 1.042; 1.096; 1.152; 1.258; 1.366; 1.545; 1.797. These steps are standardized for air coolers. An equation for calculating the free-convection heat transfer, taking into account the influence of geometrical parameters in the range of Rayleigh number from 30,000 to 350,000 with an average deviation of ± 4.8%, has been obtained. The relationship presented in the article allows designing a wide range of air coolers for various applications, working in the free convection modes.

  16. Functional renormalization group study of fluctuation effects in fermionic superfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Andreas

    2013-03-22

    This thesis is concerned with ground state properties of two-dimensional fermionic superfluids. In such systems, fluctuation effects are particularly strong and lead for example to a renormalization of the order parameter and to infrared singularities. In the first part of this thesis, the fermionic two-particle vertex is analysed and the fermionic renormalization group is used to derive flow equations for a decomposition of the vertex in charge, magnetic and pairing channels. In the second part, the channel-decomposition scheme is applied to various model systems. In the superfluid state, the fermionic two-particle vertex develops rich and singular dependences on momentum and frequency. After simplifying its structure by exploiting symmetries, a parametrization of the vertex in terms of boson-exchange interactions in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels is formulated, which provides an efficient description of the singular momentum and frequency dependences. Based on this decomposition of the vertex, flow equations for the effective interactions are derived on one- and two-loop level, extending existing channel-decomposition schemes to (i) the description of symmetry breaking in the Cooper channel and (ii) the inclusion of those two-loop renormalization contributions to the vertex that are neglected in the Katanin scheme. In the second part, the superfluid ground state of various model systems is studied using the channel-decomposition scheme for the vertex and the flow equations. A reduced model with interactions in the pairing and forward scattering channels is solved exactly, yielding insights into the singularity structure of the vertex. For the attractive Hubbard model at weak coupling, the momentum and frequency dependence of the two-particle vertex and the frequency dependence of the self-energy are determined on one- and two-loop level. Results for the suppression of the superfluid gap by fluctuations are in good agreement with the literature

  17. Scaled lattice fermion fields, stability bounds, and regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Michael; Faria da Veiga, Paulo A.

    2018-02-01

    We consider locally gauge-invariant lattice quantum field theory models with locally scaled Wilson-Fermi fields in d = 1, 2, 3, 4 spacetime dimensions. The use of scaled fermions preserves Osterwalder-Seiler positivity and the spectral content of the models (the decay rates of correlations are unchanged in the infinite lattice). In addition, it also results in less singular, more regular behavior in the continuum limit. Precisely, we treat general fermionic gauge and purely fermionic lattice models in an imaginary-time functional integral formulation. Starting with a hypercubic finite lattice Λ ⊂(aZ ) d, a ∈ (0, 1], and considering the partition function of non-Abelian and Abelian gauge models (the free fermion case is included) neglecting the pure gauge interactions, we obtain stability bounds uniformly in the lattice spacing a ∈ (0, 1]. These bounds imply, at least in the subsequential sense, the existence of the thermodynamic (Λ ↗ (aZ ) d) and the continuum (a ↘ 0) limits. Specializing to the U(1) gauge group, the known non-intersecting loop expansion for the d = 2 partition function is extended to d = 3 and the thermodynamic limit of the free energy is shown to exist with a bound independent of a ∈ (0, 1]. In the case of scaled free Fermi fields (corresponding to a trivial gauge group with only the identity element), spectral representations are obtained for the partition function, free energy, and correlations. The thermodynamic and continuum limits of the free fermion free energy are shown to exist. The thermodynamic limit of n-point correlations also exist with bounds independent of the point locations and a ∈ (0, 1], and with no n! dependence. Also, a time-zero Hilbert-Fock space is constructed, as well as time-zero, spatially pointwise scaled fermion creation operators which are shown to be norm bounded uniformly in a ∈ (0, 1]. The use of our scaled fields since the beginning allows us to extract and isolate the singularities of the free

  18. Fermion Wavefunctions in Magnetized branes Theta identities and Yukawa couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Panda, Binata

    2009-01-01

    Computation of Yukawa couplings, determining superpotentials as well as the Kähler metric, with oblique (non-commuting) fluxes in magnetized brane constructions is an interesting unresolved issue, in view of the importance of such fluxes for obtaining phenomenologically viable models. In order to perform this task, fermion (scalar) wavefunctions on toroidally compactified spaces are presented for general fluxes, parameterized by Hermitian matrices with eigenvalues of arbitrary signatures. We also give explicit mappings among fermion wavefunctions, of different internal chiralities on the tori, which interchange the role of the flux components with the complex structure of the torus. By evaluating the overlap integral of the wavefunctions, we give the expressions for Yukawa couplings among chiral multiplets arising from an arbitrary set of branes (or their orientifold images). The method is based on constructing certain mathematical identities for general Riemann theta functions with matrix valued modular par...

  19. Ground-state properties of a supersymmetric fermion chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendley, Paul; Hagendorf, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the ground state of a strongly interacting fermion chain with a supersymmetry. We conjecture a number of exact results, such as a hidden duality between weak and strong couplings. By exploiting a scale-free property of the perturbative expansions, we find exact expressions for the order parameters, yielding the critical exponents. We show that the ground state of this fermion chain and another model in the same universality class, the XYZ chain along a line of couplings, are both written in terms of the same polynomials. We demonstrate this explicitly for up to N = 24 sites and provide consistency checks for large N. These polynomials satisfy a recursion relation related to the Painlevé VI differential equation and, using a scale-free property of these polynomials, we derive a simple and exact formula for their N→∞ limit

  20. Real and imaginary elements of fermion mass matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, I. [Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Via Panisperna 89/A, Rome (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: isabella.masina@roma1.infn.it; Savoy, C.A. [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-10-30

    Prompted by the recent better determination of the angles of the unitarity triangle, we re-appraise the problem of finding simple fermion mass textures, possibly linked to some symmetry principle and compatible with grand unification. In particular, the indication that the angle {alpha} is close to rectangle turns out to be the crucial ingredient leading us to single out fermion mass textures whose elements are either real or purely imaginary. In terms of the five parameters ascribed to the quark sector, these textures reproduce the eight experimental data on quark mass ratios and mixings within 1{sigma}. When embedded in an SU(5) framework, these textures suggest a common origin for quark and lepton CP violations, also linked to the spontaneous breaking of the gauge group.

  1. Majorana fermion modulated nonequilibrium transport through double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Ming-Xun; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Ai, Bao-Quan; Yang, Mou; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhong, Qing-Hu; Wang, Guang-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nonequilibrium electronic transports through a double-QD-Majorana coupling system are studied with a purpose to extract the information to identify Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that MBSs can help form various transport processes, including the nonlocal crossed Andreev reflection, local resonant Andreev reflection, and cotunneling, depending on the relative position of two dot levels. These processes enrich the signature of average currents and noise correlations to probe the nature of MBSs. We further demonstrate the switching between the current peaks of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling, which is closely related to the nonlocal nature of Majorana fermions. We also propose effective physical pictures to understand these Majorana-assisted transports. - Highlights: • Majorana fermions are characterized in the signature of currents and noises. • Three types of tunneling mechanisms are realized separately. • The switching of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling is realized. • Concrete physical pictures are proposed to understand Majorana-assisted transports

  2. 6. QUANTUM COMPUTING: Unpaired Majorana fermions in quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaev, A. Yu

    2001-10-01

    Certain one-dimensional Fermi systems have an energy gap in the bulk spectrum while boundary states are described by one Majorana operator per boundary point. A finite system of length L possesses two ground states with an energy difference proportional to exp(-L/l0) and different fermionic parities. Such systems can be used as qubits since they are intrinsically immune to decoherence. The property of a system to have boundary Majorana fermions is expressed as a condition on the bulk electron spectrum. The condition is satisfied in the presence of an arbitrary small energy gap induced by proximity of a three-dimensional p-wave superconductor, provided that the normal spectrum has an odd number of Fermi points in each half of the Brillouin zone (each spin component counts separately).

  3. Spin-excitons in heavy-fermion semimetals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riseborough, Peter S., E-mail: prisebor@temple.edu [Temple University, Philadelphia (United States); Magalhaes, S.G. [Univ. Federal, Fluminense, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Spin-excitons are sharp and dispersive magnetic fluctuations in paramagnetic semiconductors where the dispersion relation lies within the semiconducting gap. Spin-excitons are found in the vicinity of magnetic quantum critical points in semiconductors, much the same as antiparamagnons are precursor fluctuations for quantum critical points in metals. Here we show that this concept of spin-exciton excitations can be extended to heavy-fermion semimetals and provides a natural explanation of the magnetic modes found by inelastic neutron scattering experiments on paramagnetic CeFe{sub 2}Al{sub 10}. - Highlights: • We discuss the theory of spin excitons in heavy-fermion semiconductors as precritical fluctuations. • We show that relatively sharp magnetic in-gap excitations can also occur in semiconductors. • The magnetic excitations are only sharp for a restricted range of center of mass momenta. • They may merge with the quasi-elastic peak associated with incommensurate nesting of electron and hole pockets.

  4. Coulomb interaction effect in tilted Weyl fermion in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Hiroki; Nagaosa, Naoto

    Weyl fermions with tilted linear dispersions characterized by several different velocities appear in some systems including the quasi-two-dimensional organic semiconductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 and three-dimensional WTe2. The Coulomb interaction between electrons modifies the velocities in an essential way in the low energy limit, where the logarithmic corrections dominate. Taking into account the coupling to both the transverse and longitudinal electromagnetic fields, we derive the renormalization group equations for the velocities of the tilted Weyl fermions in two dimensions, and found that they increase as the energy decreases and eventually hit the velocity of light c to result in the Cherenkov radiation. Especially, the system restores the isotropic Weyl cone even when the bare Weyl cone is strongly tilted and the velocity of electrons becomes negative in certain directions.

  5. Quantum Phases of Atom-Molecule Mixtures of Fermionic Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nicolas; Tsai, Shan-Wen

    2009-11-01

    Cold atom experiments have observed atom-molecule mixtures by tuning the interactions between particles.footnotetextM.L. Olsen, J. D. Perreault, T. D. Cumby, and D. S. Jin, Phys. Rev. A 80, 030701(R) (2009) We study many particle interactions by examaning a simple model that describes the destruction of fermionic atom pairs to form single bosonic molecules and vice versa. A set of functional Renomalization Group equationsfootnotetextR. Shankar, Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol 66 No. 1, January 1994^,footnotetextS.W. Tsai, A.H. Castro Neto, R. Shankar, D.K. Campbell, Phys. Rev. B 72, 054531 (2005) describing these processes are set up and solved numerically. The Self Energy of the fermions are attained as a function of frequency and we search for frequency dependent instabilities that could denote a transition from a disordered liquid to a BCS phase. (Financial support from NSF DMR-084781 and UC-Lab Fees Research Program.)

  6. WTO — a deterministic approach to 4-fermion physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarino, Giampiero

    1996-09-01

    The program WTO, which is designed for computing cross sections and other relevant observables in the e+e- annihilation into four fermions, is described. The various quantities are computed over both a completely inclusive experimental set-up and a realistic one, i.e. with cuts on the final state energies, final state angles, scattering angles and final state invariant masses. Initial state QED corrections are included by means of the structure function approach while final state QCD corrections are applicable in their naive formulation. A gauge restoring mechanism is included according to the Fermion-Loop scheme. The program structure is highly modular and particular care has been devoted to computing efficiency and speed.

  7. Thermal corrections to Rényi entropies for free fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Spillane, Michael [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    We calculate thermal corrections to Rényi entropies for free massless fermions on a sphere. More specifically, we take a free fermion on ℝ×S{sup d−1} and calculate the leading thermal correction to the Rényi entropies for a cap like region with opening angle 2θ. By expanding the density matrix in a Boltzmann sum, the problem of finding the Rényi entropies can be mapped to the problem of calculating a two point function on an n sheeted cover of the sphere. We follow previous work for conformal field theories to map the problem on the sphere to a conical region in Euclidean space. By using the method of images, we calculate the two point function and recover the Rényi entropies.

  8. Meson masses in electromagnetic fields with Wilson fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, G. S.; Brandt, B. B.; Endrődi, G.; Gläßle, B.

    2018-02-01

    We determine the light meson spectrum in QCD in the presence of background magnetic fields using quenched Wilson fermions. Our continuum extrapolated results indicate a monotonous reduction of the connected neutral pion mass as the magnetic field grows. The vector meson mass is found to remain nonzero, a finding relevant for the conjectured ρ -meson condensation at strong magnetic fields. The continuum extrapolation was facilitated by adding a novel magnetic field-dependent improvement term to the additive quark mass renormalization. Without this term, sizable lattice artifacts that would deceptively indicate an unphysical rise of the connected neutral pion mass for strong magnetic fields are present. We also investigate the impact of these lattice artifacts on further observables like magnetic polarizabilities and discuss the magnetic field-induced mixing between ρ -mesons and pions. We also derive Ward-Takashi identities for QCD +QED both in the continuum formulation and for (order a -improved) Wilson fermions.

  9. Twisted vertex algebras, bicharacter construction and boson-fermion correspondences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguelova, Iana I.

    2013-01-01

    The boson-fermion correspondences are an important phenomena on the intersection of several areas in mathematical physics: representation theory, vertex algebras and conformal field theory, integrable systems, number theory, cohomology. Two such correspondences are well known: the types A and B (and their super extensions). As a main result of this paper we present a new boson-fermion correspondence of type D-A. Further, we define a new concept of twisted vertex algebra of order N, which generalizes super vertex algebra. We develop the bicharacter construction which we use for constructing classes of examples of twisted vertex algebras, as well as for deriving formulas for the operator product expansions, analytic continuations, and normal ordered products. By using the underlying Hopf algebra structure we prove general bicharacter formulas for the vacuum expectation values for two important groups of examples. We show that the correspondences of types B, C, and D-A are isomorphisms of twisted vertex algebras

  10. Grassmann phase space methods for fermions. I. Mode theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, B. J.; Jeffers, J.; Barnett, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    In both quantum optics and cold atom physics, the behaviour of bosonic photons and atoms is often treated using phase space methods, where mode annihilation and creation operators are represented by c-number phase space variables, with the density operator equivalent to a distribution function of these variables. The anti-commutation rules for fermion annihilation, creation operators suggest the possibility of using anti-commuting Grassmann variables to represent these operators. However, in spite of the seminal work by Cahill and Glauber and a few applications, the use of Grassmann phase space methods in quantum-atom optics to treat fermionic systems is rather rare, though fermion coherent states using Grassmann variables are widely used in particle physics. The theory of Grassmann phase space methods for fermions based on separate modes is developed, showing how the distribution function is defined and used to determine quantum correlation functions, Fock state populations and coherences via Grassmann phase space integrals, how the Fokker-Planck equations are obtained and then converted into equivalent Ito equations for stochastic Grassmann variables. The fermion distribution function is an even Grassmann function, and is unique. The number of c-number Wiener increments involved is 2n2, if there are n modes. The situation is somewhat different to the bosonic c-number case where only 2 n Wiener increments are involved, the sign of the drift term in the Ito equation is reversed and the diffusion matrix in the Fokker-Planck equation is anti-symmetric rather than symmetric. The un-normalised B distribution is of particular importance for determining Fock state populations and coherences, and as pointed out by Plimak, Collett and Olsen, the drift vector in its Fokker-Planck equation only depends linearly on the Grassmann variables. Using this key feature we show how the Ito stochastic equations can be solved numerically for finite times in terms of c-number stochastic

  11. From bosonic topological transition to symmetric fermion mass generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; He, Yin-Chen; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Xu, Cenke

    2018-03-01

    A bosonic topological transition (BTT) is a quantum critical point between the bosonic symmetry-protected topological phase and the trivial phase. In this work, we investigate such a transition in a (2+1)-dimensional lattice model with the maximal microscopic symmetry: an internal SO (4 ) symmetry. We derive a description for this transition in terms of compact quantum electrodynamics (QED) with four fermion flavors (Nf=4 ). Within a systematic renormalization group analysis, we identify the critical point with the desired O (4 ) emergent symmetry and all expected deformations. By lowering the microscopic symmetry, we recover the previous Nf=2 noncompact QED description of the BTT. Finally, by merging two BTTs we recover a previously discussed theory of symmetric mass generation, as an SU (2 ) quantum chromodynamics-Higgs theory with Nf=4 flavors of SU (2 ) fundamental fermions and one SU (2 ) fundamental Higgs boson. This provides a consistency check on both theories.

  12. New heavy-fermion antiferromagnet UPd2Cd20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Yusuke; Doto, Hiroshi; Honda, Fuminori; Li, Dexin; Aoki, Dai; Haga, Yoshinori; Settai, Rikio

    2016-10-01

    We succeeded in growing a new high quality single crystal of a ternary uranium compound UPd2Cd20. From the electrical resistivity, magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, and specific heat experiments, UPd2Cd20 is found to be an antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion compound with the Néel temperature {{T}\\text{N}}   =  5 K and exhibits the large electronic specific heat coefficient γ exceeding 500 mJ (K2· mol)-1. This compound is the first one that exhibits the magnetic ordering with the magnetic moments of the U atom in a series of UT2X20 (T: transition metal, X  =  Al, Zn, Cd). UPd2Cd20 shows typical characteristic features in heavy-fermion systems such as a broad maximum in the magnetic susceptibility at {{T}{{χ\\text{max}}}} and a large coefficient A of T 2 term in the resistivity.

  13. Entanglement dynamics in itinerant fermionic and bosonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillarishetty, Durganandini

    2017-04-01

    The concept of quantum entanglement of identical particles is fundamental in a wide variety of quantum information contexts involving composite quantum systems. However, the role played by particle indistinguishabilty in entanglement determination is being still debated. In this work, we study, theoretically, the entanglement dynamics in some itinerant bosonic and fermionic systems. We show that the dynamical behaviour of particle entanglement and spatial or mode entanglement are in general different. We also discuss the effect of fermionic and bosonic statistics on the dynamical behaviour. We suggest that the different dynamical behaviour can be used to distinguish between particle and mode entanglement in identical particle systems and discuss possible experimental realizations for such studies. I acknowledge financial support from DST, India through research Grant.

  14. Fermionic currents in AdS spacetime with compact dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, S.; Saharian, A. A.; Vardanyan, V.

    2017-09-01

    We derive a closed expression for the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of the fermionic current density in a (D +1 )-dimensional locally AdS spacetime with an arbitrary number of toroidally compactified Poincaré spatial dimensions and in the presence of a constant gauge field. The latter can be formally interpreted in terms of a magnetic flux treading the compact dimensions. In the compact subspace, the field operator obeys quasiperiodicity conditions with arbitrary phases. The VEV of the charge density is zero and the current density has nonzero components along the compact dimensions only. They are periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum and tend to zero on the AdS boundary. Near the horizon, the effect of the background gravitational field is small and the leading term in the corresponding asymptotic expansion coincides with the VEV for a massless field in the locally Minkowski bulk. Unlike the Minkowskian case, in the system consisting of an equal number of fermionic and scalar degrees of freedom, with same masses, charges and phases in the periodicity conditions, the total current density does not vanish. In these systems, the leading divergences in the scalar and fermionic contributions on the horizon are canceled and, as a consequence of that, the charge flux, integrated over the coordinate perpendicular to the AdS boundary, becomes finite. We show that in odd spacetime dimensions the fermionic fields realizing two inequivalent representations of the Clifford algebra and having equal phases in the periodicity conditions give the same contribution to the VEV of the current density. Combining the contributions from these fields, the current density in odd-dimensional C -,P - and T -symmetric models are obtained. As an application, we consider the ground state current density in curved carbon nanotubes described in terms of a (2 +1 )-dimensional effective Dirac model.

  15. Flavor unifying schemes with a single fermionic representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Wali, K.C.

    1980-05-01

    If quarks and leptons are indeed elementary, it is natural that they belong to a single representation of a unifying group, G. It is shown that such a requirement, which is inconsistent with G = SU(N), can be satisfied within the semi-simple group G = SU(N) x SU(N). Furthermore, N = 7 emerges as the unique solution accompanied by a fermionic set that exhibits a natural generation structure

  16. Ultracold fermion cooling cycle using heteronuclear Feshbach resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, M. A.; Nygaard, Nicolai; Williams, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    We consider an ideal gas of Bose and Fermi atoms in a harmonic trap, with a Feshbach resonance in the interspecies atomic scattering that can lead to the formation of fermionic molecules. We map out the phase diagram for this three-component mixture in chemical and thermal equilibrium. Considering...... adiabatic association and dissociation of the molecules, we identify a possible cooling cycle, which in ideal circumstances can yield an exponential increase of the phase-space density....

  17. Trapping neutral fermions with kink-like potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Antonio S. de; Hott, Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    The intrinsically relativistic problem of neutral fermions subject to kink-like potentials (∼tanhγx) is investigated and the exact bound-state solutions are found. Apart from the lonely hump solutions for E=+/-mc 2 , the problem is mapped into the exactly solvable Sturm-Liouville problem with a modified Poschl-Teller potential. An apparent paradox concerning the uncertainty principle is solved by resorting to the concepts of effective mass and effective Compton wavelength

  18. The flattening of the average potential in models with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornholdt, S.

    1993-01-01

    The average potential is a scale dependent scalar effective potential. In a phase with spontaneous symmetry breaking its inner region becomes flat as the averaging extends over infinite volume and the average potential approaches the convex effective potential. Fermion fluctuations affect the shape of the average potential in this region and its flattening with decreasing physical scale. They have to be taken into account to find the true minimum of the scalar potential which determines the scale of spontaneous symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  19. Localized bound states of fermions interacting via massive vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, D.C.; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Soff, G.

    1988-11-01

    A model for composite consisting of fermions with internal degrees of freedom interacting via intermediate vector bosons (IVB) is constructed. We find highly localized, low-mass bound states in the Hartree-Fock approximation. We investigate the dependence of these states as function of the coupling constant and vector boson mass. In the limit of infinite vector boson mass the interaction is described by Fermi-type contact forces. (orig.)

  20. Mathieu functions for fermions generated in magnetar’s corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2017-10-01

    This work deals with the behavior of fermions in a configuration supposed to exist in magnetar’s corona. For a static magnetic induction parallel to a time-harmonic electric field, the solution to the U(1)-gauge invariant Dirac equation is expressed in terms of Laguerre polynomials and Mathieu’s functions of complex parameter. Using the Fourier series valid before the branching point, we are computing the conserved current density components.