Lee Bih Ni; Kiu Su Na
This paper discusses the Chinese Language Teaching as a Second Language by focusing on Immersion Teaching. Researchers used narrative literature review to describe the current states of both art and science in focused areas of inquiry. Immersion teaching comes with a standard that teachers must reliably meet. Chinese language-immersion instruction consists of language and content lessons, including functional usage of the language, academic language, authentic language, and correct Chinese so...
Lee, Cher Leng
Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…
Full Text Available This study investigates Chinese Language Speaking Anxiety and its associated factors among college-level students who learn Chinese as a foreign language (CFL in the U.S. Although the Speaking Anxiety scores of the participants were not high on average, but frequency analyses showed that quite a number of learners experienced high levels of anxiety when speaking Chinese. The results of ANOVA analyses indicated that gender had a significant effect on Speaking Anxiety, but proficiency level and the elective-required status did not. Correlation and multiple regression results showed that perceived difficulty level of the Chinese language, self-perceived language learning ability, and self-perceived achievement in Chinese classes were significant predictors of Speaking Anxiety and altogether accounted for 21.4% of the variance in Speaking Anxiety.
Qiu, Lin; Lu, Jiahui; Ramsay, Jonathan; Yang, Shanshan; Qu, Weina; Zhu, Tingshao
To date, little research has investigated personality expressions in languages other than English. Given that the Chinese language has the largest number of native speakers in the world, it is vitally important to examine the associations between personality and Chinese language use. In this research, we analysed Chinese microblogs and identified word categories and factorial structures associated with personality traits. We also compared our results with previous findings in English and showed that linguistic expression of personality has both universal- and language-specific aspects. Expression of personality via content words is more likely to be consistent across languages than expression via function words. This makes an important step towards uncovering universal patterns of personality expression in language. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Discover what Chinese language teachers experience while teaching Chinese as a foreign language (abbreviated to CFL) at Danish universities. Are they teaching CFL in a ‘Chinese’ way? Are they teaching CFL in a ‘Danish’ way? Focusing on professional identities, this PhD project explores...... the relationship among teachers’ beliefs, prior CFL-related experiences and the influence of different teaching cultures. Six native-speaker teachers of Chinese and four non-native-speaker teachers of Chinese from three Danish universities joined the project. Through a qualitative study made up of researcher......’s journals, classroom observations and semi-structured interviews over four years (2011-2015), the author explains the process of being and becoming ‘good’ Chinese language teachers in a Danish educational setting, concentrating on the factors which are associated with influencing the construction of teacher...
Tsai, Cheng-Hui; Wang, Chuan Po
Chinese Teaching in Taiwan in recent years in response to the international trend of development, making at all levels of Chinese language teaching in full swing, for the recent boom in Chinese language teaching, many overseas Chinese language learning for children also had a passion while actively learning Chinese language, and even many overseas…
Wang, John B.
The ways in which the Chinese have used the homophonic nature of their language to express abstractions in concrete terms, especially to express daily wishes, are described. In Chinese, a value is assigned to an object because the pronunciation of the word for the object brings that implied value to the mind of the listener; for instance, vase in…
Yan, Yun; Deng, Tianbai
In the recent twenty years, with China's reform and opening policy to the outside world, there is a sharp increase in English loan words in Chinese. On the one hand, it demonstrates that China's soft power has been booming up. But on the other hand, some language pollution in the meanwhile is caused by non-standard use of loan words in Chinese.…
Chinese is an ancient language, but the present scope of its global study is unprecedented. Comprehending the impacts of worldwide linguistic realities on 'Chinese as a Foreign Language' (CFL) teachers and students will be critical to its long-term success. The most important phenomenon has been the establishment of English as a lingua franca, especially in the expanding marketplaces of Asia. This book examines the role of English as a medium of instruction in CFL classrooms. It begins by integrating existing studies on the global spread of English with research on English as a medium of secon
Provides an overview of the theoretical arguments and problems encountered in the implementation of information technology in Chinese language teaching. States there is a belief that teaching and learning can be enhanced with the introduction of information technology, explaining that it may increase students' motivation to learn. (CMK)
From the point of view on postcolonial theories, this paper explores English language's influence on normal Chinese and Hong Kong Chinese, and concludes the advantage and disadvantage of this phenomenon.
HUCKER, CHARLES O.
THE AUTHOR STATES THAT ONE OF THE MOST PRESSING PROBLEMS IN THE TEACHING OF CHINESE ON THE GRADUATE LEVEL IS DEFINING THE SCOPE OF THE AREA STUDIES AND DEVELOPING A CORE LANGUAGE PROGRAM THAT WILL BOTH ACCOMODATE THE STUDENT'S ACADEMIC PURPOSE AND USE HIS LANGUAGE PREPARATION. GRADUATE CENTERS SHOULD ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO STUDY CHINESE FOR…
This article explores the background to the Chinese government's decision to embark on a programme of promoting the study of Chinese language and culture overseas. This includes the impact of Joseph Nye's concept of "soft power" in China, ownership of the national language, the Confucius connection, and how these factors interact with…
Full Text Available Chinese has become the world’s second language. Each language has its own law, as is the Chinese. Indonesian students have difficulty in learning Chinese which are are not surprising. Every language has various characteristics, so do Chinese and Bahasa Indonesia. Article analyzes difficulties to learn Chinese, especially for Indonesian students, those are tone, grammar, sounds of “er hua” such as Alice retroflex. The respondents are 100 Indonesian students who are randomly selected for testing samples analyzed. Since there is no tone in Bahasa Indonesia, it makes a lot of Indonesian students in the learning process often appear in Chinese foreign accent phenomenon. This article expects to explore the problem by studying the formation of the causes and solutions. Indonesian students learning Chinese was designed to provide some teaching and learning strategies.
Full Text Available In a bilingual society like Singapore, home language environment (HLE of Singaporean children is becoming increasingly concerned, especially for those who are yet to have formal education in schools. The reported rapid shift of family language has increased the tensions among families, schools and communities. This study examined some of the many facets of Singaporean Chinese preschoolers’ HLE, and further discussed how these facets are related to children’s Chinese language proficiency in oral and written forms. Three hundred and seventy-six Singaporean Chinese six-year olds completed Chinese oral and written language proficiency screening. Their parents completed a HLE survey. The findings revealed the possible trend of home language shift from Mandarin Chinese to English in the younger generation. Aside from home language use factors, the importance of other facets that form a rich language environment is also highlighted for children's language development.
Full Text Available Chinese language has changed drastically in the recent century. Papers on the language development mainly stress four big events in the Chinese history that imposed changes in language, i.e. The May Fourth Movement (1919, establishment of the People’s Republic of China (1949, Cultural Revolution (1966, and China’s reform and opening (1978. According to the features of recent neologisms, we suggest that the widening gap between rich and poor should be considered as the fifth milestone for changes in Chinese language.
Everson, Michael E., Ed.; Shen, Helen H., Ed.
Cutting-edge in its approach and international in its authorship, this fourth monograph in a series sponsored by the Chinese Language Teachers Association features eight research studies that explore a variety of themes, topics, and perspectives important to a variety of stakeholders in the Chinese language learning community. Employing a wide…
Margreat Aloysious Anthony; Sree Nithya Ganesen
According to Horwitz (1987) learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to und...
Su, Xiaoxiang; Kim, Young-Suk
In the present study, we examined the relation of knowledge of semantic radicals to students' language proficiency and word reading for adult Chinese-as-a-foreign language students. Ninety-seven college students rated their proficiency in speaking, listening, reading, and writing in Chinese, and were administered measures of receptive and…
This study explores the teaching beliefs of Chinese language teachers who migrated from China to Australia and who have been teaching in Chinese Community Languages Schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. The thesis argues that the teaching beliefs of these migrant language teachers are strongly influenced by their previous learning and teaching experiences and that their choices of teaching content and practice in their current Australian classrooms reflect these beliefs. Because la...
Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.; Arroyo, Alan A.
This study investigated the relationship between language learning strategy (LLS) preferences and English proficiency among Chinese university students. Oxford's (1990), Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an institutional version (ITP) of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) were administered to 168 third-year English…
Anthony, Margreat Aloysious; Ganesen, Sree Nithya
According to Horwitz (1987) learners' belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different…
In order to preserve distinctive cultures, people anxiously figure out writing systems of their languages as recording tools. Mandarin, Taiwanese and Hakka languages are three major and the most popular dialects of Han languages spoken in Chinese society. Their writing systems are all in Han characters. Various and independent phonetic…
Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay
In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…
Bao, Rui; Du, Xiangyun
Task-based language teaching (TBLT) has been drawing increased attention from language teachers and researchers in the past decade. This paper focuses on the effects of TBLT on beginner learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in Denmark. Participatory observation and semi...... that TBLT is not a one-size-fits-all method, but rather interacts with various contextual factors in its application, and suggests that the features of the Chinese language need to be taken into consideration as well....
Full Text Available Acrostic is a special phenomenon of the modern Chinese language. It is a combination of lexical and syntactical that across “vocabulary” and “grammar” categories. The morphemes can be combined and can also be separated by various form changes depending on its development. Acrostic is always been a crucial part in teaching Chinese language to foreigners and less developed than other parts of the teaching. This study used quantitative method to analyze the problems associated with the acrostic in teaching Chinese to foreigners. Source of the data was learners’ exercise and assignment. The discussion in this article was viewed from the perspective of the outside-oriented teaching, grouped into 3 main sections. The first was in terms of the usability characteristics to the acrostic developments in the acrostic grammar study. The second, based on the results of the questionnaire regarding the use of acrostic, research analyzed students’ main mistakes and their causes. The third was to observe the condition of teaching acrostic. This research is expected to help teachers and learners of Mandarin understand and overcome the difficulties in learning acrostic.
Yang, Jia; Yin, Chengxu; Wang, Wei
Through an in-depth analysis of quantitative and qualitative data, this article offers a case study of the advantages and challenges in the application of the flipped learning approach in the instruction of Chinese as a foreign language at the beginning level. Data were collected from two first-year Chinese classes (one in traditional and the…
The teaching of Chinese in Australian primary and secondary schools has a history of more than 40 years, but it has only been in the past two decades that it has become widespread. Nonetheless, until the last year, of the six most taught languages in schools, Chinese has had by far the smallest number of students. Several factors contribute to…
This includes a contrastive study of English and Chinese noun phrases, verbal phrases, and word order and discusses common mistakes made by English speakers learning Chinese. Mistakes often made by English speakers due to differences between the two languages are divided into three categories: the first is mistakes in word order where the English…
This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…
This review paper examines how standardized language assessment affects Chinese young learners' motivation for second-language learning. By presenting the historical and contemporary contexts of the testing system in China, this paper seeks to demonstrate the interrelationship among cultural, social, familial, and individual factors, which…
Cai Jin Chang
In this paper, the influence of Japanese anime language to Chinese network buzzwords was studied, and the maturity and rigor were quoted. The Japanese anime language refined, creative can be so popular in the factors of psychologies also was analyzed. According to these studies, some suggestions were put forward that how to standardize the network buzzwords and how to raise its taste.
Along with the rapid development of China’s economy and national strength in recent years, the Chinese government places increased importance on the cultivation of soft power, through which hoping to enhance China’s influence. One of the measures is to vigorously promote Chinese language to the world. However, Chinese language promotion worldwide is a vast complex project. In order to obtain effective promotion results, it demands multi-disciplinary support. Based on relevant theories of ...
Yao Sua, Tan; Hooi See, Teoh
The Chinese language movement was launched by the Chinese educationists to demand the recognition of Chinese as an official language to legitimise the status of Chinese education in the national education system in Malaysia. It began in 1952 as a response to the British attempt to establish national primary schools teaching in English and Malay to…
Margreat Aloysious Anthony
Full Text Available According to Horwitz (1987 learners’ belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different learning experiences. Given the significant number of local and international Chinese students enrolled in educational institutions, there is a need to understand the differences and similarities in the learning strategies of these two groups. The sample for the study comprised of 60 local and 50 international Chinese students currently enrolled at a local private college. The Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL was administered as a measure of learning strategy preferences. The study reveals that language learning experiences as well as socioeconomic status impact the learning strategy adopted by both local and international Chinese students. The findings of this study point to the need to address the needs of these students in order to enhance their English language learning experience in Malaysia.
Full Text Available This article discussed about the results of learning Chinese language for BINUS University employees. Learning method for adults and children are different, thus required teaching material and method that suit them. The aim of this research was to find out results of learning Chinese language through the material and teaching method used during training. The methods were descriptive qualitative, direct observation as trainer and collects participant test results as research data. The results show that teaching material is appropriate, however it needs to add review part. Direct method are used during the training makes the participants use Chinese language in daily conversation to achieve the goal of training. Indeed, it needs to strengthen mastery of participants’ basic Mandarin through explanation about using the vocabulary and adding the classroom activities.
Aalberse, S.; Moro, F.; Braunmüller, K.; Höder, S.; Kühl, K.
This article discusses Malay and Chinese heritage languages as spoken in the Netherlands. Heritage speakers are dominant in another language and use their heritage language less. Moreover, they have qualitatively and quantitatively different input from monolinguals. Heritage languages are often
Aalberse, S.; Moro, F.R.; Braunmüller, K.; Höder, S.; Kühl, K.
This article discusses Malay and Chinese heritage languages as spoken in the Netherlands. Heritage speakers are dominant in another language and use their heritage language less. Moreover, they have qualitatively and quantitatively different input from monolinguals. Heritage languages are often
Du, Xiangyun; Bao, Rui; Egekvist, Ulla Egidiussen
Paper presented at International conference: From the specific patterns of Chinese language to its teaching, 12-13 January 2012......Paper presented at International conference: From the specific patterns of Chinese language to its teaching, 12-13 January 2012...
Cai Jin Chang
Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of Japanese anime language to Chinese network buzzwords was studied, and the maturity and rigor were quoted. The Japanese anime language refined, creative can be so popular in the factors of psychologies also was analyzed. According to these studies, some suggestions were put forward that how to standardize the network buzzwords and how to raise its taste.
The present research explored the effects of cultural, affective, and linguistic variables on adult Chinese as a second language learners' willingness to communicate in Chinese. One hundred and sixty-two Chinese as a second language learners from a Chinese university answered the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scale, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale, Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, Use of Chinese Profile, as well as the Background Questionnaire. The major findings were as follows: (1) the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales were significantly negatively correlated with Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale but positively correlated with length of stay in China and (2) Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale was a powerful negative predictor for the overall willingness to communicate in Chinese and the Willingness to Communicate in Chinese Scales, followed by length of stay in China, Chinese Learning Motivation Scale, interaction attentiveness, and Chinese proficiency level. Apparently, students' willingness to communicate in Chinese is largely determined by their Chinese Speaking Anxiety Scale level and length of stay in China, mediated by other variables such as Chinese proficiency level and intercultural communication sensitivity level.
In this article, the author shares how she uses Chinese film in her Chinese language and culture classes. She demonstrates how Chinese films can help students "navigate the uncharted universe of Chinese culture" with reference to several contemporary Chinese films. She describes how intensive viewing of films can develop a deeper and…
Thompson, Richard T.
After an analysis of the changing numbers of Americans studying Chinese abroad and of Sino-American academic exchanges after the Tiananmen events of 1989, this paper reports on visits to summer language programs. Enrollments were down by 13 percent between the summer of 1988 and 1989, but down by 50 percent between 1989 and 1990. The following…
grade Chinese students and its relationship with the English performance in order to assist teachers in making learning the English language more effective for a larger group of learners. T-test was calculated to compare the means of students ...
Kubler, Cornelius C.
This article discusses principles involved in developing course materials for technology-mediated Chinese language learning, with examples from a new course designed to take into account the needs of distance and independent learners. Which learning environment is most efficient for a given learning activity needs to be carefully considered. It…
Fleming, Stephen; Hipley, David; Ning, Cynthia
This compact disc includes video clips covering six topics for the learner of Chinese: personal information, commercial transactions, travel and leisure, health and sports, food and school. Filmed on location in Beijing, these naturalistic video clips consist mainly of unrehearsed interviews of ordinary people. The learner is lead through a series…
Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…
Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.
This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.
Full Text Available Research has increasingly uncovered the cognitive, cultural, and economic advantages of bilingualism and the positive impact of heritage language on children's second language acquisition (M:cLaughlin, 1995. As one type of heritage language education organizations, Chinese language schools have been in existence for decades in the U.S., but their practices have remained informal and not readily accessible to people from other cultures. In order to bridge this gap, this ethnographic study illustrates family and community involvement in promoting language proficiency in heritage language populations and explores language education methods practiced in Chinese community language schools in an urban Southern California area. The study examines the intricate issues affecting heritage language learning and explores the potential uses of technology in assisting young learners in acquiring their heritage language (Chinese. In addition, the study generates guidelines for adapting existing technology-assisted language programs (e.g., the Chinese Cultural Crystals for instructional uses.
Xue, Jin; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Qi, Zhenhai; Bai, Chen; Qiu, Yinchen
The present study is concerned with how the Chinese learners of English grammaticalize different English syntactic rules. The ERPs (event related potentials) data were collected when participants performed English grammatical judgment. The experimental sentences varied in the degree of the similarity between the first language Chinese (L1) and the second language English (L2): (a) different in the L1 and the L2; (b) similar in the L1 and the L2; (c) unique to the L2. The P600 effect was found in L2 for structures that are similar in the L1 and the L2 and that are unique in L2, but there was no P600 effect of sentence type for the mismatch structures. The results indicate L1-L2 similarity and L2 proficiency interact in a complex way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow
Full Text Available This study investigated the etiology of individual differences in Chinese language and reading skills in 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years (228 pairs of monozygotic twins and 84 pairs of dizygotic twins; 166 male pairs and 146 female pairs. Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming, morphological awareness and orthographic skills, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. All analyses controlled for the effects of age. There were moderate to substantial genetic influences on word reading, tone awareness, phonological memory, morphological awareness and rapid automatized naming (estimates ranged from .42 to .73, while shared environment exerted moderate to strong effects on receptive vocabulary, syllable and rhyme awareness and orthographic skills (estimates ranged from .35 to .63. Results were largely unchanged when scores were adjusted for nonverbal reasoning as well as age. Findings of this study are mostly similar to those found for English, a language with very different characteristics, and suggest the universality of genetic and environmental influences across languages.
Full Text Available Instructors often face a dilemma when using film in language classes. While film is appealing for the rich cultural and linguistic information it offers, finding the balance between teaching content and building language skills can present significant challenges for an instructor. Common approaches to using film in courses taught in English, such as screening one film a week, reading critical essays about the films, and class discussions and lectures, seldom offer the same benefits in a foreign language course due to the fact that students with only three years of foreign language study frequently lack the language skills necessary to discuss films in a foreign language. Yanfang Tang and Qianghai Chen, authors of the textbook 'Advanced Chinese: Intention, Strategy, & Communication '(2005, have argued that “[n]either interpreting textual meanings nor decoding linguistic patterns leads naturally to the productive skills needed” for communicating in the target language at the advanced level. They further suggest that “practice, in a conscious but meaningful way is the key to successful transformation of input knowledge into productive output skills.”
Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Zhu, Jinxin; Law, Cecilia Lai Kwan
This study aimed to explore the cross-lagged association of achievements in mathematics and languages. While the effect of language on achievements in mathematics is well-documented, few studies have examined the reciprocal relationships among mathematics, the Chinese language and the English language in the same study. This study conducted a…
This study examined the foreign language (FL) reading anxiety level of learners of Chinese as a FL (n = 76) in the United States. Data from an FL reading anxiety survey, a background information survey and a face-to-face interview indicated that there was no significant difference in reading anxiety level among four course levels. In general,…
Full Text Available The article deals with the national and cultural features of zoonyms “cat” and “dog” in English and Chinese languages. The authors point out zoonyms’ main characteristics and their national cultural originality. Zoonyms represent the special features of national linguistic world view and values in the comparative analysis’ aspect The article represents interpretation of the language units in the monolingual explanatory dictionaries. The dictionary definitions of the terms phraseology and zoonym are given. The research is devoted to phraseology in the English and Chinese languages. The historical notes about the attitude toward cats and dogs in Britain and China are shown. Also some peculiarities of zoonyms function in English and Chinese animal fairy-tales are observed. Based on the differences the authors notice differences of phraseology between zoonyms “cat” and “dog”. Some examples in the English and Chinese languages are observed. The analysis represents universal and national specific semantic features of the present units in the languages so far as phraseology contains the most vivid representation of the national-cultural specificity of world view, connotative features and values peoples in Europe and Asia.
Chen, Yalin; Yanke, Jill; Campbell, Jamie I D
The role of language in memory for arithmetic facts remains controversial. Here, we examined transfer of memory training for evidence that bilinguals may acquire language-specific memory stores for everyday arithmetic facts. Chinese-English bilingual adults (n = 32) were trained on different subsets of simple addition and multiplication problems. Each operation was trained in one language or the other. The subsequent test phase included all problems with addition and multiplication alternating across trials in two blocks, one in each language. Averaging over training language, the response time (RT) gains for trained problems relative to untrained problems were greater in the trained language than in the untrained language. Subsequent analysis showed that English training produced larger RT gains for trained problems relative to untrained problems in English at test relative to the untrained Chinese language. In contrast, there was no evidence with Chinese training that problem-specific RT gains differed between Chinese and the untrained English language. We propose that training in Chinese promoted a translation strategy for English arithmetic (particularly multiplication) that produced strong cross-language generalization of practice, whereas training in English strengthened relatively weak, English-language arithmetic memories and produced little generalization to Chinese (i.e., English training did not induce an English translation strategy for Chinese language trials). The results support the existence of language-specific strengthening of memory for everyday arithmetic facts.
Huang, Chen; Ding, Xiaoqing; Chen, Yan
The language model design and implementation issue is researched in this paper. Different from previous research, we want to emphasize the importance of n-gram models based on words in the study of language model. We build up a word based language model using the toolkit of SRILM and implement it for contextual language processing on Chinese documents. A modified Absolute Discount smoothing algorithm is proposed to reduce the perplexity of the language model. The word based language model improves the performance of post-processing of online handwritten character recognition system compared with the character based language model, but it also increases computation and storage cost greatly. Besides quantizing the model data non-uniformly, we design a new tree storage structure to compress the model size, which leads to an increase in searching efficiency as well. We illustrate the set of approaches on a test corpus of recognition results of online handwritten Chinese characters, and propose a modified confidence measure for recognition candidate characters to get their accurate posterior probabilities while reducing the complexity. The weighted combination of linguistic knowledge and candidate confidence information proves successful in this paper and can be further developed to achieve improvements in recognition accuracy.
Full Text Available “Film Studies” has become one of the fastest developing disciplines at liberal arts colleges in the United States since the early 1990s. Many factors have contributed to the growth of this new teaching field, among which is the fact that new generations of college students are more accustomed than ever before to visual learning due to the influence of media technology. Also with the growth of global studies, “film” is widely used as “cultural text” through which students learn about other national histories, cultures, and customs in a visualized way that is different from conventional text-reading. Chinese language cinema, with perspectives and content distinctive from Western films, has become an innovative point in the development of Chinese studies curricula. China’s fast-paced economic development and the emergence of the Chinese cinematic movements (so-called “New Waves” of the mid-1980s have also played critical roles in drawing increased attention to Chinese cinema in classrooms in the United States.
Ptaszynski, Signe Overgaard
Wang Bixia et al. (1997) and Jiang Liping (1998) investigated what learning strategies students of Chinese as a foreign language employ when learning Chinese characters. On the basis of their research they suggest what pedagogical methods the teacher should apply in order to make the task easier...
Wong, Yu Ka
Based on the Simple View of Reading model, this study examines the relationships among Chinese reading comprehension and its two componential processes, Chinese character reading and listening comprehension, in young learners of Chinese as a second language (CSL) using a longitudinal design. Using relevant measures, a sample of 142 senior primary…
Ting, Su-Hie; Mahadhir, Mahanita
This preliminary study examines the languages used by parents with their children in Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil families to find out how the similarity or dissimilarity in parents' ethnic language influenced the choice of language transmitted to children and how far standard languages have permeated the family domain in Kuching City…
Lou, Shi-Jer; Wu, Shi-Chiao; Shih, Ru-Chu; Tseng, Kuo-Hung
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of adopting blogging upon Chinese language composition instruction in a vocational high school in Taiwan. The researchers developed a model that utilises blogging in Chinese language composition instruction. Forty randomly selected students from a public vocational high school served as the…
Chua, Siew Lian; Wong, Angela F. L.; Chen, Der-Thanq V.
This article reports findings from a classroom environment study which was designed to investigate the nature of Chinese Language classroom environments in Singapore secondary schools. We used a perceptual instrument, the Chinese Language Classroom Environment Inventory, to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions towards their Chinese…
Yuan, Yifeng; Shen, Huizhong
This design-based study examines the creation and development of audio-visual Chinese language teaching and learning materials for Australian schools by incorporating users' feedback and content writers' input that emerged in the designing process. Data were collected from workshop feedback of two groups of Chinese-language teachers from primary…
Moloney, Robyn; Xu, HuiLing
With the economic rise of China, there is global demand for effective teaching and learning of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). There has been limited sustained success in Chinese language learning in Australian schools, however, and this has been attributed, amongst other factors, to pedagogy employed by teachers. Today, it is commonplace to…
Scrimgeour, Andrew; Foster, Marnie; Mao, Weifeng
This article explores some of the distinctive challenges in Chinese language education in schools and discusses how the development of the "Australian Curriculum: Chinese" has responded to these challenges. It details how the curriculum framework outlined in the "Shape of the Australian Curriculum: Languages" (ACARA, 2011)…
Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Wei, Miao; He, Qinghua; Dong, Qi
Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of the bilateral fusiform gyrus in the processing of Chinese and English. The present study tested the possibility that long-term experience with Chinese language affects the fusiform laterality of English reading by comparing three samples: Chinese speakers, English speakers with Chinese experience, and English speakers without Chinese experience. We found that, when reading words in their respective native language, Chinese and English speakers without Chinese experience differed in functional laterality of the posterior fusiform region (right laterality for Chinese speakers, but left laterality for English speakers). More importantly, compared with English speakers without Chinese experience, English speakers with Chinese experience showed more recruitment of the right posterior fusiform cortex for English words and pseudowords, which is similar to how Chinese speakers processed Chinese. These results suggest that long-term experience with Chinese shapes the fusiform laterality of English reading and have important implications for our understanding of the cross-language influences in terms of neural organization and of the functions of different fusiform subregions in reading. PMID:25598049
Tong, Xiuli; Yip, Joanna Hew Yan
Radicals are building blocks of Chinese complex characters and exhibit certain positional, phonological and semantic regularities. This study investigated whether adult non-native learners of Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) were aware of the positional (orthographic), phonological and semantic information of radicals, and whether such…
Han, Weifeng; Brebner, Chris; McAllister, Sue
Language assessment of bilingual/bidialectal children can be complex. This is particularly true for speakers from China, who are likely to be bilingual and bidialectal at the same time. There has been, however, a lack of understanding of the diversity of Chinese languages as well as data on bidialectal children's L1 syntactic development and the development of L1 bidialectal children's L2 acquisition. This paper provides information on the complexity of the language system for people from China. It will present illustrative examples of the expressive language outputs of bilingual and bidialectal children from the perspective of bilingual, bidialectal linguists and speech-language pathologists. Then it will outline why appropriate assessment tools and practices for identification of language impairment in bilingual Chinese children need to be developed. Considerations include that Chinese bilingual children may differ in L2 performance because of lack of exposure in the target language or because of their varied L1 dialectal backgrounds, but not necessarily because of language impairment. When evaluating morphosyntactic performance of bilingual children, a series of reliable threshold indicators for possible language impairment is urgently needed for SLPs to facilitate accurate diagnosis of language impairment.
Yang, Su; Zhu, Qing
The goal of sign language recognition (SLR) is to translate the sign language into text, and provide a convenient tool for the communication between the deaf-mute and the ordinary. In this paper, we formulate an appropriate model based on convolutional neural network (CNN) combined with Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network, in order to accomplish the continuous recognition work. With the strong ability of CNN, the information of pictures captured from Chinese sign language (CSL) videos can be learned and transformed into vector. Since the video can be regarded as an ordered sequence of frames, LSTM model is employed to connect with the fully-connected layer of CNN. As a recurrent neural network (RNN), it is suitable for sequence learning tasks with the capability of recognizing patterns defined by temporal distance. Compared with traditional RNN, LSTM has performed better on storing and accessing information. We evaluate this method on our self-built dataset including 40 daily vocabularies. The experimental results show that the recognition method with CNN-LSTM can achieve a high recognition rate with small training sets, which will meet the needs of real-time SLR system.
Yeung, Susanna S.; King, Ronnel B.
The present study explored the home literacy environment for Chinese ESL kindergarteners and examined the relationships between home literacy practices and language and literacy skills. Ninety Hong Kong Chinese ESL kindergarteners were assessed for English vocabulary, phonological awareness, letter knowledge and word reading. Their parents…
Wang, Shenggao; Vásquez, Camilla
This quasi-experimental study examined whether there was any difference in the quantity and quality of the written texts produced by two groups (N = 18) of intermediate Chinese language learners. Over one semester, students in the experimental (E) group wrote weekly updates and comments in Chinese on a designated Facebook group page, while…
When comparing Chinese and English language, large differences in orthography, syntax, semantics, and phonetics are found. These differences may have consequences in the processing of mathematical text, yet little consideration is given to them when the mathematical abilities of students from these different cultures are compared. This paper reviews the differences between English and Mandarin Chinese language, evaluates current research, discusses the possible consequences for processing mathematical text in both languages, and outlines future research possibilities.
Ip, Wei Hing
Enhancing Intercultural Communication in Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language – An Action Research Study Over the past few decades, the rapid development of information communication technology, internationalization and globalization worldwide have required a shift in the focus of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) towards competence in intercultural communication in which the role of culture in the acquisition of CFL and in the pragmatic use of the language is emphasized and promoted. How...
In recent years, researchers within the field of TCFL (teaching Chinese as a foreign language) have begun to examine the notion of Chinese language teacher identity (see e.g., Moloney, 2013; Gao, 2012; Wu et al., 2014); however, whilst insightful, this research has not addressed the ways in which...... a period of three years has been carried out. The study findings reveal that despite they teach Chinese in their own home cultures, the teachers face challenges in constructing their identities as CFL teacher, and that the challenges that arose with their Chinese learning trajectory and their intercultural...
It is not an easy task for teachers to teach Chinese as a foreign language to the students who have completed the foundation levels of Chinese language and are embarking on more specialized work. The level of these students can be roughly characterized as 'advanced'. One of the most challenging...... tasks is how to improve the pragmatic competence in Chinese language for the 'advanced' students. The solution to the task is to develop language skills in the course of focusing on thinking about Chinese and cultures. This paper takes teaching practice and teaching examples as starting points......, elucidating the instructional framework in how to design warm-up activities for students, the theoretical basis of teaching, as well as design focus from the perspective of cognitive science. Aiming at the students at advanced level, the design of warm-up activities should not only emphasize language points...
Gilkerson, Jill; Zhang, Yiwen; Xu, Dongxin; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Xu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Fan; Harnsberger, James; Topping, Keith
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) automated language-analysis system for the Chinese Shanghai dialect and Mandarin (SDM) languages. Method: Volunteer parents of 22 children aged 3-23 months were recruited in Shanghai. Families provided daylong in-home audio recordings using…
In language learning, there is much evidence to suggest that heritage language (HL) learners exhibit learning needs and profiles that are distinct from non-HL learners. In the case of Chinese language teaching in Victoria, this issue is particularly pronounced because of the loose eligibility criterion that divides students into the streams of…
Garvey, Catherine; Rocklyn, Eugene H.
To meet the need for a short, self-instructional, tactical language course in a Far Eastern tonal language of potential military significance, a course in Mandarin Chinese was developed by adapting the methods described in Subtask CONTACT II with reference to a European language (Russian). The purpose of the course was to enable combat soldiers to…
Lim, Chap Sam; Presmeg, Norma
This paper discusses a teaching dilemma faced by mathematics teachers in the Malaysian Chinese primary schools in coping with the latest changes in language policy. In 2003, Malaysia launched a new language policy of teaching mathematics using English as the language of instruction in all schools. However, due to the complex sociocultural demands…
Textual memorisation is a widely used yet underexplored language practice in foreign language teaching and learning in China. The research addresses the need for a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the practices and beliefs of Chinese learners regarding the use of textual memorisation in foreign language learning. This article reports on…
Chen, Herng-Yow; Liu, Kuo-Yu
In the past decade, the use of computer technology for language instruction has expanded rapidly. In Taiwan, overseas students whose native languages are not Chinese mostly get trouble in learning and communicating particularly during the first year of their study. To overcome their language barrier in National Chi Nan University (NCNU), a…
Language learning strategies are important factors that affect students' learning. In China, senior high school is an important stage in a person's education. This study examines the English language learning strategy use by Chinese senior high school students by means of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning. The findings reveal that…
The present paper examines negotiation of meaning and language-related episodes in Chinese-German eTandem interaction, focusing on Chinese as target language. Against the background of the interactionist approach to language learning and drawing upon Swain and Lapkin's (1998, Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French…
Hsiao, A.; Broeder, Peter
Twitter is becoming increasingly popular as a medium for language learning. This study explores self-directed learning via social interactions that use Twitter as an interactive learning environment. The participants in this study were thirty university students of Chinese as a foreign language at
Cheung, Alan C. K.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine language, academic, social-cultural and financial adjustments facing mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach: The current study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods and included over 300 mainland Chinese students from seven major universities in Hong Kong.…
Cheng, Rui; Erben, Antony
It is very common for Chinese graduate students to experience language anxiety in the U.S. higher institutions, yet the literature on this topic is limited. This research study focused on the influence of the length of stay in U.S. higher institutions, various programs, gender, and acculturation process on Chinese graduate students' language…
Shum, Mark Shiu Kee; Ki, Wing Wah; Leong, Che Kan
Two groups of 13 to14-year-old alphasyllabary language users (mainly Hindi and Urdu), in integrated or designated school settings (respectively 40 and 48 students), were compared with 59 Chinese students in comprehending 4 elementary Chinese texts, each with three inferential questions requiring short open-ended written answers. Three constructs…
Palmer, Barbara C.; Sun, Lingzhi; Leclere, Judith T.
This article will analyze the figurative language that reflects Chinese traditional society and culture in "Yeh-Shen." The authors will consider both the figures of speech and the figures of thought (to include symbolism) that provide insight into an understanding of the Chinese culture through a reading of "Yeh-Shen." This analysis can be used by…
Mui, Ada C.; Kang, Suk-Young; Kang, Dooyeon; Domanski, Margaret Dietz
This study examined the association between English language proficiency and health outcomes in a regional probability sample (n = 205) of elderly Chinese and Korean immigrants. Data support that these two Asian ethnic subgroups differ in English proficiency and health-related quality of life. Chinese and Korean elders had poorer health than the…
Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man
The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary,…
With Chinese native-speaker data as the baseline, this study investigates the use of the morphosyntactic particle DE by learners of Chinese as a second language. The general patterns are as follows: (a) DE tends to be deleted more in informal speech than in formal settings; (b) higher proficiency and longer residence in China--more interactions…
Min, Huang; Kangdi, Cheng
Bilingual education policy in Singapore permits the students learn both English as working language and mother tongues, such as Chinese, as L2 anchoring to culture heritage. Starting from historical and sociolinguistic reasons, this paper is intended to provide a panoramic view of Chinese education in Singapore, clarify and compare Chinese…
Akimova Inga Igorevna
The article deals with the Noun quantitative group of Chinese language in order to build dichotomous classification of this kind of linguistic items. Method of semantical oppositions is a good-working one for the purpous of contrastive language study. Language barrier of chinese students who studies Russian language is usually associated with the conceptual language level. Interfering influence effects caused by the distribution of grammemes between categories of substantive quantity and dete...
G. Anugkakul; S. Yordchim
The objectives were to study language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by Chinese students, and the frequency of LLSs they used, and examine the relationship between the use of LLSs and gender. The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford was administered to thirty-six Chinese students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Three useful findings were found on the use of LLSs report...
Chen, Alice W; Kazanjian, Arminée; Wong, Hubert
Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 showed that Chinese immigrants to Canada and Chinese individuals born in Canada were less likely than other Canadians to have contacted a health professional for mental health reasons in the previous year in the province of British Columbia. The difference persisted among individuals at moderate to high risk for depressive episode. Both immigrant and Canadian-born Chinese showed similar characteristics of mental health service use. The demographic and health factors that significantly affected their likelihood to consult mental health services included Chinese language ability, restriction in daily activities, frequency of medical consultations, and depression score. Notwithstanding lower levels of mental illness in ethnic Chinese communities, culture emerged as a major factor explaining differences in mental health consultation between Chinese and non-Chinese Canadians.
Alexey N. Aleksakhin
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phonological structure of words of Russian and Chinese languages. With phonological point of view the word as a Central significant unit of language is a sequence of consonants and vowel phonemes. A comparative study shows that the phonological structure of the Russian words prevail consonant phonemes and the phonological structure of the Chinese words prevail vowel phonemes. The phonological system of the Russian language is characterized by consonant dominant, and the phonological system of the Chinese language Mandarin is characterized by vocal dominant. In the vowel system of the Russian language there are six vowel phonemes, in the vowel system of the Chinese language Mandarin there are thirty-one vowel phonemes. The typical sound pattern of words of the Chinese language consists of vowel combinations. The strong (vowels differ in different effective modes of vocal cords vowels are implemented in the even phonological position; the weak vowels are implemented in the left and right odd phonological positions of the syllabic matrix 0123. Consonant phonemes of the Chinese language are implemented only in the zero phonological position. The Sound variety of simple one-syllable words of the Chinese language is constructed by oppositions: twenty-five consonants in the zero position, thirty-one strong vowel phonemes in the even position, as well as three weak vowels in the left odd position and five weak vowels in the right odd position . The typical distribution of consonant and vowel phonemes is shown in the following examples of words: 0123 - guai «obedient», gudi «rotate», guài «strange». The opposition of weak vowels with a derivative phonological zero is also an effective method of making words: guai «obedient» - gai «must» - gua « blow» - ga «a dark corner». Both Russian and Chinese Synharmonia variety of sound words is supported by five derivative phonological zeros that are phonetically in
Alexey N. Aleksakhin
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phonological structure of words of Russian and Chinese languages. With phonological point of view the word as a Central significant unit of language is a sequence of consonants and vowel phonemes. A comparative study shows that the phonological structure of the Russian words prevail consonant phonemes and the phonological structure of the Chinese words prevail vowel phonemes. The phonological system of the Russian language is characterized by consonant dominant, and the phonological system of the Chinese language Mandarin is characterized by vocal dominant. In the vowel system of the Russian language there are six vowel phonemes, in the vowel system of the Chinese language Mandarin there are thirty-one vowel phonemes. The typical sound pattern of words of the Chinese language consists of vowel combinations. The strong (vowels differ in different effective modes of vocal cords vowels are implemented in the even phonological position; the weak vowels are implemented in the left and right odd phonological positions of the syllabic matrix 0123. Consonant phonemes of the Chinese language are implemented only in the zero phonological position. The Sound variety of simple one-syllable words of the Chinese language is constructed by oppositions: twenty-five consonants in the zero position, thirty-one strong vowel phonemes in the even position, as well as three weak vowels in the left odd position and five weak vowels in the right odd position . The typical distribution of consonant and vowel phonemes is shown in the following examples of words: 0123 - guai «obedient», gudi «rotate», guài «strange». The opposition of weak vowels with a derivative phonological zero is also an effective method of making words: guai «obedient» - gai «must» - gua « blow» - ga «a dark corner». Both Russian and Chinese Synharmonia variety of sound words is supported by five derivative phonological zeros that are phonetically in
Bai, Hao; Zhang, Xi-wen
While Chinese is learned as a second language, its characters are taught step by step from their strokes to components, radicals to components, and their complex relations. Chinese Characters in digital ink from non-native language writers are deformed seriously, thus the global recognition approaches are poorer. So a progressive approach from bottom to top is presented based on hierarchical models. Hierarchical information includes strokes and hierarchical components. Each Chinese character is modeled as a hierarchical tree. Strokes in one Chinese characters in digital ink are classified with Hidden Markov Models and concatenated to the stroke symbol sequence. And then the structure of components in one ink character is extracted. According to the extraction result and the stroke symbol sequence, candidate characters are traversed and scored. Finally, the recognition candidate results are listed by descending. The method of this paper is validated by testing 19815 copies of the handwriting Chinese characters written by foreign students.
Tsai, Pei-Shu; Chu, Wo-Hsin
This study investigates how the use of discourse markers reflects speaking fluency in Chinese learners. In this study, 220 min of online Chinese courses were transcribed, with 17 Chinese learners and 5 native Chinese teachers as participants. Half of the transcribed data were drawn from students living in Taipei, Taiwan, a Chinese-speaking…
Shen, Deli; Liversedge, Simon P; Tian, Jin; Zang, Chuanli; Cui, Lei; Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli; Rayner, Keith
The effect of spacing in relation to word segmentation was examined for four groups of non-native Chinese speakers (American, Korean, Japanese, and Thai) who were learning Chinese as second language. Chinese sentences with four types of spacing information were used: unspaced text, word-spaced text, character-spaced text, and nonword-spaced text. Also, participants' native languages were different in terms of their basic characteristics: English and Korean are spaced, whereas the other two are unspaced; Japanese is character based whereas the other three are alphabetic. Thus, we assessed whether any spacing effects were modulated by native language characteristics. Eye movement measures showed least disruption to reading for word-spaced text and longer reading times for unspaced than character-spaced text, with nonword-spaced text yielding the most disruption. These effects were uninfluenced by native language (though reading times differed between groups as a result of Chinese reading experience). Demarcation of word boundaries through spacing reduces non-native readers' uncertainty about the characters that constitute a word, thereby speeding lexical identification, and in turn, reading. More generally, the results indicate that words have psychological reality for those who are learning to read Chinese as a second language, and that segmentation of text into words is more beneficial to successful comprehension than is separating individual Chinese characters with spaces.
Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; Kidd, Joanna C.; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.
Specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are found to co-occur in school-aged children learning Chinese, a non-alphabetic language (Wong, Kidd, Ho, & Au in "Sci Stud Read" 14:30--57, 2010). This paper examined the "Distinct" hypothesis--that SLI and dyslexia have different cognitive deficits and behavioural…
This article examines the role of agency for the English language development of three Chinese research students with high English proficiency sojourning in Australia. The focus is on the various approaches the learners employed to strengthen their sense of confidence in their language use in Australia. The data were obtained through in-depth…
Wong, Ka F.; Xiao, Yang
The goal of this study is to explore the identity constructions of Chinese heritage language students from dialect backgrounds. Their experiences in learning Mandarin as a "heritage" language--even though it is spoken neither at home nor in their immediate communities--highlight how identities are produced, processed, and practiced in our…
This paper presents the results of a one-year language curriculum needs analysis project aimed at developing a deeper understanding of the learning needs of first and second year Chinese language students at a university in the United States. The purpose of this project was to provide a foundation for further curriculum development of the…
This PhD project mainly aimed at exploring the relationship between foreign language (FL) anxiety and FL proficiency development, the sources of FL anxiety, and the stability of FL anxiety over time and across target languages. To this end, 146 L1 Chinese university students, who had been learning
Stafford, Mary E.; Jenckes, Lalima B.; Santos, Sheryl L.
Perceptions about speakers of Spanish, English, and Chinese were studied among 303 Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanic students in grades 3 and 8 in the southwestern United States. Students' prior experience with a language increased favorable attitudes toward the language, solidarity with its speakers, and perceptions of status associated with…
Wang, Chuang; Pape, Stephen J.
In this case study, we investigate three Chinese boys' self-efficacy beliefs learning English as a second language across English language learning tasks and home-based and school-based contexts. Participants reported higher self-efficacy to complete listening and speaking activities than during reading and writing activities. All participants…
Yang, Xinxiao; Chen, Dianbing
For the purposes of revealing and comparing the social, cultural, and motivational differences between American and Chinese undergraduate students learning foreign language, a sample of 100 students at University of Wyoming was asked to fill out a Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Beliefs questionnaire and 61 respondents completed the…
Xu, Yi; Chang, Li-Yun; Zhang, Juan; Perfetti, Charles A.
Previous studies suggest that writing helps reading development in Chinese in both first and second language settings by enabling higher-quality orthographic representation of the characters. This study investigated the comparative effectiveness of reading, animation, and writing in developing foreign language learners' orthographic knowledge…
Liu, Meihua; Ni, Huiliuqian
This paper reports on the result of a study on Chinese university EFL learners' foreign language writing anxiety in terms of general pattern, effect and causes. 1174 first-year students answered the 26-item Foreign Language Writing Anxiety Scale (FLWAS) (Young, 1999) and took an English writing test, 18 of whom were invited for semi-structured…
Surveyed groups of Chinese, Malay and Tamil families, their use of community languages or mother tongue, and their speaking, reading, and writing proficiency. Found that when parents' community language proficiency in speaking is lower they tend to choose English as preferred language. Children's language confidence affected their language choice.…
This PhD study explores the influence of teaching and learning methods on learner motivation in teaching Chinese as a foreign language in an intercultural (or Danish) context and illustrates how the learners are motivated to learn Chinese language and culture through task-based teaching......-centred method, such as task-based teaching and learning or a method inspired by problem-based learning, can be employed as a motivating methodology to provide a supportive environment for language and culture learning (i.e., Chinese language and culture learning), particularly in an intercultural (or Danish...... and learning in a student-centred learning environment. Both qualitative and mixed methods approaches have been employed to examine learner motivation and the effects of certain teaching and learning methods (i.e. student-centred methods) in a given context. The findings have shown that a student...
Community languages schools (also known as ethnic or heritage languages schools) in Australia have not received much attention from sociologists and educational researchers, even though these schools are important and supplementary to mainstream schooling. This research explores the identity practices of a group of teenage Chinese-Australian students attending Huawen School (pseudonym), a weekend community language school in Victoria, Australia. The conceptual framework of this study draws on...
Cao, Fan; Sussman, Bethany L; Rios, Valeria; Yan, Xin; Wang, Zhao; Spray, Gregory J; Mack, Ryan M
Word reading has been found to be associated with different neural networks in different languages, with greater involvement of the lexical pathway for opaque languages and greater invovlement of the sub-lexical pathway for transparent langauges. However, we do not know whether this language divergence can be demonstrated in second langauge learners, how learner's metalinguistic ability would modulate the langauge divergence, or whether learning method would interact with the language divergence. In this study, we attempted to answer these questions by comparing brain activations of Chinese and Spanish word reading in native English-speaking adults who learned Chinese and Spanish over a 2 week period under three learning conditions: phonological, handwriting, and passive viewing. We found that mapping orthography to phonology in Chinese had greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) than in Spanish, suggesting greater invovlement of the lexical pathway in opaque langauges. In contrast, Spanish words evoked greater activation in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) than English, suggesting greater invovlement of the sublexical pathway for transparant languages. Furthermore, brain-behavior correlation analyses found that higher phonological awareness and rapid naming were associated with greater activation in the bilateral IFG for Chinese and in the bilateral STG for Spanish, suggesting greater language divergence in participants with higher meta-linguistic awareness. Finally, a significant interaction between the language and learning condition was found in the left STG and middle frontal gyrus (MFG), with greater activation in handwriting learning than viewing learning in the left STG only for Spanish, and greater activation in handwriting learning than phonological learning in the left MFG only for Chinese. These findings suggest that handwriting facilitates assembled phonology in Spanish and addressed
Full Text Available This study explored the fundamental auditory processing of sound amplitude in Chinese children with both reading and language difficulties. Fifteen children with Chinese reading difficulties (RD, fifteen children with Chinese reading difficulties and specific language impairments (RD-SLI, and sixteen age-matched controls (CA were recruited from local primary schools in Taiwan. The three groups were compared specifically on phonological awareness and auditory amplitude onset discrimination. Our preliminary results confirmed that age-matched controls performed significantly better on all of the phonological and auditory measurements, compared to both groups of children with RD. Children with RD-SLI performed significantly worse than children with RD in Chinese character recognition. Also Chinese children with RD-SLI were found to be poorer in phonological performance and to be more insensitive to complex sound amplitude onset, compared with Chinese children with RD. We concluded that poor auditory discrimination of sound amplitude onset might be fundamental to characterize Chinese children with reading difficulties and language impairments.
Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him
This study investigated the effects of dialogic parent-child reading in English on 51 Hong Kong kindergarteners learning English as a second language. Children were pre-tested on nonverbal IQ, reading interest and receptive vocabulary, word reading and phonological awareness in both Chinese and English. They were then assigned randomly to one of…
Liu, Li; Yao, Jiayi
Chinese idioms are mostly four-character phrases and are called Quadra-syllabic Idiomatic Expressions (QIEs). It has long been reported that learning of Chinese QIEs poses a great challenge for both young L1 speakers and adult L2 learners as the condensed form is often associated with complicated figurative meanings. The present study explored the…
Imm, Tan Siew
This paper explores how contact between English and Chinese has resulted in the incorporation of Chinese borrowings into the lexicon of Malaysian English (ME). Using a corpus-based approach, this study analyses a comprehensive range of borrowed features extracted from the Malaysian English Newspaper Corpus (MEN Corpus). Based on the contexts of…
Livingstone Verity H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preference for formula versus breast feeding among women of Chinese descent remains a concern in North America. The goal of this study was to develop an intervention targeting Chinese immigrant mothers to increase their rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods We convened a focus group of immigrant women of Chinese descent in Vancouver, British Columbia to explore preferences for method of infant feeding. We subsequently surveyed 250 women of Chinese descent to validate focus group findings. Using a participatory approach, our focus group participants reviewed survey findings and developed a priority list for attributes of a community-based intervention to support exclusive breastfeeding in the Chinese community. The authors and focus group participants worked as a team to plan, implement and evaluate a Chinese language newborn feeding information telephone service staffed by registered nurses fluent in Chinese languages. Results Participants in the focus group reported a strong preference for formula feeding. Telephone survey results revealed that while pregnant Chinese women understood the benefits of breastfeeding, only 20.8% planned to breastfeed exclusively. Only 15.6% were breastfeeding exclusively at two months postpartum. After implementation of the feeding hotline, 20% of new Chinese mothers in Vancouver indicated that they had used the hotline. Among these women, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 44.1%; OR 3.02, (95% CI 1.78–5.09 compared to women in our survey. Conclusion Initiation of a language-specific newborn feeding telephone hotline reached a previously underserved population and may have contributed to improved rates of exclusive breastfeeding.
Adnan, Tassha Hilda; Mohamed Apandi, Mokhlisoh; Kamaruddin, Haireen; Salowi, Mohamad Aziz; Law, Kian Boon; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Goh, Pik Pin
Catquest questionnaire was originally developed in Swedish to measure patients' self-assessed visual function to evaluate the benefit of cataract surgery. The result of the Rasch analysis leading to the creation of the nine-item short form of Catquest, (Catquest-9SF), and it had been translated and validated in English. The aim is therefore to evaluate the translated Catquest-9SF questionnaire in Malay and Chinese (Mandarin) language version for measuring patient-reported visual function among cataract population in Malaysia. The English version of Catquest-9SF questionnaire was translated and back translated into Malay and Chinese languages. The Malay and Chinese translated versions were self-administered by 236 and 202 pre-operative patients drawn from a cataract surgery waiting list, respectively. The translated Catquest-9SF data and its four response options were assessed for fit to the Rasch model. The Catquest-9SF performed well in the Malay and Chinese translated versions fulfilling all criteria for valid measurement, as demonstrated by Rasch analysis. Both versions of questionnaire had ordered response thresholds, with a good person separation (Malay 2.84; and Chinese 2.59) and patient separation reliability (Malay 0.89; Chinese 0.87). Targeting was 0.30 and -0.11 logits in Malay and Chinese versions respectively, indicating that the item difficulty was well suited to the visual abilities of the patients. All items fit a single overall construct (Malay infit range 0.85-1.26, outfit range 0.73-1.13; Chinese infit range 0.80-1.51, outfit range 0.71-1.36), unidimensional by principal components analysis, and was free of Differential Item Functioning (DIF). These results support the good overall functioning of the Catquest-9SF in patients with cataract. The translated questionnaire to Malay and Chinese-language versions are reliable and valid in measuring visual disability outcomes in the Malaysian cataract population.
This paper discusses the development offoreign language policy in higher educationin the United States (US) and indicates gaps in the study of foreign languages in highereducation in that country. A discussion of current policy, provision, programmes andfunding of foreign languages in higher education are presented, ...
Febi Nur Biduri
Full Text Available Creativity is the ability of a person to produce something new; in the form of ideas or real works that are relatively different from what has been existed before. The problem formulated in this study is: Does the teacher's creativity have an effect on the success of learning Chinese as a foreign language? This research aims to: 1. Know the effect of the teacher's creativity on the success of learning Chinese language in the classroom, and 2. know the types and functions of the teacher's creativity to the Chinese learning process in the classroom. This research is useful for providing information about types and definition of creativity as well as what effect is drawn by a creative teacher to the learning process in the classroom. This research will also make it easier for the teacher to teach the Chinese language more creatively and appealingly. The research method used is descriptive qualitative that describes the situations that occurred in the classroom when the learning is going on with the creative teacher. The study was conducted in the Chinese Language subject in semester 8 at Japanese Literature Faculty of Darma Persada Universitas, Jakarta. The data collected were from observation, interview, and questionnaire.
Wang, Danping; Moloney, Robyn; Li, Zhen
This paper presents a comparative curricular inquiry of teacher education programs of Chinese as a foreign language in China and Australia. While there is an increasing demand for qualified Chinese language teachers both within China and Western countries, pre-service teacher training is regarded as one of the major factors in impeding success in…
Jiang, Xiaoli; Cohen, Andrew D.
This article critically reviews strategy research on learning Chinese both as a second and foreign language. Through a careful examination of major data bases in both the Chinese and English languages, the article summarizes research in the field and the principal research methods used in the studies reviewed. Moreover, key limitations in research…
Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca
To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…
Wang, Li; Du, Xiangyun
This paper focuses on how teachers of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) perceive their roles in the Danish context. In this qualitative study of twelve native and non-native Chinese-speaking language teachers, empirical data was collected from semi-structured interviews and classroom observations...... and build relationships with students. Research results also reveal some contextual factors that challenge teachers’ beliefs about their roles, including inadequate teaching materials, limited access to professional training and students who lack motivation to learn. These factors suggest a need...
Febi Nur Biduri
Creativity is the ability of a person to produce something new; in the form of ideas or real works that are relatively different from what has been existed before. The problem formulated in this study is: Does the teacher's creativity have an effect on the success of learning Chinese as a foreign language? This research aims to: 1. Know the effect of the teacher's creativity on the success of learning Chinese language in the classroom, and 2. know the types and functions of the teacher's crea...
Abstract Native Chinese foreign language (CFL) teacher identity is an emerging subject of research interest in the teacher education. Yet, limited study has been done on the construction of Non-native CFL teachers in their home culture. Guided by a concept of teacher identity-in-discourse, the pa......Abstract Native Chinese foreign language (CFL) teacher identity is an emerging subject of research interest in the teacher education. Yet, limited study has been done on the construction of Non-native CFL teachers in their home culture. Guided by a concept of teacher identity...
Zhang, Juan; Fan, Xitao; Cheung, Sum Kwing; Meng, Yaxuan; Cai, Zhihui; Hu, Bi Ying
The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects) and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction) skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence. Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children's language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children's language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills. The current findings indicate 1) Children's language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2) Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills.
Chinese migrants have been a rich source of influential international literature, represented by key works such as "Eat a Bowl of Tea" by Louis Chu in 1961 and "The Joy Luck Club" by Amy Tan in 1989. Cultural differences and conflicts, stereotypes and other complex issues regarding the diasporic lives of the Chinese sojourners…
Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Du, Xiangyun
This study explores learners’ orientations, or goals, for learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in a Danish university. Drawing upon empirical data from both pre- and post-course surveys and group interviews, this study examines in what aspects and to what extent these orientations change...... and enhance learner motivation. The study also discusses challenges encountered in helping beginners learn a foreign language via TBTL....
Full Text Available Despite the importance of developing students’ learning autonomy in Chinese schools similar to Western cultured schools, many concerns are raised regarding the influence and effectiveness that learner autonomy has on students’ academic achievements. The aim of this study was to identify the attribution patterns of Chinese university students for success and failure toward students who learnt through autonomy learning (student-centered approaches compared with students who learnt through teacher-centered approaches. Within this study, mixed research methods were adopted, and students used a reflective method to distinguish whether they were taught English through a traditional or student-centered method. The findings of the study reveal that there are no significant differences in attributional patterns between students who had learnt in high school through autonomous learning and those who learnt through teacher-centered approaches. The findings have implications for policy and practice in the Chinese Ministry of Education system and recommendations for future research.
In the U.K., Chinese students are now 'the largest single overseas student group' with more than 60,000 students studying there in 2006 (British Council, 2007). British universities are beginning to explore how they can meet the needs of this group (see, for example, Leedham et.al. 2004). The focus of this paper is on differences in assignment-writing and views of writing between Chinese and Brit-ish undergraduate level students within U.K. universities. Using the British Academic Written Eng...
He, Agnes Weiyun
When the seminal article on the organization of turn-taking by Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson (1974) was published 30 years ago, I started learning English as a foreign language. In addition to being a learner of the English language for many years, I was also trained in the traditions of Conversation Analysis (CA) and linguistic anthropology…
Wong, Yu Ka
This study explored the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reading and writing in young Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) learners' sentence writing, using structural equation modeling. The participants comprised 126 Hong Kong senior primary ethnic minority students, whose literacy skills were assessed at two time points over the…
Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…
McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.
Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…
The recruitment of international academic staff is viewed as one of the strategies to internationalise the universities. International academic staff, however, usually encounter many challenges when in a foreign context. This study aims to investigate the challenges of Chinese academic staff teaching in the UK in terms of language, relationships…
Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
This article examines how political discourse, language ideologies, recent Chinese curriculum reforms, and their representations in the media are inextricably related. Using the "Speak Mandarin Campaign" as background for the inquiry, I focus on textual features of the various media sources, TV advertisements, campaign slogans, official…
Bai, Li; Millwater, Jan; Hudson, Peter
Research capacity building has become a prominent theme in higher education institutions in China and across the world. However, Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language academics' research output has been quite limited. In order to build their research capacity, it is necessary to understand their perceptions about research. This case study…
This study investigates attitudes and motivation that influence heritage and non-heritage students' learning of Chinese as a second language, examining the similarities and differences among three subgroups: bilingual, heritage motivated, and non-heritage learners. The study uses the socio-educational model by Gardner (1985), the internal…
Zhang, Chun; Chen, Yi-ting
Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford (1990), we adapted Shen’ (2005) questionnaire into two online surveys. The first survey was done in February 2016 aiming to discover some Chinese character learning strategies employed by Danish and Swedish learners. Based on the 1st survey, the second survey...
Lu, Aitao; Yu, Yanping; Niu, Jiaxin; Zhang, John X
The present study was carried out to investigate whether sign language structure plays a role in the processing of complex words (i.e., derivational and compound words), in particular, the delay of complex word reading in deaf adolescents. Chinese deaf adolescents were found to respond faster to derivational words than to compound words for one-sign-structure words, but showed comparable performance for two-sign-structure words. For both derivational and compound words, response latencies to one-sign-structure words were shorter than to two-sign-structure words. These results provide strong evidence that the structure of sign language affects written word processing in Chinese. Additionally, differences between derivational and compound words in the one-sign-structure condition indicate that Chinese deaf adolescents acquire print morphological awareness. The results also showed that delayed word reading was found in derivational words with two signs (DW-2), compound words with one sign (CW-1), and compound words with two signs (CW-2), but not in derivational words with one sign (DW-1), with the delay being maximum in DW-2, medium in CW-2, and minimum in CW-1, suggesting that the structure of sign language has an impact on the delayed processing of Chinese written words in deaf adolescents. These results provide insight into the mechanisms about how sign language structure affects written word processing and its delayed processing relative to their hearing peers of the same age.
Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong
This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…
This article explores the processes of religious identity development in a Caribbean-Chinese adolescent who is from a multifaith, multilingual home. Findings include (1) the youth developed a Christian religious identity through his multiple situatedness within home and school worlds that privileged that faith and the dominant language of English…
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
This paper reports a study that investigates and compares the effects of foreign language proficiency, social status of a learner’s family, self-esteem, and competitiveness on FL anxiety. Chinese university students (N = 146), who were learning Japanese and English, participated in this study.
The characteristics which were held to define the Chinese language within the Western intellectual tradition placed it for a time at the centre in discussions of the genealogy of mankind. The dominant premodern paradigm for the explanation of human linguistic diversity was Biblical exegesis, as discussed and elaborated within the framework of…
Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Du, Xiang Yun
This study focuses on how beginner learners in a task-based teaching and learning (TBTL) environment perceive what is motivating to them in the process of learning Chinese as a foreign language at Aalborg University, Denmark. Drawing upon empirical data from surveys, group interviews and participant observation, this study explores which kinds of…
Xu, Qi; Peng, Hongying
This article reports on an exploratory study investigating mobile-assisted oral feedback in teaching Chinese as a second language (CSL). It is aimed at exploring the characteristics of mobile-assisted feedback on oral production with the smartphone social communication app WeChat as a case in point and examining learners' perceptions of…
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate whether sign language structure plays a role in the processing of complex words (i.e., derivational and compound words, in particular, the delay of complex word reading in deaf adolescents. Chinese deaf adolescents were found to respond faster to derivational words than to compound words for one-sign-structure words, but showed comparable performance for two-sign-structure words. For both derivational and compound words, response latencies to one-sign-structure words were shorter than to two-sign-structure words. These results provide strong evidence that the structure of sign language affects written word processing in Chinese. Additionally, differences between derivational and compound words in the one-sign-structure condition indicate that Chinese deaf adolescents acquire print morphological awareness. The results also showed that delayed word reading was found in derivational words with two signs (DW-2, compound words with one sign (CW-1, and compound words with two signs (CW-2, but not in derivational words with one sign (DW-1, with the delay being maximum in DW-2, medium in CW-2, and minimum in CW-1, suggesting that the structure of sign language has an impact on the delayed processing of Chinese written words in deaf adolescents. These results provide insight into the mechanisms about how sign language structure affects written word processing and its delayed processing relative to their hearing peers of the same age.
Zhang, Haomin; Koda, Keiko
This study explored the role of vocabulary knowledge and morphological awareness in reading comprehension ability of Chinese as a heritage language (CHL) learners. One hundred ninety five CHL students participated in this study and completed a series of measures including two sets of vocabulary knowledge (one consisting of items pertaining to…
This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…
Zhao, XingLong; Wang, MinJuan; Wu, Juan; He, KeKang
This paper reports on a new pedagogy for Chinese language teaching and learning at elementary schools through exploratory classroom instruction using Information and Communication Technologies. The study used quantitative method to collect data from two elementary schools of China. The results showed that: (1) the three-in-one pedagogy of…
Anhalt, Cynthia O.; Ondrus, Matthew; Horak, Virginia
A professional development experience is described in which teachers from schools with Latino student populations participated in two mathematics lessons taught in Chinese. The goal was to allow the teachers to experience linguistic challenges similar to those that many ELL students face. In addition, the article also discusses teachers'…
Tejedor-García, Noelia; García-Pastor, Coral; Benito-Martínez, Selma; de Lucio-Cazaña, Francisco Javier
The growing use of purchase online via Internet retailers favours the access to potentially toxic natural products. It also contributes to the quick dissemination of the claims made by the retailers on efficacy and safety, these claims being not always based upon reliable information. Here, we have conducted an online search to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and we have analysed them for the quality of product information and the potential health risks. i) Online search in Google España to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine in which we analysed both the claims regarding possible health benefits and adequate safe use indications ii) Identification of potentially toxic herbs in the websites iii) Quantification of Chinese herbal medicines withdrawn by the Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS). 1) Only one third of the 30 Spanish-language retail websites found which sell Chinese herbal medicine observe the law, given that the other websites include illegal Western disease claims as marketing tools, 2) Five websites provide some safety information, 3) Two websites offer potentially toxic herbs and 4) Chinese herbal medicine adulterated with sibutramine, silfenafil or their analogues make a considerable percentage of the total products withdrawn by the AEMPS. Online health seekers should be warned about misinformation on retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and directed to a Spanish government Web site for guidance in safely navigating the Internet for buying Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ooi, Carmen C-W; Wong, Anita M-Y
One reason why specific language impairment (SLI) is grossly under-identified in Malaysia is the absence of locally- developed norm-referenced language assessment tools for its multilingual and multicultural population. Spontaneous language samples provide quantitative information for language assessment, and useful descriptive information on child language development in complex language and cultural environments. This research consisted of two studies and investigated the use of measures obtained from English conversational samples among bilingual Chinese-English Malaysian preschoolers. The research found that the language sample measures were sensitive to developmental changes in this population and could identify SLI. The first study examined the relationship between age and mean length of utterance (MLU(w)), lexical diversity (D), and the index of productive syntax (IPSyn) among 52 typically-developing (TD) children aged between 3;4-6;9. Analyses showed a significant linear relationship between age and D (r = .450), the IPsyn (r = .441), and MLU(w) (r = .318). The second study compared the same measures obtained from 10 children with SLI, aged between 3;8-5;11, and their age-matched controls. The children with SLI had significantly shorter MLU(w) and lower IPSyn scores than the TD children. These findings suggest that utterance length and syntax production can be potential clinical markers of SLI in Chinese-English Malaysian children.
Instructors often face a dilemma when using film in language classes. While film is appealing for the rich cultural and linguistic information it offers, finding the balance between teaching content and building language skills can present significant challenges for an instructor. Common approaches to using film in courses taught in English, such as screening one film a week, reading critical essays about the films, and class discussions and lectures, seldom offer the same benefits in a forei...
This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…
Leong, Che Kan; Ho, Man Koon
The present study adapted the "Blueprint of the Reader" in comprehending language by Perfetti [2000, C. M. Brown & P. Hagoort. (Eds.), "The neurocognition of language" (pp. 167-208). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press] as a framework for understanding Chinese language and reading comprehension in a group of 361 secondary…
Full Text Available The aims of the study are to investigate what beliefs Chinese university first-year English majors have about language learning, whether they report anxiety about studying English, and whether there is a relationship between their beliefs and language anxiety. Two questionnaires were used in this study – Tanaka’s beliefs questionnaire and Horwitz’s Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale. A series of statistical analyses were carried out on the responses. The results revealed that the Chinese university first-year English majors held four types of beliefs, namely Approach to Learning English, Self-efficacy and Confidence in English, Formal and Structured Learning, and Ease of Learning English. Comparing the means of all items in the beliefs questionnaire, it seemed that the respondents held a strong belief in the importance of learning vocabulary for them to speak English well. The respondents also reported some anxiety about learning English. However, it was interesting that the overall mean of their anxiety scores was lower than the means in previous studies. This study also found that there was no significant relationship between the participants’ beliefs and their language anxiety, which echoed the results of Kunt’s (1997 study, but two beliefs factors and several items were found to weakly correlate with the anxiety.
Tsiang, John T; Woo, Benjamin K
Introduction There is a deficit of avenues for obtaining dementia information in the Asian American community. This study aims to compare the content and quality differences between websites providing information on dementia as found by a Google search conducted both in simplified Chinese characters and in English. Methods A Google search was performed for the phrase "dementia" in simplified Chinese characters and in English. The resultant websites were categorized by whether they were commercial in nature, the type of website, and whether the website provided an explanation of dementia signs and symptoms. The quality of the websites was assessed via readability and the Health on the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode). Chi-squared analyses were performed to establish differences between the English and simplified Chinese results. Results The simplified Chinese search websites were more likely to be commercial (p=0.045) and were more likely to not meet HONcode standards (p=0.008). No statistical significance was observed between the types of websites (p=0.127), the prevalence of signs and symptom explanations (p=0.073), and the readability of the website (p=0.151). Conclusion The quality of websites obtained from the simplified Chinese character Google search was lower than those obtained from searches using the English language. Given the limited sources of language and culturally appropriate information on dementia, improvement of Internet resources may help to improve health outcomes of dementia patients in the Asian American population.
Ann Kristin Rhode
Full Text Available Cross-cultural research suggests that East Asians display a holistic attentional bias by paying attention to the entire field and to relationships between objects, whereas Westerners pay attention primarily to salient objects, displaying an analytic attentional bias. The assumption of a universal pan-Asian holistic attentional bias has however recently been challenged in experimental research involving Japanese and Chinese participants, which suggests that linguistic factors may contribute to the formation of East Asians’ holistic attentional patterns. The present experimental research explores differences in attention and information processing styles between Korean and Chinese speakers, who have been assumed to display the same attentional bias due to cultural commonalities. We hypothesize that the specific structure of the Korean language predisposes speakers to pay more attention to ground information than to figure information, thus leading to a stronger holistic attentional bias compared to Chinese speakers. Findings of the present research comparing different groups of English, Chinese, and Korean speakers provide further evidence for differences in East Asians’ holistic attentional bias, which may be due to the influence of language. Furthermore, we also extend prior theorizing by discussing the potential impact of other cultural factors. In line with critical voices calling for more research investigating differences between cultures that are assumed to be culturally similar, we highlight important avenues for future studies exploring the language-culture relationship.
Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software—Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007—was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students’ English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners’ EAT. Chinese EFL learners’ ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners’ EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years’ English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed. PMID:27741270
Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007-was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students' English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners' EAT. Chinese EFL learners' ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners' EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years' English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed.
Full Text Available Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007-was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL can foster Chinese high school students' English analytic thinking (EAT through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1 learning English can foster Chinese learners' EAT. Chinese EFL learners' ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2 there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners' EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years' English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed.
Wu, Jinsong; Lu, Junfeng; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Jie; Yao, Chengjun; Zhuang, Dongxiao; Qiu, Tianming; Guo, Qihao; Hu, Xiaobing; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liangfu
Chinese processing has been suggested involving distinct brain areas from English. However, current functional localization studies on Chinese speech processing use mostly "indirect" techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography, lacking direct evidence by means of electrocortical recording. In this study, awake craniotomies in 66 Chinese-speaking glioma patients provide a unique opportunity to directly map eloquent language areas. Intraoperative electrocortical stimulation was conducted and the positive sites for speech arrest, anomia, and alexia were identified separately. With help of stereotaxic neuronavigation system and computational modeling, all positive sites elicited by stimulation were integrated and a series of two- and three-dimension Chinese language probability maps were built. We performed statistical comparisons between the Chinese maps and previously derived English maps. While most Chinese speech arrest areas located at typical language production sites (i.e., 50% positive sites in ventral precentral gyrus, 28% in pars opercularis and pars triangularis), which also serve English production, an additional brain area, the left middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 6/9), was found to be unique in Chinese production (P neurolinguistics differences in human beings. The Chinese language atlas will also helpful in brain surgery planning for Chinese-speakers. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.
This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest
Full Text Available Ethnic media are an integral part of a multicultural communication infrastructure benefiting all Canadians, as they provide services pivotal to immigrants’ settlement, integration, and participation in Canadian society, yet numerous studies of ethnic media reveal deficiencies in their performance. This analysis informed by interview data examines Chinese language media’s normative goals in relation to news decision-making. Outlet news workers convey commendable goals, and those who stress citizen building dedicate themselves to journalistic roles despite unfavourable circumstances. Meanwhile, Chinese language media outlets operate according to norms of social responsibility divergent from mainstream media. Narrow definitions of social responsibility, audience tastes, and perceived community needs influence content and boundaries in and for Chinese language reportage on Canada. Market competition and profit concerns also shape reporting quality, with normative goals trumped by commercial aims. New Canadians with language barriers require informational help if they are to truly become part of Canadian society, exercise their rights, and live up to their responsibilities as citizens. Improvements include professional training for ethnic media workers, inclusion of minority narratives into mainstream media, and publically funded multilingual communications.
Abstract This study reports on a qualitative research that explores how three beginning native CFL teachers in a Danish university use ‘Chinese-ness’ and how these serve in explaining their own narratives, either through identifying with, or distancing themselves from. Early results show that no ...
Meghavaani d/o Ampalagan
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety (communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation among Mainland Chinese students undergoing the Laureate English Programme
Meghavaani d/o Ampalagan; Mogana d/o Sellupillai; Yap Sze Sze
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety (communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation) among Mainland Chinese students undergoing the Laureate English Programme
Zhu, Yu; Mark Shum, Shiu-Kee; Brian Tse, Shek-Kam; Liu, Jinghui Jack
A study is reported of the performance and attainment of 32 students from overseas studying elementary Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in a Chinese university. With an AB-BA design, they were asked to use two forms of writing media to present two essays: one a word-processed essay entitled "My Favourite Female" and the other a…
Yang, Quan; Miller, Michael; Bai, Kang
The purpose of this study was to determine if animated illustrations would increase the recall and comprehension of a subject matter, English as a foreign language (EFL), among Chinese college students. The study was specifically designed to identify the influence of graphics on Chinese EFL students' learning by comparing abstract versus concrete…
In Australia many Chinese families send their preschool-aged children to learn Mandarin at weekend Chinese schools in the expectation that their children master Mandarin as a heritage language in the predominantly English-speaking community. Family involvement in bilingual development may be considered as an important factor in acquiring Mandarin (Esch-Harding & Riley, 2003; McCollum & Russo, 1993). Immigrant parents face the challenge of contributing to their children’s heritage language dev...
Since the 2012–2013 academic year, Flipped Classroom has attracted a great deal of attention at the University level in the Japanese education system. This paper reports on an attempt at using the Flipped Classroom method in beginning Chinese Language classes. The results show that this method increased the beginning Chinese Language Learners studying time after each lesson and improved communication among classmates during classroom activities.
Full Text Available with the development of society, interpersonal relation has become more and more complicated. “Face” has been defined as “public self-image” and occupies a very important position in interpersonal communication. Therefore, this thesis mainly studies the characteristics of Chinese language in the presentation of “face”. At first, it referred to current situation of face studies overseas. It can be seen that the “defense-protect” face work theory proposed by Goffman is the important foundation for face problem studies under different angles in academic world. Then, it discussed identity theory based on social psychology in combination of our traditional culture. At last, it selected 85 groups of effective linguistic data according to characteristics of Chinese language; and studied face work. Moreover, it conducted questionnaire survey in combination of face work theory. Thus, it obtained the core factors of face and other important conclusions.
Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Du, Xiangyun
factors, which can boost learners’ intrinsic motivation, when designing a task, especially at a beginning stage of foreign language learning, and to integrate cultural elements into tasks as an added value to motivate learners. Finally, this study identifies challenges and barriers related to TBTL......This study focuses on how beginner learners in a task-based teaching and learning (TBTL) environment perceive what is motivating to them in the process of learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) at Aalborg University (AAU), Denmark. Drawing upon empirical data from surveys, group interviews...
Joseph D Tucker
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are a number of sound justifications for publishing nearly identical information in Chinese and English medical journals, assuming several conditions are met. Although overlap publication is perceived as undesirable and ethically questionable in Europe and North America, it may serve an important function in some regions where English is not the native tongue. There is no empirical data on the nature and degree of overlap publication in English and Chinese language journals. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A random sample of 100 English manuscripts from Chinese institutions was selected from PubMed. Key words and institutions were searched in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, a comprehensive Chinese language research database. Unacknowledged overlap was a priori defined according to International Committee of Medical Journal Editor (ICMJE guidelines following examination by two individuals. 19% (95% CI 11-27 of English manuscripts from Chinese institutions were found to have substantial overlap with Chinese published work based on full text examination. None of the manuscripts met all of the criteria established by the ICMJE for an acknowledged overlap publication. Individual-level, journal-level, and institutional factors seem to influence overlap publication. Manuscripts associated with an institution outside of China and with more than one institution were significantly less likely to have substantial overlap (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overlap publication was common in this context, but instances of standard ICMJE notations to acknowledge this practice were rare. This research did not cite the identified overlap manuscripts with the hope that these empirical data will inform journal policy changes and structural initiatives to promote clearer policies and manuscripts.
Gany, Francesca; Leng, Jennifer C F; Winston, Ginger; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Qin, Angie; Changrani, Jyotsna
To assess differences in diabetes processes of care among Chinese and Latino patients across medical interpreting methods. This is a nested cohort study of patients with diabetes, comparing interpreting methods and their impact on medical outcomes at the primary care clinic of a New York City municipal hospital. 54 Spanish and Chinese-speaking language discordant diabetic patients were enrolled and followed for one year. Language discordant patients received either Remote Simultaneous Medical Interpreting (RSMI), or usual and customary (U&C) interpreting. Composite medical care scores were calculated for physician ordering and patient completion of diabetes care measures. RSMI patients, compared with U&C patients, had trends towards higher mean patient completion (.29 vs .25) and physician ordering (.41 vs .37) scores. Overall rates of completion of diabetes care measures in both groups were very low. Overall rates of physician ordering and patient completion of diabetes care measures were distressingly low in our study. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of RSMI in addressing the language barrier and improving diabetes care for Chinese- and Spanish-speaking patients.
Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew
Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male
Fan, Xitao; Cheung, Sum Kwing; Cai, Zhihui; Hu, Bi Ying
Background The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects) and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction) skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence. Methodology Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children’s language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children’s language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills. Results The current findings indicate 1) Children’s language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2) Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills. PMID:28749950
Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence.Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children's language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children's language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills.The current findings indicate 1 Children's language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2 Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills.
Measuring Adult Learners' Foreign Language Anxiety, Motivational Factors, and Achievement Expectations: A Comparative Study between Chinese as a Second-Language Students and English as a Second-Language Students
This dissertation focuses on interpreting the impacts of foreign language anxiety and individual characteristics on the achievement expectations of Chinese second-language learners and English second-language students at the university level. Four research questions are examined through quantitative design. In relation to methodology, this study…
Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.
This study examines how Chinese ESL learners recognize English words while responding to a multiple-choice reading test as compared to Romance-language-speaking ESL learners. Four adult Chinese ESL learners and three adult Romance-language-speaking ESL learners participated in a think-aloud study with the Michigan English Language Assessment…
Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay; Goh, Hock Huan
In a bilingual society like Singapore, home language environment (HLE) of Singaporean children is becoming increasingly concerned, especially for those who are yet to have formal education in schools. The reported rapid shift of family language has increased the tensions among families, schools and communities. This study examined some of the many…
Broeder, P.; Fu, G.
In order to promote transparency and coherence for language learning, teaching and especially estimate, Council of Europe(CoE）developed the Common European Framework of Reference(CEFR) and European Language Portfolio(ELP).The CEFR and the ELP are one of the most influential documents of the last
Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A.; Booth, James R.
The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. PMID:23654223
Tan, Chee Lay
In Singapore's unique and complex linguistic environment, it is common to have Chinese-language learners from many different backgrounds in the same school classroom, which is why Singapore is nicknamed as a "language laboratory." In this paper, I hope to examine our linguistic environment and response strategies from different angles,…
This article explores how Confucius Institute teachers and U.S. students use language to index qualities of Chinese people and culture. The study draws on the model of "linguistic fact" to argue that students' and teachers' contextualized use of language occurs in relation to their different yet naturalized assumptions about a commonly…
Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa
The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of oral language skills, linguistic skills, and transcription skills to Chinese written composition among Grade 4 students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, oral language skills, linguistic skills (i.e., syntactic skills and discourse skills), transcription skills (i.e.,…
By looking into a group of 13 Chinese master's in business administration students' study abroad experience in the United States, this study contends that being situated in the second language (L2) communicative context does not guarantee international students complete access to language and cultural resources in the host society. Due to limited…
Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Chui, Barbie Hiu-Tung; Lai, Michael Wei-Chun; Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.
This study investigated the differential influences of maternal and paternal factors on Chinese children's English as a foreign language development. It took into account both behavioral (i.e. parental home literacy practices, HLP; and children's vocabulary knowledge) and emotional (i.e. parental and children's foreign language reading anxiety,…
Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Chow, Celia Sze-Lok
This study investigates the effects of parent-child shared book reading and metalinguistic training on the language and literacy skills of 148 kindergartners in Hong Kong. Children were pretested on Chinese character recognition, vocabulary, morphological awareness, and reading interest and then assigned randomly to 1 of 4 conditions: the dialogic reading with morphology training (DR + MT), dialogic reading (DR), typical reading, or control condition. After a 12-week intervention period, the DR intervention yielded greater gains in vocabulary, and the DR + MT intervention yielded greater improvement in character recognition and morphological awareness. Both interventions enhanced children's reading interest. Results confirm that different home literacy approaches influence children's oral and written language skills differently: Shared book reading promotes language development, whereas parents' explicit metalinguistic training within a shared book reading context better prepares children for learning to read. Copyright (c) 2008 APA.
McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y-C; Wong, Terry T-Y; Wong, Simpson W-L
This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills. Forty-seven at-risk children (21 who were initially language delayed and 26 with familial risk) and 47 control children matched on age, IQ, and mothers' education were tested on syllable awareness, tone detection, rapid automatized naming, visual skill, morphological awareness, and word reading at age 5 and subsequently tested for dyslexia on a standard Hong Kong measure at age 7. Of those with an early language delay, 62% subsequently manifested dyslexia; for those with familial risk, the rate of dyslexia was 50%. Those with dyslexia were best distinguished from those without dyslexia by the age-5 measures of morphological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and word reading itself; other measures did not distinguish the groups. In a combined regression analysis across all participants, morphological awareness uniquely explained word reading accuracy and rapid automatized naming uniquely explained timed word reading at age 7, with all other measures statistically controlled. Separate stepwise regression analyses by group indicated that visual skill uniquely explained subsequent literacy skills in the at-risk group only, whereas tone and syllable awareness were unique predictors of literacy skills in the control group only. Both early language delay and familial risk strongly overlap with subsequent dyslexia in Chinese children. Overall, rapid automatized naming and morphological awareness are relatively strong correlates of developmental dyslexia in Chinese; visual skill and phonological awareness may also be uniquely associated with subsequent literacy development in at-risk and typically developing children, respectively. © 2010
Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between language and the body in the construction of global subjectivity in Xiaolu Guo's novel, A Concise Chinese-English Dictionary for Lovers (2007, a first-person narrative about a young Chinese woman, Z, who spends a year in London learning the English language. Struggling to articulate herself in English, Z's journey of language acquisition in the interest of global mobility and cultural capital parallels her sexual awakening, bringing to the fore critical questions about the corporeal effects of learning a language and the possibilities of intimacy and communication. The text plays with multiple meanings of corporeality in a contemporary world marked by (noncommunication, disclosing the ironic and productive representational tension between the discursive construction of the body--the body as made by language--and the possibility of the body itself as an alternative to language.
Tang, Xiaoqi; Forbush, Kelsie T; Lui, P Priscilla
Eating disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent among individuals from non-Western countries, yet few non-English-language measures of eating pathology exist. The current study sought to develop and validate a Chinese version of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory(1) with cross-cultural equivalence. The Chinese version of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (CEPSI) was translated and back-translated by native Chinese speakers, and administered to a pilot sample of native Chinese speaking students (N = 45) from a Midwestern university in the United States. The measure was revised based on participant's feedback, and administrated to a large sample of native Chinese speakers recruited from a Midwestern community (N = 195; 49.2% women) to test the factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity of the measure. As hypothesized, the CEPSI had a robust eight-factor structure, and demonstrated evidence for acceptable internal consistency (median coefficient alphas were 0.80 for men and 0.79 for women, and alpha values ranged from 0.36 to 0.85 in men and 0.70 to 0.89 in women), and good convergent validity (correlations with relevant translated scales from the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 ranged from 0.22 to 0.58) and discriminate validity (correlations with a translated version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale ranged from .12 to .30). Results indicate that the CEPSI has high potential value as a new self-report measure of eating pathology that can be used in future research and clinical settings to assess eating disorder-related psychopathology among Chinese speaking individuals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
While some first language (L1) reading models suggest that inefficient word recognition and small working memory tend to inhibit higher-level comprehension processes; the Compensatory Encoding Model maintains that slow word recognition and small working memory do not normally hinder reading comprehension, as readers are able to operate metacognitive strategies to compensate for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation as long as readers process a reading task without time constraint. Although empirical evidence is accumulated for support of the Compensatory Encoding Model in L1 reading, there is lack of research for testing of the Compensatory Encoding Model in foreign language (FL) reading. This research empirically tested the Compensatory Encoding Model in English reading among Chinese college English language learners (ELLs). Two studies were conducted. Study one focused on testing whether reading condition varying time affects the relationship between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension. Students were tested on a computerized English word recognition test, a computerized Operation Span task, and reading comprehension in time constraint and non-time constraint reading. The correlation and regression analyses showed that the strength of association was much stronger between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension in time constraint than that in non-time constraint reading condition. Study two examined whether FL readers were able to operate metacognitive reading strategies as a compensatory way of reading comprehension for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation in non-time constraint reading. The participants were tested on the same computerized English word recognition test and Operation Span test. They were required to think aloud while reading and to complete the comprehension questions. The think-aloud protocols were coded for concurrent use of reading strategies, classified
English-only policies and the expiration of the "Bilingual Education Act," which is now replaced by "No Child Left Behind," make it clear that English is the official language of schools in the United States with the emphasis moved from the goal of maintaining students' home languages while learning English to a focus of ignoring minority…
Liu, Nai-Chih; Chang, Cheng-Shyong; Chen, Shu-Yu; Tsai, Pei-Ling; Yu, Fu-Lien; Hsu, Wen-Yau
Oral medication administration error is a common occurrence in medical malpractice. While recent widespread medical order system computerization has reduced transcription errors (previously, the most prevalent medication administration error) by over 50%, oral medication administration error (previously, the second most prevalent medication administration error) has fallen by only 2%. Significant room exists for improvement in this latter error category. This paper was designed to identify the effect on proper medication recognition of including Chinese language medication names on medication sheets and cards. Medication name examination in this study comprised two elements, namely search and check. Instruments were simulations of actual medication sheets and cards. One was presented in English only, and the other was in English appended with the medication name in Chinese. Two medical wards were chosen at a medical center in middle Taiwan as target populations. The sample for this study consisted of 53 nurses, all of whom provided informed consent. Time and errors were measured, and the checking order of medical sheets was completely counterbalanced. 2x2 tables of chi-square (5.165*) for independence showed that average time consumed by accurate checking was significantly less than the average time consumed by inaccurate checking after Chinese labeling had been added. The differences in time spent and checking accuracy between these two versions were not significant. It was further found that the similar shape of Chinese characters caused more errors than similar pronunciation on medication sheets. From the perspectives of attention and character recognition, we examined whether time consumption and accurate checking ratios differed between the standard (English) medication sheet and the new one with added Chinese. In addition to partially supporting the hypothesis of the study, results provide valuable information for medication administration procedures and for
Kwan, Christine Ml; Napoles, Anna M; Chou, Jeyling; Seligman, Hilary K
To develop a conceptually equivalent Chinese-language translation of the eighteen-item US Household Food Security Survey Module. In the current qualitative study, we (i) highlight methodological challenges which arise in developing survey instruments that will be used to make comparisons across language groups and (ii) describe the development of a Chinese-language translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module, called the San Francisco Chinese Food Security Module. Community sites in San Francisco, CA, USA. We conducted cognitive interviews with twenty-two community members recruited from community sites hosting food pantries and with five professionals recruited from clinical settings. Development of conceptually equivalent surveys can be difficult. We highlight challenges related to dialect, education, literacy (e.g. preferences for more or less formal phrasing), English words and phrases for which there is no Chinese language equivalent (e.g. 'balanced meals' and 'eat less than you felt you should') and response formats. We selected final translations to maximize: (i) consistency of the Chinese translation with the intent of the English version; (ii) clarity; and (iii) similarities in understanding across dialects and literacy levels. Survey translation is essential for conducting research in many communities. The challenges encountered illustrate how literal translations can affect the conceptual equivalence of survey items across languages. Cognitive interview methods should be routinely used for survey translation when such non-equivalence is suspected, such as in surveys addressing highly culturally bound behaviours such as diet and eating behaviours. Literally translated surveys lacking conceptual equivalence may magnify or obscure important health inequalities.
Heying, Allie; Kennedy, Fionnuala
This paper presents the initial results of ongoing PhD research, which investigates the perceived intercultural competence and second language (L2) learning motivation of Chinese and Irish students in higher education in Ireland. Literature shows that the integration level can be determined by students’ intercultural contact frequency and L2 motivation. The main findings of this research show that i) integration between Irish and Chinese students is limited as their intercultural contact is r...
Wu, Nina H.
Children of immigrants who do translations and who interpret for others using their heritage language and English are known as language brokers. Although prior research suggests that children of immigrants’ perceptions of the language brokering experience vary greatly—from feeling a sense of efficacy to feeling a sense of burden—what remains unanswered in the literature is identification of the antecedents and processes that help to explain the varying psychological experience of language brokers. Using data from a two-wave prospective longitudinal study of 256 Chinese American adolescents, the present study tested potential mechanisms that may be responsible for adolescents’ perceptions of the language brokering experience as a sense or burden or sense of efficacy. The results demonstrate that adolescents’ Chinese orientation sets in motion a family process that is linked to variations in the perceptions of adolescents’ language brokering experience. Adolescents who are more Chinese oriented have a stronger sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to perceive that they matter to their parents. Adolescents’ perceived sense of mattering to parents, in turn, is associated positively with a sense efficacy, and negatively with a sense of burden as language brokers. Those adolescents who are less Chinese oriented have a weaker sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to feel a sense of alienation from their parents. Adolescents’ sense of perceived alienation from parents, in turn, is associated with a sense of burden as language brokers. Implications for developing interventions for children who act as language brokers for their parents are discussed. PMID:19636765
Wu, Nina H; Kim, Su Yeong
Children of immigrants who do translations and who interpret for others using their heritage language and English are known as language brokers. Although prior research suggests that children of immigrants' perceptions of the language brokering experience vary greatly-from feeling a sense of efficacy to feeling a sense of burden-what remains unanswered in the literature is identification of the antecedents and processes that help to explain the varying psychological experience of language brokers. Using data from a two-wave prospective longitudinal study of 256 Chinese American adolescents, the present study tested potential mechanisms that may be responsible for adolescents' perceptions of the language brokering experience as a sense or burden or sense of efficacy. The results demonstrate that adolescents' Chinese orientation sets in motion a family process that is linked to variations in the perceptions of adolescents' language brokering experience. Adolescents who are more Chinese oriented have a stronger sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to perceive that they matter to their parents. Adolescents' perceived sense of mattering to parents, in turn, is associated positively with a sense efficacy, and negatively with a sense of burden as language brokers. Those adolescents who are less Chinese oriented have a weaker sense of familial obligation, and these adolescents are more likely to feel a sense of alienation from their parents. Adolescents' sense of perceived alienation from parents, in turn, is associated with a sense of burden as language brokers. Implications for developing interventions for children who act as language brokers for their parents are discussed.
Exploring the Relationships Between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing:Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks
Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian
Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the Listening-Reading-Writing Task and how they relate to the outcome of the Independent Listening Task. The performance of 226 native Chinese Secondary Five students on bo...
Pawan, Faridah; Fan, Wenfang
This exploratory investigation of the professional development of Chinese English Language teachers (ELTs) was part of a collaboration between two teacher educators, one from the U.S. and the other from China, during the 2011-2012 academic year. We were involved in the professional development in three schools (elementary, middle and high schools)…
Lan, Yu-Ju; Chang, Kuo-En; Chen, Nian-Shing
In response to the need to cultivate pre-service Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) teachers' information and communication technology (ICT) competency in online synchronous environments, this research adopted a three-stage cyclical model named "cooperation-based cognition, action, and reflection" (CoCAR). The model was implemented in an 18-week…
Lowinger, Robert Jay; He, Zhaomin; Lin, Miranda; Chang, Mei
This study examined the role of academic self-efficacy, acculturation difficulties, and language abilities on procrastination behavior using a convenience sample of 264 Chinese international students studying at three public universities in the United States. While there were no significant mean gender differences on any of the measures, results…
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
The study explores the effects of teacher support and student cohesiveness on foreign language (FL) learning outcomes and compares their effect with that of FL anxiety. One hundred and forty-six first-year Chinese undergraduates of Japanese, who were also learning English, participated in two
Matoush, Marylou M.; Fu, Danling
Tests of English language mark significantly high thresholds for all college-bound students in the People's Republic of China. Many Chinese students hope to seek their fortunes at universities in the United States, or other English speaking countries. These students spend long hours, year after year, in test-preparation centres in order to develop…
Ampalagan, Meghavaani d/o; Sellupillai, Mogana d/o; Yap, Sze Sze
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety (communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation) among Mainland Chinese students undergoing the Laureate English Programme in INTI International University, Malaysia. The participants of this study consisted of 75…
Sua, Tan Yao
The two decades from 1950 to 1970 were a crucial period of educational reorganization in Malaysia that stemmed from the decolonization after the Second World War. This educational reorganization sought to address the perennial issue of nation building via educational language policy. The development of Chinese education was under severe threat as…
This study employed an ethnographic methodology to explore the use of "literacy bags" (LBs) to promote parental involvement in Chinese children's literacy learning in the English language. It was conducted with a first-grade class consisting of 18 students and their parents in Taiwan. Data resources were obtained from teaching…
Yao, Christina W.
Chinese students are currently the largest international student population in the United States (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014). However, little research exists on these particular students' lived experiences with language and interactions with domestic students and how these experiences affect their sense of belonging in residence halls.…
Wang, Peizhen; Machado, Crystal
This paper describes the ways in which Writing Centers (WC) currently serve English Language Learners (ELL) at American universities. The authors argue that the pedagogy offered at these centers does not always meet the needs of the Chinese ELLs who make up the largest population of ELLs at American universities. The proposed supplemental model…
Lam, Katie; Chen, Xi; Geva, Esther; Luo, Yang C.; Li, Hong
The present study examined the development of morphological awareness and its contribution to vocabulary and reading comprehension among young Chinese-speaking English language learners (ELLs). We focused on two aspects of morphological awareness: derivational awareness and compound awareness. Participants included 46 kindergarteners (younger…
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
The study explores the effects of teacher support and student cohesiveness on foreign language (FL) learning outcomes and compares their effect with that of FL anxiety. One hundred and forty-six first-year Chinese undergraduates of Japanese, who were also learning English, participated in two surveys that were administered over a 2-month interval.…
Karmen FEHER MALAČIČ
Full Text Available The presentation includes a brief history of Japanese and Chinese teaching and learning at Pionirski dom and the current trends. On the one hand, it explores the reasons why so many youngsters decide to learn Japanese or Chinese, what is their main interest and what is they want to achieve. On the other hand, it tackles the points of view of teachers of the Japanese and Chinese language towards language teaching and the issues raised while teaching. Pionirski dom is probably the only institution in Slovenia with so many young learners and teenagers enrolled in Japanese courses and with a decade of experience in the area. Much attention is, therefore, put on quality programmes and the choice of suitable teachers.
Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wagner, Richard K.; Chan, Shingfong
Longitudinal predictors of writing composition in Chinese and English written by the same 153 Hong Kong nine-year-old children were tested, and their production errors within the English essays across ten categories, focusing on punctuation, spelling, and grammar, were compared to errors made by ninety American nine-year-olds writing on the same topic. The correlation between quality of the compositions in Chinese and English was .53. In stepwise regression analyses examining early predictors at ages between five and nine years, tasks of speed or fluency were consistently uniquely associated with Chinese writing composition; measures of English vocabulary knowledge, word reading, or both were consistently uniquely associated with English writing quality. Compared to the American children, Chinese children’s writing reflected significantly higher proportions of errors in all grammatical categories but did not differ in punctuation or spelling. Findings underscore both similarities and differences in writing at different levels across languages. PMID:25729319
Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wagner, Richard K; Chan, Shingfong
Longitudinal predictors of writing composition in Chinese and English written by the same 153 Hong Kong nine-year-old children were tested, and their production errors within the English essays across ten categories, focusing on punctuation, spelling, and grammar, were compared to errors made by ninety American nine-year-olds writing on the same topic. The correlation between quality of the compositions in Chinese and English was .53. In stepwise regression analyses examining early predictors at ages between five and nine years, tasks of speed or fluency were consistently uniquely associated with Chinese writing composition; measures of English vocabulary knowledge, word reading, or both were consistently uniquely associated with English writing quality. Compared to the American children, Chinese children's writing reflected significantly higher proportions of errors in all grammatical categories but did not differ in punctuation or spelling. Findings underscore both similarities and differences in writing at different levels across languages.
Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.; Chai, Ching Sing; Liu, May
Second language learners are typically hampered by the lack of a natural environment to use the target language for authentic communication purpose (as a means for "learning by applying"). Thus, we propose MyCLOUD, a mobile-assisted seamless language learning approach that aims to nurture a second language social network that bridges…
Full Text Available This paper presents a study investigating the relationship between corrective feedback, students’ language proficiency and classroom communication orientation in classrooms of Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL at a US university. Inspired by Lyster and Mori (2006, this comparative analysis of teacher-student interaction investigates the immediate effects of prompt, recast, and explicit correction on learner uptake and repair across three different Chinese proficiency levels. By use of two measurement tools—Error Treatment Model and COLT coding scheme, the study attempts to seek the distribution pattern of feedbacks and the sequent uptakes, as well as the impact of learners’ proficiency levels on the pattern of feedback and uptakes in CFL classrooms. Results show that recasts still remain the most common feedback type across the classes in this study. The uptake of feedback is influenced both by classroom communication orientation and the students’ language proficiency.
Chen, Heng; Chen, Xinying
Language is a complex adaptive system, but how does it change? For investigating this process, four diachronic Chinese word co-occurrence networks have been built based on texts that were written during the last 2,000 years. By comparing the network indicators that are associated with the hierarchical features in language networks, we learn that the hierarchy of Chinese lexical networks has indeed evolved over time at three different levels. The connections of words at the micro level are continually weakening; the number of words in the meso-level communities has increased significantly; and the network is expanding at the macro level. This means that more and more words tend to be connected to medium-central words and form different communities. Meanwhile, fewer high-central words link these communities into a highly efficient small-world network. Understanding this process may be crucial for understanding the increasing structural complexity of the language system. PMID:29489837
Hoffecker, Lilian; Abbey, Dana
The research demonstrates that a conference slide presentation translated into non-English languages reaches significantly larger and different audiences than an English presentation alone. The slides of a presentation from the Medical Library Association annual meeting were translated from English to Chinese, Japanese, and Russian and posted along with the English version to SlideShare, an open slide-hosting website. View counts, traffic sources, and geographic origins of the traffic for each language version were tracked over a twenty-two-month period. Total view counts for all 4 language versions amounted to 3,357 views, with the Chinese version accounting for 71% of the total views. The trends in view counts over time for the Japanese, Russian, and English versions were similar, with high interest at the beginning and a rapid drop and low level of viewing activity thereafter. The pattern of view counts for the Chinese version departed considerably from the other language versions, with very low activity at the beginning but a sharp rise 10 months later. This increase in activity was related to access to the presentations via a Taiwanese website that embedded the SlideShare website code. Language translation can be a difficult and time-consuming task. However, translation of a conference slide presentation with limited text is an achievable activity and engages an international audience for information that is often not noticed or lost. Although English is by far the primary language of science and other disciplines, it is not necessarily the first or preferred language of global researchers. By offering appropriate language versions, the authors of presentations can expand the reach of their work.
Exploring the Relationships between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing: Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks
Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian
Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the…
Full Text Available This study examined how technology can help in assessing and teaching Chinese tones to foreign students who are not used to tonal languages. It was an attempt to show how we can use the PRAAT software to make learners of Chinese as a foreign language realize their tonal errors. The data used was collected from the students at the University of Zimbabwe studying Chinese and this was part of a continuous assessment for the students’ pronunciation of Chinese tones. This method which was used by teachers to assess students’ tones was found to be easy to follow such that students could also utilize it for their own pronunciation practice. We argued that the use of computer-aided assessment makes assessment of students’ tone acquisition lesser arbitrary than when the teacher merely gives comments based on his or her individual perception. This is because this assessment method gives PRAAT acoustic pictures which show the tone structures for each student; hence, both the student and the teacher can visualize the errors. Since PRAAT can provide a platform to compare the student’s pronunciation with that of the native speaker and at the same time can help the teacher to explain why student’s pronunciation is wrong, this paper concludes that PRAAT can be a useful tool in assessing and teaching Chinese tones.
Yang, Xidong; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Xiang; Wei, Shengjing; Zhang, Xu
Chinese Sign Language (CSL) subword recognition based on surface electromyography (sEMG), accelerometer (ACC), and gyroscope (GYRO) sensors was explored in this paper. In order to fuse effectively the information of these three kinds of sensors, the classification abilities of sEMG, ACC, GYRO, and their combinations in three common sign components (one or two handed, hand orientation, and hand amplitude) were evaluated first and then an optimized tree-structure classification framework was proposed for CSL subword recognition. Eight subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different testing conditions were implemented on a target set consisting of 150 CSL subwords. The proposed optimized tree-structure classification framework based on sEMG, ACC, and GYRO obtained the best performance among seven different testing conditions with single sensor, paired-sensor fusion, and three-sensor fusion, and the overall recognition accuracies of 94.31% and 87.02% were obtained for 150 CSL subwords in a user-specific test and user-independent test, respectively. Our study could lay a basis for the implementation of large-vocabulary sign language recognition system based on sEMG, ACC, and GYRO sensors.
Full Text Available The role of corrective feedback in second language classrooms has received considerable research attention in the past few decades. However, most of this research has been conducted in English-teaching settings, either ESL or EFL. This study examined teacher feedback, learner uptake as well as learner and teacher perception of feedback in an adult Chinese as a foreign language classroom. Ten hours of classroom interactions were videotaped, transcribed and coded for analysis. Lyster and Ranta’s (1997 coding system involving six types of feedback was initially used to identify feedback frequency and learner uptake. However, the teacher was found to use a number of additional feedback types. Altogether, 12 types of feedback were identified: recasts, delayed recasts, clarification requests, translation, metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, explicit correction, asking a direct question, repetition, directing question to other students, re-asks, and using L1-English. Differences were noted in the frequency of some of the feedback types as well as learner uptake compared to what had been reported in some previous ESL and EFL studies. With respect to the new feedback types, some led to noticeable uptake. As for the students’ and teacher’s perceptions, they did not match and both the teacher and the students were generally not accurate in perceiving the frequency of each feedback type. The findings are discussed in terms of the role of context in affecting the provision and effectiveness of feedback and its relationship to student and teacher perception of feedback.
Sakhaya Nurgunovna Alexandrova
Full Text Available This article presents main problems of the studying Russian as foreign to Chinese students in the social and cultural space of republic of Sakha (Yakutia. There are specific difficulties of learning Chinese students and ways of solving problems. The conclusion is that we need to have a deeper understanding of Chinese education, national culture and mentality in the Russian language teaching system. We also search for the new methods as a way of better training Chinese students in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia.Purpose. By researching trends and features in the method of Russian as foreign teaching and based on the study of theoretical literature develop our own system of forms of training Russian as foreign in the social and cultural space of republic of Sakha (Yakutia.Methodology. The main methods we used: theoretic-linguistic method, sociological and pedagogical method and also methods of analysis, comparisons, generalizations, system approach.Results. There have been made a conclusion that at the present of development Russian as foreign teaching system we need some new approaches of teaching Chinese students in the region. There is necessary to know individual and ethno-psychological features of Chinese students. The main prerequisite is competence approach as a necessary part of educational process.Practical implications. These studies can be used in the teaching process at the North-Eastern Federal University in Department of Russian as foreign or in other national regions of Russian Federation.
Full Text Available Taking a quantitative approach, this research surveyed Chinese migrants in Canada regarding channels they rely on to seek various information. This research also investigates how Chinese migrants’ preferences of channels correlate with their intercultural sensitivity level. Chinese migrants prefer Chinese newspapers and websites for government/policy information and life information rather than English newspapers and websites. However, they use English newspapers and websites more frequently for job and career development information. Overall, English television and radio are more frequently used by Chinese migrants than Chinese television and radio broadcasts. The intercultural sensitivity levels of Chinese migrants have a positive correlation with their frequencies of using English information resources, including government websites, English newspapers, English non-government websites, government officers, personal non-Chinese social networks, and English television and radio. Findings of this research suggest that Chinese ethnic media play an important role in Chinese migrants’ information-seeking behaviours and patterns in Canada. On one hand, government and other organizations can reach the Chinese migrant community through information diffusion in Chinese ethnic media. On the other hand, Chinese migrants should make an active effort to improve their English proficiency and intercultural communication sensitivity to better integrate themselves into the Canadian society. A more balanced approach of seeking information from English and Chinese media sources could be more beneficial for Chinese migrants.
Min, M. A.
Learning strategy is a psychological concept influenced by cognitive theory. It is a hot spot in the field of second language acquisition. This article analyses the research findings on Chinese learning strategies published by the domestic publications over the past ten years. The article introduces research achievements in the field of Chinese learning strategies, summarizes the research characteristic, and points out the shortcomings of the researches in three ways: the type of the research findings, research teams and research objects. The article suggests the researchers should enhance team cooperation, communicate with the researchers from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, establish the better academic platform and focus on the contrastive research on Chinese learner from different backgrounds.
Wong, Anita M-Y; Leung, Cynthia; Siu, Elaine K-L; Lam, Catherine C-C; Chan, Grace P-S
This study reports on the development of the language subtest in the Preschool Developmental Assessment Scale (PDAS) for Cantonese-Chinese speaking children. A pilot pool of 158 items covering the two language modalities and the three language domains was developed. This initial item set was subsequently revised based on Rasch analyses of data from 324 multi-stage randomly selected children between 3 and 6 years of age. The revised 106-item set demonstrated adequate measurement properties, including targeting and uni-dimensionality. The revised 106-item set successfully discriminated preschool children in the three age groups, and between preschool children and their age peers with special education needs (SEN). Results from this study support the collection of normative data from a larger population sample of children to examine its accuracy in identifying language impairment in children with SEN. Test development procedures reported in this study provide insight for the development of language subtests in multi-domain developmental assessment tools for children speaking other varieties of Chinese. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Theme-based language teaching under Content-Based Instruction (CBI is a pedagogical approach that emphasizes learning professional content along with language skills. This paper reports a case study on the impacts of a theme-based advanced Chinese intensive program in a university setting. It begins with a review of CBI and its theme-based approach and then discusses the program design, curriculum development, and instructional practice of the program. The impacts of the theme-based approach are examined based on the pre- and post-proficiency test results, learners’ self-reported surveys on the themes and topics, and the reading strategies covered in the program. Qualitative analysis of learners’ self-reflections and program evaluations is also presented. Based on the evidence collected, this paper argues that the theme-based model has positive impacts on improving language proficiency, preparing for academic and professional language use, cultivating strategic language learners, and revitalizing Chinese teaching at the superior level.
Ruan, Youjin; Duan, Xiaoju; Wang, Li
to learning Chinese as a foreign language. Chinese culture elements were also integrated into the tasks and the learning process. By analysing seven items of a post-course survey, this paper investigates the learners’ opinions toward the task-based language teaching and learning method, as well as the methods......The task-based method is regarded as an effective approach for promoting interaction and collaboration in language learning. In a beginner Chinese language course offered as an elective at Aalborg University, Denmark, a selection of tasks was designed and used to attract the students’ interests...... used in integrating culture with the language learning in this course. The results indicated that course participants were generally positive about their learning experiences and processes during the course. They appreciated not only the task-based method, but also the ways in which culture...
Sun, Peijian Paul; Teng, Lin Sophie
This study revisited Reid's (1987) perceptual learning style preference questionnaire (PLSPQ) in an attempt to answer whether the PLSPQ fits in the Chinese-as-a-second-language (CSL) context. If not, what are CSL learners' learning styles drawing on the PLSPQ? The PLSPQ was first re-examined through reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with 224 CSL learners. The results showed that Reid's six-factor PLSPQ could not satisfactorily explain the CSL learners' learning styles. Exploratory factor analyses were, therefore, performed to explore the dimensionality of the PLSPQ in the CSL context. A four-factor PLSPQ was successfully constructed including auditory/visual, kinaesthetic/tactile, group, and individual styles. Such a measurement model was cross-validated through CFAs with 118 CSL learners. The study not only lends evidence to the literature that Reid's PLSPQ lacks construct validity, but also provides CSL teachers and learners with insightful and practical guidance concerning learning styles. Implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.
Full Text Available Although self-regulation, derived from educational psychology, is a new topic in the second language learning field, language learning strategy was the main focus of many studies in the last two decades. Also, among the L2 individual differences, motivation plays an important role in achieving the educational goals. In this research, motivation is investigated from self-determination theory by which five types of motivation are presented. No study was found to investigate the role of motivation in both self-regulation and language learning strategy. For such a purpose, 49 Chinese EFL learners respond to SILL, MSLQ and LLOS_IEA respectively proposed by Oxford (1990, Pintrich et al (1991 and Noel et al (2000. The results running Pearson correlation showed that there is a significant relationship between motivation, self-regulation and language learning strategies. It is also revealed that Chinese EFL learners use memory, social and affective strategy more than the other ones. The most common motivational orientation is identified regulation. Among self-regulated learning strategies, effort regulation is highly used by them. At the end some implication is considered.
Nickels, Stefanie; Steinhauer, Karsten
The role of prosodic information in sentence processing is not usually addressed in second language (L2) instruction, and neurocognitive studies on prosody-syntax interactions are rare. Here we compare event-related potentials (ERP) of Chinese and German learners of English L2 to those of native English speakers and show how first language (L1)…
This article reports an investigative study on the target language use in and outside business English classrooms for non-English major undergraduates in a Chinese university context. The aims of the study are to identify the actual situation of target language use in business English teaching and to suggest ways for improvements. The study uses…
Phillips, Rachel; Cheung, Yin Bun; Collinson, Simon Lowes; Lim, May-Li; Ling, Audrey; Feng, Lei; Ng, Tze-Pin
Chinese is the most commonly spoken language in the world. The availability of Chinese translations of assessment scales is useful for research in multi-ethnic and multinational studies. This study aimed to establish whether each of the Chinese translations (Mandarin, Hokkien, Teochew, and Cantonese) of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) achieved measurement equivalence to the English version. Participants included 1856 ethnic Chinese, older adults. The RBANS was administered in the language/dialect according to the participants' preference by interviewers who were fluent in that language/dialect. Multiple regression analysis was used to adjust for demographic and clinical differences between participants who spoke different languages/dialects. Equivalence (practical equivalence) was declared if the 90% confidence interval for the adjusted mean difference fell entirely within the pre-specified equivalence margin, ±.2 (±.4) standard deviations. The delayed memory index was at least practically equivalent across languages. The Mandarin, Hokkien, and Teochew versions of the immediate memory, language, and total scale score were practically equivalent to the English version; the Cantonese version showed small differences from the English version. Equivalence was not established for the Hokkien and Teochew versions of the visuospatial/constructional index. The attention index was different across languages. Data from the English and Chinese versions for the total scale score, language, delayed, and immediate memory indexes may be pooled for analysis. However, analysis of the attention and visuospatial/constructional indexes from the English and Chinese versions should include a covariate that represents the version in the statistical adjustment.
Li, Qiang; Xia, Shuang; Zhao, Fei; Qi, Ji
The purpose of this study was to assess functional changes in the cerebral cortex in people with different sign language experience and hearing status whilst observing and imitating Chinese Sign Language (CSL) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 50 participants took part in the study, and were divided into four groups according to their hearing status and experience of using sign language: prelingual deafness signer group (PDS), normal hearing non-signer group (HnS), native signer group with normal hearing (HNS), and acquired signer group with normal hearing (HLS). fMRI images were scanned from all subjects when they performed block-designed tasks that involved observing and imitating sign language stimuli. Nine activation areas were found in response to undertaking either observation or imitation CSL tasks and three activated areas were found only when undertaking the imitation task. Of those, the PDS group had significantly greater activation areas in terms of the cluster size of the activated voxels in the bilateral superior parietal lobule, cuneate lobe and lingual gyrus in response to undertaking either the observation or the imitation CSL task than the HnS, HNS and HLS groups. The PDS group also showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus which was also found in the HNS or the HLS groups but not in the HnS group. This indicates that deaf signers have better sign language proficiency, because they engage more actively with the phonetic and semantic elements. In addition, the activations of the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule were only found in the PDS group and HNS group, and not in the other two groups, which indicates that the area for sign language processing appears to be sensitive to the age of language acquisition. After reading this article, readers will be able to: discuss the relationship between sign language and its neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc
Kurz, A Solomon; Drescher, Christopher F; Chin, Eu Gene; Johnson, Laura R
Malaysia is a Southeast Asian country in which multiple languages are prominently spoken, including English and Mandarin Chinese. As psychological science continues to develop within Malaysia, there is a need for psychometrically sound instruments that measure psychological phenomena in multiple languages. For example, assessment tools for measuring social desirability could be a useful addition in psychological assessments and research studies in a Malaysian context. This study examined the psychometric performance of the English and Mandarin Chinese versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale when used in Malaysia. Two hundred and eighty-three students (64% female; 83% Chinese, 9% Indian) from two college campuses completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale in their language of choice (i.e., English or Mandarin Chinese). Proposed factor structures were compared with confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple indicators-multiple causes models were used to examine measurement invariance across language and sex. Factor analyses supported a two-factor structure (i.e., Attribution and Denial) for the measure. Invariance tests revealed the scale was invariant by sex, indicating that social desirability can be interpreted similarly across sex. The scale was partially invariant by language version, with some non-invariance observed within the Denial factor. Non-invariance may be related to differences in the English and Mandarin Chinese languages, as well as cultural differences. Directions for further research include examining the measurement of social desirability in other contexts where both English and Mandarin Chinese are spoken (i.e., China) and further examining the causes of non-invariance on specific items. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
The role of language transfer in second language acquisition has long been the focus in the study of cross-linguistic influence. Much has been written about how the learner’s existing linguistic knowledge influences the course of second language development. In the last decade, however, there have been a considerable number of books and journal articles dealing with a relatively under-explored field: the role of language transfer during third language acquisition. The question ...
Full Text Available It has been argued that the expectations of traditional L2 writing classroom can be problematic for Chinese students, particularly in the area of argumentation and critical thinking. On the other hand, writing on the Internet has been shown to be substantially different in ways that may liberate the students from the constraints of the classroom. This argument, however, has typically focused on American writers, ignoring how cyberspace is being appropriated by those outside of the Western tradition of rhetoric. In this study, I examine how Chinese writers use the Internet as an alternative writing space to produce a rhetoric that incorporates traditional Chinese rhetorical forms expressed in English. The study focuses on how a group of Chinese writers respond on the Internet to a television segment accusing the Chinese government of planting spies. I found that the Chinese writers use the Internet to build a collective response to the television show using a variety of rhetorical strategies, even to the point of forcing the television network to meet with them. By situating their arguments in the tradition of Chinese rhetoric, I found that these alternative forms of writing found in cyberspace are affected by the traditions of Chinese rhetoric.
Leong, Che Kan; Ho, Man Koon; Chang, Jianfang; Hau, Kit Tai
The present study examined pedagogic components of Chinese reading literacy in a representative sample of 1164 Grades 7, 9 and 11 Chinese students (mean age of 15 years) from 11 secondary schools in Hong Kong with each student tested for about 2.5 hours. Multiple group confirmatory factor analyses showed that across the three grade levels, the…
Full Text Available The study explores the effects of teacher support and student cohesiveness on foreign language (FL learning outcomes and compares their effect with that of FL anxiety. One hundred and forty-six first-year Chinese undergraduates of Japanese, who were also learning English, participated in two surveys that were administered over a 2-month interval. Data were collected using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986, the Teacher Support Scale (Trickett & Moos, 2002, the Affiliation Scale (Trickett & Moos, 2002, the English Proficiency Scale, and the Japanese Proficiency Scale. It was found that (a student cohesiveness was a positive predictor of FL proficiency, (b teacher support, which was positively related to student cohesiveness and negatively to FL anxiety, did not show a direct relationship with FL proficiency, and (c FL anxiety, which was negatively associated with FL proficiency, showed a better predictive power than student cohesiveness and teacher support.
Damien Le Gal; Pei I-Chou
English as Foreign Language (EFL) in East Asia involves major sociocultural issues. Modern, Western-based methodologies such as Communicative Language Learning (CLL, Communicative Language Teaching, CLT in this paper) and its further development Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching (TBLLT, Ellis, 2003), feature principles which can conflict with some of the fundamental values of Confucian Heritage Cultures (CHC) education and hinder their adoption in Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Hong...
Wu, Dan; He, Daqing
Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…
Cheng, C.; Wang, M.; Perfetti, C.A.
This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese–English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both
Cheng, Liying; Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.; Qiang, Haiyan; Wade-Woolley, Lesly
Research has demonstrated that second language immersion is an effective means of facilitating primary school students' second language without undermining competence in their first language. Despite the rapid growth of English immersion (EI) programmes in China, only limited empirical research has been conducted to evaluate students' academic…
Tang, Mailing; Tian, Jianrong
This study, using Horwitz's Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory and Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning, investigated learners' beliefs about language learning and their choice of strategy categories among 546 graduate students in China. The correlation between learners' beliefs and their strategy categories use was examined.…
Dong, Zhiyin Renee
There is an ongoing debate in the field of Second Language Acquisition concerning whether a fundamental difference exists between the native language (L1) and adult second language (L2) online processing of syntax and morpho-syntax. The Shallow Structure Hypothesis (SSH) (Clahsen and Felser, 2006a, b) states that L2 online parsing is qualitatively…
Full Text Available The article presents the results of an empirical study of Socio-psychological characteristics of group of Chinese students who are studying at Russian universities. 132 Chinese students aged between 18 to 26 years from Foundation course were involved in the study. Using investigational methods we found a correlation between language competence and sociometric and referentometric status of Chinese students throughout the academic year. It is expected that the acquired results are due to three factors: socio-psychological, where interpersonal relationships depend on the students' achievements; cultural-specific factors, where tenacity and diligence in work are valuable, and processes of socio-cultural adaptation.
Coronado, Gloria D; Taylor, Vicky; Acorda, Elizabeth; Hoai Do, H; Thompson, Beti
Chinese Americans are at disproportionately high risk of liver cancer. A major risk factor for liver cancer in Asia is infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV): Approximately 80% of liver cancers are linked to HBV, and chronic carriers of HBV are > 100 times more likely to develop liver cancer compared with noncarriers. However, many adults, particularly those who have immigrated to the U.S., remain untested and therefore unvaccinated or unmonitored for the disease. Chinese Americans are mostly foreign born, and more recent arrivals face multiple social and health challenges. Many require special attention from public health professionals because of low levels of acculturation and difficulties learning English. It has long been established that an English as a Second Language (ESL) curriculum can teach immigrant adults and their family's important life skills, such as job training and citizenship. The authors report on their plans to develop and pilot test a culturally appropriate curriculum that will motivate Chinese ESL students to obtain a blood test for the detection of the HBV. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
Ku, David Tawei; Shen, Chun-Yi
The Felder-Soloman Index of Learning Styles (ILS) has been a popular instrument for measuring learning styles of college students for the past two decades. Even though several researchers have translated the ILS into Chinese for their own studies, a Chinese version has not been standardized and evaluated, nor has anyone reported on its reliability and validity. Based on data collected from 2,748 students at a large private university in Taiwan, this study investigates the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the ILS. In addition, through factor analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis, problematic test items are identified for further modification. Results show that the reliability of each scale of the ILS has a pattern similar to that of previous studies. The study therefore investigates the identified problematic elements and discusses two key points: (1) the language and translation problems and (2) precision and design. In addition, results of the significant interaction effects of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for active/reflective and sensing/intuitive scales indicate the effect of college differences depends on the levels between genders. Moreover, in general, female students are significantly more intuitive and global and less visual than male students. Other detailed analysis of academic disciplines and gender onILS are also reported.
Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan
The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Noble, Clifford Elliott, II
The problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of three single-task instruments---(a) the Test of English as a Foreign Language, (b) the Aviation Test of Spoken English, and (c) the Single Manual-Tracking Test---and three dual-task instruments---(a) the Concurrent Manual-Tracking and Communication Test, (b) the Certified Flight Instructor's Test, and (c) the Simulation-Based English Test---to predict the language performance of 10 Chinese student pilots speaking English as a second language when operating single-engine and multiengine aircraft within American airspace. Method. This research implemented a correlational design to investigate the ability of the six described instruments to predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation, which was the Examiner's Test. This test assessed the oral communication skill of student pilots on the flight portion of the terminal checkride in the Piper Cadet, Piper Seminole, and Beechcraft King Air airplanes. Results. Data from the Single Manual-Tracking Test, as well as the Concurrent Manual-Tracking and Communication Test, were discarded due to performance ceiling effects. Hypothesis 1, which stated that the average correlation between the mean scores of the dual-task evaluations and that of the Examiner's Test would predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation with a greater degree of accuracy than that of single-task evaluations, was not supported. Hypothesis 2, which stated that the correlation between the mean scores of the participants on the Simulation-Based English Test and the Examiner's Test would predict the mean score of the criterion evaluation with a greater degree of accuracy than that of all single- and dual-task evaluations, was also not supported. The findings suggest that single- and dual-task assessments administered after initial flight training are equivalent predictors of language performance when piloting single-engine and multiengine aircraft.
Kuang Ching Hei; Maya Khemlani David
Language is an inevitable tool for business transactions and regardless of nationality, ethnicity, gender, religion, age and social class, interlocutors depend on it to conduct their daily dealings. In multilingual and multicultural Malaysia, it is not uncommon to hear a business transaction being conducted in various languages depending on who the participants are and what the context involves. This study focussed on the phenomenon of language (code) mixing within a business transaction that...
Chen, Peiyao; Lin, Jie; Chen, Bingle; Lu, Chunming; Guo, Taomei
Emotional words in a bilingual's second language (L2) seem to have less emotional impact compared to emotional words in the first language (L1). The present study examined the neural mechanisms of emotional word processing in Chinese-English bilinguals' two languages by using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results show a robust positive word processing advantage in L1 such that responses to positive words were faster and more accurate compared to responses to neutral words and negative words. In L2, emotional words only received higher accuracies than neutral words. In ERPs, positive words elicited a larger early posterior negativity and a smaller late positive component than neutral words in L1, while a trend of reduced N400 component was found for positive words compared to neutral words in L2. In fMRI, reduced activation was found for L1 emotional words in both the left middle occipital gyrus and the left cerebellum whereas increased activation in the left cerebellum was found for L2 emotional words. Altogether, these results suggest that emotional word processing advantage in L1 relies on rapid and automatic attention capture while facilitated semantic retrieval might help processing emotional words in L2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Chia-Cheng; Jhang, Yuna; Chen, Li-mei; Relyea, George; Oller, D. Kimbrough
Prior research on ambient-language effects in babbling has often suggested infants produce language-specific phonological features within the first year. These results have been questioned in research failing to find such effects and challenging the positive findings on methodological grounds. We studied English- and Chinese-learning infants at 8, 10, and 12 months and found listeners could not detect ambient-language effects in the vast majority of infant utterances, but only in items deemed to be words or to contain canonical syllables that may have made them sound like words with language-specific shapes. Thus, the present research suggests the earliest ambient-language effects may be found in emerging lexical items or in utterances influenced by language-specific features of lexical items. Even the ambient-language effects for infant canonical syllables and words were very small compared with ambient-language effects for meaningless but phonotactically well-formed syllable sequences spoken by adult native speakers of English and Chinese. PMID:28496393
Culture, persuasion and language are closely intertwined in intercultural business communication. Hence it is important to study language and persuasion and solicit professional members' views about how effective communication is situated in different cultural contexts. This paper aims to report findings on differences in expectations for good…
Chai, Ching Sing; Wong, Lung-Hsiang; King, Ronnel B.
Seamless language learning promises to be an effective learning approach that addresses the limitations of classroom-only language learning. It leverages mobile technologies to facilitate holistic and perpetual learning experiences that bridge different locations, times, technologies or social settings. Despite the emergence of studies on seamless…
Doman, Evelyn; Webb, Marie
Many educators worldwide are aware that traditional teacher-fronted instruction and lecture-based learning often lead students to become passive in the classroom. In the language classroom, particularly in classrooms for English as a second or foreign language, the flipped model of education drives students to become more responsive and more…
Whereas the speech act of refusal is universal across language, the politeness value and the types of linguistic forms used to perform it vary across language and culture. The majority of the comparative pragmatic research findings were derived from one single source of data (i.e., either production data or perception data). Few attempts have been…
Dongyu, Zhang; Fanyu, B.; Wanyi, Du
This paper discusses the sociocultural theory (SCT). In particular, three significant concepts of Vyogtsky's theory: self-regulation, the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and scaffolding all of which have been discussed in numerous second language acquisition (SLA) and second language learning (SLL) research papers. These concepts lay the…
Different from the traditional term language input, affordance, an ecological term, has been deployed to analyze the perceived opportunities for second language (L2) learning an environment provides to L2 learners. L2 learning occurs only when the semiotic resources in the environment resonate with the learner's capacities such as their abilities,…
This study explored how the learners-as-ethnographers (LAE) approach facilitated intercultural learning among American students learning Chinese as a foreign language. Two research questions addressed the effectiveness of the LAE approach and students' learning experiences in a non-immersion context. I designed six ethnographic tasks for the…
Hong, Yee Chee; Ganapathy, Malini
Malaysians have long realised the importance of being competent in English as one of the success factors in attaining their future goals. However, English is taught as a second language in Malaysia, and it is not easy to teach under such a foreign context, because authentic input may not exist beyond the classroom, especially in Chinese private…
Li, Mingshuang; Wang, Wenjing; Tao, Sha; Dong, Qi; Guan, Jingjing; Liu, Chang
Several studies found better English vowel identification in English multi-talker babble (MTB) and temporally-modulated (TM) noise, but not in quiet condition for native Chinese listeners in the US (CNU) with the US residency of 1-3 years than native Chinese listeners in China (CNC) with no residency history in English speaking countries. Two possible explanations were proposed: (1) CNU listeners used temporal dips of noise more efficiently than CNC listeners; and (2) CNU listeners had less informational masking of MTB than their CNC peers. The current study explored whether the difference in noise processing between CNU and CNC listeners was also presented for their native speech perception. Chinese vowel-plus-tone identifications were measured for CNU and CNC in quiet, stationary and TM noise, babble-modulated noise, and MTB. The identification scores of CNU listeners were significantly higher than CNC listeners in most noisy backgrounds, whereas both groups had the same performance in quiet. Moreover, compared with CNC listeners, CNU listeners gained greater masking releases from the temporal modulation in TM noise at low SNRs, whereas no significant difference was found in informational masking between the two groups. In conclusion, the native English experience may improve native Chinese listeners' capacity to use temporal glimpses in TM noise, possibly depending on the modulation frequency and depth, while it may not improve their ability to resist the informational masking of babble when perceiving their native speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Hong-Ren; Lin, You-Shiuan
By gradually placing more importance on game-based education and changing learning motivation by applying game-playing characteristics, students' learning experiences can be enhanced and a better learning effect can be achieved. When teaching the content of Chinese poetry in Taiwanese junior high schools, most teachers only explain the meaning of…
Dong, Jie; Dong, Yan
This article explores voicing processes of identity construction among labor immigrants both inside China and in the Dutch Chinese Diaspora. We provide ethnographically grounded data oriented toward a theoretical point: voicing is an essential problem in communication. Whether one is able to achieve his voice--an outcome of a communicative…
Li, Xia; Sun, Ye; Baroody, Arthur J.; Purpura, David
Recent research has found that linguistic cues may affect children's number word acquisition. Two studies were undertaken to evaluate the use of singular/plural markings and small number words in Chinese and English and its effect on children's number concepts. The first study utilized the CHILDES data and investigated how singular/plural markings…
This classroom quasi-experiment aimed to learn if and to what degree supplementing classroom instruction with Rosetta Stone (RS), Tell Me More (TMM), Memrise (MEM), or ESL WOW (WOW) impacted high-stakes English test performance in areas of university-level writing, reading, speaking, listening, and grammar. Seventy-eight (N = 78) Chinese learners…
The online education industry has had a rapid economic development in China since 2013, but this area received little attention in research. This study investigates Chinese undergraduate students' online English learning experiences and online teacher-learner interaction in synchronous web conferencing classes. This article reports the findings…
Guan, Yao; Farrar, M. Jeffrey
Metalinguistic awareness is the ability to identify, reflect upon, and manipulate linguistic units. It plays a critical role in reading development. The present study investigated Chinese- and English-speaking preschoolers' metalinguistic awareness development and the role of cognitive and linguistic abilities in its development. Forty-two…
The ten Chinese (Cantonese) short stories given in the student's reader are provided here, as well as a teacher's guide for their use. The English titles of the stories are: (1) "The Dictionary"; (2) "Come, Have Some Rice Noodles"; (3) "Where Shall We Go"; (4) "Beautiful Day"; (5) "The Little Dog's…
Full Text Available For a long time, whether learners' first language (L1 should be used in the foreign language classroom has been a controversial issue in the foreign language education field. The focus has been mostly on the use of L1 in the English language classroom (e.g.,Atkinson, 1987; Brooks-Lewis, 2009; Kieu, 2010; Krashen, 1981; Miles, 2004; Nazary, 2008; Prodromou, 2002; Schweers, 1999; Tang,2002. The debate centers on two diverse pedagogical approaches: the monolingual approach and the bilingual approach. The supporters of the monolingual approach contend that only the target language that learners are acquiring (i.e. English in most of the study should be allowed in the classroom, and Krashen (1981, 1985 was a pivotal supporter of this approach. However, other researchers and language teachers argue that the monolingual approach is not practical, particularly in lower-level classes (e.g., Atkinson, 1987; BrooksLewis, 2009; Schweers, 1999; Tang, 2002. They believe that using L1 in the classroom can be very effective when explaining difficult grammar points and linguistic elements that are language specific. The supporters of the bilingual approach do not deny the advantages of maximizing target language exposure and practice. However, they suggest that when learners' L1 is applied strategically, it can actually be a very important learning tool (e.g., Atkinson, 1987; Brooks-Lewis,2009; Schweers, 1999. Furthermore, both Schweers (1999 and Miles (2004 point out that the use of L1 provides students a more relaxed atmosphere and makes them less anxious and more confident in the classroom.
Damien Le Gal
Full Text Available English as Foreign Language (EFL in East Asia involves major sociocultural issues. Modern, Western-based methodologies such as Communicative Language Learning (CLL, Communicative Language Teaching, CLT in this paper and its further development Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching (TBLLT, Ellis, 2003, feature principles which can conflict with some of the fundamental values of Confucian Heritage Cultures (CHC education and hinder their adoption in Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Hong-Kong and Vietnam. This article introduces a sociocultural, ethnographic perspective on EFL in East Asia which contextualizes language teaching in its broader educational and cultural environment. Teacher-centeredness, book and writing focuses, memorization strategies within a grammar-translation approach are in contradiction with modern language teaching methodologies' focuses on learner-centeredness and teachers' facilitating roles, student participation and interactions, communication competence and learner autonomy. The text advocates for a mean between Western and Eastern learning cultures through a context-based, culturally-sensitive approach and introduces classroom's strategies for the implementation of CLL and TBLLT in China and East Asia.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia is a core symptom of this disease. The computerized CogState Battery (CSB has been used to detect seven of the most common cognitive domains in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the CSB (CSB-C, in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty Chinese patients with schizophrenia and 58 age, sex, and education matched healthy controls were enrolled. All subjects completed the CSB-C and the Repeated Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS. To examine the test-retest reliability of CSB-C, we tested 33 healthy controls twice, at a one month interval. The Cronbach α value of CSB-C in patients was 0.81. The test-retest correlation coefficients of the Two Back Task, Gronton Maze Learning Task, Social Emotional Cognition Task, and Continuous Paired Association Learning Task were between 0.39 and 0.62 (p<0.01 in healthy controls. The composite scores and all subscores for the CSB-C in patients were significantly (p<0.01 lower than those of healthy controls. Furthermore, composite scores for patients on the RBANS were also significantly lower than those of healthy controls. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.544, p<0.001 between the composite scores on CSB-C and RBANS for patients. Additionally, in the attention and memory cognitive domains, corresponding subsets from the two batteries correlated significantly (p<0.05. Moreover, factor analysis showed a two-factor model, consisting of speed, memory and reasoning. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The CSB-C shows good reliability and validity in measuring the broad cognitive domains of schizophrenia in affected Chinese patients. Therefore, the CSB-C can be used as a cognitive battery, to assess the therapeutic effects of potential cognitive-enhancing agents in this cohort.
Low, Hui Min; Nicholas, Howard; Wales, Roger
This paper reports the findings of a survey of 100 mothers of Chinese children aged between 6 and 36 months from middle to upper-middle socio-economic backgrounds in Penang, Malaysia. The findings include the language backgrounds of these mothers, their contextual uses of multiple languages and their language choices with their children. Through…
Full Text Available In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su & Samuels, 2010 and dual-coding processing (Sadoski & Paivio, 2013 and investigated a the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence on character acquisition and b the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014, a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that a characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and b individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.
Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying
In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.
Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan
The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.
Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan
The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18–82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research. PMID:26918618
Measures of phonological and morphological awareness of Chinese were administered to 94 third-grade students of Chinese in Taiwan to evaluate their relative contributions to current and prospective prediction of early reading in Chinese L1 and English L2. Phonological awareness made a significant unique contribution to Chinese character reading…
Full Text Available The design criteria of the vocabulary outline of the second language teaching vary according to the teaching objectives. Under the same objective, the criteria are often more than one. The multiple criteria are sometimes compatible and sometimes conflicting. Through analyzing and evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the new Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK Vocabulary Outline, this paper reveals the interactions between the task objectives, the criterion conditions and processing strategies, as well as the interaction relationships between the multiple criteria features of the vocabulary outline designing process, and then abstracts the general principles and overall rules. The research results subvert the habitual knowledge that the frequency criterion position ranked first, which is always popular at least in the Chinese academic circle. It finds that the leading position of frequency criterion only exists in the criteria compatibility model. In the conflict model of the locutionary criteria, the stylistic criterion and syntactic criterion are strong criteria, while the word frequency criterion relegates to the weak position. In the conflict model of the locutionary and illocutionary criteria, the illocutionary criterion is strong criterion, while the locutionary criterion relegates to the weak position, which indicates that the language can’t be above its purpose of usage. This research is conducive to the improvement of the vocabulary outline. It also has certain practical significance to the disciplinary theories of Teaching Chinese to Speakers of Other Language or even to the whole second language teaching.
Yeh, Christine J; Okubo, Yuki; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Shea, Munyi; Ou, Dongshu; Pituc, Stephanie T
When immigrant youth come to the United States, they must learn to interact with dominant and cultural groups as part of the adjustment process. The current study investigated whether the association between Chinese immigrant high school students' (N = 286) English fluency, academic and career/ college help-seeking, multidimensional acculturation, family responsibilities, and social support, predicted their intercultural competence concerns (their interactions across dominant and cultural groups). Results indicate that this was the case. Implications for research and practice with immigrant youth in a high school context are discussed.
Languages differ systematically in how to encode a motion event. English characteristically expresses manner in verb root and path in verb particle; in Chinese, varied aspects of motion, such as manner, path and cause, can be simultaneously encoded in a verb compound. This study investigates whether typological differences, as such, influence how first and second language learners conceptualize motion events, as suggested by behavioral evidences. Specifically, the performance of Chinese learners of English, at three proficiencies, was compared to that of two groups of monolingual speakers in a triads matching task. The first set of analyses regarding categorisation preferences indicates that participants across groups preferred the path-matched (rather than manner-matched) screens. However, the second set of analyses regarding reaction time suggests, firstly, that English monolingual speakers reacted significantly more quickly in selecting the manner-matched scenes compared with monolingual speakers of Chinese, who tended to use an approximately equal amount of time in making manner- and path-matched decisions, a finding that can arguably be mapped onto the typological difference between the two languages. Secondly, the pattern of response latency in low-level L2 learners looked more like that of monolingual speakers of Chinese. Only at intermediate and advanced levels of acquisition did the behavioral pattern of L2 learners become target-like, thus suggesting language-specific constraints from the L1 at an early stage of acquisition. Overall, our results suggest that motion event cognition may be linked to, among other things, the linguistic structure of motion description in particular languages. PMID:28638355
Li, Xiangming; Brand, Manny
Using an experimental approach, this study examined the relative effectiveness of varying the use of songs (lyrics and music) on vocabulary acquisition, language usage, and meaning for adult ESL students in the People's Republic of China. While the use of songs is generally enthusiastically endorsed by ESL teachers, few empirical studies have…
This article discusses the second-language literacy practice of an ESL student in Australia. It firstly explores the literacy practices (reading and writing) exercised both in China (the subject's home country) and in Sydney, Australia, where the subject was taking an academic preparation course prior to her master study. Secondly, this article…
Kinginger, Celeste; Lee, Sheng-Hsun; Wu, Qian; Tan, Dali
When, in homestays abroad, mealtime is understood as key to the maintenance and development of family identity and involves routine gathering for nourishment and convivial talk, students attribute much of their language learning to these events. In this project, we adopt a microgenetic approach to the study of mealtime discourse as a learning…
Devimeenakshi, K.; Maheswari, C. N. Baby
The article gives information on English language teaching schemes in Indian classrooms for foreign students. The teacher monitors as facilitator and instructor. The trainees were trained in the four macro skills, LSRW. I taught some topics in three skills, namely, writing, listening and reading (just three, not speaking skills) to Chinese…
This paper aims to contribute to the current debate on "interculturality" (IC) by investigating the process of language socialization whereby different generations of diasporic families negotiate, construct, and renew their sociocultural values and identities through interaction. Focusing on the use of address terms and "talk about social,…
Leung, Cheung-Shing Samuel; Yuen-Fan, Lomita Wong
Explains how the education system in Hong Kong has helped to shape Hong Kong's past diglossia and how the country is preparing to face the changes inherent in the new political context in which Putonghua will be another element. Reports on the status and use of Cantonese and Putonghua (the national language of the People's Republic of China). (33…
Fu, Tingfeng; Nassaji, Hossein
The role of corrective feedback in second language classrooms has received considerable research attention in the past few decades. However, most of this research has been conducted in English-teaching settings, either ESL or EFL. This study examined teacher feedback, learner uptake as well as learner and teacher perception of feedback in an adult…
Li, Zheng; Rubie-Davies, Christine Margaret
This study was designed to investigate teacher expectation effects for intact student groups (rather than individuals) in tertiary settings, which have been little studied in the literature. The participants were 50 teachers and their 4617 first-year undergraduate students learning English as a foreign language at two universities in China.…
Lai, Chun; Gao, Fang; Wang, Qiu
Understanding the value of monocultural acculturation orientation to the host culture (assimilation) and bicultural acculturation orientation (integration) for language learning is critical in guiding educational policy and practices for immigrant students. This study aimed to enhance our understanding on the relationship between acculturation…
Sanden, Guro Refsum
Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...
Lam, Kitty K Y; To, Carol K S
The study investigated how Putonghua-Cantonese bilingual children differ from monolinguals in their acquisition of speech sound and phonological patterns. Fifty-four typically developing Putonghua-Cantonese bilingual children aged 3;6-6;0 were recruited from nurseries in the North District of Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Cantonese Articulation Test (Cheung et al., 2006) and a Putonghua picture-naming task (Zhu & Dodd, 2000) were used to elicit single-word samples of both languages. Acquisition of speech sound and phonological patterns exhibited by ≥20% of the children in an age group were compared to the normative data on children who were Cantonese native or Putonghua monolingual speakers. The bilingual children demonstrated smaller sound inventory in both languages and more delayed and atypical phonological processes. The atypical patterns could be explained by phonological interference between Putonghua and Cantonese. The findings serve as a preliminary reference for clinicians in differentiating language difference from true speech sound disorders in Putonghua-Cantonese bilingual children in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Jing; Joshi, R Malatesha; Dixon, L Quentin; Huang, Liyan
The present study examined the knowledge and skills of basic language constructs among elementary school teachers who were teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China. Six hundred and thirty in-service teachers completed the adapted Reading Teacher Knowledge Survey. Survey results showed that English teachers' self-perceived ability to teach vocabulary was the highest and self-perceived ability to teach reading to struggling readers was the lowest. Morphological knowledge was positively correlated with teachers' self-perceived teaching abilities, and it contributed unique variance even after controlling for the effects of ultimate educational attainment and years of teaching. Findings suggest that elementary school EFL teachers in China, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language constructs, but less able to demonstrate explicit knowledge of other skills, especially sub-lexical units (e.g., phonemic awareness and morphemes). The high self-perceived ability of teaching vocabulary and high scores on syllable counting reflected the focus on larger units in the English reading curriculum.
Cheng, Juan; Chen, Xun; Liu, Aiping; Peng, Hu
Sign language recognition (SLR) is an important communication tool between the deaf and the external world. It is highly necessary to develop a worldwide continuous and large-vocabulary-scale SLR system for practical usage. In this paper, we propose a novel phonology- and radical-coded Chinese SLR framework to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous SLR using accelerometer (ACC) and surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors. The continuous Chinese characters, consisting of coded sign gestures, are first segmented into active segments using EMG signals by means of moving average algorithm. Then, features of each component are extracted from both ACC and sEMG signals of active segments (i.e., palm orientation represented by the mean and variance of ACC signals, hand movement represented by the fixed-point ACC sequence, and hand shape represented by both the mean absolute value (MAV) and autoregressive model coefficients (ARs)). Afterwards, palm orientation is first classified, distinguishing "Palm Downward" sign gestures from "Palm Inward" ones. Only the "Palm Inward" gestures are sent for further hand movement and hand shape recognition by dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm and hidden Markov models (HMM) respectively. Finally, component recognition results are integrated to identify one certain coded gesture. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SLR framework with a vocabulary scale of 223 characters can achieve an averaged recognition accuracy of 96.01% ± 0.83% for coded gesture recognition tasks and 92.73% ± 1.47% for character recognition tasks. Besides, it demonstrats that sEMG signals are rather consistent for a given hand shape independent of hand movements. Hence, the number of training samples will not be significantly increased when the vocabulary scale increases, since not only the number of the completely new proposed coded gestures is constant and limited, but also the transition movement which connects successive signs needs no
Fan, Hsiu-Ping; Lin, Mau-Roung; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Huang, Ping-Wen; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chiu, Wen-Ta
Motorcycles are the leading cause of road traffic deaths in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia, where Mandarin Chinese is the most commonly used language. Sensation seeking (SS) is reported to correlate with many risky motor vehicle behaviors, and therefore a culture-adapted Chinese instrument is needed to assess this personality trait in Chinese-speaking motorcycling populations. The standard front and blinded-backward process was carried out to formulate the Chinese-language Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (C-BSSS). 193 parental motorcyclists who rode with their young children were interviewed concerning their SS levels, demographics, riding behaviors, and the driving/riding experiences. A random sample of 30 subjects was re-interviewed 1-2 weeks later to examine the test-retest reliability. Psychometric analyses revealed satisfactory item characteristics, internal consistency, intraobserver reliability, and interobserver reliability. Additionally, parental motorcyclists who had the following characteristics were more likely to be the high sensation seekers (SSers), including male, younger age, presenting risky motor vehicle behaviors of themselves (e.g., higher riding speeds, operating after drinking, using a mobile phone while operating, and receiving a traffic ticket), and carrying child passengers who demonstrated dangerous motorcycling behaviors (e.g., a younger age, non-helmeted, and overloaded). We conclude that the C-BSSS is a useful and reliable measure of SS for ethnic Chinese populations. This instrument may be helpful to develop the future prevention strategy of motorcycle injuries in Chinese parental motorcyclists and their young child passengers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Cheung, Yin Bun; Yeo, Khung Keong; Chong, Kok Joon; Khoo, Eric Yh; Wee, Hwee Lin
The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire is a 26-item questionnaire that evaluates 4 domains of quality of life (QoL), namely Physical, Psychological, Social Relationships and Environment. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF among Singapore residents aged 21 and above. We recruited participants from the general population by using multistage cluster sampling and participants from 2 hospitals by using convenience sampling. Participants completed either English, Chinese or Malay versions of the WHOQOL-BREF and the EuroQoL 5 Dimension 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis, known-group validity, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were performed. Data from 1316 participants were analysed (Chinese: 46.9%, Malay: 41.0% and Indian: 11.7%; 57.5% mean, mean standard deviation [SD, range] age: 51.9 [15.68, 24 to 90] years); 154 participants took part in the retest in various languages (English: 60, Chinese: 49 and Malay: 45). Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) was 0.919, 0.913 and 0.909 for the English, Chinese and Malay versions, respectively. Cronbach's alpha exceeded 0.7 and ICC exceeded 0.4 for all domains in all language versions. The WHOQOL-BREF is valid and reliable for assessing QoL in Singapore. Model fit is reasonable with room for improvement.
Cheung, R T F; Lyden, P D; Tsoi, T H; Huang, Y; Liu, M; Hon, S F K; Raman, R; Liu, L
The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is an integral part of acute stroke assessment. We report our experience with new Putonghua- and Cantonese-Chinese language NIHSS (PC-NIHSS and CC-NIHSS) training and certification videos. A professional video production company was hired to create the training and certification videos for both PC-NIHSS and CC-NIHSS. Two training and certification workshops were held in Chengdu and Beijing, and two workshops in Hong Kong. The instruction, training and group A certification videos were presented to workshop attendees. Unweighted kappa statistics were used to measure the agreement among raters, and the inter-rater agreements for PC-NIHSS and CC-NIHSS videos were compared with those of original English language NIHSS (E-NIHSS) videos. The pass rates using PC-NIHSS and CC-NIHSS videos were 79% and 82%, respectively. All possible responses on individual scale items were included. Facial palsy and limb ataxia (13%) showed poor agreement, nine (60%) to 10 (67%) items showed moderate agreement (0.4videos, the agreements on best gaze, visual fields, facial weakness and aphasia were less for PC-NIHSS videos, and the agreements on commands for level of consciousness and visual fields were less for CC-NIHSS videos. Nevertheless, there was no difference between PC-NIHSS or CC-NIHSS and E-NIHSS videos in the agreement on total score. Compared with E-NIHSS videos, PC-NIHSS and CC-NIHSS videos show good content validity and inter-rater reliability. Availability of these videos may facilitate the proper use of NIHSS among physicians and nurses in Putonghua- or Cantonese-speaking communities.
Todd, Laura; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie
Inadequate health literacy has been identified as a barrier to the utilization of health-care services, including cancer screening. This study examined predictors of health literacy among 106 older Chinese immigrant women to Canada and how colon cancer information presented in their first versus second language affected health literacy skill. Only 38.7% of the women had adequate health literacy based on Short Test of Functional Health Literacy for Adults, and 54.3% had adequate comprehension of the colon cancer information. Comprehension of the cancer information was significantly lower among women who received the information in English compared with those who received the information in Chinese. Age, acculturation, self-reported proficiency reading English, and education were significant predictors of health literacy but varied depending on the measure of health literacy used and language of the information. Presentation of cancer prevention information in one's first rather than second language improves health literacy but does not eliminate comprehension difficulties for older ESL Chinese immigrants.
Spink, John; Moyer, Douglas C; Park, Hyeonho; Wu, Yongning; Fersht, Victor; Shao, Bing; Hong, Miao; Paek, Seung Yeop; Edelev, Dmitry
This paper introduces the topic of Food Fraud with translations to Russian, Korean, and Chinese. The concepts provide a system-wide focus leading to prevention. The goal is not to detect Food Fraud but to adjust entire food supply chains to reduce fraud opportunities. Food Fraud is a recently defined area of Food Protection between Food Safety (such as Salmonella or pesticide residue), and Food Defense (malicious intent to harm such as terrorism). Food Fraud is intentional with no intent to harm but only for economic gain. As with improving Food Safety and Food Defense, preventing Food Fraud is good for society and the economy. Society benefits through fewer public health threats from unauthorized acts. Society also benefits from increased consumer satisfaction and harmony. Food Security is increased through the production of more, higher-value products for consumers, commerce, and exporting. Food Fraud can reduce economic output because sickened citizens cannot work and it also reduces consumer confidence leading to less commerce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Kate
This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading, and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation modeling analysis identified transfer of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity to English reading comprehension. This transfer was realized through a direct pathway via English stress sensitivity and also an indirect pathway via English word reading. These results suggest that prosodic sensitivity is an important factor influencing English reading comprehension and that it needs to be incorporated into theoretical accounts of reading comprehension across languages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cao, Fan; Young Kim, Say; Liu, Yanni; Liu, Li
It has been evidenced that both similarities and differences exist in the brain network involved in second language reading in comparison to the first language reading. However, very few studies have been done to compare functional connectivity in L1 and L2 reading. Brain activation and functional connectivity during English pseudoword rhyming judgment in a group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CE group) were compared to a Chinese word rhyming judgment task in another group of late Chinese-English bilinguals (the CC group). Brain activation analyses revealed that the two groups engaged a similar network and that the only significant group difference was greater involvement of the right middle occipital gyrus in the CC group than in the CE group, due to greater holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. English pseudowords can be read using the same network as Chinese characters, whereas psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses revealed different connectivity within the reading network between the two groups. Greater functional connectivity was found between three visuo-orthographic seed regions and the right precentral gyrus in the CC group, suggesting that the sensorimotor patterns of Chinese syllables are activated during Chinese word rhyming judgment. In contrast, we found greater connectivity between the three seed regions and the left postcentral gyrus in the CE group. In addition, the connectivity between one of the three seed regions (i.e. the right middle occipital gyrus) and the left postcentral gyrus was positively correlated with English proficiency in the CE group. This suggests that somatosensory feedback plays a key role in processing the foreign phonemes of English pseudowords and those highly proficient bilinguals tend to rely on this information to a greater degree. We also found that within the CE group, the connectivity between the right middle occipital gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobule was positively
Li, Ee Hui; Hew, Soon Hin; Choo, Siew Hwa
In recent years, the growth of China has successfully boosted the Chinese language to be studied by people from different language-speaking societies. The Chinese language has become the most preferred second or third language among non-Chinese native novices due to the great development of China and global economic change. The Chinese idiom is…
Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Ip, Tsui Shan
Previous research has suggested that high levels of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) have a negative effect on foreign language learning (Horwitz, 2001; Lu & Liu, 2011) while moderate levels of Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity (SLTA) are believed to boost foreign language learning (Ely, 1995). There is prima facie evidence that…
Zhang, Yan; Guo, Yan
Chinese children of immigrant families are often perceived as good at memorization and rote learning or as polite, obedient, and passive students lacking creativity and criticality. Guided by Multiple Literacies Theory and translanguaging, this study explores how Chinese children in a Mandarin-English bilingual program skillfully navigate…
In this dissertation research, I examined the overall educational experiences of Chinese immigrant students, particularly their educational experiences in the United States. Using narrative inquiry methodology in my study, I portrayed the stories of six Chinese immigrant students, including four undergraduates and two graduates in a Midwestern…
Language Brokering and Adjustment among Chinese and Korean American Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Perceived Maternal Sacrifice, Respect for the Mother, and Mother-Child Open Communication.
Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chao, Ruth K
Asian American adolescents often language broker for their immigrant parents. Using a two-wave sample of Chinese American ( n = 237; average age at W1 = 14.65, SD = .68) and Korean American ( n = 262; average age at W1 = 14.72, SD = .69) adolescents, this study examined a culturally relevant conditional mechanism through which language brokering may contribute to lower levels of internalizing/externalizing problems. Results suggested that language brokering for the mother was associated with perceived maternal sacrifice, which was in turn associated with respect for the mother, which was eventually associated with lower levels of externalizing problems (but not internalizing problems) in the adolescents. Moreover, the indirect effect was conditional on the level of mother-child open communication. With a lower level of open communication, the indirect effect of language brokering on externalizing problems became stronger. Results indicate that interventions designed to reduce Asian American adolescent language brokers' externalizing problems may be effective if they target adolescents' perception of parental sacrifice and respect for parents, especially for those adolescents experiencing a low level of parent-child open communication. At the same time, increasing open communication within the family may also ultimately reduce adolescent externalizing problems.
Lilian Hoffecker, PhD, MLS
Conclusions: Language translation can be a difficult and time-consuming task. However, translation of a conference slide presentation with limited text is an achievable activity and engages an international audience for information that is often not noticed or lost. Although English is by far the primary language of science and other disciplines, it is not necessarily the first or preferred language of global researchers. By offering appropriate language versions, the authors of presentations can expand the reach of their work.
張, 英; 張, 英; Zhang, Ying; チョウ, エイ; Cho, Ei
Custom displays the culture it belongs to. If take the method of teaching second language by teaching customs, the second language learners can not only gain knowledge about target language or acquire language skills, but they can also know the culture of target language and also enhance their intercultural competence in the process of their language learning. The choosing of custom items in Chinese language textbook and that of custom teaching strategies ought to take the training of Chinese...
Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy K.; Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.
Auditory processing and spoken word recognition difficulties have been observed in Specific Language Impairment (SLI), raising the possibility that auditory perceptual deficits disrupt word recognition and, in turn, phonological processing and oral language. In this study, fifty-seven kindergarten children with SLI and fifty-three language-typical…
Taguchi, Naoko; Xiao, Feng; Li, Shuai
Participants were 109 American college students studying Chinese in a study-abroad programme in Beijing. Following Kelley and Meyer, intercultural competence was defined as cross-cultural adaptability involving four dimensions (emotional resilience, flexibility/openness, perceptual acuity and personal autonomy) and was measured with a survey. A…
Lu, Zhongshe; Liu, Meihua
The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL) reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a) Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS) had important subcomponents, (b) more than half of the students gen...
Moskovsky, Christo; Jiang, Guowu; Libert, Alan; Fagan, Seamus
Whereas there has been some research on the role of bottom-up and top-down processing in the learning of a second or foreign language, very little attention has been given to bottom-up and top-down instructional approaches to language teaching. The research reported here used a quasi-experimental design to assess the relative effectiveness of two…
Recent years have witnessed rapid growth in language learning within online collaborative learning projects constructed between educational institutions in different cultural and pedagogic contexts. This qualitative case study investigated the role of teacher communication in a short online project between language classes in secondary schools in…
Sun, He; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; van der Steen, Steffie; Cox, Ralf; de Bot, Kees
The current study focuses on one child's (male, 3 years old) learning behaviors in an English as a Foreign Language classroom, and explores the coordination and developmental patterns of his nonverbal (gestures and body language) and verbal (verbal repetition and verbal responses) learning behaviors
Yeung, Susanna S.; Chan, Carol K. K.
Background: Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2…
With the rapid development of information and technology, language learners have more ways to acquire the target language. Recently, WILL has gained popularity, for informal web-based learning of English has been depicted as a process driven by the purpose of communication. Thus, teachers have many challenges when teaching learners who have…
Lagarrigue, Aurélie; Longcamp, Marieke; Anton, Jean Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Prévot, Laurent; Velay, Jean-Luc; Cao, Fan; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl
We examined the implication of training modality on the cortical representation of Chinese words in adult second language learners of Chinese. In particular, we tested the implication of the neural substrates of writing in a reading task. The brain network sustaining finger writing was defined neuroanatomically based on an independent functional localizer. We examined the brain activations elicited by Chinese words learned via writing vs. pronunciation, and by novel untrained words, within regions of interest (ROIs) defined according to the position of the activation peaks in the localizer, and at the whole brain level. We revealed activations in the reading task that overlapped with several parts of the finger writing network. In addition, our results provide evidence that the neural substrates of writing are differentially involved in reading depending on the stored knowledge for words, as revealed by the fine-grained response of several regions including the left superior parietal lobule and left precentral gyrus / superior frontal sulcus to the experimental manipulations. Training modality and the linguistic properties of the characters also impacted the response of the left mid-fusiform gyrus, confirming its involvement as the brain region where linguistic, visual and sensorimotor information converge during orthographic processing. At the behavioral level, global handwriting quality during the training sessions was positively correlated to the final translation performance. Our results demonstrate substantial overlap in the neural substrates of reading and writing, and indicate that some regions sustaining handwriting are differentially involved in reading depending on the type of knowledge associated with words. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon
Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…
Francisco Javier Falero Parra
Full Text Available Numerous studies have highlighted the negative impact of suffering anxiety during the acquisition process of a foreign language and how this fact affects oral skills. This article shows the results of a research conducted at Instituto Cervantes of Beijing among A2 level students with a dual purpose: determining which language skills are a real source of stress for learners; and, on the other hand, analyzing the impact of a blended learning methodology proposed to develop oral skills. The results confirm that both oral expression and listening comprehension increase the anxiety of students, while the analysis of the productions in the experiment indicate a quantitative improvement of these skills significantly reducing the anxiety factor. The motivational component provided by the use of mobile devices in class invites to extend the experience to other courses and levels.
Gosselin, Pei-Ying Lin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of songs in different languages on English language learners' (ELLs) music preferences. The participants (N = 62) were Chinese graduate students from a state university in the Midwestern United States. The survey contained nine excerpts from popular songs in three languages: Chinese (the…
Fu Ruo Mei
Full Text Available More and more non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian begin to learn Chinese,some of them even choose Chinese as their major in University.The survey of four major Chinese departments in Jakarta shows that intrinsic motivation is the most important motivation of Chinese studying. Interests and passion to Chinese language and culture encouraged the non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian students to study Chinese. To assist them overcome their difficulties in studying is very important for Chinese education in Indonesia.
Shum, Kathy Kar-man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Siegel, Linda S.; Au, Terry Kit-fong
Can young students' early reading abilities in their first language (L1) predict later literacy development in a second language (L2)? The cross-language relationships between Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among 87 Hong Kong students were explored in a longitudinal study. Chinese word-reading fluency, Chinese rapid digit naming, and Chinese rhyme…
Baxter, William H., III
Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)
Lu, Zhongshe; Liu, Meihua
The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL) reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a) Both Foreign Language…
Cargill, Margaret; O'Connor, Patrick; Li, Yongyan
As is the worldwide trend, scientists in China face strong and increasing pressure to publish their research in international peer-reviewed journals written in English. There is an acute need for graduate students to develop the required language skills alongside their scientific expertise, in spite of the distinct division currently existing…
Chen, Baoguo; Zhou, Huixia; Gao, Yiwen; Dunlap, Susan
The present study aimed to test the Sense Model of cross-linguistic masked translation priming asymmetry, proposed by Finkbeiner et al. ("J Mem Lang" 51:1-22, 2004), by manipulating the number of senses that bilingual participants associated with words from both languages. Three lexical decision experiments were conducted with…
The relationship between motivation and EFL proficiency is an issue of great concern in previous research on foreign language learning. However, work in this area offers inconclusive evidence with regard to the directionality of their relations. Using cross-lagged structural equation modeling, this study investigated the directionality of the…
Jiang, Lin; Xiao, Hailing
This article reports on an 8-week study that investigated the differential effects of two written corrective feedback (CF) options on 92 low-intermediate EFL students' explicit and implicit knowledge of English articles and the extent to which language analytic ability might influence the effect of written CF. The study used a…
This study assessed Chinese teachers' perspectives on why Chinese students perform well on spatial tasks. The study interviewed 17 male and 12 female teachers of Chinese language, math, science, and 6 other subjects, from elementary schools, high schools, and colleges of Beijing, China. The responses indicated that the Chinese teachers perceived…
Full Text Available The present study explored the interrelations between foreign language (FL reading anxiety, FL reading strategy use and their interactive effect on FL reading comprehension performance at the tertiary level in China. Analyses of the survey data collected from 1702 university students yielded the following results: (a Both Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS and Foreign Language Reading Strategy Use Scale (FLRSUS had important subcomponents, (b more than half of the students generally did not feel anxious when reading English, and were confident in and satisfied with their English reading proficiency. Meanwhile, (c more than half of them moderately used different types of reading strategies such as planning, checking and confirming, predicting and assessing, when reading English, (d compared with their female peers, male students felt significantly more anxious when facing reading activities, less satisfied with their English reading proficiency, and used specific analyzing and planning strategies significantly less often during a reading activity, (e FLRAS was significantly inversely related to FLRSUS, and both were significantly correlated with the students’ FL reading comprehension performance, and (f FLRAS (overall FL reading anxiety, FLRAS1 (general anxiety about FL reading, and FLRSUS2 (predicting strategies were good predictors of FL reading comprehension performance. Based on the findings, some implications are discussed.
Full Text Available This article studies one borrowing from Chinese – «feng shui» with the standpoint of cognitive science and psycholinguistics. According to the statistics from «The Russian National Corpus», «YandexNews» and our experiments we can conclude that this borrowing «feng shui» is quite common in Russian language. We expand research based on the theory and method of Russian linguists: Z.D. Popova and I.A. Sternin, implying three steps for description of concept «feng shui»: 1 describe macrostructure of concept; 2 describe categorical structure of concept; 3 describe field organization of concept. According to the data of psycholinguistic experiments we can point out not only the adaptive information of «feng shui» among Russianspeakers, but also concept content. Associative experiments create a concept model of «feng shui», and divide it into the core, proximal, distal and the extreme periphery.
Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei
To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was correct. Sentences were classified into literal translation sentences with the similar structure between the two languages and free translation sentences with the different structure. Behavioral data showed: shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates occurred in the high-proficient group than those in the intermediate-proficient group; shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates were observed in literal translation sentences than those in free translation sentences. ERP results showed literal translation sentences elicited an enhanced P200 and P600 while free translation sentences elicited a larger N400. The high-proficient group showed a larger P600 in syntactic violations and double violations while the intermediate-proficient group evoked an enhanced N400 in semantic violations and double violations. Literal translation sentences caused a larger P200 while free translation sentences elicited more negative-going N400. Behavioral and ERP data revealed the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on L2 sentence processing, and L2 proficiency played a predominate role.
Chinese courses at the St. Louis University High School teach language, culture and calligraphy. Daily classes feature language labs, slides, filmstrips and movies. Statements from students testify that the language is useful and not difficult to learn. (CHK)
Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael
The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…
The article is devoted to the problem of Chinese teacher training major. The factors facilitating efficient Chinese teacher training as well as the most common linguistic difficulties of the Chinese language are specified in the article. The author touches upon the peculiarities of the realization of the proposed model aimed at efficient educational success within the Ukraine’s system of education.
Loh, Shiu-Chang; And Others
A practical machine translation system called CULT (Chinese University Language Translator), capable of translating Chinese mathematical texts into readable English, has been developed during the period 1969-1977 at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Programs for the system are written in Standard FORTRAN and run on the ICL1904A computer system.…
Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan; Rao, Nirmala
This review evaluates the role of language--specifically, the Chinese-based system of number words and the simplicity of Chinese mathematical terms--in explaining the relatively superior performance of Chinese and other East Asian students in cross-national studies of mathematics achievement. Relevant research is critically reviewed focusing on…
Christiansen, Henning; Bo, Li
Written Chinese text has no separators between words in the same way as European languages use space characters, and this creates the Chinese Word Segmentation Problem, CWSP: given a text in Chinese, divide it in a correct way into segments corresponding to words. Good solutions are in demand...
Dean SPGS NAU
Abstract. Chinese language was recently introduced in the department of Igbo,. African and Asian Studies of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka during the 2006/2007 academic session. Although Igbo and Chinese are both tone languages, their tonal systems differ. For this reason,. Igbo speaking students find it difficult to ...
Dervin, Fred; Gao, Minghui
"Happy Chinese" or kuaile hanyu is an educational melodrama produced by the Chinese TV channel CCTV in 2009. Aiming to improve foreign learners' Chinese language skills, the plot revolves around Susan, an American, staying with her former Chinese classmate's family. "Happy Chinese" proposes both language and cultural learning.…
The focus of this research is on an international distance discussion class carried out in Chinese between university students in Japan, China and Taiwan using videoconferencing. Smiling was used as an interactional index in an analysis of the archival footage of the recordings of the discussion between native speakers (NS) of Chinese and…
Marsh, Herbert W.; Kong, Chit-Kwong; Hau, Kit-Tai
Extended the internal/external frame of reference (I/E) model of self-concept formation by relating Chinese, English, and math achievement to Chinese, English, and math self-concepts in a five year longitudinal study based on a large representative sample of Hong Kong high school students. (Author)
Graham, John L; Lam, N Mark
Most Westerners preparing for a business trip to China like to arm themselves with a list of etiquette how-tos. "Carry a boatload of business cards," tipsters say. "Bring your own interpreter." "Speak in short sentences." "Wear a conservative suit." Such advice can help get companies in the door and even through the first series of business transactions. But it won't sustain the prolonged, year-in, year-out associations Chinese and Western businesses can now achieve. The authors' work with dozens of companies and thousands of American and Chinese executives over the past 20 years has demonstrated that a superficial adherence to etiquette rules gets executives only so far. They have witnessed communication breakdowns between American and Chinese businesspeople time and time again. The root cause: the American side's failure to understand the much broader context of Chinese culture and values, a problem that too often leaves Western negotiators flummoxed and flailing. American and Chinese approaches often appear incompatible. Americans see Chinese negotiators as inefficient, indirect, and even dishonest, while the Chinese see American negotiators as aggressive, impersonal, and excitable. Such perceptions have deep cultural origins. Yet those who know how to navigate these differences can develop thriving, mutually profitable, and satisfying business relationships. Four cultural threads have bound the Chinese people together for some 5,000 years, and these show through in Chinese business negotiations. They are agrarianism, morality, the Chinese pictographic language, and wariness of strangers. Most Western businesspeople often find those elements mysterious and confusing. But ignore them at any time during the negotiation process, and the deal can easily fall apart.
This paper explores Rwandan students' reasons for learning Chinese. To date, most research on modern language use and acquisition has focused on European languages. This study in contrast focuses on Chinese as a modern foreign language that is gaining uptake in Rwanda. Based on survey data gathered from 46 ...
Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning
The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…
Pinyin is a sound-annotating system for Chinese characters using Roman letters. Teaching and learning Pinyin has been an important educational practice in Mainland China for native Chinese children, and it is also typically taught to beginning learners of Chinese as a foreign/second language in tertiary-level classrooms. However, whether it should…
The research literature on open access (OA) publishing has mainly dealt with journals publishing in English, and studies focusing on OA journals in other languages are less common. This article addresses this gap via a case study focusing on Chinese-language OA journals. It starts with the identification of the major characteristics of this market, followed by eight semi-structured interviews to explore the key motivations behind Chinese-language OA publishing and perceived barriers. The majo...
Reporting on a descriptive study on the first semester Chinese language learners' openings and closings in online chats with age-peer native speakers of Chinese, this paper demonstrates the great promise that telecollaboration holds for foreign language education, and argues for an increasing role of pragmatics in Chinese language instruction, and…
Muhammad Abid Malik; Guoyuan Sang
The current research investigates the notion that Chinese students are orally less involved in the classroom as compared to international students. Most of the previous research on this topic focuses on the Chinese students in English language classes or those studying in other countries where the language barrier and foreign culture might influence such behaviour. Using observations, this research compares two Chinese and two international classes in a Chinese university to investigate this ...
exploiting variation of the nonzero locations and magnitude, we can build a discrimi- native pipeline for language recognition. Figure 1 describes a...classify each language as a target within six predefined language clusters. The language clusters are Ara- bic, Chinese, English , French, Slavic, and... Language Recognition via Sparse Coding† Youngjune L. Gwon1, William M. Campbell1, Douglas Sturim1, H. T. Kung2 1MIT Lincoln Laboratory 2Harvard
Xu, Hui Ling; Moloney, Robyn
There is increasing enrolment of Chinese heritage language learners in tertiary Chinese language classrooms across Australia. Educated in English, Chinese heritage learners are of diverse national origins and the Chinese language varieties to which they have been exposed through family or community are also diverse. Recent research in this field…
Gabriele R. Theuner; Stefan Steinmetz
This paper assesses and analyzes ways Chinese and European people view web sites designed in English and Chinese languages. The results suggest some similarities and differences based on different cultures. The Chinese market is gaining more and more importance in the international business arena. Due to the strong Chinese Internet growth rates increasingly more global enterprises use the Internet for e-Commerce, market penetration and expansion, and to communicate information in China. B...
Christiansen, Henning; Bo, Li
Written Chinese text has no separators between words in the same way as European languages use space characters, and this creates the Chinese Word Segmentation Problem, CWSP: given a text in Chinese, divide it in a correct way into segments corresponding to words. Good solutions are in demand...... for virtually any nontrivial computational processing of Chinese text, ranging from spellchecking over internet search to deep analysis. Isolating the single words is usually the first phase in the analysis of a text, but as for many other language analysis tasks, to do that perfectly, an insight in syntactic...
Full Text Available Binus University, established in 1974 and located in West Jakarta, is one of famous universities in Indonesia. This university has some literature departments including Chinese literature department which was started in 2002. At this moment, this department has 419 students and 28 lecturers who have different background. The difference of the students and lecturers’ point of view becomes one the backgrounds of this paper. The others are text books used, campus rules and alternative solution toward the problem faced. The method used in this research is direct observation. From the data taken and analyzed, it can be concluded: (1 Chinese department students, either Chinese descendant or not, has problems in learning Chinese, (2 The number of lecturers of Bachelor graduates is more than the master ones, (3 The Chinese language mastery of Chinese descendant students is better than non Chinese descendant ones, (4 The text books used are not all suitable for Chinese department student, and (5 The quality control system of Chinese teaching is good.
Angelova, Maria; Zhao, Ying
The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools to facilitate second language acquisition and develop English as a second language (ESL) teaching skills and cultural awareness. The paper describes a collaborative online project between students from China and the USA, who communicated using the…
This paper investigates the traits of a successful EFL teacher at a Chinese University by collecting qualitative data, including surveys with questionnaires and interviews, from Miss H and a group of her students and her colleagues. The purpose is to detect what special qualities she has and what other roles she undertakes in her teaching…
Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei
To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was…
Skinner, Barbara; Abbott, Lesley
This study reports the impact of different cultural values on the teacher education of Chinese teacher trainees. By examining their perceptions of the effectiveness of teaching practice feedback, the study uses Hofstede's dimension of "individualism" (IDV) to explore the "culture bumps" which may occur between teacher educators…
Zhang, Jie; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Hong; Dong, Qiong; Wu, Xinchun; Zhang, Yan
Cross-language transfer of awareness of the structure of compound words was investigated among native speakers of Chinese who were learning English as a second language. Chinese fifth graders received instruction in the morphology of four types of compound words in either Chinese or English. They then completed both the Chinese and English…
Teaching Chinese cultural perspectives in CFL instruction is more challenging than teaching about Chinese cultural products and behavior. It is challenging because most textbooks do not orient their approach to it, because native-Chinese-speaking teachers tend to overlook it as it is so much a part of them that it presents no peculiarities, and because it is believed cultural understanding comes naturally once language is learned. Studies on cross-cultural communication demonstrate that cultu...
The research on gender and identity in Mandarin Chinese CMC sphere has been less explored from a sociolinguistic point of view, which motivates me to do some relevant studies to shed light on the issues of gender difference and online identity in Mandarin Chinese blogosphere. In this project, both postmodern view of gender and poststructural perspective on language and identity were employed as theoretical basis. Chinese bloggers’ gender differences and identities were examined from two main ...
Introduction: There are many important Finnish plays but, due to language barrier, Finnish drama is seldom exported, particularly to Hong Kong and China.. Objective: To find out differences in mentality between the Finnish and Chinese peoples by comparing the partially localized Chinese translation of Aleksis Kivi’s tragedy, Kullervo, with genuine Chinese martial arts literature. Methodology: 1. Chapman Chen has translated the Finnish classic, Kullervo, directly from Finnish...
The present research explored bilingual/multilingual students' willingness to communicate in Chinese (WTCC) and foreign language anxiety (FLA) when speaking Chinese and their associations with self-rated proficiency in Chinese in a university in Beijing. The study recruited 167 bilingual and multilingual learners of Chinese to fill in a battery of…
Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael
The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Second Life (SL) for improving the oral output of overseas Chinese students learning Mandarin Chinese (hereafter referred to as Mandarin). More than 1000 overseas Chinese students attend a university in northern Taiwan every year to learn Mandarin as a heritage language after graduating…
Lent, John A.
The traditions of the Chinese press in Malaysia go back 160 years to Malaysia's first Chinese-language newspaper, considered by scholars as the first modern periodical anywhere. Since then, this press has aided Christian missionary efforts in China and Southeast Asia, helped develop permanent Chinese communities in the Malay peninsula, called for…
Ci, He; van Graan, Andre; Gonz?lvez, Gloria; Thompson, Pamela; Hill, Andrea; Duncan, John S.
Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to implement convenient, fast, and accurate Mandarin task paradigms for functional MRI, and to locate the Chinese language functional areas in frontal and temporal lobes. Materials and Methods Nineteen healthy Chinese volunteers participated in this study, which utilized a block design with four language tasks: auditory naming (AN), picture naming (PN), verbal fluency?character (VFC), and verbal fluency?letter (VFL). All functional images wer...
Full Text Available The study sets to test proposals made by Yuan and Zhao (2005 and Tsimpli and Dimitrakopoulou (2007 in relation to the issue of parameter resetting in the interpretation of resumptive pronouns by adult English speakers of L2 Chinese. Fiftyfour English speakers of different proficiency levels were asked to correct sentences involving ungrammatical resumptive pronouns in L2 Chinese and their responses were compared with those of a native speaker control group. Findings of the study argue against Yuan and Zhao’s input-driven parameter resetting account. Instead, they support the Interpretability Hypothesis of Tsimpli and Dimitrakopoulou in assuming that there is a critical period for the accessibility of uninterpretable syntactic features for the construction of mental grammars. It is argued, by extending the unattainability of the uninterpretable features assumption, that once the uninterpretable syntactic features are selected, they become difficult to lose if L2 lacks such uninterpretable features.
Chinese language was recently introduced in the department of Igbo, African and Asian Studies of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka during the 2006/2007 academic session. Although Igbo and Chinese are both tone languages, their tonal systems differ. For this reason, Igbo speaking students find it difficult to study ...
Bai, Li; Millwater, Jan; Hudson, Peter
Workplace influences on Chinese Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) academics' development as researchers were examined in two Chinese higher education institutions in this qualitative collective case study. Data sources included research documentation and interviews with 12 Chinese TEFL academics. Both institutions were keen on research…
Full Text Available Korea and Japan belong to Chinese-characters cultural spheres. In the time of Han Dynasty and thereafter, tributary states connected with the monarchy of Chinese Kingdom and its surrounding countries. They imported Chinese state regulations, accepted and developed many thoughts and cultures by bringing in Chinese characters of Chinese classics. However, there have been some different points in the treatment of Chinese characters in each nation. The Korean modern writing system does not use Chinese characters in general, while on the contrary in Japanese, there is a tendency to increase the number of regularly-used Chinese characters, for example in the official list of jōyō kanji 常用漢字 announced by the Ministry of Education, with the latest increase in 2010. Therefore, it is necessary to observe more about some aspects of the languages to know why this different treatment occurred. The oldest Korean document is the History of the Three Kingdoms, Samguk Sagi 『三国史記』 that contains geographical proper names. The Buyeo-Kingdom languages were recorded there, including place names. It is no doubt that the use of Chinese characters of Silla have significantly affected Goguryeo and Paekche. The Silla and Buyeo-Kingdom languages have closed syllables with a consonant at the end of each syllable, while in Japanese, the syllables end with vowels as open syllables. There are further phonological characteristics as well. This article discusses how each language encountered Chinese characters, and how they related to their specific languages, and also how Chinese characters particularly reflected syllable structures of different languages. It can be said that the use of Chinese characters in proper names estranged the futures of Korean and Japanese in history. Focus is laid on the history of Korean and Japanese through Chinese characters, with their falsely similar language dispositions.
Pritzker, Sonya E; Hui, Ka-Kit
This article introduces the document, Considerations in the Translation of Chinese Medicine, published in PDF form online in both Chinese and English. This 20-page document includes several sections describing why the Considerations is necessary, the specificity of texts in Chinese medicine; the history of translation in Chinese medicine; who constitutes an ideal translator of Chinese medicine; what types of language exist in Chinese medicine; and specific issues in the translation of Chinese medicine, such as domestication versus foreignization, technical terminology, period-specific language, style, polysemy, and etymological translation. The final section offers a brief advisory for consumers, and concludes with a call to further discussion, and action, specifically in the development of international collaborative efforts towards the creation of more rigorous guidelines for the translation of Chinese medicine. The current article provides an overview of several of these sections, and includes links to the original document.
The purpose of this case study is to describe the motivational orientations to learn Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) in the context of Danish university. The basis of the study is the survey data collected from 64 university students majoring in Chinese at Aarhus University in the year 2011...... learning and its pedagogical consideration in CFL. Key words: Motivation, Chinese learning, case study, Danish university students....... Based on the students' responses, answers to why students' choice of CFL are generalized by the following aspects; i.e. instrumentality, integration, individual development, and social-cultural interest. Findings of the study provide sources to reflection on its relationship with foreign language...
Drawing upon fieldwork conducted in an elite Chinese university and English language literature of audit culture in higher education against the backdrop of Chinese higher education in transition, this paper has discovered that Chinese higher education is undergoing an auditing process. However, this Chinese audit regime is not only guarded by a…
This article first looks at the complex conceptualization of Chinese learners' social-class identities with respect to a shifting Chinese class stratification. It then examines the link between social class and second-language learning in the Chinese context by reviewing several studies on Chinese learners' social-class backgrounds and their…
In Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, many Mongolian students are learning English as a third language. In the process of L3 teaching and learning, their mother tongue Mongolian, second language Chinese and target language English are involved. The present paper aims to find out teachers' and students' opinions of the use of the three languages in…
Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
Informed by family language policy (FLP) as the theoretical framework, I illustrate in this paper how language ideologies can be incongruous and language policies can be conflicting through three multilingual families in Singapore representing three major ethnic groups--Chinese, Malay and Indian. By studying their family language audits, observing…
Guan, Connie Qun; Perfetti, Charles A.; Meng, Wanjin
To examine the importance of manual character writing to reading in a new writing system, 48 adult Chinese-as-a-foreign-language students were taught characters in either a character writing-to-read or an alphabet typing-to-read condition, and engaged in corresponding handwriting or typing training for five consecutive days. Prior knowledge of…
Informed by family language policy (FLP) as the theoretical framework, I illustrate in this paper how language ideologies can be incongruous and language policies can be conflicting through three multilingual families in Singapore representing three major ethnic groups – Chinese, Malay and Indian. By studying their family language audits, observing their language practices, and engaging in conversations about their language ideologies, I look at what these families do and do not do and what t...
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between college EFL students' autonomous learning capacity and motivation in using web-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in China. This study included three questionnaires: the student background questionnaire, the questionnaire on student autonomous learning capacity, and…
Shum, Mark Shiu-kee; Tai, Chung Pui; Shi, Dan
Non-Chinese-speaking (NCS) South Asian students, as ethnic minority group in Hong Kong, are the main disadvantaged social cohort in Chinese language learning. It has been a challenge for L1 Chinese teachers to conduct L2 Chinese teaching to NCS students with diversified native languages and socio-cultural backgrounds. "Reading to Learn,…
Full Text Available The present study aimed to reveal how learners of Chinese as a foreign language use mobile technology to study Chinese outside the classroom. Researchers used sociocultural perspectives to frame the study and grounded theory to analyze data. Eleven English-speaking students who had learned Chinese for different years at a midwestern university participated in the study. They answered 23 major questions by submitting journal entries and participating in an interview. Compared with computer assisted language learning, mobile devices bring changes to tutorial functions, social computing, and gaming. Participants heavily explored tutorial functions, used mobile devices differently from computers for social computing, and showed interest in gaming. Although participants were enthusiastic about using mobile devices to learn Chinese, the number of applications they used and the variety of activities they engaged in were limited. Findings suggest that the effective incorporation of mobile devices to learn Chinese depends on collaboration and scaffolding
Grenoble, Lenore A.; Whaley, Lindsay J.
Provides a contrastive analysis of effects of two official policies geared toward promotion of indigenous populations, the Evenki in Siberia and the Oroqen in Northern China. Explores why the the Soviet and Chinese policies failed to buttress Evenki and Oroqen against encroaching languages and why the loss of the Oroqen language occurred faster…
This paper investigates the use of "Facebook" for out-of-class, informal language learning. 190 New Zealand university language students (Chinese, German, French, Japanese and Spanish) completed an anonymous online questionnaire on (1) their perceptions of "Facebook" as a multilingual environment, (2) their online writing…
This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…
Tan, Li Hai; Spinks, John A; Eden, Guinevere F; Perfetti, Charles A; Siok, Wai Ting
Language development entails four fundamental and interactive abilities: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Over the past four decades, a large body of evidence has indicated that reading acquisition is strongly associated with a child's listening skills, particularly the child's sensitivity to phonological structures of spoken language. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the close relationship between reading and listening is manifested universally across languages and that behavioral remediation using strategies addressing phonological awareness alleviates reading difficulties in dyslexics. The prevailing view of the central role of phonological awareness in reading development is largely based on studies using Western (alphabetic) languages, which are based on phonology. The Chinese language provides a unique medium for testing this notion, because logographic characters in Chinese are based on meaning rather than phonology. Here we show that the ability to read Chinese is strongly related to a child's writing skills and that the relationship between phonological awareness and Chinese reading is much weaker than that in reports regarding alphabetic languages. We propose that the role of logograph writing in reading development is mediated by two possibly interacting mechanisms. The first is orthographic awareness, which facilitates the development of coherent, effective links among visual symbols, phonology, and semantics; the second involves the establishment of motor programs that lead to the formation of long-term motor memories of Chinese characters. These findings yield a unique insight into how cognitive systems responsible for reading development and reading disability interact, and they challenge the prominent phonological awareness view.
Nowadays in Indonesia, more people realize the importance of using Chinese language. Therefore, at Binus University, Mandarin is taught not only in Chinese Literature Department, but also in non-Chinese Literature Department. Because the curriculum is still relatively new, students who have never studied Chinese language find some difficulties. The author through observations in the classroom found some problems that arise during the teaching and learning session. Through this paper, the auth...
Pineda, Jorge E.
This is a small scale, inductive, ethnographic study whose objective is to explore the language learning strategies used by the students of different languages at a language program at the university level. Students of English, French, Portuguese, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, Italian, and German participate in the study. Three instruments are used…
Kuo, Eddie C. Y.
Using data from census reports and educational statistics, this paper analyzes the language status and literacy trends in multilingual Singapore, where the four official languages are Malay, Chinese, Tamil and English. (CK)
Murase, S; Murase, S; Kitabatake, M
The mental health of foreigners in Japan, which shows a prominent increase in number recently was studied. A major group of these foreigners are Korean and Chinese, as their countries and Japan historically had a close relationship. The Chinese population has shown large increases, quadrupling over a period of 10 years. This population is characterized by purpose of residence; with most of them visiting Japan to study. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) self rating scale, we examined depression symptoms among two groups of Chinese students studying in Japan; 71 students of Mie university (MU) and 90 students of Japanese language schools (JLS) in Mie prefecture. BDI examination revealed that 28.9% (mild; 22.2%, moderate; 3.3%, severe; 3.3%) of Chinese JLS students and 23.9% (mild; 22.5%, severe; 1.4%) of Chinese MU students were depressed. Chinese JLS students showed significantly higher total BDI scores than Chinese MU students (p < 0.05). BDI scores of item D (lack of satisfaction), J (crying spells) and S (weight loss) were also significantly elevated in Chinese JLS students (D: p < 0.01, J: p < 0.05, S: p < 0.01). These results suggest that Chinese JLS students experience more stress than Chinese MU students.
Full Text Available This paper is a comparative analysis between Chinese and Shona vowel system. The research is biased towards helping Chinese language learners whose mother tongue is Shona however it is expected to benefit other researchers interested in comparative researches. The main focus of this research is on the major differences that exist between these two languages, with an aim to predict and combat the possible pronunciation errors that may result from native language transfer. The research findings show that Chinese language’s vowel system is more complex than the Shona vowel system. It is therefore assumed that though Chinese language learners whose mother tongue is Shona language may find it challenging to acquire the Chinese vowel system, however if students are advised in advanced the differences between the Chinese and Shona vowels represented by same letters in the writing systems of these two languages, students are likely to have less pronunciation errors in Chinese since they will not borrow the Shona pronunciation strategies.
Semaan, Gaby; Yamazaki, Kasumi
This article examines the relationship between global competence and second language learning motivation in critical language classrooms. Data were collected from 137 participants who were studying critical languages (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Persian) at two universities on the East and West Coasts of the United States, using a 30-item…
Sun, Yafeng; Peng, Danling; Ding, Guosheng; Qi, Ting; Desroches, Amy S; Liu, Li
The framework of assimilation and accommodation has been proposed to explain the brain mechanisms supporting second language reading acquisition (Perfetti et al. : Bilingual Lang Cogn 10:131). Assimilation refers to using the procedures of the native language network in the acquisition of a new writing system, whereas accommodation refers to using second language procedures for reading the newly acquired writing system. We investigated assimilation and accommodation patterns in the brains of bilingual individuals by recruiting a group of Chinese-English bilinguals and a group of English-Chinese bilinguals to perform lexical decision tasks in both English and Chinese. The key question was whether the assimilation/accommodation procedures supporting second language reading in the brains of Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals were dynamic, i.e., modulated by proficiency in the second language and perceptual features of the second language's script. Perceptual features of the scripts were manipulated through orthographic degradation by inserting spaces between the radicals of a Chinese character or between the syllables of an English word. This manipulation disrupts the visual configuration of the orthography but does not change its more fundamental design principles. We found that for English-Chinese bilinguals, higher proficiency was associated with greater accommodation, suggesting that the accommodation procedure in a bilingual individual's brain is modulated by second language proficiency. Most interestingly, we found that the assimilation/accommodation effects vanished or diminished when orthographically degraded scripts were processed by both Chinese-English and English-Chinese bilinguals, suggesting that the assimilation/accommodation procedures in a bilingual individual's brain are modulated by perceptual features of orthography. This work therefore offers a new, dynamic perspective for our understanding of the assimilation
To, Carol K S; Law, Thomas; Li, Xin-xin
Multilingualism can bring about various positive outcomes to typically developing children. Its effect on children with language difficulties is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of multilingual learning as a medium of instruction (MOI) on first language (L1) acquisition of children with language disorders (LD). Nineteen Cantonese-speaking students aged 5;8-6;8 who were diagnosed with LD were recruited from a school that used Putonghua (an alternative Chinese dialect) as the MOI when learning Chinese language and were compared with 18 age-and-gender-matched Cantonese-speaking students with LD from a school that used Cantonese as the MOI when learning Chinese language. All the students also learned English (L2) as a subject at school. Proficiency in Cantonese was tested at the beginning and the end of the semester in Grade One in terms of: (1) grammar, (2) expressive vocabulary, (3) auditory textual comprehension, (4) word definition and (5) narration. Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed an effect of time on language proficiency indicating positive gains in both groups. Interaction effects between time and group were not significant. There was a trend that children learning Putonghua showed slightly more improvement in auditory textual comprehension. Proficiency gains were similar across groups. The study found no evidence that a multilingual learning environment hinders the language proficiency in L1 in students who have LD. © 2011 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Erico; Uozumi, Midori
Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora) were trained to discriminate English from Chinese spoken by a bilingual speaker. They could learn discrimination and showed generalization to new sentences spoken by the same speaker and those spoken by a new speaker. Thus, the birds distinguished between English and Chinese. Although auditory cues for the discrimination were not specified, this is the first evidence that non-mammalian species can discriminate human languages.
Tsou, Benjamin K.
Presents details of the language shifts among the various sections of the Chinese-speaking population in Hong Kong and analyzes patterns of allegiance. Notes that complex social, economic, and political pressures will affect future language in Hong Kong and that, within the domains of family, work, and others, the use of Modern Standard Chinese is…
Xie, R. R.; Deng, W. B.; Wang, D. J.; Csernai, L. P.
We study the entropy of Chinese and English texts, based on characters in case of Chinese texts and based on words for both languages. Significant differences are found between the languages and between different personal styles of debating partners. The entropy analysis points in the direction of lower entropy, that is of higher complexity. Such a text analysis would be applied for individuals of different styles, a single individual at different age, as well as different groups of the popul...
Full Text Available This paper mainly discusses the choice of managerial compensation contracts in Chinese family firms. Relation or guanxi in Chinese language is an important factor that should be considered because it can bring the shirking cost to the relation-based manager and the caring cost to the owner under Chinese-style differential mode of association (“chaxu geju”. Our theoretical analysis shows that under some conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the efficiency wage contract, and that under other conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the share-based incentive contract.
Li, Jianyu; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Xiaoyue; Yang, Zhanxin
In this paper Chinese phrases are modeled using complex networks theory. We analyze statistical properties of the networks and find that phrase networks display some important features: not only small world and the power-law distribution, but also hierarchical structure and disassortative mixing. These statistical traits display the global organization of Chinese phrases. The origin and formation of such traits are analyzed from a macroscopic Chinese culture and philosophy perspective. It is interesting to find that Chinese culture and philosophy may shape the formation and structure of Chinese phrases. To uncover the structural design principles of networks, network motif patterns are studied. It is shown that they serve as basic building blocks to form the whole phrase networks, especially triad 38 (feed forward loop) plays a more important role in forming most of the phrases and other motifs. The distinct structure may not only keep the networks stable and robust, but also be helpful for information processing. The results of the paper can give some insight into Chinese language learning and language acquisition. It strengthens the idea that learning the phrases helps to understand Chinese culture. On the other side, understanding Chinese culture and philosophy does help to learn Chinese phrases. The hub nodes in the networks show the close relationship with Chinese culture and philosophy. Learning or teaching the hub characters, hub-linking phrases and phrases which are meaning related based on motif feature should be very useful and important for Chinese learning and acquisition.
Full Text Available 本研究之目的是探討香港中文教師的教學信念及其與教學實務的相關性。研究對象是六位中學教師，教學年資由四年至三十一年不等。他們來自招收學生素質不同的學校，分為高、中、低三類。資料蒐集採用半結構式訪談及觀課進行。研究揭示教師的信念系統可歸為兩大類型，而主要的分歧在於教學範疇、教學方法、教學活動及師生在課堂中的角色。持傳授觀的教師支持舊課程，接受詳細講解經典範文的教學方式；然而，持啟發觀的教師則與新課程的理念相符。本研究也揭示教師的信念與教學實務，以及對學生的期望很大程度上是一致的，從研究發現顯示，要成功地實施課程，取決於教師是否認同新課程之目的與價值。 This study aims to investigate the beliefs of Chinese language teachers in Hong Kong and how these beliefs are related to their teaching. Six secondary teachers with teaching experience of 4 to 31 years were studied. They came from schools with high, medium and low quality of student intake. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. The study finds that there are two predominant belief systems held by teachers. The major differences lie on the beliefs about scopes of teaching, instructional approaches, teaching and learning activities, and roles of teachers and students in classroom. The transmission-oriented teachers support the old Chinese language curriculum that requires the teaching of classical and exemplar texts in great detail. However, the view of the heuristics-oriented teachers is in line with the new curriculum. The results also reveal high degrees of consistency between teachers’ professed beliefs and their teaching practices as well as their expectation on students. The findings of this study suggest that successful curriculum implementation depends on whether teachers agree with
Full Text Available Since 1949, modern Chinese language has, in the course of its development in Mainland China, twice witnessed large-scale transfers in its word emotive overtones. The first began in 1949 and went on all the way till the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1977. Derogation manifested itself in that period, during which the derogatory words enjoyed their greatest number, widest usages and highest frequency in the history of the Chinese language. The second began from the Reform and Opening Up Policy in 1978 and lasted untill now. De-derogation has manifested itself in this period, during which the derogatory words have had the smallest number, least usages and lowest frequency in the history of the Chinese language. The two large-scale transfers result from their specific social backgrounds and the development of the Chinese language itself.
At Chinese universities, English is more considered a subject you need to succeed in than a language that you would like to use. Almost all Chinese students, who spend a lot of time learning English, complain that their English has not improved at university. The main objective of this dissertation
Recently there has been an increase in the number of students learning Mandarin Chinese (in mainland China and internationally). This increase has led to speculation that Mandarin Chinese is becoming a mainstream global language to the point of becoming a "lingua franca." This paper utilizes research findings from different regions and…
Baca, Fernie; Lundquist, Gerald W.
Background and historical information regarding adaptation assimilation of Chinese women to living in Southeast Asia includes details of Chinese immigration to Southeast Asia, socialization factors affecting identity and change, and language education. (Journal availability: National Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State…
Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Ho, Connie Suk-Han
The co-occurrence of reading comprehension difficulties for first language (L1) Chinese and second language (L2) English and associated longitudinal cognitive-linguistic correlates in each language were investigated. Sixteen poor comprehenders in English and 16 poor comprehenders in Chinese, 18 poor readers in both, and 18 children with normal performance in both were identified at age 10. The prevalence rate for being poor in both was 52.94%, suggesting that approximately half of children who are at risk for Chinese reading comprehension difficulty are also at risk for English reading comprehension difficulty. Chinese word reading, phonological, and morphological awareness were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in Chinese. English word reading and vocabulary were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in English. Chinese phonological awareness was an additional correlate of poor comprehension in English. Moreover, poor comprehenders in both Chinese and English showed slower rapid automatized naming scores than the other groups. Findings highlight some factors that might be critical for reading comprehension in L1 Chinese and L2 English; fluency is likely to be a critical part of reading comprehension across languages. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Conrad, Cynthia; Coleman, Charles
Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the public sector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…
Ho, Connie Suk-han
The present 4-year longitudinal study examined preschool predictors of Grade 1 dyslexia status in a Chinese population in Hong Kong where children started learning to read at the age of three. Seventy-five and 39 Chinese children with high and low familial risk respectively were tested on Chinese word reading, oral language skills, morphological…
Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chen, Wenli; Chai, Ching-Sing; Chin, Chee-Kuen; Gao, Ping
This paper outlines an adaptable collaborative writing approach employing a wiki to address the typical weaknesses of young Singaporean Chinese students learning Chinese as second language (L2) in Chinese writing. These students' problems in writing include limited and incorrect use of vocabulary, English-style grammar, badly structured passages,…
Dulay, Katrina May; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine
We investigated the influence of nonparental caregivers, such as foreign domestic helpers (FDH), on the home language spoken to the child and its implications for vocabulary and word reading development in Cantonese- and English-speaking bilingual children. Using data collected from ages 5 to 9, we analyzed Chinese vocabulary, Chinese character…
A major issue in the field of L2 acquisition is the role that language learners' L1 plays in the acquisition of an L2. This article shows some of the salient linguistic features of Chinese that may present communication challenges for Chinese-speaking learners of English as an additional language. Instructors' awareness of such features will…
Rawlings, Melody; Sue, Edna
What Chinese students learn about American culture and the English language in the classrooms of China does not adequately prepare them for the reality of American culture and communication in English. In this study, the constructs of American culture and models of English language taught in Chinese classrooms are compared with the reality of…
The history and current state of Chinese teaching in Australia has largely been determined by two key factors: first, the country's policy on languages, and in particular its policy regarding foreign language education; and second, its immigrants and overseas students from Chinese-speaking countries and regions. Beginning in the 1980s, Chinese…
Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin
This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…
Zhang, Yanhui; Li, Ruyu
This study investigates the role of morphological awareness in the incidental learning of Mandarin Chinese characters among Chinese as second language (CSL) learners. Participants of the study were 20 college-level international students, uniformly Thai in language background, enrolled to study CSL at Southwest University, Chongqing, China. The…
Baillie, Lauren E; Copeland, Amy L
This study evaluated the roles of exposure to Western culture and language choice and gender differences in disordered eating symptoms in Chinese and Caucasian students. 796 Caucasian and 194 Chinese students completed measures of eating disorder symptoms, body image, and body esteem. Participants chose their survey language (English or Chinese). Caucasian women had higher levels of body dissatisfaction than Chinese women. Women of both ethnicities reported more disordered eating symptoms and body dissatisfaction than men; these differences were smaller for the Chinese group. Differences emerged on certain dimensions of body esteem between Chinese women who responded in Chinese and those who responded in English. There were few differences between ethnicities, suggesting that mechanisms other than Western culture play a role. Cultural variables may account for the degree of intra-ethnic gender differences. Individuals who complete studies in their native language may differ from their English-responding counterparts in areas of body esteem. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.
This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…
Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping
A Web-based database is developed to provide psycholinguists with a large-scale phonological representation system for all Mandarin Chinese monosyllables. The construction of the system is based on the slot-based phonological pattern generator (PatPho), with an adequate consideration of the language-specific features of the Chinese phonology. Users can retrieve the relevant phonological representations through an interactive query system on the Web. The query outcomes can be saved in a number of formats, such as Excel spreadsheets, for further analyses. This representation system can be used for a variety of purposes--in particular, connectionist language modeling and, more generally, the study of Chinese phonology.
Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhang, Mingxia; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Dong, Qi
Learning a new language entails interactions with one's prior language(s). Much research has shown how native language affects the cognitive and neural mechanisms of a new language, but little is known about whether and how learning a new language shapes the neural mechanisms of prior language(s). In two experiments in the current study, we used an artificial language training paradigm in combination with fMRI to examine (1) the effects of different linguistic components (phonology and semantics) of a new language on the neural process of prior languages (i.e., native and second languages), and (2) whether such effects were modulated by the proficiency level in the new language. Results of Experiment 1 showed that when the training in a new language involved semantics (as opposed to only visual forms and phonology), neural activity during word reading in the native language (Chinese) was reduced in several reading-related regions, including the left pars opercularis, pars triangularis, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, and inferior occipital gyrus. Results of Experiment 2 replicated the results of Experiment 1 and further found that semantic training also affected neural activity during word reading in the subjects’ second language (English). Furthermore, we found that the effects of the new language were modulated by the subjects’ proficiency level in the new language. These results provide critical imaging evidence for the influence of learning to read words in a new language on word reading in native and second languages. PMID:25447375
Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...
Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)
Shi, Lijing; Stickler, Ursula
Speaking in Chinese is problematic for all learners, particularly for beginners and more so during online interaction. Despite the fact that interaction has been identified as crucial for the development of speaking skills, it can be hindered by students' lack of language competence or their anxiety. Teacher-centred practices in tutorials can…
Tzeng, Ovid J. L.; Lee, Chia Ying; Lee, Jun Ren; Wu, Denise H.; Lee, Rose R.-W.; Hung, Daisy L.
Using the Chinese writing system, which is unique with respect to the composition of each character in terms of its graphic shape, as an example, this chapter addresses the neurobiological underpinnings of reading and writing and how these brain circuits are used in different languages.
Li, Zhihong; Sisson, Keith; Kung, Hsiang-te
The purpose of this study is to find out how young children can learn, understand, and progress in the Chinese language. This study focuses on 13 students between two and three years old. The data collection methods used classroom observation, benchmarks, and parent questionnaires about at home behavior. The data analysis used is qualitative…
Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa
This study examined the Chinese written composition development of elementary-grade students in relation to the simple view of writing. Measures of nonverbal reasoning ability, component skills of transcription (stroke sequence knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency), oral language (definitional skill, oral narrative skills, and…
Rosita, Lia. 2013. The Bonesetter's Daughter: A Study in the Exposure of Chinese Culture. Study Program of English, Department of Languages and Literature, Faculty of Cultural Studies, Universitas Brawijaya.Supervisor: Dyah Eko Hapsari; Co-supervisors: Fredy NugrohoKeywords: Chinese culture, Chinese traditions, superstitions belief.Amy Tan is one of famous Chinese – American novelist who produces so many literary works. The Bonesetter's Daughter is one of Tan's novels that published in 20...
Turner, Anne M; Desai, Loma; Dew, Kristin; Martin, Nathalie; Kirchhoff, Katrin
There is an unmet need for Chinese language health materials in the USA. We investigated the use of machine translation (MT) plus human post-editing (PE) to produce Chinese translations of public health materials. We collected 60 documents that had been manually translated from English to traditional Chinese. The English versions were translated to Chinese using MT and assessed for errors and time required to correct via PE. Results suggest poor initial translation may explain the lack of quality translations despite PE.
Wang, Weihong; Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao-Lan
This paper presents an on-going study of the enactment of The International Promotion of Chinese Policy (国际汉语推广政策). It explores how Chinese teaching and learning take place in a Chinese university under the Study in China Programme which allows international students, after a period of intensive Chinese language learning, to transfer to academic courses taught in Chinese for Chinese students at the tertiary level. This programme has expanded in recent years in response to the government's goa...
Liu, Wuying; Wang, Lin
The large-scale bilingual parallel resource is significant to statistical learning and deep learning in natural language processing. This paper addresses the automatic construction issue of the Korean-Chinese domain dictionary, and presents a novel unsupervised construction method based on the natural annotation in the raw corpus. We firstly extract all Korean-Chinese word pairs from Korean texts according to natural annotations, secondly transform the traditional Chinese characters into the simplified ones, and finally distill out a bilingual domain dictionary after retrieving the simplified Chinese words in an extra Chinese domain dictionary. The experimental results show that our method can automatically build multiple Korean-Chinese domain dictionaries efficiently.
This article explores the rhetoric of the four official languages (English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil) in Singapore and the domestic aversion towards Chinese "dialects" and colloquial "Singlish". The "Speak Mandarin Campaign" alongside the "Speak Good English Movement" represent a display of intercultural…
Scales, Julie; Wennerstrom, Ann; Richard, Dara; Wu, Su Hui
This study analyzed the accent perceptions of a group of 37 English language learners and 10 American undergraduate students. Each subject listened to a one-minute passage read by four speakers with different accents of English: General American, British English, Chinese English, and Mexican English. Participants then attempted to identify the…
Li, Yen-Hui Audrey
Argues that a classifier language can have a plural morpheme within a nominal expression, suggesting that -men in Mandarin Chinese is best analyzed as a plural morpheme, in contrast to a regular plural on an element in N, such as the English -s. The paper makes a prediction about the structures of nominal expressions in classifier and…
Ren, Juanjuan; Gao, Xiaofang
Summary.-This study was designed to examine negative pragmatic transfer of the speech act of English compliments by Chinese who learn English as a foreign language and to estimate the correlation between the amount of negative pragmatic transfer and English proficiency of the Chinese learners. Frequencies of students' performance showed that both in the favored compliments and the response strategies, differences were evident between Chinese English learners and native English speakers. This indicated that Chinese learners had trouble with the "slang" or "idioms" of the target language and tended to transfer negatively their L1 pragmatic norms to their L2 communication. Moreover, the favored compliment response strategies used by two groups of Chinese learners--who had different levels of English proficiency--differed, and negative pragmatic transfer decreased as proficiency in English increased.
For the English language edition, this completely unique book of J.C. Martzloff has been fully revised and updated. It includes many new recent insights and illustrations, a new appendix on Chinese primary sources and a guide to the to the bibliography. From the reviews: "This book ranks with the most erudite Asian publications, and is the most informative and most broadly informed on its topic in any language." N. Sivin, China Quarterly "... crammed with insights, cautionary tales and a great deal of information about current research ... will surely become a standard reference for students, teachers, and researchers alike", J. N. Crossley, Annals of Science "... a truly scholarly and balanced exposition ... a book that the reviewer believes belongs in the library of every university or college, as well as in that of every individual seriously interested in the history of Chinese mathematics", B. L. McAllister, ZBfM "Martzloff History demonstrates clearly that while the Chinese were adept in applying their m...
Two case studies of the specific vocabulary learning strategies used by native Chinese-speakers learning English as a Second Language (ESL) at Beijing Normal University are presented and discussed. Subjects were two university students identified as "good" and "poor" language learners. They read two passages, one with about…
Wu, J.; Chen, Y.; V.J., van Heuven; Schiller, N.O.
Pronunciation dictionaries are usually expensive and time-consuming to prepare for the computational modeling of human languages, especially when the target language is under-resourced. Northern Chinese dialects are often under-resourced but used by a significant number of speakers. They share the
This study investigates subject pronominal expression in second language Chinese and compares learner usage with patterns found in their first language. The results show that (a) overt pronouns are used more for singular, +animate subjects than plural, -animate ones; (b) switch in subject surface form favors overt pronouns; (c) English and Russian…
Au, Terry Kit-Fong; Chan, Winnie Wailan; Cheng, Liao; Siegel, Linda S; Tso, Ricky Van Yip
To fully acquire a language, especially its phonology, children need linguistic input from native speakers early on. When interaction with native speakers is not always possible - e.g. for children learning a second language that is not the societal language - audios are commonly used as an affordable substitute. But does such non-interactive input work? Two experiments evaluated the usefulness of audio storybooks in acquiring a more native-like second-language accent. Young children, first- and second-graders in Hong Kong whose native language was Cantonese Chinese, were given take-home listening assignments in a second language, either English or Putonghua Chinese. Accent ratings of the children's story reading revealed measurable benefits of non-interactive input from native speakers. The benefits were far more robust for Putonghua than English. Implications for second-language accent acquisition are discussed.
Cai Jin Chang
In this paper, the phenomenon of Japanese-original anime language’s spreading in Chinese network language was discussed, and some theory of lexicology, semantics, grammar, and cultural linguistics was proposed. The characters of its different types and its influence on Chinese and the reason why the anime language can be so popular in the factors of psychologies, social also was analyzed. According to these studies, some suggestions were put forward that how to standardize the network languag...
Kettle, Margaret; Yuan, Yifeng; Luke, Allan; Ewing, Robyn; Shen, Huizhong
As increasing numbers of Chinese language learners choose to learn English online, there is a need to investigate popular websites and their language learning designs. This paper reports on the first stage of a study that analyzed the pedagogical, linguistic, and content features of 25 Chinese English Language Learning (ELL) websites ranked…
Full Text Available In Indonesia, in addition to english mandarin also become a very common thing. Many companies employ one of the conditions of staff must be fluent in speaking Chinese, reading and writing Chinese characters. Therefore, the majority of schools in Indonesia have set up Chinese language courses, in order to give Chinese language’s basic foundation to their students. In Pluit, courses of Chinese language schools are mostly private, three-language schools and international schools (not including international schools in the U.S. system. Through the six factors of curriculum (Teachers, facilities, scores, textbooks, curricula, and social participation , the writer wants to analyze Permai Plus school curriculum Chinese course situation.
Denisova Valeria Lvovna
Full Text Available The article studies the semantic meaning of the lexeme "红 / red" in Chinese and Russian. It is considered in detail red color in Chinese and Russian languages, offered authoritative Chinese and Russian lexicographic dictionaries. It is carried out a comparative analysis of the meaning of the lexeme "IX» and "red", it is defined semantic groups of lexemes "红/ red" in Chinese and Russian, it is identified features of similarities and differences. It is concluded that the red color in Chinese and Russian is mostly of positive tone; lexeme "红 / red" in both languages has both similar and characteristic for each language connotations. The semantic meaning of red in Chinese and Russian due to linguacultural features is expressed in the national symbolism of color.
Durgunoglu, Aydin Yucesan, Ed.; Goldenberg, Claude, Ed.
Grounded in state-of-the-art research, this book explores how English language learners develop both the oral language and literacy skills necessary for school success. Chapters examine the cognitive bases of English acquisition, and how the process is different for children from alphabetic (such as Spanish) and nonalphabetic (such as Chinese)…
Zhang, Qi; Lu, Zhouxiang
The current study investigates the applications of the pinyin input system, a Chinese word processing method, for writing on Facebook in order to help CFL (Chinese as a foreign language) learners from two Irish universities to improve their handwriting in Chinese characters on paper. The data were collected from writing activities conducted over…
Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B
We present Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1,429 English words. The results revealed that 71 % of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigated. Although the significant correlations were not strong, results revealed that English word frequency was positively correlated with the number of alternative translations, whereas English word concreteness was negatively correlated with the number of translations. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the number of Chinese translations was predicted by word frequency and concreteness. Furthermore, an interaction between these predictors revealed that the number of translations was more affected by word frequency for more concrete words than for less concrete words. In addition, mixed-effects modelling showed that word frequency, concreteness and English language proficiency were all significant predictors of whether or not a dominant translation was provided. Finally, correlations between the word frequencies of English words and their Chinese dominant translations were higher for translation-unambiguous pairs than for translation-ambiguous pairs. The translation norms are made available in a database together with lexical information about the words, which will be a useful resource for researchers investigating Chinese-English bilingual language processing.
Meng, Qian; Zhu, Chang; Cao, Chun
This study examined global competence of Chinese international students sojourning in a non-Anglophone European country as a mediator between foreign language proficiency (i.e., English and local language) and social and academic adaptation, and social connectedness in international community. A sample of 206 Chinese students in Belgium responded…
This study investigated whether the effects of pragmatics instruction delivered via a self-access website in a Chinese as a foreign language learning environment vary according to learners' language proficiency. The website provided learners with explicit instruction in how to express gratitude appropriately in Chinese and offered them pragmatic…
Australia has a language paradox: great richness and great poverty of language resources. Despite its many cultures and immigrant groups, Australia emphasizes English-language assimilation and thereby endangers its chances for durable multilingualism. (MSE)
Liu, Y.; Wang, M.; Perfetti, C.A.; Brubaker, B.; Wu, S.M.; MacWhinney, B.
Learning the Chinese tone system is a major challenge to students of Chinese as a second or foreign language. Part of the problem is that the spoken Chinese syllable presents a complex perceptual input that overlaps tone with segments. This complexity can be addressed through directing attention to
Newman, Ellen Hamilton; Tardif, Twila; Huang, Jingyuan; Shu, Hua
The importance of phonological awareness for learning to read may depend on the linguistic properties of a language. This study provides a careful examination of this language-specific theory by exploring the role of phoneme-level awareness in Mandarin Chinese, a language with an orthography that, at its surface, appears to require little…
Lin, Dan; Liu, Yingyi; Sun, Huilin; Wong, Richard Kwok; Yeung, Susanna Siu-sze
The present longitudinal study investigated the role of spelling as a bridge between various reading-related predictors and English word reading in Chinese children learning English as a Second Language (ESL). One hundred and forty-one 5-year-old kindergarten children from Hong Kong, whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and second language (L2)…
Textbooks in foreign-language education are by their nature ideological, representing the dominant culture and values. This study attempts to critically examine the discourse in language textbooks, specifically those used for Chinese as a foreign-language education in Mainland China, in order to reveal the national identity embedded in them.…
Lin, Candise Y.; Cheng, Chenxi; Wang, Min
The current study examined the contribution of cross-language phonological and morphological awareness to reading acquisition in bilingual children. Participants were 140 children (M[subscript age] = 8.26 years) between Grades 1-4 who learned Chinese as their first language and English as their second language. Awareness of phoneme, onset-rime,…
Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Yokoyama, Satoru; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Taira, Masato; Kawashima, Ryuta
The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the linguistic distance between a first language (L1) and a second language (L2) on neural activity during second language relative to first language processing. We compared different L1-L2 pairs in which different linguistic features characterize linguistic distance. Chinese and Korean native…
Estudo comparativo do acesso semântico no processamento visual de palavras entre brasileiros monolíngues e chineses multilíngues falantes do português do Brasil como língua estrangeira Comparative study of the semantic access in the visual processing of words between monolinguistic Brazilians and multilinguistic Chinese who speak portuguese as a foreign language
Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles
Full Text Available O priming semântico é uma forma de avaliar o processamento semântico de palavras. Se a semântica é um importante fator contribuinte no reconhecimento visual de palavras, surge a questão de se chineses multilíngues (mandarin como L1 e inglês como L2, que estão aprendendo o português como L3, podem se beneficiar do contexto semântico em tarefa de decisão lexical na Língua Portuguesa, comparado aos controles (brasileiros universitários e crianças. Além de comparar a magnitude do efeito de priming semântico entre a amostra de chineses e de brasileiros, objetivou-se investigar nos chineses a relação entre o desempenho no experimento de priming semântico e na tarefa de consciência fonológica, ambos na língua portuguesa. Participaram do estudo 40 universitários chineses multilíngues, 31 universitários brasileiros e 26 crianças de 3ª série. Houve efeito de priming semântico nos chineses e nos brasileiros, universitários e crianças, ou seja, respostas mais rápidas na condição com prime relacionado do que na condição com prime não relacionado. Não houve diferenças significativas na magnitude do efeito entre os grupos de adultos, mas as crianças apresentaram maior magnitude de efeito do que os chineses. Considerando apenas o grupo de chineses, não houve correlação entre os escores na tarefa de decisão lexical no paradigma de priming semântico e a avaliação da consciência fonológica. Chineses parecem ter acessado o significado dos primes apresentados visualmente na Língua Portuguesa, não se diferenciando dos brasileiros adultos e crianças.The semantic priming paradigm can be used to evaluate word semantic processing. Considering that semantic is an important factor in visual word recognition, an experiment was conducted to verify if multilingual Chinese (L1 and L2 being respectively Mandarin and English that are learning Portuguese as L3 would benefit from the semantic context during a lexical decision
Kim, Sun-A; Packard, Jerome; Christianson, Kiel; Anderson, Richard C.; Shin, Jeong-Ah
This study investigated whether orthographic consistency and individual learner differences including working memory (WM), first language (L1) background, and second language (L2) proficiency affect Chinese L2 learners' literacy acquisition. Seventy American college students in beginning or intermediate Chinese classes participated in a character…
Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching Sing; Aw, Guat Poh; King, Ronnel B.
This paper reports a design-based research (DBR) cycle of MyCLOUD (My Chinese ubiquitOUs learning Days). MyCLOUD is a seamless language learning model that addresses identified limitations of conventional Chinese language teaching, such as the decontextualized and unauthentic learning processes that usually hinder reflection and deep learning.…
Sung, Ko-Yin; Poole, Frederick
This study explored college students' use of a popular smartphone social networking application, WeChat, in a tandem language learning project. The research questions included (1) How do Chinese-English dyads utilize the WeChat app for weekly language learning?, and (2) What are the perceptions of the Chinese-English dyads on the use of the WeChat…
Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)
PLURILINGUISMO TESTUALE E PARATESTUALE NEL ROMANZO CINESE FRANCOFONO : ELEMENTI PER UN APPROCCIO ALLA PLURILINGUISMO TESTUALE E PARATESTUALE NEL ROMANZO CINESE FRANCOFONO: ELEMENTI PER UN APPROCCIO ALLA DIVERSITÀ E ALLA PLURALITÀ LINGUISTICA E CULTURALE NELLA DIDATTICA DEL FLE / TEXTUAL AND PARATEXTUAL PLURILINGUALISM IN CHINESE-FRANCOPHONE NOVEL: SOME PERSPECTIVES ON APPROACHING LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY WITHIN FRENCH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES /PLURILINGVISMUL TEXTUAL ŞI PARATEXTUAL IN ROMANUL CHINEZESC-FRANCOFON: CÂTEVA PERSPECTIVE ÎN ABORDAREA DIVERSITĂŢII LINGVISTICE ŞI CULTURALE ÎN CADRUL ORELOR DE LIMBĂ STRAINĂ
Fiorella Di Stefano
Full Text Available Taking in consideration the rise of the Chinese-French novel in XX century in Francophone context, our paper aims to investigate first of all the way in which writers such as François Cheng, Shan Sa, e Ying Chen practice multilingualism in their works. Our approach will focus on semiotics and rhetorical elements to come to surface the link between visual quality of Chinese ideograms and figures of speech of French Language. Paratextual elements such as cover and title will be also involved in our analysis. The final purpose will be that of to provide the comprehension of diversity and multilingualism in FLE class-room throughout the evidence of Chinese-French writers as French language learners and throughout the multilingualism that involve their work.
Yuan Wenming; Xu Lin; Zhang Mingming; Li Jing; Li Yulin; Wang Ling; Wang Gang; Hopewell Sally
Abstract Background Due to language limitations, the abstract of journal article may be the only way for people of non-Chinese speaking countries to know about trials in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, little is known about the reporting quality of these trial abstracts. Our study is to assess the reporting quality of abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in four leading Chinese medical journals of TCM, and to identify any differences in reporting between the ...
Full Text Available How did singer Wang Leehom, a Chinese American raised in the suburbs of New York, end up becoming one of the industry heavyweights of Mandopop (Mandarin-language pop music? This essay uses Wang as a case study to investigate how discourses of race, market, and belonging are reworked in global contexts. Drawing on Sau-ling Wong’s theoretical insights on transnational processes of race, citizenship, and belonging, it argues that Wang capitalizes on a fluid dynamic of sameness and difference to appeal to a heterogeneous Chinese-speaking audience that stretches across China to Taiwan, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia, and the greater Chinese diaspora. Through an examination of the racial and national contexts that frame Wang’s participation in Mandopop, this essay analyzes the particular calibrations of Chineseness that emerge from the singer’s music and public image and the imperfect translation of identities such as Chinese American, Chinese diasporic, and Chinese across diverse linguistic and national communities.
Li, Tong; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita; Shu, Hua
Predictors of age 10 spelling and reading comprehension skills in both Chinese and English from vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and word reading at age 8 were tested in this longitudinal study of 141 Hong Kong Chinese children learning to read English as a second language. The correlation between…
White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel
Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is
The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy
Wang, Qixin; Luo, Tianyi; Wang, Dong; Xing, Chao
Learning and generating Chinese poems is a charming yet challenging task. Traditional approaches involve various language modeling and machine translation techniques, however, they perform not as well when generating poems with complex pattern constraints, for example Song iambics, a famous type of poems that involve variable-length sentences and strict rhythmic patterns. This paper applies the attention-based sequence-to-sequence model to generate Chinese Song iambics. Specifically, we encod...
Full Text Available Combination of practice teaching Chinese as a foreign language in BINUS University, this article takes the Chinese writing teaching as an example, and analyses “as the student core, as the fun concept” writing modes. Firstly, serious explain: increasing the vitality of classroom teaching, using multimedia methods to make students get interested in; Secondly, article practice: making the written expression be the basis and revealing true feelings as commander, constantly pursue the aesthetic article; Thirdly, feedback and communion: using Facebook, Binusmaya, Binusblog, Chinese newspapers and other channels of interaction to communicate between teachers and students. Through the three steps, we could select the theme which students loved, create a relaxed atmosphere in the writing class, and then the students will be pleasure of writing gradually.
van Heuven, Walter J. B.; Conklin, Kathy; Coderre, Emily L.; Guo, Taomei; Dijkstra, Ton
This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German–English–Dutch trilinguals), two similar scripts and one different script (Chinese and alphabetic scripts in Chinese–English–Malay trilinguals), or three completely different scripts (Arabic, Chinese, and alphabetic in Uyghur–Chinese–English trilinguals). The results revealed a similar magnitude of within-language Stroop interference for the three groups, whereas between-language interference was modulated by cross-language similarity. For the same-script trilinguals, the within- and between-language interference was similar, whereas the between-language Stroop interference was reduced for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The magnitude of within-language Stroop facilitation was similar across the three groups of trilinguals, but smaller than within-language Stroop interference. Between-language Stroop facilitation was also modulated by cross-language similarity such that these effects became negative for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The overall pattern of Stroop interference and facilitation effects can be explained in terms of diverging and converging color and word information across languages. PMID:22180749
Fu, Steven S; Ma, Grace X; Tu, Xin M; Siu, Philip T; Metlay, Joshua P
Less acculturated Chinese Americans experience cultural and language barriers. The present study assessed the relationship between linguistic aspects of acculturation and cigarette smoking among Chinese Americans. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was administered to a consecutive sample of 541 Chinese American adults (aged 18 years or older) attending four pediatric, medical, or dental practices located in Philadelphia's Chinatown from November 2000 to February 2001. Linguistic acculturation was measured by adapting a reliable and valid acculturation scale developed for Southeast Asians. English and Chinese language proficiency subscales were utilized to analyze the association between language proficiency and current smoking. Whereas 25% of Chinese American men reported current smoking, only 3% of Chinese American women reported current smoking. Chinese American men with lower English proficiency reported significantly higher rates of current smoking compared with Chinese American men with a higher level of English proficiency (33% vs. 18%, p<.01). Less English-proficient Chinese American male smokers were less likely to have received advice from a physician to quit smoking (50% vs. 85%, p=.01). In multivariate analysis, increased English proficiency was associated with decreased odds of current smoking (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.16-0.89) among Chinese American men after controlling for confounding variables. In conclusion, higher English proficiency was associated with decreased current smoking among Chinese American men. Chinese American men with limited English proficiency should especially be targeted for tobacco control interventions. Further research is needed to assess whether acculturation is associated with smoking among Chinese American women and with use of smoking cessation treatments and services by Chinese American smokers.
Li Dai; Chengcheng Zhang; Xiangping Liu
According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training parad...
ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ
Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the
Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.
He, Yan; Wang, Meng-Yun; Li, Defeng; Yuan, Zhen
Translating from Chinese into another language or vice versa is becoming a widespread phenomenon. However, current neuroimaging studies are insufficient to reveal the neural mechanism underlying translation asymmetry during Chinese/English sight translation. In this study, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to extract the brain activation patterns associated with Chinese/English sight translation. Eleven unbalanced Chinese (L1)/English (L2) bilinguals participated in this study based on an intra-group experimental design, in which two translation and two reading aloud tasks were administered: forward translation (from L1 to L2), backward translation (from L2 to L1), L1 reading, and L2 reading. As predicted, our findings revealed that forward translation elicited more pronounced brain activation in Broca's area, suggesting that neural correlates of translation vary according to the direction of translation. Additionally, significant brain activation in the left PFC was involved in backward translation, indicating the importance of this brain region during the translation process. The identical activation patterns could not be discovered in forward translation, indicating the cognitive processing of reading logographic languages (i.e. Chinese) might recruit incongruent brain regions.
helped more times than I can enumerate. Finally, I wish to thank my Chinese teacher for her efforts to teach me such a challenging and venerable...English. They were measured on 20 variables suspected of displaying significant relationships to pronunciation accuracy. The English pronunciation ...to be most strongly related to pronunciation accuracy were native language, 26 strength of the speaker’s concern about his pronunciation , and
Full Text Available The data used in this study came from 1,226 grade 6 - undergraduate students who participated in STARTALK Chinese programs in the summer of 2014. These Chinese language learners came from 47 states across the U.S., most of whom were middle school and high school students. Student responses to a survey administered at the end of STARTALK programs were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The findings were as follows: a Among all the student characteristics included in this study (i.e., gender, grade level, prior experience of learning Chinese, student perception of instructional practices, student motivation, student motivation was the strongest predictor for their plans to further study Chinese. b Student motivation fully mediated the relationship between target language use and student plans to further study Chinese. c Student motivation partially mediated the association between comprehensible input and student plans to further study Chinese.
Bi, Yanchao; Han, Zaizhu; Zhang, Yumei
A recent hypothesis proposes that reading depends on writing in a logographic language - Chinese. We present a Chinese individual (HLD) with brain damage whose profile challenges this hypothesis. HLD was severely impaired in the whole process of writing. He could not access orthographic knowledge, had poor orthographic awareness, and was poor at delayed- and direct-copying tasks. Nevertheless, he was perfect at visual word-picture matching and read aloud tasks, indicating his intact ability to access both the semantics and phonology in reading. He was also able to distinguish between fine visual features of characters. We conclude that reading does not depend on writing, even in Chinese.
Hidaka, Souta; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Michiyo; Tanaka, Akihiro; Konno, Akitsugu; Maruyama, Suguru; Gyoba, Jiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Koizumi, Masatoshi
We investigated brain activity in 3-5-year-old preschoolers as they listened to connected speech stimuli in Japanese (first language), English (second language), and Chinese (a rarely exposed, foreign language) using near-infrared spectroscopy. Unlike the younger preschoolers who had been exposed to English for almost 1 year, brain activity in the bilateral frontal regions of the older preschoolers who had been exposed to English for almost 2 years was higher for Japanese and English speech stimuli than for Chinese. This tendency seemed to be similar to that observed in adults who had learned English for some years. These results indicate that exposure to a second language affects brain activity to language stimuli among preschoolers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.
Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F.
In written word production, is activation transmitted from lexical-semantic selection to orthographic encoding in a serial or cascaded fashion? Very few previous studies have addressed this issue, and the existing evidence comes from languages with alphabetic orthographic systems. We report a study in which Chinese participants were presented with coloured line drawings of objects and were instructed to write the name of the colour while attempting to ignore the object. Significant priming wa...
Full Text Available The present study is a contrastive study of inter-sentence conjunctions in Chinese/English legal parallel texts. Conjunction is one of the five cohesive devices put forward by Halliday and Hasan (1976. Many scholars have applied their model of cohesion to the study of English and Chinese languages. As for the use of conjunction in Chinese and English, most scholars believe that there are more cases of conjunction in the English legal texts than in the Chinese ones because it is generally considered that Chinese is predominantly paratactic and English mainly hypotactic. Besides, up to now little detailed contrastive study has been done on conjunctions in Chinese/English non-literary texts. Legal language is a specialized language whose distinctive feature is the pursuit of precision. As a result of the importance attached to the letter of law and the pursuit of precision in legal texts, most studies on legal language are devoted to the characteristic features of legal language at the word and sentence level, to the exclusion of textual and pragmatic considerations. The present study will mainly look at the features of legal texts from the perspective of conjunction at the textual level and find out whether Chinese uses fewer cases of conjunction than English in legal texts. The Chinese and English legal parallel texts about arbitration rules will be used for this contrastive analysis. It is hoped that the findings of this research will test the explanatory force of hypotaxis and parataxis in the use of conjunction in legal texts and give a clearer picture of conjunction at the textual level in Chinese and English legal parallel texts, and therefore reconstruct the discourse on the Chinese language.
Wang, Judy H
.... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures were developed and refined based on previous finding of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer screening in Chinese women...
Huei-Yu Wang, Judy
.... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures were developed and refined based on previous findings of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer screening in Chinese women...
.... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures are developed and refined based on previous findings of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer screening in Chinese women...
Wang, Judy H
.... A three-year research plan is designed to pursue this purpose. In Year 1, the brochures were developed and refined based on previous findings of cultural and language barriers to breast cancer Screening in Chinese women...
In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int
Wang, Jiu-Ju; Bi, Hong-Yan; Gao, Li-Qun; Wydell, Taeko N.
Previous research into the cognitive processes involved in reading Chinese and developmental dyslexia in Chinese, revealed that the single most important factor appears to be orthographic processing skills rather than phonological skills. Also some studies have indicated that even in alphabetic languages some dyslexic individuals reveal deficits…
Lee, Jennifer Wen-shya
This study examines the interrelated issues of private and public domains of self-esteem, ethnic identity formation, and bilingual confidence among youth of a minority group in a city in western Canada. One hundred, ten Chinese students aged 11-18 from a Chinese-language school were randomly surveyed. Most items of the instrument are derived from…
This study investigates measures for second language (L2) writing development. A T-unit, which has been found the most satisfactory unit of analysis for measuring L2 development in English, is extended to measure L2 Chinese writing development through a cross-sectional design in this study. Data were collected from three L2 Chinese learner groups…
Wang-Szilas, Jue; Bellassen, Joël
This article reviews the existing Chinese language Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and points out three problems in their design: the monism-based teaching method, the non-integration of cultural elements, and the lack of learner-learner interactions. It then presents the design principles of the Introductory Chinese MOOC in an attempt to…
Zhang, Dongbo; Yang, Xuexue
Using a Chinese Word Associates Test (WAT-C), this study examined the vocabulary depth of second language learners of Chinese and its contribution to the learners' reading comprehension. Results showed no significant effects of word frequency, word class (i.e., adjectives vs. verbs), and type of association relationships (i.e., paradigmatic vs.…
Yang, C.L.; Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.
In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to
Qian, Kan; Owen, Nathaniel; Bax, Stephen
In the field of teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), most studies investigate Chinese character learning strategies in pen-and-paper study by campus-based students. With the increase in distance-learning, and expanding popularity of smartphones and tablets and widespread availability of mobile applications for language…
Many Chinese researchers, system developers and e-learning practitioners have difficulties to understand IMS LD correctly because of language barriers. The main aim of this translation is to help chinese people to overcome the difficulties. It is also expected that this translation can launch into a
Ma, Yuanyi; Wang, Bo
Within these years, there has been a significant increase in the number of Chinese Mainland sojourners studying in Hong Kong. Due to the huge differences in various aspects like language, culture, cultural value, it would be considerably difficult for the Chinese Mainland students to adapt to the Hong Kong environment. This article investigates…
Hoede, C.; Li, Xueliang; Li, X.; Liu, X; Zhang, Lei
Knowledge graph theory aims at giving an analysis of language in general. The theory is tested on some particular problems in the semantics of Chinese. These problems concern word formation and the use of verbs. It is attempted to understand how words are formed and how the verb is used in Chinese
Tong, Xiuli; Ting, Ka-Tsun; McBride-Chang, Catherine
Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with…