Chiral Lagrangians and the SSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dawson, S.
1991-09-01
In the event that the SSC does not observe any resonances such as a Higgs boson or a techni-rho meson, we would like to know if the SSC can still discover something about the nature of the electroweak symmetry breaking. We will use chiral Lagrangian techniques to address this question and analyze their utility for studying events containing W and Z gauge bosons at the SSC. 20 refs., 4 figs
Heavy-light semileptonic decays in staggered chiral perturbation theory
Aubin, C.; Bernard, C.
2007-07-01
We calculate the form factors for the semileptonic decays of heavy-light pseudoscalar mesons in partially quenched staggered chiral perturbation theory (SχPT), working to leading order in 1/mQ, where mQ is the heavy-quark mass. We take the light meson in the final state to be a pseudoscalar corresponding to the exact chiral symmetry of staggered quarks. The treatment assumes the validity of the standard prescription for representing the staggered “fourth-root trick” within SχPT by insertions of factors of 1/4 for each sea-quark loop. Our calculation is based on an existing partially quenched continuum chiral perturbation theory calculation with degenerate sea quarks by Bećirević, Prelovsek, and Zupan, which we generalize to the staggered (and nondegenerate) case. As a byproduct, we obtain the continuum partially quenched results with nondegenerate sea quarks. We analyze the effects of nonleading chiral terms, and find a relation among the coefficients governing the analytic valence mass dependence at this order. Our results are useful in analyzing lattice computations of form factors B→π and D→K, when the light quarks are simulated with the staggered action.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Gutsche, Th.; Faessler, Amand; Mau, R. Vinh
2002-01-01
We apply the perturbative chiral quark model to the study of the low-energy πN interaction. Using an effective chiral Lagrangian we reproduce the Weinberg-Tomozawa result for the S-wave πN scattering lengths. After inclusion of the photon field we give predictions for the electromagnetic O(p 2 ) low-energy couplings of the chiral perturbation theory effective Lagrangian that define the electromagnetic mass shifts of nucleons and first-order (e 2 ) radiative corrections to the πN scattering amplitude. Finally, we estimate the leading isospin-breaking correction to the strong energy shift of the π - p atom in the 1s state, which is relevant for the experiment 'pionic hydrogen' at PSI
Nucleon structure in the chiral regime with domain wall fermions on an improved staggered sea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
R.G. Edwards; G. Fleming; Ph. Hagler; J.W. Negele; K. Orginos; A.V. Pochinsky; D.B. Renner; D.G. Richards; W. Schroers
2006-01-01
Moments of unpolarized, helicity, and transversity distributions, electromagnetic form factors, and generalized form factors of the nucleon are presented from a preliminary analysis of lattice results using pion masses down to 359 MeV. The twist two matrix elements are calculated using a mixed action of domain wall valence quarks and asqtad staggered sea quarks and are renormalized perturbatively. Several observables are extrapolated to the physical limit using chiral perturbation theory. Results are compared with experimental moments of quark distributions and electromagnetic form factors and phenomenologically determined generalized form factors, and the implications on the transverse structure and spin content of the nucleon are discussed
Tomiya, Akio; Ding, Heng-Tong; Mukherjee, Swagato; Schmidt, Christian; Wang, Xiao-Dan
2018-03-01
Lattice simulations for (2+1)-flavor QCD with external magnetic field demon-strated that the quark mass is one of the important parameters responsible for the (inverse) magnetic catalysis. We discuss the dependences of chiral condensates and susceptibilities, the Polyakov loop on the magnetic field and quark mass in three degenerate flavor QCD. The lattice simulations are performed using standard staggered fermions and the plaquette action with spatial sizes Nσ = 16 and 24 and a fixed temporal size Nτ = 4. The value of the quark masses are chosen such that the system undergoes a first order chiral phase transition and crossover with zero magnetic field. We find that in light mass regime, the quark chiral condensate undergoes magnetic catalysis in the whole temperature region and the phase transition tend to become stronger as the magnetic field increases. In crossover regime, deconfinement transition temperature is shifted by the magnetic field when quark mass ma is less than 0:4. The lattice cutoff effects are also discussed.
Anomalous chiral lagrangians and e+e- annihilation into three pions
Bramon, A.; Pallante, E.; Petronzio, R.
1991-01-01
We investigate the reaction e+e-â†’3Ï€ that can be described by the anomalous part of an effective chiral lagrangian. We calculate the next-to-leading corrections to the process and make an estimate of all-order correction within a specific chiral model of pseudoscalars and vector resonances. Our
An Effective Chiral Meson Lagrangian at O(p6) from the NJL Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bel'kov, A.A.; Lanev, A.V.; Schaale, A.; Scherer, S.; Mainz Univ.
1994-01-01
In this work we present a strong chiral meson Lagrangian up to and including O(p 6 ) in the momentum expansion. It is derived from the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model using the heat-kernel method. Identities related to the properties of covariant derivatives of the chiral matrix U as well as field transformations have been used to predict the chiral coefficients of a minimal set of linearly independent terms. 16 refs
Electroweak chiral Lagrangian from a natural topcolor-assisted technicolor model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lang Junyi; Jiang Shaozhou; Wang Qing
2009-01-01
Based on previous studies on computing coefficients of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian from C. T. Hill's schematic topcolor-assisted technicolor model, we generalize the calculation to K. Lane's prototype natural topcolor-assisted technicolor model. We find that typical features of the model are qualitatively similar to those of Hill's, but Lane's model prefers a smaller technicolor group and the Z ' mass must be smaller than 400 GeV. Furthermore, the S parameter is around the order of +1, mainly due to the existence of three doublets of techniquarks. We obtain the values for all coefficients of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian up to the order p 4 . Apart from large negative four-fermion coupling values, the extended technicolor impacts on the electroweak chiral Lagrangian coefficients are small, since the techniquark self energy, which determines these coefficients, in general receives almost no influence from the extended technicolor induced four-fermion interactions except for its large momentum tail.
Chiral weak lagrangian for vector mesons and K → 3π decay amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isidori, G.; Pugliese, A.
1992-01-01
We determine the next-order corrrections to weak chiral lagrangian induced by vector-meson exchange, and we analyze their effects in K → 3π decay amplitudes. The result is a substantial improvement of the lowest-order predictions. (orig.)
Determination of the electroweak chiral-lagrangian parameters at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobado, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Urdiales, M.T. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica
1996-08-01
In this work we report on the results obtained in a detailed and systematical study of the possibility to measure the parameters appearing in the electroweak chiral lagrangian. The main novelty of our approach is that we do not use the equivalence theorem and therefore we work explicitly with all the gauge boson degrees of freedom. (orig.). With 16 figs., 5 tabs.
Complete one-loop renormalization of the Higgs-electroweak chiral Lagrangian
Buchalla, G.; Catà, O.; Celis, A.; Knecht, M.; Krause, C.
2018-03-01
Employing background-field method and super-heat-kernel expansion, we compute the complete one-loop renormalization of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian with a light Higgs boson. Earlier results from purely scalar fluctuations are confirmed as a special case. We also recover the one-loop renormalization of the conventional Standard Model in the appropriate limit.
The ΔS=1 weak chiral lagrangian as the effective theory of the chiral quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonelli, V.; Bertolini, S.; Eeg, J.O.; Lashin, E.I.
1996-01-01
We use the chiral quark model to construct the complete O(p 2 ) weak ΔS = 1 chiral lagrangian via the bosonization of the ten relevant operators of the effective quark lagrangian. The chiral coefficients are given in terms of f π , the quark and gluon condensates and the scale-dependent NLO Wilson coefficients of the corresponding operators; in addition, they depend on the constituent quark mass M, a parameter characteristic of the model. All contributions of order N c 2 as well as N c and α s N c are included. The γ 5 -scheme dependence of the chiral coefficients, computed via dimensional regularization, and the Fierz transformation properties of the operator basis are discussed in detail. We apply our results to the evaluation of the hadronic matrix elements for the decays K →2 π, consistently including the renormalization induced by the meson loops. The effect of this renormalization is sizable and introduces a long-distance scale dependence that matches in the physical amplitudes the short-distance scale dependence of the Wilson coefficients. (orig.)
In-medium effective chiral lagrangians and the pion mass in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wirzba, A.
1995-01-01
We argue that the effective pion mass in nuclear matter obtained from chiral effective lagrangians is unique and does not depend on off-mass-shell extensions of the pion fields as e.g. the PCAC choice. The effective pion mass in isospin symmetric nuclear matter is predicted to increase slightly with increasing nuclear density, whereas the effective time-like pion decay constant and the magnitude of the density-dependent quark condensate decrease appreciably. The in-medium Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation as well as other in-medium identities are studied in addition. Finally, several constraints on effective lagrangians for the description of the pion propagation in isospin symmetric, isotropic and homogeneous nuclear matter are discussed. (orig.)
Effective meson lagrangian with chiral and heavy quark symmetries from quark flavor dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebert, D.; Feldmann, T.; Friedrich, R.; Reinhardt, H.
1994-06-01
By bosonization of an extended NJL model we derive an effective meson theory which describes the interplay between chiral symmetry and heavy quark dynamics. This effective theory is worked out in the low-energy regime using the gradient expansion. The resulting effective lagrangian describes strong and weak interactions of heavy B and D mesons with pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons and light vector and axial-vector mesons. Heavy meson weak decay constants, coupling constants and the Isgur-Wise function are predicted in terms of the model parameters partially fixed from the light quark sector. Explicit SU(3) F symmetry breaking effects are estimated and, if possible, confronted with experiment. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoks, V.G.J.
1997-01-01
We present a chiral-invariant meson-baryon Lagrangian which describes the interactions of the baryon octet with the lowest-mass meson nonets. The nonlinear realization of the chiral symmetry generates pair-meson interaction vertices. The corresponding pair-meson coupling constants can all be expressed in terms of the meson-nucleon-nucleon pseudovector, scalar, and vector coupling constants, and their corresponding F/(F+D) ratios, and for which empirical estimates are given. We show that it is possible to construct an NN potential of reasonable quality satisfying these theoretical and empirical constraints. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge Fengjun; Jiang Shaozhou; Wang Qing
2011-01-01
The electroweak chiral Lagrangian for the topcolor-assisted technicolor model proposed by K. Lane, which uses nontrivial patterns of techniquark condensation and walking, was investigated in this study. We found that the features of the model are qualitatively similar to those of Lane's previous natural topcolor-assisted technicolor prototype model, but there is no limit on the upper bound of the Z ' mass. We discuss the phase structure and possible walking behavior of the model. We obtained the values of all coefficients of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian up to an order of p 4 . We show that although the walking effect reduces the S parameter to half its original value, it maintains an order of 2. Moreover, a special hypercharge arrangement is needed to achieve further reductions in its value.
One loop renormalization of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian with a light Higgs boson
Guo, Feng-Kun; Ruiz-Femenía, Pedro; Sanz-Cillero, Juan José
2015-10-01
We consider the general chiral effective action which parametrizes the nonlinear realization of the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak symmetry with a light Higgs boson and compute the one-loop ultraviolet divergences coming from Higgs and electroweak Goldstone fluctuations using the background field method. The renormalization of the divergences is carried out through operators of next-to-leading order in the chiral counting, i.e., of O (p4) . Being of the same order in power counting, the logarithmic corrections linked to these divergences can be as important as the tree-level contributions from the O (p4) operators and must be accounted for in the phenomenological analysis of experimental data. Deviations in the O (p2) (leading-order) couplings with respect to the Standard Model values, e.g., in the h →W W coupling, would generate contributions from the one-loop chiral logarithms computed in this work to a vast variety of observables, which do not have a counterpart in the conventional electroweak effective theory with a linearly transforming Higgs complex doublet.
Gaugino condensates and chiral-linear duality an effective lagrangian analysis
Burgess, C P; Quevedo, Fernando; Quirós, Mariano; Burgess, C P; Derendinger, J P; Quevedo, F; Quiros, M
1995-01-01
We show how to formulate the phenomenon of gaugino condensation in a super-Yang-Mills theory with a field-dependent gauge coupling described with a linear multiplet. We prove the duality equivalence of this approach with the more familiar formulation using a chiral superfield. In so doing, we resolve a longstanding puzzle as to how a linear-multiplet formulation can be consistent with the dynamical breaking of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry which is thought to occur once the gauginos condense. In our approach, the composite gauge degrees of freedom are described by a real vector superfield, V, rather than the chiral superfield that is obtained in the traditional dual formulation. Our dualization, when applied to the case of several condensing gauge groups, provides strong evidence that this duality survives strong-coupling effects in string theory. We show how to formulate the phenomenon of gaugino condensation in a super-Yang-Mills theory with a field-dependent gauge coupling described with a linear multiplet. We...
Application of chiral resonance Lagrangian theories to the muon g-2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2013-12-15
We think that phenomenological resonance Lagrangian models, constrained by global fits from low energy hadron reaction data, can help to improve muon g-2 predictions. The main issue are those contributions which cannot be calculated by perturbative means: the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) effects and the hadronic light-by-light (HLbL) scattering contribution. I review recent progress in the evaluation of the HVP contribution within the broken Hidden Local Symmetry (HLS) framework, worked out in collaboration with M. Benayoun, P. David and L. Del-Buono. Our HLS driven estimate reads a{sub {mu}}{sup LO} {sup had} = (688.60{+-}4.24) . 10{sup -10} and we find a{sub {mu}}{sup the} = (11659177.65{+-}5.76) . 10{sup -10}.
Simplifications in lagrangian BV quantization exemplified by the anomalies of chiral W3 gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vandoren, S.; Proeyen, A. van
1994-01-01
The Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism is a useful framework to study gauge theories. We summarize a simple procedure to find a gauge-fixed action in this language and a way to obtain one-loop anomalies. Calculations involving the antifields can be greatly simplified by using a theorem on the antibracket cohomology. The latter is based on properties of a ''Koszul-Tate differential'', namely its acyclicity and nilpotency. We present a new proof for this acyclicity, respecting locality and covariance of the theory. This theorem then implies that consistent higher ghost terms in various expressions exist, and it avoids tedious calculations. This is illustrated in chiral W 3 gravity. We compute the one-loop anomaly without terms of negative ghost number. Then the mentioned theorem and the consistency condition imply that the full anomaly is determined up to local counterterms. Finally we show how to implement background charges into the BV language in order to cancel the anomaly with the appropriate counterterms. Again we use the theorem to simplify the calculations, which agree with previous results. (orig.)
Ginsparg-Wilson pions scattering in a sea of staggered quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, J.-W.; O'Connell, Donal; Van de Water, Ruth; Walker-Loud, Andre
2006-01-01
We calculate isospin 2 pion-pion scattering in chiral perturbation theory for a partially quenched, mixed action theory with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks and staggered sea quarks. We point out that for some scattering channels, the power-law volume dependence of two-pion states in nonunitary theories such as partially quenched or mixed action QCD is identical to that of QCD. Thus one can extract infinite-volume scattering parameters from mixed action simulations. We then determine the scattering length for both 2 and 2+1 sea quarks in the isospin limit. The scattering length, when expressed in terms of the pion mass and the decay constant measured on the lattice, has no contributions from mixed valence-sea mesons, thus it does not depend upon the parameter, C Mix , that appears in the chiral Lagrangian of the mixed theory. In addition, the contributions which nominally arise from operators appearing in the mixed action O(a 2 m q ) Lagrangian exactly cancel when the scattering length is written in this form. This is in contrast to the scattering length expressed in terms of the bare parameters of the chiral Lagrangian, which explicitly exhibits all the sicknesses and lattice spacing dependence allowed by a partially quenched mixed action theory. These results hold for both 2 and 2+1 flavors of sea quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, S.
1979-01-01
The author presents an argument that phenomenological Lagrangians can be used not only to reproduce the soft pion results of current algebra, but also to justify these results, without any use of operator algebra, and shows how phenomenological Lagrangians can be used to calculate corrections to the leading soft pion results to any desired order in external momenta. The renormalization group is used to elucidate the structure of these corrections. Corrections due to the finite mass of the pion are treated and speculations are made about another possible application of phenomenological Lagrangians. (Auth.)
Introduction to chiral symmetry in QCD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sazdjian H.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The main aspects of chiral symmetry in QCD are presented. The necessity of its spontaneous breakdown is explained. Some low-energy theorems are reviewed. The role of chiral effective Lagrangians in the formulation and realization of chiral perturbation theory is emphasized. The consequences of the presence of anomalies are sketched.
Effective Lagrangians for quantum many-body systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Andersen, J. O.; Brauner, Tomáš; Hofmann, C. P.; Vuorinen, A.
2014-01-01
Roč. 2014, č. 8 (2014), 088 ISSN 1029-8479 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : spontaneous symmetry breaking * chiral lagrangians * global symmetries Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.
1996-06-01
After a general introduction to the structure of effective field theories, the main ingredients of chiral perturbation theory are reviewed. Applications include the light quark mass ratios and pion-pion scattering to two-loop accuracy. In the pion-nucleon system, the linear σ model is contrasted with chiral perturbation theory. The heavy-nucleon expansion is used to construct the effective pion-nucleon Lagrangian to third order in the low-energy expansion, with applications to nucleon Compton scattering. (author)
Staggering but not knocked out
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
2012-11-01
Italy's PV market is staggering like a boxer almost knocked out. It has been hit hard by the country's deep economic recession. Conto Energia V has been yet another blow with cuts of up to 40 % in the solar feed-in tariffs. But the situation is not hopeless.
Taste changing in staggered quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quentin Mason
2004-01-01
The authors present results from a systematic perturbative investigation of taste-changing in improved staggered quarks. They show one-loop taste-changing interactions can be removed perturbatively by an effective four-quark term and calculate the necessary coefficients
On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kytoelae, Kalle; Ridout, David
2009-06-01
In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)
On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules
Kytölä, Kalle; Ridout, David
2009-12-01
In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be nondiagonalizable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank 2. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the "left module," and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the "right module." Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centers on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension 0, 1, or 2, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulas as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit.
On staggered indecomposable Virasoro modules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kytoelae, Kalle [Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Ridout, David [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2009-06-15
In this article, certain indecomposable Virasoro modules are studied. Specifically, the Virasoro mode L0 is assumed to be non-diagonalisable, possessing Jordan blocks of rank two. Moreover, the module is further assumed to have a highest weight submodule, the ''left module'', and that the quotient by this submodule yields another highest weight module, the ''right module''. Such modules, which have been called staggered, have appeared repeatedly in the logarithmic conformal field theory literature, but their theory has not been explored in full generality. Here, such a theory is developed for the Virasoro algebra using rather elementary techniques. The focus centres on two different but related questions typically encountered in practical studies: How can one identify a given staggered module, and how can one demonstrate the existence of a proposed staggered module. Given just the values of the highest weights of the left and right modules, themselves subject to simple necessary conditions, invariants are defined which together with the knowledge of the left and right modules uniquely identify a staggered module. The possible values of these invariants form a vector space of dimension zero, one or two, and the structures of the left and right modules limit the isomorphism classes of the corresponding staggered modules to an affine subspace (possibly empty). The number of invariants and affine restrictions is purely determined by the structures of the left and right modules. Moreover, in order to facilitate applications, the expressions for the invariants and restrictions are given by formulae as explicit as possible (they generally rely on expressions for Virasoro singular vectors). Finally, the text is liberally peppered throughout with examples illustrating the general concepts. These have been carefully chosen for their physical relevance or for the novel features they exhibit. (orig.)
Review of chiral perturbation theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with .... terms of the effective Lagrangian at two-loop or O(p6) order is now available [12]. The formidable task of ... and straightforward manner for the system and are of great importance for the analysis of experimental ...
Numerical properties of staggered quarks with a taste-dependent mass term
de Forcrand, Philippe; Panero, Marco
2012-01-01
The numerical properties of staggered Dirac operators with a taste-dependent mass term proposed by Adams [1,2] and by Hoelbling [3] are compared with those of ordinary staggered and Wilson Dirac operators. In the free limit and on (quenched) interacting configurations, we consider their topological properties, their spectrum, and the resulting pion mass. Although we also consider the spectral structure, topological properties, locality, and computational cost of an overlap operator with a staggered kernel, we call attention to the possibility of using the Adams and Hoelbling operators without the overlap construction. In particular, the Hoelbling operator could be used to simulate two degenerate flavors without additive mass renormalization, and thus without fine-tuning in the chiral limit.
Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharpe, S.R.
1988-09-01
An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.
Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, S.R.
1988-09-01
An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs
Tool kit for staggered fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilcup, G.W.; Sharpe, S.R.
1986-01-01
The symmetries of staggered fermions are analyzed both discrete and continuous. Tools are presented that allow a simple decomposition of representations of the continuum symmetries into representations of the discrete lattice symmetries, both at zero and non-zero spatial momenta. These tools are used to find the lattice transcriptions of the operators that appear in the weak interaction Hamiltonian. The lattice Ward Identities are derived that follow from the single partially conserved axial symmetry. Using these identities, the lattice equivalents of the continuum PCAC relations are found. Combining all these tools, Ward Identities are obtained, for the matrix elements of the weak interaction Hamiltonian, from which the behavior of the matrix elements as the pion and kaon masses vanish are derived. The same behavior as in the continuum is found
Quantum chromodynamics, chiral symmetry and bag models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soyeur, M.
1983-08-01
This course deals with the following subjects: quarks; quantum chromodynamics (the classical Lagrangian of QCD, quark masses, the classical equations of motion of QCD, general properties, lattices); chiral symmetry (massless free Dirac theory, realizations, the σ-model); the M.I.T. bag model (basic assumptions and equations of motion, spherical cavity approximation, properties of hadrons); the chiral bag models (basic assumptions, the cloudy bag model, the little bag model); non-topological soliton bag models
Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meissner, U.G.
1991-09-01
I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, {pi}N scattering and the {sigma}-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon.
Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meissner, U.G.
1991-09-01
I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, πN scattering and the σ-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon
Pseudotoric structures: Lagrangian submanifolds and Lagrangian fibrations
Tyurin, N. A.
2017-06-01
This survey presents a generalization of the notion of a toric structure on a compact symplectic manifold: the notion of a pseudotoric structure. The language of these new structures appears to be a convenient and natural tool for describing many non-standard Lagrangian submanifolds and cycles (Chekanov's exotic tori, Mironov's cycles in certain particular cases, and others) as well as for constructing Lagrangian fibrations (for example, special fibrations in the sense of Auroux on Fano varieties). Known properties of pseudotoric structures and constructions based on these properties are discussed, as well as open problems whose solution may be of importance in symplectic geometry and mathematical physics. Bibliography: 28 titles.
Towards corrections to the strong coupling limit of staggered lattice QCD
Fromm, Michael; Philipsen, Owe; de Forcrand, Philippe; Unger, Wolfgang; Miura, Kotaroh
2011-01-01
We report on the first steps of an ongoing project to add gauge observables and gauge corrections to the well-studied strong coupling limit of staggered lattice QCD, which has been shown earlier to be amenable to numerical simulations by the worm algorithm in the chiral limit and at finite density. Here we show how to evaluate the expectation value of the Polyakov loop in the framework of the strong coupling limit at finite temperature, allowing to study confinement properties along with those of chiral symmetry breaking. We find the Polyakov loop to rise smoothly, thus signalling deconfinement. The non-analytic nature of the chiral phase transition is reflected in the derivative of the Polyakov loop. We also discuss how to construct an effective theory for non-zero lattice coupling, which is valid to $O(\\beta)$.
Two-color lattice QCD with staggered quarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheffler, David
2015-07-20
The study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at finite temperature and density provides important contributions to the understanding of strong-interaction matter as it is present e.g. in nuclear matter and in neutron stars or as produced in heavy-ion collision experiments. Lattice QCD is a non-perturbative approach, where equations of motion for quarks and gluons are discretized on a finite space-time lattice. The method successfully describes the behavior of QCD in the vacuum and at finite temperature, however it cannot be applied to finite baryon density due to the fermion sign problem. Various QCD-like theories, that offer to draw conclusions about QCD, allow simulations also at finite densities. In this work we investigate two-color QCD as a popular example of a QCD-like theory free from the sign problem with methods from lattice gauge theory. For the generation of gauge configurations with two dynamical quark flavors in the staggered formalism with the ''rooting trick'' we apply the Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm. We carry out essential preparatory work for future simulations at finite density. As a start, we concentrate on the calculation of the effective potential for the Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for the confinement-deconfinement transition, in dependence of the temperature and quark mass. It serves as an important input for effective models of QCD. We obtain the effective potential via the histogram method from local distributions of the Polyakov loop. To study the influence of dynamical quarks on gluonic observables, the simulations are performed with large quark masses and are compared to calculations in the pure gauge theory. In the second part of the thesis we examine aspects of the chiral phase transition along the temperature axis. The symmetry group of chiral symmetry in two-color QCD is enlarged to SU(2N{sub f}). Discretized two-color QCD in the staggered formalism exhibits a chiral symmetry breaking
Degenerate and chiral states in the extended Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice
Gómez Albarracín, F. A.; Pujol, P.
2018-03-01
We present a study of the low-temperature phases of the antiferromagnetic extended classical Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice, up to third-nearest neighbors. First, we focus on the degenerate lines in the boundaries of the well-known staggered chiral phases. These boundaries have either semiextensive or extensive degeneracy, and we discuss the partial selection of states by thermal fluctuations. Then, we study the model under an external magnetic field on these lines and in the staggered chiral phases. We pay particular attention to the highly frustrated point, where the three exchange couplings are equal. We show that this point can be mapped to a model with spin-liquid behavior and nonzero chirality. Finally, we explore the effect of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions in two ways: a homogeneous and a staggered DM interaction. In both cases, there is a rich low-temperature phase diagram, with different spontaneously broken symmetries and nontrivial chiral phases.
Inoue, Yoshihisa
2004-01-01
Direct Asymmetric Photochemistry with Circularly Polarized Light, H. RauCoherent Laser Control of the Handedness of Chiral Molecules, P. Brumer and M. ShapiroMagnetochiral Anisotropy in Asymmetric Photochemistry, G.L.J.A.RikkenEnantiodifferentiating Photosensitized Reactions, Y. InoueDiastereodifferentiating Photoreactions, N. Hoffmann and J.-P. PeteChirality in Photochromism, Y. Yokoyama and M. SaitoChiral Photochemistry with Transition Metal Complexes, S. Sakaki and T. HamadaTemplate-Induced Enantioselective Photochemical Reactions in S
Beilinson, Alexander
2004-01-01
Chiral algebras form the primary algebraic structure of modern conformal field theory. Each chiral algebra lives on an algebraic curve, and in the special case where this curve is the affine line, chiral algebras invariant under translations are the same as well-known and widely used vertex algebras. The exposition of this book covers the following topics: the "classical" counterpart of the theory, which is an algebraic theory of non-linear differential equations and their symmetries; the local aspects of the theory of chiral algebras, including the study of some basic examples, such as the ch
Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hierro, I.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Merlo, L. [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy)
2016-04-04
In Alonso et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak-θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2)×U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.
Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics
Mann, Peter
2018-01-01
An introductory textbook exploring the subject of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, with a relaxed and self-contained setting. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics is the continuation of Newton's classical physics into new formalisms, each highlighting novel aspects of mechanics that gradually build in complexity to form the basis for almost all of theoretical physics. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics also acts as a gateway to more abstract concepts routed in differential geometry and field theories and can be used to introduce these subject areas to newcomers. Journeying in a self-contained manner from the very basics, through the fundamentals and onwards to the cutting edge of the subject, along the way the reader is supported by all the necessary background mathematics, fully worked examples, thoughtful and vibrant illustrations as well as an informal narrative and numerous fresh, modern and inter-disciplinary applications. The book contains some unusual topics for a classical mechanics textbook. Mo...
Weak interaction matrix elements with staggered fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, S.R.
1986-08-01
An overview of the results of the Los Alamos Advanced Computing Group is given. The theory behind the measurement of Weak Interaction Matrix Elements using staggered fermions is presented, and contrasted with that for Wilson fermions. This is followed by a preliminary discussion of numerical results on a 12 3 x 30 lattice. 10 refs., 4 figs
Kaon decay amplitudes using staggered fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, S.R.
1986-12-01
A status report is given of an attempt, using staggered fermions to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the amplitudes for K → ππ,. Semi-quantitative results are found for the imaginary parts, and these suggest that ε' might be smaller than previously expected in the standard model
Baryon decuplet mass relations in chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebed, Richard F.
1994-01-01
Baryon decuplet masses within an SU(3) L xSU(3) R chiral Lagrangian formalism are found to satisfy four relations at second order in flavor breaking. As a result, the one-loop corrections from Lagrangian terms up to first order in flavor breaking are observed to give finite and calculable corrections to these relations. The importance of group theory in establishing the relations and eliminating many loop corrections is emphasized. The formal expressions for these corrections are presented, followed by numerical evaluations. We find consistency between the experimental values of breaking of the relations and the loop corrections of these relations as predicted by chiral perturbation theory. ((orig.))
Chiral quarks and proton decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chadha, S.; Daniel, M.; Gounaris, G.J.; Murphy, A.J.
1984-04-01
The authors calculate the hadronic matrix elements of baryon decay operators using a chiral effective Lagrangian with quarks, gluons and Goldstone boson fields. The cases where the ΔB=1 operators arise from supersymmetric SU(5) GUT as well as the minimal SU(5) GUT model are studied. In each model the results depend on two parameters. In particular there is a range of values for the two parameters, where the dominant decay modes in the minimal SU(5) GUT are: p→etae + and n→π - e + . (author)
Chiral Dynamics and Dubna-Mainz Dynamical Model for Pion Photoproduction Reaction
Yang, Shin Nan
We demonstrate that the Dubna-Mainz-Taipei (DMT) meson-exchange dynamical model, which starts from an effective chiral Lagrangian, for pion photoproduction provides an excellent and economic framework to describe both the π0 threshold production and the Δ deformation, two features dictated by chiral dynamics.
Chiral Dynamics and Dubna-Mainz-Taipei Dynamical Model for Pion-Photoproduction Reaction
Yang, Shin Nan
2010-01-01
We demonstrate that the Dubna-Mainz-Taipei (DMT) meson-exchange dynamical model, which starts from an effective chiral Lagrangian, for pion photoproduction provides an excellent and economic framework to describe both the pi^0 threshold production and the Delta deformation, two features dictated by chiral dynamics.
Fan Stagger Angle for Dirt Rejection
Gallagher, Edward J. (Inventor); Rose, Becky E. (Inventor); Brilliant, Lisa I. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A gas turbine engine includes a spool, a turbine coupled to drive the spool, a propulsor coupled to be rotated about an axis by the turbine through the spool, and a gear assembly coupled between the propulsor and the spool such that rotation of the turbine drives the propulsor at a different speed than the spool. The propulsor includes a hub and a row of propulsor blades that extend from the hub. Each of the propulsor blades has a span between a root at the hub and a tip, and a chord between a leading edge and a trailing edge. The chord forms a stagger angle alpha with the axis, and the stagger angle alpha is less than 15 deg. at a position along the propulsor blade that is within an inboard 20% of the span.
Staggered broad-band reflecting multilayers.
Heavens, O S; Liddell, H M
1966-03-01
Considerable broadening of the reflectance band of a multilayer stack may be obtained by staggering the layer thicknesses in such a way that they form either an arithmetic or geometric progression. Results are shown for asymmetric and symmetric filters of 15, 25, and 35 layers. The presence of the narrowband transmission peaks exhibited by the symmetric filters is explained, and the advantages of the use of this type of filter as an interference filter is discussed.
Renormalization and effective lagrangians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polchinski, J.
1984-01-01
There is a strong intuitive understanding of renormalization, due to Wilson, in terms of the scaling of effective lagrangians. We show that this can be made the basis for a proof of perturbative renormalization. We first study renormalizability in the language of renormalization group flows for a toy renormalization group equation. We then derive an exact renormalization group equation for a four-dimensional lambda PHI 4 theory with a momentum cutoff. We organize the cutoff dependence of the effective lagrangian into relevant and irrelevant parts, and derive a linear equation for the irrelevant part. A lengthy but straightforward argument establishes that the piece identified as irrelevant actually is so in perturbation theory. This implies renormalizability. The method extends immediately to any system in which a momentum-space cutoff can be used, but the principle is more general and should apply for any physical cutoff. Neither Weinberg's theorem nor arguments based on the topology of graphs are needed. (orig.)
Gravity, Time, and Lagrangians
Huggins, Elisha
2010-01-01
Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the Lagrangian. (Why would one…
Exact Lagrangian caps and non-uniruled Lagrangian submanifolds
Dimitroglou Rizell, Georgios
2015-04-01
We make the elementary observation that the Lagrangian submanifolds of C n , n≥3, constructed by Ekholm, Eliashberg, Murphy and Smith are non-uniruled and, moreover, have infinite relative Gromov width. The construction of these submanifolds involve exact Lagrangian caps, which obviously are non-uniruled in themselves. This property is also used to show that if a Legendrian submanifold inside a contactisation admits an exact Lagrangian cap, then its Chekanov-Eliashberg algebra is acyclic.
Chirality invariance and 'chiral' fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziino, G.
1978-01-01
The new field model derived in the present paper actually gives a definite answer to three fundamental questions concerning elementary-particle physics: 1) The phenomenological dualism between parity and chirality invariance: it would be only an apparent display of a general 'duality' principle underlying the intrinsic nature itself of (spin 1/2) fermions and expressed by the anticommutativity property between scalar and pseudoscalar charges. 2) The real physical meaning of V - A current structure: it would exclusively be connected to the one (just pointed out) of chiral fields themselves. 3) The unjustified apparent oddness shown by Nature in weak interactions, for the fact of picking out only one of the two (left- and right-handed) fermion 'chiral' projections: the key to such a 'mystery' would just be provided by the consequences of the dual and partial character of the two fermion-antifermion field bases. (Auth.)
On the path integral quantization of chiral bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaposnik, F.A.; Schaposnik, F.A.; Solomin, J.E.
1989-01-01
The authors show that, in the covariant Lagrangian formalism, a proper treatment of the gauge degree of freedom in a model of chiral bosons proposed by Siegel uncovers the presence of a Jacobian (a Wess-Zumino action): the group of gauge transformations gets quantized and the anomaly is absorbed
Chiral Symmetry Breaking in QCD : II. Running Coupling Constant
Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P. W.
1988-01-01
The quark-propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation, with a running coupling constant to provide an ultraviolet regulator, with no infrared cutoff, is calculated numerically in the Landau gauge. It is shown that, for one or more generations of quarks, the chiral symmetry of the bare QCD Lagrangian is
The role of resonances in chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.; Rafael, E. de
1988-09-01
The strong interactions of low-lying meson resonances (spin ≤ 1) with the octet of pseudoscalar mesons (π,Κ,η) are considered to lowest order in the derivative expansion of chiral SU(3). The resonance contributions to the coupling constants of the O(p 4 ) effective chiral lagrangian involving pseudoscalar fields only are determined. These low-energy coupling constants are found to be dominated by the resonance contributions. Although we do not treat the vector and axial-vector mesons as gauge bosons of local chiral symmetry, vector meson dominance emerges as a prominent result of our analysis. As a further application of chiral resonance couplings, we calculate the electromagnetic pion mass difference to lowest order in chiral perturbation theory with explicit resonance fields. 29 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)
Lagrangian vector field and Lagrangian formulation of partial differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Chen
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider the Lagrangian formulation of a system of second order quasilinear partial differential equations. Specifically we construct a Lagrangian vector field such that the flows of the vector field satisfy the original system of partial differential equations.
Chiral pinwheel clusters lacking local point chirality.
Sun, Kai; Shao, Ting-Na; Xie, Jia-Le; Lan, Meng; Yuan, Hong-Kuan; Xiong, Zu-Hong; Wang, Jun-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Xue, Qi-Kun
2012-07-09
The supramolecular pinwheel cluster is a unique chiral structure with evident handedness. Previous studies reveal that the chiral pinwheels are composed of chiral or achiral molecules with polar groups, which result in strong intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen-bonding or dipole interactions. Herein, it is shown that the simple linear aromatic molecule, pentacene, can be self-assembled into large chiral pinwheel clusters on the semimetal Bi(111) surface, due to enhanced intermolecular interactions. The pentacene pinwheels reveal two levels of organizational chirality: the chiral hexamers resulting from asymmetric shifting along the long molecular axis, and chiral arrangement of six hexamers with a rotor motif. Furthermore, a new relation between the local point chirality and organizational chirality is identified from the pinwheels: the former is not essential for the latter in 2D pinwheel clusters of the pentacene molecule. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Parameters of the lowest order chiral Lagrangian from fermion eigenvalues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeGrand, T.; Schaefer, S.
2007-08-01
Recent advances in Random Matrix Theory enable one to determine the pseudoscalar decay constant from the response of eigenmodes of quenched fermions to an imaginary isospin chemical potential. We perform a pilot test of this idea, from simulations with two flavors of dynamical overlap fermions. (orig.)
On the Quality of Velocity Interpolation Schemes for Marker-in-Cell Method and Staggered Grids
Pusok, Adina E.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Popov, Anton A.
2017-03-01
The marker-in-cell method is generally considered a flexible and robust method to model the advection of heterogenous non-diffusive properties (i.e., rock type or composition) in geodynamic problems. In this method, Lagrangian points carrying compositional information are advected with the ambient velocity field on an Eulerian grid. However, velocity interpolation from grid points to marker locations is often performed without considering the divergence of the velocity field at the interpolated locations (i.e., non-conservative). Such interpolation schemes can induce non-physical clustering of markers when strong velocity gradients are present (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and this may, eventually, result in empty grid cells, a serious numerical violation of the marker-in-cell method. To remedy this at low computational costs, Jenny et al. (Journal of Computational Physics 166:218-252, 2001) and Meyer and Jenny (Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 4:466-467, 2004) proposed a simple, conservative velocity interpolation scheme for 2-D staggered grid, while Wang et al. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 16(6):2015-2023, 2015) extended the formulation to 3-D finite element methods. Here, we adapt this formulation for 3-D staggered grids (correction interpolation) and we report on the quality of various velocity interpolation methods for 2-D and 3-D staggered grids. We test the interpolation schemes in combination with different advection schemes on incompressible Stokes problems with strong velocity gradients, which are discretized using a finite difference method. Our results suggest that a conservative formulation reduces the dispersion and clustering of markers, minimizing the need of unphysical marker control in geodynamic models.
Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels
Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D
2013-07-16
A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.
Perturbative improvement of staggered fermions using fat links
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Weonjong
2002-01-01
We study the possibility of improving staggered fermions using various fat links in order to reduce perturbative corrections to the gauge-invariant staggered fermion operators. We prove five theorems on SU(3) projection, triviality in renormalization, multiple SU(3) projections, uniqueness, and equivalence. As a result of these theorems, we show that, at the one-loop level, the renormalization of staggered fermion operators is identical between SU(3) projected Fat7 links and hypercubic links, as long as the action and operators are constructed by imposing the same perturbative improvement condition. In addition, we propose a new view of SU(3) projection as a tool of tadpole improvement for the staggered fermion doublers. As a conclusion, we present alternative choices of constructing fat links to improve the staggered fermion action and operators, which deserve further investigation
N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields: staggered fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy)
2015-12-10
We investigate N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields on the lattice. The background field is introduced by means of the so-called Schrödinger functional. We adopt standard staggered fermions with constant bare mass am=0.025 and magnetic fields with constant magnetic flux up to a{sup 2}eH≃2.3562. We find that the the deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration temperatures do not depend on the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our method allow us to easily study the effects of the external magnetic fields on the QCD thermodynamics. We determine the influences of applied magnetic fields to the free energy, pressure, and equation of state of strongly interacting matter.
The extended chiral quark model confronts QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrianov, A.A.; Espriu, D.; Tarrach, R.
2000-01-01
We discuss the truncation of low energy effective action of QCD below the chiral symmetry breaking (CSB) scale, including all operators of dimensionality less or equal to 6 which can be built with quark and chiral fields. We perform its bosonization in the scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector channels in the large-Nc and leading-log approximation. Constraints on the coefficients of the effective lagrangian are derived from the requirement of Chiral Symmetry Restoration (CSR) at energies above the CSB scale in the scalar-pseudoscalar and vector-axial-vector channels, from matching to QCD at intermediate scales, and by fitting some hadronic observables. In this truncation two types of pseudoscalar states (massless pions and massive Π-mesons), as well as a scalar, vector and axial-vector one arise as a consequence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Their masses and coupling constants as well as a number of chiral structural constants are derived. A reasonable fit of all parameters supports a relatively heavy scalar meson (quarkonium) with the mass ∼ 1 GeV and a small value of axial pion-quark coupling constant gA ≅= 0.55
Lagrangian averaging with geodesic mean
Oliver, Marcel
2017-11-01
This paper revisits the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler-α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy Lagrangian of an ideal fluid yields the LAE Lagrangian. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.
Chiral effective theories from holographic QCD with scalars
Harada, Masayasu; Ma, Yong-Liang; Matsuzaki, Shinya
2014-06-01
We develop a method for integrating out the heavy Kaluza-Klein modes of scalar type as well as those of vector and axial-vector types, in a class of hard-wall bottom-up approaches of holographic QCD models, including the Dirac-Born-Infeld and Chern-Simons parts. By keeping only the lowest-lying vector mesons, we first obtain an effective chiral Lagrangian of the vector mesons based on the hidden local symmetry, and all the low-energy constants in the HLS Lagrangian are expressed in terms of holographic integrals and, consequently, are fully determined by the holographic geometry and a few constants of mesons. We find that the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation is manifestly reproduced at the lowest order of derivative expansion. We also explicitly show that a naive inclusion of the Chern-Simons term cannot reproduce the desired chiral anomaly in QCD, and hence, some counterterms should be provided: This implies that the holographic QCD models of hard-wall type cannot give definite predictions for the intrinsic parity-odd vertices involving vector and axial-vector mesons. After integrating out the vector mesons from the HLS Lagrangian, we further obtain the Lagrangian of chiral perturbation theory for pseudoscalar mesons with all the low-energy constants fully determined.
Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A
2013-01-01
The global U-dualities of extended supergravity have played a central role in differentiating the distinct classes of extremal black hole solutions. When the U-duality group satisfies certain algebraic conditions, as is the case for a broad class of supergravities, the extremal black holes enjoy a further symmetry known as Freudenthal duality (F-duality), which although distinct from U-duality preserves the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Here it is shown that, by adopting the doubled Lagrangian formalism, F-duality, defined on the doubled field strengths, is not only a symmetry of the black hole solutions, but also of the equations of motion themselves. A further role for F-duality is introduced in the context of world-sheet actions. The Nambu-Goto world-sheet action in any (t, s) signature spacetime can be written in terms of the F-dual. The corresponding field equations and Bianchi identities are then related by F-duality allowing for an F-dual formulation of Gaillard-Zumino duality on the world-sheet. An equi...
Weyl's Lagrangian in teleparallel form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burnett, James; Vassiliev, Dmitri
2009-01-01
The Weyl Lagrangian is the massless Dirac Lagrangian. The dynamical variable in the Weyl Lagrangian is a spinor field. We provide a mathematically equivalent representation in terms of a different dynamical variable - the coframe (an orthonormal tetrad of covector fields). We show that when written in terms of this dynamical variable, the Weyl Lagrangian becomes remarkably simple: it is the wedge product of axial torsion of the teleparallel connection with a teleparallel lightlike element of the coframe. We also examine the issues of U(1)-invariance and conformal invariance. Examination of the latter motivates us to introduce a positive scalar field (equivalent to a density) as an additional dynamical variable; this makes conformal invariance self-evident.
Quadratic Lagrangians and Legendre transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magnano, G.
1988-01-01
In recent years interest is grown about the so-called non-linear Lagrangians for gravitation. In particular, the quadratic lagrangians are currently believed to play a fundamental role both for quantum gravity and for the super-gravity approach. The higher order and high degree of non-linearity of these theories make very difficult to extract physical information out of them. The author discusses how the Legendre transformation can be applied to a wide class of non-linear theories: it corresponds to a conformal transformation whenever the Lagrangian depends only on the scalar curvature, while it has a more general form if the Lagrangian depends on the full Ricci tensor
The Lagrangian in Quantum Mechanics
Dirac, P. A. M.
Quantum mechanics was built up on a foundation of analogy with the Hamiltonian theory of classical mechanics. This is because the classical notion of canonical coordinates and momenta was found to be one with a very simple quantum analogue, as a result of which the whole of the classical Hamiltonian theory, which is just a structure built up on this notion, could be taken over in all its details into quantum mechanics. Now there is an alternative formulation for classical dynamics, provided by the Lagrangian. This requires one to work in terms of coordinates and velocities instead of coordinates and momenta. The two formulations are, of course, closely related, but there are reasons for believing that the Lagrangian one is the more fundamental. In the first place the Lagrangian method allows one to collect together all the equations of motion and express them as the stationary property of a certain action function. (This action function is just the time-integral of the Lagrangian.) There is no corresponding action principle in terms of the coordinates and momenta of the Hamiltonian theory. Secondly the Lagrangian method can easily be expressed relativistically, on account of the action function being a relativistic invariant; while the Hamiltonian method is essentially non-relativistic in form, since it marks out a particular time variable as the canonical conjugate of the Hamiltonian function. For these reasons it would seem desirable to take up the question of what corresponds in the quantum theory to the Lagrangian method of the classical theory. A little consideration shows, however, that one cannot expect to be able to take over the classical Lagrangian equations in any very direct way. These equations involve partial derivatives of the Lagrangian with respect to the coordinates and velocities and no meaning can be given to such derivatives in quantum mechanics. The only differentiation process that can be carried out with respect to the dynamical variables of
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed
Dynamics of chiral oscillations: a comparative analysis with spin flipping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernardini, A E
2006-01-01
Chiral oscillation as well as spin flipping effects correspond to quantum phenomena of fundamental importance in the context of particle physics and, in particular, of neutrino physics. From the point of view of first quantized theories, we are specifically interested in pointing out the differences between chirality and helicity by obtaining their dynamic equations for a fermionic Dirac-type particle (neutrino). We also identify both effects when the non-minimal coupling with an external (electro)magnetic field in the neutrino interacting Lagrangian is taken into account. We demonstrate that, however, there is no constraint between chiral oscillations, when it takes place in vacuum, and the process of spin flipping related to the helicity quantum number, which does not take place in vacuum. To conclude, we show that the origin of chiral oscillations (in vacuum) can be interpreted as projections of very rapid oscillations of position onto the longitudinal direction of momentum
Leading order relativistic chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction
Ren, Xiu-Lei; Li, Kai-Wen; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei; Ring, Peter; Meng, Jie
2018-01-01
Motivated by the successes of relativistic theories in studies of atomic/molecular and nuclear systems and the need for a relativistic chiral force in relativistic nuclear structure studies, we explore a new relativistic scheme to construct the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of covariant chiral effective field theory. The chiral interaction is formulated up to leading order with covariant power counting and a Lorentz invariant chiral Lagrangian. We find that the relativistic scheme induces all six spin operators needed to describe the nuclear force. A detailed investigation of the partial wave potentials shows a better description of the {}1S0 and {}3P0 phase shifts than the leading order Weinberg approach, and similar to that of the next-to-leading order Weinberg approach. For the other partial waves with angular momenta J≥slant 1, the relativistic results are almost the same as their leading order non-relativistic counterparts. )
Nucleon and delta masses in twisted mass chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker-Loud, Andre; Wu, Jackson M.S.
2005-01-01
We calculate the masses of the nucleons and deltas in twisted mass heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. We work to quadratic order in a power counting scheme in which we treat the lattice spacing, a, and the quark masses, m q , to be of the same order. We give expressions for the mass and the mass splitting of the nucleons and deltas both in and away from the isospin limit. We give an argument using the chiral Lagrangian treatment that, in the strong isospin limit, the nucleons remain degenerate and the delta multiplet breaks into two degenerate pairs to all orders in chiral perturbation theory. We show that the mass splitting between the degenerate pairs of the deltas first appears at quadratic order in the lattice spacing. We discuss the subtleties in the effective chiral theory that arise from the inclusion of isospin breaking
Deconfining chiral transition in QCD on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanaya, Kazuyuki
1995-01-01
The deconfining chiral transition in finite-temperature QCD is studied on the lattice using Wilson quarks. After discussing the nature of chiral limit with Wilson quarks, we first study the case of two degenerate quarks N F =2, and find that the transition is smooth in the chiral limit on both N t =4 and 6 lattices. For N F =3, on the other hand, clear two state signals are observed for m q t =4 lattices. For a more realistic case of N F =2+1, i.e. two degenerate u and d-quarks and a heavier s-quark, we study the cases m s ≅ 150 and 400 MeV with m u = m d ≅ 0: In contrast to a previous result with staggered quarks, clear two state signals are observed for both cases, suggesting a first order QCD phase transition in the real world. (author)
Staggered Pairing Phenomenology for UBe_13
Martisovits, V.; Cox, D. L.
1998-03-01
The staggered-pairing Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology based upon Cooper pairs with a finite center-of-mass momentum was previously applied to the hexagonal heavy-fermion superconductors UPt_3,(R. Heid, Ya. B. Bazaliy, V. Martisovits, and D. L. Cox, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 2571 (1995). UPd_2Al_3, and UNi_2Al_3.(V. Martisovits and D. L. Cox (to be published); Report No. cond-mat/9706245.) Here we apply this phenomenology to study the cubic heavy-fermion superconductor UBe_13. We find the momentum of Cooper pairs to be at X points on the Brillouin-zone boundary and identify a three-component superconducting order parameter transforming as an X-point irreducible representation of the space group. Minimizing the free energy, we find possible superconducting phases and the upper critical field H_c2. We investigate coupling to strain fields and the possibility of magnetic order and charge-density waves induced by superconductivity. To explain multiple superconducting phases in the temperature-thorium-concentration phase diagram of U_1-xTh_xBe_13, we model the influence of thorium in terms of random tetragonal strain fields.
BFF quantization of chiral-boson theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amorim, R.; Barcelos-Neto, J. [Instituto de Fisica Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21945-970, Caixa Postal 68528 (Brazil)
1996-06-01
We use the method due to Batalin, Fradkin, and Fradkina (BFF) for the quantization of chiral-boson theories. We first consider the Floreanini-Jackiw (FJ) formulation, where there is just one (continuous) second-class constraint. The use of the BFF method in this case leads to a nonlocal Wess-Zumino Lagrangian, a result that is in agreement with a treatment based on mode expansions. Next, we deal with the formulation with a linear constraint and the improvements we have to make in order to obtain the same quantum FJ theory. Here, we also show, contrary to a previous treatment in the literature, that there is just one Wess-Zumino Lagrangian. Finally, we discuss the spectra of the resulting models. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.
1981-01-01
The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately
A primer for Chiral Perturbative Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scherer, Stefan; Schindler, Matthias R.; George Washington Univ., Washington, DC
2012-01-01
Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques. (orig.)
A primer for chiral perturbation theory
Scherer, Stefan
2012-01-01
Chiral Perturbation Theory, as effective field theory, is a commonly accepted and well established working tool, approximating quantum chromodynamics at energies well below typical hadron masses. This volume, based on a number of lectures and supplemented with additional material, provides a pedagogical introduction for graduate students and newcomers entering the field from related areas of nuclear and particle physics. Starting with the the Lagrangian of the strong interactions and general symmetry principles, the basic concepts of Chiral Perturbation Theory in the mesonic and baryonic sectors are developed. The application of these concepts is then illustrated with a number of examples. A large number of exercises (81, with complete solutions) are included to familiarize the reader with helpful calculational techniques.
Estimation of Parameters of CCF with Staggered Testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Myung-Ki; Hong, Sung-Yull
2006-01-01
Common cause failures are extremely important in reliability analysis and would be dominant to risk contributor in a high reliable system such as a nuclear power plant. Of particular concern is common cause failure (CCF) that degrades redundancy or diversity implemented to improve a reliability of systems. Most of analyses of parameters of CCF models such as beta factor model, alpha factor model, and MGL(Multiple Greek Letters) model deal a system with a nonstaggered testing strategy. Non-staggered testing is that all components are tested at the same time (or at least the same shift) and staggered testing is that if there is a failure in the first component, all the other components are tested immediately, and if it succeeds, no more is done until the next scheduled testing time. Both of them are applied in the nuclear power plants. The strategy, however, is not explicitly described in the technical specifications, but implicitly in the periodic test procedure. For example, some redundant components particularly important to safety are being tested with staggered testing strategy. Others are being performed with non-staggered testing strategy. This paper presents the parameter estimator of CCF model such as beta factor model, MGL model, and alpha factor model with staggered testing strategy. In addition, a new CCF model, rho factor model, is proposed and its parameter is presented with staggered testing strategy
Scattering of decuplet baryons in chiral effective field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haidenbauer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Petschauer, S.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Meissner, Ulf G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)
2017-11-15
A formalism for treating the scattering of decuplet baryons in chiral effective field theory is developed. The minimal Lagrangian and potentials in leading-order SU(3) chiral effective field theory for the interactions of octet baryons (B) and decuplet baryons (D) for the transitions BB → BB, BB <-> DB, DB → DB, BB <-> DD, DB <-> DD, and DD → DD are provided. As an application of the formalism we compare with results from lattice QCD simulations for ΩΩ and NΩ scattering. Implications of our results pertinent to the quest for dibaryons are discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theodorakis, S.
1988-01-01
This paper presents a phenomenological Lagrangian that fully describes the dynamics of any homogeneous phase of superfluid 3 He, unitary or not, omitting relaxation. This Lagrangian is built by using the concept of a local SO(3) x SO(3) x U(1) symmetry. The spin and angular momentum play the role of gauge fields. We derive the Leggett equations for spin and orbital dynamics from the equations of motion, for both the A and the B phase. This Lagrangian not only enables us to describe both the spin and orbital dynamics of superfluid 3 He in a unified fashion, but can also be used for finding the dynamics in any experimental situation. Furthermore, it can describe the dynamics of the magnitude, as well as of the orientation of the order parameter, and thus it can be used to describe the dynamics of the A-B phase transition
Lagrangian continuum dynamics in ALEGRA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wong, Michael K. W.; Love, Edward
2007-12-01
Alegra is an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) multi-material finite element code that emphasizes large deformations and strong shock physics. The Lagrangian continuum dynamics package in Alegra uses a Galerkin finite element spatial discretization and an explicit central-difference stepping method in time. The goal of this report is to describe in detail the characteristics of this algorithm, including the conservation and stability properties. The details provided should help both researchers and analysts understand the underlying theory and numerical implementation of the Alegra continuum hydrodynamics algorithm.
Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures.
Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; de Moura, André F; Wu, Xiaoling; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A
2017-06-28
The field of chiral inorganic nanostructures is rapidly expanding. It started from the observation of strong circular dichroism during the synthesis of individual nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies and expanded to sophisticated synthetic protocols involving nanostructures from metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and nanocarbons. Besides the well-established chirality transfer from bioorganic molecules, other methods to impart handedness to nanoscale matter specific to inorganic materials were discovered, including three-dimentional lithography, multiphoton chirality transfer, polarization effects in nanoscale assemblies, and others. Multiple chiral geometries were observed with characteristic scales from ångströms to microns. Uniquely high values of chiral anisotropy factors that spurred the development of the field and differentiate it from chiral structures studied before, are now well understood; they originate from strong resonances of incident electromagnetic waves with plasmonic and excitonic states typical for metals and semiconductors. At the same time, distinct similarities with chiral supramolecular and biological systems also emerged. They can be seen in the synthesis and separation methods, chemical properties of individual NPs, geometries of the nanoparticle assemblies, and interactions with biological membranes. Their analysis can help us understand in greater depth the role of chiral asymmetry in nature inclusive of both earth and space. Consideration of both differences and similarities between chiral inorganic, organic, and biological nanostructures will also accelerate the development of technologies based on chiroplasmonic and chiroexcitonic effects. This review will cover both experiment and theory of chiral nanostructures starting with the origin and multiple components of mirror asymmetry of individual NPs and their assemblies. We shall consider four different types of chirality in nanostructures and related physical, chemical, and
Introduction to Chiral Symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2017-05-09
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.
QCD phase transition with chiral quarks and physical quark masses.
Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Buchoff, Michael I; Christ, Norman H; Ding, H-T; Gupta, Rajan; Jung, Chulwoo; Karsch, F; Lin, Zhongjie; Mawhinney, R D; McGlynn, Greg; Mukherjee, Swagato; Murphy, David; Petreczky, P; Renfrew, Dwight; Schroeder, Chris; Soltz, R A; Vranas, P M; Yin, Hantao
2014-08-22
We report on the first lattice calculation of the QCD phase transition using chiral fermions with physical quark masses. This calculation uses 2+1 quark flavors, spatial volumes between (4 fm)(3) and (11 fm)(3) and temperatures between 139 and 196 MeV. Each temperature is calculated at a single lattice spacing corresponding to a temporal Euclidean extent of N(t) = 8. The disconnected chiral susceptibility, χ(disc) shows a pronounced peak whose position and height depend sensitively on the quark mass. We find no metastability near the peak and a peak height which does not change when a 5 fm spatial extent is increased to 10 fm. Each result is strong evidence that the QCD "phase transition" is not first order but a continuous crossover for m(π) = 135 MeV. The peak location determines a pseudocritical temperature T(c) = 155(1)(8) MeV, in agreement with earlier staggered fermion results. However, the peak height is 50% greater than that suggested by previous staggered results. Chiral SU(2)(L) × SU(2)(R) symmetry is fully restored above 164 MeV, but anomalous U(1)(A) symmetry breaking is nonzero above T(c) and vanishes as T is increased to 196 MeV.
Remarks on gauge variables and singular Lagrangians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chela-Flores, J.; Janica-de-la-Torre, R.; Kalnay, A.J.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Rodriguez-Nunez, J.; Tascon, R.
1977-01-01
The relevance is discussed of gauge theory, based on a singular Lagrangian density, to the foundations of field theory. The idea that gauge transformations could change the physics of systems where the Lagrangian is singular is examined. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toru, Kojo; Hidaka, Y.; Pisarski, R.; McLerran, L.
2010-01-01
We argue the properties of confining dense quark matter, 'quarkyonic' matter, from the viewpoint of both bulk properties and excitation modes. After a brief review of confining aspects, the chiral breaking/restoration will be discussed. We argue that the strong infrared correlations induce the chiral spiral, i.e., the spatial modulation of the chiral condensate which breaks the chiral symmetry locally but restore it globally. The effective dimensional reduction takes place, allowing us to analyzing the system as 2D model in which several exact results can be explicitly derived. We also discuss the excitation spectra, both mesonic and baryonic ones, on the chiral spiral. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas Mehen; Brian C. Tiburzi
2006-07-17
We extend the chiral Lagrangian with heavy quark-diquark symmetry to quenched and partially quenched theories. These theories are used to derive formulae for the chiral extrapolation of masses and hyperfine splittings of doubly heavy baryons in lattice QCD simulations. A quark-diquark symmetry prediction for the hyperfine splittings of heavy mesons and doubly heavy baryons is rather insensitive to chiral corrections in both quenched and partially quenched QCD. Extrapolation formulae for the doubly heavy baryon electromagnetic transition moments are also determined for the partially quenched theory.
Chiral perturbation theory for lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baer, Oliver
2010-07-21
The formulation of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) for lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is reviewed. We start with brief summaries of ChPT for continuum QCD as well as the Symanzik effective theory for lattice QCD. We then review the formulation of ChPT for lattice QCD. After an additional chapter on partial quenching and mixed action theories various concrete applications are discussed: Wilson ChPT, staggered ChPT and Wilson ChPT with a twisted mass term. The remaining chapters deal with the epsilon regime with Wilson fermions and selected results in mixed action ChPT. Finally, the formulation of heavy vector meson ChPT with Wilson fermions is discussed. (orig.)
On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toppan, Francesco
2011-01-01
In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)
On chiral and non chiral 1D supermultiplets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toppan, Francesco, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (TEO/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Teorica
2011-07-01
In this talk I discuss and clarify some issues concerning chiral and non chiral properties of the one-dimensional supermultiplets of the N-extended supersymmetry. Quaternionic chirality can be defined for N = 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Octonionic chirality for N = 8 and beyond. Inequivalent chiralities only arise when considering several copies of N = 4 or N = 8 supermultiplets. (author)
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)
Analysis of K → 3π decays in chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Haiyang; Cheung, C.Y.; Yeung Waibong
1989-01-01
Using the recently proposed higher-order chiral Lagrangians determined from the integration of nontopological chiral anomalies, we calculate corrections to the current-algebra analysis of K→3π decay amplitudes expanded in powers of the Dalitz variables. Effects of quartic-derivative weak chiral Lagrangians are determined through the use of short-distance effective weak Hamiltonian and the factorization method. We find that (1) the constant and linear terms in the amplitude for ΔI=1/2 K→3π are in excellent agreement with experiment; the previous discrepancy of (20-35)% between current algebra and data is thus accounted for by the higher-order effective Lagrangians, (2) the penguin interaction does not play an essential role in the ΔI=1/2 rule, for otherwise it will lead to a large disagreement for the constant and linear terms, (3) one of the two quadratic terms in the ΔI=1/2 process, which arise from the quartic chiral Lagrangians, is in accord with data within experimental errors, while the other is off by four standard deviations, (4) the linear term in the ΔI=3/2 transitions is in good agreement with experiment and contributions from quadratic terms are sizable. (orig.)
Effective Lagrangian Approach to pion photoproduction from the nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Ramirez, C.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Udias, J.M.
2006-01-01
We present a pion photoproduction model on the free nucleon based on an Effective Lagrangian Approach (ELA) which includes the nucleon resonances (Δ(1232), N(1440), N(1520), N(1535), Δ(1620), N(1650), and Δ(1700)), in addition to Born and vector meson exchange terms. The model incorporates a new theoretical treatment of spin-3/2 resonances, first introduced by Pascalutsa, avoiding pathologies present in previous models. Other main features of the model are chiral symmetry, gauge invariance, and crossing symmetry. We use the model combined with modern optimization techniques to assess the parameters of the nucleon resonances on the basis of world data on electromagnetic multipoles. We present results for electromagnetic multipoles, differential cross-sections, asymmetries, and total cross-sections for all one pion photoproduction processes on free nucleons. We find overall agreement with data from threshold up to 1 GeV in laboratory frame
Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing
2017-09-19
any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...waves, mixing, stirring 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Craig
Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F
2012-09-01
Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.
Kesselgruber, Martin
2001-01-01
The element of planar chirality turned out to be of special importance to achieve high enantioselectivities in various asymmetric processes. In the course of this PhD thesis, the sulfoximine unit was established as a new chiral ortho-directing group for ferrocenes. By variation of the metal fragment and other structural properties of a published chiral ligand, a cyclopentadienylrhenium(I)tricarbonyl complex was identified as more selective than the original ferrocene system in the asymmetric ...
Fingerprints of heavy scales in electroweak effective Lagrangians
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pich, Antonio [Departament de Física Teòrica, IFIC, Universitat de València - CSIC,Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Rosell, Ignasi [Departamento de Matemáticas, Física y Ciencias Tecnológicas,Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, E-46115 Alfara del Patriarca, València (Spain); Santos, Joaquín [Departament de Física Teòrica, IFIC, Universitat de València - CSIC,Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Sanz-Cillero, Juan José [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid,E-28040 Madrid (Spain)
2017-04-04
The couplings of the electroweak effective theory contain information on the heavy-mass scales which are no-longer present in the low-energy Lagrangian. We build a general effective Lagrangian, implementing the electroweak chiral symmetry breaking SU(2){sub L}⊗SU(2){sub R}→SU(2){sub L+R}, which couples the known particle fields to heavier states with bosonic quantum numbers J{sup P}=0{sup ±} and 1{sup ±}. We consider colour-singlet heavy fields that are in singlet or triplet representations of the electroweak group. Integrating out these heavy scales, we analyze the pattern of low-energy couplings among the light fields which are generated by the massive states. We adopt a generic non-linear realization of the electroweak symmetry breaking with a singlet Higgs, without making any assumption about its possible doublet structure. Special attention is given to the different possible descriptions of massive spin-1 fields and the differences arising from naive implementations of these formalisms, showing their full equivalence once a proper short-distance behaviour is required.
Progress toward the effective Quantum Chromodynamic Lagrangian from symmetry considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salomone, A.N.
1982-01-01
The properties of an effective Lagrangian which satisfies both the axial and trace anomaly equations of Quantum Chromodynamics are investigated both from the theoretical and phenomenological points of view. The model Lagrangian requires that chiral symmetry be broken spontaneously. The non-linear approximation of the model illuminates eta-glue duality or mixing. The phase transition behavior of the model of Quantum Chromodynamics can be studied as the numbers of flavors and the vacuum angle are varied by analyzing a simple mechanical analog. The analog of the model is similar to the massive Schwinger model. The possibility of a physical scalar glue state is discussed and it is shown that it is characterized by a pronounced eta to two glue decay width. A nonperturbative Quantum Chromodynamic vacuum is seen to follow directly from satisfying the trace anomaly. The quark matter meson, eta, is at least as prominent as the glueball, iota, in the gluon dominated reaction psi to gamma plus anything. An associated large breaking of flavor SU(3) is shown to be ameliorated as the model is made more realistic by lowering scalar meson masses from infinity. The pi delta decay of the iota (1440) can be reasonably well estimated without the need of introducing any new parameters
A few words about resonances in the electroweak effective Lagrangian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosell, Ignasi [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y de la Computación, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, c/ Sant Bartomeu 55, 46115 Alfara del Patriarca, València (Spain); Pich, Antonio; Santos, Joaquín [Departament de Física Teòrica, IFIC, Universitat de València – CSIC, Apt. Correus 22085, 46071 València (Spain); Sanz-Cillero, Juan José [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2016-01-22
Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models including both a light Higgs-like boson and massive spin-1 resonances are not in conflict with experimental constraints on the oblique S and T parameters. We use an effective Lagrangian implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU (2){sub L} ⊗ SU (2){sub R} → SU (2){sub L+R} that contains the Standard Model gauge bosons coupled to the electroweak Goldstones, one Higgs-like scalar state h with mass m{sub h} = 126 GeV and the lightest vector and axial-vector resonance multiplets V and A. We have considered the one-loop calculation of S and T in order to study the viability of these strongly-coupled scenarios, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the calculation. Once we have constrained the resonance parameters, we do a first approach to the determination of the low energy constants of the electroweak effective theory at low energies (without resonances). We show this determination in the case of the purely Higgsless bosonic Lagrangian.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alkofer, R.; Reinhardt, H.
1995-01-01
This book is an introduction to chiral quark dynamics. In the first chapter the reduction of low-energy QCD to QFD with the derivation of effective low-energy quark interactions and invariance properties is described. Then the effective meson theory is introduced. In this connection the functional integral bosonization of the quark-antiquark interaction, the small amplitude expansion of the action, the dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry, the Bethe-Salpeter equation for pseudoscalar mesons, the gauged linear σ model, the Skyrme model, and the chiral anomaly are considered. Then baryons are described as chiral solitons. Finally baryons are considered as bound states of diquarks and quarks. (HSI)
Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials (DCPM) with tunable resonance frequencies have been developed by adding plasmonic inclusions into chiral polymers with variable...
Chen, Ting; Li, Shu-Ying; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun
2017-11-01
Noncovalently introducing stereogenic information is a promising approach to embed chirality in achiral molecular systems. However, the interplay of the noncovalently introduced chirality with the intrinsic chirality of molecules or molecular aggregations has rarely been addressed. We report a competitive chiral expression of the noncovalent interaction-mediated chirality induction and the intrinsic stereogenic center-controlled chirality induction in a two-dimensional (2D) molecular assembly at the liquid/solid interface. Two enantiomorphous honeycomb networks are formed by the coassembly of an achiral 5-(benzyloxy)isophthalic acid (BIC) derivative and 1-octanol at the liquid/solid interface. The preferential formation of the globally homochiral assembly can be achieved either by using the chiral analog of 1-octanol, ( S )-6-methyl-1-octanol, as a chiral coadsorber to induce chirality to the BIC assembly via noncovalent hydrogen bonding or by covalently linking a chiral center in the side chain of BIC. Both the chiral coadsorber and the intrinsically chiral BIC derivative can act as a chiral seeds to induce a preferred handedness in the assembly of the achiral BIC derivatives. Furthermore, the noncovalent interaction-mediated chirality induction can restrain or even overrule the manifestation of the intrinsic chirality of the BIC molecule and dominate the handedness of the 2D molecular coassembly. This study provides insight into the interplay of intrinsically chiral centers and external chiral coadsorbers in the chiral induction, transfer, and amplification processes of 2D molecular assembly.
Lagrangian multi-particle statistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lüthi, Beat; Berg, Jacob; Ott, Søren
2007-01-01
Combined measurements of the Lagrangian evolution of particle constellations and the coarse-grained velocity derivative tensor. partial derivative(u) over tilde (i) /partial derivative x(j) are presented. The data are obtained from three-dimensional particle tracking measurements in a quasi....... Based on an analytical result and on a sensitivity analysis, both presented here, we estimate the accuracy for filtered strain, (s) over tilde (2), and enstrophy, (omega) over tilde (2), at around 30%. The accuracy improves with higher tracer seeding density and with smaller filter scale Delta. We...
Investigation of chiral bands in {sup 106}Ag
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lieder, Evgenia [Themba LABS, Somerset West (South Africa); FhG, INT, Euskirchen (Germany); Lieder, Rainer; Bark, Rob; Lawrie, Elena; Lawrie, Kobus; Ntshangase, Sifiso; Mullins, Simon; Papka, Paul; Kheswa, Ntombi [Themba LABS, Somerset West (South Africa); Meng, Jie [PhS, PKU, Beijing (China); PhS, BUAA, Beijing (China); Qi, Bin [SDU, Weihai (China); Zhang, Shuangquan; Li, Zhipan [PhS, PKU, Beijing (China)
2010-07-01
Dipole bands in {sup 106}Ag have been studied with the {gamma}-detector array AFRODITE at iThemba LABS, South Africa. A {sup 96}Zr({sup 14}N,4n){sup 106}Ag reaction at a beam energy of 71 MeV has been used. The three previously known negative-parity bands in {sup 106}Ag have been extended. Bands 1 and 2 were proposed to be chiral partner bands. However, in view of the present results, bands 2 and 3 seem to be better candidates for chiral partner bands since their staggering parameters, B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, kinematic moments of inertia and quasiparticle alignments agree much better than those of bands 1 and 2. Triaxial relativistic mean field (RMF) and particle-rotor model (PRM) calculations support this interpretation. In the potential energy surface of {sup 106}Ag, obtained in RMF calculations, two minima have been found in the {beta}{sub 2}-{gamma} plane. Based on PRM calculations using the deformation parameters of the two minima and a {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}g{sup -1}{sub 9/2} particle-hole configuration, bands 2 and 3 may represent partners with chiral vibration at {gamma}{approx}12degree. Band 1, located in the other minimum, may be a magnetic dipole band or the partner of a second pair of chiral bands.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this talk I review studies of hadron properties in bosonized chiral quark models for the quark ﬂavor dynamics. Mesons are constructed from Bethe–Salpeter equations and baryons emerge as chiral solitons. Such models require regularization and I show that the two-fold Pauli–Villars regularization scheme not only fully ...
Some aspects of chirality: Fermion masses and chiral p-forms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppe, A.
1997-05-01
The properties of fermion mass matrices are investigated from different points of view, both within the minimal Standard Model and in extensions of the model. It is shown how mass matrix invariants are used to define the measurables of the quark mixing matrix as invariant functions of the mass matrices. One model is presented where the family pattern is suggested to originate from a kind of mass scaling. A Lagrangian density is defined for an entire charge sector, such that the existence of a Dirac field with mass m 0 implies the existence of other Dirac fields where the corresponding quanta have masses Rm 0 , R 2 m 0 , .. which are obtained by a discrete scale transformation. This suggests a certain type of democratic fermion mass matrices. Also extensions of the minimal Standard Model are investigated, obtained by including right-handed neutrinos in the model. The Standard Model extended by two right-handed neutrinos gives rise to a mass spectrum with two massive and three massless neutrinos. The phenomenological consequences of this model are discussed. The neutrino mass matrix in such a scheme has what is defined as a democratic texture. They are studied for the cases with two and three right-handed neutrinos, resp. The chiral fields that we find in the Standard Model have certain similarities with self-dual fields. Among other things, both chiral and self-dual fields suffer species doubling on the lattice. Chiral p-forms are self-dual fields that appear in twice odd dimensions. Chiral p-forms violate manifest covariance, in the same sense as manifest covariance is violated by non-covariant gauges in electrodynamics. It is shown that a covariant action can nevertheless be formulated for chiral p-forms, by introducing an infinite set of gauge fields in a carefully controlled way
Some aspects of chirality: Fermion masses and chiral p-forms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleppe, A.
1997-05-01
The properties of fermion mass matrices are investigated from different points of view, both within the minimal Standard Model and in extensions of the model. It is shown how mass matrix invariants are used to define the measurables of the quark mixing matrix as invariant functions of the mass matrices. One model is presented where the family pattern is suggested to originate from a kind of mass scaling. A Lagrangian density is defined for an entire charge sector, such that the existence of a Dirac field with mass m{sub 0} implies the existence of other Dirac fields where the corresponding quanta have masses Rm{sub 0}, R{sup 2}m{sub 0}, .. which are obtained by a discrete scale transformation. This suggests a certain type of democratic fermion mass matrices. Also extensions of the minimal Standard Model are investigated, obtained by including right-handed neutrinos in the model. The Standard Model extended by two right-handed neutrinos gives rise to a mass spectrum with two massive and three massless neutrinos. The phenomenological consequences of this model are discussed. The neutrino mass matrix in such a scheme has what is defined as a democratic texture. They are studied for the cases with two and three right-handed neutrinos, resp. The chiral fields that we find in the Standard Model have certain similarities with self-dual fields. Among other things, both chiral and self-dual fields suffer species doubling on the lattice. Chiral p-forms are self-dual fields that appear in twice odd dimensions. Chiral p-forms violate manifest covariance, in the same sense as manifest covariance is violated by non-covariant gauges in electrodynamics. It is shown that a covariant action can nevertheless be formulated for chiral p-forms, by introducing an infinite set of gauge fields in a carefully controlled way.
Zhu, Hanyu
2018-02-01
Chirality reveals symmetry breaking of the fundamental interaction of elementary particles. In condensed matter, for example, the chirality of electrons governs many unconventional transport phenomena such as the quantum Hall effect. Here we show that phonons can exhibit intrinsic chirality in monolayer tungsten diselenide. The broken inversion symmetry of the lattice lifts the degeneracy of clockwise and counterclockwise phonon modes at the corners of the Brillouin zone. We identified the phonons by the intervalley transfer of holes through hole-phonon interactions during the indirect infrared absorption, and we confirmed their chirality by the infrared circular dichroism arising from pseudoangular momentum conservation. The chiral phonons are important for electron-phonon coupling in solids, phonon-driven topological states, and energy-efficient information processing.
Reaction mechanisms and staggering in S+Ni collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad.R.
2011-01-01
The reactions 32 S+ 58 Ni and 32 S+ 64 Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. After a selection of the collision mechanism, we show that important even-odd effects are present in the isotopic fragment distributions when the excitation energy is small. Close to the multifragmentation threshold this staggering appears hidden by the rapid variation of the production yields with the fragment size. Once this effect is accounted for, the staggering appears to be a universal feature of fragment production, slightly enhanced when the emission source is neutron poor. A closer look at the behavior of the production yields as a function of the neutron excess N-Z, reveals that odd-even effects cannot be explained by pairing effects in the nuclear masses alone, but depend in a more complex way on the de-excitation chain.
LES investigation of infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis
2014-01-01
The layouts of turbines affect the turbine wake interactions and thus the wind farm performance. The wake interactions in infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays are investigated and compared with infinite aligned turbine arrays in this paper. From the numerical results we identify three types of wake behaviours, which are significantly different from wakes in aligned wind-turbine arrays. For the first type, each turbine wake interferes with the pair of staggered downstream turbine wakes and the aligned downstream turbine. For the second type, each turbine wake interacts with the first two downstream turbine wakes but does not show significant interference with the second aligned downstream turbine. For the third type, each turbine wake recovers immediately after passing through the gap of the first two downstream turbines and has little interaction with the second downstream turbine wakes The extracted power density and power efficiency are also studied and compared with aligned wind-turbine arrays
MILC staggered conjugate gradient performance on Intel KNL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Ruiz [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Detar, Carleton [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Doerfler, Douglas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC); Gottlieb, Steven [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Jha, Asish [Intel Corp., Hillsboro, OR (United States). Sofware and Services Group; Kalamkar, Dhiraj [Intel Labs., Bangalore (India). Parallel Computing Lab.; Toussaint, Doug [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Physics Dept.
2016-11-03
We review our work done to optimize the staggered conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm in the MILC code for use with the Intel Knights Landing (KNL) architecture. KNL is the second gener- ation Intel Xeon Phi processor. It is capable of massive thread parallelism, data parallelism, and high on-board memory bandwidth and is being adopted in supercomputing centers for scientific research. The CG solver consumes the majority of time in production running, so we have spent most of our effort on it. We compare performance of an MPI+OpenMP baseline version of the MILC code with a version incorporating the QPhiX staggered CG solver, for both one-node and multi-node runs.
An interpretation of staggering effects by correlation observables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baiocco G.
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The reactions 32S+58,64Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for odd-even effects in isotopic observables of the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique, showing that odd-even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.
An optimal staggered harvesting strategy for herbaceous biomass energy crops
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhat, M.G.; English, B.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
1993-12-31
Biofuel research over the past two decades indicates lignocellulosic crops are a reliable source of feedstock for alternative energy. However, under the current technology of producing, harvesting and converting biomass crops, the cost of biofuel is not competitive with conventional biofuel. Cost of harvesting biomass feedstock is a single largest component of feedstock cost so there is a cost advantage in designing a biomass harvesting system. Traditional farmer-initiated harvesting operation causes over investment. This study develops a least-cost, time-distributed (staggered) harvesting system for example switch grass, that calls for an effective coordination between farmers, processing plant and a single third-party custom harvester. A linear programming model explicitly accounts for the trade-off between yield loss and benefit of reduced machinery overhead cost, associated with the staggered harvesting system. Total cost of producing and harvesting switch grass will decline by 17.94 percent from conventional non-staggered to proposed staggered harvesting strategy. Harvesting machinery cost alone experiences a significant reduction of 39.68 percent from moving from former to latter. The net return to farmers is estimated to increase by 160.40 percent. Per tonne and per hectare costs of feedstock production will decline by 17.94 percent and 24.78 percent, respectively. These results clearly lend support to the view that the traditional system of single period harvesting calls for over investment on agricultural machinery which escalates the feedstock cost. This social loss to the society in the form of escalated harvesting cost can be avoided if there is a proper coordination among farmers, processing plant and custom harvesters as to when and how biomass crop needs to be planted and harvested. Such an institutional arrangement benefits producers, processing plant and, in turn, end users of biofuels.
Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arsana I Made
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.
Terschlüsen, Carla; Leupold, Stefan
2016-07-01
Starting from a relativistic Lagrangian for pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons and vector mesons in the antisymmetric tensor representation, a one-loop calculation is performed to pin down the divergent structures that appear for the effective low-energy action at chiral orders Q2 and Q4 . The corresponding renormalization-scale dependencies of all low-energy constants up to chiral order Q4 are determined. Calculations are carried out for both the pseudoscalar octet and the pseudoscalar nonet, the latter in the framework of chiral perturbation theory in the limit of a large number of colors.
Lagrangian ocean analysis : Fundamentals and practices
van Sebille, Erik; Griffies, Stephen M.; Abernathey, Ryan; Adams, Thomas P.; Berloff, Pavel; Biastoch, Arne; Blanke, Bruno; Chassignet, Eric P.; Cheng, Yu; Cotter, Colin J.; Deleersnijder, Eric; Döös, Kristofer; Drake, Henri F.; Drijfhout, Sybren; Gary, Stefan F.; Heemink, Arnold W.; Kjellsson, Joakim; Koszalka, Inga Monika; Lange, Michael; Lique, Camille; MacGilchrist, Graeme A.; Marsh, Robert; Mayorga Adame, C. Gabriela; McAdam, Ronan; Nencioli, Francesco; Paris, Claire B.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Polton, Jeff A.; Rühs, Siren; Shah, Syed H.A.M.; Thomas, Matthew D.; Wang, Jinbo; Wolfram, Phillip J.; Zanna, Laure; Zika, Jan D.
2018-01-01
Lagrangian analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the Lagrangian approach, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. Over several decades,
Lagrangian ocean analysis : Fundamentals and practices
van Sebille, Erik; Deleersnijder, E.L.C.; Heemink, A.W.; Griffies, Stepehn M.; Abernathey, Ryan; Adams, Thomas P.; Berloff, Pavel; Biastoch, Arne; Blanke, Bruno; Chassignet, Eric P.; Authors, More
2018-01-01
Lagrangian analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the Lagrangian approach, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. Over several
Lagrangian Vortices in Developing Tropical Cyclones
2015-06-25
Meteorological Society Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2015) Lagrangian Vortices in Developing Tropical Cyclones these vortices through diabatic vortex stretching or...through horizontal mergers. The Lagrangian structures and their role in the merger of these smaller vorticity anomalies and diabatic activation
On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbashov, B.M.
2001-01-01
The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a special Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge
On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbashov, B.M.
2001-01-01
The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a specific Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge
A Lagrangian-dependent metric space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Tahir, A.
1989-08-01
A generalized Lagrangian-dependent metric of the static isotropic spacetime is derived. Its behaviour should be governed by imposing physical constraints allowing to avert the pathological features of gravity at the strong field domain. This would restrict the choice of the Lagrangian form. (author). 10 refs
Lagrangian submanifolds and dynamics on Lie algebroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leon, Manuel de; Marrero, Juan C; MartInez, Eduardo
2005-01-01
In some previous papers, a geometric description of Lagrangian mechanics on Lie algebroids has been developed. In this topical review, we give a Hamiltonian description of mechanics on Lie algebroids. In addition, we introduce the notion of a Lagrangian submanifold of a symplectic Lie algebroid and we prove that the Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) dynamics on Lie algebroids may be described in terms of Lagrangian submanifolds of symplectic Lie algebroids. The Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) formalism on Lie algebroids permits us to deal with Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) functions not defined necessarily on tangent (cotangent) bundles. Thus, we may apply our results to the projection of Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) functions which are invariant under the action of a symmetry Lie group. As a consequence, we obtain that Lagrange-Poincare (Hamilton-Poincare) equations are the Euler-Lagrange (Hamilton) equations associated with the corresponding Atiyah algebroid. Moreover, we prove that Lagrange-Poincare (Hamilton-Poincare) equations are the local equations defining certain Lagrangian submanifolds of symplectic Atiyah algebroids. (topical review)
Applications of chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisarski, R.D.
1995-03-01
The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T χ implies that the ρ and a 1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, m ρ (T χ ) > m ρ (0). The author conjectures that at T χ the thermal ρ - a 1 , peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by T χ . The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates
Spectral signatures of chirality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger
2009-01-01
We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musakhanov, M.M.
1980-01-01
The chiral bag model is considered. It is suggested that pions interact only with the surface of a quark ''bag'' and do not penetrate inside. In the case of a large bag the pion field is rather weak and goes to the linearized chiral bag model. Within that model the baryon mass spectrum, β decay axial constant, magnetic moments of baryons, pion-baryon coupling constants and their form factors are calculated. It is shown that pion corrections to the calculations according to the chiral bag model is essential. The obtained results are found to be in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data
Sadofyev, Andrey; Sen, Srimoyee
2018-02-01
The linearized Einstein equation describing graviton propagation through a chiral medium appears to be helicity dependent. We analyze features of the corresponding spectrum in a collision-less regime above a flat background. In the long wave-length limit, circularly polarized metric perturbations travel with a helicity dependent group velocity that can turn negative giving rise to a new type of an anomalous dispersion. We further show that this chiral anomalous dispersion is a general feature of polarized modes propagating through chiral plasmas extending our result to the electromagnetic sector.
Chiral symmetry breakings in supersymmetric QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shinmura, Mamoru; Yamawaki, Koichi (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics)
1984-05-01
It is argued that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in supersymmetric QCD is due to the boson pair condensation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becher,
2002-08-08
After contrasting the low energy effective theory for the baryon sector with one for the Goldstone sector, I use the example of pion nucleon scattering to discuss some of the progress and open issues in baryon chiral perturbation theory.
Wang, Jian-Bo; Reetz, Manfred T.
2015-12-01
Racemic or enantiomerically pure alcohols can be converted with high yield into enantiopure chiral amines in a one-pot redox-neutral cascade process by the clever combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase and an appropriate amine dehydrogenase.
Nonlinear chiral transport phenomena
Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Ishii, Takeaki; Pu, Shi; Yamamoto, Naoki
2016-06-01
We study the nonlinear responses of relativistic chiral matter to the external fields such as the electric field E , gradients of temperature and chemical potential, ∇T and ∇μ . Using the kinetic theory with Berry curvature corrections under the relaxation time approximation, we compute the transport coefficients of possible new electric currents that are forbidden in usual chirally symmetric matter but are allowed in chirally asymmetric matter by parity. In particular, we find a new type of electric current proportional to ∇μ ×E due to the interplay between the effects of the Berry curvature and collisions. We also derive an analog of the "Wiedemann-Franz" law specific for anomalous nonlinear transport in relativistic chiral matter.
Nucleon form factors in the projected linear chiral soliton model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberto, P.; Coimbra Univ.; Coimbra Univ.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Gruemmer, F.; Fiolhais, M.; Urbano, J.N.; Coimbra Univ.; Goeke, K.; Bochum Univ.
1988-01-01
Electromagnetic and axial form factors of the nucleon are evaluated using the lagrangian of the linear chiral soliton model. To this end angular momentum and isospin projected mean field solutions are determined variationally assuming valence quarks and pions in generalized hedgehog configurations. With the proper pion decay constant and after fitting the quark-meson coupling constant to the nucleon energy both proton and neutron charge form factors are reproduced as well as the slope of the magnetic ones. The axial form factor agrees less well with experiment. The pion form factor can be approximated by a monopole with a cut-off mass of 690 MeV. (orig.)
Towards an understanding of staggering effects in dissipative binary collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Barlini, S.; Cannata, F.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Raduta, Ad.R.
2012-01-01
The reactions 32 S+ 58,64 Ni are studied at 14.5 A MeV. Evidence is found for important odd–even effects in isotopic observables of selected peripheral collisions corresponding to the decay of a projectile-like source. The influence of secondary decays on the staggering is studied with a correlation function technique. It is shown that this method is a powerful tool to get experimental information on the evaporation chain, in order to constrain model calculations. Specifically, we show that odd–even effects are due to interplay between pairing effects in the nuclear masses and in the level densities.
Improving the quark number susceptibilities for staggered fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavai, Rajiv V.
2003-01-01
Quark number susceptibilities approach their ideal gas limit at sufficiently high temperatures. As in the case of other thermodynamic quantities, this limit itself is altered substantially on lattices with small temporal extent, N t = 4-8, making it thus difficult to check the validity of perturbation theory. Unlike other observables, improving susceptibilities or number densities is subject to constraints of current conservation and absence of chemical potential (μ) dependent divergences. We construct such an improved number density and susceptibility for staggered fermions and show that they approximate the continuum ideal gas limit better on small temporal lattices
A gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework for kaon photo- and electroproduction on the proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borasoy, B.; Bruns, P.C.; Nissler, R.; Meissner, U.G.
2007-01-01
We present a gauge-invariant approach to photoproduction of mesons on nucleons within a chiral unitary framework. The interaction kernel for meson-baryon scattering is derived from the chiral effective Lagrangian and iterated in a Bethe-Salpeter equation. Within the leading-order approximation to the interaction kernel, data on kaon photoproduction from SAPHIR, CLAS and CBELSA/TAPS are analyzed in the threshold region. The importance of gauge invariance and the precision of various approximations in the interaction kernel utilized in earlier works are discussed. (orig.)
Chiral model predictions for electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon: A 'consumer report'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broniowski, W.
1992-01-01
This contribution has two parts: (1) The author critically discusses predictions for the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon obtained in two different approaches: (a) hedgehog models (HM), such as Skyrmions, chiral quark models, hybrid bags, NJL etc., and (b) chiral perturbation theory (χPT). (2) The author shows new results obtained in HM: N c -counting of polarizabilities, splitting of the neutron and proton polarizabilities (he argues that α n > α p in models with pionic clouds), relevance of dispersive terms in the magnetic polarizability β, important role of the Δ resonance in pionic loops, and the effects of non-minimal substitution terms in the effective lagrangian. 3 refs
XFEM Modelling of Multi-holes Plate with Single-row and Staggered Holes Configurations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Supar Khairi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Joint efficiency is the key to composite structures assembly design, good structures response is dependent upon multi-holes behavior as subjected to remote loading. Current benchmarking work were following experimental testing series taken from literature on multi-holes problem. Eleven multi-hole configurations were investigated with various pitch and gage distance of staggered holes and non-staggered holes (single-row holes. Various failure modes were exhibited, most staggered holes demonstrates staggered crack path but non-staggered holes series displayed crack path along net-section plane. Stress distribution were carried out and good agreement were exhibited in experimental observation as reported in the respective literature. Consequently, strength prediction work were carried out under quasi-static loading, most showed discrepancy between 8% -31%, better prediction were exhibited in thicker and non-staggered holes plate combinations.
Chiral higher spin theories and self-duality
Ponomarev, Dmitry
2017-12-01
We study recently proposed chiral higher spin theories — cubic theories of interacting massless higher spin fields in four-dimensional flat space. We show that they are naturally associated with gauge algebras, which manifest themselves in several related ways. Firstly, the chiral higher spin equations of motion can be reformulated as the self-dual Yang-Mills equations with the associated gauge algebras instead of the usual colour gauge algebra. We also demonstrate that the chiral higher spin field equations, similarly to the self-dual Yang-Mills equations, feature an infinite algebra of hidden symmetries, which ensures their integrability. Secondly, we show that off-shell amplitudes in chiral higher spin theories satisfy the generalised BCJ relations with the usual colour structure constants replaced by the structure constants of higher spin gauge algebras. We also propose generalised double copy procedures featuring higher spin theory amplitudes. Finally, using the light-cone deformation procedure we prove that the structure of the Lagrangian that leads to all these properties is universal and follows from Lorentz invariance.
Option volatility and the acceleration Lagrangian
Baaquie, Belal E.; Cao, Yang
2014-01-01
This paper develops a volatility formula for option on an asset from an acceleration Lagrangian model and the formula is calibrated with market data. The Black-Scholes model is a simpler case that has a velocity dependent Lagrangian. The acceleration Lagrangian is defined, and the classical solution of the system in Euclidean time is solved by choosing proper boundary conditions. The conditional probability distribution of final position given the initial position is obtained from the transition amplitude. The volatility is the standard deviation of the conditional probability distribution. Using the conditional probability and the path integral method, the martingale condition is applied, and one of the parameters in the Lagrangian is fixed. The call option price is obtained using the conditional probability and the path integral method.
Lagrangian methods in plasma dynamics. II - Construction of Lagrangians for plasmas
Dougherty, J. P.
1974-01-01
Consideration of the construction of suitable Lagrangian functions for the dynamics of a cold plasma in such a way as to retain the relativistically covariant formalism. In one method, this is achieved by the introduction of a set of three variables which label the world lines of the particles. A second method results in a Clebsch-type representation. Sturrock's relativistic Lagrangian and Low's hot plasma Lagrangian are also briefly discussed in the context of the present work. The behavior of the canonical stress tensor is considered. The applicability of many of the general results in part I (Dougherty, 1970) is ensured by establishing the existence of the Lagrangian function.
Problems of vector Lagrangians in field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivsky, I.Yu.; Simulik, V.M.
1997-01-01
A vector Lagrange approach to the Dirac spinor field and the relationship between the vector Lagrangians for the spinor and electromagnetic fields are considered. A vector Lagrange approach for the system of interacting electromagnetic B=(B μ υ)=(E-bar,H-bar) and spinor Ψ fields is constructed. New Lagrangians (scalar and vector) for electromagnetic field in terms of field strengths are found. The foundations of two new QED models are formulated
Global phenomenological descriptions of nuclear odd-even mass staggering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hove, Dennis; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm; Riisager, Karsten
2013-01-01
We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined ...... into a global phenomenological expression, ready to use in a binding energy formula. The results deviate from previous parametrizations, and in particular found to be significantly superior to a recent two term, A−1 dependence.......We examine the general nature of nuclear odd-even mass differences by employing neutron and proton mass relations that emphasize these effects. The most recent mass tables are used. The possibility of a neutron excess dependence of the staggering is examined in detail in separate regions defined...... by the main nuclear shells, and a clear change in this dependency is found at Z=50 for both neutrons and protons. A further separation into odd and even neutron (proton) number produces very accurate local descriptions of the mass differences for each type of nucleons. These odd-even effects are combined...
ΔI = 2 Nuclear Staggering in Superdeformed Rotational Bands
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Okasha M. D.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A four parameters model including collective rotational en ergies to fourth order is ap- plied to reproduce the ∆ I = 2 staggering in transition energies in four selected super deformed rotational bands, namely, 148 Gd (SD6, 194 Hg (SD1, SD2, SD3. The model parameters and the spin of the bandhead have been extracted a ssuming various val- ues to the lowest spin of the bandhead at nearest integer, in o rder to obtain a minimum root mean square deviation between calculated and the exper imental transition energies. This allows us to suggest the spin values for the energy level s which are experimentally unknown. For each band a staggering parameter represent the deviation of the transition energies from a smooth reference has been determined by calc ulating the fourth order derivative of the transition energies at a given spin. The st aggering parameter contains five consecutive transition energies which is denoted here a s the five-point formula. In order to get information about the dynamical moment of ine rtia, the two point for- mula which contains only two consecutive transition energi es has been also considered. The dynamical moment of inertia decreasing with increasing rotational frequency for A ∼ 150, while increasing for A ∼ 190 mass regions.
Chiral anomalies and differential geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zumino, B.
1983-10-01
Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobrev, Veselin A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolev, Tzanio V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rieben, Robert N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2012-09-20
The numerical approximation of the Euler equations of gas dynamics in a movingLagrangian frame is at the heart of many multiphysics simulation algorithms. Here, we present a general framework for high-order Lagrangian discretization of these compressible shock hydrodynamics equations using curvilinear finite elements. This method is an extension of the approach outlined in [Dobrev et al., Internat. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 65 (2010), pp. 1295--1310] and can be formulated for any finite dimensional approximation of the kinematic and thermodynamic fields, including generic finite elements on two- and three-dimensional meshes with triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, or hexahedral zones. We discretize the kinematic variables of position and velocity using a continuous high-order basis function expansion of arbitrary polynomial degree which is obtained via a corresponding high-order parametric mapping from a standard reference element. This enables the use of curvilinear zone geometry, higher-order approximations for fields within a zone, and a pointwise definition of mass conservation which we refer to as strong mass conservation. Moreover, we discretize the internal energy using a piecewise discontinuous high-order basis function expansion which is also of arbitrary polynomial degree. This facilitates multimaterial hydrodynamics by treating material properties, such as equations of state and constitutive models, as piecewise discontinuous functions which vary within a zone. To satisfy the Rankine--Hugoniot jump conditions at a shock boundary and generate the appropriate entropy, we introduce a general tensor artificial viscosity which takes advantage of the high-order kinematic and thermodynamic information available in each zone. Finally, we apply a generic high-order time discretization process to the semidiscrete equations to develop the fully discrete numerical algorithm. Our method can be viewed as the high-order generalization of the so-called staggered
Weak ωNN coupling in the non-linear chiral model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shmatikov, M.
1988-01-01
In the non-linear chiral model with the soliton solution stabilized by the ω-meson field the weak ωNN coupling constants are calculated. Applying the vector dominance model for the isoscalar current the constant of the isoscalar P-odd ωNN interaction h ω (0) =0 is obtained while the constant of the isovector (of the Lagrangian of the ωNN interaction proves to be h ω (1) ≅ 1.0x10 -7
Doped Chiral Polymer Metamaterials
Park, Cheol (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)
2017-01-01
Some implementations provide a composite material that includes a first material and a second material. In some implementations, the composite material is a metamaterial. The first material includes a chiral polymer (e.g., crystalline chiral helical polymer, poly-.gamma.-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG), poly-L-lactic acid (PLA), polypeptide, and/or polyacetylene). The second material is within the chiral polymer. The first material and the second material are configured to provide an effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material is negative. In some implementations, the effective index of refraction value for the composite material of 1 or less is at least in a wavelength of one of at least a visible spectrum, an infrared spectrum, a microwave spectrum, and/or an ultraviolet spectrum.
Three-flavor chiral effective model with four baryonic multiplets within the mirror assignment
Olbrich, Lisa; Zétényi, Miklós; Giacosa, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.
2016-02-01
In the case of three quark flavors, (pseudo)scalar diquarks transform as antiquarks under chiral transformations. We construct four spin-1 /2 baryonic multiplets from left- and right-handed quarks as well as left- and right-handed diquarks. The fact that two of these multiplets transform in a "mirror" way allows for chirally invariant mass terms. We then embed these baryonic multiplets into the Lagrangian of the so-called extended linear sigma model, which features (pseudo)scalar and (axial-)vector mesons, as well as glueballs. Reducing the Lagrangian to the two-flavor case, we obtain four doublets of nucleonic states. These mix to produce four experimentally observed states with definite parity: the positive-parity nucleon N (939 ) and Roper resonance N (1440 ), as well as the negative-parity resonances N (1535 ) and N (1650 ). We determine the parameters of the nucleonic part of the Lagrangian from a fit to masses and decay properties of the aforementioned states. Studying the limit of vanishing quark condensate, we conclude that N (939 ) and N (1535 ), as well as N (1440 ) and N (1650 ), form pairs of chiral partners.
Chiral algebras for trinion theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemos, Madalena; Peelaers, Wolfger
2015-01-01
It was recently understood that one can identify a chiral algebra in any four-dimensional N=2 superconformal theory. In this note, we conjecture the full set of generators of the chiral algebras associated with the T n theories. The conjecture is motivated by making manifest the critical affine module structure in the graded partition function of the chiral algebras, which is computed by the Schur limit of the superconformal index for T n theories. We also explicitly construct the chiral algebra arising from the T 4 theory. Its null relations give rise to new T 4 Higgs branch chiral ring relations.
Staggered and short-period solutions of the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khare, A.; Rasmussen, K.O.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
2009-01-01
We point out that the nonlinear Schrodinger lattice with a saturable nonlinearity also admits staggered periodic aswell as localized pulse-like solutions. Further, the same model also admits solutions with a short period. We examine the stability of these solutions and find that the staggered...
Lowrank seismic-wave extrapolation on a staggered grid
Fang, Gang
2014-05-01
© 2014 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. We evaluated a new spectral method and a new finite-difference (FD) method for seismic-wave extrapolation in time. Using staggered temporal and spatial grids, we derived a wave-extrapolation operator using a lowrank decomposition for a first-order system of wave equations and designed the corresponding FD scheme. The proposed methods extend previously proposed lowrank and lowrank FD wave extrapolation methods from the cases of constant density to those of variable density. Dispersion analysis demonstrated that the proposed methods have high accuracy for a wide wavenumber range and significantly reduce the numerical dispersion. The method of manufactured solutions coupled with mesh refinement was used to verify each method and to compare numerical errors. Tests on 2D synthetic examples demonstrated that the proposed method is highly accurate and stable. The proposed methods can be used for seismic modeling or reverse-time migration.
Chiral forces and molecular dissymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohan, R.
1992-01-01
Chiral molecules leading to helical macromolecules seem to preserve information and extend it better. In the biological world RNA is the very paradigm for self-replication, elongation and autocatalytic editing. The nucleic acid itself is not chiral. It acquires its chirality by association with D-sugars. Although the chiral information or selectivity put in by the unit monomer is no longer of much interest to the biologists - they tend to leave it to the Darwinian selection principle to take care of it as illustrated by Frank's model - it is vital to understand the origin of chirality. There are three different approaches for the chiral origin of life: (1) Phenomenological, (2) Electromagnetic molecular and Coriolis forces and (3) Atomic or nuclear force, the neutral weak current. The phenomenological approach involves spontaneous symmetry breaking fluctuations in far for equilibrium systems or nucleation and crystallization. Chance plays a major role in the chiral molecule selected
Chirality in molecular collision dynamics
Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico
2018-02-01
Chirality is a phenomenon that permeates the natural world, with implications for atomic and molecular physics, for fundamental forces and for the mechanisms at the origin of the early evolution of life and biomolecular homochirality. The manifestations of chirality in chemistry and biochemistry are numerous, the striking ones being chiral recognition and asymmetric synthesis with important applications in molecular sciences and in industrial and pharmaceutical chemistry. Chiral discrimination phenomena, due to the existence of two enantiomeric forms, very well known in the case of interaction with light, but still nearly disregarded in molecular collision studies. Here we review some ideas and recent advances about the role of chirality in molecular collisions, designing and illustrating molecular beam experiments for the demonstration of chiral effects and suggesting a scenario for a stereo-directional origin of chiral selection.
Meaning of the BRS Lagrangian theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, H.; Tsai, E.
1989-01-01
A simplified treatment of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) Lagrangian theory is presented. With this treatment we show that the BRS Lagrangian theory in general, and the Feynman-gauge field theory in particular, are effective theories, not the physical theory, and the Feynman gauge is not, strictly speaking, a gauge. The relationship between the quantum states in the BRS Lagrangian theory and those in the physical theory is explicitly given. We also show that one may obtain matrix elements of gauge-invariant operators in the physical theory by calculating corresponding ones in the BRS Lagrangian theory. The formulas which equate such matrix elements are called correspondence formulas. The correspondence formula for the S matrix enables us to equate the scattering amplitudes in the physical theory with those in the BRS Lagrangian theory, thus a proof of the unitary of the Feynman-gauge (as well as other covariant gauges) Feynman rules is rendered unnecessary. This treatment can be applied to various gauge field theories and the examples of the pure Yang-Mills theory and a gauge field theory with a Higgs field is explicitly worked out
Effective Lagrangians for Higgs Physics
Corbett, Tyler
The Large Hadron Collider has found an exciting excess at around 125 GeV. This excess appeared early on to behave as the long sought Higgs boson and with the 7 and 8 TeV data sets has been shown to behave very much like the Higgs boson responsible for the mass of the fundamental particles of the Standard Model. As the data continued to converge to the Standard Model predictions it became important to try and classify possible small deviations from the expected behavior. A manner of doing so, consistent with the symmetries of the Standard Model, is the use of effective field theories. Effective field theories are able to constrain the presence of new physics without directly probing the new physics energy scale. They are valid both for scenarios with new fundamental physics such as supersymmetry or new gauge sectors, as well as new strongly interacting scenarios where the degrees of freedom may present as pseudo Goldstone bosons of some new global symmetry such as composite Higgs models. In this dissertation we work in the effective field theory framework and using the available experimental data we place bounds on the coefficients of the relevant effective operators for Higgs physics. We consider two complementary realizations of the effective field theory: the linear realization, appropriate for a fundamental Higgs and new fundamental particles such as those predicted by supersymmetry, and the chiral or nonlinear realization, appropriate for composite Higgs scenarios. Additionally, by considering the effects of the new operators on other sectors, like triple gauge coupling data and electroweak precision data, we are able to further test the framework and devise signatures with potential to discriminate between the realizations. Finally we look at constraints on the operator coefficients from perturbative unitarity considerations, allowing us to then apply the results from our data analysis to predict the lowest energies at which perturbative unitarity may be
Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.
2010-01-01
We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.
Forecasting for a Lagrangian aircraft campaign
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Stohl
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A forecast system has been developed in preparation for an upcoming aircraft measurement campaign, where the same air parcels polluted by emissions over North America shall be sampled repeatedly as they leave the continent, during transport over the Atlantic, and upon their arrival over Europe. This paper describes the model system in advance of the campaign, in order to make the flight planners familiar with the novel model output. The aim of a Lagrangian strategy is to infer changes in the chemical composition and aerosol distribution occurring en route by measured upwind/downwind differences. However, guiding aircraft repeatedly into the same polluted air parcels requires careful forecasting, for which no suitable model system exists to date. This paper describes a procedure using both Eulerian-type (i.e. concentration fields and Lagrangian-type (i.e. trajectories model output from the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART to predict the best opportunities for a Lagrangian experiment. The best opportunities are defined as being highly polluted air parcels which receive little or no emission input after the first measurement, which experience relatively little mixing, and which are reachable by as many aircraft as possible. For validation the system was applied to the period of the NARE 97 campaign where approximately the same air masses were sampled on different flights. Measured upwind/downwind differences in carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 decreased significantly as the threshold values used for accepting cases as Lagrangian were tightened. This proves that the model system can successfully identify Lagrangian opportunities.
The Chiral Quark Soliton Model for the Nucleon
Watabe, T.; Toki, H.
1992-03-01
We study the chiral invariant quark model lagrangians under the Hartree approximation for construction of a hedgehog solution with the baryon number B = 1. We take into account the Dirac sea contributions to the energy and various densities in terms of the heat-kernel method. With the parameters of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model lagrangian fixed by the meson properties, we do not find any B = 1 hedgehog solutions except for one case, even which is, however, unstable against small perturbation. We study then the Diakonov-Petrov model lagrangian, which is introduced by investigating the properties of the quark field in the instanton background in QCD. We find in this case stable hedgehog solutions under the heat-kernel regularization method in some parameter region. We study also the isoscalar-vector type (omega-meson type) correlations among quarks for the nucleon properties. The hedgehog energy, the baryon root mean square radius and the axial vector coupling constant g_{A} are calculated as a function of the omega-quark coupling strength.
Euler-Lagrangian computation for estuarine hydrodynamics
Cheng, Ralph T.
1983-01-01
The transport of conservative and suspended matter in fluid flows is a phenomenon of Lagrangian nature because the process is usually convection dominant. Nearly all numerical investigations of such problems use an Eulerian formulation for the convenience that the computational grids are fixed in space and because the vast majority of field data are collected in an Eulerian reference frame. Several examples are given in this paper to illustrate a modeling approach which combines the advantages of both the Eulerian and Lagrangian computational techniques.
The Mather problem for lower semicontinuous Lagrangians
Gomes, Diogo A.
2013-08-01
In this paper we develop the Aubry-Mather theory for Lagrangians in which the potential energy can be discontinuous. Namely we assume that the Lagrangian is lower semicontinuous in the state variable, piecewise smooth with a (smooth) discontinuity surface, as well as coercive and convex in the velocity. We establish existence of Mather measures, various approximation results, partial regularity of viscosity solutions away from the singularity, invariance by the Euler-Lagrange flow away from the singular set, and further jump conditions that correspond to conservation of energy and tangential momentum across the discontinuity. © 2013 Springer Basel.
Optofluidic sorting of material chirality by chiral light
Tkachenko, Georgiy; Brasselet, Etienne
2014-04-01
The lack of mirror symmetry, chirality, plays a fundamental role in physics, chemistry and life sciences. The passive separation of entities that only differ by their handedness without need of a chiral material environment remains a challenging task with attractive scientific and industrial benefits. To date, only a few experimental attempts have been reported and remained limited down to the micron scale, most of them relying on hydrodynamical forces associated with the chiral shape of the micro-objects to be sorted. Here we experimentally demonstrate that material chirality can be passively sorted in a fluidic environment by chiral light owing to spin-dependent optical forces without chiral morphology prerequisite. This brings a new twist to the state-of-the-art optofluidic toolbox and the development of a novel kind of passive integrated optofluidic sorters able to deal with molecular scale entities is envisioned.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebert, D.; Volkov, M.K.
1978-01-01
Starting from a phenomenological chiral SU(4)xSU(4) Lagrangian for hadrons weak and electromagnetic interactions are introduced by considering nonlinear realizations of the gauge group SU(2)sub(L)xU(1) of the Weinberg-Salam model. The final effective Lagrangian for the weak interaction of hadrons has the usual current x current structure. The charmed charged currents are of the Cabibbo type, the neutral current satisfies the condition Δ S = 0 of the G.I.M. scheme
Lattice chiral symmetry and the Wess-Zumino model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo; Ishibashi, Masato
2002-01-01
A lattice regularization of the supersymmetric Wess-Zumino model is studied by using Ginsparg-Wilson operators. We recognize a certain conflict between the lattice chiral symmetry and the Majorana condition for Yukawa couplings, or in Weyl representation a conflict between the lattice chiral symmetry and Yukawa couplings. This conflict is also related, though not directly, to the fact that the kinetic (Kaehler) term and the superpotential term are clearly distinguished in the continuum Wess-Zumino model, whereas these two terms are mixed in the Ginsparg-Wilson operators. We illustrate a case where lattice chiral symmetry together with naive Bose-Fermi symmetry is imposed by preserving a SUSY-like symmetry in the free part of the Lagrangian; one-loop level non-renormalization of the superpotential is then maintained for finite lattice spacing, though the finite parts of wave function renormalization deviate from the supersymmetric value. All these properties hold for the general Ginsparg-Wilson algebra independently of the detailed construction of lattice Dirac operators
Lagrangian ocean analysis: Fundamentals and practices
van Sebille, Erik; Griffies, Stephen M.; Abernathey, Ryan; Adams, Thomas P.; Berloff, Pavel; Biastoch, Arne; Blanke, Bruno; Chassignet, Eric P.; Cheng, Yu; Cotter, Colin J.; Deleersnijder, Eric; Döös, Kristofer; Drake, Henri F.; Drijfhout, Sybren; Gary, Stefan F.; Heemink, Arnold W.; Kjellsson, Joakim; Koszalka, Inga Monika; Lange, Michael; Lique, Camille; MacGilchrist, Graeme A.; Marsh, Robert; Mayorga Adame, C. Gabriela; McAdam, Ronan; Nencioli, Francesco; Paris, Claire B.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Polton, Jeff A.; Rühs, Siren; Shah, Syed H. A. M.; Thomas, Matthew D.; Wang, Jinbo; Wolfram, Phillip J.; Zanna, Laure; Zika, Jan D.
2018-01-01
Lagrangian analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the Lagrangian approach, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. Over several decades, a variety of tools and methods for this purpose have emerged. Here, we review the state of the art in the field of Lagrangian analysis of ocean velocity data, starting from a fundamental kinematic framework and with a focus on large-scale open ocean applications. Beyond the use of explicit velocity fields, we consider the influence of unresolved physics and dynamics on particle trajectories. We comprehensively list and discuss the tools currently available for tracking virtual particles. We then showcase some of the innovative applications of trajectory data, and conclude with some open questions and an outlook. The overall goal of this review paper is to reconcile some of the different techniques and methods in Lagrangian ocean analysis, while recognising the rich diversity of codes that have and continue to emerge, and the challenges of the coming age of petascale computing.
Equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian BRST quantizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoryan, G.V.; Grigoryan, R.P.; Tyutin, I.V.
1992-01-01
Two approaches to the quantization of gauge theories using BRST symmetry are widely used nowadays: the Lagrangian quantization, developed in (BV-quantization) and Hamiltonian quantization, formulated in (BFV-quantization). For all known examples of field theory (Yang-Mills theory, gravitation etc.) both schemes give equivalent results. However the equivalence of these approaches in general wasn't proved. The main obstacle in comparing of these formulations consists in the fact, that in Hamiltonian approach the number of ghost fields is equal to the number of all first-class constraints, while in the Lagrangian approach the number of ghosts is equal to the number of independent gauge symmetries, which is equal to the number of primary first-class constraints only. This paper is devoted to the proof of the equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian quantizations for the systems with first-class constraints only. This is achieved by a choice of special gauge in the Hamiltonian approach. It's shown, that after integration over redundant variables on the functional integral we come to effective action which is constructed according to rules for construction of the effective action in Lagrangian quantization scheme
Three-dimensional free Lagrangian hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trease, H.E.
1985-01-01
The purpose of the discussion is to describe the development of a 3-D free Lagrangian hyrodynamics algorithm. The 3-D algorithm is an outgrowth of an earlier 2-D free Lagrange model. Only the more pertinent issues of the free Lagrange algorithm are presented. A complete production code is being developed to support the free Lagrange algorithm described. 4 refs
Effective Lagrangian density in gauge supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, S.S.
1976-01-01
In the framework of gauge supersymmetry proposed by Arnowitt and Nath, an effective Lagrangian density is formally rewritten in terms of a spontaneously broken vacuum metric and the remaining perturbative part in the gauge metric tensor. Tensor notations in the superspace are revised so that all sign factors of Grassmann parities appear more systematically
Gravitational theory with the local quadratic Lagrangian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tentyukov, M.N.
1992-01-01
It is suggested that the vacuum gravitational equations should be derived from the local Lagrangian containing only first-order derivatives. As an example we demonstrate the properties of the derived equations by studying of the exact spherically-symmetric solutions. 23 refs
QUANTIZATION OF NON-LAGRANGIAN SYSTEMS
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kochan, Denis
2009-01-01
Roč. 24, 28-29 (2009), s. 5319-5340 ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : dissipative quantization * non-Lagrangian system * umbilical string Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2009
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colanero, K.; Chu, M.-C.
2002-01-01
We study a dynamical chiral bag model, in which massless fermions are confined within an impenetrable but movable bag coupled to meson fields. The self-consistent motion of the bag is obtained by solving the equations of motion exactly assuming spherical symmetry. When the bag interacts with an external meson wave we find three different kinds of resonances: fermionic, geometric, and σ resonances. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our results
Ahmed, Mohammad W.; Gao, Haiyan; Weller, Henry R.; Holstein, Barry
2007-10-01
pt. A. Plenary session. Opening remarks: experimental tests of chiral symmetry breaking / A. M. Bernstein. [Double pie symbols] scattering / H. Leutwyler. Chiral effective field theory in a [Triangle]-resonance region / V. Pascalutsa. Some recent developments in chiral perturbation theory / Ulf-G. Mei ner. Chiral extrapolation and nucleon structure from the lattice / R.D. Young. Recent results from HAPPEX / R. Michaels. Chiral symmetries and low energy searches for new physics / M.J. Ramsey-Musolf. Kaon physics: recent experimental progress / M. Moulson. Status of the Cabibbo angle / V. Cirigliano. Lattice QCD and nucleon spin structure / J.W. Negele. Spin sum rules and polarizabilities: results from Jefferson lab / J-P Chen. Compton scattering and nucleon polarisabilities / Judith A. McGovern. Virtual compton scattering at MIT-bates / R. Miskimen. Physics results from the BLAST detector at the BATES accelerator / R.P. Redwine. The [Pie sympbol]NN system, recent progress / C. Hanhart. Application of chiral nuclear forces to light nuclei / A. Nogga. New results on few-body experiments at low energy / Y. Nagai. Few-body lattice calculations / M.J. Savage. Research opportunities at the upgraded HI?S facility / H.R. Weller -- pt. B. Goldstone boson dynamics. Working group summary: Goldstone Boson dynamics / G. Colangelo and S. Giovannella. Recent results on radiative Kaon decays from NA48 and NA48/2 / S.G. López. Cusps in K-->3 [Pie symbol] decays / B. Kubis. Recent KTeV results on radiative Kaon decays / M.C. Ronquest. The [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / J.R. Peláez. Determination of the Regge parameters in the [Double pie symbols] scattering amplitude / I. Caprini. e+e- Hadronic cross section measurement at DA[symbol]NE with the KLOE detector / P. Beltrame. Measurement of the form factors of e+e- -->2([Pie symbol]+[Pie symbol]-), pp and the resonant parameters of the heavy charmonia at BES / H. Hu. Measurement of e+e- multihadronic cross section below 4
Spontaneous emission spectra from a staggered-array undulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimada, Shigeki; Okada, Kouji; Masuda, Kai; Sobajima, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Ohnishi, Masami; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Toku, Hisayuki
1997-01-01
A staggered-array undulator set inside the superconducting solenoid coils is shown to be able to provide high undulator fields larger than the longitudinal magnetic fields, a small undulator period, easy tunability through the solenoid coil current, and compact and easy fabrication. The overall performance characteristics of this undulator were studied mainly with respect to iron and aluminum disk widths, and spontaneous emission spectra through the numerical calculations. The maximum undulator field is found to be obtained for the ratio of the aluminum disk width to the undulator period of 0.45. The line widths (FWHM) of the spontaneous emission spectra, however, do not show N w -1 dependence on the number of the undulator period N w for practical beams with a Gaussian distribution, compared with for a single electron. The energy spread among various parameters is seen to play an important role in reducing the FWHM with increase of N w . The large tunability of the wavelength is proved to cover 6-10 mm by changing the solenoid magnetic field from 0.4 T to 1.6 T. (author)
X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F. E-mail: vfd217@ire216.msk.su; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A
2004-09-21
The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 {mu}A min/(Gy cm{sup 2}). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received.
X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F.; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A.
2004-01-01
The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 μA min/(Gy cm 2 ). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received
High temperature QCD with three flavors of improved staggered quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, C.; Burch, T.; Tar, C.E. de; Gottlieb, Steven; Gregory, Eric; Heller, U.M.; Osborn, J.; Sugar, R.L.; Toussaint, D.
2003-01-01
We present an update of our study of high temperature QCD with three flavors of quarks, using a Symanzik improved gauge action and the Asqtad staggered quark action. Simulations are being carried out on lattices with N t = 4, 6 and 8 for the case of three degenerate quarks with masses less than or equal to the strange quark mass, m s and on lattices with N t = 6 and 8 for degenerate up and down quarks with masses in the range 0.2m s ≤ m u,d ≤ 0.6m s and the strange quark fixed near its physical value. We also report on first computations of quark number susceptibilities with the Asqtad action. These susceptibilities are of interest because they can be related to event-by-event fluctuations in heavy ion collision experiments. Use of the improved quark action leads to a substantial reduction in lattice artifacts. This can be seen already for free fermions and carries over into our results for QCD
General form of effective Lagrangian in path integral quantization formalism
Tu Tung Sheng; Yuan Tu Nan
1980-01-01
The general form of the effective lagrangian in path integral formalism is obtained. The effective lagrangian includes the classical lagrangian, the term proportional to delta (0) given by Lee and Yang (see Phys. Rev., vol.128, p.885, 1962) and the additional term which is presented explicitly in the series expansion. The formalism is explicitly covariant. (6 refs).
Simplified chiral superfield propagators for chiral constant mass superfields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, P.P.
1983-01-01
Unconstrained superfield potentials are introduced to derive Feynman rules for chiral superfields following conventional procedure which is easy and instructive. Propagators for the case when the mass parameters are constant chiral superfields are derived. The propagators reported here are very simple compared to those available in literature and allow a manageable calculation of higher loops. (Author) [pt
Systematics of the K suppi = 2+ gamma vibrational bands and odd-even staggering
Gupta, J B
2003-01-01
The structure of the K suppi = 2+ gamma vibrational bands and the quasi-gamma bands of even-Z-even-N nuclei is investigated on a global scale, vis-a-vis the variation of band head, the moment of inertia of the band and the odd-even spin staggering. The variation with N and Z and with spin J of the odd-even spin energy staggering index is studied and a unified view of the same is presented. (author)
The chiral phase transition in two-flavor QCD from imaginary chemical potential
Bonati, Claudio; D'Elia, Massimo; Philipsen, Owe; Sanfilippo, Francesco
2014-01-01
We investigate the order of the finite temperature chiral symmetry restoration transition for QCD with two massless fermions, by using a novel method, based on simulating imaginary values of the quark chemical potential $\\mu=i\\mu_i,\\mu_i\\in\\mathbb{R}$. Our method exploits the fact that, for low enough quark mass $m$ and large enough chemical potential $\\mu_i$, the chiral transition is decidedly first order, then turning into crossover at a critical mass $m_c(\\mu)$. It is thus possible to determine the critical line in the $m - \\mu^2$ plane, which can be safely extrapolated to the chiral limit by taking advantage of the known tricritical indices governing its shape. We test this method with standard staggered fermions and the result of our simulations is that $m_c(\\mu=0)$ is positive, so that the phase transition at zero density is definitely first order in the chiral limit, on our coarse $N_t=4$ lattices with $a\\simeq 0.3\\,\\mathrm{fm}$.
The Nucleon Axial Form Factor and Staggered Lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Aaron Scott [Chicago U.
2017-01-01
The study of neutrino oscillation physics is a major research goal of the worldwide particle physics program over the upcoming decade. Many new experiments are being built to study the properties of neutrinos and to answer questions about the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. These experiments need precise theoretical cross sections in order to access fundamental neutrino properties. Neutrino oscillation experiments often use large atomic nuclei as scattering targets, which are challenging for theorists to model. Nuclear models rely on free-nucleon amplitudes as inputs. These amplitudes are constrained by scattering experiments with large nuclear targets that rely on the very same nuclear models. The work in this dissertation is the rst step of a new initiative to isolate and compute elementary amplitudes with theoretical calculations to support the neutrino oscillation experimental program. Here, the eort focuses on computing the axial form factor, which is the largest contributor of systematic error in the primary signal measurement process for neutrino oscillation studies, quasielastic scattering. Two approaches are taken. First, neutrino scattering data on a deuterium target are reanalyzed with a model-independent parametrization of the axial form factor to quantify the present uncertainty in the free-nucleon amplitudes. The uncertainties on the free-nucleon cross section are found to be underestimated by about an order of magnitude compared to the ubiquitous dipole model parametrization. The second approach uses lattice QCD to perform a rst-principles computation of the nucleon axial form factor. The Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) action is employed for both valence and sea quarks. The results presented in this dissertation are computed at physical pion mass for one lattice spacing. This work presents a computation of the axial form factor at zero momentum transfer, and forms the basis for a computation of the axial form factor momentum dependence
Review of chiral perturbation theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
41] which will be measured to high accuracy at Jefferson Laboratory at the experiment PrimEx. 4. Baryon chiral perturbation theory. Baryon chiral perturbation theory in the modern era was first formulated in [6]. This was a relativistic formulation ...
Algebraic study of chiral anomalies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2012-06-14
Jun 14, 2012 ... Abstract. The algebraic structure of chiral anomalies is made globally valid on non-trivial bundles ... Editor's Note: †Reproduced with kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media: Algebraic study of chiral anoma- ..... We shall see in the sequel several examples in which this ambiguity helps.
Two-chiral component microemulsion EKC - chiral surfactant and chiral oil. Part 2: diethyl tartrate.
Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P
2007-08-01
In this second study on dual-chirality microemulsions containing a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil, a less hydrophobic and lower interfacial tension chiral oil, diethyl tartrate, is employed (Part 1, Foley, J. P. et al.., Electrophoresis, DOI: 10.1002/elps.200600551). Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and diethyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 0.88% v/v) were examined as pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the enantioseparation of six chiral pharmaceutical compounds: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Average efficiencies increased with the addition of a chiral oil to R-DDCV PSP formulations. Modest improvements in resolution and enantioselectivity (alpha(enant)) were achieved with two-chiral-component systems over the one-chiral-component microemulsion. Slight enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Results obtained in this study are compared to those obtained in Part 1 as well as those obtained with chiral MEEKC using an achiral, low-interfacial-tension oil (ethyl acetate). Dual-chirality microemulsions with the more hydrophobic oil dibutyl tartrate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, higher efficiencies (100,000-134,000 vs. 80,800-94,300), but lower resolution (1.64-1.91 vs. 2.08-2.21) due to lower enantioselectivities (1.060-1.067 vs. 1.078-1.081). Atenolol enantiomers could not be separated with the dibutyl tartrate-based microemulsions but were partially resolved using diethyl tartrate microemulsions. A comparable single-chirality microemulsion based on the achiral oil ethyl acetate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, lower efficiency (78 300 vs. 91 600), higher resolution (1.99 vs. 1.83), and similar enantioselectivities.
Relativistic chiral SU(3) symmetry, large Nc sum rules and meson-baryon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lutz, M.F.M.; Kolomeitsev, E.E.
2001-05-01
The relativistic chiral SU(3) Lagrangian is used to describe kaon-nucleon scattering imposing constraints from the pion-nucleon sector and the axial-vector coupling constants of the baryon octet states. We solve the covariant coupled-channel Bethe-Salpeter equation with the interaction kernel truncated at chiral order Q 3 where we include only those terms which are leading in the large N c limit of QCD. The baryon decuplet states are an important explicit ingredient in our scheme, because together with the baryon octet states they form the large N c baryon ground states of QCD. Part of our technical developments is a minimal chiral subtraction scheme within dimensional regularization, which leads to a manifest realization of the covariant chiral counting rules. All SU(3) symmetry-breaking effects are well controlled by the combined chiral and large N c expansion, but still found to play a crucial role in understanding the empirical data. We achieve an excellent description of the data set typically up to laboratory momenta of p lab ≅ 500 MeV. (orig.)
Quark structure of chiral solitons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dmitri Diakonov
2004-05-01
There is a prejudice that the chiral soliton model of baryons is something orthogonal to the good old constituent quark models. In fact, it is the opposite: the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in strong interactions explains the appearance of massive constituent quarks of small size thus justifying the constituent quark models, in the first place. Chiral symmetry ensures that constituent quarks interact very strongly with the pseudoscalar fields. The ''chiral soliton'' is another word for the chiral field binding constituent quarks. We show how the old SU(6) quark wave functions follow from the ''soliton'', however, with computable relativistic corrections and additional quark-antiquark pairs. We also find the 5-quark wave function of the exotic baryon Theta+.
Lagrangian perturbation theory for modified gravity
Aviles, Alejandro; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.
2017-12-01
We present a formalism to compute Lagrangian displacement fields for a wide range of cosmologies in the context of perturbation theory up to third order. We emphasize the case of theories with scale-dependent gravitational strengths, such as chameleons, but our formalism can be accommodated to other modified gravity theories. In the nonlinear regime, two qualitative features arise. One, as is well known, is that nonlinearities lead to a screening of the force mediated by the scalar field. The second is a consequence of the transformation of the Klein-Gordon equation from Eulerian to Lagrangian coordinates, producing frame lagging terms that are important especially at large scales, and if not considered, the theory does not reduce to the Λ CDM model in that limit. We apply our formalism to compute the one-loop power spectrum and the correlation function in f (R ) gravity by using different resummation schemes. We further discuss the IR divergences of these formalisms.
Functional integral for non-Lagrangian systems
Kochan, Denis
2010-01-01
A novel functional integral formulation of quantum mechanics for non-Lagrangian systems is presented. The new approach, which we call "stringy quantization," is based solely on classical equations of motion and is free of any ambiguity arising from Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian formulation of the theory. The functionality of the proposed method is demonstrated on several examples. Special attention is paid to the stringy quantization of systems with a general A-power friction force $-\\kappa[\\dot{q}]^A$. Results for $A = 1$ are compared with those obtained in the approaches by Caldirola-Kanai, Bateman and Kostin. Relations to the Caldeira-Leggett model and to the Feynman-Vernon approach are discussed as well.
An ambitwistor Yang-Mills Lagrangian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mason, L.J.; Skinner, D.
2006-01-01
We introduce a Chern-Simons Lagrangian for Yang-Mills theory as formulated on ambitwistor space via the Ward, Isenberg, Yasskin, Green, Witten construction. The Lagrangian requires the selection of a codimension-2 Cauchy-Riemann submanifold which is naturally picked out by the choice of space-time reality structure and we focus on the choice of Euclidean signature. The action is shown to give rise to a space-time action that is equivalent to the standard one, but has just cubic vertices. We identify the ambitwistor propagators and vertices and work out their corresponding expressions on space-time and momentum space. It is proposed that this formulation of Yang-Mills theory underlies the recursion relations of Britto, Cachazo, Feng and Witten and provides the generating principle for twistor diagrams for gauge theory
Distributed Control by Lagrangian Steepest Descent
Wolpert, David H.; Bieniawski, Stefan
2004-01-01
Often adaptive, distributed control can be viewed as an iterated game between independent players. The coupling between the players' mixed strategies, arising as the system evolves from one instant to the next, is determined by the system designer. Information theory tells us that the most likely joint strategy of the players, given a value of the expectation of the overall control objective function, is the minimizer of a Lagrangian function of the joint strategy. So the goal of the system d...
Lagrangian for the Majorana-Ahluwalia construct
Dvoeglazov, V. V.
1995-12-01
The equations describing self/anti-self charge conjugate states, recently proposed by Ahluwalia, are re-written to covariant form. The corresponding Lagrangian for the neutral particle theory is proposed. From a group-theoretical viewpoint the construct is an example of the Nigam-Foldy-Bargmann-Wightman-Wigner-type quantum field theory based on the doubled representations of the extended Lorentz group. Relations with the Sachs-Schwebel and Ziino-Barut concepts of relativistic quantum theory are discussed.
Lagrangian procedures for higher order field equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.
1986-01-01
We present in a pedagogical way a Lagrangian procedure for the treatment of higher order field equations. We build the energy-momentum tensor and the conserved density current. In particular we discuss the case in which the derivatives appear only in the invariant D'Alembertian operator. We discuss some examples. We quantize the fields and construct the corresponding Hamiltonian which is shown not to be positive definite. We give the rules for the causal propagators. (Author) [pt
Floating shock fitting via Lagrangian adaptive meshes
Vanrosendale, John
1995-01-01
In recent work we have formulated a new approach to compressible flow simulation, combining the advantages of shock-fitting and shock-capturing. Using a cell-centered on Roe scheme discretization on unstructured meshes, we warp the mesh while marching to steady state, so that mesh edges align with shocks and other discontinuities. This new algorithm, the Shock-fitting Lagrangian Adaptive Method (SLAM), is, in effect, a reliable shock-capturing algorithm which yields shock-fitted accuracy at convergence.
Lagrangian Observations and Modeling of Marine Larvae
Paris, Claire B.; Irisson, Jean-Olivier
2017-04-01
Just within the past two decades, studies on the early-life history stages of marine organisms have led to new paradigms in population dynamics. Unlike passive plant seeds that are transported by the wind or by animals, marine larvae have motor and sensory capabilities. As a result, marine larvae have a tremendous capacity to actively influence their dispersal. This is continuously revealed as we develop new techniques to observe larvae in their natural environment and begin to understand their ability to detect cues throughout ontogeny, process the information, and use it to ride ocean currents and navigate their way back home, or to a place like home. We present innovative in situ and numerical modeling approaches developed to understand the underlying mechanisms of larval transport in the ocean. We describe a novel concept of a Lagrangian platform, the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC), designed to observe and quantify complex larval behaviors and their interactions with the pelagic environment. We give a brief history of larval ecology research with the DISC, showing that swimming is directional in most species, guided by cues as diverse as the position of the sun or the underwater soundscape, and even that (unlike humans!) larvae orient better and swim faster when moving as a group. The observed Lagrangian behavior of individual larvae are directly implemented in the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS), an open source Lagrangian tracking application. Simulations help demonstrate the impact that larval behavior has compared to passive Lagrangian trajectories. These methodologies are already the base of exciting findings and are promising tools for documenting and simulating the behavior of other small pelagic organisms, forecasting their migration in a changing ocean.
Lagrangian formulation of classical BMT-theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey; Deriglazov, Alexei; Guzman, Walberto
2013-01-01
Full text: The most popular classical theory of electron has been formulated by Bargmann, Michel and Telegdi (BMT) in 1959. The BMT equations give classical relativistic description of a charged particle with spin and anomalous magnetic momentum moving in homogeneous electro-magnetic field. This allows to study spin dynamics of polarized beams in uniform fields. In particular, first experimental measurements of muon anomalous magnetic momentum were done using changing of helicity predicted by BMT equations. Surprisingly enough, a systematic formulation and the analysis of the BMT theory are absent in literature. In the present work we particularly fill this gap by deducing Lagrangian formulation (variational problem) for BMT equations. Various equivalent forms of Lagrangian will be discussed in details. An advantage of the obtained classical model is that the Lagrangian action describes a relativistic spinning particle without Grassmann variables, for both free and interacting cases. This implies also the possibility of canonical quantization. In the interacting case, an arbitrary electromagnetic background may be considered, which generalizes the BMT theory formulated to the case of homogeneous fields. The classical model has two local symmetries, which gives an interesting example of constrained classical dynamics. It is surprising, that the case of vanishing anomalous part of the magnetic momentum is naturally highlighted in our construction. (author)
Inverse Variational Problem for Nonstandard Lagrangians
Saha, A.; Talukdar, B.
2014-06-01
In the mathematical physics literature the nonstandard Lagrangians (NSLs) were introduced in an ad hoc fashion rather than being derived from the solution of the inverse problem of variational calculus. We begin with the first integral of the equation of motion and solve the associated inverse problem to obtain some of the existing results for NSLs. In addition, we provide a number of alternative Lagrangian representations. The case studies envisaged by us include (i) the usual modified Emden-type equation, (ii) Emden-type equation with dissipative term quadratic in velocity, (iii) Lotka-Volterra model and (vi) a number of the generic equations for dissipative-like dynamical systems. Our method works for nonstandard Lagrangians corresponding to the usual action integral of mechanical systems but requires modification for those associated with the modified actions like S =∫abe L(x ,x˙ , t) dt and S =∫abL 1 - γ(x ,x˙ , t) dt because in the latter case one cannot construct expressions for the Jacobi integrals.
Applications the Lagrangian description in aperiodic flows
Mendoza, Carolina; Mancho, Ana Maria
2012-11-01
We use several recently developed Lagrangian tools for describing transport in general aperiodic flows. In our approach the first step is based in a Lagrangian descriptor (the so called function M). It measures the length of particle trajectories on the ocean surface over a given interval of time. We describe its output over satellite altimetry data on the Kuroshio current. The technique is combined with the direct computation of manifolds of Distinguished Hyperbolic trajectories and a very detailed description of transport is achieved across an eddy and a jet on the Kuroshio current,. A second velocity data set is examined with the M function tool. These are obtained from the HYCOM project on the Gulf of Mexico during the time of the oil-spill. We have identified underlying Lagrangian structures and dynamics. We acknowledge to the hospitality of the university of Delaware and the assistance of Bruce Lipphardt and Helga Huntley in accessing the model data sets. We acknowledge to the grants: UPM-AL12-PAC-09, Becas de Movilidad de Caja Madrid 2011, MTM2011-26696 and ILINK-0145.
Toroidal regularization of the guiding center Lagrangian
Burby, J. W.; Ellison, C. L.
2017-11-01
In the Lagrangian theory of guiding center motion, an effective magnetic field B*=B +(m /e )v∥∇× b appears prominently in the equations of motion. Because the parallel component of this field can vanish, there is a range of parallel velocities where the Lagrangian guiding center equations of motion are either ill-defined or very badly behaved. Moreover, the velocity dependence of B* greatly complicates the identification of canonical variables and therefore the formulation of symplectic integrators for guiding center dynamics. This letter introduces a simple coordinate transformation that alleviates both these problems simultaneously. In the new coordinates, the Liouville volume element is equal to the toroidal contravariant component of the magnetic field. Consequently, the large-velocity singularity is completely eliminated. Moreover, passing from the new coordinate system to canonical coordinates is extremely simple, even if the magnetic field is devoid of flux surfaces. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in regularizing the guiding center Lagrangian by presenting a new and stable one-step variational integrator for guiding centers moving in arbitrary time-dependent electromagnetic fields.
Description of hot compressed hadronic matter based on an effective chiral Lagrangian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Florkowski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1996-11-01
In this report we give the review of the recent results obtained in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, describing the properties of hot compressed matter. The first large class problems concerns the behaviour of static meson correlation functions. In particular, this includes the investigation of the screening of meson fields at finite temperature or density. Another wide range of problems presented in our report concerns the formulation of the transport theory for the NJL model and its applications to the description of high energy nuclear collision. 86 refs, 35 figs.
Turbulence Interface Simulation by Lagrangian Blocks
Chu, V. H.
2015-12-01
Most computational fluid-dynamics codes are developed using the Eulerian description. To find the numerical solution, fluxes are estimated on the surface of the finite volume using a truncation series. Spurious numerical oscillations and artificial numerical diffusion are consequences, particularly in regions across flow discontinuities. Diffusion often is introduced synthetically in many schemes to gain computational stability. Occasional switching to a diffusive upwind scheme, for example, is one classic strategy to manage the numerical oscillations [see e.g., Ghannadi & Chu 2015]. Lagrangian-block simulation offers an alternative that could minimize the spurious oscillations and false diffusive error. The blocks move in the direction of the flow. The squares of the block widths expand in proportion to the diffusivities. The block simulation procedure consists of (i) Lagrangian advection and diffusion, (ii) division into portions, and (iii) reassembly of the portions into new blocks. The blocks are renewed in each time increment to prevent excessive distortion. Details of the Lagrangian-block simulations method have been given in a series of papers by Tan & Chu (2012), Chu & Altai (2012, 2015}. In this paper, the exchanges across turbulence interfaces are considered for two problems. The first series of the simulations are conducted to find the mass and momentum exchanges across a shallow flow of two different depth. In the simulations, the advection and diffusion of three separated systems of blocks that contain the mass, momentum and potential vorticity are carried out using the Lagrangian-block simulation method. The simulation results are compared with data obtained from a previous laboratory investigation and related to the shear instability problem in rotating shear flow previously considered by Chu (2014). The second problem involves the turbulence generation across the interface of an internal waves. The simulation shows the development of gravitational
Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter
2017-01-25
Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.
Eta photoproduction as a test of the extended chiral symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez-Ramirez, C. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: cesar@nuc2.fis.ucm.es; Moya de Guerra, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)
2007-08-09
We analyze the {gamma}p->{eta}p process from threshold up to 1.2 GeV, employing an effective Lagrangian approach that allows for a mixing of eta couplings of pseudoscalar and pseudovector nature. The mixing ratio of the couplings may serve as a quantitative estimation of the SU{sub L}(3)xSU{sub R}(3) extended chiral symmetry violation in this energy regime. The data analyzed (differential cross sections and asymmetries) show a preference for the pseudoscalar coupling-91% of pseudoscalar coupling component for the best fit. We stress that a more conclusive answer to this question requires a more complete electromagnetic multipole database than the presently available one.
Chiral recognition in separation science: an overview.
Scriba, Gerhard K E
2013-01-01
Chiral recognition phenomena play an important role in nature as well as analytical separation sciences. In separation sciences such as chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, enantiospecific interactions between the enantiomers of an analyte and the chiral selector are required in order to observe enantioseparations. Due to the large structural variety of chiral selectors applied, different mechanisms and structural features contribute to the chiral recognition process. This chapter briefly illustrates the current models of the enantiospecific recognition on the structural basics of various chiral selectors.
Macroscopic Lagrangian description of warm plasmas. I Formulation of the Lagrangian
Peng, Y.-K. M.; Crawford, F. W.
1983-01-01
A macroscopic Lagrangian is derived which includes a pressure tensor, heat conduction, and elastic collisions. Its Euler-Lagrange equations are shown to be the Maxwell equations and the macroscopic force law. The corresponding Hamiltonian is derived, and Hamilton's canonical equations are also demonstrated to lead to the Maxwell equations and the macroscopic force law. The treatment is facilitated by working in a mixture of Eulerian coordinates (for the fields) and Lagrangian coordinates (for the particle motions), and the introduction of a macroscopic potential expressed in terms of the plasma thermal energy and the energy losses by heat conduction.
Quarks, baryons and chiral symmetry
Hosaka, Atsushi
2001-01-01
This book describes baryon models constructed from quarks, mesons and chiral symmetry. The role of chiral symmetry and of quark model structure with SU(6) spin-flavor symmetry are discussed in detail, starting from a pedagogic introduction. Emphasis is placed on symmetry aspects of the theories. As an application, the chiral bag model is studied for nucleon structure, where important methods of theoretical physics, mostly related to the semiclassical approach for a system of strong interactions, are demonstrated. The text is more practical than formal; tools and ideas are explained in detail w
Towards chiral diamines as chiral catalytic precursors for the borane ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2)-2-anilinomethylpiperidine (2) have been employed as chiral catalytic sources in the borane-mediated asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones thus providing the resulting secondary alcohols in good enantiomeric purities (up to 81% ) ...
Cook, Jamie E.
2012-01-01
Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.
Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash
2017-06-01
We construct a candidate for the most general chiral higher spin theory with AdS3 boundary conditions. In the Chern-Simons language, on the left it has the Drinfeld-Sokolov reduced form, but on the right all charges and chemical potentials are turned on. Altogether (for the spin-3 case) these are 19 functions. Despite this, we show that the resulting metric has the form of the "most general" AdS3 boundary conditions discussed by Grumiller and Riegler. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is a product of a W3 algebra on the left and an affine s l (3 )k current algebra on the right, as desired. The metric and higher spin fields depend on all the 19 functions. We compare our work with previous results in the literature.
A Chiang-type lagrangian in CP^2
Cannas da Silva, Ana
2018-03-01
We analyse a monotone lagrangian in CP^2 that is hamiltonian isotopic to the standard lagrangian RP^2, yet exhibits a distinguishing behaviour under reduction by one of the toric circle actions, namely it intersects transversally the reduction level set and it projects one-to-one onto a great circle in CP^1. This lagrangian thus provides an example of embedded composition fitting work of Wehrheim-Woodward and Weinstein.
Lagrangian condensation microphysics with Twomey CCN activation
Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Dziekan, Piotr; Pawlowska, Hanna
2018-01-01
We report the development of a novel Lagrangian microphysics methodology for simulations of warm ice-free clouds. The approach applies the traditional Eulerian method for the momentum and continuous thermodynamic fields such as the temperature and water vapor mixing ratio, and uses Lagrangian super-droplets to represent condensed phase such as cloud droplets and drizzle or rain drops. In other applications of the Lagrangian warm-rain microphysics, the super-droplets outside clouds represent unactivated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that become activated upon entering a cloud and can further grow through diffusional and collisional processes. The original methodology allows for the detailed study of not only effects of CCN on cloud microphysics and dynamics, but also CCN processing by a cloud. However, when cloud processing is not of interest, a simpler and computationally more efficient approach can be used with super-droplets forming only when CCN is activated and no super-droplet existing outside a cloud. This is possible by applying the Twomey activation scheme where the local supersaturation dictates the concentration of cloud droplets that need to be present inside a cloudy volume, as typically used in Eulerian bin microphysics schemes. Since a cloud volume is a small fraction of the computational domain volume, the Twomey super-droplets provide significant computational advantage when compared to the original super-droplet methodology. Additional advantage comes from significantly longer time steps that can be used when modeling of CCN deliquescence is avoided. Moreover, other formulation of the droplet activation can be applied in case of low vertical resolution of the host model, for instance, linking the concentration of activated cloud droplets to the local updraft speed. This paper discusses the development and testing of the Twomey super-droplet methodology, focusing on the activation and diffusional growth. Details of the activation implementation
Continuous chiral separations in microreactors
Susanti, Susanti; Meinds, Tim G.; Pinxterhuis, Erik; Schuur, Boelo; de Vries, Johannes G.; Feringa, B.L.; Winkelman, Jozef; Yue, Jun; Heeres, Hero
2016-01-01
The potential of microreactors for enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction has been explored. The experiments were performed in capillary microreactors with combined reactive extraction and phase separation, for the chiral separation of a representative racemic amino acid derivative
Review of chiral perturbation theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. A review of chiral perturbation theory and recent developments on the comparison of its predictions with experiment is presented. Some interesting topics with scope for further elaboration are touched upon.
Lagrangians for plasmas in drift-fluid approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.
1996-10-01
For drift waves and related instabilities conservation laws can play a crucial role. In an ideal theory these conservation laws are guaranteed when a Lagrangian can be found from which the equations for the various quantities result by Hamilton's principle. Such a Lagrangian for plasmas in drift-fluid approximation was obtained by a heuristic method in a recent paper by Pfirsch and Correa-Restrepo. In the present paper the same Lagrangian is derived from the exact multi-fluid Lagrangian via an iterative approximation procedure which resembles the standard method usually applied to the equations of motion. That method, however, does not guarantee all the conservation laws to hold. (orig.)
Lagrangians for plasmas in the drift-fluid approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pfirsch, Dieter; Corres-Restrepo, Dario [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
1997-04-01
For drift waves and related instabilities, conservation laws can play a crucial role. In an ideal theory these conservation laws are guaranteed when a Lagrangian can be found from which the equations for the various quantities result by Hamilton`s principle. Such a Lagrangian for plasmas in the drift-fluid approximation was obtained by a heuristic method in a recent paper by Pfirsch and Correa-Restrepo. In the present paper the same Lagrangian is derived from the exact multifluid Lagrangian via an iterative approximation procedure which resembles the standard method usually applied to the equations of motion. That method, however, does not guarantee that all the conservation laws hold. (author).
The MHV Lagrangian for a spontaneously broken gauge theory
Buchta, Sebastian; Weinzierl, Stefan
2010-09-01
Starting from the standard Lagrangian for a SU(2) × U(1) gauge theory plus a Higgs field we derive the corresponding "maximal helicity violating" (MHV) Lagrangian. From this MHV Lagrangian one deduces simple diagrammatic rules for the calculation of multi-particle scattering amplitudes. We arrive at the MHV Lagrangian by a canonical change of the field variables in the light-cone gauge. We comment on the modifications which occur in a spontaneously broken gauge theory as compared to a pure (unbroken) Yang-Mills theory.
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fiorilla, Salvatore
2012-10-23
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Chiral thermodynamics of nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiorilla, Salvatore
2012-01-01
The equation of state of nuclear matter is calculated at finite temperature in the framework of in-medium chiral perturbation theory up to three-loop order. The dependence of its thermodynamic properties on the isospin-asymmetry is investigated. The chiral quark condensate is evaluated for symmetric nuclear matter. Its behaviour as a function of density and temperature sets important nuclear physics constraints for the QCD phase diagram.
Macdonald index and chiral algebra
Song, Jaewon
2017-08-01
For any 4d N = 2 SCFT, there is a subsector described by a 2d chiral algebra. The vacuum character of the chiral algebra reproduces the Schur index of the corresponding 4d theory. The Macdonald index counts the same set of operators as the Schur index, but the former has one more fugacity than the latter. We conjecture a prescription to obtain the Macdonald index from the chiral algebra. The vacuum module admits a filtration, from which we construct an associated graded vector space. From this grading, we conjecture a notion of refined character for the vacuum module of a chiral algebra, which reproduces the Macdonald index. We test this prescription for the Argyres-Douglas theories of type ( A 1 , A 2 n ) and ( A 1 , D 2 n+1) where the chiral algebras are given by Virasoro and \\widehat{su}(2) affine Kac-Moody algebra. When the chiral algebra has more than one family of generators, our prescription requires a knowledge of the generators from the 4d.
Gap states and edge properties of rectangular graphene quantum dot in staggered potential
Jeong, Y. H.; Eric Yang, S.-R.
2017-09-01
We investigate edge properties of a gapful rectangular graphene quantum dot in a staggered potential. In such a system gap states with discrete and closely spaced energy levels exist that are spatially located on the left or right zigzag edge. We find that, although the bulk states outside the energy gap are nearly unaffected, spin degeneracy of each gap state is lifted by the staggered potential. We have computed the occupation numbers of spin-up and -down gap states at various values of the strength of the staggered potential. The electronic and magnetic properties of the zigzag edges depend sensitively on these numbers. We discuss the possibility of applying this system as a single electron spintronic device.
Single-molecule observation of helix staggering, sliding, and coiled coil misfolding
Xi, Zhiqun; Gao, Ying; Sirinakis, George; Guo, Honglian; Zhang, Yongli
2012-01-01
The biological functions of coiled coils generally depend on efficient folding and perfect pairing of their α-helices. Dynamic changes in the helical registry that lead to staggered helices have only been proposed for a few special systems and not found in generic coiled coils. Here, we report our observations of multiple staggered helical structures of two canonical coiled coils. The partially folded structures are formed predominantly by coiled coil misfolding and occasionally by helix sliding. Using high-resolution optical tweezers, we characterized their energies and transition kinetics at a single-molecule level. The staggered states occur less than 2% of the time and about 0.1% of the time at zero force. We conclude that dynamic changes in helical registry may be a general property of coiled coils. Our findings should have broad and unique implications in functions and dysfunctions of proteins containing coiled coils. PMID:22451899
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Y.W.; Chu, H.Y.; Gvildys, J.; Wang, C.Y.
1979-01-01
The analysis of fluid-structure interaction involves the calculation of both fluid transient and structure dynamics. In the structural analysis, Lagrangian meshes have been used exclusively, whereas for the fluid transient, Lagrangian, Eulerian, and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (quasi-Eulerian) meshes have been used. This paper performs an evaluation on these three types of meshes. The emphasis is placed on the applicability of the method in analyzing fluid-structure interaction problems in HCDA analysis
Ergovaline does not alter the severity of ryegrass staggers induced by lolitrem B.
Finch, S C; Vlaming, J B; Sutherland, B L; van Koten, C; Mace, W J; Fletcher, L R
2018-03-01
To investigate a possible interaction between lolitrem B and ergovaline by comparing the incidence and severity of ryegrass staggers in sheep grazing ryegrass (Lolium perenne) containing lolitrem B or ryegrass containing both lolitrem B and ergovaline. Ninety lambs, aged approximately 6 months, were grazed on plots of perennial ryegrass infected with either AR98 endophyte (containing lolitrem B), standard endophyte (containing lolitrem B and ergovaline) or no endophyte, for up to 42 days from 2 February 2010. Ten lambs were grazed on three replicate plots per cultivar. Herbage samples were collected for alkaloid analysis and lambs were scored for ryegrass staggers (scores from 0-5) weekly during the study. Any animal which was scored ≥4 was removed from the study. Concentrations of lolitrem B did not differ between AR98 and standard endophyte-infected pastures during the study period (p=0.26), and ergovaline was present only in standard endophyte pastures. Ryegrass staggers was observed in sheep grazing both the AR98 and standard endophyte plots, with median scores increasing in the third week of the study. Prior to the end of the 42-day grazing period, 22 and 17 animals were removed from the standard endophyte and AR98 plots, respectively, because their staggers scores were ≥4. The cumulative probability of lambs having scores ≥4 did not differ between animals grazing the two pasture types (p=0.41). There was no evidence for ergovaline increasing the severity of ryegrass staggers induced by lolitrem B. In situations where the severity of ryegrass staggers appears to be greater than that predicted on the basis of concentrations of lolitrem B, the presence of other tremorgenic alkaloids should be investigated.
Neutron-skin thickness of finite nuclei in relativistic mean-field models with chiral limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Weizhou; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen
2007-01-01
We study several structure properties of finite nuclei using relativistic mean-field Lagrangians constructed according to the Brown-Rho scaling due to the chiral symmetry restoration at high densities. The models are consistent with current experimental constraints for the equations of state of symmetric matter at both normal and supranormal densities and of asymmetric matter at subsaturation densities. It is shown that these models can successfully describe the binding energies and charge radii of finite nuclei. Compared to calculations with usual relativistic mean-field models, these models give a reduced thickness of neutron skin in 208 Pb between 0.17 fm and 0.21 fm. The reduction of the predicted neutron skin thickness is found to be due to not only the softening of the symmetry energy but also the scaling property of ρ meson required by the partial restoration of chiral symmetry
Semileptonic decays of the tau lepton and the nonlinear chiral SU(3)XSU(3)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chahrouri, N.
1984-01-01
In this thesis the semileptonic decays of the tau lepton are treated in the framework of a nonlinear chiral SU(3) X Su(3). After a description of the experimental situation and the historical development a phenomenological Lagrangian is constructed which is invariant under the nonlinear chiral SU(3) X SU(3). In order to correspond with the real experimental situation the SU(3) X SU(3) symmetry is broken however without breaking of the proved SU(2) X SU(2). The current matrix elements are calculated whereby the effect of the sigma-, Ksup(*)-, and PHI-resonances is included by means of form factors. After the calculation of the phase-space integrals the results are presented and discussed. It is shown that the results of the model reproduce very well the present data. Yet an improvement could be reached by gauging of the theory. (orig.) [de
πK scattering in chiral perturbation theory to one loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, V.; Kaiser, N.; Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67; Meissner, U.G.
1991-01-01
We evaluate the πK scattering amplitude at next-to-leading order in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. All low-energy constants appearing in the effective lagrangian of the pseudoscalars have previously been determined. We calculate the scattering lengths of the S- and P-waves as well as the expansion parameters around the point ν triple bond (s-u)/4M K = t = 0 in the unphysical region. Furthermore, phase-shifts of the low partial ways are presented and compared to the data. In most cases, the chiral predictions are comparable to the trends set by the empirical information. For a precise comparison, however, more accurate experimental determinations of the πK scattering process at low and moderate energies would be necessary. We urge the experimenters to perform these. (orig.)
Lagrangian descriptors of driven chemical reaction manifolds.
Craven, Galen T; Junginger, Andrej; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2017-08-01
The persistence of a transition state structure in systems driven by time-dependent environments allows the application of modern reaction rate theories to solution-phase and nonequilibrium chemical reactions. However, identifying this structure is problematic in driven systems and has been limited by theories built on series expansion about a saddle point. Recently, it has been shown that to obtain formally exact rates for reactions in thermal environments, a transition state trajectory must be constructed. Here, using optimized Lagrangian descriptors [G. T. Craven and R. Hernandez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 148301 (2015)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.115.148301], we obtain this so-called distinguished trajectory and the associated moving reaction manifolds on model energy surfaces subject to various driving and dissipative conditions. In particular, we demonstrate that this is exact for harmonic barriers in one dimension and this verification gives impetus to the application of Lagrangian descriptor-based methods in diverse classes of chemical reactions. The development of these objects is paramount in the theory of reaction dynamics as the transition state structure and its underlying network of manifolds directly dictate reactivity and selectivity.
Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin
2015-07-10
We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.
Breaking of chiral symmetry in vortex domain wall propagation in ferromagnetic nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otálora, J.A.; López-López, J.A.; Landeros, P.; Vargas, P.; Núñez, A.S.
2013-01-01
This paper is focused to the field-induced dynamics of vortex-like domain walls (VDWs) in magnetic nanotubes (MNTs). Based on a dissipative Lagrangian formalism that fully includes damping as well as exchange and dipole–dipole coupling, it is shown that VDW motion is very sensitive to the chirality, giving rise to a chiral asymmetry in the vortex wall propagation. As a consequence, the dynamics of the wall is fundamentally different to that of nanostripes and solid nanowires. Besides the well-known Walker breakdown that stands at the onset of the precessional wall motion, it is found an additional breakdown field (called here the chiral breakdown) that modifies the steady regime of VDWs. We also show outstanding VDWs dynamical properties at low applied fields, as low-field mobilities (∼10km/(sT)) and very short relaxation times (∼1ns), offering a reliable fast control of VDWs velocities (∼1000m/s at applied fields of 0.7 mT). - Highlights: • We model analytically the dynamics of vortex domain walls in magnetic nanotubes. • We fully include damping, exchange and dipole–dipole coupling. • The wall dynamics is fundamentally different to that of nanostripes. • We report and describe an extra dynamical instability, the Chiral Breakdown field. • We report outstanding dynamical properties at weak magnetic fields
Chirality in adsorption on solid surfaces.
Zaera, Francisco
2017-12-07
In the present review we survey the main advances made in recent years on the understanding of chemical chirality at solid surfaces. Chirality is an important topic, made particularly relevant by the homochiral nature of the biochemistry of life on Earth, and many chiral chemical reactions involve solid surfaces. Here we start our discussion with a description of surface chirality and of the different ways that chirality can be bestowed on solid surfaces. We then expand on the studies carried out to date to understand the adsorption of chiral compounds at a molecular level. We summarize the work published on the adsorption of pure enantiomers, of enantiomeric mixtures, and of prochiral molecules on chiral and achiral model surfaces, especially on well-defined metal single crystals but also on other flat substrates such as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. Several phenomena are identified, including surface reconstruction and chiral imprinting upon adsorption of chiral agents, and the enhancement or suppression of enantioselectivity seen in some cases upon adsorption of enantiomixtures of chiral compounds. The possibility of enhancing the enantiopurity of adsorbed layers upon the addition of chiral seeds and the so-called "sergeants and soldiers" phenomenon are presented. Examples are provided where the chiral behavior has been associated with either thermodynamic or kinetic driving forces. Two main approaches to the creation of enantioselective surface sites are discussed, namely, via the formation of supramolecular chiral ensembles made out of small chiral adsorbates, and by adsorption of more complex chiral molecules capable of providing suitable chiral environments for reactants by themselves, via the formation of individual adsorbate:modifier adducts on the surface. Finally, a discussion is offered on the additional effects generated by the presence of the liquid phase often required in practical applications such as enantioselective crystallization, chiral
A Bernstein type result for special Lagrangian submanifolds
Tsui, Mao-Pei; Wang, Mu-Tao
2002-01-01
Let \\Sigma be a complete minimal Lagrangian submanifold of \\C^n. We identify regions in the Grassmannian of Lagrangian subspaces so that whenever the image of the Gauss map of \\Sigma lies in one of these regions, then \\Sigma is an affine space.
The Bach-Lanczos Lagrangian in matrix relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maluf, J.W.
1987-01-01
The author examines the generalisation of the Bach-Lanczos Lagrangian in matrix relativity where it is no longer a topological invariant, and find that for certain structures of the matrix affine connection a Yang-Mills type Lagrangian is obtained. Thus the possibility is considered of interpreting non-Abelian gauge fields as arising from an otherwise topological invariant. (author)
Parcel Eulerian-Lagrangian fluid dynamics for rotating geophysical flows
Bokhove, Onno; Oliver, M.
2006-01-01
Parcel Eulerian-Lagrangian Hamiltonian formulations have recently been used in structure-preserving numerical schemes, asymptotic calculations and in alternative explanations of fluid parcel (in) stabilities. A parcel formulation describes the dynamics of one fluid parcel with a Lagrangian kinetic
Lagrangian formalism for constrained systems. 2. Gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyatov, P.N.
1990-01-01
Using the Lagrangian formalism for constrained systems all gauge symmetries peculiar for a given Lagrangian system and in establishing the relation between them and the constraints are constructed. Besides, the question about the possible dependence of gauge transformations on accelerations and other higher order time derivatives of coordinates is clarified. 14 refs
Continuous time random walks for the evolution of Lagrangian velocities
Dentz, Marco; Kang, Peter K.; Comolli, Alessandro; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Lester, Daniel R.
2016-11-01
We develop a continuous time random walk (CTRW) approach for the evolution of Lagrangian velocities in steady heterogeneous flows based on a stochastic relaxation process for the streamwise particle velocities. This approach describes the persistence of velocities over a characteristic spatial scale, unlike classical random walk methods, which model the persistence over a characteristic time scale. We first establish the relation between Eulerian and Lagrangian velocities for both equidistant and isochrone sampling along streamlines, under transient and stationary conditions. Based on this, we develop a space-continuous CTRW approach for the spatial and temporal dynamics of Lagrangian velocities. While classical CTRW formulations have nonstationary Lagrangian velocity statistics, the proposed approach quantifies the evolution of the Lagrangian velocity statistics under both stationary and nonstationary conditions. We provide explicit expressions for the Lagrangian velocity statistics and determine the behaviors of the mean particle velocity, velocity covariance, and particle dispersion. We find strong Lagrangian correlation and anomalous dispersion for velocity distributions that are tailed toward low velocities as well as marked differences depending on the initial conditions. The developed CTRW approach predicts the Lagrangian particle dynamics from an arbitrary initial condition based on the Eulerian velocity distribution and a characteristic correlation scale.
Upper Tolerances and Lagrangian Relaxation for the DCMSTP
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turkensteen, Marcel
of networks. Many efficient solution methods for the DCMSTP rely on Lagrangian relaxation for the tight lower bounds needed to solve instances. Lagrangian procedures for the DCMSTP solve a modified version of the regular Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (MSTP) in which the degree constraint violations...... bounds within their given running times....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vidovic, D.; Segal, A.; Wesseling, P.
2004-01-01
A method for linear reconstruction of staggered vector fields with special treatment of the divergence is presented. An upwind-biased finite volume scheme for solving the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured triangular grids that uses this reconstruction is described. The scheme is applied to three benchmark problems and is found to be superlinearly convergent in space
Jacobi equations as Lagrange equations of the deformed Lagrangian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casciaro, B.
1995-03-01
We study higher-order variational derivatives of a generic Lagrangian L 0 = L 0 (t,q,q). We introduce two new Lagrangians, L 1 and L 2 , associated to the first and second-order deformations of the original Lagrangian L 0 . In terms of these Lagrangians, we are able to establish simple relations between the variational derivatives of different orders of a Lagrangian. As a consequence of these relations the Euler-Lagrange and the Jacobi equations are obtained from a single variational principle based on L 1 . We can furthermore introduce an associated Hamiltonian H 1 = H 1 (t,q,q radical,η,η radical) with η equivalent to δq. If L 0 is independent of time then H 1 is a conserved quantity. (author). 15 refs
Numerical methods for Eulerian and Lagrangian conservation laws
Després, Bruno
2017-01-01
This book focuses on the interplay between Eulerian and Lagrangian conservation laws for systems that admit physical motivation and originate from continuum mechanics. Ultimately, it highlights what is specific to and beneficial in the Lagrangian approach and its numerical methods. The two first chapters present a selection of well-known features of conservation laws and prepare readers for the subsequent chapters, which are dedicated to the analysis and discretization of Lagrangian systems. The text is at the frontier of applied mathematics and scientific computing and appeals to students and researchers interested in Lagrangian-based computational fluid dynamics. It also serves as an introduction to the recent corner-based Lagrangian finite volume techniques.
Amplification of chirality in liquid crystals
Eelkema, Rienk; Feringa, Ben L.
2006-01-01
The amplification of molecular chirality by liquid crystalline systems is widely applied in investigations towards enantioselective solvent - solute interactions, chiral supramolecular assemblies, smart materials, and the development of liquid crystal displays. Here we present an overview of recent
Doped Chiral Polymer Negative Index Materials (DCPNIM)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer-Negative Index Materials (DCP-NIM) with tunable resonance frequencies are developed by adding various plasmonic nanoinclusions into chiral...
Tactoids of chiral liquid crystals
Palacio-Betancur, Viviana; Villada-Gil, Stiven; Zhou, Ye; Armas-Pérez, Julio C.; de Pablo, Juan José; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan Pablo
The phase diagram of chiral liquid crystals confined in ellipsoids is obtained, by following a theoretically informed Monte Carlo relaxation of the tensor alignment field Q. The free energy of the system is described by a functional in the framework of the Landau-de Gennes formalism. This study also includes the effect of anchoring strength, curvature, and chirality of the system. In the low chirality region of the phase diagram we found the twist bipolar (BS) phase and some cholesteric phases such as the radial spherical structure (RSS), twist cylinder (TC) and double twist cylinder (DTC) whose axis of rotation is not necessarily aligned with the major axis of the geometry. For high chirality scenarios, the disclination lines are twisted or bent near the surface preventing the formation of symmetric networks of defects, although an hexagonal pattern is formed on the surface which might serve as open sites for collocation of colloids. By analyzing the free energies of isochoric systems, prolate geometries tend to be more favorable for high chirality and low anchoring conditions. Universidad Nacional de Colombia Ph.D. grant and COLCIENCIAS under the Contract No. 110-165-843-748. CONACYT for Postdoctoral Fellowships Nos. 186166 and 203840.
Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, Ling; Mitev, Vladimir
2013-10-01
In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T N SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W N Toda theories.
On Active Current Selection for Lagrangian Profilers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Jouffroy
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Autonomous Lagrangian profilers are now widely used as measurement and monitoring platforms, notably in observation programs as Argo. In a typical mode of operation, the profilers drift passively at their parking depthbefore making a vertical profile to go back to the surface. This paperpresents simple and computationally-efficient control strategies to activelyselect and use ocean currents so that a profiler can autonomously reach adesired destination. After briefly presenting a typical profiler andpossible mechanical modifications for a coastal environment, we introducesimple mathematical models for the profiler and the currents it will use. Wethen present simple feedback controllers that, using the direction of thecurrents and taking into account the configuration of the environment(coastal or deep-sea, is able to steer the profiler to any desiredhorizontal location. To illustrate the approach, a few results are presentedusing both simulated currents and real current velocity profiles from theNorth Sea.
Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bao, Ling [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik und Inst. fuer Physik; Pomoni, Elli [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Taki, Masato [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Yagi, Futoshi [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T{sub N} SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W{sub N} Toda theories.
Contact manifolds, Lagrangian Grassmannians and PDEs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eshkobilov Olimjon
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we review a geometric approach to PDEs. We mainly focus on scalar PDEs in n independent variables and one dependent variable of order one and two, by insisting on the underlying (2n + 1-dimensional contact manifold and the so-called Lagrangian Grassmannian bundle over the latter. This work is based on a Ph.D course given by two of the authors (G. M. and G. M.. As such, it was mainly designed as a quick introduction to the subject for graduate students. But also the more demanding reader will be gratified, thanks to the frequent references to current research topics and glimpses of higher-level mathematics, found mostly in the last sections.
LAGRANGIAN PARTICLE DISPERSION MODEL (LPDM) TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, K
2006-01-01
The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) uses the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) in conjunction with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System as an operational tool for emergency response consequence assessments for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The LPDM is an advanced stochastic atmospheric transport model used to transport and disperse passive tracers subject to the meteorological field generated by RAMS from sources of varying number and shape. The Atmospheric Technologies Group (ATG) of the SRNL is undertaking the task of reviewing documentation and code for LPDM Quality Assurance (QA). The LPDM QA task will include a model technical description, computer coding descriptions, model applications, and configuration control. This report provides a comprehensive technical description of the LPDM model
A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme
Fernandez-Gutierrez, D.; Souto-Iglesias, A.; Zohdi, T. I.
2017-11-01
A hybrid Lagrangian Voronoi-SPH scheme, with an explicit weakly compressible formulation for both the Voronoi and SPH sub-domains, has been developed. The SPH discretization is substituted by Voronoi elements close to solid boundaries, where SPH consistency and boundary conditions implementation become problematic. A buffer zone to couple the dynamics of both sub-domains is used. This zone is formed by a set of particles where fields are interpolated taking into account SPH particles and Voronoi elements. A particle may move in or out of the buffer zone depending on its proximity to a solid boundary. The accuracy of the coupled scheme is discussed by means of a set of well-known verification benchmarks.
Lagrangian numerical methods for ocean biogeochemical simulations
Paparella, Francesco; Popolizio, Marina
2018-05-01
We propose two closely-related Lagrangian numerical methods for the simulation of physical processes involving advection, reaction and diffusion. The methods are intended to be used in settings where the flow is nearly incompressible and the Péclet numbers are so high that resolving all the scales of motion is unfeasible. This is commonplace in ocean flows. Our methods consist in augmenting the method of characteristics, which is suitable for advection-reaction problems, with couplings among nearby particles, producing fluxes that mimic diffusion, or unresolved small-scale transport. The methods conserve mass, obey the maximum principle, and allow to tune the strength of the diffusive terms down to zero, while avoiding unwanted numerical dissipation effects.
Distributed Control by Lagrangian Steepest Descent
Wolpert, David H.; Bieniawski, Stefan
2004-01-01
Often adaptive, distributed control can be viewed as an iterated game between independent players. The coupling between the players mixed strategies, arising as the system evolves from one instant to the next, is determined by the system designer. Information theory tells us that the most likely joint strategy of the players, given a value of the expectation of the overall control objective function, is the minimizer of a function o the joint strategy. So the goal of the system designer is to speed evolution of the joint strategy to that Lagrangian mhimbhgpoint,lowerthe expectated value of the control objective function, and repeat Here we elaborate the theory of algorithms that do this using local descent procedures, and that thereby achieve efficient, adaptive, distributed control.
On the Lagrangian description of dissipative systems
Martínez-Pérez, N. E.; Ramírez, C.
2018-03-01
We consider the Lagrangian formulation with duplicated variables of dissipative mechanical systems. The application of Noether theorem leads to physical observable quantities which are not conserved, like energy and angular momentum, and conserved quantities, like the Hamiltonian, that generate symmetry transformations and do not correspond to observables. We show that there are simple relations among the equations satisfied by these two types of quantities. In the case of the damped harmonic oscillator, from the quantities obtained by the Noether theorem follows the algebra of Feshbach and Tikochinsky. Furthermore, if we consider the whole dynamics, the degrees of freedom separate into a physical and an unphysical sector. We analyze several cases, with linear and nonlinear dissipative forces; the physical consistency of the solutions is ensured, observing that the unphysical sector has always the trivial solution.
Weakly coupled S=1/2 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains in an effective staggered field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Masahiro; Oshikawa, Masaki
2002-01-01
We study weakly coupled S=1/2 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains in an effective staggered field. Applying mean-field (MF) theory, spin-wave theory and chain MF (CMF) theory, we can see analytically some effects of the staggered field in this higher dimensional spin system. In particular, when the staggered field and the inter-chain inter-action compete with each other, we conjecture from the MF theory that a nontrivial phase is present. The spin wave theory predicts that the behavior of the gaps induced by a staggered field is different between the competitive case and the non-competitive case. When the inter-chain interactions are weak enough, we can improve the MF phase diagram by using CMF theory and the analytical results of field theories. The ordered phase region predicted by the CMF theory is fairly smaller than one of the MF theory. Cu-benzoate, CuCl 2 · 2DMSO (dimethylsulphoxide), BaCu 2 (Si 1-x Ge x ) 2 O 7 , etc., could be described by our model in enough low temperature. (author)
Kinetics of full scrum and staggered scrum engagement in under 19 ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Two hundred and eight male Rugby Union players from 13 high schools, whose ages ranged from 16 to 19 years, were used to examine the kinetics of the full scrum versus staggered scrum engagement techniques. Telemetric pressure transducers were used to measure the engagement and sustained forces acting on the ...
Enhancement of Radiative Efficiency with Staggered InGaN Quantum Well Light Emitting Diodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tansu, Nelson; Dierolf, Volkmar; Huang, Gensheng; Penn, Samson; Zhao, Hongping; Liu, Guangyu; Li, Xiaohang; Poplawsky, Jonathan
2011-07-14
The technology on the large overlap InGaN QWs developed in this program is currently implemented in commercial technology in enhancing the internal quantum efficiency in major LED industry in US and Asia. The scientific finding from this work supported by the DOE enabled the implementation of this step-like staggered quantum well in the commercial LEDs.
The use of staggered scheme and an absorbing buffer zone for computational aeroacoustics
Nark, Douglas M.
1995-01-01
Various problems from those proposed for the Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) workshop were studied using second and fourth order staggered spatial discretizations in conjunction with fourth order Runge-Kutta time integration. In addition, an absorbing buffer zone was used at the outflow boundaries. Promising results were obtained and provide a basis for application of these techniques to a wider variety of problems.
Experimental study of induced staggered magnetic fields in dysprosium gallium garnet (DGG)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steiner, M.; Corliss, L.M.; Hastings, J.M.; Blume, M.; Giordano, N.; Wolf, W.P.
1979-01-01
Neutron diffraction techniques have been used to study induced staggered magnetic field effects in DGG. The application of a uniform magnetic field at temperatures much greater than the Neel temperature induces a significant amount of antiferromagnetic order. The temperature and field dependences of this effect are in good agreement with recent theoretical predicions
Partial dynamical symmetry and odd-even staggering in deformed nuclei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leviatan A.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Partial dynamical symmetry (PDS is shown to be relevant for describing the odd-even staggering in the γ-band of 156Gd while retaining solvability and good SU(3 symmetry for the ground and β bands. Several classes of interacting boson model Hamiltonians with SU(3 PDS are surveyed.
Remarks on the determination of the odd--even staggering parameter in the spectrum of cadmium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerstenkorn, S.; Stroke, H.H.
1976-01-01
From an analysis of the isotope shifts in the Cd 3261, 4678, and 4416 A lines, it is pointed out that a precise determination of the odd--even staggering parameter is limited less by experimental error than by the lack of reliable knowledge of the specific mass effect
What's wrong with anomalous chiral gauge theory?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kieu, T.D.
1994-05-01
It is argued on general ground and demonstrated in the particular example of the Chiral Schwinger Model that there is nothing wrong with apparently anomalous chiral gauge theory. If quantised correctly, there should be no gauge anomaly and chiral gauge theory should be renormalisable and unitary, even in higher dimensions and with non-Abelian gauge groups. Furthermore, it is claimed that mass terms for gauge bosons and chiral fermions can be generated without spoiling the gauge invariance. 19 refs
A Lagrangian View of Spring Phytoplankton Blooms
Kida, Shinichiro; Ito, Takamitsu
2017-11-01
The mechanisms of spring phytoplankton blooms are investigated from a Lagrangian framework by using a Lagrangian NPZD model that can track the movement and transfers of nutrient parcels in a turbulent environment. The model reveals that the onset of spring blooms depends on the cumulative euphotic age, which is the total time that inorganic nutrient is exposed to light before the photosynthetic conversion to phytoplankton biomass. A spring bloom, defined as a tenfold increase of near-surface phytoplankton, occurs when this cumulative euphotic age is approximately μeff-1·ln10, where μeff is the effective growth rate in the euphotic layer, regardless of the underlying mechanism. If the turbulent layer depth is shallower than the critical depth and turbulence is strong, nutrient parcels accumulate enough light exposure through multiple entries to the sun-lit zone near the surface. If turbulence is weak, as that considered in the critical turbulence theory, the accumulation of the light exposure depends on the residence time of the nutrients parcels near the surface. The spectral shape of the cumulative euphotic age can clearly distinguish these two modes of spring blooms. The spectrum shows a peak at the theoretical growth timescale when multiple entries become important, while it shows a maximum near age zero that decays with age when the near-surface residence time becomes important. Mortality increases the cumulative euphotic age necessary for a bloom but does not affect the spectral shape, suggesting that it does not alter the primary mechanism behind the accumulation of cumulative euphotic age.
Solutions of ward's modified chiral model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioannidou, T.; Zakrzewski, W.J.
1997-01-01
We discuss the adaptation of Uhlenbeck's method of solving the chiral model in 2 Euclidean dimensions to Ward's modified chiral model in (2+1) dimensions. We show that the method reduces the problem of solving the second-order partial differential equations for the chiral field to solving a sequence of first-order partial differential equations for time dependent projector valued fields
Developments of Chiral Metallocenes as Polymerization Catalysts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takeshi Shiono
2005-07-01
Full Text Available This review article describes developments in chiral metallocenes as polymerization catalysts focusing on C2 symmetric ansa-zirconocene complexes. Selective synthesis of rac-isomers of ansa-zirconocenes are surveyed. Isospecific polymerizations of propylene catalyzed by chiral zirconocenes are summarized. Advanced series of polymerizations by chiral metallocenes such as asymmetric polymerization and polymerization of polar monomers are also introduced.
Covariant perturbation theory and chiral superpropagators
Ecker, G
1972-01-01
The authors use a covariant formulation of perturbation theory for the non-linear chiral invariant pion model to define chiral superpropagators leading to S-matrix elements which are independent of the choice of the pion field coordinates. The relation to the standard definition of chiral superpropagators is discussed. (11 refs).
Chauhan, B.; Kumar, S.; Malik, R. P.
2018-02-01
We derive the off-shell nilpotent (fermionic) (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations by exploiting the (anti-)chiral superfield approach (ACSA) to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism for the interacting Abelian 1-form gauge theories where there is a coupling between the U(1) Abelian 1-form gauge field and Dirac as well as complex scalar fields. We exploit the (anti-)BRST invariant restrictions on the (anti-)chiral superfields to derive the fermionic symmetries of our present D-dimensional Abelian 1-form gauge theories. The novel observation of our present investigation is the derivation of the absolute anticommutativity of the nilpotent (anti-)BRST charges despite the fact that our ordinary D-dimensional theories are generalized onto the (D,1)-dimensional (anti-) chiral super-submanifolds (of the general (D,2)-dimensional supermanifold) where only the (anti-)chiral super expansions of the (anti-)chiral superfields have been taken into account. We also discuss the nilpotency of the (anti-)BRST charges and (anti-)BRST invariance of the Lagrangian densities of our present theories within the framework of ACSA to BRST formalism.
A study of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine grain structure by stagger spinning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, Qinxiang; Xiao, Gangfeng; Long, Hui; Cheng, Xiuquan; Yang, Baojian
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Proposing a method of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine crystal. • Obtaining the refined ferritic grains with an size of 500 nm after stagger spinning. • Obtaining the equiaxial ferritic grains with an size of 600 nm after annealing. - Abstract: A new method of manufacturing tubes with nano/ultrafine grain structure by stagger spinning and recrystallization annealing is proposed in this study. Two methods of the stagger spinning process are developed, the corresponding macroforming quality, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of the spun tubes made of ASTM 1020 steel are analysed. The results reveal that a good surface smoothness and an improved spin-formability of spun parts can be obtained by the process combining of 3-pass spinning followed by a 580 °C × 0.5 h static recrystallization and 2-pass spinning with a 580 °C × 1 h static recrystallization annealing under the severe thinning ratio of wall thickness reduction. The ferritic grains with an average initial size of 50 μm are refined to 500 nm after stagger spinning under the 87% thinning ratio of wall thickness reduction. The equiaxial ferritic grains with an average size of 600 nm are generated through re-nucleation and grain growth by subsequent recrystallization annealing at 580 °C for 1 h heat preservation. The tensile strength of spun tubes has been founded to be proportional to the reciprocal of layer spacing of pearlite (LSP), and the elongation is inversely proportional to the reciprocal of LSP. This study shows that the developed method of stagger power spinning has the potential to be used to manufacture bulk metal components with nano/ultrafine grain structure
Fusion rules of chiral algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaberdiel, M.
1994-01-01
Recently we showed that for the case of the WZW and the minimal models fusion can be understood as a certain ring-like tensor product of the symmetry algebra. In this paper we generalize this analysis to arbitrary chiral algebras. We define the tensor product of conformal field theory in the general case and prove that it is associative and symmetric up to equivalence. We also determine explicitly the action of the chiral algebra on this tensor product. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate that this framework provides a powerful tool for calculating restrictions for the fusion rules of chiral algebras. We exhibit this for the case of the W 3 algebra and the N=1 and N=2 NS superconformal algebras. (orig.)
Chirally motivated K- nuclear potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cieply, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.; Mares, J.
2011-01-01
In-medium subthreshold K-bar N scattering amplitudes calculated within a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model are used self consistently to confront K - atom data across the periodic table. Substantially deeper K - nuclear potentials are obtained compared to the shallow potentials derived in some approaches from threshold K-bar N amplitudes, with ReV K chiral =-(85±5) MeV at nuclear matter density. When K-bar NN contributions are incorporated phenomenologically, a very deep K - nuclear potential results, ReV K c hiral+phen. =-(180±5) MeV, in agreement with density dependent potentials obtained in purely phenomenological fits to the data. Self consistent dynamical calculations of K - -nuclear quasibound states generated by V K chiral are reported and discussed.
Chiral symmetry on the lattice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creutz, M.
1994-11-01
The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model.
Chiral symmetry on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1994-11-01
The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model
Shear and shearless Lagrangian structures in compound channels
Enrile, F.; Besio, G.; Stocchino, A.
2018-03-01
Transport processes in a physical model of a natural stream with a composite cross-section (compound channel) are investigated by means of a Lagrangian analysis based on nonlinear dynamical system theory. Two-dimensional free surface Eulerian experimental velocity fields of a uniform flow in a compound channel form the basis for the identification of the so-called Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Lagrangian structures are recognized as the key features that govern particle trajectories. We seek for two particular class of Lagrangian structures: Shear and shearless structures. The former are generated whenever the shear dominates the flow whereas the latter behave as jet-cores. These two type of structures are detected as ridges and trenches of the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents fields, respectively. Besides, shearlines computed applying the geodesic theory of transport barriers mark Shear Lagrangian Coherent Structures. So far, the detection of these structures in real experimental flows has not been deeply investigated. Indeed, the present results obtained in a wide range of the controlling parameters clearly show a different behaviour depending on the shallowness of the flow. Shear and Shearless Lagrangian Structures detected from laboratory experiments clearly appear as the flow develops in shallow conditions. The presence of these Lagrangian Structures tends to fade in deep flow conditions.
Towards chiral diamines as chiral catalytic precursors for the borane ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
anilinomethylpiperidine (2) have been employed as chiral catalytic sources in the borane-mediated asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones ..... 7⋅86 min (S) and 8.53 min (R)]. 2.7c (S)-2-Bromo-1-(4-bromophenyl)ethanol [(S)– ... of (a) compound 8 and (b) compound 15-TFA salt (Hydrogen atoms were omitted for clarity).
Chiral trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane derivatives as chiral solvating ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
pounds in biological and pharmaceutical chemistry,. 1–4 there is increasing requirement for fast and accurate methodologies for the determination of enantiomeric composition of these chiral compounds. Among the various available methods, NMR spectroscopy has the advantages of easy performance and accessibi- lity.
Chiral xenobiotics bioaccumulations and environmental health prospectives.
Hussain, Iqbal; ALOthman, Zeid A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman A; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Ali, Imran
2015-08-01
The chiral xenobiotics are very dangerous for all of us due to the different enantioselective toxicities of the enantiomers. Besides, these have different enantioselective bioaccumulations and behaviors in our body and other organisms. It is of urgent need to understand the enantioselective bioaccumulations, toxicities, and the health hazards of the chiral xenobiotics. The present article describes the classification, sources of contamination, distribution, enantioselective bioaccumulation, and the toxicities of the chiral xenobiotics. Besides, the efforts are also made to discuss the prevention and remedial measures of the havoc of the chiral xenobiotics. The challenges of the chiral xenobiotics have also been highlighted. Finally, future prospectives are also discussed.
Two-dimensional Lagrangian simulation of suspended sediment
Schoellhamer, David H.
1988-01-01
A two-dimensional laterally averaged model for suspended sediment transport in steady gradually varied flow that is based on the Lagrangian reference frame is presented. The layered Lagrangian transport model (LLTM) for suspended sediment performs laterally averaged concentration. The elevations of nearly horizontal streamlines and the simulation time step are selected to optimize model stability and efficiency. The computational elements are parcels of water that are moved along the streamlines in the Lagrangian sense and are mixed with neighboring parcels. Three applications show that the LLTM can accurately simulate theoretical and empirical nonequilibrium suspended sediment distributions and slug injections of suspended sediment in a laboratory flume.
Integration over families of Lagrangian submanifolds in BV formalism
Mikhailov, Andrei
2018-03-01
Gauge fixing is interpreted in BV formalism as a choice of Lagrangian submanifold in an odd symplectic manifold (the BV phase space). A natural construction defines an integration procedure on families of Lagrangian submanifolds. In string perturbation theory, the moduli space integrals of higher genus amplitudes can be interpreted in this way. We discuss the role of gauge symmetries in this construction. We derive the conditions which should be imposed on gauge symmetries for the consistency of our integration procedure. We explain how these conditions behave under the deformations of the worldsheet theory. In particular, we show that integrated vertex operator is actually an inhomogeneous differential form on the space of Lagrangian submanifolds.
An investigation of singular Lagrangians as field systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rabei, E.M.
1995-07-01
The link between the treatment of singular Lagrangians as field systems and the general approach is studied. It is shown that singular Lagrangians as field systems are always in exact agreement with the general approach. Two examples and the singular Lagrangian with zero rank Hessian matrix are studied. The equations of motion in the field systems are equivalent to the equations which contain acceleration, and the constraints are equivalent to the equations which do not contain acceleration in the general approach treatment. (author). 10 refs
Effective Lagrangian for a light Higgs-like scalar
Contino, Roberto; Grojean, Christophe; Muhlleitner, Margarete; Spira, Michael
2013-01-01
We reconsider the effective Lagrangian that describes a light Higgs-like boson and better clarify a few issues which were not exhaustively addressed in the previous literature. In particular we highlight the strategy to determine whether the dynamics responsible for the electroweak symmetry breaking is weakly or strongly interacting. We also discuss how the effective Lagrangian can be implemented into automatic tools for the calculation of Higgs decay rates and production cross sections. Finally, we present eHDECAY, a modified version of the program HDECAY which includes the full list of leading bosonic operators of the effective Lagrangian and implements two benchmark composite Higgs models.
Approximate Noether symmetries and collineations for regular perturbative Lagrangians
Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Jamal, Sameerah
2018-01-01
Regular perturbative Lagrangians that admit approximate Noether symmetries and approximate conservation laws are studied. Specifically, we investigate the connection between approximate Noether symmetries and collineations of the underlying manifold. In particular we determine the generic Noether symmetry conditions for the approximate point symmetries and we find that for a class of perturbed Lagrangians, Noether symmetries are related to the elements of the Homothetic algebra of the metric which is defined by the unperturbed Lagrangian. Moreover, we discuss how exact symmetries become approximate symmetries. Finally, some applications are presented.
Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long Wen
2012-01-01
We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon. (paper)
Planar chiral metamaterials for biosensing applications
Murugkar, Sangeeta; De Leon, Israel; Horton, Matthew; Qassim, Hammam; Leach, Jonathan; Boyd, Robert W.
2013-02-01
There has been a considerable effort recently in the development of planar chiral metamaterials. Owing to the lack of inversion symmetry, these materials have been shown to display interesting physical properties such as negative index of refraction and giant optical activity. However, the biosensing capabilities of these chiral metamaterials have not been fully explored. Ultrasensitive detection and structural characterization of proteins adsorbed on chiral plasmonic substrates was demonstrated recently using UV-visible circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Second harmonic generation microscopy is an extremely sensitive nonlinear optical probe to investigate the chirality of biomaterials. In this study, we characterize the chiral response of chiral plasmonic metamaterials using second harmonic generation microscopy and CD spectroscopy. These planar chiral metamaterials, fabricated by electron-beam lithography, consist of right-handed and left-handed gold gammadions of length 400 nm and thickness 100nm, deposited on a glass substrate and arranged in a square lattice with a periodicity of 800nm.
Phase diagram and Chiral Magnetic Effect in Dirac Semimetals from Lattice Simulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boyda D.L.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Dirac Semimetals Na3Bi and Cd3As2 are recently discovered materials, which low energy electronic spectrum is described by two flavours of massless 3+1D fermions. In order to study electronic properties of these materials we formulated lattice field theory with rooted staggered fermions on anisotropic lattice. It is shown that in the limit of zero temporal lattice spacing this theory reproduces effective theory of Dirac semimetals. Using the lattice field theory we study the phase diagram of Dirac semimetals in the plane effective coupling constant - Fermi velocity anisotropy. We also measure conductivity of Dirac Semimetals within lattice field theory in external magnetic field. Our results confirm the existence of Chiral Magnetic Effect in Dirac Semimetals.
Quantum chaos and chiral symmetry at the QCD and QED phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bittner, Elmar; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer
2001-01-01
We investigate the eigenvalue spectrum of the staggered Dirac matrix in SU(3) gauge theory and in full QCD as well as in quenched U(1) theory. As a measure of the fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues, we consider the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution. We find that in all regions of their phase diagrams, compact lattice gauge theories have bulk spectral correlations given by random matrix theory, which is an indication for quantum chaos. In the confinement phase, the low-lying Dirac spectrum of these quantum field theories is well described by random matrix theory, exhibiting universal behavior. Related results for gauge theories with minimal coupling are now discussed also in the chirally symmetric phase
Vinciguerra, P; Kohnen, T; Azzolini, M; Radice, P; Epstein, D; Koch, D D
1998-01-01
To compare the effects of two treatment patterns in the correction of hyperopia by noncontact holmium:YAG laser thermal keratoplasty (LTK). Divisione Oculistica, Ospedale S. Gerardo, Monza, Italy. Using two treatment patterns, we performed noncontact LTK in one session in 16 eyes of 8 patients with isometropic hyperopic refractive errors; mean preoperative subjective cycloplegic refraction was +4.90 diopters (D) +/- 1.17 (SD). The treatment consisted of 24 spots in three concentric rings of eight spots each; ring diameters were 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 mm, respectively. Each spot received seven pulses of laser energy at 30 mJ/pulse. We treated one eye of each patient with a radial pattern (the spots of the three rings aligned on the eight semimeridians) and the fellow eye with a staggered pattern (the spots of the contiguous rings at 22.5 degrees from each other). Follow-up at 1, 15, 30, 90, 180, and 360 days included subjective cycloplegic refraction, uncorrected (UCVA) and spectacle-corrected visual acuity (SCVA), computerized videokeratography (CVK), and Scheimpflug camera examination. One year postoperatively, the mean subjective cycloplegic refraction was +2.75 +/- 1.6 D in the eyes treated with the radial pattern and +3.40 +/- 1.6 D in those treated with the staggered pattern; the mean change in subjective cycloplegic refraction was 2.15 and 1.50 D, respectively. Mean UCVA improved by five lines in the radial group and by four lines in the staggered group. Mean SCVA returned to preoperative levels by day 15 in the radial group and at 1 year in the staggered group; at 1 year, SCVA improved by one line in the radial group and remained unchanged in the staggered group. No eye lost one or more lines of SCVA. Refractive astigmatism was essentially unchanged in both groups. Scheimpflug photography and CVK indicated larger and more uniform corrected zones in the radial group. Radial and staggered patterns effectively corrected low hyperopia, although both were subject to a
Single chirality through crystal grinding
Noorduin, W.L.
2010-01-01
The properties of chiral molecules in living organisms can be different for left- and right-handed molecules. Therefore, ways to produce molecules of single handedness are of paramount importance, especially for economical, high yielding processes to synthesize pharmaceutical compounds that must be
Principles of chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leutwyler, H.
1995-01-01
An elementary discussion of the main concepts used in chiral perturbation theory is given in textbooks and a more detailed picture of the applications may be obtained from the reviews. Concerning the foundations of the method, the literature is comparatively scarce. So, I will concentrate on the basic concepts and explain why the method works. (author)
The chiral condensate in matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brockmann, R.; Weise, W.
1995-01-01
The change of the chiral condensate in dense matter is discussed. Especially the higher order terms in the density of nuclear matter are evaluated (in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach). Implications for nuclear physics and relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, such as the strong Dirac scalar mean field that results from the density dependence of . (orig.)
Descendants of the Chiral Anomaly
Jackiw, R.
2000-01-01
Chern-Simons terms are well-known descendants of chiral anomalies, when the latter are presented as total derivatives. Here I explain that also Chern-Simons terms, when defined on a 3-manifold, may be expressed as total derivatives.
Chiral phosphines in nucleophilic organocatalysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yumei Xiao
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This review discusses the tertiary phosphines possessing various chiral skeletons that have been used in asymmetric nucleophilic organocatalytic reactions, including annulations of allenes, alkynes, and Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH acetates, carbonates, and ketenes with activated alkenes and imines, allylic substitutions of MBH acetates and carbonates, Michael additions, γ-umpolung additions, and acylations of alcohols.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, R.M.
1992-01-01
The author investigates theoretical uncertainties and model dependence in the extraction of the nucleon-delta(1232) electromagnetic transition amplitudes from the multipole data base. The starting point is an effective Lagrangian incorporating chiral symmetry, which includes at the tree level the pseudovector Born terms, leading t-channel vector meson exchanges, and s and u channel delta exchanges. The nucleon-delta magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition amplitudes are expressed in terms of two independent gauge couplings at the γNΔ vertex. After unitarizing the tree level amplitude, the gauge couplings are fitted to various multipole data sets, thus determining E2 and M1. Although there is much sensitivity to the method used to unitarize the amplitude, the author extracts the E2/M1 ratio to be negative, with a magnitude around 1.5%. 11 refs., 3 figs
One-loop effective lagrangians after matching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguila, F. del; Santiago, J. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and CAFPE, Granada (Spain); Kunszt, Z. [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Zuerich (Switzerland)
2016-05-15
We discuss the limitations of the covariant derivative expansion prescription advocated to compute the one-loop Standard Model (SM) effective lagrangian when the heavy fields couple linearly to the SM. In particular, one-loop contributions resulting from the exchange of both heavy and light fields must be explicitly taken into account through matching because the proposed functional approach alone does not account for them. We review a simple case with a heavy scalar singlet of charge -1 to illustrate the argument. As two other examples where this matching is needed and this functional method gives a vanishing result, up to renormalization of the heavy sector parameters, we re-evaluate the one-loop corrections to the T-parameter due to a heavy scalar triplet with vanishing hypercharge coupling to the Brout-Englert-Higgs boson and to a heavy vector-like quark singlet of charged 2/3 mixing with the top quark, respectively. In all cases we make use of a new code for matching fundamental and effective theories in models with arbitrary heavy field additions. (orig.)
Effective Lagrangians in elementary particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trahern, C.G.
1982-01-01
Non-linear effective Lagrangians are constructed to represent the low energy phenomenology of elementary particles. As approximate descriptions of the dynamics of hadrons, these models simulate the expected (but unproven) behavior of more complex theories such as quantum Chromo-dynamics [QCD]. A general formalism for non-linear models was developed in the late 1960's by Coleman, Wess and Zumino. This dissertation utilizes and extends their work by incorporating some of the advances that have been made in the understanding of quantum field theories in the last decade. In particular the significance of spatial boundary conditions for interpreting the ground state behavior of the non-linear models is investigated. In addition the existence of a dual theory for the non-linear model is discussed. For experimental purposes duality refers to the possibility that in different enrgy regimes there may be wholly distinct kinds of excitations in the physical spectrum. Corresponding to these phenomenological distinctions are mutually exclusive mathematical descriptions. A familiar example is the duality of electric and magnetic charge in electro-dynamics. If magnetic charges do exist, they are expected to be extremely massive states that are unobservable up to very high energies. The analysis of such states within electrodynamics shows that one cannot describe both electric and magnetic charges without admitting the presence of singularities in the electric potential. A completely analogous form of duality is found and discussed for the non-linear models
A Lagrangian for self-dual strings
Niarchos, Vasilis
2015-12-01
We propose a Lagrangian for the low-energy theory that resides at the (1 + 1)-dimensional intersection of N semi-infinite M2-branes ending orthogonally on M M5-branes in {R}^{1,2}× {C}^4/{Z}_k (for arbitrary positive integers N, M, k). We formulate this theory as a 2d boundary theory with explicit N=(1,1) supersymmetry that contains two superfields in the bi-fundamental representation of U( N )×U( M ) interacting with the (2+1)-dimensional U( N ) k × U( N )- k ABJM Chern-Simons-matter theory in the bulk. We postulate that the boundary theory exhibits in the deep infrared supersymmetry enhancement to N=(4,2) , or N=(4,4) depending on the value of k. Arguments in favor of the proposal follow from the study of the open string theory of a U-dual type IIB Hanany-Witten setup. To formulate the bulk-boundary interactions special care is taken to incorporate all the expected boundary effects on gauge symmetry, supersymmetry, and other global symmetries.
Ward identities for Lagrangian conformal models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazzarini, S.; Stora, R.
1989-01-01
The present period of field theory, well represented at this conference, is actively devoted to the quantization of fields subject to a gauge symmetry. Among the most popular theories are the so-called conformal theories. The present consensus converges towards a geometric quantization scheme on moduli space where representation theory of the Virasoro algebra and extension thereof play a prominent role, but where the notion of field abruptly departs from those previously adopted: analyticity which is of an essentially non local nature replaces locality and the attached smoothness or its dual distribution aspects which allow for the consideration of arbitrary supports. Since many conformal theories are attached to a Lagrangian, it is desirable to understand, at least in these cases, how the two aspects are intermingled. ideally, this ought to be done within the framework of axiomatic and/or constructive field theory, but, this are not being yet well developed in the area of gauge theories, the authors remain at the level of the formal perturbative series. One of the weaknesses of the latter, as compared to the former namely the lost of control on positivity, at the benefit of locality may even turn into an advantage in the present situation where indefinite metric is often needed. This paper illustrates the authors' point on the simplest example which exhibits already most of the problems the authors' want to clear up: the free bosonic string
A constraint algorithm for singular Lagrangians subjected to nonholonomic constraints
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Leon, M. [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); de Diego, D.M. [Departamento de Economia Aplicada Cuantitativa, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
1997-06-01
We construct a constraint algorithm for singular Lagrangian systems subjected to nonholonomic constraints which generalizes that of Dirac for constrained Hamiltonian systems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Geometry of Lagrangian first-order classical field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Echeverria-Enriquez, A.; Munoz-Lecanda, M.C.; Roman-Roy, N.
1996-01-01
We construct a lagrangian geometric formulation for first-order field theories using the canonical structures of first-order jet bundles, which are taken as the phase spaces of the systems in consideration. First of all, we construct all the geometric structures associated with a first-order jet bundle and, using them, we develop the lagrangian formalism, defining the canonical forms associated with a lagrangian density and the density of lagrangian energy, obtaining the Euler-Lagrange equations in two equivalent ways: as the result of a variational problem and developing the jet field formalism (which is a formulation more similar to the case of mechanical systems). A statement and proof of Noether's theorem is also given, using the latter formalism. Finally, some classical examples are briefly studied. (orig.)
Low energy effective Lagrangians in open superstring theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medina, Ricardo
2008-01-01
The low energy effective Lagrangian describes the interactions of the massless modes of String Theory. Present work is being done to obtain all alpha' 3 terms (bosonic and fermionic) by means of the known 5-point amplitudes and SUSY
Ambiguities in the Lagrangians formalism: the time-dependent case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreira, D.T.
1986-01-01
An intrinsic formulation of the equivalence problem for time-dependent Lagrangians is given. A new demostration of a theorem derived by Henneaux (1982) is obtained. The relationship to transformation groups is discussed. (Author) [pt
Weak stability of Lagrangian solutions to the semigeostrophic equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faria, Josiane C O; Lopes Filho, Milton C; Nussenzveig Lopes, Helena J
2009-01-01
In (Cullen and Feldman 2006 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 37 137–95), Cullen and Feldman proved the existence of Lagrangian solutions for the semigeostrophic system in physical variables with initial potential vorticity in L p , p > 1. Here, we show that a subsequence of the Lagrangian solutions corresponding to a strongly convergent sequence of initial potential vorticities in L 1 converges strongly in L q , q < ∞, to a Lagrangian solution, in particular extending the existence result of Cullen and Feldman to the case p = 1. We also present a counterexample for Lagrangian solutions corresponding to a sequence of initial potential vorticities converging in BM. The analytical tools used include techniques from optimal transportation, Ambrosio's results on transport by BV vector fields and Orlicz spaces
Yamamoto, Takuya; Nishigaki, Shinsuke M.
2018-02-01
We compute individual distributions of low-lying eigenvalues of a chiral random matrix ensemble interpolating symplectic and unitary symmetry classes by the Nyström-type method of evaluating the Fredholm Pfaffian and resolvents of the quaternion kernel. The one-parameter family of these distributions is shown to fit excellently the Dirac spectra of SU(2) lattice gauge theory with a constant U(1) background or dynamically fluctuating U(1) gauge field, which weakly breaks the pseudoreality of the unperturbed SU(2) Dirac operator. The observed linear dependence of the crossover parameter with the strength of the U(1) perturbations leads to precise determination of the pseudo-scalar decay constant, as well as the chiral condensate in the effective chiral Lagrangian of the AI class.
Lagrangian analysis of explosive models with simple inner structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daneri, A.; Trombetti, G.
1983-01-01
Fast reactor model explosive experiments with inner structures interposed between the explosive energy source and the containment vessel have been analyzed in the paper, with reference to the COVA saries experiments IT/10, IT/11, It/12. Capability and limitations of a Lagrangian fluid dynamics analysis in such expe-rimental conditions have been discussed. The ENEA version of the Lagrangian code ASTARTE-4 has been used in the computations
Semi-Lagrangian methods in air pollution models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. B. Hansen
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Various semi-Lagrangian methods are tested with respect to advection in air pollution modeling. The aim is to find a method fulfilling as many of the desirable properties by Rasch andWilliamson (1990 and Machenhauer et al. (2008 as possible. The focus in this study is on accuracy and local mass conservation.
The methods tested are, first, classical semi-Lagrangian cubic interpolation, see e.g. Durran (1999, second, semi-Lagrangian cubic cascade interpolation, by Nair et al. (2002, third, semi-Lagrangian cubic interpolation with the modified interpolation weights, Locally Mass Conserving Semi-Lagrangian (LMCSL, by Kaas (2008, and last, semi-Lagrangian cubic interpolation with a locally mass conserving monotonic filter by Kaas and Nielsen (2010.
Semi-Lagrangian (SL interpolation is a classical method for atmospheric modeling, cascade interpolation is more efficient computationally, modified interpolation weights assure mass conservation and the locally mass conserving monotonic filter imposes monotonicity.
All schemes are tested with advection alone or with advection and chemistry together under both typical rural and urban conditions using different temporal and spatial resolution. The methods are compared with a current state-of-the-art scheme, Accurate Space Derivatives (ASD, see Frohn et al. (2002, presently used at the National Environmental Research Institute (NERI in Denmark. To enable a consistent comparison only non-divergent flow configurations are tested.
The test cases are based either on the traditional slotted cylinder or the rotating cone, where the schemes' ability to model both steep gradients and slopes are challenged.
The tests showed that the locally mass conserving monotonic filter improved the results significantly for some of the test cases, however, not for all. It was found that the semi-Lagrangian schemes, in almost every case, were not able to outperform the current ASD scheme
Schwinger's effective Lagrangian from reflection and transmission amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warke, C.S.
1992-01-01
The reflection and transmission amplitudes are defined from the asymptotic form of the solution of Dirac equation of a charged fermion in the presence of uniform time independent external electromagnetic field (E, H). Schwinger's effective Lagrangian is derived from the reflection and transmission amplitudes. It is found that both the real and imaginary parts of the effective Lagrangian agree with Schwinger's expressions derived from the elegant method of proper time formalism. (author). 14 refs
BRST Lagrangian construction for spin-2 field in Einstein space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchbinder, I.L.; Krykhtin, V.A.; Lavrov, P.M.
2010-01-01
We explore a new possibility of BRST construction in higher spin field theory to obtain a consistent Lagrangian for massive spin-2 field in Einstein space. Such approach automatically leads to gauge invariant Lagrangian with suitable auxiliary and Stueckelberg fields. It is proved that in this case a propagation of spin-2 field is hyperbolic and causal. Also we extend notion of partial masslessness for spin-2 field in the background under consideration.
Vorticity and symplecticity in multi-symplectic, Lagrangian gas dynamics
Webb, G. M.; Anco, S. C.
2016-02-01
The Lagrangian, multi-dimensional, ideal, compressible gas dynamic equations are written in a multi-symplectic form, in which the Lagrangian fluid labels, m i (the Lagrangian mass coordinates) and time t are the independent variables, and in which the Eulerian position of the fluid element {x}={x}({m},t) and the entropy S=S({m},t) are the dependent variables. Constraints in the variational principle are incorporated by means of Lagrange multipliers. The constraints are: the entropy advection equation S t = 0, the Lagrangian map equation {{x}}t={u} where {u} is the fluid velocity, and the mass continuity equation which has the form J=τ where J={det}({x}{ij}) is the Jacobian of the Lagrangian map in which {x}{ij}=\\partial {x}i/\\partial {m}j and τ =1/ρ is the specific volume of the gas. The internal energy per unit volume of the gas \\varepsilon =\\varepsilon (ρ ,S) corresponds to a non-barotropic gas. The Lagrangian is used to define multi-momenta, and to develop de Donder-Weyl Hamiltonian equations. The de Donder-Weyl equations are cast in a multi-symplectic form. The pullback conservation laws and the symplecticity conservation laws are obtained. One class of symplecticity conservation laws give rise to vorticity and potential vorticity type conservation laws, and another class of symplecticity laws are related to derivatives of the Lagrangian energy conservation law with respect to the Lagrangian mass coordinates m i . We show that the vorticity-symplecticity laws can be derived by a Lie dragging method, and also by using Noether’s second theorem and a fluid relabelling symmetry which is a divergence symmetry of the action. We obtain the Cartan-Poincaré form describing the equations and we discuss a set of differential forms representing the equation system.
Sequential weak continuity of null Lagrangians at the boundary
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kalamajska, A.; Kraemer, S.; Kružík, Martin
2014-01-01
Roč. 49, 3/4 (2014), s. 1263-1278 ISSN 0944-2669 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0357 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : null Lagrangians * nonhomogeneous nonlinear mappings * sequential weak/in measure continuity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kruzik-sequential weak continuity of null lagrangians at the boundary.pdf
Persistent Lagrangian transport patterns in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico
Gough, M. K.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Sheinbaum, J.; Juoanno, J.; Duran, R.
2017-01-01
Persistent Lagrangian transport patterns at the ocean surface are revealed from Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) computed from daily climatological surface current velocities in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (NWGoM). The velocities are produced by a submesoscale permitting regional ocean model of the Gulf of Mexico. The significance of the climatological LCSs (cLCSs) is supported with ensemble-mean drifter density evolutions from simulated and historical satellite-tracked drifter traje...
Projection operator techniques in Lagrangian mechanics: symmetrically coupled oscillators
J. N. Boyd; P. N. Raychowdhury
1980-01-01
We apply projection operator techniques to the computation of the natural frequencies of oscillation for three symmetrically coupled mechanical systems. In each case, the rotation subgroup of the full symmetry group is used to determine the projection operators with the result that the Lagrangian must be expressed in terms of complex-valued coordinates. In the coordinate system obtained from the action of the projection operators upon the original coordinates, the Lagrangian yields equations ...
Modeling seismic wave propagation using staggered-grid mimetic finite differences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Freysimar Solano-Feo
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Mimetic finite difference (MFD approximations of continuous gradient and divergence operators satisfy a discrete version of the Gauss-Divergence theorem on staggered grids. On the mimetic approximation of this integral conservation principle, an unique boundary flux operator is introduced that also intervenes on the discretization of a given boundary value problem (BVP. In this work, we present a second-order MFD scheme for seismic wave propagation on staggered grids that discretized free surface and absorbing boundary conditions (ABC with same accuracy order. This scheme is time explicit after coupling a central three-level finite difference (FD stencil for numerical integration. Here, we briefly discuss the convergence properties of this scheme and show its higher accuracy on a challenging test when compared to a traditional FD method. Preliminary applications to 2-D seismic scenarios are also presented and show the potential of the mimetic finite difference method.
Skew information in the XY model with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu, Liang, E-mail: lqiu@cumt.edu.cn [School of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Quan, Dongxiao [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Pan, Fei; Liu, Zhi [School of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)
2017-06-01
We study the performance of the lower bound of skew information in the vicinity of transition point for the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction by use of quantum renormalization-group method. For a fixed value of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, there are two saturated values for the lower bound of skew information corresponding to the spin-fluid and Néel phases, respectively. The scaling exponent of the lower bound of skew information closely relates to the correlation length of the model and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction shifts the factorization point. Our results show that the lower bound of skew information can be a good candidate to detect the critical point of XY spin chain with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.
Investigation of writing error in staggered heated-dot magnetic recording systems
Tipcharoen, W.; Warisarn, C.; Tongsomporn, D.; Karns, D.; Kovintavewat, P.
2017-05-01
To achieve an ultra-high storage capacity, heated-dot magnetic recording (HDMR) has been proposed, which heats a bit-patterned medium before recording data. Generally, an error during the HDMR writing process comes from several sources; however, we only investigate the effects of staggered island arrangement, island size fluctuation caused by imperfect fabrication, and main pole position fluctuation. Simulation results demonstrate that a writing error can be minimized by using a staggered array (hexagonal lattice) instead of a square array. Under the effect of main pole position fluctuation, the writing error is higher than the system without main pole position fluctuation. Finally, we found that the error percentage can drop below 10% when the island size is 8.5 nm and the standard deviation of the island size is 1 nm in the absence of main pole jitter.
Lagrangian structures in time-periodic vortical flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. V. Kostrykin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles are experimentally studied in an oscillating four-vortex velocity field. The oscillations occur due to a loss of stability of a steady flow and result in a regular reclosure of streamlines between the vortices of the same sign. The Eulerian velocity field is visualized by tracer displacements over a short time period. The obtained data on tracer motions during a number of oscillation periods show that the Lagrangian trajectories form quasi-regular structures. The destruction of these structures is determined by two characteristic time scales: the tracers are redistributed sufficiently fast between the vortices of the same sign and much more slowly transported into the vortices of opposite sign. The observed behavior of the Lagrangian trajectories is quantitatively reproduced in a new numerical experiment with two-dimensional model of the velocity field with a small number of spatial harmonics. A qualitative interpretation of phenomena observed on the basis of the theory of adiabatic chaos in the Hamiltonian systems is given. The Lagrangian trajectories are numerically simulated under varying flow parameters. It is shown that the spatial-temporal characteristics of the Lagrangian structures depend on the properties of temporal change in the streamlines topology and on the adiabatic parameter corresponding to the flow. The condition for the occurrence of traps (the regions where the Lagrangian particles reside for a long time is obtained.
On the spectrum of the staggered Dirac operator at finite chemical potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vink, J.C.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica
1988-12-01
The spectrum of the staggered Dirac operator in two-dimensional QEDF is investigated at finite chemical potential. In the quenced model, it is shown that lattice artefacts cause a spurious scattering of eigenvalues. This scattering disappears when lattice distance is taken to zero. In the unquenced model, a new approach is used to show that similar effects are absent. (author). 17 refs.; 6 figs
Diffraction of love waves by two staggered perfectly weak half-planes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asghar, S.; Zaman, F.D.; Sajida Asghar
1989-01-01
Love wave travelling in a layer of uniform thickness overlying a half-space is assumed to be incident on two parallel but staggered perfectly weak half-planes lying in the upper layer. The diffracted fields is calculated using the modified Wiener-Hopf technique and contour integration method. The diffracted waves satisfy the dispersion relations appropriate to different regions formed by the perfectly weak half-planes
Takayama, Yuki
2014-01-01
Since the seminal work of Henderson (1981), a number of studies examined the effect of staggered work hours by analyzing models of work start time choice that consider the trade-off between negative congestion externalities and positive production externalities. However, these studies described traffic congestion using flow congestion models. This study develops a model of work start time choice with bottleneck congestion and discloses the intrinsic properties of the model. To this end, this ...
Gerya, T.; Duretz, T.; May, D. A.
2012-04-01
We present new 2D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) algorithm based on stress-conservative finite-differences formulated for non-uniform rectangular staggered grid. The refinement approach is based on a repetitive cell splitting organized via a quad-tree construction (every parent cell is split into 4 daughter cells of equal size). Irrespective of the level of resolution every cell has 5 staggered nodes (2 horizontal velocities, 2 vertical velocities and 1 pressure) for which respective governing equations, boundary conditions and interpolation equations are formulated. The connectivity of the grid is achieved via cross-indexing of grid cells and basic nodal points located in their corners: four corner nodes are indexed for every cell and up to 4 surrounding cells are indexed for every node. The accuracy of the approach depends critically on the formulation of the stencil used at the "hanging" velocity nodes located at the boundaries between different levels of resolution. Most accurate results are obtained for the scheme based on the volume flux balance across the resolution boundary combined with stress-based interpolation of velocity orthogonal to the boundary. We tested this new approach with a number of 2D variable viscosity analytical solutions. Our tests demonstrate that the adaptive staggered grid formulation has convergence properties similar to those obtained in case of a standard, non-adaptive staggered grid formulation. This convergence is also achieved when resolution boundary crosses sharp viscosity contrast interfaces. The convergence rates measured are found to be insensitive to scenarios when the transition in grid resolution crosses sharp viscosity contrast interfaces. We compared various grid refinement strategies based on distribution of different field variables such as viscosity, density and velocity. According to these tests the refinement allows for significant (0.5-1 order of magnitude) increase in the computational accuracy at the same
Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials
Ma, T. Y.; Wang, Y. N.; Yuan, L.; Wang, J. S.; Qin, Q. H.
2017-12-01
Natural and artificial chiral materials such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), chromatin fibers, flagellar filaments, chiral nanotubes, and chiral lattice materials widely exist. Due to the chirality of intricately helical or twisted microstructures, such materials hold great promise for use in diverse applications in smart sensors and actuators, force probes in biomedical engineering, structural elements for absorption of microwaves and elastic waves, etc. In this paper, a Timoshenko beam model for chiral materials is developed based on noncentrosymmetric micropolar elasticity theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions for a chiral beam problem are derived using the variational method and Hamilton's principle. The static bending and free vibration problem of a chiral beam are investigated using the proposed model. It is found that chirality can significantly affect the mechanical behavior of beams, making materials more flexible compared with nonchiral counterparts, inducing coupled twisting deformation, relatively larger deflection, and lower natural frequency. This study is helpful not only for understanding the mechanical behavior of chiral materials such as DNA and chromatin fibers and characterizing their mechanical properties, but also for the design of hierarchically structured chiral materials.
Carpenter, Mark H.; Parsani, Matteo; Fisher, Travis C.; Nielsen, Eric J.
2015-01-01
Staggered grid, entropy stable discontinuous spectral collocation operators of any order are developed for Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured hexahedral elements. This generalization of previous entropy stable spectral collocation work [1, 2], extends the applicable set of points from tensor product, Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto (LGL) to a combination of tensor product Legendre-Gauss (LG) and LGL points. The new semi-discrete operators discretely conserve mass, momentum, energy and satisfy a mathematical entropy inequality for both Burgers' and the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in three spatial dimensions. They are valid for smooth as well as discontinuous flows. The staggered LG and conventional LGL point formulations are compared on several challenging test problems. The staggered LG operators are significantly more accurate, although more costly to implement. The LG and LGL operators exhibit similar robustness, as is demonstrated using test problems known to be problematic for operators that lack a nonlinearly stability proof for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations (e.g., discontinuous Galerkin, spectral difference, or flux reconstruction operators).
Inexpensive chirality on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamleh, W.; Williams, A.G.; Adams, D.
2000-01-01
Full text: Implementing lattice fermions that resemble as closely as possible continuum fermions is one of the main goals of the theoretical physics community. Aside from a lack of infinitely powerful computers, one of the main impediments to this is the Nielsen-Ninomiya No-Go theorem for chirality on the lattice. One of the consequences of this theorem is that exact chiral symmetry and a lack of fermion doublers cannot be simultaneously satisfied for fermions on the lattice. In the commonly used Wilson fermion formulation, chiral symmetry is explicitly sacrificed on the lattice to avoid fermion doubling. Recently, an alternative has come forward, namely, the Ginsparg-Wilson relation and one of its solutions, the Overlap fermion. The Ginsparg-Wilson relation is a statement of lattice-deformed chirality. The Overlap-Dirac operator is a member of the family of solutions of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. In recent times, Overlap fermions have been of great interest to the community due to their excellent chiral properties. However, they are significantly more expensive to implement than Wilson fermions. This expense is primarily due to the fact that the Overlap implementation requires an evaluation of the sign function for the Wilson-Dirac operator. The sign function is approximated by a high order rational polynomial function, but this approximation is poor close to the origin. The less near-zero modes that the Wilson- Dirac operator possesses, the cheaper the Overlap operator will be to implement. A means of improving the eigenvalue properties of the Wilson-Dirac operator by the addition of a so-called 'Clover' term is put forward. Numerical results are given that demonstrate this improvement. The Nielsen-Ninomiya no-go theorem and chirality on the lattice are reviewed. The general form of solutions of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation are given, and the Overlap solution is discussed. Properties of the Overlap-Dirac operator are given, including locality and analytic
Chiral logarithms in quenched QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Y. Chen; S. J. Dong; T. Draper; I. Horvath; F. X. Lee; K. F. Liu; N. Mathur; and J. B. Zhang
2004-08-01
The quenched chiral logarithms are examined on a 163x28 lattice with Iwasaki gauge action and overlap fermions. The pion decay constant fpi is used to set the lattice spacing, a = 0.200(3) fm. With pion mass as low as {approx}180 MeV, we see the quenched chiral logarithms clearly in mpi2/m and fP, the pseudoscalar decay constant. The authors analyze the data to determine how low the pion mass needs to be in order for the quenched one-loop chiral perturbation theory (chiPT) to apply. With the constrained curve-fitting method, they are able to extract the quenched chiral logarithmic parameter delta together with other low-energy parameters. Only for mpi<=300 MeV do we obtain a consistent and stable fit with a constant delta which they determine to be 0.24(3)(4) (at the chiral scale Lambdachi = 0.8 GeV). By comparing to the 123x28 lattice, they estimate the finite volume effect to be about 2.7% for the smallest pion mass. They also fitted the pion mass to the form for the re-summed cactus diagrams and found that its applicable region is extended farther than the range for the one-loop formula, perhaps up to mpi {approx}500-600 MeV. The scale independent delta is determined to be 0.20(3) in this case. The authors study the quenched non-analytic terms in the nucleon mass and find that the coefficient C1/2 in the nucleon mass is consistent with the prediction of one-loop chiPT. They also obtain the low energy constant L5 from fpi. They conclude from this study that it is imperative to cover only the range of data with the pion mass less than {approx}300 MeV in order to examine the chiral behavior of the hadron masses and decay constants in quenched QCD and match them with quenched one-loop chiPT.
Holdeman, James D.
2016-01-01
The purpose of this article is to explain why the extension of the previously published C = (S/Ho)sqrt(J) scaling for opposed rows of staggered jets wasn't directly successful in the study by Choi et al. (2016). It is not surprising that staggered jets from opposite sides do not pass each other at the expected C value, because Ho/D and sqrt(J) are much larger than the maximum in previous studies. These, and large x/D's, tend to suggest development of 2-dimensional flow. Although there are distinct optima for opposed rows of in-line jets, single-side injection, and opposed rows of staggered jets based on C, opposed rows of staggered jets provide as good or better mixing performance, at any C value, than opposed rows of in-line jets or jets from single-side injection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, De-Liang [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics,Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Siemens, D. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Bernard, V. [Groupe de Physique Théorique, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, UMR 8606,CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Epelbaum, E. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Gasparyan, A.M. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); SSC RF ITEP, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gegelia, J. [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics,Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Tbilisi State University, 0186 Tbilisi (Georgia); Krebs, H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Meißner, Ulf-G. [Helmholtz Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik andBethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics,Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)
2016-05-05
We present the results of a third order calculation of the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude in a chiral effective field theory with pions, nucleons and delta resonances as explicit degrees of freedom. We work in a manifestly Lorentz invariant formulation of baryon chiral perturbation theory using dimensional regularization and the extended on-mass-shell renormalization scheme. In the delta resonance sector, the on mass-shell renormalization is realized as a complex-mass scheme. By fitting the low-energy constants of the effective Lagrangian to the S- and P-partial waves a satisfactory description of the phase shifts from the analysis of the Roy-Steiner equations is obtained. We predict the phase shifts for the D and F waves and compare them with the results of the analysis of the George Washington University group. The threshold parameters are calculated both in the delta-less and delta-full cases. Based on the determined low-energy constants, we discuss the pion-nucleon sigma term. Additionally, in order to determine the strangeness content of the nucleon, we calculate the octet baryon masses in the presence of decuplet resonances up to next-to-next-to-leading order in SU(3) baryon chiral perturbation theory. The octet baryon sigma terms are predicted as a byproduct of this calculation.
Nuclear chiral axial currents and applications to few-nucleon systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baroni, Alessandro [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
2017-08-01
This Thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part discusses basic aspects of chiral effective field theory and the formalism, based on time ordered perturbation theory, used to to derive the nuclear potentials and currents from the chiral Lagrangians. The second part deals with the actual derivation, up to one loop, of the two-nucleon potential and one- and two-nucleon weak axial charge and current. In both derivations ultraviolet divergences generated by loop corrections are isolated using dimensional regularization. The resulting axial current is finite and conserved in the chiral limit, while the axial charge requires renormalization. A complete set of contact terms for the axial charge up to the relevant order in the power counting is constructed. The third part of this Thesis discusses two applications: (i) the calculation of the Gamow-Teller matrix element of tritium, used to constrain the single low-energy constant entering the axial current; (ii) the calculation of neutrino-deuteron inclusive cross sections at low energies. These results have confirmed previous predictions obtained in phenomenological approaches. These latter studies have played an important role in the analysis and interpretation of experiments at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.
Semileptonic decays of the tau-lepton and the nonlinear chiral SU(3)xSU(3)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chahrouri, N.
1984-01-01
In this thesis the semileptonic decays of the tan lepton are treated in the framework of a nonlinear chiral SU(3)XSU(3). After a description of the experimental situation and the historical development a phenomenological Lagrangian is constructed which is invariant under the nonlinear chiral SU(3)XSU(3). In order to correspond to the real experimental situation the SU(3)XSU(3) symmetry is broken however without violating the proved symmetry SU(2)XSU(2). The current matrix elements are calculated whereby the effect of the phi, Ksup(*), and PHI resonances is included by the means of form factors. After the calculation of the phase-space integrals the results are presented and discussed. It is shown that the results of the model reproduce the existing data very well. An improvement should yet be reached by gauging of the theory. (HSI) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, Donghui; Huang, Mei; Wang, Zhijiang; Zhang, Feng; Zhuang, Ge
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The integral staggered point-matching method for design of polarizers on the ECH systems is presented. • The availability of the integral staggered point-matching method is checked by numerical calculations. • Two polarizers are designed with the integral staggered point-matching method and the experimental results are given. - Abstract: The reflective diffraction gratings are widely used in the high power electron cyclotron heating systems for polarization strategy. This paper presents a method which we call “the integral staggered point-matching method” for design of reflective diffraction gratings. This method is based on the integral point-matching method. However, it effectively removes the convergence problems and tedious calculations of the integral point-matching method, making it easier to be used for a beginner. A code is developed based on this method. The calculation results of the integral staggered point-matching method are compared with the integral point-matching method, the coordinate transformation method and the low power measurement results. It indicates that the integral staggered point-matching method can be used as an optional method for the design of reflective diffraction gratings in electron cyclotron heating systems.
Zou, Peng
2017-05-10
Staggering grid is a very effective way to reduce the Nyquist errors and to suppress the non-causal ringing artefacts in the pseudo-spectral solution of first-order elastic wave equations. However, the straightforward use of a staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method is problematic for simulating wave propagation when the anisotropy level is greater than orthorhombic or when the anisotropic symmetries are not aligned with the computational grids. Inspired by the idea of rotated staggered-grid finite-difference method, we propose a modified pseudo-spectral method for wave propagation in arbitrary anisotropic media. Compared with an existing remedy of staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method based on stiffness matrix decomposition and a possible alternative using the Lebedev grids, the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method possesses the best balance between the mitigation of artefacts and efficiency. A 2D example on a transversely isotropic model with tilted symmetry axis verifies its effectiveness to suppress the ringing artefacts. Two 3D examples of increasing anisotropy levels demonstrate that the rotated staggered-grid-based pseudo-spectral method can successfully simulate complex wavefields in such anisotropic formations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Donghui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Huang, Mei [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Wang, Zhijiang, E-mail: wangzj@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zhang, Feng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, 610041 Chengdu (China); Zhuang, Ge [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China)
2016-10-15
Highlights: • The integral staggered point-matching method for design of polarizers on the ECH systems is presented. • The availability of the integral staggered point-matching method is checked by numerical calculations. • Two polarizers are designed with the integral staggered point-matching method and the experimental results are given. - Abstract: The reflective diffraction gratings are widely used in the high power electron cyclotron heating systems for polarization strategy. This paper presents a method which we call “the integral staggered point-matching method” for design of reflective diffraction gratings. This method is based on the integral point-matching method. However, it effectively removes the convergence problems and tedious calculations of the integral point-matching method, making it easier to be used for a beginner. A code is developed based on this method. The calculation results of the integral staggered point-matching method are compared with the integral point-matching method, the coordinate transformation method and the low power measurement results. It indicates that the integral staggered point-matching method can be used as an optional method for the design of reflective diffraction gratings in electron cyclotron heating systems.
Metamaterials with magnetism and chirality
Tomita, Satoshi; Kurosawa, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Tetsuya; Sawada, Kei
2018-02-01
This review introduces and overviews electromagnetism in structured metamaterials which undergo simultaneous time-reversal and space-inversion symmetry breaking due to magnetism and chirality. Direct experimental observation of optical magnetochiral effects in a single metamolecule with magnetism and chirality is demonstrated at microwave frequencies. Numerical simulations based on a finite element method reproduce the experimental results well, and predict the emergence of giant magnetochiral effects, by combining resonances in the metamolecule. Toward the realization of magnetochiral effects at higher frequencies than microwaves, a metamolecule is miniaturized in the presence of ferromagnetic resonance in a cavity and coplanar waveguide. This work opens the door to the realization of a one-way mirror and synthetic gauge fields for electromagnetic waves.
A spectral route to determining chirality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger
2009-01-01
We show how one-dimensional structured media can be used to measure chirality, via the spectral shift of the photonic band gap edges. Analytically, we show that a chiral contrast can, in some cases, be mapped unto an index contrast, thereby greatly simplifying the analysis of such structures. Using...... this mapping, we derive a first-order shift of the band gap edges with chirality. Potentially, this effect could be used for measuring enantiomeric excess....
The chirality operators for Heisenberg spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subrahmanyam, V.
1994-01-01
The ground state of closed Heisenberg spin chains with an odd number of sites has a chiral degeneracy, in addition to a two-fold Kramers degeneracy. A non-zero chirality implies that the spins are not coplanar, and is a measure of handedness. The chirality operator, which can be treated as a spin-1/2 operator, is explicitly constructed in terms of the spin operators, and is given as commutator of permutation operators. (author). 3 refs
Enantioselective Biotransformation of Chiral Persistent Organic Pollutants.
Zhang, Ying; Ye, Jing; Liu, Min
2017-01-01
Enantiomers of chiral compounds commonly undergo enantioselective transformation in most biologically mediated processes. As chiral persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are extensively distributed in the environment, differences between enantiomers in biotransformation should be carefully considered to obtain exact enrichment and specific health risks. This review provides an overview of in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs currently indicated in the Stockholm Convention and their chiral metabolites. Peer-reviewed journal articles focused on the research question were thoroughly searched. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to identify relevant studies. We mainly compared the results from different animal models under controlled laboratory conditions to show the difference between enantiomers in terms of distinct transformation potential. Interactions with enzymes involved in enantioselective biotransformation, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP), were discussed. Further research areas regarding this issue were proposed. Limited evidence for a few POPs has been found in 30 studies. Enantioselective biotransformation of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), chlordane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), heptachlor, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and toxaphene, has been investigated using laboratory mammal, fish, bird, and worm models. Tissue and excreta distributions, as well as bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics after administration of racemate and pure enantiomers, have been analyzed in these studies. Changes in enantiomeric fractions have been considered as an indicator of enantioselective biotransformation of chiral POPs in most studies. Results of different laboratory animal models revealed that chiral POP biotransformation is seriously affected by chirality. Pronounced results of species-, tissue-, gender-, and individual-dependent differences are observed in in vivo biotransformation of chiral POPs
Chiral solitons a review volume
1987-01-01
This review volume on topological and nontopological chiral solitons presents a global view on the current developments of this field in particle and nuclear physics. The book addresses problems in quantization, restoration of translational and rotational symmetry, and the field theoretical approach to solitons which are common problems in the field of solitons. Primarily aimed for graduate students and the novice in the field, the collected articless cover a broad spectrum of topics in formalism as well as phenomenology.
An epistemological note on chirality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mislow, K.; Bickart, P.
1976-01-01
The terms ''chiral'' and ''achiral'' are sharply defined when applied to geometric figures or models. The same terms are also commonly used to refer to the real systems to which these models have been adjoined. e.g., molecules, solvents, or reagents. Here, the terms are not sharply defined but depend upon conditions or measurement. The contrast between the geometric and operational usages is discussed in detail
Chiral symmetry and nucleon structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holstein, B.R. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astromony Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory)
1992-01-01
Recently it has been realized that significant tests of the validity of QCD are available in low energy experiments (E < 500 MeV) by exploiting the property of (broken) chiral symmetry. This technique has been highly developed in The Goldstone boson sector by the work of Gasser and Leutwyler. Application to the nucleon system is much more difficult and is now being carefully developed.
Laser Writing of Multiscale Chiral Polymer Metamaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. P. Furlani
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A new approach to metamaterials is presented that involves laser-based patterning of novel chiral polymer media, wherein chirality is realized at two distinct length scales, intrinsically at the molecular level and geometrically at a length scale on the order of the wavelength of the incident field. In this approach, femtosecond-pulsed laser-induced two-photon lithography (TPL is used to pattern a photoresist-chiral polymer mixture into planar chiral shapes. Enhanced bulk chirality can be realized by tuning the wavelength-dependent chiral response at both the molecular and geometric level to ensure an overlap of their respective spectra. The approach is demonstrated via the fabrication of a metamaterial consisting of a two-dimensional array of chiral polymer-based L-structures. The fabrication process is described and modeling is performed to demonstrate the distinction between molecular and planar geometric-based chirality and the effects of the enhanced multiscale chirality on the optical response of such media. This new approach to metamaterials holds promise for the development of tunable, polymer-based optical metamaterials with low loss.
Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P
2007-06-01
The first simultaneous use of a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil for microemulsion EKC (MEEKC) is reported. Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and dibutyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 1.23% v/v) were examined as chiral pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the separation of six pairs of pharmaceutical enantiomers: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Subtle differences were observed for three chromatographic figures of merit (alpha(enant), alpha(meth), k) among the chiral microemulsions; a moderate difference was observed for efficiency (N) and elution range. Dual-chirality microemulsions provided both the largest and smallest enantioselectivities, due to small positive and negative synergies between the chiral microemulsion components. For the ephedrine family of compounds, dual-chiral microemulsions with surfactant and oil in opposite stereochemical configurations provided higher enantioselectivities than the single-chiral component microemulsion (RXX), whereas dual-chiral microemulsions with surfactant and oil in the same stereochemical configurations provided lower enantioselectivities than RXX. Slight to moderate enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Efficiencies observed with microemulsions comprised of racemic dibutyl tartrate or dibutyl-D-tartrate were significantly higher than those obtained with dibutyl-L-tartrate, with an average difference in plate count of about 25 000. Finally, one two-chiral-component microemulsion (RXS) provided significantly better resolution than the remaining one- and two-chiral-component microemulsions for the ephedrine-based compounds, but only slightly better or equivalent resolution for non-ephedrine compounds.
Scale-by-scale contributions to Lagrangian particle acceleration
Lalescu, Cristian C.; Wilczek, Michael
2017-11-01
Fluctuations on a wide range of scales in both space and time are characteristic of turbulence. Lagrangian particles, advected by the flow, probe these fluctuations along their trajectories. In an effort to isolate the influence of the different scales on Lagrangian statistics, we employ direct numerical simulations (DNS) combined with a filtering approach. Specifically, we study the acceleration statistics of tracers advected in filtered fields to characterize the smallest temporal scales of the flow. Emphasis is put on the acceleration variance as a function of filter scale, along with the scaling properties of the relevant terms of the Navier-Stokes equations. We furthermore discuss scaling ranges for higher-order moments of the tracer acceleration, as well as the influence of the choice of filter on the results. Starting from the Lagrangian tracer acceleration as the short time limit of the Lagrangian velocity increment, we also quantify the influence of filtering on Lagrangian intermittency. Our work complements existing experimental results on intermittency and accelerations of finite-sized, neutrally-buoyant particles: for the passive tracers used in our DNS, feedback effects are neglected such that the spatial averaging effect is cleanly isolated.
Geometric deviation modeling by kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate
Liu, Weidong; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Yu; Dai, Wanyi
2015-09-01
Typical representation of dimension and geometric accuracy is limited to the self-representation of dimension and geometric deviation based on geometry variation thinking, yet the interactivity affection of geometric variation and gesture variation of multi-rigid body is not included. In this paper, a kinematic matrix model based on Lagrangian coordinate is introduced, with the purpose of unified model for geometric variation and gesture variation and their interactive and integrated analysis. Kinematic model with joint, local base and movable base is built. The ideal feature of functional geometry is treated as the base body; the fitting feature of functional geometry is treated as the adjacent movable body; the local base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the ideal geometry, and the movable base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the fitting geometry. Furthermore, the geometric deviation is treated as relative location or rotation variation between the movable base and the local base, and it's expressed by the Lagrangian coordinate. Moreover, kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate for different types of geometry tolerance zones is constructed, and total freedom for each kinematic model is discussed. Finally, the Lagrangian coordinate library, kinematic matrix library for geometric deviation modeling is illustrated, and an example of block and piston fits is introduced. Dimension and geometric tolerances of the shaft and hole fitting feature are constructed by kinematic matrix and Lagrangian coordinate, and the results indicate that the proposed kinematic matrix is capable and robust in dimension and geometric tolerances modeling.
Li, Shao-Yong; Xu, Yao-Wei; Liu, Jun-Min; Su, Cheng-Yong
2011-01-17
Inherently chiral calixarenes, whose chirality is based on the absence of a planar symmetry or an inversion center in the molecules as a whole through the asymmetric array of several achiral groups upon the three-dimensional calix-skeletons, are challenging and attractive chiral molecules, because of their potential in supramolecular chemistry. The synthesis and optical resolution of all varieties of inherently chiral calixarenes are systematically discussed and classified, and their applications in chiral recognition and asymmetric catalysis are thoroughly illustrated in this review.
Scaling behaviour of the effective chiral action and stability of the chiral soliton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinhardt, H.
1986-12-01
The effective chiral action is evaluated within a novel improved heat-kernel expansion, which includes gradients of the chiral field in a non-perturbative way. The exact scaling behaviour of the effective action of a localized chiral field with respect to changing its spatial size is found. From this it is proved that the radiatively induced derivative terms cannot absolutely stabilize the chiral soliton against collapsing. The collapsing of the soliton is, however, accompanied by a vanishing of the baryon charge. It is argued that the effective chiral action constrained to a fixed baryon number may still admit stable soliton configurations. (orig.)
The semi-Lagrangian method on curvilinear grids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamiaz Adnane
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We study the semi-Lagrangian method on curvilinear grids. The classical backward semi-Lagrangian method [1] preserves constant states but is not mass conservative. Natural reconstruction of the field permits nevertheless to have at least first order in time conservation of mass, even if the spatial error is large. Interpolation is performed with classical cubic splines and also cubic Hermite interpolation with arbitrary reconstruction order of the derivatives. High odd order reconstruction of the derivatives is shown to be a good ersatz of cubic splines which do not behave very well as time step tends to zero. A conservative semi-Lagrangian scheme along the lines of [2] is then described; here conservation of mass is automatically satisfied and constant states are shown to be preserved up to first order in time.
On frame indifferent Lagrangians of micropolar thermoelastic continuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir A. Kovalev
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A non-linear mathematical model of type-II thermoelastic continuum with fine microstructure is developed. The model is described in terms of 4-covariant field theoretical formalism attributed to field theories of continuum mechanics. Fine microstructure is introduced by d-vectors and tensors playing role of extra field variables. A Lagrangian density for type-II thermoelastic continuum with fine microstructure is proposed and the least action principle is formulated. Virtual microstructural inertia is added to the considered action density. It is also valid for the thermal inertia. Corresponding 4-covariant field equations of type-II thermoelasticity are obtained. Constitutive equations of type-II microstructural thermoelasticity are discussed. Following the usual procedure for type-II micropolar thermoelastic Lagrangians functionally independent rotationally invariant arguments are obtained. Those are proved to form a complete set. Objective forms of the Lagrangians satisfying the frame indifference principle are given. Those are derived by using extrastrain vectors and tensors.
An updated Lagrangian particle hydrodynamics (ULPH) for Newtonian fluids
Tu, Qingsong; Li, Shaofan
2017-11-01
In this work, we have developed an updated Lagrangian particle hydrodynamics (ULPH) for Newtonian fluid. Unlike the smoothed particle hydrodynamics, the non-local particle hydrodynamics formulation proposed here is consistent and convergence. Unlike the state-based peridynamics, the discrete particle dynamics proposed here has no internal material bond between particles, and it is not formulated with respect to initial or a fixed referential configuration. In specific, we have shown that (1) the non-local update Lagrangian particle hydrodynamics formulation converges to the conventional local fluid mechanics formulation; (2) the non-local updated Lagrangian particle hydrodynamics can capture arbitrary flow discontinuities without any changes in the formulation, and (3) the proposed non-local particle hydrodynamics is computationally efficient and robust.
Extended hamiltonian formalism and Lorentz-violating lagrangians
Colladay, Don
2017-09-01
A new perspective on the classical mechanical formulation of particle trajectories in Lorentz-violating theories is presented. Using the extended hamiltonian formalism, a Legendre Transformation between the associated covariant lagrangian and hamiltonian varieties is constructed. This approach enables calculation of trajectories using Hamilton's equations in momentum space and the Euler-Lagrange equations in velocity space away from certain singular points that arise in the theory. Singular points are naturally de-singularized by requiring the trajectories to be smooth functions of both velocity and momentum variables. In addition, it is possible to identify specific sheets of the dispersion relations that correspond to specific solutions for the lagrangian. Examples corresponding to bipartite Finsler functions are computed in detail. A direct connection between the lagrangians and the field-theoretic solutions to the Dirac equation is also established for a special case.
Integration over families of Lagrangian submanifolds in BV formalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei Mikhailov
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Gauge fixing is interpreted in BV formalism as a choice of Lagrangian submanifold in an odd symplectic manifold (the BV phase space. A natural construction defines an integration procedure on families of Lagrangian submanifolds. In string perturbation theory, the moduli space integrals of higher genus amplitudes can be interpreted in this way. We discuss the role of gauge symmetries in this construction. We derive the conditions which should be imposed on gauge symmetries for the consistency of our integration procedure. We explain how these conditions behave under the deformations of the worldsheet theory. In particular, we show that integrated vertex operator is actually an inhomogeneous differential form on the space of Lagrangian submanifolds.
EM reconstruction of dual isotope PET using staggered injections and prompt gamma positron emitters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna
2014-01-01
Purpose: The aim of dual isotope positron emission tomography (DIPET) is to create two separate images of two coinjected PET radiotracers. DIPET shortens the duration of the study, reduces patient discomfort, and produces perfectly coregistered images compared to the case when two radiotracers would be imaged independently (sequential PET studies). Reconstruction of data from such simultaneous acquisition of two PET radiotracers is difficult because positron decay of any isotope creates only 511 keV photons; therefore, the isotopes cannot be differentiated based on the detected energy. Methods: Recently, the authors have proposed a DIPET technique that uses a combination of radiotracer A which is a pure positron emitter (such as 18 F or 11 C) and radiotracer B in which positron decay is accompanied by the emission of a high-energy (HE) prompt gamma (such as 38 K or 60 Cu). Events that are detected as triple coincidences of HE gammas with the corresponding two 511 keV photons allow the authors to identify the lines-of-response (LORs) of isotope B. These LORs are used to separate the two intertwined distributions, using a dedicated image reconstruction algorithm. In this work the authors propose a new version of the DIPET EM-based reconstruction algorithm that allows the authors to include an additional, independent estimate of radiotracer A distribution which may be obtained if radioisotopes are administered using a staggered injections method. In this work the method is tested on simple simulations of static PET acquisitions. Results: The authors’ experiments performed using Monte-Carlo simulations with static acquisitions demonstrate that the combined method provides better results (crosstalk errors decrease by up to 50%) than the positron-gamma DIPET method or staggered injections alone. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that the authors’ new EM algorithm which combines information from triple coincidences with prompt gammas and staggered injections
Response of Maize Crop to Spatial Arrangement and Staggered Interseeding of Haricot Bean
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamiru Hirpa
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Field studies conducted to determine the effects of intercrop row arrangements and staggered intercropping of haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on the performances of maize (Zea mays L. crop at Hallaba and Taba areas in 2013 cropping season, southern Ethiopia, revealed that there were significant effects of cropping patterns and staggered interseeding of the legume component on growth and yield components of maize crop. Significant interaction of row arrangement × intercropping time of haricot bean was observed with respect to leaf area index (LAI of the maize crop. Increasing trends of LAI of maize crop were observed as interseeding of haricot bean was delayed for 3 weeks after maize (WAM that stabilized during the 6 WAM interseeding time. Maize stover production was significantly high at 1:2 row ratio and delaying of the undersowing haricot bean in the already established maize crop for 6 weeks, 10.94 tha-1 and 11.39 t ha-1, respectively. Maize grain yield showed a significant variation with respect to the staggered sowing of haricot bean, whereby the highest (3.99 t ha-1 being recorded when haricot bean intercropping was delayed for 21 days after maize planting. The data of this study revealed that the larger maize plant canopy providing larger photosynthetic area, attained when haricot bean interseeding was delayed, probably resulted in higher grain yield of maize. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11072 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 126-138
EM reconstruction of dual isotope PET using staggered injections and prompt gamma positron emitters
Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna
2014-01-01
Purpose: The aim of dual isotope positron emission tomography (DIPET) is to create two separate images of two coinjected PET radiotracers. DIPET shortens the duration of the study, reduces patient discomfort, and produces perfectly coregistered images compared to the case when two radiotracers would be imaged independently (sequential PET studies). Reconstruction of data from such simultaneous acquisition of two PET radiotracers is difficult because positron decay of any isotope creates only 511 keV photons; therefore, the isotopes cannot be differentiated based on the detected energy. Methods: Recently, the authors have proposed a DIPET technique that uses a combination of radiotracer A which is a pure positron emitter (such as 18F or 11C) and radiotracer B in which positron decay is accompanied by the emission of a high-energy (HE) prompt gamma (such as 38K or 60Cu). Events that are detected as triple coincidences of HE gammas with the corresponding two 511 keV photons allow the authors to identify the lines-of-response (LORs) of isotope B. These LORs are used to separate the two intertwined distributions, using a dedicated image reconstruction algorithm. In this work the authors propose a new version of the DIPET EM-based reconstruction algorithm that allows the authors to include an additional, independent estimate of radiotracer A distribution which may be obtained if radioisotopes are administered using a staggered injections method. In this work the method is tested on simple simulations of static PET acquisitions. Results: The authors’ experiments performed using Monte-Carlo simulations with static acquisitions demonstrate that the combined method provides better results (crosstalk errors decrease by up to 50%) than the positron-gamma DIPET method or staggered injections alone. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that the authors’ new EM algorithm which combines information from triple coincidences with prompt gammas and staggered injections improves
Weak interaction matrix elements with staggered fermions. I: theory and a trial run
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, S.R.; Patel, A.; Gupta, R.; Guralnik, G.; Kilsup, G.W.
1986-08-01
We present results of a preliminary study of the matrix elements of weak interaction operators using staggered fermions. We describe our method for transcribing the weak interaction Hamiltonian onto the lattice. This method preserves exact Ward Identities analogous to those of the continuum. The calculation uses operators involving 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 gauge links. We present results for all these operators obtained on 8 3 x 16 lattices generated both with the Wilson action (β = 5.6) and an improved action
Aerodynamic drag of a staggered flat-oval finning tube banks at the small reynolds numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Максим Михайлович Вознюк
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Experimental investigations of aerodynamic drag of staggered bundles of flat-oval tubes with incomplete transversal fins in the range of Reynolds numbers 600 < < 20000 are performed. New calculation correlations for determining of drag coefficients for 1<3000 are suggested, the impact of basic geometric and regime parameters on aerodynamic drag of bundles are determined. The received calculation depending is possible to use in developing of heat transfer surfaces for “dry” cooling towers and air cooling apparatus and economizers
Calculation of cell face velocity of non-staggered grid system
Li, Wang
2012-07-28
In this paper, the cell face velocities in the discretization of the continuity equation, the momentum equation, and the scalar equation of a non-staggered grid system are calculated and discussed. Both the momentum interpolation and the linear interpolation are adopted to evaluate the coefficients in the discretized momentum and scalar equations. Their performances are compared. When the linear interpolation is used to calculate the coefficients, the mass residual term in the coefficients must be dropped to maintain the accuracy and convergence rate of the solution. © Shanghai University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.
Calculation of the Nucleon Axial Form Factor Using Staggered Lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Aaron S. [Fermilab; Hill, Richard J. [Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Kronfeld, Andreas S. [Fermilab; Li, Ruizi [Indiana U.; Simone, James N. [Fermilab
2016-10-14
The nucleon axial form factor is a dominant contribution to errors in neutrino oscillation studies. Lattice QCD calculations can help control theory errors by providing first-principles information on nucleon form factors. In these proceedings, we present preliminary results on a blinded calculation of $g_A$ and the axial form factor using HISQ staggered baryons with 2+1+1 flavors of sea quarks. Calculations are done using physical light quark masses and are absolutely normalized. We discuss fitting form factor data with the model-independent $z$ expansion parametrization.
DEVELOPMENT AND REGISTRATION OF CHIRAL DRUGS
WITTE, DT; ENSING, K; FRANKE, JP; DEZEEUW, RA
1993-01-01
In this review we describe the impact of chirality on drug development and registration in the United States, Japan and the European Community. Enantiomers may have differences in their pharmacological profiles, and, therefore, chiral drugs ask for special analytical and pharmacological attention
Helical chirality induction of expanded porphyrin analogues
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2,2 -Bipyridine was readily obtained from 6,6 - dibromo-2,2 -bipyridine and then used for synthesizing cyclotetrapyrroletetrapyridine O3.18. 3. Helical chirality induction. 3.1 Chirality sensing of carboxylic acids by O1. Facile methods for the determination of molecular chi- rality are of increasing interest in view of the role of.
On infinite regular and chiral maps
Arredondo, John A.; Valdez, Camilo Ramírez y Ferrán
2015-01-01
We prove that infinite regular and chiral maps take place on surfaces with at most one end. Moreover, we prove that an infinite regular or chiral map on an orientable surface with genus can only be realized on the Loch Ness monster, that is, the topological surface of infinite genus with one end.
Insights on some chiral smectic phases
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Insights on some chiral smectic phases. B PANSU. Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bt 510, UMR 8502, Universit Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex,. France. Abstract. Combining layered positional order as smectic order and chirality can generate complex architectures since twist parallel to the layers is not allowed.
Chiral Block Copolymer Structures for Metamaterial Applications
2015-01-27
elt @rice.edu Institution : Rice University Mailing Address : Department of...information from the molecular level to the micro and macrodomain levels. This joint work3 was published in the Journal of the American Chemical...Chirality from Molecule to Phase in Self‐Assembled Chiral Block Copolymers,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134 (26), 10974 – 10986, (2012).
Cofactor-Controlled Chirality of Tropoisomeric Ligand
Théveau, L.; Bellini, R.; Dydio, P.; Szabo, Z.; van der Werf, A.; Sander, R.A.; Reek, J.N.H.; Moberg, C.
2016-01-01
A new tropos ligand with an integrated anion receptor receptor site has been prepared. Chiral carboxylate and phosphate anions that bind in the anion receptor unit proved capable of stabilizing chiral conformations of the achiral flexible bidentate biaryl phosphite ligand, as shown by variable
CHIRALITY IN NONLINEAR OPTICS AND OPTICAL SWITCHING
Meijer, E.W.; Feringa, B.L.
1993-01-01
Chirality in molecular opto-electronics is limited sofar to the use of optically active liquid crystals and a number of optical phenomena are related to the helical macroscopic structure obtained by using one enantiomer, only. In this paper, the use of chirality in nonlinear optics and optical
Chiral discrimination in biomimetic systems: Phenylalanine
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WINTEC
Chiral discrimination and recognition is important in peptide biosynthesis, amino acid syn- thesis and drug ... acid segments. In order to understand the chiral dis- crimination in this system, a detailed molecular under- standing of the conformational energy variation in ... and their mutual configuration shall also be the mini-.
Orientation-Dependent Handedness and Chiral Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Efi Efrati
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Chirality occupies a central role in fields ranging from biological self-assembly to the design of optical metamaterials. The definition of chirality, as given by Lord Kelvin, associates chirality with the lack of mirror symmetry: the inability to superpose an object on its mirror image. While this definition has guided the classification of chiral objects for over a century, the quantification of handed phenomena based on this definition has proven elusive, if not impossible, as manifest in the paradox of chiral connectedness. In this work, we put forward a quantification scheme in which the handedness of an object depends on the direction in which it is viewed. While consistent with familiar chiral notions, such as the right-hand rule, this framework allows objects to be simultaneously right and left handed. We demonstrate this orientation dependence in three different systems—a biomimetic elastic bilayer, a chiral propeller, and optical metamaterial—and find quantitative agreement with chirality pseudotensors whose form we explicitly compute. The use of this approach resolves the existing paradoxes and naturally enables the design of handed metamaterials from symmetry principles.
Pentaquarks in chiral color dielectric model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Recent experiments indicate that a narrow baryonic state having strangeness +1 and mass of about 1540 MeV may be existing. Such a state was predicted in chiral model by Diakonov et al. In this work I compute the mass and width of this state in chiral color dielectric model. I show that the computed width is about 30 MeV.
High harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules.
Wang, Dian; Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Xi; Li, Liang; Zhang, Xiaofan; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang
2017-09-18
Axial chiral molecules, whose stereogenic element is an axis rather than a chiral center, have attracted widespread interest due to their important application, such as asymmetric synthesis and chirality transfer. We investigate high harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules with bichromatic counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields. High harmonic generation from three typical molecules: (Sa)-3-chloropropa-1,2-dien-1-ol, propadiene, and (Ra)-2,3-pentadiene is simulated with time-dependent density-functional theory and strong field approximation. We found that harmonic spectra for 3D oriented axial chiral molecules exhibit obvious circular dichroism. However, the circular dichroism of High harmonic generation from an achiral molecule is much trivial. Moreover, the dichroism of high harmonic generation still exists when axial chiral molecules are 1D oriented,such as (Sa) -3-chloropropa-1,2-dien-1-ol. For a special form of axial chiral molecules with the formula abC=C=Cab (a, b are different substituents), like (Ra)-2,3-pentadiene, the dichroism discriminations disappear when the molecules are only in 1D orientation. The circular dichroism of high harmonic generation from axial chiral molecules is well explained by the trajectory analysis based on the semiclassical three-step mechanism.
Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sept. 2001 physics pp. 417–431. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems ... parameters which are adjusted to the data or alternatively derived in some models. Chiral perturbation theory up ..... consistent with a large broadening of the and more experimental studies are under way at GSI (HADES collaboration) ...
Chiralities of spiral waves and their transitions
Pan, Jun-ting; Cai, Mei-chun; Li, Bing-wei; Zhang, Hong
2013-06-01
The chiralities of spiral waves usually refer to their rotation directions (the turning orientations of the spiral temporal movements as time elapses) and their curl directions (the winding orientations of the spiral spatial geometrical structures themselves). Traditionally, they are the same as each other. Namely, they are both clockwise or both counterclockwise. Moreover, the chiralities are determined by the topological charges of spiral waves, and thus they are conserved quantities. After the inwardly propagating spirals were experimentally observed, the relationship between the chiralities and the one between the chiralities and the topological charges are no longer preserved. The chiralities thus become more complex than ever before. As a result, there is now a desire to further study them. In this paper, the chiralities and their transition properties for all kinds of spiral waves are systemically studied in the framework of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation, and the general relationships both between the chiralities and between the chiralities and the topological charges are obtained. The investigation of some other models, such as the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, the nonuniform Oregonator model, the modified standard model, etc., is also discussed for comparison.
Lagrangian Approach to Dispersionless KdV Hierarchy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amitava Choudhuri
2007-09-01
Full Text Available We derive a Lagrangian based approach to study the compatible Hamiltonian structure of the dispersionless KdV and supersymmetric KdV hierarchies and claim that our treatment of the problem serves as a very useful supplement of the so-called r-matrix method. We suggest specific ways to construct results for conserved densities and Hamiltonian operators. The Lagrangian formulation, via Noether's theorem, provides a method to make the relation between symmetries and conserved quantities more precise. We have exploited this fact to study the variational symmetries of the dispersionless KdV equation.
Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of classical electrodynamics without potentials
Vollick, Dan N.
2017-10-01
In the standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian approach to Maxwell's theory the potentials A^{μ} are taken as the dynamical variables. In this paper I take the electric field \\overrightarrow{E} and the magnetic field \\overrightarrow{B} as the dynamical variables. I find a Lagrangian that gives the dynamical Maxwell equations and include the constraint equations by using Lagrange multipliers. In passing to the Hamiltonian one finds that the canonical momenta \\overrightarrow{Π}E and \\overrightarrow{Π}B are constrained giving 6 second class constraints at each point in space. Gauss's law and \\overrightarrow{\
Power corrections to the HTL effective Lagrangian of QED
Carignano, Stefano; Manuel, Cristina; Soto, Joan
2018-05-01
We present compact expressions for the power corrections to the hard thermal loop (HTL) Lagrangian of QED in d space dimensions. These are corrections of order (L / T) 2, valid for momenta L ≪ T, where T is the temperature. In the limit d → 3 we achieve a consistent regularization of both infrared and ultraviolet divergences, which respects the gauge symmetry of the theory. Dimensional regularization also allows us to witness subtle cancellations of infrared divergences. We also discuss how to generalize our results in the presence of a chemical potential, so as to obtain the power corrections to the hard dense loop (HDL) Lagrangian.
Lagrangian dimensionality reduction of convection dominated nonlinear flows
Balajewicz, Maciej; Mojgani, Rambod
2016-11-01
We introduce a new projection-based model reduction approach for convection dominated nonlinear fluid flows. In this method the evolution of the fluid is approximated in the Lagrangian frame of reference. More specifically, global basis functions are utilized for both the state of the system and the positions of the Lagrangian computational domain. In this approach, wave-like solutions exhibit low-rank structure and thus, can be approximated efficiently using a small number of reduced bases. The proposed approach is successfully demonstrated for the reduction of several simple but representative flow problems.
Complex nonlinear Lagrangian for the Hasegawa-Mima equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewar, R.L.; Abdullatif, R.F.; Sangeetha, G.G.
2005-01-01
The Hasegawa-Mima equation is the simplest nonlinear single-field model equation that captures the essence of drift wave dynamics. Like the Schroedinger equation it is first order in time. However its coefficients are real, so if the potential φ is initially real it remains real. However, by embedding φ in the space of complex functions a simple Lagrangian is found from which the Hasegawa-Mima equation may be derived from Hamilton's Principle. This Lagrangian is used to derive an action conservation equation which agrees with that of Biskamp and Horton. (author)
Projection operator techniques in Lagrangian mechanics: symmetrically coupled oscillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. N. Boyd
1980-01-01
Full Text Available We apply projection operator techniques to the computation of the natural frequencies of oscillation for three symmetrically coupled mechanical systems. In each case, the rotation subgroup of the full symmetry group is used to determine the projection operators with the result that the Lagrangian must be expressed in terms of complex-valued coordinates. In the coordinate system obtained from the action of the projection operators upon the original coordinates, the Lagrangian yields equations of motion which are separated to the maximum extent made possible by symmetry considerations.
Transport properties of chiral fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puhr, Matthias
2017-04-26
Anomalous transport phenomena have their origin in the chiral anomaly, the anomalous non-conservation of the axial charge, and can arise in systems with chiral fermions. The anomalous transport properties of free fermions are well understood, but little is known about possible corrections to the anomalous transport coefficients that can occur if the fermions are strongly interacting. The main goal of this thesis is to study anomalous transport effects in media with strongly interacting fermions. In particular, we investigate the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in a Weyl Semimetal (WSM) and the Chiral Separation Effect (CSE) in finite-density Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The recently discovered WSMs are solid state crystals with low-energy excitations that behave like Weyl fermions. The inter-electron interaction in WSMs is typically very strong and non-perturbative calculations are needed to connect theory and experiment. To realistically model an interacting, parity-breaking WSM we use a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian with Wilson-Dirac fermions. This model features a non-trivial phase diagram and has a phase (Aoki phase/axionic insulator phase) with spontaneously broken CP symmetry, corresponding to the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry for interacting continuum Dirac fermions. We use a mean-field ansatz to study the CME in spatially modulated magnetic fields and find that it vanishes in the Aoki phase. Moreover, our calculations show that outside of the Aoki phase the electron interaction has only a minor influence on the CME. We observe no enhancement of the magnitude of the CME current. For our non-perturbative study of the CSE in QCD we use the framework of lattice QCD with overlap fermions. We work in the quenched approximation to avoid the sign problem that comes with introducing a finite chemical potential on the lattice. The overlap operator calls for the evaluation of the sign function of a matrix with a dimension proportional to the volume
Hadron properties in chiral sigma model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Hong
2005-01-01
The modification of hadron masses in nuclear medium is studied by using the chiral sigma model, which is extended to generate the omega meson mass by the sigma condensation in the vacuum in the same way as the nucleon mass. The chiral sigma model provides proper equilibrium properties of nuclear matter. It is shown that the effective masses of both nucleons and omega mesons decrease in nuclear medium, while the effective mass of sigma mesons increases oat finite density in the chiral sigma model. The results obtained in the chiral sigma model are compared with those obtained in the Walecka model, which includes sigma and omega mesons in a non-chiral fashion. (author)
Chiral capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.
Domínguez-Vega, Elena; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, Maria Luisa
2013-01-01
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is a powerful analytical tool, especially in the case of chiral separations, due to the fact that it combines the high efficiency, short analysis time, and versatility of the CE with the sensitivity, selectivity, and the capacity for the identification of unknown chiral compounds offered by MS detection. This chapter describes three methodologies enabling the chiral separation of cationic and anionic compounds using different strategies, illustrating the most employed approaches used in chiral CE-MS. The first methodology uses the partial filling technique for the enantioseparation of a cationic compound using a neutral cyclodextrin. Secondly, the enantioseparation of a cationic compound using low concentrations of a neutral cyclodextrin under acidic conditions is described. Finally, a methodology for the chiral separation of an anionic compound employing low concentrations of a native cyclodextrin under basic conditions is illustrated.
Genetically programmed chiral organoborane synthesis
Kan, S. B. Jennifer; Huang, Xiongyi; Gumulya, Yosephine; Chen, Kai; Arnold, Frances H.
2017-12-01
Recent advances in enzyme engineering and design have expanded nature’s catalytic repertoire to functions that are new to biology. However, only a subset of these engineered enzymes can function in living systems. Finding enzymatic pathways that form chemical bonds that are not found in biology is particularly difficult in the cellular environment, as this depends on the discovery not only of new enzyme activities, but also of reagents that are both sufficiently reactive for the desired transformation and stable in vivo. Here we report the discovery, evolution and generalization of a fully genetically encoded platform for producing chiral organoboranes in bacteria. Escherichia coli cells harbouring wild-type cytochrome c from Rhodothermus marinus (Rma cyt c) were found to form carbon-boron bonds in the presence of borane-Lewis base complexes, through carbene insertion into boron-hydrogen bonds. Directed evolution of Rma cyt c in the bacterial catalyst provided access to 16 novel chiral organoboranes. The catalyst is suitable for gram-scale biosynthesis, providing up to 15,300 turnovers, a turnover frequency of 6,100 h-1, a 99:1 enantiomeric ratio and 100% chemoselectivity. The enantiopreference of the biocatalyst could also be tuned to provide either enantiomer of the organoborane products. Evolved in the context of whole-cell catalysts, the proteins were more active in the whole-cell system than in purified forms. This study establishes a DNA-encoded and readily engineered bacterial platform for borylation; engineering can be accomplished at a pace that rivals the development of chemical synthetic methods, with the ability to achieve turnovers that are two orders of magnitude (over 400-fold) greater than those of known chiral catalysts for the same class of transformation. This tunable method for manipulating boron in cells could expand the scope of boron chemistry in living systems.
Principal chiral model on superspheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitev, V.; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Quella, T. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Theoretical Physics
2008-09-15
We investigate the spectrum of the principal chiral model (PCM) on odd-dimensional superspheres as a function of the curvature radius R. For volume-filling branes on S{sup 3} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 2}, we compute the exact boundary spectrum as a function of R. The extension to higher dimensional superspheres is discussed, but not carried out in detail. Our results provide very convincing evidence in favor of the strong-weak coupling duality between supersphere PCMs and OSP(2S+2 vertical stroke 2S) Gross-Neveu models that was recently conjectured by Candu and Saleur. (orig.)
Principal chiral model on superspheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitev, V.; Schomerus, V.; Quella, T.
2008-09-01
We investigate the spectrum of the principal chiral model (PCM) on odd-dimensional superspheres as a function of the curvature radius R. For volume-filling branes on S 3 vertical stroke 2 , we compute the exact boundary spectrum as a function of R. The extension to higher dimensional superspheres is discussed, but not carried out in detail. Our results provide very convincing evidence in favor of the strong-weak coupling duality between supersphere PCMs and OSP(2S+2 vertical stroke 2S) Gross-Neveu models that was recently conjectured by Candu and Saleur. (orig.)
Axially chiral allenyl gold complexes.
Johnson, Alice; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción
2014-09-17
Unprecedented allenyl gold complexes have been achieved starting from triphenylpropargylphosphonium bromide. Two different coordination modes of the allene isomer of triphenylphosphoniumpropargylide to gold have been found depending on the gold oxidation state. Bromo-, pentafluorophenyl-, and triphenylphosphine-gold(I) allenyl complexes were prepared in which the α carbon coordinates to the gold(I) center. A chiral pentafluorophenyl-gold(III) allenyl complex with the gold atoms coordinated to the γ carbon was also prepared. All the complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction showing the characteristic distances for a C═C═C unit.
Chiral discrimination in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Lazzeretti, Paolo
2017-11-01
Chirality is a fundamental property of molecules whose spatial symmetry is characterized by the absence of improper rotations, making them not superimposable to their mirror image. Chiral molecules constitute the elementary building blocks of living species and one enantiomer is favoured in general (e.g. L-aminoacids and D-sugars pervade terrestrial homochiral biochemistry) because most chemical reactions producing natural substances are enantioselective. Since the effect of chiral chemicals and drugs on living beings can be markedly different between enantiomers, the quest for practical spectroscopical methods to scrutinize chirality is an issue of great importance and interest. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a topmost analytical technique, but spectrometers currently used are ‘blind’ to chirality, i.e. unable to discriminate the two mirror-image forms of a chiral molecule, because, in the absence of a chiral solvent, the spectral parameters, chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants are identical for enantiomers. Therefore, the development of new procedures for routine chiral recognition would offer basic support to scientists. However, in the presence of magnetic fields, a distinction between true and false chirality is mandatory. The former epitomizes natural optical activity, which is rationalized by a time-even pseudoscalar, i.e. the trace of a second-rank tensor, the mixed electric dipole/magnetic dipole polarizability. The Faraday effect, magnetic circular dichroism and magnetic optical activity are instead related to a time-odd axial vector. The present review summarizes recent theoretical and experimental efforts to discriminate enantiomers via NMR spectroscopy, with the focus on the deep connection between chirality and symmetry properties under the combined set of fundamental discrete operations, namely charge conjugation, parity (space inversion) and time (motion) reversal.
Induction of Chirality in Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Chiral 2D MoS2 Nanostructures.
Purcell-Milton, Finn; McKenna, Robert; Brennan, Lorcan J; Cullen, Conor P; Guillemeney, Lilian; Tepliakov, Nikita V; Baimuratov, Anvar S; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Perova, Tatiana S; Duesberg, Georg S; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Gun'ko, Yurii K
2018-02-27
Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been intensively investigated due to their interesting properties and range of potential applications. Although most research has focused on graphene, atomic layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and particularly MoS 2 have gathered much deserved attention recently. Here, we report the induction of chirality into 2D chiral nanomaterials by carrying out liquid exfoliation of MoS 2 in the presence of chiral ligands (cysteine and penicillamine) in water. This processing resulted in exfoliated chiral 2D MoS 2 nanosheets showing strong circular dichroism signals, which were far past the onset of the original chiral ligand signals. Using theoretical modeling, we demonstrated that the chiral nature of MoS 2 nanosheets is related to the presence of chiral ligands causing preferential folding of the MoS 2 sheets. There was an excellent match between the theoretically calculated and experimental spectra. We believe that, due to their high aspect ratio planar morphology, chiral 2D nanomaterials could offer great opportunities for the development of chiroptical sensors, materials, and devices for valleytronics and other potential applications. In addition, chirality plays a key role in many chemical and biological systems, with chiral molecules and materials critical for the further development of biopharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, and this research therefore should have a strong impact on relevant areas of science and technology such as nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, and nanotoxicology.
Synthesis and characterization of mixed ligand chiral nanoclusters
Guven, Zekiye P.
2016-06-22
Chiral mixed ligand silver nanoclusters were synthesized in the presence of a chiral and an achiral ligand. While the chiral ligand led mostly to the formation of nanoparticles, the presence of the achiral ligand drastically increased the yield of nanoclusters with enhanced chiral properties. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Cas9-catalyzed DNA Cleavage Generates Staggered Ends: Evidence from Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Zuo, Zhicheng; Liu, Jin
2016-11-01
The CRISPR-associated endonuclease Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (spCas9) along with a single guide RNA (sgRNA) has emerged as a versatile toolbox for genome editing. Despite recent advances in the mechanism studies on spCas9-sgRNA-mediated double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recognition and cleavage, it is still unclear how the catalytic Mg2+ ions induce the conformation changes toward the catalytic active state. It also remains controversial whether Cas9 generates blunt-ended or staggered-ended breaks with overhangs in the DNA. To investigate these issues, here we performed the first all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the spCas9-sgRNA-dsDNA system with and without Mg2+ bound. The simulation results showed that binding of two Mg2+ ions at the RuvC domain active site could lead to structurally and energetically favorable coordination ready for the non-target DNA strand cleavage. Importantly, we demonstrated with our simulations that Cas9-catalyzed DNA cleavage produces 1-bp staggered ends rather than generally assumed blunt ends.
Parametric modeling and stagger angle optimization of an axial flow fan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, M X; Zhang, C H; Liu, Y; Zheng, S Y
2013-01-01
Axial flow fans are widely used in every field of social production. Improving their efficiency is a sustained and urgent demand of domestic industry. The optimization of stagger angle is an important method to improve fan performance. Parametric modeling and calculation process automation are realized in this paper to improve optimization efficiency. Geometric modeling and mesh division are parameterized based on GAMBIT. Parameter setting and flow field calculation are completed in the batch mode of FLUENT. A control program is developed in Visual C++ to dominate the data exchange of mentioned software. It also extracts calculation results for optimization algorithm module (provided by Matlab) to generate directive optimization control parameters, which as feedback are transferred upwards to modeling module. The center line of the blade airfoil, based on CLARK y profile, is constructed by non-constant circulation and triangle discharge method. Stagger angles of six airfoil sections are optimized, to reduce the influence of inlet shock loss as well as gas leak in blade tip clearance and hub resistance at blade root. Finally an optimal solution is obtained, which meets the total pressure requirement under given conditions and improves total pressure efficiency by about 6%
Parametric modeling and stagger angle optimization of an axial flow fan
Li, M. X.; Zhang, C. H.; Liu, Y.; Y Zheng, S.
2013-12-01
Axial flow fans are widely used in every field of social production. Improving their efficiency is a sustained and urgent demand of domestic industry. The optimization of stagger angle is an important method to improve fan performance. Parametric modeling and calculation process automation are realized in this paper to improve optimization efficiency. Geometric modeling and mesh division are parameterized based on GAMBIT. Parameter setting and flow field calculation are completed in the batch mode of FLUENT. A control program is developed in Visual C++ to dominate the data exchange of mentioned software. It also extracts calculation results for optimization algorithm module (provided by Matlab) to generate directive optimization control parameters, which as feedback are transferred upwards to modeling module. The center line of the blade airfoil, based on CLARK y profile, is constructed by non-constant circulation and triangle discharge method. Stagger angles of six airfoil sections are optimized, to reduce the influence of inlet shock loss as well as gas leak in blade tip clearance and hub resistance at blade root. Finally an optimal solution is obtained, which meets the total pressure requirement under given conditions and improves total pressure efficiency by about 6%.
Effect of wall proximity of two staggered triangular cylinders on the transport process in a channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mousa Farhadi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the heat transfer and the flow field around two isothermal triangular cylinders of equal size placed staggered in a horizontal plane channel with adiabatic walls. Computations have been carried out for Reynolds numbers (based on triangle width 100, 250, and 350, lateral gap ratios (d/B 0, 0.5, and 1, and longitudinal gap ratios (S/B 1, 2, 3 and 4. The effect of longitudinal and lateral gap between obstacles and proximity of channel walls is investigated. Results show that when obstacles are placed in close vicinity of the channel's wall (d/B = 1, vortex shedding disappears at the downstream of triangles at Re = 100 and 250 at all S/B, but for Re = 350 creating and disappearing of the vortex shedding depend on the longitudinal gap ratio (S/B. Proximity of obstacles has more effect on the second triangle than the first triangle especially from longitudinal gap ratio equals 2, so that with approaching the channel wall, the Nusselt number for the first triangle decreases, while for the second triangle a different behavior is seen. Staggered arrangement causes the Nusselt number of the second triangle to become greater than the first triangle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayat, Hamidreza; Lavasani, Arash Mirabdolah; Maarefdoost, Taher
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Thermal–hydraulic performance of a non-circular tube bundle has been investigated experimentally. • Tubes were mounted in staggered arrangement with two longitudinal pitch ratios 1.5 and 2. • Drag coefficient and Nusselt number of tubes in second row was measured. • Friction factor of this tube bundle is lower than circular tube bundle. • Thermal–hydraulic performance of this tube bundle is greater than circular tube bundle. - Abstract: Flow and heat transfer from cam-shaped tube bank in staggered arrangement is studied experimentally. Tubes were located in test section of an open loop wind tunnel with two longitudinal pitch ratios 1.5 and 2. Reynolds number varies in range of 27,000 ⩽ Re D ⩽ 42,500 and tubes surface temperature is between 78 and 85 °C. Results show that both drag coefficient and Nusselt number depends on position of tube in tube bank and Reynolds number. Tubes in the first column have maximum value of drag coefficient, while its Nusselt number is minimum compared to other tubes in tube bank. Moreover, pressure drop from this tube bank is about 92–93% lower than circular tube bank and as a result thermal–hydraulic performance of this tube bank is about 6 times greater than circular tube bank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Gutierrez, Enif; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel
2010-01-01
We study chiral symmetry breaking for relativistic fermions, described by a parity-violating Lagrangian in 2+1-dimensions, in the presence of a heat bath and a uniform external magnetic field. Working within their four-component formalism allows for the inclusion of both parity-even and -odd mass terms. Therefore, we can define two types of fermion antifermion condensates. For a given value of the magnetic field, there exist two different critical temperatures which would render one of these condensates identically zero, while the other would survive. Our analysis is completely general: it requires no particular simplifying hierarchy among the energy scales involved, namely, bare masses, field strength, and temperature. However, we do reproduce some earlier results, obtained or anticipated in literature, corresponding to special kinematical regimes for the parity conserving case. Relating the chiral condensate to the one-loop effective Lagrangian, we also obtain the magnetization and the pair production rate for different fermion species in a uniform electric field through the replacement B→-iE.
The Chiral limit in lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morel, A.
1985-11-01
Using the results of a quenched SU(2) simulation with staggered fermions, we discuss the small quark mass behaviour of m π 2 and f π 2 . The importance of finite size effects and of non linearities in the zero mass extrapolation is emphasized. Evidence for scaling of m π 2 and of a suitably determined value of f π 2 is presented
Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino
2008-01-01
) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the theory under charge conjugation, we prove this statement on the lattice for staggered quenched condensates...
The gauge invariant Lagrangian for Seiberg-Witten topological monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gianvittorio, R.; Martin, I.; Restuccia, A.
1995-04-01
A topological gauge invariant Lagrangian for Seiberg-Witten monopole equations is constructed. The actions is invariant under a huge class of gauge transformations which after BRST fixing leads to the BRST invariant actin associated to Seiberg-Witten monopole topological theory. The supersymmetric transformation of the fields involved in the construction is obtained from the nilpotent BRST algebra. (author). 6 refs
Comparison of Euler-Lagrangian and Fischer's Methods of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper is aimed at comparing the prediction of dispersion coefficient of a natural stream using a new Euler-Lagrangian model, Fischer's models and Levenspiel and smith equation. In order to achieve this, stream data were extracted from \\American Stream Tracer Analysis on Humboldt River" and applied to the models.
Extended Lagrangian formalism for rheonomic systems with variable mass
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mušicki Đorđe
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the extended Lagrangian formalism for the rheonomic systems (Dj. Mušicki, 2004, which began with the modification of the mechanics of such systems (V. Vujičić, 1987, is extended to the systems with variable mass, with emphasis on the corresponding energy relations. This extended Lagrangian formalism is based on the extension of the set of chosen generalized coordinates by new quantities, suggested by the form of nonstationary constraints, which determine the position of the frame of reference in respect to which these generalized coordinates refer. As a consequence, an extended system of the Lagrangian equations is formulated, accommodated to the variability of the masses of particles, where the additional ones correspond to the additional generalized coordinates. By means of these equations, the energy relations of such systems have been studied, where it is demonstrated that here there are four types of energy conservation laws. The obtained energy laws are more complete and natural than the corresponding ones in the usual Lagrangian formulation for such systems. It is demonstrated that the obtained energy laws, are in full accordance with the energy laws in the corresponding vector formulation, if they are expressed in terms of the quantities introduced in this formulation of mechanics. The obtained results are illustrated by an example: the motion of a rocket, which ejects the gasses backwards, while this rocket moves up a straight line on an oblique plane, which glides uniformly in a horizontal direction.
Multidimensional test assembly based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques
Veldkamp, Bernard P.
1998-01-01
In this paper, a mathematical programming approach is presented for the assembly of ability tests measuring multiple traits. The values of the variance functions of the estimators of the traits are minimized, while test specifications are met. The approach is based on Lagrangian relaxation
String Lagrangian for the Bardakci-Halpern model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonov, E.N.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Lyakhov, K.B.
1984-01-01
The string Lagrangian is constructed for the Bardakci-Halpern model. The anticommuting operators carrying spin are spinors in n-dimensional space-time, rather than vectors, as in the conventional Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond model. The conservation laws leading to the gauge conditions are found
Lagrangian fluid dynamics using the Voronoi-Delauanay mesh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dukowicz, J.K.
1981-01-01
A Lagrangian technique for numerical fluid dynamics is described. This technique makes use of the Voronoi mesh to efficiently locate new neighbors, and it uses the dual (Delaunay) triangulation to define computational cells. This removes all topological restrictions and facilitates the solution of problems containing interfaces and multiple materials. To improve computational accuracy a mesh smoothing procedure is employed
Superconformal Lagrangian without the need to introduce constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pilot, C.H.
1986-01-01
A field Lagrangian invariant under all the symmetries of the superconformal group has been constructed without the need to introduce constraints on the curvatures. We have thus generalized the action of Townsend, van Nieuwenhuizen, and Kaku. We maintain that any and all constraints on the curvatures should result as a consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking and not be a priori enforced. 14 refs
Matter composition at high density by effective scaled lagrangian
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hyun, Chang Ho; Min, Dong Pil [Dept. of Physics, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1998-06-01
We investigate the matter composition at around the neutron star densities with a model lagrangian satisfying Brown-Rho scaling law. We calculate the neutron star properties such as maximum mass, radius, hyperon compositions and central density. We compare our results with those of Walecka model. (orig.)
Perturbation analysis of Lagrangian invariant subspaces of symplectic matrices
Ran, A.C.M.; Mehl, Ch.; Mehrmann, V.; Rodman, L.
2009-01-01
Lagrangian invariant subspaces for symplectic matrices play an important role in the numerical solution of discrete time, robust and optimal control problems. The sensitivity (perturbation) analysis of these subspaces, however, is a difficult problem, in particular, when the eigenvalues are on or
Lagrangian approach to weakly nonlinear stability of elliptical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukumoto, Y; Mie, Y; Hirota, M
2010-01-01
Rotating flows with elliptically strained streamlines suffer from parametric resonance instability between a pair of Kelvin waves whose azimuthal wavenumbers are separated by two. We address the weakly nonlinear amplitude evolution of three-dimensional (3D) Kelvin waves, in resonance, on a flow confined in a cylinder of elliptic cross-section. In a traditional Eulerian approach, derivation of the mean flow induced by nonlinear interaction of Kelvin waves stands as an obstacle. We show how a topological idea, or the Lagrangian approach, facilitates calculation of the wave-induced mean flow. A steady incompressible Euler flow is characterized as a state of the maximum of the total kinetic energy with respect to perturbations constrained to an isovortical sheet, and the isovortical perturbation is handled only in terms of the Lagrangian variables. The criticality in energy of a steady flow allows us to calculate the wave-induced mean flow only from the linear Lagrangian displacement. With the mean flow at hand, the Lagrangian approach provides us with a shortcut to enter into a weakly nonlinear amplitude evolution regime of 3D disturbances. Unlike the Eulerian approach, the amplitude equations are available directly in the Hamiltonian normal form.
Classical dynamical variables for the Wess-Zumino matter Lagrangian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domenech, G.; Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional; Levinas, M.; Buenos Aires Univ. Nacional; Umerez, N.
1989-01-01
We study the macroscopic behaviour of the Wess-Zumino matter multiplet. The Lagrangian and the energy-momentum tensor are obtained in terms of densities and velocities of an interacting fluid in N=1 supergravity background. Equations of motion and conditions for consistency are found. (orig.)
Infinitely many inequivalent field theories from one Lagrangian
100__; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben
2014-01-01
Logarithmic time-like Liouville quantum field theory has a generalized PT invariance, where T is the time-reversal operator and P stands for an S-duality reflection of the Liouville field $\\phi$. In Euclidean space the Lagrangian of such a theory, $L=\\frac{1}{2}(\
Lagrangian Predictive Skill Assessment for the Deepwater Horizon Spill
Lipphardt, B. L.; Huntley, H. S.; Sulman, M.; Kirwan, A. D.
2011-12-01
The explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform produced enormous human, ecological, and economic impacts. At the same time this disaster provided an unprecedented amount of Lagrangian information on ocean processes, including a large number of surface and near-surface drifters deployed in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico as well as remotely sensed images of the surface oil slick. In addition several global and regional ocean model predictions were used to forecast the spill movements. These models generally exhibited large variations in the mesoscale flow near the Deepwater Horizon site, even though they all assimilated similar sets of ocean observations. This provides a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess model Lagrangian predictive skill. Here, the predictive skill of one model, a regional implementation of the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), is evaluated using data from more than 80 drifter trajectories in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These trajectories are compared with maps of Lagrangian coherent structures, computed from near-surface model velocities, to determine whether the observations are consistent with the larger scale transport structure predicted by the model. We also discuss new metrics to assess model Lagrangian predictive skill of the plume movement.
Behaviour of Lagrangian triangular mixed fluid finite elements
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The behaviour of mixed fluid finite elements, formulated based on the Lagrangian frame of reference, is investigated to understand the effects of locking due to incompressibility and irrotational constraints. For this purpose, both linear and quadratic mixed triangular fluid elements are formulated. It is found that there exists a ...
Effective lagrangian and mass generation in supersymmetric QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lerche, W.; Steger, H.; Luest, D.; Muenchen Univ.
1985-01-01
We calculate the electromagnetic mass shift of composite Goldstone bosons and quasi-Goldstone fermions in supersymmetric QCD for the case where supersymmetry is explicitly broken by a photino mass term. We use an effective lagrangian approach incorporating the analogues of the p and A 1 vector mesons together with vector meson dominance. (orig.)
Implicit Lagrangian equations and the mathematical modeling of physical systems
Moreau, Luc; van der Schaft, Arjan
2002-01-01
We introduce a class of optimal control problems on manifolds which gives rise (via the Pontryagin maximum principle) to a class of implicit Lagrangian systems (a notion which is introduced in the paper). We apply this to the mathematical modeling of interconnected mechanical systems and mechanical
Bohr--Sommerfeld Lagrangians of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Logares, Marina
Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components of the n...
Three dimensional Lagrangian structures in the Antarctic Polar Vortex.
Mancho, Ana M.; Garcia-Garrido, Victor J.; Curbelo, Jezabel; Niang, Coumba; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Wiggins, Stephen
2017-04-01
Dynamical systems theory has supported the description of transport processes in fluid dynamics. For understanding trajectory patterns in chaotic advection the geometrical approach by Poincaré seeks for spatial structures that separate regions corresponding to qualitatively different types of trajectories. These structures have been referred to as Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS), which typically in geophysical flows are well described under the approach of incompressible 2D flows. Different tools have been used to visualize LCS. In this presentation we use Lagrangian Descriptors [1,2,3,4] (function M) for visualizing 3D Lagrangian structures in the atmosphere, in particular in the Antarctic Polar Vortex. The function M is computed in a fully 3D incompressible flow obtained from data provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast and it is represented in 2D surfaces. We discuss the findings during the final warming that took place in the spring of 1979 [5]. This research is supported by MINECO grant MTM2014-56392-R. Support is acknowledged also from CSIC grant COOPB20265, U.S. NSF grant AGS-1245069 and ONR grant No. N00014- 01-1-0769. C. Niang acknowledges Fundacion Mujeres por Africa and ICMAT Severo Ochoa project SEV-2011-0087 for financial support. [1] C. Mendoza, A. M. Mancho. The hidden geometry of ocean flows. Physical Review Letters 105 (2010), 3, 038501-1-038501-4. [2] A. M. Mancho, S. Wiggins, J. Curbelo, C. Mendoza. Lagrangian Descriptors: A Method for Revealing Phase Space Structures of General Time Dependent Dynamical Systems. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation. 18 (2013) 3530-3557. [3] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea-Iniesta, S. Wiggins and A. M. Mancho. Lagrangian descriptors for two dimensional, area preserving autonomous and nonautonomous maps. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulations, 27 (2015) (1-3), 40-51. [4] C. Lopesino, F. Balibrea-Iniesta, V. J. García-Garrido, S. Wiggins, and A
Guo, Qiaona; Huang, Jiangwei
2018-02-01
In this paper, the finite element software FEFLOW is used to simulate the seepage field of the interlayer staggered zone C2 in the basalt of Jinsha River Basin. The influence of the interlayer staggered zone C2 on the building is analyzed. Combined with the waterproof effect of current design scheme of anti-seepage curtain, the seepage field in the interlayer staggered zone C2 is discussed under different design schemes. The optimal design scheme of anti-seepage curtain is put forward. The results showed that the case four can effectively reduce the head and hydraulic gradient of underground powerhouse area, and improve the groundwater seepage field in the plant area.
Chen, Huangxin
2017-09-01
In this paper we consider the energy stability estimates for some fully discrete schemes which both consider time and spatial discretizations for the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. We focus on three kinds of fully discrete schemes, i.e., the linear implicit scheme for time discretization with the finite difference method (FDM) on staggered grids for spatial discretization, pressure-correction schemes for time discretization with the FDM on staggered grids for the solutions of the decoupled velocity and pressure equations, and pressure-stabilization schemes for time discretization with the FDM on staggered grids for the solutions of the decoupled velocity and pressure equations. The energy stability estimates are obtained for the above each fully discrete scheme. The upwind scheme is used in the discretization of the convection term which plays an important role in the design of unconditionally stable discrete schemes. Numerical results are given to verify the theoretical analysis.
What {pi}-{pi} scattering tells us about chiral perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stern, J.; Sazdjian, H. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Fuchs, N.H. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics
1992-12-31
A rearrangement of the standard expansion of the symmetry breaking part of the QCD effective Lagrangian is described that includes into each order additional terms which in the standard chiral perturbation theory {chi}PT, are relegated to higher orders. The new expansion represents a systematic and unambiguous generalization of the standard {chi}PT and is more likely to converge rapidly. It provides a consistent framework for a measurement of the importance of additional `higher order` terms whose smallness is usually assumed but has never been checked. A method of measuring, among other quantities, the QCD parameters m-circumflex(q-barq) and the quark mass ratio m{sub s}/m-circumflex is elaborated in detail. The method is illustrated using various sets of available data. The importance of new, more accurate, experimental information on low-energy {pi}-{pi} scattering is stressed. (author) 33 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs.
η → π0γγ to O(p6) in chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jetter, M.
1995-08-01
The decay η → π0γγ is discussed in the framework of SU(3) chiral perturbation theory. The process is dominated by the O(p 6 ) in the momentum expansion where tree-level amplitudes from the effective Lagrangian L 6 enter together with one-loop contributions from L 4 and two-loop contributions from L 2 . We estimate the 6 independent L 6 coupling constants by resonance saturation consistent with the pion production process γγ → π 0 π 0 and calculate the pion-loop part of the one-and two-loop amplitude. Predictions for the total rate and spectrum of η → π 0 γγ are given together with a discussion of the uncertainties involved. (author). 27 refs., 8 figs.,3 tabs
Analysis of η,KL→π+π-γ using chiral models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picciotto, C.
1992-01-01
The decay η→π + π - γ is analyzed using two different approaches that incorporate vector mesons in the chiral Lagrangian, one which treats vector mesons as massive Yang-Mills bosons and one which treats them as dynamical gauge bosons of a hidden symmetry. From these approaches a common way of adding vector mesons to that decay emerges. A rate and photon spectrum are generated which compare reasonably to the experimental data. The procedure is then adapted into a simple pole model and used to calculate the more complicated decay K L →π + π - γ. Notwithstanding some uncertainties in the model, a rate that matches the experimental one is obtained with reasonable values of SU(3)-breaking parameters
High-Order Hamilton's Principle and the Hamilton's Principle of High-Order Lagrangian Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Hongxia; Ma Shanjun
2008-01-01
In this paper, based on the theorem of the high-order velocity energy, integration and variation principle, the high-order Hamilton's principle of general holonomic systems is given. Then, three-order Lagrangian equations and four-order Lagrangian equations are obtained from the high-order Hamilton's principle. Finally, the Hamilton's principle of high-order Lagrangian function is given.
Generalized parton distributions for the nucleon in chiral perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Manashov, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik]|[Sankt-Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Schaefer, A. [Sankt-Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics
2006-11-15
We complete the analysis of twist-two generalized parton distributions of the nucleon in one-loop order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. Extending our previous study of the chiral-even isosinglet sector, we give results for chiral-even isotriplet distributions and for the chiral-odd sector. We also calculate the one-loop corrections for the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions of the pion. (orig.)
Generalized parton distributions for the nucleon in chiral perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchroton DESY, Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany); Manashov, A. [Universitaet Regensburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Regensburg (Germany); Sankt-Petersburg State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schaefer, A. [Universitaet Regensburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Regensburg (Germany)
2007-03-15
We complete the analysis of twist-two generalized parton distributions of the nucleon in one-loop order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. Extending our previous study of the chiral-even isosinglet sector, we give results for chiral-even isotriplet distributions and for the chiral-odd sector. We also calculate the one-loop corrections for the chiral-odd generalized parton distributions of the pion. (orig.)
Enhancing circular dichroism by super chiral hot spots from a chiral metasurface with apexes
Wang, Zeng; Teh, Bing Hong; Wang, Yue; Adamo, Giorgio; Teng, Jinghua; Sun, Handong
2017-05-01
Manipulating light spin (or circular polarization) is an important research field and may find broad applications from sensors, display technology, to quantum computing and communication. To this end, planar metasurfaces with larger circular dichroism are strongly demanded. However, current planar chiral metasurface structures suffer from either fabrication challenge, especially from near-infrared to visible spectrum, or insufficient circular dichroism. Here, we report a chiral metasurface composed of achiral nanoholes which allow for precisely creating apexes in the designed structure. Our investigation indicates that the apexes act as super chiral hot spots and enable the highly concentrated near-field optical chirality leading to a remarkable enhancement of circular dichroism in the far-field. A 4-fold enhancement of the circular dichroism and a strong optical activity of ˜15 degrees have been experimentally achieved. Besides the enhanced chirality, our design genuinely overcomes the nanofabrication challenge faced in existing planar chiral metasurfaces.
Chu, Chunlei
2009-01-01
We analyze the dispersion properties and stability conditions of the high‐order convolutional finite difference operators and compare them with the conventional finite difference schemes. We observe that the convolutional finite difference method has better dispersion properties and becomes more efficient than the conventional finite difference method with the increasing order of accuracy. This makes the high‐order convolutional operator a good choice for anisotropic elastic wave simulations on rotated staggered grids since its enhanced dispersion properties can help to suppress the numerical dispersion error that is inherent in the rotated staggered grid structure and its efficiency can help us tackle 3D problems cost‐effectively.
Recent status of the chiral bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosaka, Atsushi; Toki, Hiroshi.
1995-01-01
In this note, recent status of the chiral bag model is presented. As it combines the MIT quark bag model and the Skyrme model, the chiral bag model interpolates the two models smoothly as a function of the chiral bag radius R. The correct limit of R → ∞ is reproduced by including the higher order terms in the Ω expansion of the cranking method. It resolves the so-called small g A problem in a class of models where the semiclassical method is used. (author)
The paradigm of Pseudodual Chiral Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zachos, C.K.; Curtright, T.L.
1994-01-01
This is a synopsis and extension of Phys. Rev. D49 5408 (1994). The Pseudodual Chiral Model illustrates 2-dimensional field theories which possess an infinite number of conservation laws but also allow particle production, at variance with naive expectations-a folk theorem of integrable models. We monitor the symmetries of the pseudodual model, both local and nonlocal, as transmutations of the symmetries of the (very different) usual Chiral Model. We refine the conventional algorithm to more efficiently produce the nonlocal symmetries of the model. We further find the canonical transformation which connects the usual chiral model to its fully equivalent dual model, thus contradistinguishing the pseudodual theory
Chiral Light Design and Detection Inspired by Optical Antenna Theory.
Poulikakos, Lisa V; Thureja, Prachi; Stollmann, Alexia; De Leo, Eva; Norris, David J
2018-03-23
Chiral metallic nanostructures can generate evanescent fields which are more highly twisted than circularly polarized light. However, it remains unclear how best to exploit this phenomenon, hindering the optimal utilization of chiral electromagnetic fields. Here, inspired by optical antenna theory, we address this challenge by introducing chiral antenna parameters: the chirality flux efficiency and the chiral antenna aperture. These quantities, which are based on chirality conservation, quantify the generation and dissipation of chiral light. We then present a label-free experimental technique, chirality flux spectroscopy, which measures the chirality flux efficiency, providing valuable information on chiral near fields in the far field. This principle is verified theoretically and experimentally with two-dimensionally chiral coupled nanorod antennas, for which we show that chiral near and far fields are linearly dependent on the magnetoelectric polarizability. This elementary system confirms our concept to quantify chiral electromagnetic fields and paves the way toward broadly tunable chiral optical applications including ultrasensitive detection of molecular chirality or optical information storage and transfer.
Axions from chiral family symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, D.; Pal, P.B.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Senjanovic, G.
1985-01-01
We investigate the possibility that family symmetry, Gsub(F), is spontaneously broken chiral global symmetry. We classify the interesting cases when family symmetry can result in an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry U(1)sub(PQ) and thus provide a solution to the strong CP problem. The result disfavors having two or four families. For more than four families, U(1)sub(PQ) is in general automatic. In the case of three families, a unique Higgs sector allows U(1)sub(PQ) in the simplest case of Gsub(F)=[SU(3)] 3 . Cosmological consideration also puts strong constraint on the number of families. For Gsub(F)=[SU(N)] 3 cosmology singles out the three-family (N=3) case as a unique solution if there are three light neutrinos. Possible implication of decoupling theorem as applied to family symmetry breaking is also discussed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ames, Thomas L.; Farnsworth, Grant V.; Ketcheson, David Isaac; Robinson, Allen Conrad
2009-09-01
The modeling of solids is most naturally placed within a Lagrangian framework because it requires constitutive models which depend on knowledge of the original material orientations and subsequent deformations. Detailed kinematic information is needed to ensure material frame indifference which is captured through the deformation gradient F. Such information can be tracked easily in a Lagrangian code. Unfortunately, not all problems can be easily modeled using Lagrangian concepts due to severe distortions in the underlying motion. Either a Lagrangian/Eulerian or a pure Eulerian modeling framework must be introduced. We discuss and contrast several Lagrangian/Eulerian approaches for keeping track of the details of material kinematics.
Biaxiality of chiral liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longa, L.; Trebin, H.R.; Fink, W.
1993-10-01
Using extended deGennes-Ginzburg-Landau free energy expansion in terms of the anisotropic part of the dielectric tensor field Q αβ (χ) a connection between the phase biaxiality and the stability of various chiral liquid crystalline phases is studied. In particular the cholesteric phase, the cubic Blue Phases and the phases characterized by an icosahedral space group symmetry are analysed in detail. Also a general question concerning the applicability of the mean-field approximation in describing the chiral phases is addressed. By an extensive study of the model over a wide range of the parameters a new class of phenomena, not present in the original deGennes-Ginzburg-Landau model, has been found. These include: a) re-entrant phase transitions between the cholesteric and the cubic blue phases and b) the existence of distinct phases of the same symmetry but of different biaxialities. The phase biaxiality serves here as an extra scalar order parameter. Furthermore, it has been shown that due to the presence of the competing bulk terms in the free energy, the stable phases may acquire a large degree of biaxiality, also in liquid crystalline materials composed of effectively uniaxial molecules. A study of icosahedral space group symmetries gives a partial answer to the question as to whether an icosahedral quasicrystalline liquid could be stabilized in liquid crystals. Although, in general, the stability of icosahedral structures could be enhanced by the extra terms in the free energy no absolutely stable icosahedral phase has been found. (author). 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab
Field transformations and the classical equation of motion in chiral perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scherer, S.; Fearing, H.W.
1995-01-01
The construction of effective Lagrangians commonly involves the application of the ''classical equation of motion'' to eliminate redundant structures and thus generate the minimal number of independent terms. We investigate this procedure in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with particular emphasis on the new features which appear at O(p 6 ). The use of the ''classical equation of motion'' is interpreted in terms of field transformations. Such an interpretation is crucial if one wants to bring a given Lagrangian into a canonical form with a minimal number of terms. We emphasize that the application of field transformations leads to a modification of the coefficients of higher-order terms as well as eliminating structures, or what is equivalent, expressing certain structures in terms of already known different structures. This will become relevant once one considers the problem of expressing in canonical form a model effective interaction containing terms beyond next-to-leading order, i.e., beyond O(p 4 ). In such circumstances the naive application of the clasical equation of motion to simply drop terms, as is commonly done at lowest order, leads to subtle errors, which we discuss
Exact scattering in the SU(n) supersymmetric principal chiral model
Evans, J M; Evans, Jonathan M; Hollowood, Timothy J
1997-01-01
The complete spectrum of states in the supersymmetric principal chiral model based on SU(n) is conjectured, and an exact factorizable S-matrix is proposed to describe scattering amongst these states. The SU(n)_L*SU(n)_R symmetry of the lagrangian is manifest in the S-matrix construction. The supersymmetries, on the other hand, are incorporated in the guise of spin-1/2 charges acting on a set of RSOS kinks associated with su(n) at level n. To test the proposed S-matrix, calculations of the change in the ground-state energy in the presence of a coupling to a background charge are carried out. The results derived from the lagrangian using perturbation theory and from the S-matrix using the TBA are found to be in complete agreement for a variety of background charges which pick out, in turn, the highest weight states in each of the fundamental representations of SU(n). In particular, these methods rule out the possibility of additional CDD factors in the S-matrix. Comparison of the expressions found for the free-...
Chiral Pesticide Pharmacokinetics: A Range of Values
Approximately 30% of pesticides are chiral and used as mixtures of two or more stereoisomers. In biological systems, these stereoisomers can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). In spite of these differences, th...
Symmetry properties of chiral carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jishi, R.A.; Venkataraman, L.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Dresselhaus, G.
1995-01-01
The method of zone folding is applied to the calculation of the phonon mode frequencies in carbon nanotubules. The Raman and infrared-active mode frequencies are determined for nanotubules of different diameters and chiralities
Organometallic chemistry of chiral diphosphazane ligands ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 4. Organometallic chemistry of chiral diphosphazane ligands: Synthesis and structural characterisation. Kannan Raghuraman Swadhin K Mandal T S Venkatakrishnan Setharampattu S Krishnamurthy Munirathinam Nethaji. Volume 114 Issue 4 August 2002 ...
Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendez-Galain, R.; Ripka, G.
1990-01-01
Unified Chiral models of mesons and baryons are presented. Emphasis is placed on the underlying quark structure of hadrons including the Skyrmion. The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with vector mesons is discussed
Chiral discrimination by chemical force microscopy
McKendry, Rachel; Theoclitou, Maria-Elena; Rayment, Trevor; Abell, Chris
1998-02-01
Chirality is a fundamental aspect of chemical biology, and is of central importance in pharmacology. Consequently there is great interest in techniques for distinguishing between different chiral forms of a compound. Chemical force microscopy is a technique that combines chemical discrimination with atomic force microscopy by chemical derivatization of the scanning probe tip. It has been applied to the study of hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions, the binding between biotin and streptavidin, and between DNA bases. Here we report on the use of chemical force microscopy to discriminate between chiral molecules. Using chiral molecules attached to the probe tip, we can distinguish the two enantiomers of mandelic acid arrayed on a surface, through differences in both the adhesion forces and the frictional forces measured by the probe.
Chiral all-dielectric trimer nanoantenna
Ullah, Kaleem; Garcia-Camara, Braulio; Habib, Muhammad; Liu, Xuefeng; Krasnok, Alex; Lepeshov, Sergey; Hao, Jingjing; Liu, Juan; Yadav, N. P.
2018-03-01
Chirality is a property of certain molecules, materials or artificial nanostructures, which enables them to interact with the spin angular momentum of an incident light. This provides a different optical response, depending on the incident polarization, which gives rise to chiral optical spectroscopies. However, low-detection limits require an enhanced chiral light-matter interaction. Here, we propose a novel type of resonant chiral optical nanoantenna based on high-index dielectric (Cu2O) spherical nanoparticles arranged in a trimer geometry. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally that this trimer nanoantenna exhibits resonantly enhanced optical dichroism and light hotspots, which are associated with this geometry. Moreover, we apply near-field optical microscopy to measure the near-field peculiarities of the proposed nanoantenna. The ability of changing the nanoantenna near field scattering by varying the light polarization is shown.
Odd viscosity in chiral active fluids.
Banerjee, Debarghya; Souslov, Anton; Abanov, Alexander G; Vitelli, Vincenzo
2017-11-17
We study the hydrodynamics of fluids composed of self-spinning objects such as chiral grains or colloidal particles subject to torques. These chiral active fluids break both parity and time-reversal symmetries in their non-equilibrium steady states. As a result, the constitutive relations of chiral active media display a dissipationless linear-response coefficient called odd (or equivalently, Hall) viscosity. This odd viscosity does not lead to energy dissipation, but gives rise to a flow perpendicular to applied pressure. We show how odd viscosity arises from non-linear equations of hydrodynamics with rotational degrees of freedom, once linearized around a non-equilibrium steady state characterized by large spinning speeds. Next, we explore odd viscosity in compressible fluids and suggest how our findings can be tested in the context of shock propagation experiments. Finally, we show how odd viscosity in weakly compressible chiral active fluids can lead to density and pressure excess within vortex cores.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Wenqiu; He, Fangming [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zicheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Ding; Liu, Qinglun [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-04-15
Based on a rectilinear sheet electron beam propagating through the tunnel of a staggered double-grating arrays waveguide (SDGAW) slow-wave structure (SWS), a three dimensional field theory for describing the modes and the beam-wave interaction is presented, in which the higher order terms inside the grooves are retained. The fields' distribution and the conductivity losses are also calculated utilizing the theoretical model. With the optimized parameters of the SWS and the electron beam, a 1 THz SDGAW Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier may obtain a moderate net gain (the peak gain is 12.7 dB/cm) and an ultra 3 dB wideband (0.19 THz) considering the serious Ohmic losses. The theoretical results have been compared with those calculated by 3D HFSS code and CST STUDIO particle-in-cell simulations.
Efficient gas-liquid contact using microfluidic membrane devices with staggered herringbone mixers.
Femmer, Tim; Eggersdorfer, Max L; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Wessling, Matthias
2015-08-07
We describe a novel membrane based gas-liquid-contacting device with increased mass transport and reduced pressure loss by combining a membrane with a staggered herringbone static mixer. Herringbone structures are imposed on the microfluidic channel geometry via soft lithography, acting as mixers which introduce secondary flows at the membrane interface. Such flows include Dean vortices and Taylor flows generating effective mixing while improving mass transport and preventing concentration polarization in microfluidic channels. Furthermore, our static herringbone mixer membranes effectively reduce pressure losses leading to devices with enhanced transfer properties for microfluidic gas-liquid contact. We investigate the red blood cell distribution to tailor our devices towards miniaturised extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and improved comfort of patients with lung insufficiencies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thorborg, Jesper
-strain relation has been suggested. The intention of this method is to provide fast numerical results with reasonable accuracy in relation to the first order effects of the presented classical plasticity model. Application of the $J_2$ flow theory and the alternative method have shown some agreement...... of the method has been focused on high temperature processes such as casting and welding and the interest of using nonlinear constitutive stress-strain relations has grown to extend the applicability of the method. The work of implementing classical plasticity into the control volume formulation has been based...... on the $J_2$ flow theory describing an isotropic hardening material with a temperature dependent yield stress. This work has successfully been verified by comparing results to analytical solutions. Due to the comprehensive implementation in the staggered grid an alternative constitutive stress...
An arbitrary-order staggered time integrator for the linear acoustic wave equation
Lee, Jaejoon; Park, Hyunseo; Park, Yoonseo; Shin, Changsoo
2018-02-01
We suggest a staggered time integrator whose order of accuracy can arbitrarily be extended to solve the linear acoustic wave equation. A strategy to select the appropriate order of accuracy is also proposed based on the error analysis that quantitatively predicts the truncation error of the numerical solution. This strategy not only reduces the computational cost several times, but also allows us to flexibly set the modelling parameters such as the time step length, grid interval and P-wave speed. It is demonstrated that the proposed method can almost eliminate temporal dispersive errors during long term simulations regardless of the heterogeneity of the media and time step lengths. The method can also be successfully applied to the source problem with an absorbing boundary condition, which is frequently encountered in the practical usage for the imaging algorithms or the inverse problems.
Staggered-Grid Finite Difference Method with Variable-Order Accuracy for Porous Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinghuai Gao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The numerical modeling of wave field in porous media generally requires more computation time than that of acoustic or elastic media. Usually used finite difference methods adopt finite difference operators with fixed-order accuracy to calculate space derivatives for a heterogeneous medium. A finite difference scheme with variable-order accuracy for acoustic wave equation has been proposed to reduce the computation time. In this paper, we develop this scheme for wave equations in porous media based on dispersion relation with high-order staggered-grid finite difference (SFD method. High-order finite difference operators are adopted for low-velocity regions, and low-order finite difference operators are adopted for high-velocity regions. Dispersion analysis and modeling results demonstrate that the proposed SFD method can decrease computational costs without reducing accuracy.
Stress analysis of three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement with field observation
Cui, Zimo; Chanda, Emmanuel; Zhao, Jingli; Wang, Zhihe
2018-01-01
Longwall top-coal caving (LTCC) has been a popular, more productive and cost-effective method for extracting thick (> 5 m) to ultra-thick coal seams in recent years. However, low-level recovery ratio of coal resources and top-coal loss above the supports at both ends of working face are long-term problems. Geological factors, such as large dip angle, soft rock, mining depth further complicate the problems. This paper proposes addressing this issue by adopting three-dimensional roadway layout of stagger arrangement (3-D RLSA). In this study, the first step was to analyse the stress environment surrounding head entry in the replacing working face based on the stress distribution characteristics at the triangular coal-pillar side in gob and the stress slip line field theory. In the second step, filed observation was conducted. Finally, an economic evaluation of the 3-D RLSA for extracting thick to ultra-thick seams was conducted.
Cellular uptake of magnetite nanoparticles enhanced by NdFeB magnets in staggered arrangement
Lu, Yi-Ching; Chang, Fan-Yu; Tu, Shu-Ju; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Ma, Yunn-Hwa
2017-04-01
Magnetic force may greatly enhance uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by cultured cells; however, the effects of non-uniformity of magnetic field/ magnetic gradient on MNP internalization in culture has not been elucidated. Cellular uptake of polyacrylic acid coated-MNP by LN229 cells was measured with cylindrical NdFeB magnets arranged in a staggered pattern. The magnetic field generated by placing a magnet underneath (H-field) elicited a homogenous distribution of MNPs on the cells in culture; whereas the field without magnet underneath (L-field) resulted in MNP distribution along the edge of the wells. Cell-associated MNP (MNPcell) appeared to be magnetic field- and concentration-dependent. In H-field, MNPcell reached plateau within one hour of exposure to MNP with only one-min application of the magnetic force in the beginning of incubation; continuous presence of the magnet for 2 h did not further increase MNPcell, suggesting that magnetic force-induced uptake may be primarily contributed to enhanced MNP sedimentation. Although MNP distribution was much inhomogeneous in L-field, averaged MNPcell in the L-field may reach as high as 80% of that in H-field during 1-6 h incubation, suggesting high capacity of MNP internalization. In addition, no significant difference was observed in MNPcell analyzed by flow cytometry with the application of H-field of staggered plate vs. filled magnet plate. Therefore, biological variation may dominate MNP internalization even under relatively uniformed magnetic field; whereas non-uniformed magnetic field may serve as a model for tumor targeting with MNPs in vivo.
A comparative study of Purkinje cells in two RORalpha gene mutant mice: staggerer and RORalpha(-/-).
Doulazmi, M; Frédéric, F; Capone, F; Becker-André, M; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N; Mariani, J
2001-04-30
The staggerer (Rora(sg/sg)) mutation is a deletion in the RORalpha gene, one member of a family of nuclear receptor genes related to the retinoic acid receptor. Recently Steinmayr et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95 (1998) 3960) generated a RORalpha null-mutant mouse (Rora(-/-)) by using a targeting vector in which a beta-Gal gene replaces the second finger of the DNA-binding domain of RORalpha. The Rora(-/-) cerebellum is qualitatively a phenocopy of the Rora(sg/sg) one, but the two strains differ slightly in their motor skills. To address the question whether the morphological defects in the Rora(-/-) cerebellum are identical to the Rora(sg/sg) one, we compared number and size of Purkinje cells in both staggerer and RORalpha null-mutant mice, using calbindin (CaBP) immunohistochemistry and revelation of beta-Gal activity. Compared to control cerebella the Rora(sg/sg) cerebellum has 82% fewer CaBP-positive cells. In Rora(-/-) mouse, all the the beta-Gal-positive Purkinje cells also expressed CaBP, but the cerebellum contained 78% less CaBP-positive cells than control, a deficit not different from the one observed in Rora(sg/sg). We show similar mediolateral compartments in Purkinje cell number and cytological abnormality in Rora(sg/sg) and Rora(-/-) mice. These results provide quantitative support for the hypothesis that the cerebellar phenotype in the homozygous Rora(sg/sg) is due to the lack of function of the RORalpha gene.
Chakraborty, Avik; Sarkar, Angsuman
2015-04-01
In this paper, the analog/RF performance of an III-V semiconductor based staggered hetero-tunnel-junction (HETJ) n-type nanowire (NW) tunneling FET (n-TFET) is investigated, for the first time. The device performance figure-of-merits governing the analog/RF performance such as transconductance (gm), transconductance-to-drive current ratio (gm/IDS), output resistance (Rout), intrinsic gain and unity-gain cutoff frequency (fT) have been studied. The analog/RF performance parameters is compared between HETJ NW TFET and a homojunction (HJ) NW n-type TFET of similar dimensions. In addition to enhanced ION and subthreshold swing, a significant improvement in the analog/RF performance parameters obtained by the HETJ n-TFET over HJ counterpart for use in analog/mixed signal System-on-Chip (SoC) applications is reported. Moreover, the analog/RF performance parameters of a III-V based staggered HETJ NW TFET is also compared with a heterojunction (HETJ) NW n-type MOSFET having same material as HETJ n-TFET and equal dimension in order to provide a systematic comparison between HETJ-TFET and HETJ-MOSFET for use in analog/mixed-signal applications. The results reveal that HETJ n-TFET provides higher Rout and hence, a higher intrinsic gain, an improved gm/IDS ratio, and reasonable fT at lower values of gate-overdrive voltage as compared to the HETJ NW n-MOSFET.
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hierl, Dieter
2008-05-15
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hierl, Dieter
2008-05-01
In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the Θ + pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)
Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramesh N. Patel
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.
Chiral bags, skyrmions and quarks in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rho, M.
1984-09-01
Recent developments on an intriguing connection between the quark-bag description of the baryons (nucleons in particular) and the Skyrmion model are discussed in terms of the constraints coming from chiral anomalies. Topics treated are the leaking baryon charge, axial charge and energy density; the role of chiral anomalies; the role of Skyrme's quartic term and the connection to the meson degrees of freedom; and finally some qualitative implications in nuclei. The presentation is purposely descriptive and intuitive instead of mathematically precise
Bag model with broken chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efrosinin, V.P.; Zaikin, D.A.
1986-01-01
A variant of the bag model in which chiral symmetry is broken and which provides a description of all the experimental data on the light hadrons, including the pion, is discussed. The pion and kaon decay constants are calculated in this model. The problem of taking into account the center-of-mass motion in bag models and the boundary conditions in the bag model with broken chiral symmetry are also discussed
Organocatalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis of Axially, Planar, and Helical Chiral Compounds.
Shirakawa, Seiji; Liu, Shiyao; Kaneko, Shiho
2016-02-04
Axially, planar, and helical chiral compounds are indispensable building blocks in modern organic synthesis. A wide variety of chiral ligands and catalysts were designed based on these chiral scaffolds, and these chiral ligands and catalysts were used for various catalytic asymmetric transformations to produce important chiral compounds in an optically enriched form. Furthermore, these chiral skeletons are found in the structure of biologically active natural products. Thus, the development of efficient enantioselective methods for the synthesis of these chiral compounds is an important task in the field of organic chemistry. In the last few years, organocatalyzed approaches, which are one of the most reliable catalytic asymmetric methods, became a hot topic. This Focus Review summarizes asymmetric organocatalytic methods for the synthesis of axially, planar, and helical chiral compounds as useful chiral building blocks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Nucleon parton distributions in chiral perturbation theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moiseeva, Alena
2013-11-19
Properties of the chiral expansion of nucleon light-cone operators have been studied. In the framework of the chiral perturbation theory we have demonstrated that convergency of the chiral expansion of nucleon parton distributions strongly depends on the value of the variable x. Three regions in x with essentially different analytical properties of the resulting chiral expansion for parton distributions were found. For each of the regions we have elaborated special power counting rules corresponding to the partial resummation of the chiral series. The nonlocal effective operators for the vector and the axial nucleon parton distributions have been constructed at the zeroth and the first chiral order. Using the derived nonlocal operators and the derived power counting rules we have obtained the second order expressions for the nucleon GPDs H(x,ξ,Δ{sup 2}), H(x,ξ,Δ{sup 2}),E(x,ξ,Δ{sup 2}) valid in the region x>or similar a{sup 2}{sub χ}.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Graham Payne
2014-07-01
Full Text Available An experimental study of inert particle dispersion in an isothermal concentric air jet near field was conducted for cases of standard non-staggered and alternative staggered jet nozzles, each taken from a polymer powder flame deposition gun. The experimental work consisted of analysis of high speed digital images of the inert two phase isothermal jet flow, illuminated by a laser light sheet along and across the jet axis. The analysis of particle spread in the jet, represented by families of particle density distributions, clearly showed that the staggered nozzles resulted in a better-focused flow, with narrower distributions in the near field, and in the elimination of the recirculation zone that disrupted the particle flow in a non-staggered nozzle arrangement. In all cases, histograms of the cross-sectional particle area density were found to be approximately Gaussian. It was also found that there was a wide variation in the size and shape of the ground polymer particles used and these two characteristics caused a wide variation in the radial and axial velocities of the particles. Despite the differences between single-phase numerical simulations and experimental results, reported in Payne et al. [1], the introduction of particles into a numerical model produced satisfactory agreement with the particle velocities found experimentally.
Craig, D G; Zafar, S; Reid, T W D J; Martin, K G; Davidson, J S; Hayes, P C; Simpson, K J
2012-06-01
The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score is an effective triage marker following single time point paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, but has not been evaluated following staggered (multiple supratherapeutic doses over >8 h, resulting in cumulative dose of >4 g/day) overdoses. To evaluate the prognostic accuracy of the SOFA score following staggered paracetamol overdose. Time-course analysis of 50 staggered paracetamol overdoses admitted to a tertiary liver centre. Individual timed laboratory samples were correlated with corresponding clinical parameters and the daily SOFA scores were calculated. A total of 39/50 (78%) patients developed hepatic encephalopathy. The area under the SOFA receiver operator characteristic for death/liver transplantation was 87.4 (95% CI 73.2-95.7), 94.3 (95% CI 82.5-99.1), and 98.4 (95% CI 84.3-100.0) at 0, 24 and 48 h, respectively, postadmission. A SOFA score of paracetamol overdose, is associated with a good prognosis. Both the SOFA and APACHE II scores could improve triage of high-risk staggered paracetamol overdose patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Baryon number fluctuations in chiral effective models and their phenomenological implications
Almási, Gábor András; Friman, Bengt; Redlich, Krzysztof
2017-07-01
We study the critical properties of net-baryon-number fluctuations at the chiral restoration transition in a medium at finite temperature and net baryon density. The chiral dynamics of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is modeled by the Polyakov-loop extended quark-meson Lagrangian that includes the coupling of quarks to vector meson and temporal gauge fields. The functional renormalization group is employed to properly account for the O (4 ) criticality at the phase boundary. We focus on the properties and systematics of ratios of the net-baryon-number cumulants χBn, for 1 ≤n ≤6 , near the phase boundary. The results are presented in the context of the recent experimental data of the STAR Collaboration on fluctuations of the net proton number in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. We show that the model results for the energy dependence of the cumulant ratios are in good overall agreement with the data, with one exception. At center-of-mass energies below 19.6 GeV, we find that the measured fourth-order cumulant deviates considerably from the model results, which incorporate the expected O (4 ) and Z (2 ) criticality. We assess the influence of model assumptions and in particular of repulsive vector-interactions, which are used to modify the location of the critical end point in the model, on the cumulants ratios. Finally, we discuss a possibility to test to what extent the fluctuations are affected by nonequilibrium dynamics by comparing certain ratios of cumulants.
On finite volume effects in the chiral extrapolation of baryon masses
Lutz, M F M; Kobdaj, C; Schwarz, K
2014-01-01
We perform an analysis of the QCD lattice data on the baryon octet and decuplet masses based on the relativistic chiral Lagrangian. The baryon self energies are computed in a finite volume at next-to-next-to-next-to leading order (N^3LO), where the dependence on the physical meson and baryon masses is kept. The number of free parameters is reduced significantly down to 12 by relying on large-N_c sum rules. Altogether we describe accurately more than 220 data points from six different lattice groups, BMW, PACS-CS, HSC, LHPC, QCDSF-UKQCD and NPLQCD. Precise values for all counter terms relevant at N^3LO are predicted. In particular we extract a pion-nucleon sigma term of (39 +- 1) MeV and a strangeness sigma term of the nucleon of sigma_{sN} simeq (4 +- 1) MeV. The flavour SU(3) chiral limit of the baryon octet and decuplet masses is determined with ( 802 +- 4 ) MeV and (1103 +- 6) MeV. Detailed predictions for the baryon masses as currently evaluated by the ETM lattice QCD group are made.
Sensitivity to properties of the phi-meson in the nucleon structure in the chiral soliton model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukhopadhyay, N.C.; Zhang, L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)
1994-04-01
The influence of the {phi}-meson on the nucleon properties in the chiral soliton model is discussed. Properties of the {phi}-meson and its photo- and electroproduction are of fundamental interest to CEBAF and its possible future extension. The quark model assigns {phi} an s{bar s} structure, thus forbidding the radiative decay {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}. Experimentally it is also found to be suppressed, yielding a branching fraction of 1.3{times}10{sup {minus}3}. However, {phi}{yields}{rho}{pi} and {phi}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup 0} are not suppressed at all. Thus, it is possible to incorporate the widths of these decays into the framework of the chiral soliton model, by making use of a specific model for the compliance with OZI rule. Such a model is for example, the {omega}-{phi} mixing model. Consequence of this in the context of a chiral soliton model, which builds on the {pi}{rho}{omega}a{sub 1}(f{sub 1}) meson effective Lagrangian, is the context of this report.
Mukherjee, A.; Steinheimer, J.; Schramm, S.
2017-08-01
We use an improved version of the SU(3) flavor parity-doublet quark-hadron model to investigate the higher-order baryon number susceptibilities near the chiral and the nuclear liquid-gas transitions. The parity-doublet model has been improved by adding higher-order interaction terms of the scalar fields in the effective mean field Lagrangian, resulting in a much-improved description of nuclear ground-state properties, in particular the nuclear compressibility. The resulting phase diagram of the model agrees qualitatively with expectations from lattice QCD, i.e., it shows a crossover at zero net baryochemical potential and a critical point at finite density. Using this model, we investigate the dependence of the higher-order baryon number susceptibilities as a function of temperature and chemical potential. We observe a strong interplay between the chiral and liquid-gas transition at intermediate baryochemical potentials. Due to this interplay between the chiral and the nuclear liquid-gas transitions, the experimentally measured cumulants of the net baryon number may show very different beam energy dependence, subject to the actual freeze-out temperature.
Study of open-charm 0^+ states in unitarized chiral effective theory with one-loop potentials
Du, Meng-Lin; Guo, Feng-Kun; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Yao, De-Liang
2017-11-01
Chiral potentials are derived for the interactions between Goldstone bosons and pseudo-scalar charmed mesons up to next-to-next-to-leading order in a covariant chiral effective field theory with explicit vector charmed-meson degrees of freedom. Using the extended-on-mass-shell scheme, we demonstrate that the ultraviolet divergences and the so-called power counting breaking terms can be properly absorbed by the low-energy constants of the chiral Lagrangians. We calculate the scattering lengths by unitarizing the one-loop potentials and fit them to the data extracted from lattice QCD. The obtained results are compared to the ones without an explicit contribution of vector charmed mesons given previously. It is found that the difference is negligible for S-wave scattering in the threshold region. This validates the use of D^*-less one-loop potentials in the study of the pertinent scattering lengths. We search for dynamically generated open-charm states with J^P=0^+ as poles of the S-matrix on various Riemann sheets. The trajectories of those poles for varying pion masses are presented as well.
Study of open-charm 0{sup +} states in unitarized chiral effective theory with one-loop potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Du, Meng-Lin [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Guo, Feng-Kun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics (Germany); Yao, De-Liang [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics (Germany); Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (Centro mixto CSIC-UV), Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Valencia (Spain)
2017-11-15
Chiral potentials are derived for the interactions between Goldstone bosons and pseudo-scalar charmed mesons up to next-to-next-to-leading order in a covariant chiral effective field theory with explicit vector charmed-meson degrees of freedom. Using the extended-on-mass-shell scheme, we demonstrate that the ultraviolet divergences and the so-called power counting breaking terms can be properly absorbed by the low-energy constants of the chiral Lagrangians. We calculate the scattering lengths by unitarizing the one-loop potentials and fit them to the data extracted from lattice QCD. The obtained results are compared to the ones without an explicit contribution of vector charmed mesons given previously. It is found that the difference is negligible for S-wave scattering in the threshold region. This validates the use of D*-less one-loop potentials in the study of the pertinent scattering lengths. We search for dynamically generated open-charm states with J{sup P} = 0{sup +} as poles of the S-matrix on various Riemann sheets. The trajectories of those poles for varying pion masses are presented as well. (orig.)
Fully Lagrangian Renormalized Approximation theory of fluid turbulence: Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frieman, E.A.; Hagan, W.K.
1988-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to discuss our refinement and extension of the work of Y. Kaneda on a Lagrangian Renormalized Approximation (LRA) for homogeneous hydrodynamic turbulence. Kaneda's results are important to the development of a consistent theory of turbulence because the LRA theory successfully overcomes the failure of other turbulence theories (namely the Direct Interaction Approximation) to predict the Kolmogorov wavenumber spectrum. It is thought that this success is due to the use of a Lagrangian rather than Eulerian description of the fluid so that convection of the small eddies by the large ones is properly treated. However, some aspects of these results are puzzling and are considered here. For example, the form of the correlation function and the value of the Kolmogorov constant, K, depend on the choice of the form of the correlation function
Lagrangian formulation and symmetrical description of liquid dynamics
Trachenko, K.
2017-12-01
Theoretical description of liquids has been primarily based on the hydrodynamic approach and its generalization to the solid-like regime. We show that the same liquid properties can be derived starting from solid-like equations and generalizing them to account for the hydrodynamic flow. Both approaches predict propagating shear waves with the notable gap in k -space. This gives an important symmetry of liquids regarding their description. We subsequently construct a two-field Lagrangian of liquid dynamics where the dissipative hydrodynamic and solid-like terms are treated on equal footing. The Lagrangian predicts two gapped waves propagating in opposite space-time directions. The dissipative and mass terms compete by promoting gaps in k -space and energy, respectively. When bare mass is close to the field hopping frequency, both gaps close and the dissipative term annihilates the bare mass.
Yasutake, Nobutoshi; Fujisawa, Kotaro; Yamada, Shoichi
2016-12-01
We have developed a new formulation to obtain self-gravitating, axisymmetric configurations in permanent rotation. The formulation is based on the Lagrangian variational principle with a triangulated mesh. It treats not only barotropic but also baroclinic equations of state. We compare the various stellar equilibria obtained by our new scheme with those by Hachisu's self-consistent field scheme for the barotropic case, and those by Fujisawa's self-consistent field scheme for the baroclinic case. Included in these rotational configurations are those with shellular-type rotations, which are commonly assumed in the evolution calculation of rotating stars. Although radiation processes, convections and meridional flows have not been taken into account in this study, we have in mind the application of this method to the two-dimensional evolution calculations of rotating stars, for which the Lagrangian formulation is best suited.
A non-conventional discontinuous Lagrangian for viscous flow
Marner, F.
2017-01-01
Drawing an analogy with quantum mechanics, a new Lagrangian is proposed for a variational formulation of the Navier–Stokes equations which to-date has remained elusive. A key feature is that the resulting Lagrangian is discontinuous in nature, posing additional challenges apropos the mathematical treatment of the related variational problem, all of which are resolvable. In addition to extending Lagrange's formalism to problems involving discontinuous behaviour, it is demonstrated that the associated equations of motion can self-consistently be interpreted within the framework of thermodynamics beyond local equilibrium, with the limiting case recovering the classical Navier–Stokes equations. Perspectives for applying the new formalism to discontinuous physical phenomena such as phase and grain boundaries, shock waves and flame fronts are provided. PMID:28386415
A Discrete Approach to Meshless Lagrangian Solid Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew Marko
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The author demonstrates a stable Lagrangian solid modeling method, tracking the interactions of solid mass particles rather than using a meshed grid. This numerical method avoids the problem of tensile instability often seen with smooth particle applied mechanics by having the solid particles apply stresses expected with Hooke’s law, as opposed to using a smoothing function for neighboring solid particles. This method has been tested successfully with a bar in tension, compression, and shear, as well as a disk compressed into a flat plate, and the numerical model consistently matched the analytical Hooke’s law as well as Hertz contact theory for all examples. The solid modeling numerical method was then built into a 2-D model of a pressure vessel, which was tested with liquid water particles under pressure and simulated with smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This simulation was stable, and demonstrated the feasibility of Lagrangian specification modeling for fluid–solid interactions.
Lagrangian intersection Floer theory anomaly and obstruction, part II
Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru
2009-01-01
This is a two-volume series research monograph on the general Lagrangian Floer theory and on the accompanying homological algebra of filtered A_\\infty-algebras. This book provides the most important step towards a rigorous foundation of the Fukaya category in general context. In Volume I, general deformation theory of the Floer cohomology is developed in both algebraic and geometric contexts. An essentially self-contained homotopy theory of filtered A_\\infty algebras and A_\\infty bimodules and applications of their obstruction-deformation theory to the Lagrangian Floer theory are presented. Volume II contains detailed studies of two of the main points of the foundation of the theory: transversality and orientation. The study of transversality is based on the virtual fundamental chain techniques (the theory of Kuranishi structures and their multisections) and chain level intersection theories. A detailed analysis comparing the orientations of the moduli spaces and their fiber products is carried out. A self-co...
Lagrangian intersection Floer theory anomaly and obstruction, part I
Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru
2009-01-01
This is a two-volume series research monograph on the general Lagrangian Floer theory and on the accompanying homological algebra of filtered A_\\infty-algebras. This book provides the most important step towards a rigorous foundation of the Fukaya category in general context. In Volume I, general deformation theory of the Floer cohomology is developed in both algebraic and geometric contexts. An essentially self-contained homotopy theory of filtered A_\\infty algebras and A_\\infty bimodules and applications of their obstruction-deformation theory to the Lagrangian Floer theory are presented. Volume II contains detailed studies of two of the main points of the foundation of the theory: transversality and orientation. The study of transversality is based on the virtual fundamental chain techniques (the theory of Kuranishi structures and their multisections) and chain level intersection theories. A detailed analysis comparing the orientations of the moduli spaces and their fiber products is carried out. A self-co...
An algorithm for discovering Lagrangians automatically from data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel J.A. Hills
2015-11-01
Full Text Available An activity fundamental to science is building mathematical models. These models are used to both predict the results of future experiments and gain insight into the structure of the system under study. We present an algorithm that automates the model building process in a scientifically principled way. The algorithm can take observed trajectories from a wide variety of mechanical systems and, without any other prior knowledge or tuning of parameters, predict the future evolution of the system. It does this by applying the principle of least action and searching for the simplest Lagrangian that describes the system’s behaviour. By generating this Lagrangian in a human interpretable form, it can also provide insight into the workings of the system.
Unambiguous formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campos, Cedric M; De Leon, Manuel; De Diego, David MartIn; Vankerschaver, Joris
2009-01-01
The aim of this paper is to propose an unambiguous intrinsic formalism for higher order field theories which avoids the arbitrariness in the generalization of the conventional description of field theories, and implies the existence of different Cartan forms and Legendre transformations. We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. As both of these objects are uniquely defined, the Skinner-Rusk approach has the advantage that it does not suffer from the arbitrariness in conventional descriptions. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic version of the Euler-Lagrange equations for higher order field theories. Several examples illustrate our construction.
Theoretical study (Lagrangian modeling) of turbulent particulate dispersion
Berlemont, A.; Grancher, M. S.; Desjonqueres, P.
A study aimed at improving the prediction and knowledge of two phase phenomena in a turbomachine is presented. A code to three dimensionally simulate particle dispersion, taking account of turbulent droplet evaporation, and which can be easily integrated into the DIAMANT code, is developed. Lagrangian modeling of particle dispersion is used. The influence of turbulence on evaporation appears to be non-negligible and must therefore be taken into account in droplet turbulent transfer problems.
Lagrangian formulation of relativistic Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics
Montenegro, David; Torrieri, Giorgio
2016-09-01
We rederive relativistic hydrodynamics as a Lagrangian effective theory using the doubled coordinates technique, allowing us to include dissipative terms. We include Navier-Stokes shear and bulk terms, as well as Israel-Stewart relaxation time terms, within this formalism. We show how the inclusion of shear dissipation forces the inclusion of the Israel-Stewart term into the theory, thereby providing an additional justification for the form of this term.
Winter School on Mirror Symmetry, Vector Bundles and Lagrangian Submanifolds
Yau, S-T
2002-01-01
The collection of articles in this volume are based on lectures presented during the Winter School on Mirror Symmetry held at Harvard University. There are many new directions suggested by mirror symmetry which could potentially have very rich connections in physics and mathematics. This book brings together the latest research in a major area of mathematical physics, including the recent progress in mirror manifolds and Lagrangian submanifolds. In particular, several articles describing homological approach and related topics are included.
Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions: A Lagrangian Approach
2015-09-30
Journal of Climate, in revision). The decadal forecasting of the minimum sea ice extent based on the output of 30 ensemble members of the Community...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions: A Lagrangian...1- Show from observations whether the dynamics of the multi -year pack ice has a influence on the location of the following summer MIZ. 2
Updated Lagrangian formulation for corrected smooth particle hydrodynamics
Huerta, Antonio; Vidal Seguí, Yolanda; Bonet Carbonell, Javier
2006-01-01
Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) are, in general, more robust than finite elements for large distortion problems. Nevertheless, updating the reference configuration may be necessary in some problems involving extremely large distortions. If a standard updated formulation is implemented in SPH zero energy modes are activated and spoil the solution. It is important to note that the updated Lagrangian does not present tension instability but only zero energy modes. Here an stabilization techn...
A new circulation type classification based upon Lagrangian air trajectories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre M. Ramos
2014-10-01
Full Text Available A new classification method of the large-scale circulation characteristic for a specific target area (NW Iberian Peninsula is presented, based on the analysis of 90-h backward trajectories arriving in this area calculated with the 3-D Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. A cluster analysis is applied to separate the backward trajectories in up to five representative air streams for each day. Specific measures are then used to characterise the distinct air streams (e.g., curvature of the trajectories, cyclonic or anticyclonic flow, moisture evolution, origin and length of the trajectories. The robustness of the presented method is demonstrated in comparison with the Eulerian Lamb weather type classification.A case study of the 2003 heatwave is discussed in terms of the new Lagrangian circulation and the Lamb weather type classifications. It is shown that the new classification method adds valuable information about the pertinent meteorological conditions, which are missing in an Eulerian approach. The new method is climatologically evaluated for the five-year time period from December 1999 to November 2004. The ability of the method to capture the inter-seasonal circulation variability in the target region is shown. Furthermore, the multi-dimensional character of the classification is shortly discussed, in particular with respect to inter-seasonal differences. Finally, the relationship between the new Lagrangian classification and the precipitation in the target area is studied.
Lagrangian Enstrophy Dynamics in Highly Turbulent Premixed Flames
Darragh, Ryan; Towery, Colin; Poludnenko, Alexei; Hamlington, Peter
2017-11-01
Turbulent combustion is a multi-scale and multi-physics problem depending upon both chemical and fluid dynamic processes. These processes are often examined using an Eulerian framework, but recently the Lagrangian framework, a long-time tool in non-reacting flow research, has become increasingly common for the study of turbulent combustion. The two analysis frameworks are in fact equivalent, with the only difference being a change in reference frame. In this study, a Lagrangian fluid parcel tracking algorithm is used to analyze the enstrophy (i.e., vorticity magnitude) dynamics in turbulent premixed reacting flows. The analysis of vorticity dynamics in the premixed flame case is based on data from a three dimensional direct numerical simulation of a premixed stoichiometric hydrogen-air flame in an unconfined domain. Enstrophy budget terms are tracked along Lagrangian trajectories as fluid parcels travel through the flame, with particular focus on understanding the dynamical causes of turbulence variations through the flame preheat and reaction zones with respect to both the fluid parcel and the flame. Additionally, the ability of trajectories to completely sample the flame is discussed.
Lagrangian chaos in three- dimensional steady buoyancy-driven flows
Contreras, Sebastian; Speetjens, Michel; Clercx, Herman
2016-11-01
Natural convection plays a key role in fluid dynamics owing to its ubiquitous presence in nature and industry. Buoyancy-driven flows are prototypical systems in the study of thermal instabilities and pattern formation. The differentially heated cavity problem has been widely studied for the investigation of buoyancy-induced oscillatory flow. However, far less attention has been devoted to the three-dimensional Lagrangian transport properties in such flows. This study seeks to address this by investigating Lagrangian transport in the steady flow inside a cubic cavity differentially-heated from the side. The theoretical and numerical analysis expands on previously reported similarities between the current flow and lid-driven flows. The Lagrangian dynamics are controlled by the Péclet number (Pe) and the Prandtl number (Pr). Pe controls the behaviour qualitatively in that growing Pe progressively perturbs the integable state (Pe =0), thus paving the way to chaotic dynamics. Pr plays an entirely quantitative role in that Pr1 amplifies and diminishes, respectively, the perturbative effect of non-zero Pe. S.C. acknowledges financial support from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo Zhen; Liu Xianbin; Ng, Siu-Choon; Chen Yuan; Yang Yanhui [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Du Yu, E-mail: du_yu@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: yhyang@ntu.edu.sg [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)
2010-04-23
Chiral porous materials have attracted burgeoning attention on account of their potential applications in many areas, such as enantioseparation, chiral catalysis, chemical sensors and drug delivery. In this report, chiral mesoporous silica (CMS) materials with various pore sizes and structures were prepared using conventional achiral templates (other than chiral surfactant) and a chiral cobalt complex as co-template. The synthesized CMS materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. These CMS materials, as carriers, were demonstrated to be able to control the enantioselective release of a representative chiral drug (metoprolol). The release kinetics, as modeled by the power law equation, suggested that the release profiles of metoprolol were remarkably dependent on the pore diameter and pore structure of CMS materials. More importantly, R- and S-enantiomers of metoprolol exhibited different release kinetics on CMS compared to the corresponding achiral mesoporous silica (ACMS), attributable to the existence of local chirality on the pore wall surface of CMS materials. The chirality of CMS materials on a molecular level was further substantiated by vibrational circular dichroism measurements.
Chiral polymerization in open systems from chiral-selective reaction rates.
Gleiser, Marcelo; Nelson, Bradley J; Walker, Sara Imari
2012-08-01
We investigate the possibility that prebiotic homochirality can be achieved exclusively through chiral-selective reaction rate parameters without any other explicit mechanism for chiral bias. Specifically, we examine an open network of polymerization reactions, where the reaction rates can have chiral-selective values. The reactions are neither autocatalytic nor do they contain explicit enantiomeric cross-inhibition terms. We are thus investigating how rare a set of chiral-selective reaction rates needs to be in order to generate a reasonable amount of chiral bias. We quantify our results adopting a statistical approach: varying both the mean value and the rms dispersion of the relevant reaction rates, we show that moderate to high levels of chiral excess can be achieved with fairly small chiral bias, below 10%. Considering the various unknowns related to prebiotic chemical networks in early Earth and the dependence of reaction rates to environmental properties such as temperature and pressure variations, we argue that homochirality could have been achieved from moderate amounts of chiral selectivity in the reaction rates.
Craig, Darren G N; Bates, Caroline M; Davidson, Janice S; Martin, Kirsty G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J
2012-02-01
Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning remains the major cause of severe acute hepatotoxicity in the UK. In this large single centre cohort study we examined the clinical impact of staggered overdoses and delayed presentation following paracetamol overdose. Between 1992 and 2008, 663 patients were admitted with paracetamol-induced severe liver injury, of whom 161 (24.3%) had taken a staggered overdose. Staggered overdose patients were significantly older and more likely to abuse alcohol than single time point overdose patients. Relief of pain (58.2%) was the commonest rationale for repeated supratherapeutic ingestion. Despite lower total ingested paracetamol doses and lower admission serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations, staggered overdose patients were more likely to be encephalopathic on admission, require renal replacement therapy or mechanical ventilation and had higher mortality rates compared with single time point overdoses (37.3% vs. 27.8%, P= 0.025), although this overdose pattern did not independently predict death. The King's College poor prognostic criteria had reduced sensitivity (77.6, 95% CI 70.8, 81.5) for this pattern of overdose. Of the 396/450 (88.0%) single time point overdoses in whom accurate timings could be obtained, 178 (44.9%) presented to medical services >24 h following overdose. Delayed presentation beyond 24 h post overdose was independently associated with death/liver transplantation (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.23, 4.12, P= 0.009). Both delayed presentation and staggered overdose pattern are associated with adverse outcomes following paracetamol overdose. These patients are at increased risk of developing multi-organ failure and should be considered for early transfer to specialist liver centres. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.
The chiral critical line of $N_{f}=2+1$ QCD at ero and non-zero baryon density
De Forcrand, Philippe; Forcrand, Philippe de; Philipsen, Owe
2007-01-01
We present numerical results for the location of the chiral critical line at finite temperature and zero and non-zero baryon density for QCD with N_f=2+1 flavours of staggered fermions on lattices with temporal extent N_t=4. For degenerate quark masses, we compare our results obtained with the exact RHMC algorithm with earlier, inexact R-algorithm results and find a reduction of 25% in the critical quark mass, for which the first order phase transition changes to a smooth crossover. Extending our analysis to non-degenerate quark masses, we map out the chiral critical line up to the neighbourhood of the physical point, which we confirm to be in the crossover region. Our data are consistent with a tricritical point at a strange quark mass of ~500 MeV. Finally, we investigate the shift of the critical line with finite baryon density, by simulating with an imaginary chemical potential for which there is no sign problem. We observe this shift to be very small or, conversely, the critical endpoint \\mu^c(m_{u,d},m_s...
Chirality conservation in the lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1978-01-01
The derivation of conservation laws corresponding to chiral invariance in quantum field theories of interacting quarks and gluons are studied. In particular there is interest in observing how these conservation laws are constrained by the requirement that the field theory be locally gauge invariant. To examine this question, a manifestly gauge-invariant definition of local operators in a quantum field theory is introduced, a definition which relies in an essential way on the use of the formulation of gauge fields on a lattice due to Wilson and Polyakov to regulate ultraviolet divergences. The conceptual basis of the formalism is set out and applied to a long-standing puzzle in the phenomenology of quark-gluon theories: the fact that elementary particle interactions reflect the conservation of isospin-carrying chiral currents but not of the isospin-singlet chiral current. It is well known that the equation for the isospin-singlet current contains an extra term, the operator F/sub mu neu/F/sup mu neu/, not present in the other chirality conservation laws; however, this term conventionally has the form of a total divergence and so still allows the definition of a conserved chiral current. It is found that, when the effects of maintaining gauge invariance are properly taken into account, the structure of this operator is altered by renormalization effects, so that it provides an explicit breaking of the unwanted chiral invariance. The relation between this argument, based on renormaliztion, is traced to a set of more heuristic arguments based on gauge field topology given by 't Hooft; it is shown that the discussion provides a validation, through short-distance analysis, of the picture 'Hooft has proposed. The formal derivation of conservation laws for chiral currents are set out in detail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timar, J.; Nyako, B.M.; Berek, G.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Molnar, J.; Zolnai, L.
2007-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The existence of nuclear chirality is one of the most intriguing questions of contemporary high-spin nuclear structure studies. Rotational doublet-band candidates for chiral structures have been observed mostly in two regions of the nuclear chart: around 134 Pr, and around 104 Rh. In this second region chirality in the Rh isotopes are rather well studied, chiral doubling have also been observed in 100 Tc, however, results obtained for chirality in the studied Ag nuclei ( 105 Ag and 106 Ag) look rather contradictory. Thus, it is interesting to study these doublet bands in the nearby higher-mass Ag nuclei. In order to search for a chiral-candidate partner band to the yrast πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band in 109 Ag, high-spin states of this nucleus have been studied using the 96 Zr( 18 O,p4n) reaction. The experiment was performed at iThemba LABS using 8 Clover detectors of the AFRODITE array and the DIAMANT charged-particle array to detect the γ-rays and the charged particles, respectively. Altogether ∼140 million γγ-coincidence events were collected. Approximately 10 million events of them correspond to the reaction channel producing 109 Ag. No chiral candidate partner band has been found to the πg 9/2 v(h 11/2 ) 2 band with this statistics, however, the level scheme could be extended by several new levels and γ-transitions. A preliminary level scheme of 109 Ag obtained from the ongoing data analysis is shown in Fig. 1
Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.
About chiral models of dense matter and its magnetic properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutschera, M.
1990-12-01
The chiral models of dense nucleon matter are discussed. The quark matter with broken chiral symmetry is described. The magnetic properties of dense matter are presented and conclusions are given. 37 refs. (A.S.)
Cellular uptake of magnetite nanoparticles enhanced by NdFeB magnets in staggered arrangement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Yi-Ching; Chang, Fan-Yu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology & Healthy Aging Research Center, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tu, Shu-Ju [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ma, Yunn-Hwa, E-mail: yhma@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology & Healthy Aging Research Center, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Guishan, Taoyuan City 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China)
2017-04-01
Magnetic force may greatly enhance uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by cultured cells; however, the effects of non-uniformity of magnetic field/ magnetic gradient on MNP internalization in culture has not been elucidated. Cellular uptake of polyacrylic acid coated-MNP by LN229 cells was measured with cylindrical NdFeB magnets arranged in a staggered pattern. The magnetic field generated by placing a magnet underneath (H-field) elicited a homogenous distribution of MNPs on the cells in culture; whereas the field without magnet underneath (L-field) resulted in MNP distribution along the edge of the wells. Cell-associated MNP (MNP{sub cell}) appeared to be magnetic field- and concentration-dependent. In H-field, MNP{sub cell} reached plateau within one hour of exposure to MNP with only one-min application of the magnetic force in the beginning of incubation; continuous presence of the magnet for 2 h did not further increase MNP{sub cell}, suggesting that magnetic force-induced uptake may be primarily contributed to enhanced MNP sedimentation. Although MNP distribution was much inhomogeneous in L-field, averaged MNP{sub cell} in the L-field may reach as high as 80% of that in H-field during 1–6 h incubation, suggesting high capacity of MNP internalization. In addition, no significant difference was observed in MNP{sub cell} analyzed by flow cytometry with the application of H-field of staggered plate vs. filled magnet plate. Therefore, biological variation may dominate MNP internalization even under relatively uniformed magnetic field; whereas non-uniformed magnetic field may serve as a model for tumor targeting with MNPs in vivo. - Graphical abstract: Averaged MNP uptake by glioma cells in the low and non-uniformed magnetic field reached as high as 80% of that in uniformed magnetic field, which is probably due to both heterogeneous distributions of MNPs in the non-uniformed magnetic field and high capacity of the MNP uptake by these cells. - Highlights:
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, I.-M.; Lin, S.-Y.; Lee, M.-S.; Wang, C.-J.; Chuang, K.-S.; Ding, H.-J.
2002-01-01
Purpose: To smooth the staggered dose distribution that occurs in stepped leaves defined by a multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Materials and methods: The MLC Shaper program controlled the stepped leaves, which were shifted in a traveling range, the pattern of shift was from the position of out-bound to in-bound with a one-segment (cross-bound), three-segment, and five-segment shifts. Film was placed at a depth of 1.5 cm and irradiated with the same irradiation dose used for the cerrobend block experiment. Four field edges with the MLC defining at 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg. angels relative to the jaw edge were performed, respectively, in this study. For the field edge defined by the multi-segment technique, the amplitude of the isodose lines for 50% isodose line and both the 80% and 20% isodose lines were measured. The effective penumbra widths with 90-10% and 80-20% distances for different irradiations were determined at four field edges with the MLC defining at 15 deg., 30 deg., 45 deg., 60 deg. angels relative to the jaw edge. Results: Use of the five-segment technique for multi-leaf collimation at the 60 deg. angle field edge smoothes each isodose line into an effectively straight line, similar to the pattern achieved using a cerrobend block. The separation of these lines is also important. The 80-20% effective penumbra width with five-segment techniques (8.23 mm) at 60 deg. angle relative to the jaw edge is little wider (1.9 times) than the penumbra of cerrobend block field edge (4.23 mm). We also found that the 90-10% effective penumbra width with five-segment techniques (12.68 mm) at 60 deg. angle relative to the jaw edge is little wider (1.28 times) than the penumbra of cerrobend block field edge (9.89 mm). Conclusion: The multi-segment technique is effective in smoothing the MLC staggered field edge. The effective penumbra width with more segment techniques at larger degree angles relative to the field edge is little wider than the penumbra for a
Optical chirality in gyrotropic media: symmetry approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proskurin, Igor; Ovchinnikov, Alexander S; Nosov, Pavel; Kishine, Jun-ichiro
2017-01-01
We discuss optical chirality in different types of gyrotropic media. Our analysis is based on the formalism of nongeometric symmetries of Maxwell’s equations in vacuum generalized to material media with given constituent relations. This approach enables us to directly derive conservation laws related to nongeometric symmetries. For isotropic chiral media, we demonstrate that like a free electromagnetic field, both duality and helicity generators belong to the basis set of nongeometric symmetries that guarantees the conservation of optical chirality. In gyrotropic crystals, which exhibit natural optical activity, the situation is quite different from the case of isotropic media. For light propagating along a certain crystallographic direction, there arises two distinct cases: (1) the duality is broken but the helicity is preserved, or (2) only the duality symmetry survives. We show that the existence of one of these symmetries (duality or helicity) is enough to define optical chirality. In addition, we present examples of low-symmetry media, where optical chirality cannot be defined. (paper)
Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P
2007-08-01
Novel microemulsion formulations containing all chiral components are described for the enantioseparation of six pairs of pharmaceutical enantiomers (atenolol, ephedrine, metoprolol, N-methyl ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and synephrine). The chiral surfactant dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV, R- and S-), the chiral cosurfactant S-2-hexanol, and the chiral oil diethyl tartrate (R- and S-) were combined to create four different chiral microemulsions, three of which were stable. Results obtained for enantioselectivity, efficiency, and resolution were compared for the triple-chirality systems and the single-chirality system that contained chiral surfactant only. Improvements in enantioselectivity and resolution were achieved by simultaneously incorporating three chiral components into the aggregate. The one-chiral-component microemulsion provided better efficiencies. Enantioselective synergies were identified for the three-chiral-component nanodroplets using a thermodynamic model. Additionally, two types of dual-chirality systems, chiral surfactant/chiral cosurfactant and chiral surfactant/chiral oil, were examined in terms of chromatographic figures of merit, with the former providing much better resolution. The two varieties of two-chiral-component microemulsions gave similar values for enantioselectivity and efficiency. Lastly, the microemulsion formulations were divided into categories based on the number of chiral microemulsion reagents and the average results for each pair of enantiomers were analyzed for trends. In general, enantioselectivity and resolution were enhanced while efficiency was decreased as more chiral components were used to create the pseudostationary phase (PSP).
Planar chiral meta-materials for optical applications
Potts, A.; Papakostas, A.; Bagnall, D. M.; Zheludev, N. I.
2004-01-01
Room temperature nanoimprint lithography has successfully been applied to the fabrication of planar chiral photonic meta-materials. For dielectric chiral structures a single layer of thick HSQ was used while for metallic chiral structures a bi-layer technique using PMMA/hydrogen silsequioxane (HSQ) was applied. The polarization conversion capabilities of planar chiral structures imprinted in dielectric materials have experimentally been observed. This indicates that the developed processes in...
Characteristics of the chiral phase transition in nonlocal quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez Dumm, D. Gomez; Scoccola, N.N.
2005-01-01
The characteristics of the chiral phase transition are analyzed within the framework of chiral quark models with nonlocal interactions in the mean-field approximation. In the chiral limit, we develop a semianalytic framework that allows us to explicitly determine the phase transition curve, the position of the critical points, some relevant critical exponents, etc. For the case of finite current quark masses, we show the behavior of various thermodynamical and chiral response functions across the phase transition
Chirality - The forthcoming 160th Anniversary of Pasteur's Discovery
Molčanov, K.; Kojić-Prodić., B.
2007-01-01
The presented review on chirality is dedicated to the centennial birth anniversary of Nobel laureate Vladimir Prelog and 160 years of Pasteur's discovery of chirality on tartrates. Chirality has been recognized in nature by artists and architects, who have used it for decorations and basic constructions, as shown in the Introduction. The progress of science through history has enabled the gathering of knowledge on chirality and its many ways of application. The key historical discoveries abou...
Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis.
Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon
2012-01-01
The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α = 3.00) and 2-hexyl acetates (α = 1.95). This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC.
Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mireia Oromí-Farrús
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α=3.00 and 2-hexyl acetates (α=1.95. This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC.
Acylation of Chiral Alcohols: A Simple Procedure for Chiral GC Analysis
Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon
2012-01-01
The use of iodine as a catalyst and either acetic or trifluoroacetic acid as a derivatizing reagent for determining the enantiomeric composition of acyclic and cyclic aliphatic chiral alcohols was investigated. Optimal conditions were selected according to the molar ratio of alcohol to acid, the reaction time, and the reaction temperature. Afterwards, chiral stability of chiral carbons was studied. Although no isomerization was observed when acetic acid was used, partial isomerization was detected with the trifluoroacetic acid. A series of chiral alcohols of a widely varying structural type were then derivatized with acetic acid using the optimal conditions. The resolution of the enantiomeric esters and the free chiral alcohols was measured using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a CP Chirasil-DEX CB column. The best resolutions were obtained with 2-pentyl acetates (α = 3.00) and 2-hexyl acetates (α = 1.95). This method provides a very simple and efficient experimental workup procedure for analyzing chiral alcohols by chiral-phase GC. PMID:22649749
The chiral bosonization in non-Abelian gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrianov, A.A.; Novozhilov, Y.
1985-01-01
The chiral bosonization in non-Abelian gauge theories is described starting directly from the QCD functional. For a given mass scale Λ, the QCD may be equivalently represented by colour chiral fields, gauge fields and high energy fermions. The effective action for colour chiral fields may admit the existence of a colour Skyrmion-boson with the baryon number 2/3. (author)
Differential geometry based solvation model II: Lagrangian formulation.
Chen, Zhan; Baker, Nathan A; Wei, G W
2011-12-01
Solvation is an elementary process in nature and is of paramount importance to more sophisticated chemical, biological and biomolecular processes. The understanding of solvation is an essential prerequisite for the quantitative description and analysis of biomolecular systems. This work presents a Lagrangian formulation of our differential geometry based solvation models. The Lagrangian representation of biomolecular surfaces has a few utilities/advantages. First, it provides an essential basis for biomolecular visualization, surface electrostatic potential map and visual perception of biomolecules. Additionally, it is consistent with the conventional setting of implicit solvent theories and thus, many existing theoretical algorithms and computational software packages can be directly employed. Finally, the Lagrangian representation does not need to resort to artificially enlarged van der Waals radii as often required by the Eulerian representation in solvation analysis. The main goal of the present work is to analyze the connection, similarity and difference between the Eulerian and Lagrangian formalisms of the solvation model. Such analysis is important to the understanding of the differential geometry based solvation model. The present model extends the scaled particle theory of nonpolar solvation model with a solvent-solute interaction potential. The nonpolar solvation model is completed with a Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory based polar solvation model. The differential geometry theory of surfaces is employed to provide a natural description of solvent-solute interfaces. The optimization of the total free energy functional, which encompasses the polar and nonpolar contributions, leads to coupled potential driven geometric flow and PB equations. Due to the development of singularities and nonsmooth manifolds in the Lagrangian representation, the resulting potential-driven geometric flow equation is embedded into the Eulerian representation for the purpose of
Synthesis of chiral dopants based on carbohydrates.
Tsuruta, Toru; Koyama, Tetsuo; Yasutake, Mikio; Hatano, Ken; Matsuoka, Koji
2014-07-01
Chiral dopants based on carbohydrates for nematic liquid crystals were synthesized from D-glucose, and their helical twisting power (HTP) values were evaluated. The chiral dopants induced helices in the host nematic liquid crystals. An acetyl derivative having an ether-type glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and a mesogenic moiety showed the highest HTP value of 10.4 μm(-1), while an acetyl derivative having an anomeric ester-type linkage did not show any HTP. It was surprising that this molecule had no HTP despite the presence of chirality in the molecule. A relationship between HTP and specific rotation was not observed in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Magnetic test of chiral dynamics in QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simonov, Yu.A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,117118, Moscow, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25 (Russian Federation)
2014-01-22
Strong magnetic fields in the range eB≫m{sub π}{sup 2} effectively probe internal quark structure of chiral mesons and test basic parameters of the chiral theory, such as 〈q-barq〉,f{sub π}. We argue on general grounds that 〈q-barq〉 should grow linearly with eB when charged quark degrees of freedom come into play. To make explicit estimates we extend the previously formulated chiral theory, including quark degrees of freedom, to the case of strong magnetic fields and show that the quark condensate |〈q-barq〉|{sub u,d} grows quadratically with eB for eB<0.2 GeV{sup 2} and linearly for higher field values. These results agree quantitatively with recent lattice data and differ from χPT predictions.
Chiral battery, scaling laws and magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anand, Sampurn; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Pandey, Arun Kumar
2017-01-01
We study the generation and evolution of magnetic field in the presence of chiral imbalance and gravitational anomaly which gives an additional contribution to the vortical current. The contribution due to gravitational anomaly is proportional to T "2 which can generate seed magnetic field irrespective of plasma being chirally charged or neutral. We estimate the order of magnitude of the magnetic field to be 10"3"0 G at T ∼ 10"9 GeV, with a typical length scale of the order of 10"−"1"8 cm, which is much smaller than the Hubble radius at that temperature (10"−"8 cm). Moreover, such a system possess scaling symmetry. We show that the T "2 term in the vorticity current along with scaling symmetry leads to more power transfer from lower to higher length scale as compared to only chiral anomaly without scaling symmetry.