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Sample records for stage young adolescents

  1. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  2. ABVD chemotherapy with reduced radiation therapy rates in children, adolescents and young adults with all stages of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, K C; Connors, J M; Savage, K J; Goddard, K J; Deyell, R J

    2017-04-01

    We adopted ABVD chemotherapy with risk-adapted radiation therapy (RT) as first-line therapy for children, adolescents and young adults with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in British Columbia in 2004. Patients ≤ 25 years diagnosed from 2004 to 2013 with all stages of HL who received ABVD as initial therapy were included. Among 55 children (age young adults (18-25 year), there were no significant differences among age groups for sex, histologic subtype, tumour bulk, B symptoms, prognostic risk groups or treatment received. The rates of complete response, partial response and progressive disease were 84%, 7% and 10% for children and 95%, 4% and 1% for young adults (P=0.01), respectively. Treatment failures in children all occurred within one year of completion, while 8/21 (38%) relapses in young adults occurred later (P=0.04). With a median follow-up of 66 months the 5-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 85 ± 3% and 97 ± 1%, respectively. For limited stage disease, PFS was 90 ± 7% for children and 93 ± 3% for young adults (P=0.65); OS was 100% for both. For advanced stage patients, PFS and OS were also similar for the children and young adults (77 ± 7% versus 81 ± 4%; P=0.38 and OS 90 ± 6% versus 97 ± 2%; P=0.17). The rate of consolidative RT was low (21%) and did not differ between age groups. ABVD is an effective treatment in children, adolescents and young adults with HL. Children were less likely to achieve complete response and demonstrated earlier relapses compared to young adults. RT may be omitted for the majority of patients while maintaining excellent 5-year OS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Suicide Risk at Young Adulthood: Continuities and Discontinuities from Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole; Snedker, Karen A.; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2012-01-01

    Young adult suicide is an important social problem, yet little is known about how risk for young adult suicide develops from earlier life stages. In this study the authors report on 759 young adults who were potential high school dropouts as youth. At both adolescence and young adulthood, measures of suicide risk status and related suicide risk…

  4. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer View this video ... and Young Adults SeventyK Stupid Cancer Teens and Adolescents CureSearch Starlight Children's Foundation Teen Cancer America 13thirty ...

  5. Strength Development for Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…

  6. Introduction to Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.

  7. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  8. Transitions in relationship style from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J L

    1981-02-01

    Literature on friendships of adolescents and young adults suggests important gender and age-related differences. In a study of transitions in relationship style from middle adolescence (high school) to late adolescence (college), 300 students described their relationship with the person who was closest to them, either same or other sex. Four relationship styles were characteristic: integrated (high friendly and high intimate), intimate (high intimate and low friendly), friendly (high friendly and low intimate), and uninvolved (low intimate and low friendly). Women's more intimate styles of relating, as compared to men's more uninvolved styles, suggested that women developed earlier competence at intimate relating than did men. Viewed as particularly important were the college women's close friendships with those of the same gender, an experience uncharacteristic of adolescent men in high school and college. Results were discussed in terms of Erikson's stages of development and Sullivan's concept of the chum.

  9. Adolescents, Young Adults, and the Legalization of Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.

  10. Overweight and Obesity among Maltreated Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI [greater than or equal to] 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of…

  11. BRIDGES for Young Adolescents in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary McDonnell

    The BRIDGES Project was initiated to explore ways for North Dakota to provide young people with stronger bridges from childhood to adulthood. This report summarizes recommendations of the 1990-91 Governor's Task Force on Early Adolescence. The recommendations concern practical actions for the building of bridges by the following groups: (1)…

  12. The gendered socialization of very young adolescents in schools ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly those in low-income urban settlements, are at significant risk of poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Most interventions aimed at improving adolescent sexual and reproductive health have focused on older adolescents, often neglecting very young adolescents, aged ...

  13. Multiple levels of social disadvantage and links to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M; Lee, Joyce

    2013-03-01

    The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. We analyzed longitudinal data from Waves I (1994-1995), II (1996), and III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative population-based sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in 1995 who were followed into young adulthood. We assessed the relationship between obesity in adolescence and young adulthood, and disadvantage (measured by low parent education in adolescence) at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level using multilevel logistic regression. When all levels of disadvantage were modeled simultaneously, school-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in adolescence for males and females and family-level disadvantage was significantly associated with obesity in young adulthood for females. Schools may serve as a primary setting for obesity prevention efforts. Because obesity in adolescence tracks into adulthood, it is important to consider prevention efforts at this stage in the life course, in addition to early childhood, particularly among disadvantaged populations. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  14. Influences on smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influences on smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults in a Nigerian university. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... Abstract. The study investigated whether parenting style, parental level of education and smoking peers have any influence on the smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults.

  15. Psychopathology in adolescents and young adults : prediction, course and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed'

  16. Adolescent-onset substance use disorders predict young adult mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duncan B.; Martin, Christopher S.; Cornelius, Jack R.

    2009-01-01

    This study determined whether adolescent-onset substance use disorders (SUDs) prospectively predicted early mortality. Among 870 adolescents, 21 young adulthood deaths were observed. Adolescent SUDs, as well as gender, ethnic group, hazardous substance use, and drug trafficking, predicted these deaths. Among African American males with SUDs, 23% died by age 25. PMID:18486875

  17. Oral Sexual Experience among Young Adolescents Receiving General Health Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Howard, Donna E.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed young adolescents receiving general health examinations regarding oral sex occurrence. Overall, 18 percent reported having oral sex, and of that 18 percent, 25 percent reported no vaginal sex. Few adolescents used barrier protection during oral sex. Most adolescents thought that penile-anal sex could transmit HIV, but only 68 percent…

  18. The Importance of Breakfast Consumption to Nutrition of Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol; Myers, Leann

    2004-01-01

    Breakfast consumption has been identified as an important factor in nutrition, especially during growth stages. This article discusses data from nearly 2,500 children, adolescents, and young adults in Louisiana and considers the impact of breakfast consumption on their nutritional well-being.

  19. ICEBREAKER: A STRATEGY TO ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT FOR YOUNG ADOLESCENT LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Indrayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivating students to participate in classroom discussions is a big matter to overcome. There are some students who seem to assume that as long as the assigned work is completed on time, test scores are good, and attendance is satisfactory, they shouldn‘t be forced to participate. Educational research has shown that students who are actively involved in the learning activity will learn more than students who are passive recipients of knowledge. Young adolescents who are 10 to 15 years old experience stages of life and more growth than any other time in their life. They have intelectual capacity and learn best through interaction and activity rather than just listening. Obviously, increased attention and motivation are the essential ingredients for learning, and are more important than intelligence. In other words, to increasing student involvement, attention and motivation, teachers can use a very beginning action that held the first time before core teaching activity with a hope that engaging the senses and emotions will increase students‘ attention span. Accordingly, as start-up activities, icebreakers can be a useful way of creating a sense of relaxed and informal atmosphere which motivate and activate an interaction. Icebreakers allow for a student to become emotionally connected with classroom situation and increases motivation to engage with the following discussion. Therefore, this paper presents icebreaker as a strategy to active involevement for young adolescent learners.

  20. [Characteristics of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horibe, Keizo

    2017-01-01

    In adolescent and young adult(AYA)population, cancer is the leading cause of death due to illness with the lowest mortality rate as well as children, and national measures for cancer was left behind. Leukemia, lymphomas, brain tumors, thyroid cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, testicular cancer and bone and soft tissue sarcomas account for majority of the cancers in this age group. There has been no significant improvement in AYA patients in contrast to other age groups. AYA patients with cancer are under growing independency, starting in life to the community, and reproductive age. As they have physical change to adults and unique psychosocial issues that are distinct from those of pediatric and older adult patients, it is important to establish appropriate disease treatment and psychosocial supportive care with due respect to established themselves. It is urgent issue to develop cancer treatments and the system of medical and supportive care for patients and survivors with cancer in this age group.

  1. Young adolescents' use of medicine for headache:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Use of medicines for headache is common among young adolescents but little is known about their sources of supply and access to medicines. The purpose was to describe sources of supply, availability and accessibility at home and to examine if supply, availability and accessibility were...... associated with medicine use. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in eight schools where all fifth and seventh grade students (11- and 13-year-olds) answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic factors, health and medicine use. Response rate: 84.0%, n = 595. RESULTS: The reported prevalence of headache...... at least monthly was 45.0%, and 42.5% had used medicines for headache during the past month. 68.2% reported that medicines for headache were always available at home, and 22.2% were allowed to use these without asking for permission. Most pupils received medicine from their parents (73.1%) and physicians...

  2. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  3. Adolescent thinking ála Piaget: The formal stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulit, E

    1972-12-01

    Two of the formal-stage experiments of Piaget and Inhelder, selected largely for their closeness to the concepts defining the stage, were replicated with groups of average and gifted adolescents. This report describes the relevant Piagetian concepts (formal stage, concrete stage) in context, gives the methods and findings of this study, and concludes with a section discussing implications and making some reformulations which generally support but significantly qualify some of the central themes of the Piaget-Inhelder work. Fully developed formal-stage thinking emerges as far from commonplace among normal or average adolescents (by marked contrast with the impression created by the Piaget-Inhelder text, which chooses to report no middle or older adolescents who function at less than fully formal levels). In this respect, the formal stage differs appreciably from the earlier Piagetian stages, and early adolescence emerges as the age for which a "single path" model of cognitive development becomes seriously inadequate and a more complex model becomes essential. Formal-stage thinking seems best conceptualized, like most other aspects of psychological maturity, as a potentiality only partially attained by most and fully attained only by some.

  4. Changes in neural mechanisms of cognitive control during the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroude, Kim; Jolles, Jelle; Croiset, Gerda; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2013-07-01

    The transition from late adolescence to young adulthood is marked by anatomical maturation of various brain regions. In parallel, defining life changes take place, such as entrance into college. Up till now research has not focused on functional brain differences during this particular developmental stage. The current cross-sectional fMRI study investigates age differences in cognitive control by comparing late adolescents, 18-19 years old, with young adults, 23-25 years old. Seventy-four male and female medical students carried out a combined cognitive and emotional Stroop task. Overall, lateral frontoparietal and medial parietal activation was observed during cognitive interference resolution. Young adults showed stronger activation in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus and middle cingulate, compared to late adolescents. During emotional interference resolution, the left precentral and postcentral gyrus were involved across age and sex. The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and precuneus were activated more in young adults than in late adolescents. No sex-related differences were found in this homogeneous sample. The results suggest that the neural bases of cognitive control continue to change between late adolescence and young adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Uncovering the Biology of Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence suggests that some adolescent and young adult cancers may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are trying to better understand the biology of these cancers in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.

  6. Personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); C.M.G. Meesters (Cor); M.F.C.M. Van Den Hout (Mari F. C. M.); S. Wessels (Sylvia); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); E.G.C. Rassin (Eric)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPain catastrophizing is generally viewed as an important cognitive factor underlying chronic pain. The present study examined personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in a sample of young adolescents (N = 132). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale

  7. Invest in adolescents and young people: it pays

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Greifinger, Rena; Nwosu, Adaeze; Hainsworth, Gwyn; Sundaram, Lakshmi; Hadi, Sheena; McConville, Fran; Benevides, Regina; Simon, Callie; Patkar, Archana; Schoening, Eva; Sethi, Disha; Boldosser-Boesch, Amy; Awasthi, Prateek; Mathur, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    This year?s Women Deliver conference made a strong call for investing in the health and development of adolescents and young people. It highlighted the unique problems faced by adolescent girls and young women?some of the most vulnerable and neglected individuals in the world?and stressed the importance of addressing their needs and rights, not only for their individual benefit, but also to achieve global goals such as reducing maternal mortality and HIV infection. In response to an invitatio...

  8. Influence of Peers on Young Adolescent Females' Romantic Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieski, Deborah; Sieving, Renee E.; Garwick, Ann W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Initiation of sexual intercourse during early adolescence is a known risk factor for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Purpose: To examine young women's stories describing peer in?uences on their romantic and sexual decisions and behavior during early adolescence. Methods: Semistructured ethnographic interviews were…

  9. Dietary intake and nutritional status of adolescent girls and young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the dietary intake and nutritional status of adolescent girls (n=156) and young women students (n=367) in Durban, KwaZulu Natal (KZN), South Africa. No national prevalence rates for stunting, wasting and underweight could be found for adolescent girls in South Africa and the ...

  10. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Continuity of sleep problems from adolescence to young adulthood: results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A R; Najman, Jake M; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2017-08-01

    Considering the lack of evidence on incidence and continuity of sleep problems from adolescence to young adulthood, this study explores sleep problems' incidence and their continuation rates from 14 to 21 years. Sleep data from the 14-year (n = 4,924) and 21-year (n = 3660) follow-up of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort were used. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and psychological conditions were explored for their role in sleep problems. Modified Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used to identify predictors. Inverse probability weights were used to account for attrition. Of all subjects, 26.0% of the subjects at 14 years and 28.3% of the subjects at 21 years reported "often" sleep problems, with 41.7% of adolescent sleep problems persisting at 21 years. Perinatal and early-life maternal factors, for example, drug abuse (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.71), smoking, depression, and anxiety, were significant predictors of adolescent sleep problems. Female sex (IRR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.55-2.94), advanced pubertal stages, and smoking were the important predictors of sleep problems at 21 years. Adolescent depression/anxiety supported the continuity of sleep problems (IRR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.40), whereas exercise was seen to exert a protective effect. This study indicates high rates of sleep problems in young subjects, with around half of sleep problems originating in adolescence persisting in young adulthood. Therefore, early interventions are needed to manage sleep problems in young subjects and prevent further progression to other life stages. Future studies should explore if sleep problems in young adults also persist in later life stages and identify the factors supporting the continuity of sleep problems. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender differences and stage-specific influence of parent-adolescent conflicts on adolescent suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Ching; Tseng, Chin-Yuan; Lin, Fu-Gong

    2017-09-01

    This study examined familial and peer related factors as predictors of suicidal ideation in school students. Total 2896 participants were included from Taiwan Youth Project released data, a longitudinal survey of adolescent suicidal ideation at ages 15, 18, and 20. Logistic regression analysis risk factors associated with adolescent suicidal ideation reveled differences during the developmental stages. After adjusted for psychological symptoms, effect of quarrels with parents on suicidal ideation lasts in early and middle stages; in the late adolescent stage, only cigarette or alcohol use remained significant. Girls who reported quarrels with parents had the highest level of suicidal ideation before age 18. Stage- and gender-specific differences may provide appropriate intervention strategies for parents and teachers preventing adolescent suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, pself-esteem (ES=−0.30, pself-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, pself-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133

  14. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis: the adolescents' and young adults' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    When suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF), a number of problems may arise during adolescence; for example, poor adherence. The problems may be attributed to the adolescent being insufficiently prepared for adult life. Research on different ways of parenting adolescents with CF and the influence of different parenting styles on the adolescents' adherence to treatment is still limited. The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents and young adults with CF want and find helpful in terms of preparing them for adult life. Sixteen Danish adolescents with CF, aged 14-25, participated in the study. Two focus group interviews were carried out, one for 14-18-year-olds and one for 19-25-year-olds. Individual interviews were conducted, with three subjects. Using interpretive description strategy, a secondary analysis of the interview data was conducted. The adolescents and young adults wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust them, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility for their medical treatment. Additionally, the adolescents noted that meeting other parents may be beneficial for the parents. The findings of this study suggest that adolescents and young adults with CF want their parents to be educated about how to handle adolescents with CF and thereby sufficiently prepare them for adult life.

  15. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  16. Invest in adolescents and young people: it pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Greifinger, Rena; Nwosu, Adaeze; Hainsworth, Gwyn; Sundaram, Lakshmi; Hadi, Sheena; McConville, Fran; Benevides, Regina; Simon, Callie; Patkar, Archana; Schoening, Eva; Sethi, Disha; Boldosser-Boesch, Amy; Awasthi, Prateek; Mathur, Arvind; Braeken, Doortje

    2013-09-16

    This year's Women Deliver conference made a strong call for investing in the health and development of adolescents and young people. It highlighted the unique problems faced by adolescent girls and young women-some of the most vulnerable and neglected individuals in the world-and stressed the importance of addressing their needs and rights, not only for their individual benefit, but also to achieve global goals such as reducing maternal mortality and HIV infection.In response to an invitation from the editors of Reproductive Health, we-the sixteen coauthors of this commentary-put together key themes that reverberated throughout the conference, on the health and development needs of adolescents and young people, and promising solutions to meet them.1. Investing in adolescents and young people is crucial for ensuring health, creating prosperity and fulfilling human rights.2. Gender inequality contributes to many health and social problems. Adolescent girls and boys, and their families and communities, should be challenged and supported to change inequitable gender norms.- Child marriage utterly disempowers girls. It is one of the most devastating manifestations of gender discrimination.- Negative social and cultural attitudes towards menstruation constrain the lives of millions of girls. This may well establish the foundation for lifelong discomfort felt by girls about their bodies and reticence in seeking help when problems arise.3. Adolescents need comprehensive, accurate and developmentally appropriate sexuality education. This will provide the bedrock for attitude formation and decision making.4. Adolescent-centered health services can prevent sexual and reproductive health problems and detect and treat them if and when they occur.5. National governments have the authority and the responsibility to address social and cultural barriers to the provision of sexual and reproductive health education and services for adolescents and young people.6. Adolescents should

  17. Invest in adolescents and young people: it pays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This year’s Women Deliver conference made a strong call for investing in the health and development of adolescents and young people. It highlighted the unique problems faced by adolescent girls and young women–some of the most vulnerable and neglected individuals in the world–and stressed the importance of addressing their needs and rights, not only for their individual benefit, but also to achieve global goals such as reducing maternal mortality and HIV infection. In response to an invitation from the editors of Reproductive Health, we-the sixteen coauthors of this commentary–put together key themes that reverberated throughout the conference, on the health and development needs of adolescents and young people, and promising solutions to meet them. 1. Investing in adolescents and young people is crucial for ensuring health, creating prosperity and fulfilling human rights. 2. Gender inequality contributes to many health and social problems. Adolescent girls and boys, and their families and communities, should be challenged and supported to change inequitable gender norms. – Child marriage utterly disempowers girls. It is one of the most devastating manifestations of gender discrimination. – Negative social and cultural attitudes towards menstruation constrain the lives of millions of girls. This may well establish the foundation for lifelong discomfort felt by girls about their bodies and reticence in seeking help when problems arise. 3. Adolescents need comprehensive, accurate and developmentally appropriate sexuality education. This will provide the bedrock for attitude formation and decision making. 4. Adolescent-centered health services can prevent sexual and reproductive health problems and detect and treat them if and when they occur. 5. National governments have the authority and the responsibility to address social and cultural barriers to the provision of sexual and reproductive health education and services for adolescents and young people

  18. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis: the adolescents' and young adults' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    and the influence of different parenting styles on the adolescents’ adherence to treatment is still limited. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents and young adults with CF want and find helpful in terms of preparing them for adult life. Methods: Sixteen Danish...... was conducted. Results: The adolescents and young adults wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust them, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility for their medical treatment. Additionally......: chronic illness, parenting style, qualitative research, patient preferences, interpretive description...

  19. Micro-Albuminuria In Adolescent/Young Adult Offsprings Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young adult offsprings of Nigeria hypertensive adults. Background: On the premise that micro-albuminuria is a predictor of early stage hypertensive disease and the fact that heredity plays an important role in the aetiology of essential hypertension, ...

  20. The longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Gun Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study contributed to the literature by providing important information on the longitudinal effect of parental support during adolescence on the trajectory of sport participation from adolescence through young adulthood using a nationally representative sample of participants transitioning from adolescence to young adulthood.

  1. Does adolescent gambling co-occur with young fatherhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Grace P; Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Martins, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Young fatherhood is associated with various adverse outcomes. This study aims to describe the relationship of adolescent gambling with young fatherhood (by age 20) while adjusting for several young fatherhood antecedents. Data were from 294 males who have been followed for 16 years since entering first grade in nine inner city public schools (86% African Americans, 81% of the original male cohort). Self-reports of impregnation (including age) and gambling were collected during late adolescence. Nelson-Aalen curves and Cox regression models assessed the hazard of young fatherhood among adolescent nongamblers, social gamblers, and problem gamblers. More young fathers than nonfathers reported adolescent social (49.2% vs. 42.5%) and problem gambling (28.3% vs. 13.2%, p fatherhood, followed by social gambling (aHR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.30, 2.94, p = .001), high school dropout (aHR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.14, 2.70, p = .01), and subsidized lunch status (aHR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.01, 2.38, p = .04). Adolescent male gamblers, particularly problem gamblers, were more likely than their nongambling peers to become fathers by the age of 20. Such a result shows that there is a subpopulation of males who are at high risk for adverse outcomes such as young parenthood and problem behaviors. Only through further studies could the needs of this subpopulation be better assessed so that appropriate assistance could be delivered to better the lives of such individuals. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in studies of neurocognitive effects of alcohol use on adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (defined as alcohol abuse or dependence) are prevalent and serious problems among adolescents and young adults. Adolescence is a time of trying new experiences and activities that emphasize socializing with peers, and conforming to peer-group standards. These new activities may place young people at particular risk for initiating and continuing alcohol consumption. Exposing the brain to alcohol during adolescence may interrupt key processes of brain development, leading to cognitive impairment as well as to further escalation of alcohol use. Alcohol-induced adolescent learning impairments could affect academic and occupational achievements. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a relatively new imaging technique that allows studying neurocognitive function. fMRI aims to determine the neurobiological correlate of behavior by identifying the brain regions that become active during the performance of specific tasks in vivo. The technique is non-invasive and relatively safe. This allows repeated studies to be carried out within a given subject. Several fMRI studies have been performed to evaluate neurocognitive function in adolescents and young adults with alcohol use disorders. Adolescents and young adults with alcohol use disorders had abnormalities in brain response to a working memory task. The results of the studies of cue reactivity and craving responses in young people suggest that the elevated physiological response and altered cognitive reactions to alcohol are involved in the pathogenesis of alcohol dependence in adolescents and young adults. Future fMRI studies may help ascertain the adverse affects of alcohol on brain function during early neurodevelopmental stages. fMRI may be uniquely powerful in the delineation of the underlying pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders in adolescents and young adults.

  3. Young Adolescents' Perceptions of Romantic Relationships and Sexual Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Heather R.; Keller, Mary L.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe young adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationships, ratings of important romantic partner characteristics, and acceptability of sexual activity with romantic relationships. Fifty-seven eighth-grade participants (average age = 13.8 years) from one urban US public middle school completed an anonymous…

  4. Personality and Temperament Correlates of Pain Catastrophizing in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; van den Hout, Anja; Wessels, Sylvia; Franken, Ingmar; Rassin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Pain catastrophizing is generally viewed as an important cognitive factor underlying chronic pain. The present study examined personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in a sample of young adolescents (N = 132). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children, as well as scales for measuring sensitivity of…

  5. Content of food advertising for young adolescents on television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setu Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food related advertisements on television may have a major influence on the dietary habits and obesity among young adolescents. Objective: To evaluate the frequency and typology of food advertisements on most popular television channels, watched by school-going young adolescents in Delhi. Methodology: Biphasic study to (a identify the three television channels most frequently watched by administering a questionnaire to 400 school going young adolescents; and (b view each of these channels for 2 hours per day for 6 days each, and observe the content of advertisements related to foods, beverages, and food outlets. Results: Four hundred and three food related advertisements were viewed over 36 hour on Discovery, MTV and Disney Channels. Among 235 food related advertisements 163 (69.3% pertained to candies, chocolates and confectionary and 35 (14.8% to salty snacks. Sugar sweetened soft drinks contributed 90 of 106 (85% of beverage advertisements. Of 62 advertisements related to food outlets, 59 were of fast food joints. Conclusion: Majority of food advertising content on television most commonly watched by young adolescents is related to unhealthy foods and beverages, igh in energy and low in micronutrient content.

  6. Religiosity in young adolescents with auditory vocal hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Laura A.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Jenner, Jack A.; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard; Nauta, Maaike H.; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current exploratory study examined the associations between auditory vocal hallucinations (AVH) and delusions and religiosity in young adolescents. 337 children from a population-based case-control study with and without AVH, were assessed after five years at age 12 and 13, on the presence and

  7. Counselling Needs of HIV/AIDS-Infected Adolescents and Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study surveyed the counselling needs of HIV/AIDS-infected adolescents and young adults. Participants were 260 service providers (health care providers and Non-Governmental Organizations), age range 25-60, mean age 46.4, SD 9.9, 130 males, 130 females from five South Eastern States of Nigeria. They responded ...

  8. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  9. Multicultural Literature and Young Adolescents: A Kaleidoscope of Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents seek to understand who they are and where they belong in the world. Quality young adult literature can familiarize them with a broader view of the world, open doors in their minds, and reveal similarities and differences among a multitude of others who have struggled with similar issues. Literature that provides a range of perspectives…

  10. Occupational therapy needs of adolescents and young adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine occupational therapy needs of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy living in an urban setting, to identify participation levels in activities of daily living and social activities, to identify factors influencing participation and to determine the contribution of occupational therapy in participating ...

  11. Moral Cognitive Processes Explaining Antisocial Behavior in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Floor; Brugman, Daniel; Boom, Jan; Koops, Willem

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions--self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community--and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and causality. The sample included 724 students (M age =…

  12. Moral cognitive processes explaining antisocial behavior in young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, F.; Brugman, D.; Boom, J.; Koops, W.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the longitudinal relationships between three kinds of moral cognitions – self-serving cognitive distortions, moral judgment, perception of community – and antisocial behavior in young adolescents. Aims were to gain insight in direct and indirect relationships, stability, and

  13. influences on smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    misbehaviour such as smoking. The study also showed that adolescents and young adults can be influenced by their peers' smoking habits. This can be as a result of the flocking phenomenon where those who smoke can acquire friends that do smoke like them. A number of recommendations are emanating from this study.

  14. Preparing Young Adolescents for a Bright Future--Right Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Paul D.; Martin, Kathryn L.; Buelow, Stephanie M.; Hoffman, Jennifer T.; Cameli, Sandy; Martin, Matt; Walker, Robert E.; O'Neill, Tara B.

    2016-01-01

    We must prepare young adolescents for a bright future by examining all of our educational practices in terms of their current and future relevance. The education we provide our students must prepare them to address enormously complex issues involving demographics and international relations, environmental and human health, and the development and…

  15. Burkitt lymphoma in adolescents and young adults: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dozzo M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Dozzo,1 Francesca Carobolante,1 Pietro Maria Donisi,2 Annamaria Scattolin,1 Elena Maino,1 Rosaria Sancetta,1 Piera Viero,1 Renato Bassan1 1Complex Operative Unit of Hematology, Ospedale dell’Angelo, 2Simple Departmental Operative Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Ospedale Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice, Italy Abstract: About one-half of all Burkitt lymphoma (BL patients are younger than 40 years, and one-third belong to the adolescent and young adult (AYA subset, defined by an age between 15 and 25–40 years, based on selection criteria used in different reports. BL is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm displaying highly characteristic clinico-diagnostic features, the biologic hallmark of which is a translocation involving immunoglobulin and c-MYC genes. It presents as sporadic, endemic, or epidemic disease. Endemicity is pathogenetically linked to an imbalance of the immune system which occurs in African children infected by malaria parasites and Epstein–Barr virus, while the epidemic form strictly follows the pattern of infection by HIV. BL shows propensity to extranodal involvement of abdominal organs, bone marrow, and central nervous system, and can cause severe metabolic and renal impairment. Nevertheless, BL is highly responsive to specifically designed short-intensive, rotational multiagent chemotherapy programs, empowered by the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. When carefully applied with appropriate supportive measures, these modern programs achieve a cure rate of approximately 90% in the average AYA patient, irrespective of clinical stage, which is the best result achievable in any aggressive lymphoid malignancy to date. The challenges ahead concern the following: optimization of management in underdeveloped countries, with reduction of diagnostic and referral-for-care intervals, and the applicability of currently curative regimens; the development of lower intensity but equally effective treatments for frail or

  16. Young Adolescents' Intentional Use of Science News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Ying; Chang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Sufen; Chang, Huey-Por

    2014-01-01

    Profiling adolescent students' intentional use of science news reports can inform science news-infused instruction. This study reports on the development and validation of a Views of Science News Instruction Questionnaire (VSNIQ) designed to explore Grade 7 (12-13 years old) students' views of reasoning with respect to science news. Forty items…

  17. Patterns of drug use from adolescence to young adulthood: III. Predictors of progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Kandel, D B

    1984-07-01

    Possible linkages of influence among classes of drugs in the observed sequential progression from adolescence to young adulthood are investigated through event history analyses. Three stages are examined: initiation to marijuana, to the use of other illicit drugs, and to prescribed psychoactive drugs. The data are based on a follow-up cohort of former adolescents representative of high school students in grade 10 and 11 in New York State who were reinterviewed nine years later at ages 24-25. The sequential order between alcohol and/or cigarettes and marijuana reflects not only the effect of the use of legal drugs on marijuana initiation, but also age effects on onset of these drugs, controlling for individual characteristics measured in adolescence; marijuana use by one's friends in adolescence is an additional important predictor of marijuana initiation. Prior use of marijuana is necessary for progression to other illicit drugs. Multiple factors are involved in the progression to prescribed drugs, with adolescent depressive symptomatology and use of other illicit drugs important for both sexes, and maternal use of psychoactive drugs, dropping out of school, and prior use of marijuana of additional importance for women. Although licit drugs influence initiation into marijuana independently of age effects, it is especially for the progression from marijuana to other illicit drugs that the earlier drug is associated with the progression to a higher stage drug.

  18. Recognition and management of stroke in young adults and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297

  19. Stage-Environment Fit during Adolescence: Trajectories of Family Relations and Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of stage-environment fit theory, the authors examined the contribution of family relations to adolescent outcomes concurrently and longitudinally, as well as the moderating effects of gender and ethnicity in these associations. Data came from a longitudinal study of European American and African American families from a range…

  20. Macrostructural Narrative Language of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome or Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. Method: The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and…

  1. Perceived Stress, Parent-Adolescent/Young Adult Communication, and Family Resilience Among Adolescents/Young Adults Who Have a Parent With Cancer in Taiwan: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Mi; Du, Bao-Feng; Ho, Ching-Liang; Ou, Wei-Jen; Chang, Yue-Cune; Chen, Wei-Ching

    Family resilience helps family members successfully overcome adversity, for example, chronic disease or unpleasant situations. However, few studies have identified correlates of family resilience among adolescents/young adults having a parent with cancer. This longitudinal study explored (1) relationships among family resilience, adolescents' perceived stress, and parent-adolescent/young adult communication; (2) trends in family resilience with data collection time; and (3) differences in parent-adolescent/young adult communication by parent gender (ie, father or mother). Participants were teenagers and young adults (12-25 years) with a parent who had cancer. Data were collected using structured questionnaires at 3 times for 4 to 5 months, with 2 months between each collection. Of 96 adolescent/young adult participants enrolled at T1, only 32 completed all measurements at T3. We found that (1) family resilience was negatively associated with adolescents' perceived stress (B = -0.35) and positively associated with adolescent/young adult communication with both the father (B = 0.58) and the mother (B = 0.36), (2) the degree of family resilience at T3 was significantly lower than at T1 (B = -4.79), and (3) at all 3 data collection times, the degree of adolescent/young adult communication was higher with mothers than with fathers, whether the mother had cancer or did not have cancer. Family resilience was positively associated with parent-adolescent/young adult communication and negatively related to perceived stress. Family resilience tended to decline with longer parental survival since cancer diagnosis. We suggest nursing interventions to reduce adolescent/young adult stress and develop optimal parent-adolescent/young adult communication to enhance family resilience.

  2. Facilitating Teamwork in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca H; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W; Block, Rebecca G; Keyton, Joann

    2016-11-01

    A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms-closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust-of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented.

  3. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Fertility Preservation in Pediatric, Adolescent, and Young Adults with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nao

    2018-03-26

    In recent years, more cancer patients are achieving long-term survival owing to advances in treatment. However, cancer treatment can cause gonadal dysfunction that leads to loss of fertility. Thus, it is important for clinical oncologists to consider fertility preservation in children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer who are expected to have a favorable outcome and may wish to have children in the future. Sometimes, fertility preservation has to be abandoned depending on the stage of the cancer and the general condition of the patient, because fertility preservation procedures may unacceptably delay cancer treatment or be too risky for the patient. The Clinical Practice Guidelines for Fertility Preservation in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults with Cancer were published in 2017 as the first guidelines for this field in Japan. These guidelines cover general principles and recommendations for 8 oncological categories, which is a point of difference from other guidelines. Close coordination between clinical oncologists and reproductive medicine specialists is important over the long term from the pretreatment phase through the post-treatment phase. Therefore, the guidelines were devised to help medical staff consider the available fertility preservation therapies and determine whether performing fertility preservation is appropriate before initiating the treatment for cancer, and to ultimately improve survivorship for children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer. This article reviews the latest information concerning clinical practice guidelines around the world, including the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines that were the first to be published in this field.

  4. Enhancing oral and written language for adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelatti, Christina Yeager

    2015-02-01

    Oral and written language development for adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (Ds) are particularly challenging. Yet, research supports a syndrome-specific profile highlighting strengths and particular areas of difficulty for this group of individuals. For example, adolescents and young adults with Ds tend to understand more than they produce. In terms of oral language development, the domains of semantics and pragmatics are relative strengths whereas morphosyntax is particularly difficult. Much less is known about written language development because most adolescents and young adults with Ds are at the emergent literacy or word identification (i.e., ability to recognize and name single words) stages; however, relative strengths emerge in the area of word identification. The purpose of this article is to explore the research findings on oral and written language strengths and weaknesses and intervention strategies and techniques that facilitate development in these two interrelated domains. In addition, a case study example is provided to further enhance the clinical skills of speech-language pathologists who work with this population. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R.; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Studies on children’s recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults’ recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15 years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research. PMID:26366465

  6. The content of recurrent dreams in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchat, Aline; Séguin, Jean R; McSween-Cadieux, Esther; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Studies on children's recurrent dreams have been largely anecdotal and based on adults' recollections of dreams experienced during childhood. We collected 102 reports of recurrent dreams from a sample of young adolescents aged between 11 and 15years and scored the narratives using a range of content measures, including in relation to the threat simulation theory (TST) of dreaming. The most frequently reported themes involved confrontations with monsters or animals, followed by physical aggressions, falling and being chased. Recurrent dreams were more likely to include negative content elements than positive elements. Only half of the recurrent dreams contained threatening elements and their analysis provided mixed support for the TST. Differences between the content of recurrent dreams reported by young adolescent versus adults are discussed as are possible sex effects and key issues that remain to be addressed by future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stage of Alcohol and Drug Use among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined stages of drug habit acquisition and change among college students, basing the proposed stages of drug use on the Multi-Component Motivational Stages prevention model. Surveys indicated the model helped explain the stages of substance use. The proportion of youths at each stage differed by type of drug. (SM)

  8. TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-Maria Ribera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this review was to update and discuss the current concepts andthe results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adolescents and young adults(AYA. After a brief consideration of the epidemiologic and clinicobiologic characteristics of ALLin the AYA population, the main retrospective comparative studies stating the superiority ofpediatric over adult-based protocols were reviewed. The most important prospective studies inyoung adults using pediatric inspired or pediatric unmodified protocols were also reviewedemphasizing their feasibility at least up to the age of 40 yr and their promising results, with eventfreesurvival rates of 60-65% or greater. Results of trials from pediatric groups have shown that theunfavourable prognosis of adolescents is no more adequate. The majority of the older adolescentswith ALL can be cured with risk-adjusted and minimal residual disease-guided intensivechemotherapy, without stem cell transplantation. However, some specific subgroups, which aremore frequent in adolescents than in children (e.g., early pre-T, iAMP21, and BCR-ABL-like,deserve particular attention. In summary, the advances in treatment of ALL in adolescents havebeen translated to young adults, and that explains the significant improvement in survival of thesepatients in recent years.

  9. Recruiting a young adolescent rural cohort: Costs and lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krestina L. Amon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent recruitment into longitudinal health studies is challenging. The aim of this paper is to report the detailed process and costs of recruiting young adolescents and their families into an intensive longitudinal study of the effects of puberty hormones on health, behaviour and wellbeing in early adolescence, based in regional/rural Australia. Methods: Participants were recruited using a saturation strategy of targeted methods (including school visits and community events and non-targeted recruitment approaches (including print and electronic media advertising, and social media. Direct (face-to-face contact with the public and indirect (behind-the-scenes preparatory activities researcher hours were calculated for each of the recruitment strategies. Results: The study recruited 342 adolescent participants and a parent/guardian over two years. School and community-based recruitment required 6.2 and 6.0 researcher hours per activity, respectively. Direct researcher hours were primarily spent on delivering presentations and connecting with community members at community events. The majority of indirect hours were spent preparing and assembling information packs for distribution to students and parents during school visits. Non-targeted recruitment strategies using media advertising were the most frequently used methods. Researchers were estimated to have spent less than one hour for each media activity. In 27 months, an estimated $250,000 was spent on recruitment activities and resources. A combination of methods was used to recruit young adolescents and their families into a longitudinal health study. Conclusions: The financial costs and researcher time committed to this study highlight the labour-intensive nature of recruitment. The data presented are useful for researchers planning longitudinal studies in adolescents.

  10. Surgical Consideration for Adolescents and Young Adults With Cervical Chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nanzhe; Yang, Xinghai; Yang, Jian; Meng, Tong; Yang, Cheng; Yan, Wangjun; Xiao, Jianru

    2017-05-15

    Retrospective study. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients and old adult patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically and present the surgical consideration for adolescents and young adults with cervical chordoma. With predominance in senior patients, chordoma is distinctively rare in AYAs. Because of the rarity of AYA chordoma, individual case report represents most of the literature on this disease entity on mobile spine and lack of long-term follow up, which leads to the paucity of clinical evidence for treatment planning and prognosis prediction. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prognosis of AYA patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically. We collected the clinical data of these patients and their older counterparts, and further compared the prognosis of the patients in different age groups. To estimate survival curves, Kaplan-Meier method was used, and significance was assessed using a log-rank test. Forty consecutive patients with chordoma of the cervical spine treated in our institution were included in the study. Two groups were identified according to age. Group 1 comprised children and adolescents (age ≤ 25 yrs; n = 9) and Group 2 comprised adults (age > 25 years; n = 31). In comparison, Group 1 was featured by significantly higher rate of recurrence and shorter overall survival, although no difference found in the surgical modality between two groups. There is a dismal prognosis in young patients with chordoma, and thus support the notion that as radical a total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) of the lesions as possible may benefit the overall survival of these young patients. Although the ensuing neurological deficits may be devastating, it will be worth sacrificing if the life expectancy of these young patients is prolonged. 4.

  11. Adolescent and young adult health in the United States in the past decade: little improvement and young adults remain worse off than adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual Health of Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults in the United States Sexual Health of Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States Published: ... been a drop off in the share of adolescents engaging in sexual activity. Despite this shift, recent ...

  13. Young adult sequelae of adolescent cannabis use: an integrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silins, Edmund; Horwood, L John; Patton, George C; Fergusson, David M; Olsson, Craig A; Hutchinson, Delyse M; Spry, Elizabeth; Toumbourou, John W; Degenhardt, Louisa; Swift, Wendy; Coffey, Carolyn; Tait, Robert J; Letcher, Primrose; Copeland, Jan; Mattick, Richard P

    2014-09-01

    Debate continues about the consequences of adolescent cannabis use. Existing data are limited in statistical power to examine rarer outcomes and less common, heavier patterns of cannabis use than those already investigated; furthermore, evidence has a piecemeal approach to reporting of young adult sequelae. We aimed to provide a broad picture of the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent cannabis use. We integrated participant-level data from three large, long-running longitudinal studies from Australia and New Zealand: the Australian Temperament Project, the Christchurch Health and Development Study, and the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. We investigated the association between the maximum frequency of cannabis use before age 17 years (never, less than monthly, monthly or more, weekly or more, or daily) and seven developmental outcomes assessed up to age 30 years (high-school completion, attainment of university degree, cannabis dependence, use of other illicit drugs, suicide attempt, depression, and welfare dependence). The number of participants varied by outcome (N=2537 to N=3765). We recorded clear and consistent associations and dose-response relations between the frequency of adolescent cannabis use and all adverse young adult outcomes. After covariate adjustment, compared with individuals who had never used cannabis, those who were daily users before age 17 years had clear reductions in the odds of high-school completion (adjusted odds ratio 0·37, 95% CI 0·20-0·66) and degree attainment (0·38, 0·22-0·66), and substantially increased odds of later cannabis dependence (17·95, 9·44-34·12), use of other illicit drugs (7·80, 4·46-13·63), and suicide attempt (6·83, 2·04-22·90). Adverse sequelae of adolescent cannabis use are wide ranging and extend into young adulthood. Prevention or delay of cannabis use in adolescence is likely to have broad health and social benefits. Efforts to reform cannabis legislation should be carefully assessed to

  14. Delayed Ego Strength Development in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramoff, Benjamin A; Lange, Hannah L H; Matson, Steven C; Cottrill, Casey B; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bonny, Andrea E

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate ego strengths, in the context of Erikson's framework, among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with opioid dependence as compared to non-drug using youth. Methods. Opioid dependent (n = 51) and non-drug using control (n = 31) youth completed the self-administered Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (PIES). The PIES assesses development in the framework of Erikson's ego strength stages. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the independent association of the primary covariate (opioid dependent versus control) as well as potential confounding variables (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, intelligence) with total PIES score. Results. Mean total PIES score was significantly lower in opioid dependent youth (231.65 ± 30.39 opioid dependent versus 270.67 ± 30.06 control; p development. A treatment approach acknowledging this delay may be needed in the counseling and treatment of adolescents with opioid dependence.

  15. Starting young: sexual initiation and HIV prevention in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Mueller, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others.

  16. Access to childbirth care by adolescents and young people in the Northeastern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érida Zoé Lustosa Furtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors that interfere with the access of adolescents and young people to childbirth care for in the Northeast region of Brazil. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 3,014 adolescents and young people admitted to the selected maternity wards to give birth in the Northeast region of Brazil. The sample design was probabilistic, in two stages: the first corresponded to the health establishments and the second to women who had recently given birth and their babies. The data was collected by means of interviews and consulting the hospital records, from pre-tested electronic form. Descriptive statistics were used for the univariate analysis, Pearson’s Chi-square test for the bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regressions for the multivariate analysis. Sociodemographic variables, obstetrical history, and birth care were analyzed. RESULTS Half of the adolescents and young people interviewed had not been given guidance on the location that they should go to when in labor, and among those who had, 23.5% did not give birth in the indicated health service. Furthermore, one third (33.3% had to travel in search of assisted birth, and the majority (66.7% of the postpartum women came to maternity by their own means. In the bivariate analysis, the variables marital status, paid work, health insurance, number of previous pregnancies, parity, city location, and type of health establishment showed a significant association (p < 0.20 with inadequate access to childbirth care. The multivariate analysis showed that married adolescents and young people (p < 0.015, with no health insurance (p < 0.002 and from the countryside (p < 0.001 were more likely to have inadequate access to childbirth care. CONCLUSIONS Adolescents and young women, married, without health insurance, and from the countryside are more likely to have inadequate access to birth care. The articulation between outpatient care and birth care can improve this

  17. Evaluation and preservation of fertility in adolescent and young adult patients with testicular cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine JM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer M Levine,1 Alison E Fernbach,1 Peter J Stahl21Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Urology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Testicular cancer is the most common cancer affecting young adult males. With survival rates in the range of 70%–99% depending on stage, it is critical to address the long-term consequences of diagnosis and treatment. Maintaining the ability to have biologic children has been identified as an area of importance for long-term survivors of testicular cancer. Yet many males will face a risk of infertility as a consequence of the surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic treatments used to cure them of their cancer. Attention to fertility preservation in the form of sperm banking prior to the start of therapy in those individuals able to produce sperm is a vital intervention in this population. For those individuals who are not able to produce sperm, knowledge and access to alternative methods of fertility preservation and parenthood is necessary to provide comprehensive care. This review summarizes the issues regarding fertility evaluation and preservation in adolescents and young adults with testicular cancer.Keywords: fertility, adolescent and young adult, testicular cancer

  18. Headache associated with temporomandibular disorders among young Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana L; Fernandes, Giovana; Gonçalves, Daniela A G; Bonafé, Fernanda S S; Camparis, Cinara M

    2014-04-01

    To verify whether headaches (HAs) are associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in young Brazilian adolescents. From a population sample, 3117 public school children (12 to 14 y) were randomly invited to participate in this study. TMD was assessed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I, in addition to questions #3, #4, and #14 of Axis II history questionnaire. HAs were investigated with question #18 of RDC/TMD Axis II. Chronic TMD pain was considered as pain that has persisted for 6 months or more, as proposed by the International Association for the Study of Pain. The statistical analysis consisted of χ tests, odds ratio (OR), and logistic regression models, adopting a significance level of 5%. The sample included 1307 individuals (a response rate of 41.93%), and 56.8% (n=742) were girls. Overall, 330 adolescents (25.2%) were diagnosed with painful TMD and 595 (45.5%) presented with HAs. Individuals presenting with HAs were more likely to present painful TMD (OR=4.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.73-6.54, P<0.001), especially combined muscle and joint painful TMD (OR=7.58; 95% CI, 4.77-12.05, P<0.001). HAs also increased the risk to a higher magnitude for chronic TMD pain (OR=6.12; 95% CI, 4.27-8.78, P<0.0001). All estimated ORs remained essentially unchanged after adjusting for sex. HAs were a potential risk factor for TMD in adolescents, and the risk was particularly higher for painful and chronic TMD. When HAs are present in young adolescents, a complete examination is strongly recommended with regard to the presence of painful TMD, and vice versa.

  19. Recognition of asthma in adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....

  20. Eating Disorders in Adolescent and Young Adult Males: Presenting Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Megen; Lau, Josephine; Rubinstein, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Data on the clinical characteristics of adolescent males with eating disorders are limited. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics, presenting vital signs, laboratory results, and relevant risk factors for eating disorders among males presenting to an outpatient adolescent and young adult medicine practice. Retrospective chart review of male eating disorder patients aged of 11-25 years presenting to the University of California, San Francisco Adolescent and Young Adult Eating Disorder Program between June 1, 2011, and November 1, 2014. Charts were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics and risk factors for eating disorders. Thirty-three patients were included; mean age was 16 years. Patients presented with mean heart rate was 58.7 bpm, and orthostatic heart rate change was 22 bpm, with 51.5% meeting Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine hospital admission criteria. Mean percent of median body mass index was 88%. Of patients with available laboratory data, 33.3% were anemic, 23.8% leukopenic, 19.0% thrombocytopenic, and 10.0% neutropenic. Half had a history of a psychiatric disorder; 41.5% had a history of overweight or obesity, and 12.1% had a family history of an eating disorder. The DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria were retrospectively applied to patients, with an increase in diagnosis of anorexia nervosa from 36.4% to 48.5%. Diagnoses of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, now Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder in DSM-5, decreased from 62.6% to 45.5%. Male patients with eating disorders presented with significant abnormalities; patients were bradycardic and orthostatic; and more than half met Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine admission criteria. Patients with available laboratory data demonstrated significant abnormalities consistent with malnutrition. Given that eating disorders are less likely to be detected in males, it is important to recognize early signs of malnutrition

  1. Comparison of three questionnaires to screen for borderline personality disorder in adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebeek, A. van; Heijden, P.T. van der; Hessels, C.; Thong, M.S.Y.; Aken, M.A.G. van

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common personality disorders among adolescents and young adults is the Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The objective of current study was to assess three questionnaires that can reliably screen for BPD in adolescents and young adults (N = 53): the McLean Screening Instrument

  2. Comorbid psychopathology in adolescents and young adults treated for substance use disorders: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenbergh, Christianne; van den Brink, Wim; Zwart, Kirsten; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia; van der Gaag, Rutger J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a recent review, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in non-treated adolescents and young adults with substance use disorders (SUD) in the general population was summarized. This review looks into the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents and young adults

  3. Factors Related to Rural Young Adolescents' Participation in Outdoor, Noncompetitive Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W.; Davis, Marsha; Wilson, Mark G.; McCarty, Frances A.; Green, Gary T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Young adolescents who have little interest in participating in competitive team sports are at an increased risk for physical inactivity. Noncompetitive outdoor physical activity can provide young adolescents with increased opportunities to participate in physical activities that appeal to them and have positive health effects. The purpose…

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of an Adolescent and Young Adult Module of the Impact of Cancer Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Zebrack, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a new instrument that measures unique aspects of long-term survivorship for people diagnosed with cancer as Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA), not measured by existing tools. METHODS: A new candidate instrument-the Impact of Cancer for Adolescent and Young Adult

  5. Coping in adolescents and young adults with chronic digestive disorders: impact on school and leisure activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, M.; Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van; Dekker, J.

    2006-01-01

    Coping strategies were compared across adolescents and young adults with several chronic digestive disorders and healthy peers, and across age groups. Subsequently, the impact of coping on performance in school and leisure activities was investigated. Participants were adolescents and young adults

  6. A Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA): Reliability and Validity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Anne C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Self-Image Questionnaire for Young Adolescents (SIQYA), an adaptation of the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ), designed to measure aspects of self-image among young adolescents, was administered to two groups of sixth graders. The development of the SIQYA is described and reliability and validity results are presented. (EGS)

  7. Sexual health issues in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Sophie; Rogstad, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Adolescence is a time of sexual risk-taking and experimentation but also vulnerability. Young people may present to general physicians with systemic symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as arthritis, hepatitis or rash, but may not necessarily volunteer information about sexual activity. It is important for physicians to ask directly about sexual risks and if appropriate test for STIs and pregnancy. Knowing how to take a sexual history and consent a patient for an HIV test are core medical skills that all physicians should be trained to competently perform. Safeguarding young people is the responsibility of all healthcare professionals who come into contact with them, and young victims of abuse may present with physical symptoms such as abdominal pain or deliberate self-harm. We must all be aware of indicators of both child sexual exploitation and HIV infection and not be afraid to ask potentially awkward questions. If we don't we may miss vital opportunities to prevent or minimise harm to young people. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  8. Overweight and obesity between adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, George C; Coffey, Carolyn; Carlin, John B; Sawyer, Susan M; Williams, Joanne; Olsson, Craig A; Wake, Melissa

    2011-03-01

    To assess changes in overweight and obesity between adolescence and young adulthood. Prospective 8-wave cohort study in Victoria, Australia, with 1,520 adolescents tracked from the age of 14 for a period of 10 years. Participants aged obese according to International Obesity Taskforce cutoff points. In those aged >18 years overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25; and obesity as a BMI ≥ 30. The proportion of overweight individuals increased from 20% in mid-adolescence to 33% at the age of 24 years. Obesity increased from 3.6% to 6.7%. Approximately 40% of young adults with a BMI ≥ 25 had been persistently at normal weights during adolescence and approximately 80% had been at a normal weight at some point. Around half of obese young adults had never been classified as obese as adolescents. No individual with persistent obesity in adolescence had a BMI adolescent data collection had a BMI ≥ 25 at 24 years. Substantial shifts in overweight and obesity occur between adolescence and young adulthood; the extent of continuity depends on both the severity and persistence of adiposity in adolescence. Few adolescents who peak into obesity or are persistently overweight achieve a normal weight in young adulthood. Resolution is more common in those who are less persistently overweight as teenagers, suggesting scope for lifestyle interventions in this subgroup. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between adolescent marriage and intimate partner violence: a study of young adult women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosfequr; Hoque, Md Aminul; Mostofa, Md Golam; Makinoda, Satoru

    2014-03-01

    This study explores the association between adolescent marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adult women using 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey data. The analyses are restricted to young women 20 to 24 years old. Logistic regression analyses are constructed to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between adolescent marriage and IPV in the past year. show that there is a strong significant relationship between adolescent marriage and experience of physical IPV in the past year among this population. Association between sexual IPV and adolescent marriage is insignificant. Adolescent marriage puts women at increased risk of physical IPV into their young adult period. Government agencies need to enforce existing law on the minimum age at marriage to reduce IPV among adolescent and young adult girls.

  10. Adolescent Obesity and Young Adult Psychosocial Outcomes: Gender and Racial Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Michael J.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of 7,881 African American (915 males and 1,073 females) and White (2,864 males and 3,029 females) adolescents from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the psychosocial consequences that obese adolescents encounter as they reach young adulthood. Results indicate that obesity…

  11. Life Course Stage in Young Adulthood and Intergenerational Congruence in Family Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, Freek; Raaijmakers, Quinten; van Wel, Frits

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how intergenerational congruence in family-related attitudes depends on life course stage in young adulthood. Recent data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study were used; the present sample included 2,041 dyads of young adults and their parents. Findings are discussed in terms of the elasticity in intergenerational attitude…

  12. The Role of Parents in Young Adolescents' Competence with Peers: An Observational Study of Advice Giving and Intrusiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Francois; Nadeau, Karine; Scaramella, Laura V.

    2012-01-01

    Young adolescents who encounter difficulties with peers can consult with their parents to help solve these problems. In this context, this study examines the contribution of adolescents' disclosure, parental advice giving, and parental intrusiveness into adolescents' social and behavioral adjustment. Young adolescents (N = 93; 49% girls; mean age…

  13. Young children's understanding of stages of human development

    OpenAIRE

    濱田, 祥子; 杉村, 伸一郎

    2010-01-01

    The self-concept is composed through the interaction with others (Mead,1934). As selfconceptual study in early childhood, most targets the same age others. However, it is thought that the existence of the others at other stages of development brings the influence to the self-concept if the self-concept is composed by the interaction with others. The present study aimed to search for children's understanding of stages of human development and children's self-concept by the comparisons between ...

  14. Correlates of firesetting in a community sample of young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graham; Bergen, Helen A; Richardson, Angela S; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    To investigate relationships between firesetting, antisocial behaviour, individual, family and parenting factors in a large community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study of students (n = 2596) aged 13 years on average, from 27 schools in South Australia with a questionnaire on firesetting, antisocial behaviour (adapted 21-item Self Report Delinquency Scale), risk-taking, drug use, suicidality, physical and sexual abuse, depressive symptomatology, hopelessness, anxiety, locus of control, self-esteem, family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device) and parenting style (Influential Relationships Questionnaire). Data analysis included chi2, anova and logistic regression. Large significant differences are found between firesetters and non-firesetters on all measures. Among adolescents with serious levels of antisocial behaviour (7+ acts included in diagnostic guidelines for DSM-IV conduct disorder), firesetters differ from non-firesetters in reporting more extreme antisocial behaviour (10+ acts), extreme drug use, suicidal behaviour, and perceived failure at school. Gender differences are apparent. A study limitation is the single item assessment of firesetting. Self-report firesetting is strongly associated with extreme antisocial behaviour in young community adolescents, in support of existing evidence from incarcerated delinquent and psychiatric populations. Early detection of community firesetters demands further assessment and intervention. Clinicians should consider its coexistence with serious drug use and high risk-taking (especially in girls), and suicidality, sexual and physical abuse (in boys).

  15. Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jennifer B; Frisco, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women's odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents' odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women's odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women's odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parental Overprotection Predicts the Development of Functional Somatic Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether parental overprotection contributes to die development of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in young adolescents. In addition, we aimed to study whether this potential effect of parental overprotection is mediated by parenting distress and/or moderated by the adolescent's sex. Study design FSS were measured in 2230 adolescents (ages 10 to 12 years from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self Report at...

  17. Young Adult Substance Use and Depression as a Consequence of Delinquency Trajectories during Middle Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended work from Wiesner and Windle (2004) by examining young adult outcomes (i.e., alcohol and illicit drug use, depression) of middle-adolescent trajectories of delinquent behavior for a community sample of 724 young women and men (at average ages 23.8 years). Each domain of young adult adjustment problems was assessed…

  18. Continuity and Discontinuity of Depressed Mood from Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Mediating and Stabilizing Roles of Young Adults' Socioeconomic Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Rand D.; Lorenz, Federick O.; Martin, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data from 467 youth over a 13-year period (late adolescence and young adulthood), the present study investigates three research questions: (1) to what extent do elevations in depressed mood continue (homotypic continuity) from adolescence to young adulthood, (2) to what extent do young adults' socioeconomic…

  19. Method of development force at the young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudolii O.N.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The terms of effective development of force are considered for young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation. The models of urgent and moved aside training effect of the power loadings are certain for young gymnasts 7-13 years. It is set that the process of power preparation of young gymnasts can be separate on two stages. On the first stage by means of the concentrated power loadings the expressed decline of force of group of muscles is arrived at. On the second stage by means of favourable a display maximal efforts of loadings the increase of force of group of muscles is arrived at. Application of the power loadings of different orientation is given by possibility during 10-12 employments on 30-60% to increase force of group of muscles, shorten time of training on development of force in two times.

  20. Are you still bringing me down? Romantic involvement and depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Julie Skalamera; Crosnoe, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Romantic involvement and mental health are dynamically linked, but this interplay can vary across the life course in ways that speak to the social and psychological underpinnings of healthy development. To explore this variation, this study examined how romantic involvement was associated with trajectories of depressive symptomatology across the transition between adolescence and young adulthood. Growth mixture modeling of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health identified trajectories of depressive symptomatology as teens grew into their late 20s and early 30s (n = 8,712). Multinomial logistic techniques regressed these trajectories on adolescent and young adult romantic experiences. Adolescent dating was associated with increased depressive symptoms early on, particularly for girls, but this risk faded over time. For both boys and girls, trajectories of decreasing symptoms were associated with young adult unions but also the coupling of adolescent dating with young adult singlehood. PMID:28661766

  1. Are You Still Bringing Me Down?: Romantic Involvement and Depressive Symptoms from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Julie Skalamera; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Romantic involvement and mental health are dynamically linked, but this interplay can vary across the life course in ways that speak to the social and psychological underpinnings of healthy development. To explore this variation, this study examined how romantic involvement was associated with trajectories of depressive symptomatology across the transition between adolescence and young adulthood. Growth mixture modeling of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health identified trajectories of depressive symptomatology as teens grew into their late 20s and early 30s ( N = 8,712). Multinomial logistic techniques regressed these trajectories on adolescent and young adult romantic experiences. Adolescent dating was associated with increased depressive symptoms early on, particularly for girls, but this risk faded over time. For both boys and girls, trajectories of decreasing symptoms were associated with young adult unions but also the coupling of adolescent dating with young adult singlehood.

  2. A Developmental Perspective on Young Adult Romantic Relationships: Examining Family and Individual Factors in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengya; Fosco, Gregory M; Lippold, Melissa A; Feinberg, Mark E

    2018-02-13

    The ability to develop and maintain healthy romantic relationships is a key developmental task in young adulthood. The present study investigated how adolescent interpersonal skills (assertiveness, positive engagement) and family processes (family climate, parenting practices) influence the development of young adult romantic relationship functioning. We evaluated cross-lag structural equation models with a sample of 974 early adolescents living in rural and semi-rural communities in Pennsylvania and Iowa, starting in sixth grade (mean age = 12.4, 62.1% female) and followed into young adulthood (mean age = 19.5). Findings revealed that adolescents who had experienced a more positive family climate and more competent parenting reported more effective problem-solving skills and less violent behavior in their young adult romantic relationships. Adolescent assertiveness was consistently positively associated with relationship problem-solving skills, and adolescents' positive engagement with their family was associated with feeling more love in young adult romantic relationships. In addition, family functioning and adolescent interpersonal skills exhibited some reciprocal relations over the adolescent years. In summary, family processes and interpersonal skills are mutually influenced by each other across adolescence, and both have unique predictive implications to specific facets of young adult romantic relationship functioning.

  3. Violent Victimization and Perpetration during Adolescence: Developmental Stage Dependent Ecological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Needham, Belinda L.; Grunden, Leslie N.; Farb, Amy Feldman

    2010-01-01

    Using a variant of the ecological-transactional model and developmental theories of delinquency on a nationally representative sample of adolescents, the current study explored the ecological predictors of violent victimization, perpetration, and both for three different developmental stages during adolescence. We examined the relative influence…

  4. Cardiovascular Disease in Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed...... at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International......-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up, 10591 survivors (24.5%) were discharged from the hospital with cardiovascular disease, whereas 8124 were expected (RR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI)] = 1.28 to 1.33; P cardiovascular disease per 100000...

  5. Recognition of asthma in adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s......Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....

  6. National Identity of Young Adolescents of Czech and Bulgarian Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ganeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of national identity among young adolescents of Bulgarian and Czech origin. University students (N=161 completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R (Phinney & Ong, 2007, four measures of psychological well-being and a measure of salience of ethnicity. Factor analyses of data for the two national groups yielded a two-factor structure that corresponded to two theoretical approaches to ethnic identity, as hypothesised. Similar patterns in magnitude of loadings were observed across groups, indicating that the MEIM-R could be used as a global composite index of national identity. National identity was related positively to measures of psychological well-being such as mastery, self-esteem and optimism, and negatively to measure of loneliness. MEIM-R scores were also moderately correlated with salience (the importance of a person's own national background in his or her life, across national groups.

  7. YOUNG ADOLESCENT EFL LEARNERS’ PERSPECTIVES ON CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bedir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Critical Thinking Skills (CTs are among the 21st century learning skills, and schools are expected to equip the students with these skills. Turkey has been restructuring the educational system in order to improve the quality of education which enables students to acquire such learning skills as critical and creative thinking, problem solving, and collaboration. The present study based on the perspectives of young adolescent EFL learners presents findings on the students’ awareness of CTs, and whether or not they apply them to a given task, and if there is any conflict between knowledge and application of CTs. The findings showed that the students, despite their quiet well awareness, did not effectively apply CTs. The problems they encountered were assumed to be resulted from lacking in metacognitive knowledge.

  8. Predictive values derived from lower wisdom teeth developmental stages on orthopantomograms to calculate the chronological age in adolescence and young adults as a prerequisite to obtain age-adjusted informed patient consent prior to elective surgical procedures in young patients with incomplete or mismatched personal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E; Schmidt, Kirsten; Treszl, András; Kersten, Jan F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical procedures require informed patient consent, which is mandatory prior to any procedure. These requirements apply in particular to elective surgical procedures. The communication with the patient about the procedure has to be comprehensive and based on mutual understanding. Furthermore, the informed consent has to take into account whether a patient is of legal age. As a result of large-scale migration, there are eventually patients planned for medical procedures, whose chronological age can't be assessed reliably by physical inspection alone. Age determination based on assessing wisdom tooth development stages can be used to help determining whether individuals involved in medical procedures are of legal age, i.e., responsible and accountable. At present, the assessment of wisdom tooth developmental stages barely allows a crude estimate of an individual's age. This study explores possibilities for more precise predictions of the age of individuals with emphasis on the legal age threshold of 18 years. Material and Methods: 1,900 dental orthopantomograms (female 938, male 962, age: 15-24 years), taken between the years 2000 and 2013 for diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the jaws, were evaluated. 1,895 orthopantomograms (female 935, male 960) of 1,804 patients (female 872, male 932) met the inclusion criteria. The archives of the Department of Diagnostic Radiology in Dentistry, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, and of an oral and maxillofacial office in Rostock, Germany, were used to collect a sufficient number of radiographs. An effort was made to achieve almost equal distribution of age categories in this study group; 'age' was given on a particular day. The radiological criteria of lower third molar investigation were: presence and extension of periodontal space, alveolar bone loss, emergence of tooth, and stage of tooth mineralization (according to Demirjian). Univariate and multivariate general linear models were calculated

  9. Psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the availability of better treatment regimen, life span of thalassemic patients is increasing. Chronic nature of thalassemia and its intensive and demanding treatment result in significant psychologic burden on the patients and their families. A lot has been studied about beta-thalassemia major but little attention has been paid to the psychological aspect of this disease. Hence, the study was planned to analyse the psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from January 2007 to March 2008 in thalassemic day-care centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Fifty four thalassemic children and controls above 9 years of age were enrolled. Psychosocial assessment done with assessment of Finer Psychopathology using ICMR Symptom checklist (ICMR task force, 1983. The prevalence of various problems was calculated and compared with controls. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for testing differences in variables. Results: Patients were divided into three groups - Group A (10-15 years, 30 patients; Group B (15-20 years, 18 patients, and Group C (20-25 years, 6 patients. In group A, behavior problems were common (12 patients -40% (P< 0.001, significant. In group B, mood disorders were common (8 patients, 44% (P< 0.001, significant. In group C, psychotic symptoms were common (3 patients, 50% (P< 0.05, significant. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that psychosocial problems are more in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial aspects need to be addressed in the overall treatment of children with thalassemia.

  10. Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority. We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16-26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30 days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and hookah; non-combustible tobacco products included chew, dip, dissolvables, e-cigarettes, snuff and snus. We then fitted an ordinal logistic regression model to assess demographic and behavioural associations with higher levels of current tobacco product use (single, dual and multiple product use). Among 448 current tobacco users, 54% were single product users, 25% dual users and 21% multiple users. The largest single use category was cigarettes (49%), followed by hookah (23%), little filtered cigars (17%) and e-cigarettes (5%). Most dual and multiple product users smoked cigarettes, along with little filtered cigars, hookah and e-cigarettes. Forty-six per cent of current single, 84% of dual and 85% of multiple tobacco product users consumed a tobacco product outside FDA regulatory authority. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted risk of multiple tobacco use was higher for males, first use of a non-combustible tobacco product, high sensation seeking respondents and declined for each additional year of age that tobacco initiation was delayed. Nearly half of current adolescent and young adult tobacco users in this study engaged in dual and multiple tobacco product use; the majority of them used products that fall outside current FDA regulatory authority. This study supports FDA deeming of these products and their incorporation into the national media campaign to address youth tobacco use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  11. Fertility Issues in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Catherine; Shuk, Elyse; Ford, Jennifer S

    2016-03-01

    Many adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors place great importance on fertility. This study explored AYAs' discussions of fertility in the context of discussing their survivorship experiences. Secondary analyses of a qualitative study of young adult survivors of adolescent cancers ("AYA survivors") was performed using semistructured individual interviews and focus groups. Analyses were conducted using grounded theory using thematic content analysis with an inductive data-driven approach. Participants (n = 43) were 16-24 years old, diagnosed with cancer between ages 14 and 18 years, and were at least 6 months post-treatment. Before treatment, 5 males banked sperm and no females preserved fertility. More males (50%) than females (39%) reported uncertainty about their fertility. Three major categories emerged from the data: fertility concerns, emotions raised when discussing fertility, and strategies used to manage fertility concerns. Fertility concerns focused on dating/partner reactions, health risks, and what potential infertility would mean for their life narrative. Emotions included distress, feeling overwhelmed and hopeful/wishful thinking. Females were more likely to feel distressed and overwhelmed than males. Strategies to manage concerns included acceptance/"making do," desire to postpone concerns, and reliance on assisted reproductive technology. Most AYAs in our study reported a number of reproductive concerns and fertility-related distress after treatment, which may affect other areas of psychosocial functioning. Females may be more at-risk for distress than males, particularly in situations of uncertainty and limited knowledge. Future work should explore how to best incorporate fertility-related informational and support services more fully into survivorship care. Implications for survivorship care are discussed.

  12. Understanding Nonprescription and Prescription Drug Misuse in Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha A. Fleary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the extent to which nonprescription and prescription drugs misuse among adolescents/young adults are related to their perception that it is safer than illicit drugs, ease of access, and lower societal stigma. Adolescents/young adults (; , completed an online survey about their nonprescription and prescription drug misuse, other substance use, and correlates of use. Perceived risk, societal stigma, and access to nonprescription and prescription drugs were predictive of misuse. Results support program planners working towards targeting perceived risk and societal stigma in reducing misuse and the need to restrict and monitor access to nonprescription and prescription drugs for adolescents/young adults.

  13. Transitions in gambling participation during late adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Bethany C; Lee, Grace P; Liu, Weiwei; Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Martins, Silvia S

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine transitions in gambling participation from late adolescence into emerging adulthood and to identify factors (i.e., gender, race, intervention status, lunch status, conduct disorder, parental monitoring, neighborhood environment, and substance use) that might influence these transitions. Markov modeling was used to describe the movement between past-year gambling states (i.e., nongambling and gambling) across 5 years. Annual data on the past-year gambling behavior and substance use were collected from 515 young men and women starting at the age of 17 years. Past-year gambling declined from 51% prevalence at the age of 17 years to 21% prevalence at the age of 22 years. Participants who reported no past-year gambling at a particular annual assessment had more than an 80% probability of also reporting no past-year gambling at the following assessment. Men were 1.07-2.82 times more likely than women to transition from past-year nongambling to gambling year to year, and women were 1.27-5.26 times more likely than men to transition from past-year gambling to nongambling year to year. In addition, gender and past-year tobacco use interacted such that men who used tobacco were most likely (and men who did not use tobacco least likely) to gamble at baseline. Transition rates between gambling states appear to be relatively stable over time from late adolescence into emerging adulthood; however, men and those who engage in substance use may be at an increased risk of gambling participation. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Subcortical volumetric differences between clinical stages of young people with affective and psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, Peta S; Hatton, Sean N; Hermens, Daniel F; Hickie, Ian B; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2018-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences in subcortical and hippocampal volumes between healthy controls, young people at an early stage of affective and psychotic disorders and those in more advanced stages, to identify markers associated with functional outcomes and illness severity. Young people presenting to youth mental health services with admixtures of depressive, manic and psychotic symptoms (n = 141), and healthy counterparts (n = 49), aged 18-25 were recruited. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging, clinical assessments and were rated as to their current clinical stage. Eighty-four patients were classified at the attenuated syndrome stage (Stage 1b) and 57 were classified as having discrete and persistent disorders (Stage 2+). Automated segmentation was performed using NeuroQuant® to determine volumes of subcortical and hippocampus structures which were compared between groups and correlated with clinical and functional outcomes. Compared to healthy controls, Stage 2+ patients showed significantly reduced right amygdala volumes. Whereas Stage 1b patients showed significantly reduced left caudate volumes compared to healthy controls. Smaller left caudate volume correlated with greater psychological distress and impaired functioning. This study shows a clinical application for an automated program to identify and track subcortical changes evident in young people with emerging psychopathology. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment and Care Archive STD Risk and Oral Sex Other STDs Archive Life Stages and Populations Adolescents and Young Adults Adolescents and Technology Adolescents and STDs Fact Sheet Gay, Bisexual and Other MSM Gay Men & STDs Fact ...

  16. Antecedents of transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyoung; Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Kwon, Josephine A; Lorenz, Frederick O; Oshri, Assaf

    2017-11-01

    This study examined (a) transition patterns from adolescent-specific depressive symptom trajectory classes to young adult-specific trajectory classes (N = 537; 15-26 years) and (b) identified risk factors associated with these transition patterns. The latent classes and transition analyses identified three transitional patterns of depressive symptom trajectories, including a deteriorating pattern (8.2%), a recovering pattern (22.5%), and a consistently low pattern (69.3%). Additionally, the results showed that contextual risk factors (i.e., negative economic events, negative romantic relationships, and low college enrolment rates) in the transition period to young adulthood were more positively associated with deteriorated or recovered transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories than with the consistently low transition patterns even after taking into account the effects of adolescent risk factors. The identification of dynamic transition patterns in depressive symptom trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood and risk factors provide useful tools for preventive and intervention efforts. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Heterogeneous trajectories of depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood have been reported. Psychosocial characteristics differentiate trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. What does this study add? Dynamic transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories are found between adolescence and young adulthood. Life experiences in the transition period are uniquely associated with the transition patterns of depressive symptom trajectories even after adjusting the effects of adolescent characteristics. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. The family environment and American adolescents' risk of obesity as young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Ashley; Anne Sullivan, Deborah; Benin, Mary

    2006-11-01

    In this article, the effects of the family environment and adolescents' behaviors while in school grades 7 through 12 on their weight status 6 years later are examined using data from the United States National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Ordinal regression models of 6378 adolescents reveal that their family environments exert an influence on their weight that lasts into young adulthood. Parental obesity puts both males and females at greater risk for being overweight or obese as young adults, as does already having excessive weight in adolescence. The findings also reveal significant gender differences in the intergenerational transmission of body weight within families. Higher parental educational attainment, a stronger perception that parents care about them, and a higher self-esteem reduce female adolescents' risk for excessive weight as young adults, while being African American or Native American increases it. In contrast, only a perception that their parents are trying to control their diets and a higher degree of closeness with a parent put male adolescents at greater risk for excessive weight as young adults. Adolescents' participation in physical activities does not predict subsequent weight for either males or females, although the amount of time spent in sedentary activities does for females, but not males. The only adolescent behavior examined that influenced male weight in young adulthood was eating breakfast.

  18. Differences in social support and loneliness in adolescents according to developmental stage and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, N E; Yarcheski, A; Yarcheski, T J

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in both perceived social support and loneliness according to the three stages of adolescent development (early, middle, and late), as determined by chronological age and gender. The sample consisted of 113 early adolescents, 106 middle adolescents, and 106 late adolescents. Data were collected in classroom settings. All participants responded to the PRQ85--Part II, A Social Support Measure; the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale; and a demographic data sheet. Results of the study, which used the two-way analysis of variance, indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in perceived social support or loneliness across the three stages of adolescence. Findings also indicated that girls reported statistically significantly higher levels of perceived social support than boys; however, there were no statistically significant gender differences in loneliness.

  19. Patterns of intimate partner violence victimization from adolescence to young adulthood in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Spriggs, Aubrey L; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of patterns of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization from adolescence to young adulthood, and document associations with selected sociodemographic and experiential factors. We used prospective data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to group 4134 respondents reporting only opposite-sex romantic or sexual relationships in adolescence and young adulthood into four victimization patterns: no IPV victimization, adolescent-limited IPV victimization, young adult onset IPV victimization, and adolescent-young adult persistent IPV victimization. Forty percent of respondents reported physical or sexual victimization by young adulthood. Eight percent experienced IPV only in adolescence, 25% only in young adulthood, and 7% showed persistent victimization. Female sex, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, an atypical family structure (something other than two biologic parents, step-family, single parent), more romantic partners, experiencing childhood abuse, and early sexual debut (before age 16) were each associated with one or more patterns of victimization versus none. Number of romantic partners and early sexual debut were the most consistent predictors of violence, its timing of onset, and whether victimization persisted across developmental periods. These associations did not vary by biological sex. Substantial numbers of young adults have experienced physical or sexual IPV victimization. More research is needed to understand the developmental and experiential mechanisms underlying timing of onset of victimization, whether victimization persists across time and relationships, and whether etiology and temporal patterns vary by type of violence. These additional distinctions would inform the timing, content, and targeting of violence prevention efforts.

  20. Impact of end-stage kidney disease on academic achievement and employment in young adults: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Peter D; Dobbels, Fabienne; Lonsdale, Daniel C; Harden, Paul N

    2014-10-01

    Young adult kidney patients are at an important stage of development when end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) may adversely influence progress in education and employment. This study is designed to assess the impact of ESKD on education and employment outcomes in young adults. This cross-sectional study was a mixed methods design. Education and career achievements in young adults with ESKD were recorded quantitatively using a questionnaire survey (n = 57): 14 of 57 representative participants were subsequently selected for semistructured interview. Questionnaire survey was conducted in 57 young adults (median age 25): 8.8% (n = 5) were predialysis; 14.0% (n = 8) dialysis; and 78.9% (n = 45) were kidney transplant recipients. Median school-leaving age was 16 (interquartile range = 15-19). Of 57 young adults, 10 (17.5%) were still studying, 43 (75.4%) had completed education, 34 (59.7%) were employed (23 full time and 11 part time), and 19 (33.3%) were unemployed. Twenty-seven of 45 transplanted patients were employed (60.0%). Of these 27, 21 were full time (77.8%). Five of eight dialysis patients were employed: only one of eight was full-time employed (12.5%). Themes impacting on education and employment included low energy levels, time missed, loss of self-esteem, and feelings of loneliness and isolation, which may progress to depression and recreational drug use. Lack of understanding from educators and employers resulting in lost work, and career ambitions changed or limited because of dialysis. Dialysis has a major negative impact on education and reduced employment rates of young adults. There is a general lack of understanding among educators and employers of the impact of ESKD. Low energy levels, lack of self-esteem, and depression are key factors. There is a need for health care providers to recognize this issue and invest in supporting young adults with ESKD. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebner, Rebecca L; Laney, Nina; Kim, Ji Young; Hartung, Erum A; Hooper, Stephen R; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L

    2016-04-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a known complication in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, less is known about putative mechanisms or modifiable risk factors. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine risk factors for cognitive dysfunction in children, adolescents, and young adults with CKD compared with controls. Cross-sectional study. The Neurocognitive Assessment and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Children and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease (NiCK) Study included 90 individuals aged 8 to 25 years with CKD compared with 70 controls. CKD versus control, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ambulatory blood pressure. Performance on neurocognitive assessment with relevant tests grouped into 11 domains defined a priori by expert opinion. Results of tests were converted to age-normalized z scores. Each neurocognitive domain was analyzed through linear regression, adjusting for eGFR and demographic and clinical variables. For domains defined by multiple tests, the median z score of tests in that domain was used. We found significantly poorer performance in multiple areas of neurocognitive function among individuals with CKD compared with controls. Particular deficits were seen in domains related to attention, memory, and inhibitory control. Adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, we found lower performance in multiple domains with decreasing eGFRs (attention: β=0.053, P=0.02; visual spatial: β=0.062, P=0.02; and visual working memory: β=0.069, P=0.04). Increased diastolic load and decreased diastolic nocturnal dipping on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were independently associated with impairments in neurocognitive performance. Unable to assess changes in neurocognitive function over time, and neurocognitive tests were grouped into predetermined neurocognitive domains. Lower eGFR in children, adolescents, and young adults is associated with poorer neurocognitive performance, particularly in

  2. A prospective study of screen time in adolescence and depression symptoms in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Singhammer, John; Froberg, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between screen time in adolescence and depressive symptoms in young adulthood in a population-based cohort study of Danish adolescents. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of adolescents who were followed-up in young adulthood...... for a period of up to 12years (1997-2010, mean 8.8years, n=435). Information on television viewing, computer use, total screen time and other determinants of depression were obtained in adolescence. Depressive symptoms were obtained in young adulthood using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and classified...... as mild, moderate or severe depression. Mixed regression models were used to examine the associations, with adjustment for major confounders. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted analyses, each additional hour/day spent watching television or screen viewing in adolescence was associated with 1.36 (95% CI 0...

  3. The pervasiveness, connectedness, and intrusiveness of social network site use among young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Juvonen, Jaana

    2011-12-01

    Young adolescents are quickly becoming avid users of social networking sites (SNSs); however, little is known regarding how they use these sites. The goal of the present study was to examine the extent to which young adolescents use SNSs, with whom they connect via these sites, and whether SNS use disrupts daily functioning. Among 268 middle-school students surveyed, 63% reported having their own profile page on an SNS. On average, adolescents reported having 196 SNS contacts (friends), most of whom were known peers. Young adolescents with an SNS spent most of their time viewing and responding to comments written on their profile page. Among the SNS users, 39% reported getting behind on schoolwork and 37% reported losing sleep at least once because they were visiting an SNS. As SNS use becomes embedded in young teens' daily lives, it is important to better understand how such use affects their daily adaptive functioning.

  4. Depression and violence in adolescence and young adults : Findings from three longitudinal cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Aaltonen, Mikko; Branje, Susan; Ristikari, Tiina; Meeus, W.H.J.; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Goodwin, Guy M.; Fazel, Seena

    Objective: Despite recent research demonstrating associations between violence and depression in adults, links in adolescents are uncertain. This study aims to assess the longitudinal associations between young people's depression and later violent outcomes. Method: We used data from three cohorts

  5. The Association between Romantic Relationships and Delinquency in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Wickrama, K. A. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between romantic relationships and delinquency in adolescence and young adulthood. Using a large, longitudinal, and nationally representative sample, results from negative binomial regressions showed a positive association between romantic involvement and delinquency in adolescence. Further, the cumulative number of romantic relationships from adolescence to young adulthood was positively related to delinquency in young adulthood even controlling for earlier delinquency in adolescence. These analyses also controlled for the effects of participant gender, age at initial assessment, puberty, race/ethnicity, and other demographic characteristics (e.g., family structure and parents’ education). Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding the role of romantic relationships in the development of young people and for stimulating future research questions. PMID:22984343

  6. Model of unplanned smoking initiation of children and adolescents: an integrated stage model of smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, S P J; Mudde, A N; De Vries, H

    2004-05-01

    Two lines of psychological research have attempted to spell out the stages of adolescent smoking initiation. The first has focused on behavioral stages of smoking initiation, while the second line emphasized motivational stages. A large international sample of European adolescents (N = 10,170, mean age = 13.3 years) was followed longitudinally. Self-reported motivational and behavioral stages of smoking initiation were integrated, leading to the development of the Model of Unplanned Smoking Initiation of Children and Adolescents (MUSICA). The MUSICA postulates that youngsters experiment with smoking while they are in an unmotivated state as regards their plans for smoking regularly in the future. More than 95% of the total population resided in one of the seven stages distinguished by MUSICA. The probability of starting to smoke regularly during the 12 months follow-up period increased with advanced stage assignment at baseline. Unique social cognitive predictors of stage progression from the various stages were identified, but effect sizes of predictors of transitions were small. The integration of motivational and behavioral dimensions improves our understanding of the process of smoking initiation. In contrast to current theories of smoking initiation, adolescent uptake of smoking behavior was found to be an unplanned action.

  7. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current article was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a statewide representative sample in Grade 5 (age, 10-11 years) in 2002 and followed-up to age 18-19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization and young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyberbullying perpetration only, 5.0% reported cyberbullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyberbullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyberbullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure that they set clear rules and monitor adolescents' behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Automatic SLEEP staging: From young aduslts to elderly patients using multi-class support vector machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul; Sorensen, Helge B. D.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a process that is inevitable, and makes our body vulnerable to age-related diseases. Age is the most consistent factor affecting the sleep structure. Therefore, new automatic sleep staging methods, to be used in both of young and elderly patients, are needed. This study proposes an autom......Aging is a process that is inevitable, and makes our body vulnerable to age-related diseases. Age is the most consistent factor affecting the sleep structure. Therefore, new automatic sleep staging methods, to be used in both of young and elderly patients, are needed. This study proposes...... an automatic sleep stage detector, which can separate wakefulness, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep using only EEG and EOG. Most sleep events, which define the sleep stages, are reduced with age. This is addressed by focusing on the amplitude of the clinical EEG bands...

  9. Adolescent and young adult female determinants of visceral adipose tissue at ages 26-28 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping; Woo, Jessica G; Morrison, John A; Khoury, Philip R; Daniels, Stephen R

    2015-04-01

    To assess adolescent and young adult determinants of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) at ages 26-28 years. Prospective study (ages 9-28 years) of cardiometabolic measures, menarche age, menses irregularities, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose-type 2 diabetes mellitus, and VAT in 400 girls (248 black, 152 white). Adolescent (age 14-19) independent variables for greater VAT at ages 26-28 included larger mean waist circumference (partial R(2) = 30.8%), earlier age at menarche (0.9%), and white race (1.8%). Young adult (ages 20-28 years) independent variables for greater VAT included larger mean waist circumference (partial R(2) = 61.7%), greater triglyceride levels (3.3%), lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.0%), and greater insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance; 0.4%). Independent variables for greater VAT when both adolescent and young adult variables were used included waist (tertile rank change from adolescence to young adulthood, partial R(2) = 58.3%), greater young adult triglyceride levels (4.4%), white race (1.8%), greater young adult homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (age 20-28, 2.4%), and earlier menarche age (0.7%). Menses irregularities were not independently associated with young adult VAT. Adolescent girls with early menarche and larger waist circumference should be targets for primary prevention of accretion of VAT. In young adulthood, VAT is associated with dysregulated cardiometabolic profiles, which is greater for those with waist circumference increases from adolescence to adulthood. Waist circumference during young adulthood, and to a lesser degree during adolescence, is an inexpensive surrogate for VAT at ages 26-28 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors affecting vegetable preference in adolescents: stages of change and social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Taejung; Lee, Kyung-Hea

    2017-08-01

    Despite the importance of consuming sufficient amounts of vegetables, daily vegetable intake among adolescents in Korea is lower than the current dietary recommendation. The objective of this study was to examine determinants affecting vegetable preference in order to suggest a stage-tailored education strategy that can promote vegetable consumption in adolescents. Adolescents (n = 400, aged 16-17 years) from two high schools participated in a cross-sectional study. Survey variables were vegetable preference, the social cognitive theory (SCT) and stages of change (SOC) constructs. Based on vegetable preference, subjects were classified into two groups: a low-preference group (LPG) and a high-preference group (HPG). SOC was subdivided into pre-action and action/maintenance stages. To compare SCT components and SOC related to vegetable preference, chi-squared and t-tests, along with stepwise multiple-regression analysis, were applied. In the LPG, a similar number of subjects were classified into each stage. Significant differences in self-efficacy, affective attitudes, and vegetable accessibility at home and school were detected among the stages. Subjects in the HPG were mainly at the maintenance stage (81%), and there were significant differences among the stages regarding self-efficacy, affective attitudes, and parenting practice. In the predictions of vegetable preference, self-efficacy and parenting practice had a significant effect in the "pre-action" stage. In the action/maintenance stage, outcome expectation, affective attitudes, and vegetable accessibility at school had significant predictive value. In predicting the vegetable preference for all subjects, 42.8% of the predictive variance was accounted for by affective attitudes, self-efficacy, and vegetable accessibility at school. The study revealed that different determinants affect adolescent vegetable preference in each stage. Self-efficacy and affective attitudes are important determinants affecting

  11. Young, wild and free? The social and cultural context of adolescent risk behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Looze, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence, the transitional phase between childhood and adulthood, is a unique period of discovery and experimentation. It is a complex, but exciting phase of life in which young people gradually develop into adults. While desiring more autonomy and freedom to make their own decisions, adolescents

  12. Competitive Employment and Service Management for Adolescents and Young Adults with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Paris, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Given the variety and severity of problems associated with adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), it is imperative that a coordinated system of vocational training and social support be afforded adolescents and young adults with EBD for them to become successful members of the workforce. Describes such a service model.…

  13. Adolescent Girls' ADHD Symptoms and Young Adult Driving: The Role of Perceived Deviant Peer Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoos, Stephanie L.; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to examine the role of adolescent perceived deviant peer affiliation in mediating or moderating the association between adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and young adult driving risk in females with and without ADHD. The overall sample included 228 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls with…

  14. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  15. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  16. Emotional Autonomy versus Detachment: Revisiting the Vicissitudes of Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Lynch, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Emotional autonomy was examined in three studies of adolescents and young adults. Subjects of the studies were 148 seventh graders, 213 high school students, and 104 undergraduates, respectively. Discussion concerns the conceptualization of attachment versus detachment, dependence, and autonomy in theories of adolescence. (RJC)

  17. Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young…

  18. Young Adolescents' Responses to Positive Events: Associations with Positive Affect and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzler, Amy L.; Morey, Jennifer N.; Palmer, Cara A.; Yi, Chit Yuen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how maximizing and minimizing responses to positive events were associated with sustained positive feelings about the events and adjustment in a community sample of 56 young adolescents (31 boys and 25 girls, 10-14 years of age). On daily reports, adolescents reported their positive emotional reactions to their best event each…

  19. Response and Remission in Adolescent Mania: Signal Detection Analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…

  20. Are Adolescent Substance Users Less Satisfied with Life as Young Adults and if so, Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated whether adolescent cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hard drug use predicts life satisfaction in young adulthood. Survey data were used from a longitudinal cohort of 2376 adolescents at ages 18 and 29, originally recruited from California and Oregon middle schools at age 13. Results of multivariate models indicated…

  1. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  2. The Role of Individual- and Macro-Level Social Determinants on Young Adolescents' Psychosomatic Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottova, Veronika; Erhart, Michael; Vollebergh, Wilma; Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Morgan, Antony; Gobina, Inese; Jericek, Helena; Cavallo, Franco; Valimaa, Raili; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Gaspar, Tania; Schnohr, Christina W.; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the social determinants of psychosomatic complaints in young adolescents. Using data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, psychosomatic complaints are studied in 98,773 adolescents (11- and 13-year-olds; 48% 11-year-olds, 52% 13-year-olds; 52% females, 48% males) from 34 European countries.…

  3. Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…

  4. A Bivalent Meningococcal B Vaccine in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Vesikari, Timo; Absalon, Judith; Beeslaar, Johannes; Ward, Brian J; Senders, Shelly; Eiden, Joseph J; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; York, Laura J; Jones, Thomas R; Harris, Shannon L; O'Neill, Robert; Radley, David; Maansson, Roger; Prégaldien, Jean-Louis; Ginis, John; Staerke, Nina B; Perez, John L

    2017-12-14

    MenB-FHbp is a licensed meningococcal B vaccine targeting factor H-binding protein. Two phase 3 studies assessed the safety of the vaccine and its immunogenicity against diverse strains of group B meningococcus. We randomly assigned 3596 adolescents (10 to 18 years of age) to receive MenB-FHbp or hepatitis A virus vaccine and saline and assigned 3304 young adults (18 to 25 years of age) to receive MenB-FHbp or saline at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Immunogenicity was assessed in serum bactericidal assays that included human complement (hSBAs). We used 14 meningococcal B test strains that expressed vaccine-heterologous factor H-binding proteins representative of meningococcal B epidemiologic diversity; an hSBA titer of at least 1:4 is the accepted correlate of protection. The five primary end points were the proportion of participants who had an increase in their hSBA titer for each of 4 primary strains by a factor of 4 or more and the proportion of those who had an hSBA titer at least as high as the lower limit of quantitation (1:8 or 1:16) for all 4 strains combined after dose 3. We also assessed the hSBA responses to the primary strains after dose 2; hSBA responses to the 10 additional strains after doses 2 and 3 were assessed in a subgroup of participants only. Safety was assessed in participants who received at least one dose. In the modified intention-to-treat population, the percentage of adolescents who had an increase in the hSBA titer by a factor of 4 or more against each primary strain ranged from 56.0 to 85.3% after dose 2 and from 78.8 to 90.2% after dose 3; the percentages of young adults ranged from 54.6 to 85.6% and 78.9 to 89.7%, after doses 2 and 3, respectively. Composite responses after doses 2 and 3 in adolescents were 53.7% and 82.7%, respectively, and those in young adults were 63.3% and 84.5%, respectively. Responses to the 4 primary strains were predictive of responses to the 10 additional strains. Most of those who received Men

  5. Binge Drinking Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of Peer Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Kolaczyk, Eric; Jang, Jisun; Swenson, Theadora; Bhindarwala, Asma Moiz

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates an association between social network characteristics and binge drinking from adolescence to young adulthood, utilizing National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 7,966) and employing social network and longitudinal analysis. Lower integration and socialization with alcohol-using peers had immediate risks of binge drinking during adolescence; however, over time, the effects of socialization with alcohol-using peers had the most dramatic reduction. The most p...

  6. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young with end-stage nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saudek, Frantisek; Pruhová, Stepánka; Boucek, Peter

    2004-01-01

    -onset diabetes of the young (MODY). SPK was performed in a 47-year old man who has MODY3 because of a Arg272His mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alphagene. He developed overt diabetes mellitus at 19 years and end-stage diabetic nephropathy 26 years thereafter. Before SPK, the patient had measurable...

  7. Emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and young adults with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, M A; Van Lieshout, R J; Ohayon, J; Scott, J G

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents with food allergy have poorer psychosocial outcomes compared with their nonallergic counterparts; however, few studies have prospectively examined the mental health of adolescents and young adults in this vulnerable population. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in an epidemiological sample of adolescents and young adults with food allergy; determine whether food allergy is associated with adolescent and maternal reports of such problems; and examine the patterns of change in emotional and behavioral problems from adolescence to young adulthood among individuals with and without food allergy. Data came from 1303 participants at 14 and 21 years of age in the Mater University Study of Pregnancy. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using self- and maternal-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Maternal, but not self-reports suggested that emotional and behavioral problems were higher among adolescents with food allergy. Food allergy was associated with increased odds of elevated levels of maternal-reported symptoms of depression [OR = 4.50 (1.83, 11.07)], anxiety [OR = 2.68 (1.12, 6.44)], and ADHD [OR = 3.14 (1.07, 9.19)] in adolescence. Food allergy was also associated with depressive symptoms that persisted from adolescence to young adulthood [OR = 2.05 (1.04, 4.03)]. Emotional and behavioral problems, particularly symptoms of depression, anxiety, and ADHD, are common among adolescents with food allergy in the general population and, in the case of elevated levels of depressive symptoms, persist into young adulthood. Healthcare professionals should seek adolescent and parental perspectives when assessing emotional and behavioral problems and monitor mental health during the transition to adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Adolescent predictors and environmental correlates of young adult alcohol use problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumbourou, John W; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Smith, Rachel; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-03-01

    To examine the rates of young adult alcohol and drug use and alcohol problems, adolescent predictors of young adult alcohol problems and correlations with young adult social, work and recreational environments. Adolescents were followed longitudinally into young adulthood. Predictors were measured in grade 9 (average age 15), and environmental correlates and outcomes in young adulthood (average age 21). Students recruited in Victoria, Australia in 2002, were resurveyed in 2010/11. Analytical n=2309, 80% retention. Adolescent self-report predictors included past-month alcohol use. Young adults completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) together with reports of environmental influences. Comparisons to United States national school graduate samples revealed higher rates of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use (other than cannabis) in Victoria. For example, rates of past month use at age 21-22 were: alcohol 69.3% US versus 84.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 81.3-88.6% Victoria; illicit drugs (other than cannabis) 8.8 versus 12.7%, CI 9.7-15.7%. AUDIT alcohol problems (scored 8+) were identified for 41.2%, CI 38.8-43.6% of young adults in Victoria. The likelihood of young adult alcohol problems was higher for frequent adolescent alcohol users and those exposed to environments characterized by high alcohol use and problems in young adulthood. High rates of alcohol problems are evident in more than two in five Australian young adults, and these problems appear to be influenced both by earlier patterns of adolescent alcohol use and by young adult social, work and recreational environments. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. "Spinning Themselves into Poetry": Images of Urban Adolescent Writers in Two Novels for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to the educational research and policy literature depicting urban adolescents as reluctant and struggling readers and writers, young people in recent young adult novels claim writing as an efficacious practice for self-discovery and social understanding. Analysis of the images of writers and writing in "Locomotion" and "Call Me Maria"…

  10. Media's contribution to sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors for adolescents and young adults in three Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chaohua; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Ersheng; Zuo, Xiayun; Emerson, Mark R; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    Evidence in western countries indicates that the media have associations with adolescents' and young people's sexual behavior that may be as important as family, school, and peers. In this new study of Asian adolescents and young adults in the three cities of Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei, the associations between exposure to sexual content in the media and adolescents' and young adults' sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors are explored in societies with traditional Confucian culture, but at different stages in the process of modernization. The data are from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007, where a sample of 17,016 adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years from Shanghai, Hanoi, and Taipei completed face-to-face interviews coupled with computer-assisted self-interviews for sensitive questions. For the objectives of this article, analysis was restricted to the 16,554 unmarried respondents. Exposure to sexual content in the mass media (including the Internet and traditional media), pornographic videos, and a preference for western/Asian movies/videos were the main media influence measures. Sex-related knowledge, premarital sexual permissiveness (PSP), and sex-related behaviors were the main outcome measures. The impact of each of four contexts including family, peer, school, and media on sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed using multiple linear regression stratified by gender and city, controlling for age, urban/rural residence, education, and economic status. The change in adjusted R(2) from the multiple linear regression analysis was adopted to indicate the contribution of family, peer, school, and media variables to respondents' sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The contextual factors, including family, peer, school, and media, explained 30%-50% of the variance in sex-related knowledge, 8%-22% of the variance in PSP, and 32%-41% of the variance in sex-related behaviors

  11. Delivering an action agenda for nutrition interventions addressing adolescent girls and young women: priorities for implementation and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lassi, Zohra S; Bergeron, Gilles; Koletzko, Berthold; Salam, Rehana; Diaz, Angela; McLean, Mireille; Black, Robert E; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Christian, Parul; Prentice, Andrew M; Klein, Jonathan D; Keenan, William; Hanson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Adolescent nutritional behaviors are assuming considerable importance in nutrition interventions given their important relationships with medium- and long-term outcomes. This is the period when young people undergo major anatomical and physiological maturational changes in preparation for adulthood. Nutritional requirements during puberty are higher during adolescence than during the prepubertal stage and during adulthood. A significant proportion of adolescents also become parents, and hence the importance of their health and nutritional status before as well as during pregnancy has its impact on their own health, fetal well-being, and newborn health. In this paper, we describe the evidence-based nutrition recommendations and the current global guidance for nutrition actions for adolescents. Despite the limitations of available information, we believe that a range of interventions are feasible to address outcomes in this age group, although some would need to start earlier in childhood. We propose packages of preventive care and management comprising nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions to address adolescent undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies. We discuss potential delivery platforms and strategies relevant to low- and middle-income countries. Beyond the evidence synthesis, there is a clear need to translate evidence into policy and for implementation of key recommendations and addressing knowledge gaps through prioritized research. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. ?It is challenging? oh, nobody likes it!?: a qualitative study exploring Mozambican adolescents and young adults? experiences with contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Capurchande, Rehana; Coene, Gily; Schockaert, Ingrid; Macia, Manuel; Meulemans, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Background By focusing upon formal sex education programmes, the Mozambican government has significantly enhanced the general health of adolescents and young adults. However, when it comes to contraception, little is known about how adolescents and young adults actually behave. Methods Based upon a qualitative study in two settings in Maputo province ? Ndlavela and Boane ? this paper explores the knowledge and practices of contraception among adolescents and young adults. A total of four focu...

  13. Family acceptance in adolescence and the health of LGBT young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Caitlin; Russell, Stephen T; Huebner, David; Diaz, Rafael; Sanchez, Jorge

    2010-11-01

    the role of family acceptance as a protective factor for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents and young adults has not been established. a quantitative measure with items derived from prior qualitative work retrospectively assessed family accepting behaviors in response to LGBT adolescents' sexual orientation and gender expression and their relationship to mental health, substance abuse, and sexual risk in young adults (N= 245). family acceptance predicts greater self-esteem, social support, and general health status; it also protects against depression, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation and behaviors. family acceptance of LGBT adolescents is associated with positive young adult mental and physical health. Interventions that promote parental and caregiver acceptance of LGBT adolescents are needed to reduce health disparities.

  14. Incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Susan M; Foster, Bethany J; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Crowshoe, Lynden; Alexander, R Todd; Soo, Andrea; Tonelli, Marcello A

    2012-10-02

    Although Aboriginal adults have a higher risk of end-stage renal disease than non-Aboriginal adults, the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults are not well described. We calculated age- and sex-specific incidences of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal people less than 22 years of age using data from a national organ failure registry. Incidence rate ratios were used to compare rates between Aboriginal and white Canadians. To contrast causes of end-stage renal disease by ethnicity and age, we calculated the odds of congenital diseases, glomerulonephritis and diabetes for Aboriginal people and compared them with those for white people in the following age strata: 0 to less than 22 years, 22 to less than 40 years, 40 to less than 60 years and older than 60 years. Incidence rate ratios of end-stage renal disease for Aboriginal children and young adults (age diseases were less common among Aboriginal people aged less than 22 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.86), and glomerulonephritis was more common (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.55-3.07). An excess of glomerulonephritis, but not diabetes, was seen among Aboriginal people aged 22 to less than 40 years. The converse was true (higher risk of diabetes, lower risk of glomerulonephritis) among Aboriginal people aged 40 years and older. The incidence of end-stage renal disease is higher among Aboriginal children and young adults than among white children and young adults. This higher incidence may be driven by an increased risk of glomerulonephritis in this population.

  15. The clinical profile of young and adolescent women with laparoscopically diagnosed endometriosis in a Singapore tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Yoke-Fai; Hon, Soon-Kit; Low, Li-Lian; Lim Mei Xian, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Endometriosis has been increasingly recognized as the cause of severe dysmenorrhea among younger women including adolescents, often with significant delay from time of presentation to diagnosis. Data on the South East Asian women is scarce. This study aims to describe the disease pattern in a group of young Asian women with histological diagnosis of endometriosis in our center. A total of 709 laparoscopic operations were performed for endometriosis in our center between 2000 and 2007. Women aged 25 years old and below were included in this study. Details regarding clinical presentation and severity of disease were retrospectively reviewed and described. A total of 45 women were included in this study, aged between 14 years and 25 years. Thirty seven patients (82.3%) were aged between 21 years and 25 years. Racial distribution was as follows: 57.8% Chinese, 26.7% Malay, and 15.6% Indian. Dysmenorrhea was the commonest symptom (84.4%); 44.4% of which were described as mild. Eleven patients (24.4%) presented with severe symptoms resulting in absence from school or work. Severity of endometriosis during laparoscopy was staged using the rAFS staging system, and was 11.1%, 17.8%, 28.9%, and 42.2% for disease Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, and Stage IV, respectively. Endometriosis can cause severe disease even in adolescents and young females. Increased awareness among patients and healthcare providers would raise a higher index of suspicion for endometriosis in these women, with consequent early treatment which may result in better functional and fertility outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Quality of life in adolescent and young adult cancer patients: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gonçalves, Vânia; Sehovic, Ivana; Bowman, Meghan L; Reed, Damon R

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience many unique challenges and quality of life (QoL) effects that persist beyond cancer diagnosis and treatment. Due to continuous improvements in technology and cancer treatments resulting in improved survival rates, the identification of late effects, survivorship issues, and QoL is moving to the forefront of cancer research. The goal of this systematic review was to identify key psychosocial factors impacting QoL in AYA oncology populations. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of these phrases or keywords: "adolescent and young adult or AYA" AND "health outcomes OR quality of life OR psychology" AND "neoplasm OR cancer OR oncology". A total of 35 articles were included in this review. Studies were classified into two categories: AYA perceptions and stakeholder perceptions. AYA cancer survivors were more likely to have "worse" or impaired QoL compared with the general population, regardless of other demographic factors. AYAs described both positive and negatives experiences with their medical care, the educational information received, and the supportive care services. Although health care professionals were likely to underestimate or misjudge the health preferences and support needs of AYAs, these perceptions varied across disciplines and levels of experience. The literature is lacking in sufficient evidence-based interventions to improve QoL in AYA cancer populations. Further, the tools to adequately measure QoL in this population are also unsatisfactory. The literature, however, consistently shows agreement regarding the unique needs of this population, indicating a trend toward health care standardization within age ranges or life stages. We suggest the need for AYA-specific programs in health care institutions that comprise a multidisciplinary team that addresses all the unique medical and QoL needs of AYAs.

  17. Predisposing and Precipitating Risk Factors for Suicide Ideations and Suicide Attempts In Young and Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S KHUSHABI

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:To investigate the predisposing and precipitating risk factors for suicide ideations and suicide attempts in young and adolescent females,we tried to introduce a holistic model of suicidal behavior in young and adolescent girls. Methods: This study is based on the survey studies and was cross-sectional. Considering high rates of suicide attempts in provinces of Iran,three provinces (Kermanshah, Hamedan,Ilam which had the highest rates of completed suicide were selected. Then among female high school students (aged 14 to 21 years, in two stages a representative sample was selected by a multi-clusteral and simple randomized sampling methods. The research data were gathered by administering (1 The inventory of predisposing and precipitating factors of suicide, demographic and family characteristics (based on the literature review (2 Symptom Check List (SCL 90-R (3Suicidality Subscale of the Depressive Symptom Index (DSI-SS (4 Center for Epidemiological Studies (CED- SSI (5 Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS and (6 Child Abuse Self Report Scale (CASRS.Then,subjects were characterized by dividing them in to two categories: at risk,and low risk. The scores of 2 categories were analyzed and discussed. Results: Relationships were found between suicide ideations and psychological problems and disorders (especially depression.Also,the students who reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt had a history of being abused. Based on the results,predisposing and precipitating risk factors and also some protective factors of suicide ideations and suicide attempts were found and a theoretical model was presented.Conclusion: Some predisposing,precipitating and protective factors can predict suicide ideation and suicide attempts significantly.

  18. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current paper was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Methods Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a state-wide representative sample in Grade 5 (age 10–11 years) in 2002 and followed up to age 18–19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization, and young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Results As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyber-bullying perpetration only, 5.0% cyber-bullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyber-bullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyber-bullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyber-bullying perpetration and victimization. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber-) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure they set clear rules and monitor adolescent’s behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. PMID:24939014

  19. Breakfast consumption in adolescence and young adulthood: parental presence, community context, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Michael J; Williams, Amanda L; Shriver, Lenka H

    2009-08-01

    Breakfast consumption is often examined when researching adolescent dietary intakes and overall health. However, fewer studies have examined the relationship between breakfast and obesity, particularly over time and in relation to weight outcomes in young adulthood. In addition, little is known about contextual factors influencing the likelihood of adolescents consuming breakfast on a regular basis. The present study assessed individuals' breakfast consumption patterns and obesity status during adolescence and young adulthood. Analyses included the context in which breakfast consumption took place, specifically community and family factors. Participants' breakfast consumption patterns and obesity status were assessed at two developmental time points--adolescence (Wave 2) and young adulthood (Wave 3). Community disadvantage, family poverty, race, sex, and a parent's morning presence in the home, were examined for association with breakfast consumption. Data used in this study (n=7,788) were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative study of adolescents. Data were collected as follows: Wave 1 (September 1994 to April 1995), Wave 2 (April 1996 to August 1996), and Wave 3 (August 2001 to April 2002). The final sample ranged in age from 12 to 19 years during Wave 2 and 18 to 26 years during Wave 3. Multilevel random intercept regression models were used to examine the association between community, parental, and individual predictors on adolescent and young adult weight outcomes. Adolescent regular breakfast consumption significantly predicted young adult regular breakfast consumption (Padolescents eating breakfast was having at least one parent home in the morning. Regular consumption during both developmental periods provided considerable protection from obesity during adolescence and young adulthood (ie, chronic obesity). Residing in disadvantaged communities decreased the odds adolescents would eat breakfast

  20. Sexual function in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors-a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Maria; Steineck, Gunnar; Enskär, Karin; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Jarfelt, Marianne

    2018-03-05

    Previous research has established that treatments for cancer can result in short- and long-term effects on sexual function in adult cancer patients. The purpose was to investigate patient-reported physical and psychosexual complications in adolescents and young adults after they have undergone treatment for cancer. In this population-based study, a study-specific questionnaire was developed by a method used in several previous investigations carried out by our research group, Clinical Cancer Epidemiology. The questionnaire was developed in collaboration with adolescent and young adult cancer survivors (15-29 years) and validated by professionals from oncology units, midwives, epidemiologists, and statisticians. The topics covered in the questionnaire were psychosocial health, body image, sexuality, fertility, education, work, and leisure. The web-based questionnaire was sent to adolescent and young adult cancer survivors and matched controls in Sweden. In this study, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors (15-29 years) showed low satisfaction regarding sexual function compared to controls (P young adult cancer survivors had a statistically significant lower frequency of orgasm during sexual activity than the controls (P young adult cancer survivors had statistically significant lower sexual desire than the controls (P = 0.04). We found that adolescent and young adult cancer survivors perceived themselves as being less satisfied with their sexual function than matched population-based controls. Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors need psychological rehabilitation support from the health care profession during and after cancer treatment to help them to reduce their reported poor sexual function to enhance a good sexual quality of life.

  1. Assertiveness Among Young Rural Adolescents: Relationship to Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg-Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence of higher prevalence rates for alcohol use among rural adolescents relative to urban adolescents. Strategies aimed at preventing adolescent alcohol use typically include the development of social skills to resist peer pressure; among the social skills frequently targeted is assertiveness. Self-report data were collected from a…

  2. Examining a Stage-Based Intervention and Predictors of Exercise Behavior among Iranian Sedentary Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ghiami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of an intervention based on Transtheoretical Model on exercise behavior and examined TTM constructs as predictors of stages of change among Iranian adolescents. Fifty-six sedentary adolescents completed an assessment at baseline, 2 months, and 4 months. Repeated measures ANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. The analysis showed a statistically significant difference in the mean scores on stages of change for the experimental group. Thus, students in the experiment group significantly improved their stages compared to the baseline. Furthermore, stages of change were found to correlate with TTM constructs, and self-efficacy was shown to be a strong predictor of stages of change. This study indicated that a stage-based intervention using TTM constructs could effectively improve adolescents’ intention to engage in physical activity. Moreover, the level of physical activity in adolescent can be improved by increasing their self-efficacy to exercise. Keywords: Physical Activity; Stage of Change; Processes of Change; Decisional Balance; Self-efficacy; Transtheoretical Model

  3. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis: the adolescents’ and young adults’ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bregnballe V

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibeke Bregnballe1, Peter Oluf Schiøtz1, Kirsten Lomborg21Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital; 2Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, DenmarkBackground: When suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF, a number of problems may arise during adolescence; for example, poor adherence. The problems may be attributed to the adolescent being insufficiently prepared for adult life. Research on different ways of parenting adolescents with CF and the influence of different parenting styles on the adolescents' adherence to treatment is still limited.Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents and young adults with CF want and find helpful in terms of preparing them for adult life.Methods: Sixteen Danish adolescents with CF, aged 14–25, participated in the study. Two focus group interviews were carried out, one for 14–18-year-olds and one for 19–25-year-olds. Individual interviews were conducted, with three subjects. Using interpretive description strategy, a secondary analysis of the interview data was conducted.Results: The adolescents and young adults wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust them, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility for their medical treatment. Additionally, the adolescents noted that meeting other parents may be beneficial for the parents.Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that adolescents and young adults with CF want their parents to be educated about how to handle adolescents with CF and thereby sufficiently prepare them for adult life.Keywords: chronic illness, parenting style, qualitative research, patient preferences, interpretive description

  4. Incorporating Social Support in the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa: Special Considerations for Older Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, Emily M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research support is strongest for family-based treatment (FBT) for the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescents. However, a strong evidence base for treatments for older adolescents and young adults with AN is lacking. Emphasizing social support in the treatment of AN may be beneficial for older adolescents and young adults with AN. This paper provides a brief review of the literature on FBT for adolescent AN and provides a case example of adolescent AN treated with FBT. We then discuss novel treatments that have incorporated social support for older adolescents and young adults with AN, such as modified FBT and couples-based interventions. We provide case studies of each of these novel treatment approaches as well. Additionally, this paper highlights and discusses developmental considerations and challenges in working with older adolescents and young adults with AN. PMID:27429544

  5. Residential Mobility, Transience, Depression, and Marijuana Use Initiation Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristie Glasheen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana use initiation is associated with numerous health and behavioral consequences, particularly among young adolescents. Finding easily identifiable risk markers for marijuana initiation is an important step for targeting primary and secondary prevention efforts. This study used data from the 2010-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to evaluate the association between residential mobility (no mobility, low mobility, high mobility [ie, transience], and major depressive episode(s (MDE on marijuana initiation among adolescents (12-17 and young adults (18-20. Age-stratified logistic regression models indicated that among 12- to 13-year-old adolescents, mobility in the past 5 years and past year MDE have a multiplicative effect on the odds of past year marijuana initiation. Among adolescents aged 14 to 15 years, both mobility and MDE were independently associated with marijuana initiation, but there was no interaction. Among older adolescents (aged 16-17 years, only transience (⩾3 moves in the past 5 years was associated with marijuana use initiation, and although MDE was significantly associated with marijuana initiation, there was no interaction with mobility. Among young adults, mobility was not associated with marijuana initiation. Residential mobility among young adolescents is an easily identifiable risk marker that may serve as an indicator for physical and mental health professionals, school personnel, and parents to use in targeting both depression and marijuana prevention efforts.

  6. Social Skills: An Investigation with Young Adolescents from Different Socioeconomic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Claudia Paola; Levin, Mariel; Mejail, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescence is a stage in the life cycle where social abilities are a crucial factor in social adjustment. Prosocial behaviour contributes to the development of self-esteem and psychological well-being. Method: The aim of this study was to analyze and compare social abilities in adolescents of low and high socioeconomic status, from…

  7. [Eating disorders in young adolescents with type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reyna, Norma I; Gussinyer, Sandra; Raich, Rosa M; Gussinyer, Miquel; Tomàs, Josep; Carrascosa, Antonio

    2004-05-15

    We aimed at determining the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) in young adolescents with type 1 diabetes. 60 boys and 38 girls with type 1 diabetes and 321 boys and 254 girls, age-matched non-diabetic controls. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and semistructured diagnostic interview on Eating Disorders Examination (EDE) were used. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin and insulin manipulation for weight loss were evaluated. No anorexia or bulimia were found in diabetic patients and non-diabetic controls. Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) were more prevalent in diabetic patients than in controls, both in boys (1.7% vs 0.9%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; CI 95%, 0.2-17.6) and girls (5.3% vs 1.6%; OR = 3.2; CI 95%, 0.6-17.2). Sub-threshold ED were more common in male diabetic patients than in non-diabetic peers (10% vs 4.4%; OR = 2.4; CI 95%, 0.9-6.6), and in female diabetic patients than in non-diabetic peers (10.5% vs 9.9%; OR = 1.1; CI 95%, 0.4-3.2). No statistical differences were found regarding these results. Glycated hemoglobin values were higher in diabetic patients with ED (9.7% [1.52]; 5.6 [2.8], n = 13) than in those without ED (8.4% [1.5]; 5.1 [2.7], n = 85); p = 0.049. Nine diabetic patients (9.1%) manipulated insulin for weight loss. EDNOS were more prevalent in male and female diabetic patients than in non-diabetic peers. Sub-threshold ED were more prevalent in male diabetic patients than in non-diabetic peers, with no differences between female diabetic patients and their non-diabetic peers.

  8. Occupational therapy needs of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy in Zimbabwe: caregivers’ perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwanha, T M; Chidhakwa, S; Dangarembizi, N

    2015-01-01

    To determine occupational therapy needs of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy living in an urban setting, to identify participation levels in activities of daily living and social activities, to identify factors influencing participation and to determine the contribution of occupational therapy in participating in these activities. Descriptive cross-sectional. Community rehabilitation outreach points in Epworth, Mufakose, Glenview, Dzivarasekwa, Mabvuku and Norton. Thirty-five randomly selected primary caregivers of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Data collected on the questionnaires was analysed using SPSS/16.0 for frequencies and means. Fourteen (41%) of the adolescents and young adults were independent in self-care activities such as toileting, grooming, dressing, mobility and bathing. Twenty-one (59%) were totally dependent or needed some assistance in performing activities of daily living. Factors reported to influence participation included upper and lower limb contractures, transport challenges, financial constraints and the home environment. Occupational therapy needs of adolescents and young adults as reported by their caregivers included further training in activities of daily living (74%), home adaptations (66%), vocational skills training (20%) and provision of appropriate assistive devices (6%). In light of these findings performance areas that still needed occupational therapy interventions included activities of daily living, vocational skills training, use of assistive devices and home adaptations. Therefore adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy living in Zimbabwe still have functional performance deficits that can be addressed by provision of follow-up community occupational therapy interventions.

  9. Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Hookah and Little Cigars/Cigarillos: Implications for Risk Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchione, Jennifer; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Wiseman, Kimberly D.; Kelley, Dannielle; Noar, Seth M.; Smith, Margaret H.; Sutfin, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Use of hookah and little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) is high among adolescents and young adults. Although these products have health effects similar to cigarettes, adolescents and young adults believe them to be safer. This study examined adolescent and young adult perceptions of hookah and LCCs to develop risk messages aimed at discouraging use among users and at-risk nonusers. Ten focus groups with 77 adolescents and young adults were conducted to explore their perceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of hookah and LCC use. Participants were users of other (non-cigarette) tobacco products (n=47) and susceptible nonusers (n=30). Transcripts were coded for emergent themes on participants’ perceptions of hookah and LCCs. Participants did not perceive health effects associated with hookah and LCC use to be serious or likely to happen given their infrequency of use and perceptions that they are less harmful than cigarettes. Participants generally had positive associations with smoking hookah and LCCs for several reasons, including that they are used in social gatherings, come in various flavors, and can be used to perform smoke tricks. Because adolescents and young adults underestimate and discount the long-term risks associated with hookah and LCC use, effective messages may be those that focus on the acute/immediate health and cosmetic effects. PMID:27337629

  10. Designing a packaging to promote healthy and low-fat foods: Adolescents versus young-adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-López, Natalia; Küster-Boluda, Ines; Sarabia-Sánchez, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Packaging is a relevant tool when adolescents and young adults search for low-fat and healthy foods. However, the power of a packaging is not homogenous. In this framework, two main objectives guide our work: (i) to investigate to what extent visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label); (ii) to analyze if adolescents and young adults pay equal attention to both packaging cues. 590 adolescents between 12 and 18years of age were interviewed at the door of both public and private schools. Additionally, 300 young adults between 19 and 25years of age were contacted. Their opinions were analyzed twice using structural modelling techniques: (i) without considering age differences and (ii) splitting the sample into adolescents (590 participants) and young-adults (300 participants) to compare their perceptions. Our results have showed that when looking for healthy and low-fat aliments visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label design, easily understandable words, size of the letters). Additionally, age is a pertinent variable to explain alternative packaging strategies, because adolescents and young adults do not pay equal attention to both packaging cues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Endometriosis in Adolescent and Young Girls: Report on a Series of 55 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalliotakis, Michail; Goulielmos, George N; Matalliotaki, Charoula; Trivli, Alexandra; Matalliotakis, Ioannis; Arici, Aydin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate endometriosis in adolescent and young girls and further to review the menstrual, reproductive characteristics, and risk factors. We reviewed the medical records of adolescent and young girls with endometriosis from 2 different countries. Data were collected and analyzed from charts of 900 patients with endometriosis. Fifty-five female adolescents aged between 13 and 21 years (mean age 18.3 years) participated in our series. This study was conducted in the Obstetric and Gynecology Department of Venizeleio General Hospital of Crete and involved all patients diagnosed with endometriosis between 1996 and 2016. Statistical methods included χ 2 and Mann-Whitney U test. Of 900 patients with endometriosis we found 55 female adolescents (6.1%). The mean age was 18.3 ± 2.3 years, significantly younger compared with the advanced endometriosis patients (32.7 ± 7.2; P adolescent young girls compared with the advanced age endometriosis group. The factors associated with an increased risk for young women include age at menarche, dysmenorrhea, history of asthma, and a positive family history of endometriosis. Additionally, we report on 16 of 55 (32%) adolescent women with endometriosis and congenital malformations (P adolescent and young women and risk factors including early menarche, early onset of dysmenorrhea, history of asthma, previous surgical procedures, obstructive genital anomalies, and family history of endometriosis. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of artificial neural networks in chemical addiction stages detection of adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bardadymov, Vasiliy Anatolevich

    2012-01-01

    Today there is no unified approach to description of the stages of addiction and evolution of adolescent addiction formation. In this paper we consider two main points. At first we describe the different approaches to the selection stages of addictive behavior. The second point is the description of using the method of constructing artificial neural networks to determine the formation of chemical addiction. Also this article describes the theoretical approaches to the evolutio...

  13. How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Papandonatos, George; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Kazura, Alessandra; Shiu, Shang-Ying; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend s...

  14. The phenotypic and genetic structure of depression and anxiety disorder symptoms in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk, Monika A; Zavos, Helena M S; Gregory, Alice M; Eley, Thalia C

    2014-08-01

    The DSM-5 classifies mood and anxiety disorders as separate conditions. However, some studies in adults find a unidimensional internalizing factor that underpins anxiety and depression, while others support a bidimensional model where symptoms segregate into distress (depression and generalized anxiety) and fear factors (phobia subscales). However, little is known about the phenotypic and genetic structure of internalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. To investigate the phenotypic associations between depression and anxiety disorder symptom subscales and to test the genetic structures underlying these symptoms (DSM-5-related, unidimensional and bidimensional) across 3 developmental stages: childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood. Two population-based prospective longitudinal twin/sibling studies conducted in the United Kingdom. The child sample included 578 twins (mean age, approximately 8 and 10 years at waves 1 and 2, respectively). The adolescent and early adulthood sample included 2619 twins/siblings at 3 waves (mean age, 15, 17, and 20 years at each wave). Self-report symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. Phenotypically, when controlling for other anxiety subscales, depression symptoms were only associated with generalized anxiety disorder symptoms in childhood (r = 0.20-0.21); this association broadened to panic and social phobia symptoms in adolescence (r = 0.17-0.24 and r = 0.14-0.16, respectively) and all anxiety subscales in young adulthood (r = 0.06-0.19). The genetic associations were in line with phenotypic results. In childhood, anxiety subscales were influenced by a single genetic factor that did not contribute to genetic variance in depression symptoms, suggesting largely independent genetic influences on anxiety and depression. In adolescence, genetic influences were significantly shared between depression and all anxiety subscales in agreement with DSM-5 conceptualization. In young adulthood, a genetic

  15. Relationships between problematic alcohol consumption and delinquent behaviour from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; Butler, Erin; Richardson, Ben; Staiger, Petra K; Youssef, George J; Macdonald, Jacqui A; Sanson, Ann; Edwards, Ben; Olsson, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    Heavy episodic drinking (HED) has been associated with increased risk for short- and long-term injury and harms, such as violence and delinquent behaviour; however, the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear, particularly on transition to young adulthood. This study investigates transactional pathways between HED and delinquent behaviour from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project; a population-based longitudinal study that has followed the health and development of participants (and parents) across 30 years from birth in 1982. The analytic sample was 1650 participants and included five measurement waves spanning adolescence (3 waves: 13-18 years) and young adulthood (2 waves; 19-24 years). There was strong continuity across waves of both HED and delinquency, as well as across-time associations between them. Delinquent behaviour in adolescence was associated with up to twofold increases in the odds of HED at each subsequent adolescent wave. HED in the late teens was associated with over fourfold increases in the odds of persistent (two waves) HED in young adulthood. HED in the late teens was associated with increases in the odds of delinquent behaviour in young adulthood (over twofold for male and one and a half-fold for female participants). While delinquent behaviour predicts both future HED and future delinquent behaviour in adolescence, once young people reach the legal drinking age of 18 years, HED becomes a predictor of current and future delinquent behaviour and future HED, suggesting that increased access to alcohol increases the likelihood of young people engaging in delinquent behaviour. [Miller PG, Butler E, Richardson B, Staiger PK, Youssef GJ, Macdonald JA, Sanson A, Edwards B, Olsson CA. Relationships between problematic alcohol consumption and delinquent behaviour from adolescence to young adulthood. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:317-325]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on

  16. Hemoglobin serum levels in adolescents according to sexual maturation stage

    OpenAIRE

    Frutuoso, Maria Fernanda Petroli; Vigantzky, Vanessa Alves; Gambardella, Ana Maria Dianezi

    2003-01-01

    A adolescência constitui etapa de risco para o desenvolvimento da anemia ferropriva, uma vez que ocorre aumento da necessidade de ferro decorrente do crescimento estatural e da maturação biológica. Estudaram-se 130 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, para verificar os valores de hemoglobina sérica em diferentes fases de maturação sexual. Utilizou-se o método de fotometria para dosar a hemoglobina sérica e realizou-se auto-avaliação do estágio de maturação sexual com base nos critérios de Tanner....

  17. Validation of a Milk Consumption Stage of Change Algorithm among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Gerfen, Elissa; Mosher, Revonda B.; Shad, Aziza T.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the construct validity of a milk consumption Stages of Change (SOC) algorithm among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer ages 11 to 21 years (n = 75). Methods: Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a health behavior intervention were analyzed. Assessments included a milk consumption SOC…

  18. Protecting young women from HIV/AIDS: the case against child and adolescent marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shelley; Bruce, Judith; Dude, Annie

    2006-06-01

    In most developing countries, the majority of sexually active female adolescents are married. Although married adolescents are often assumed to be at low risk for HIV infection, little is known about the actual HIV risks these adolescents face or about ways to minimize these risks. Demographic and Health Survey data from 29 countries in Africa and Latin America were used to examine the frequency of factors that may increase HIV risk in married women aged 15-19. Several behavioral and social factors may increase the vulnerability of married female adolescents to HIV infection. First, these young women engage in frequent unprotected sex: In most countries, more than 80% of adolescents who had had unprotected sex during the previous week were married. Second, women who marry young tend to have much older husbands (mean age difference, 5-14 years) and, in polygamous societies, are frequently junior wives, factors that may increase the probability that their husbands are infected and weaken their bargaining power within the marriage. Third, married adolescents have relatively little access to educational and media sources of information about HIV. Finally, the most common AIDS prevention strategies (abstinence, condom use) are not realistic options for many married adolescents. New policies and interventions, tailored to the sexual and behavioral profiles of women in each country, are needed to address the vulnerabilities of adolescent wives. In some countries, delaying age at marriage may be an important strategy; in others, making intercourse within marriage safer may be more valuable.

  19. Growing up with congenital heart disease: the dilemmas of adolescents and young adults [see comment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, E M; Sparacino, P S; Messias, D K; Foote, D; Chesla, C A; Gilliss, C L

    1998-07-01

    Advances in diagnosis, medical management and surgical intervention have improved the longevity and quality of life for children with congenital heart disease. Despite this, research studies specifically examining the psychosocial concerns of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease are few. To explore the subjective experiences and dilemmas of this population during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, we interviewed, using a semi-structured protocol, a convenience sample of nine adolescents and young adults. Using analytic procedures inherent in Grounded Theory methodology, seven themes were identified: the dilemma of normality; dilemmas in disclosure; dilemmas in strategies for management of illness; the challenge of social integration versus social isolation; the challenge of dependence versus independence; the challenge of uncertainty; and strategies for coping. An understanding of these experiences by health professionals can be beneficial in helping this clinical population as they grow up and face the challenges of an uncertain, yet promising, future.

  20. Quality of life in adolescents and young adults with CHD is not reduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Morten; Boisen, Kirsten A.; Reimers, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies assessing quality of life in adolescents and young adults born with CHD compared with age-matched controls. We carried out a systematic search of the literature published in Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane....... The studies were of acceptable-to-good quality. The meta-analysis of six studies on quality of life showed no significant difference – mean difference: −1.31; 95% confidence intervals: −6.51 to +3.89, I2=90.9% – between adolescents and young adults with CHD and controls. Similar results were found in 10...... studies not eligible for the meta-analysis. In subdomains, it seems that patients had reduced physical quality of life; however, social functioning was comparable or better compared with controls. For the first time in a meta-analysis, we have shown that quality of life in adolescents and young adults...

  1. Confidentiality Protections for Adolescents and Young Adults in the Health Care Billing and Insurance Claims Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The importance of protecting confidential health care for adolescents and young adults is well documented. State and federal confidentiality protections exist for both minors and young adults, although the laws vary among states, particularly for minors. However, such confidentiality is potentially violated by billing practices and in the processing of health insurance claims. To address this problem, policies and procedures should be established so that health care billing and insurance claims processes do not impede the ability of providers to deliver essential health care services on a confidential basis to adolescents and young adults covered as dependents on a family's health insurance plan. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mismatch negativity and P3a amplitude in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydkjær, J.; Møllegaard Jepsen, J. R.; Pagsberg, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    responses, measured as MMN and P3a amplitude, are present in young adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether findings are specific to psychosis compared to young adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method MMN and P3a amplitude were assessed in young adolescents...... (age 12-17 years) with either FEP (N = 27) or ADHD (N = 28) and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (N = 43). The MMN paradigm consisted of a four-tone auditory oddball task with deviant stimuli based on frequency, duration and their combination. Results Significantly less MMN was found...... in patients with psychosis compared to healthy controls in response to frequency and duration deviants. MMN amplitudes in the group of patients with ADHD were not significantly different from patients with psychosis or healthy controls. No significant group differences were found on P3a amplitude. Conclusion...

  3. Spinal pain and co-occurrence with stress and general well-being among young adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, Sandra Elkjær; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Hestbæk, Lise

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the patterns in low back, mid back, and neck pain complaints in young adolescents from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and to investigate the co-occurrence of spinal pain and stress and general well-being, respectively. Cross-sectional data from the 11-year fol......-being. Conclusion: Spinal pain is a common complaint among young adolescents and co-occurs with stress and poor general well-being. The mutual dependency between the factors remained to be explained.......This study aims to describe the patterns in low back, mid back, and neck pain complaints in young adolescents from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and to investigate the co-occurrence of spinal pain and stress and general well-being, respectively. Cross-sectional data from the 11-year...

  4. Kung-fu versus swimming training and the effects on balance abilities in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccouch, Rym; Rebai, Haithem; Sahli, Sonia

    2015-11-01

    Our purpose is to investigate the static balance control of young adolescents practicing kung-fu and swimming in order to find out which of these physical activities is the most effective in developing specific balance abilities in young adolescents. Comparative experimental study. University laboratory research. Three groups of 11-13-year-old boys (12 practicing Kung-Fu, 12 practicing swimming and 12 controls). Center of pressure (CoP) excursions were registered in upright bipedal and unipedal stances on a stabilometric force platform in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Kung-fu practitioners control their balance (P Kung-fu training improved (P kung-fu practitioners. Both of these physical activities could be recommended for young adolescents as recreational or rehabilitation programs as they develop specific balance abilities that could be important for improving and maintaining optimal health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. From Amateur to Framauteur: Art Development of Adolescents and Young Adults within an Interest-Based Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the art developmental progression of adolescents and young adults within the cultural context of an interest-based community is described; the role of narrative and sociocultural community to the art development of adolescents and young adults is highlighted. Artistic development begins in response to an aesthetic phenomenon, is…

  6. “Friending” Teens: Systematic Review of Social Media in Adolescent and Young Adult Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further

  7. "Friending" teens: systematic review of social media in adolescent and young adult health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Lael M; Zan, Shiyi; Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal; Kinane, T Bernard

    2015-01-05

    Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further exploration and development of these strategies into

  8. Depression and Violence in Adolescence and Young Adults : Findings From Three Longitudinal Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Rongqin; Aaltonen, Mikko; Branje, Susan; Ristikari, Tiina; Meeus, Wim; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Goodwin, Guy M.; Fazel, Seena

    2017-01-01

    Objective Despite recent research demonstrating associations between violence and depression in adults, links in adolescents are uncertain. This study aims to assess the longitudinal associations between young people’s depression and later violent outcomes. Method We used data from three cohorts with different measurements of depression exposures and subsequent violent outcomes. In a Dutch community cohort Research on Adolescent Development And Relationships (RADAR; N = 623) and a po...

  9. Descriptive analysis of Iranian adolescents' stages of change for physical activity behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaeinasab, Hormoz; Saffari, Mohsen; Nazeri, Mojtaba; Karimi Zarchi, Aliakbar; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2013-09-01

    To better understand prevalence of physical inactivity among Iranian adolescents, their physical activity behavior across the hypothesized stages of change derived from the transtheoretical model was investigated in this study. This was a cross-sectional study involving 1551 adolescents, 12-14 years of age (941 boys and 610 girls). Participants were selected through a multistage sampling method. The child/adolescent activity log, physical activity calendar, and stage of change scale were used for collecting data. Data were analyzed using χ(2) and F-tests. Depending on how physical activity was assessed, the prevalence of physical inactivity ranged from 77.4% to 87.1%. Analyses revealed sex and stages of change differences between those who achieved and those who did not achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity. Girls were less active than boys. The distribution observed across the stages of change supports the need to improve the physical activity of Iranian youth, especially among girls. For interventions to be most effective, they will need to be tailored to the sex of the participants, as well as their specific stage of readiness to change. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Relationships and betrayal among young women: theoretical perspectives on adolescent dating abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Candace W; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Rankin, Sally H; Rehm, Roberta S; Humphreys, Janice C

    2011-06-01

    Adolescent dating abuse is not specifically described by any current nursing theory, and this article presents discussion of some existing theories that could inform a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse. To account for the effects of gender, this discussion is limited to young women. Adolescent dating abuse is an important and understudied international issue for nursing. Theoretical frameworks can support development of nursing scholarship for such issues. No single theory yet exists in nursing to explain the experiences and health ramifications of dating abuse among young women. A summary table of theories is provided. Literature was gathered via database search and bibliographic snowballing from reference lists of relevant articles. Included literature dates from 1982 through 2010. Theories of relationship formation and function are discussed, including attachment, investment, feminist and gender role conflict theories. Betrayal trauma theory is considered as a mechanism of injury following an abusive dating experience. Gender, relationship and adolescence combine in a complex developmental moment for young women. To improve nursing care for those at risk for or in the throes of abusive relationships, it is critical to develop specific nursing approaches to understanding these relationships. Existing theories related to relationship and traumatic experiences can be combined in the development of a nursing theory of adolescent dating abuse among young women. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Effect of chronic sleep restriction on sleepiness and working memory in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; VanDyke, Rhonda D; Zhang, Jiange; Li, Feng; Gozal, David; Shen, Xiaoming

    2011-10-01

    To test the feasibility of using a home-based sleep restriction protocol in adolescents and young adults; and to examine the different effects of chronic sleep restriction on a subjective sleepiness scale and working memory task in adolescents and young adults. Twenty adolescents (ages 13-16 years) and 20 young adults (ages 18-20 years) underwent a 2-week home-based sleep manipulation protocol consisting of a week of 5 school days with 8 hr spent in bed per night and another week of 5 school days with 6 hr spent in bed per night. The protocol used a counterbalanced crossover experimental design. Subjective sleepiness was scored by the participant each morning, and working memory tests were administered during the weekend corresponding to each experimental week. Adherence to the prescribed protocol was similar in the two groups, and both groups achieved the desired differences in total sleep duration across the two sleep conditions. Subjective sleepiness scores significantly increased in young adults after sleep restriction, but were not accompanied by significant changes in working memory. However, reaction times during simple verbal and arithmetic working memory tasks increased among adolescents after sleep restriction, without affecting accuracy on task, and without eliciting increases in subjective sleepiness scores. Mild sleep restriction for 5 days impairs reaction times during working memory tasks in adolescents in the absence of increased perception of sleepiness.

  12. Tapping into Students' Motivation: Lessons from Young Adolescents' Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to use adolescents' enthusiasm about blogging to design more effective writing experiences, Read analyzed its appeal and found that blogging satisfied two of Maslow's "hierarchy of needs": relatedness needs and growth needs. By studying the blogs of 6 adolescents, Read also discovered that the process of writing in blogs helps…

  13. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charlene A; Merchant, Raina M; Moreno, Megan A

    2014-12-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-based frameworks for measuring the impact of social media on health.

  14. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-based frameworks for measuring the impact of social media on health. PMID:25984444

  15. Dimensions of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement as Predictors of Young-Adult Major Depression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Redmond, Cleve; Spoth, Richard L.; Shin, Chungyeol

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adolescent alcohol involvement may increase risk for young-adult depression; however, findings are mixed and important questions remain unanswered. Because alcohol involvement among teens is multidimensional, this study examined the extent to which four different adolescent alcohol dimensions (i.e., frequency of alcohol use, quantity of consumption, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of problem use) were predictive of young-adult major depressive disorder (MDD). Method Participants in this prospective longitudinal study, which extended from age 11 to age 22, were 429 rural teens (including 222 girls) and their families. Self-reports of each dimension of adolescent alcohol involvement were obtained at ages 16 and 18. Depression diagnoses were obtained at age 22, using a structured interview. Analyses included adolescent depressed mood, measured via self-report at ages 16 and 18. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Results The multidimensional nature of adolescent alcohol involvement was best represented by a first-order problem-use factor and a second-order alcohol-intake factor comprised of quantity, frequency, and heavy drinking. After controlling for gender and depressed mood, adolescent problem use, but not alcohol intake, was a significant positive predictor of young-adult MDD. Conclusions Findings help clarify the link between alcohol involvement and depression and suggest that harm-reduction strategies may help prevent later mood disorders. PMID:18299769

  16. Parental overprotection predicts the development of functional somatic symptoms in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Karin A M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2009-06-01

    To examine whether parental overprotection contributes to the development of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in young adolescents. In addition, we aimed to study whether this potential effect of parental overprotection is mediated by parenting distress and/or moderated by the adolescent's sex. FSS were measured in 2230 adolescents (ages 10 to 12 years from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey) by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self Report at baseline and at follow-up 2 1/2 years later. Parental overprotection as perceived by the child was assessed by means of the EMBU-C (Swedish acronym for my memories of upbringing-child version). Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index. Linear regression analyses were performed adjusted for FSS at baseline and sex. Parental overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in young adolescents (beta = 0.055, P overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in girls (beta = 0.085, P overprotection was a predictor of the development of FSS in boys (beta = 0.072, P overprotection and FSS was found. Parental overprotection may play a role in the development of FSS in young adolescents.

  17. 'Do I care?' Young adults' recalled experiences of early adolescent overweight and obesity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Sweeting, H; Wright, C

    2013-02-01

    Individual behaviour change to reduce obesity requires awareness of, and concern about, weight. This paper therefore describes how young adults, known to have been overweight or obese during early adolescence, recalled early adolescent weight-related awareness and concerns. Associations between recalled concerns and weight-, health- and peer-related survey responses collected during adolescence are also examined. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults; data compared with responses to self-report questionnaires obtained in adolescence. A total of 35 participants, purposively sub-sampled at age 24 from a longitudinal study of a school year cohort, previously surveyed at ages 11, 13 and 15. Physical measures during previous surveys allowed identification of participants with a body mass index (BMI) indicative of overweight or obesity (based on British 1990 growth reference) during early adolescence. Overall, 26 had been obese, of whom 11 had BMI99.6th centile, whereas 9 had been overweight (BMI=95th-97.9th centile). Qualitative interview responses describing teenage life, with prompts for school-, social- and health-related concerns. Early adolescent self-report questionnaire data on weight-worries, self-esteem, friends and victimisation (closed questions). Most, but not all recalled having been aware of their overweight. None referred to themselves as having been obese. None recalled weight-related health worries. Recollection of early adolescent obesity varied from major concerns impacting on much of an individual's life to almost no concern, with little relation to actual severity of overweight. Recalled concerns were not clearly patterned by gender, but young adult males recalling concerns had previously reported more worries about weight, lower self-esteem, fewer friends and more victimisation in early adolescence; no such pattern was seen among females. The popular image of the unhappy overweight teenager was not borne out. Many obese

  18. Using Young Adult Literature Featuring LGBTQ Adolescents with Intellectual and/or Physical Disabilities to Strengthen Classroom Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Lisa A.; Sweeney, William J.; Reins, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is chaotic for all individuals, but LGBTQ adolescents with intellectual and/or physical disabilities struggle with what it means to be furthest from the majority. These teens experience varying exclusions and harassments from peers, educators, and family members. Contemporary young adult literature can assist these adolescents through…

  19. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  20. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jacobus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ + ALC, n = 30 and controls (CON, n = 38 with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ + ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions, particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps < .05. More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps < .05. Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use.

  1. Influence of Social Media on Alcohol Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in online social media Web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) has skyrocketed in recent years and created a new environment in which adolescents and young adults may be exposed to and influenced by alcohol-related content. Thus, young people are exposed to and display pro-alcohol messages and images through online portrayals of drinking on personal pages as well as unregulated alcohol marketing on social media sites that may reach underage people. Such online displays of alcohol...

  2. [What measures can be taken to reduce the number of smoking adolescents and young women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard-Lalande, G; Halimi, A

    2005-04-01

    A proper understanding of the factors exposing adolescents and young women to the risk of smoking dependence is necessary to develop effective preventive measures. These measures will be different depending on whether they are designed for adolescents and young women in general or for the context of pregnancy. For adolescents, efforts should be continued to provide information about smoking and the dangers of tobacco as well as about the social manipulation involved. The image of a natural, active woman, free of tobacco and capable of making her own decisions should be promoted. Health education and communication professionals should make use of different media with an audience among the young. Messages should be validated with a target population before diffusion. A better coherence between the adult and young populations concerning legal obligations and mutual respect is significantly useful. Educational structures (schools and universities) should participate in long-term community projects implicating peer groups and trained professionals. Values which should be reinforced include self-esteem, affirmation of personal competence and difference, self-respect and respect of others. Early identification of factors favoring psychosocial vulnerability at this age is indispensable to facilitate referral to professional support and care centers, the number of which remains insufficient to date. Support when ceasing smoking, based on individual and group assistance, should take into account the individual's phase of maturation, and must be proposed and operated by trained professionals working in a network. During pregnancy, it is crucial to recognize that the woman's specific physical and psychological situation is a unique opportunity to propose a new approach to smoking, taking into consideration the fragile context during this period of maturation and its impact on the woman's general life. Beyond sociopolitical measures and a philosophical debate on the position of

  3. "The best is always yet to come": Relationship stages and processes among young LGBT couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Greene, George J; Rivera, Zenaida; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-06-01

    Limited research has examined relationship development among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) couples in emerging adulthood. A better understanding of LGBT couples can inform the development of relationship education programs that reflect their unique needs. The following questions guided this study: (a) What are the stages and processes during young LGBT couples' relationship development? and (b) How do these compare with existing literature on heterosexual adults? A secondary goal was to explore similarities and differences between couples assigned male (MAAB) and female at birth (FAAB). Thirty-six couples completed interviews on their relationship history. Qualitative analyses showed that relationship stages and processes were similar to past research on heterosexuals, but participants' subjective experiences reflected their LGBT identities and emerging adulthood, which exerted additional stress on the relationship. These factors also affected milestones indicative of commitment among heterosexual adults (e.g., introducing partner to family). Mixed methods analyses indicated that MAAB couples described negotiating relationship agreements and safe sex in more depth than FAAB couples. Relationship development models warrant modifications to consider the impact of sexual and gender identity and emerging adulthood when applied to young LGBT couples. These factors should be addressed in interventions to promote relationship health among young LGBT couples. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Outpatient chemotherapy, family-centered care, electronic information, and education in adolescents and young adults with osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pete Anderson, Patricia Wells, Theresa Lazarte, Laura Gore, Laura Salvador, Maritza Salazar-AbshireMD Anderson Cancer Center, Pediatrics, Houston TX, USAAbstract: Current osteosarcoma chemotherapy is “standard” (doxorubicin, cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate ± ifosfamide-mesna, and etoposide ± mifamurtide, but current regimens have many short-term, medium-term, and long-term side effects. Generally 12–15 cycles of chemotherapy are given in the hospital over 7–10 months. Even in the absence of new research protocols, improvement in quality of life is now possible, with all osteosarcoma chemotherapy agents now being able to be administered in the outpatient setting. Outpatient chemotherapy is not only less expensive, but in the adolescent and young adult population can result in better quality of life for some. In this paper, we share information to help reduce the frequency of hospitalization and review some tools and strategies to facilitate communication when providing outpatient chemotherapy, family-centered care, and information/education. These include antiemetics with both longer-acting 5HT antagonists and aprepitant, outpatient chemotherapy guidelines, and a 5-week editable calendar that is part of our electronic medical record. Sharing information on absolute lymphocyte count recovery is another means of maintaining hope and increasing understanding of the prognosis of osteosarcoma. Finally, this paper shares an advanced directive/palliative care “checklist” of issues for patients and caregivers to consider at end of life, ie, when “cure of cancer is not the answer”. In summary, better communication at all stages of osteosarcoma care can help reduce hospitalization, improve quality of life, and maintain hope in the adolescent and young adult population with osteosarcoma.Keywords: family-centered care, adolescent and young adult, flash drives, chemotherapy calendars, outpatient, osteosarcoma, chemotherapy

  5. Adolescents bullying and young adults body mass index and obesity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamun, A A; O'Callaghan, M J; Williams, G M; Najman, J M

    2013-08-01

    To examine whether adolescent males and females who were victims of bullying were at greater risk of a higher body mass index (BMI) and obesity by young adulthood. Secondary analysis of data from a community-based cohort study. A sub-sample of 1694 offspring (50% males) who were participants in the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), Brisbane, and who provided bullying information at 14 years and physical assessment at 21 years. BMI and its categories as normal, overweight or obese at 21 years. One in two adolescent males and one in three adolescent females reported that they had been bullied at school by others. We found that adolescent males and females who were bullied were at a significantly greater risk of a higher BMI and obesity by young adulthood. Fourteen-year-old males who were occasionally/often bullied at school had 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02, 1.27) kg m(2) greater mean BMI by 21 years compared with males who were never bullied by 14 years. This mean difference in BMI was 1.52, (95% CI: 0.75, 2.29) kg m(2) for females. Similarly, the odds of being obese were 2.54 (95% CI: 1.58, 4.09) times at 21 years for those males who were bullied occasionally/often compared with adolescent males who were never bullied. For females, this was 2.18 (95% CI: 1.40, 3.39). Overweight adolescents who experienced bullying had the greatest increase in BMI by young adulthood. Adjusting for potential confounding or mediating factors, the associations remain strong for males but are attenuated for females. The findings of this study suggest that both male and female adolescents who were bullied often/sometimes by their peer group at 14 years were at greater risk of higher BMI and obesity by young adulthood.

  6. How Can Pharmacists Support STI Prevention and Treatment Among Female Adolescents and Young Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilola Abraham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual and reproductive health is a critical focus area for adolescents and young adults (AYAs. Of the 20 million newly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs annually, nearly half of them are contracted by young people between the ages of 15 to 24. It has become increasingly necessary to improve awareness and prevention of STIs during adolescent years. The knowledge gained through appropriately relevant sexual and reproductive health education may persist as adolescents transition into adulthood. Community pharmacists interact with AYAs frequently and are therefore well positioned to engage this vulnerable population in conversations about their sexual and reproductive health through use innovative and interactive technologies. For instance, mobile applications are easily accessible to AYAs and can allow pharmacists to disseminate relevant medication information to smartphone users that download adolescent-tailored mobile applications. Although many medication adherence apps are currently available on the market, none of these apps are tailored towards sexual reproductive health information for female AYAs. A mobile-based program designed to provide a pharmacist-guided sexual and reproductive health education to female AYAs may help to address the lapses in current adolescent-aged school health classes. In the future, usage of this intervention would improve the accuracy and comprehension of female adolescents and young adults’ awareness and knowledge of their sexual and reproductive health. As a result, further research should be conducted to develop mobile applications conducive to adolescent and young adults to address sexual and reproductive health issues. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or

  7. Psychosocial Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults Diagnosed with Cancer During Adolescence: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emma; Martins, Ana; Aldiss, Susie; Gibson, Faith; Taylor, Rachel M

    2016-12-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) face individual and social challenges different to other age groups that shape their experience of cancer and the associated psychological distress. This critical review examined the availability of AYA-specific psychosocial interventions to assess the impact they have and identify elements that make them successful. Five literature databases were searched for psychosocial intervention studies involving AYAs with cancer, on and off treatment, aged 10-30 years, published between 1980 and 2016. Eleven out of 42 identified studies were included in the final review after quality assessment. All but two interventions showed positive results on at least one measure of psychosocial well-being. A distinctive difference between the supportive needs of those on and off treatment was noted, and differences in intervention design and delivery formats were identified between the two subgroups. Analysis of specific intervention characteristics that achieved the successful outcomes was more challenging due to the large variation in outcome measures used. This review demonstrates that psychosocial intervention research for AYA with cancer is increasing and the results show a potential benefit of intervention participation. Further work is needed to validate whether the benefits achieved by intervention participation remain over time.

  8. Relationship Context and Intimate Partner Violence From Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendi L; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A

    2015-12-01

    To assess changes in self-reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experience from adolescence through young adulthood. To examine whether individual change in indicators of relationship context--qualities and dynamics of the relationship, changes in partners, and relationship type (dating, cohabiting, and married)--were associated with change in self-reports of IPV. Drawing on longitudinal population-based data, the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we used fixed-effects models to estimate within-person change in associations between features of respondents' intimate relationships and the proportion of relationships with IPV from adolescence through young adulthood. Analyses focused on 1,146 young men and women ages 13-29 years (51% female). Items measuring IPV were from the Conflict Tactics Scale. More than half of respondents (53%) experienced discontinuity in IPV across relationships. Among those reporting violence, the vast majority (87%) did not experience violence in all of their relationships. Age-related patterns were similar for men and women with IPV peaking in young adulthood. Infidelity, frequency of disagreements, and partner continuity were associated with a higher proportion of relationships with IPV. Improvements in the nature and character of romantic relationships were associated with a lower accumulation of IPV experiences. IPV, although prevalent, does not represent a consistent experience. As young adults develop higher quality relationships they move toward desistance from IPV. Yet, variability in these experiences is observed, supporting previous calls for programs that promote the development of healthy relationships among adolescents and young adults. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Threading the cloak: palliative care education for care providers of adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Lori; Weaver, Meaghann Shaw; Bell, Cynthia J; Sansom-Daly, Ursula M

    2015-01-09

    Medical providers are trained to investigate, diagnose, and treat cancer. Their primary goal is to maximize the chances of curing the patient, with less training provided on palliative care concepts and the unique developmental needs inherent in this population. Early, systematic integration of palliative care into standard oncology practice represents a valuable, imperative approach to improving the overall cancer experience for adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The importance of competent, confident, and compassionate providers for AYAs warrants the development of effective educational strategies for teaching AYA palliative care. Just as palliative care should be integrated early in the disease trajectory of AYA patients, palliative care training should be integrated early in professional development of trainees. As the AYA age spectrum represents sequential transitions through developmental stages, trainees experience changes in their learning needs during their progression through sequential phases of training. This article reviews unique epidemiologic, developmental, and psychosocial factors that make the provision of palliative care especially challenging in AYAs. A conceptual framework is provided for AYA palliative care education. Critical instructional strategies including experiential learning, group didactic opportunity, shared learning among care disciplines, bereaved family members as educators, and online learning are reviewed. Educational issues for provider training are addressed from the perspective of the trainer, trainee, and AYA. Goals and objectives for an AYA palliative care cancer rotation are presented. Guidance is also provided on ways to support an AYA's quality of life as end of life nears.

  10. Psychosocial care for adolescent and young adult hematopoietic cell transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Liz; Chung, Carol; Grant, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Psychological issues following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are unfortunately common. Literature specific to the transplant experience for the needs of adolescents and young adults (AYA) is lacking. The purpose of this article is to (1) describe the allogeneic transplant experience for AYA transplant patients during the first year following transplantation including demographic and treatment characteristics, (2) present AYA data obtained during and following a six-part posttransplant discharge study, (3) illustrate typical AYA experiences using case studies, and (4) propose AYA intervention strategies within Erickson's stages of psychosocial development. A quality of life model provided the research conceptual framework, and the content analysis framework for the qualitative research. Themes that emerged within each domain were the following: sexuality/fertility, fatigue, depression/poor coping/habits,adherence issues, use of technology, dependency issues, changes in roles/relationships, issues with school/education, financial issues, family problems/issues, miscellaneous, religion/spirituality, fear of future, uncertainty, life, death, more life appreciation. These data guide us for providing targeted interventions for the needs of this AYA population. This paper has presented literature and developmental theory, qualitative and qualitative data from an intervention study, and clinical cases in order to propose a developmental treatment model for AYA transplant patients. A coordinated and multidisciplinary approach is needed for the HCT patient who is an AYA.

  11. Cancer-related fatigue in adolescents and young adults: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowe, E; Stöbel-Richter, Y; Sender, A; Leuteritz, K; Friedrich, M; Geue, K

    2017-10-01

    Adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYA) represent a specific age cohort dealing with the disease in a stage of life characterized by development, upheavals, and establishment. The aim of this study was to point out the state of research on how AYA are affected by cancer-related fatigue (CRF). Twelve articles were included. CRF was found to be higher in AYA than in either of the comparison groups, healthy peers and older cancer patients. Most included studies did not measure CRF with multidimensional, fatigue-specific instruments. We found a gap in research concerning CRF in AYA. The existing findings suggest that CRF is a significant issue for AYA cancer patients. However, less is known about the prevalence, severity, and impact of CRF in AYA, and their treatment. This should be considered in future research, and risk and prevention factors should be ascertained. Multidimensional and fatigue-specific measuring tools should be used to do this. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Danielle M; Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children's subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent's child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers' psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents' potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents' punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers' punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers' potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers' psychological control on children's externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers' potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers' psychological control on adolescent mothers' punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children's behavior.

  13. Predictors of the Transition from Experimental to Daily Smoking in Late Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunhee; Weaver, Terri E.; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although smoking initiation is rare in young adulthood, the progression to a higher level of smoking still occurs at this developmental stage. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring predictors of the transition from experimental to daily smoking in late teens and young adults using the 2nd and 3rd waves from the National Longitudinal Study of…

  14. Physical Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Waltersson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the level of physical activity in adults with cerebral palsy (CP and to analyse its relationship with physical activity as adolescents, pain, and gross motor function. A prospective cohort study was performed using data from the Swedish National CP Registry (CPUP for all 129 individuals born in 1991–1993 living in Skåne and Blekinge who reported to CPUP at 14–16 years of age. Physical activity as adult was analysed relative to physical activity as adolescents, pain, and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS. Seventy-one individuals at GMFCS I–V were followed up as adults and included in the analyses. Of these, 65% were physically active, but only 56% performed physical activity at least once a week. Their physical activity as adults differed relative to their physical activity as adolescents (p=0.011 but not to pain or GMFCS. Being physically active as an adolescent doubled the probability of being active as an adult (OR 2.1; p=0.054, indicating that physical activity in adults with CP is related to their physical activity as adolescents. Therefore, interventions to increase physical activity among adolescents with CP are likely also to improve physical activity in adulthood.

  15. The duration of stage transition during pharyngeal swallowing among young-elderly, and mid-elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Byeon, Haewon; Koh, Hyeung Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Understanding the normal movements of the pharyngeal stage is important in the assessment of dysphagia. This study classified an elderly population into young-elderly and mid-elderly individuals and investigated the difference in stage transition duration between the two groups to provide basic material for assessment of dysphagia in old age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the study were 12 middle-aged individuals (40?49 years), young-elderly individuals (65?74 years), and 9...

  16. Early-Stage Young Breast Cancer Patients: Impact of Local Treatment on Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantema-Joppe, Enja J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Munck, Linda de [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Visser, Otto [Comprehensive Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Willemse, Pax H.B. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Siesling, Sabine [Comprehensive Cancer Center North East, Groningen/Enschede (Netherlands); Department of Health Technology and Services Research, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@rt.umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: In young women, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), i.e., lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy, has been associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. Still, there is insufficient evidence that BCT impairs survival. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of BCT with mastectomy on overall survival (OS) in young women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: From two Dutch regional population-based cancer registries (covering 6.2 million inhabitants) 1,453 women <40 years with pathologically T1N0-1M0 breast cancer were selected. Cox regression survival analysis was used to study the effect of local treatment (BCT vs. mastectomy) stratified for nodal stage on survival and corrected for tumor size, age, period of diagnosis, and use of adjuvant systemic therapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 10-year OS was 83% after BCT and 78% after mastectomy, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.72). In N0-patients, 10-year OS was 84% after BCT and 81% after mastectomy and local treatment was not associated with differences in OS (HR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89-1.58; p = 0.25). Within the N1-patient group, OS was better after BCT compared with mastectomy, 79% vs. 71% at 10 years (HR 1.91; 95% CI, 1.28-2.84; p = 0.001) and in patients treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy (HR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.66; p = 0.001). Conclusions: In this large population-based cohort of early-stage young breast cancer patients, 10-year OS was not impaired after BCT compared with mastectomy. Patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes had better prognosis after BCT than after mastectomy.

  17. Young adolescents' perceptions, patterns, and contexts of energy drink use. A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are purported to increase energy and improve performance, but have been associated with adverse health effects and death. EDs are popular among adolescents and young adults, yet little is known about their use among young adolescents. This study explored perceptions, patterns, and contexts of ED use in six focus groups with 40 adolescents aged 12-15 years from two regional Australian schools. A thematic analysis of the data was used to investigate knowledge about ED brands and content, ED use, reasons for ED use, physiological effects, and influences on ED use. Participants were familiar with EDs and most had used them at least once but had limited knowledge of ED ingredients, and some had difficulty differentiating them from soft and sports drinks. EDs were used as an alternative to other drinks, to provide energy, and in social contexts, and their use was associated with short-term physiological symptoms. Parents and advertising influenced participants' perceptions and use of EDs. These findings suggest young adolescents use EDs without knowing what they are drinking and how they are contributing to their personal risk of harm. The advertising, appeal, and use of EDs by adolescents appear to share similarities with alcohol and tobacco. Further research is needed to replicate and extend the current findings, informed by the lessons learned in alcohol research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescent cannabis problems and young adult depression: male-female stratified propensity score analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Valerie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Anthony, James C

    2008-09-15

    Cannabis use and depression are two of the most prevalent conditions worldwide. Adolescent cannabis use is linked to depression in many studies, but the effects of adolescent cannabis involvement on young adult depression remain unclear and may differ for males versus females. In this cohort study of youth from a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area of the United States, repeated assessments from 1985 (at age 6 years) through 2002 (at age 21 years) were made for 1,494 individuals (55% female). Measured covariate differences between individuals with and without cannabis problems were controlled via propensity score techniques. The estimated risk of young adult depression for adolescents with cannabis problems was not significantly different from that for comparison adolescents for either females (odds ratio = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 2.3) or males (odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 3.6). The evidence does not support a causal association linking adolescent-onset cannabis problems with young adult depression.

  19. Empowerment in adolescents and young adults with cancer: Relationship with health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, S.E.J.; Husson, O.; Duivenboden, S. van; Jansen, R.; Manten-Horst, E.; Servaes, P.; Prins, J.B.; Berg, S.W. van den; Graaf, W.T.A. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The difficulties adolescents and young adults (AYAs) encounter during a cancer experience may result in a reduction in or absence of empowerment. The aims of the current study were to assess levels of empowerment and associated (demographic, clinical, or psychological) factors and

  20. Building the bridge between rhabdomyosarcoma in children, adolescents and young adults : The road ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gaal, J. Carlijn; De Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Kaal, Suzanne E. J.; Versleijen-Jonkers, Yvonne; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare type of soft tissue sarcoma that mainly affects children, but also occurs in adolescents and (young) adults (AYA). Despite dramatic survival improvements reported by international study groups in children over the past decades, the awareness of a dismal outcome for

  1. Young Adolescents' Gender-, Ethnicity-, and Popularity-Based Social Schemas of Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Social schemas can influence the perception and recollection of others' behavior and may create biases in the reporting of social events. This study investigated young adolescents' (N = 317) gender-, ethnicity-, and popularity-based social schemas of overtly and relationally aggressive behavior. Results indicated that participants associated overt…

  2. Identifying and Assessing Community-Based Social Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults with EBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A battery of three measures for assessing the community-based social behavior of adolescents and young adults with emotional and behavioral disorders is described. The measures, in male and female forms, are "Test of Community-Based Social Skill Knowledge,""Scale of Community-Based Social Skill Performance," and "Behaviors That Are Undesirable for…

  3. The Development and Validation of the Transition Competence Battery for Adolescents and Young Adults with Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, John; Bullis, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The lack of appropriate assessment tools designed for deaf adolescents and young adults making the transition from educational programs to adult life is cited as one of the most glaring deficits in the field of deafness. The Transition Competence Battery (TCB) is being developed as an assessment tool that will guide individual training decisions…

  4. Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties of the Transition Competence Battery for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Reiman, John

    1992-01-01

    The Transition Competence Battery for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults (TCB) measures employment and independent living skills. The TCB was standardized on students (N from 180 to 230 for the different subtests) from both mainstreamed and residential settings. Item statistics and subtest reliabilities were adequate; evidence of construct validity…

  5. Structure and Videodisc Adaptation of the Transition Competence Battery (TCB) for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The Transition Competence Battery for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults consists of six subtests related to employment and independent living, and uses booklets and videotapes/videodisks with questions presented in sign language. Comparison of alternative formats indicated that group administration of the multiple-choice format produced acceptable…

  6. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  7. Is grip strength a predictor for total muscle strength in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anne E.; Takken, Tim; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether grip strength is related to total muscle strength in children, adolescents, and young adults. The second purpose was to provide reference charts for grip strength, which could be used in the clinical and research setting. This cross-sectional

  8. Sexual Behavior in High-Functioning Male Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellemans, Hans; Colson, Kathy; Verbraeken, Christine; Vermeiren, Robert; Deboutte, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    Group home caregivers of 24 institutionalized, male, high-functioning adolescents and young adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder, were interviewed with the Interview Sexuality Autism. Most subjects were reported to express sexual interest and to display some kind of sexual behavior. Knowledge of socio-sexual skills existed, but practical use was…

  9. Redefining Intersectionality Theory through the Lens of African American Young Adolescent Girls' Racialized Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The research presented uses intersectionality theory as a lens to study the racial identity construction of four African American young adolescent girls. The findings suggest that race was largely situated in a Black-White discourse for the girls in the study. When limited information was provided in home, school, and community settings, the…

  10. Examination of the Double-Deficit Hypothesis with Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of the developmental dyslexias (Wolf and Bowers, "Journal of Educational Psychology", 91, 415-438, 1999) was investigated with 149 adolescents and young adults (age range?=?16 to 24 years) with dyslexia. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor model with separate naming speed (NS) and…

  11. Approaches to improvement of treatment results of malignant tumors in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Rumyantsev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of clinical and biological features of most common malignant tumors in adolescents and young adults. The most effective pediatric and oncological treatment approaches to described diseases based on own experience are summarized.

  12. CONTINUITY AND CHANGE OF SELF-REPORTED PROBLEM BEHAVIORS FROM ADOLESCENCE INTO YOUNG ADULTHOOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FERDINAND, RF; VERHULST, FC; WIZNITZER, M

    Objective: To investigate the 4-year course of behavioral and emotional problems from adolescence into young adulthood in a general population sample. Method: The population consisted of 364 individuals, aged 15 to 18 years at the beginning of the study. Subjects filled out the Youth Self-Report at

  13. Teacher and Peer Support for Young Adolescents' Motivation, Engagement, and School Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Alley, Kathleen M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed methods study was to investigate teacher and peer support for young adolescents' academic motivation, classroom engagement, and school belonging within one large, urban, ethnically diverse middle school. In the initial quantitative phase, associations among aspects of teacher support (autonomy,…

  14. A Research Strategy for Studying Learning Disabled Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.; And Others

    The author argues for an epidemiology data base (which looks at cognitive, aptitude, family condition, school condition, and personal characteristic variables) as a strategy for research with learning disabled (LD) adolescents and young adults. An operational definition, advantages, and problems of this type of research strategy are outlined. A…

  15. Understanding and Counseling Self-Mutilation in Female Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zila, Laurie MacAniff; Kiselica, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the syndrome of self-mutilation in female adolescents and young adults. Discusses causes, symptoms, types, definitions, and treatments. Includes an explanation of the lexical and conceptual confusion that accompanies self-mutilation. Addresses implications and recommendations for counselors. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/GCP)

  16. Conceptions of Work among Adolescents and Young Adults with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Gifsh, Limor

    2004-01-01

    Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 Israeli adolescents and young adults with mild mental retardation to examine their perceptions of the world of work. A consensual qualitative strategy of analysis (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997) yielded 4 domains (Definitions of Work, Reasons for Working, Self-Awareness,…

  17. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Young Adolescents with ADHD: Relations to Mental Health, Academic, and Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…

  18. Socialisation into Organised Sports of Young Adolescents with a Lower Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that "do" participate in organised sports was investigated. A total of 9 girls…

  19. Puppets on a String? How Young Adolescents Explore Gender and Health in Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begoray, Deborah L.; Banister, Elizabeth M.; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Wilmot, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This article presents qualitative research on young adolescents' abilities in communicating and evaluating health messages in advertising especially how they understand and create gendered identities. A group of grade 6-8 students learned about media techniques and movie making. In groups divided by gender, they created iMovie advertisements for…

  20. Trumping Shame by Blasts of Noise: Narcissism, Self-Esteem, Shame, and Aggression in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

    2008-01-01

    This experiment tested how self-views influence shame-induced aggression. One hundred and sixty-three young adolescents (M = 12.2 years) completed measures of narcissism and self-esteem. They lost to an ostensible opponent on a competitive task. In the shame condition, they were told that their opponent was bad, and they saw their own name at the…

  1. Physiological Reactivity Moderates the Association between Parental Directing and Young Adolescent Friendship Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kelly M.; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the longitudinal association between parental directing of friendships (i.e., encouraging or discouraging certain friendships) and young adolescents' friendship adjustment (i.e., friendship quality and friends' positive characteristics) was moderated by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) to peer stress.…

  2. The Efficacy of a Multifaceted Weight Management Program for Children and Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, Holly Spencer

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of overweight and obesity among children and young adolescents remains unacceptably high and places our youth at risk for several negative outcomes. Recognizing the need for a youth-focused weight management program in our community, the researcher developed, implemented, and evaluated a small pilot study, FitKids. The aims of…

  3. School environment and the mental health of sexual minority youth: a study among Dutch young adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bos, H.M.W.; Collier, K.L.; Metselaar, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether structural elements of the school environment, in particular cultural pluralism and consistency and clarity of school rules and expectations of students, could mitigate the risk for mental health problems among young sexual minority adolescents. Methods. Data were

  4. Neural Correlates of Working Memory Performance in Adolescents and Young Adults with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasic, Nenad; Lohr, Christina; Steinbrink, Claudia; Martin, Claudia; Wolf, Robert Christian

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral studies indicate deficits in phonological working memory (WM) and executive functioning in dyslexics. However, little is known about the underlying functional neuroanatomy. In the present study, neural correlates of WM in adolescents and young adults with dyslexia were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance…

  5. SoundScape: An Interdisciplinary Music Intervention for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greher, Gena R.; Hillier, Ashleigh; Dougherty, Margaret; Poto, Nataliya

    2010-01-01

    Service provision for adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is lacking, particularly post high school. We report on a music intervention program, outline our program model, and report some initial pilot data evaluating the program outcomes. We also discuss implications for undergraduate and graduate students who were…

  6. New Insights into the Comorbidity between ADHD and Major Depression in Adolescent and Young Adult Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Spencer, Thomas J.; McCreary, Michelle; Cote, Michelle; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2008-01-01

    The association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depression (MD) in adolescent and young adult females is evaluated. Findings indicate that MD emerging in the context of ADHD is an impairing and severe comorbidity that needs to be considered further clinically and scientifically.

  7. Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word…

  8. Psychiatric disease in late adolescence and young adulthood. Foetal programming by maternal hypothyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Lack of maternal thyroid hormones during foetal brain development may lead to structural abnormalities in the brain. We hypothesized that maternal hypothyroidism during the pregnancy could programme the foetus to development of psychiatric disease later in life. Danish nationwide register study. Singletons live-born 1980-1990. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval for offspring redemption of ≥2 prescriptions of a psychiatric drug from age 15 to 31 years. Among 542 100 adolescents and young adults included, altogether 3979 (0·7%) were born to mothers with hypothyroidism registered before 1996. In crude analyses, the use of a psychiatric drug was more frequent in late adolescence and young adulthood when the mother had hypothyroidism (P late adolescence and young adulthood. For antidepressants, aHR was 1·07 (0·98-1·17). The association between maternal hypothyroidism and the use of a psychiatric drug in late adolescence and young adulthood was partly confounded by maternal psychiatric history, but foetal programming by maternal hypothyroidism may be part of the mechanisms leading to the use of anxiolytics and antipsychotics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Changes in neural mechanisms of cognitive control during the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veroude, K.; Jolles, J.; Croiset, G.; Krabbendam, L.

    2013-01-01

    The transition from late adolescence to young adulthood is marked by anatomical maturation of various brain regions. In parallel, defining life changes take place, such as entrance into college. Up till now research has not focused on functional brain differences during this particular developmental

  10. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  11. Receptive Language Skills of Adolescents and Young Adults with Down or Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbeduto, Leonard; Murphy, Melissa M.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Richmond, Erica K.; Weissman, Michelle D.; Karadottir, Selma; O'Brien, Anne

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the receptive language of adolescents and young adults with either Down syndrome (n=25), fragile X syndrome (n=19), or mental age matched typically developing children (n=24). Individuals with the syndromes differed in relative achievements across the domains of receptive vocabulary, receptive syntax, nonverbal cognition, and…

  12. Depression and Violence in Adolescence and Young Adults : Findings From Three Longitudinal Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Aaltonen, Mikko; Branje, Susan; Ristikari, Tiina; Meeus, Wim; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Goodwin, Guy M.; Fazel, Seena

    Objective Despite recent research demonstrating associations between violence and depression in adults, links in adolescents are uncertain. This study aims to assess the longitudinal associations between young people’s depression and later violent outcomes. Method We used data from three cohorts

  13. Cognitive dysfunction in young men following head injury in childhood and adolescence: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction among young men who had suffered a head injury during childhood or adolescence, in particular focusing upon the effects of age and the severity of the injury. METHODS: By cross linkage of Danish national registers for hospital...... factors may again play a role....

  14. Positive Youth Development Interventions Impacting the Sexual Health of Young Minority Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, LaNita W.; Cheney, Marshall K.

    2018-01-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the utility of Positive Youth Development (PYD) concepts in promoting positive sexual health behaviors in young minority adolescents (n = 12 studies). Interventions reported significant associations between PYD-focused interventions and ever having sex, sexual partners in the last 30 days,…

  15. A prospective study of adolescent risk and protective factors for problem gambling among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Dowling, Nicki A; Toumbourou, John W

    2014-02-01

    There is a paucity of research examining prospective predictors of problem gambling. The current study utilised a large longitudinal data set (N = 2328) to examine a large range of adolescent risk and protective factors for problem gambling in young adulthood. These risk and protective factors covered the domains of the community, family, school, peer group and individual. Numerous predictors associated with the family, school and peer-individual were statistically significant in analyses adjusted for gender and age. However, in the fully adjusted multivariate analyses, only two predictors were statistically significant. Within this model, gender (female) was associated with a reduced risk of young adult problem gambling, while family rewards for prosocial involvement moderated the risk relationship between adolescent alcohol use and young adult problem gambling. These findings highlight the importance of adolescent alcohol use and family environment as potentially modifiable predictors of young adult problem gambling. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Parental Overprotection Predicts the Development of Functional Somatic Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Karin A. M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    Objective To examine whether parental overprotection contributes to die development of functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in young adolescents. In addition, we aimed to study whether this potential effect of parental overprotection is mediated by parenting distress and/or moderated by the

  17. The Use and Experience of the New Video Media among Children and Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubey, Robert; Larson, Reed

    1990-01-01

    Examines the use and experience of music videos, video games, and videocassettes among children and young adolescents. Finds that boys reacted with greater arousal and more positive affective states to new video media as compared to traditional media, while girls reported lower affect and arousal, expecially during video games and music videos.…

  18. Contributors and Inhibitors of Resilience Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Abby R.; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P.; Wharton, Claire; Gordon, Karen; Jones, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Self-perceived resilience may enable coping and mitigate poor psychosocial outcomes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer. In order to inform the development of resilience-promoting interventions, we aimed to: (1) describe AYA patient-reported resilience and (2) identify AYA patient-reported contributors and inhibitors of resilience.

  19. Applicability of an allometric power equation to children, adolescents and young adults of extreme body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, V B; Nevill, A; Lange, G; Eppel, J; Fischer, M; Hebestreit, H

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of a regression model for peak power (PP) and total mechanical work (TMW) for healthy children, adolescents and young adults especially in the extreme ranges of stature, mass, and body mass index (BMI). A total of 454 children, adolescents and young adults aged 6-20 years volunteered for the study. Subjects, whose stature, mass and BMI were between the 10(th) and the 90(th) centile, were selected to calculate the prediction equation: 267 subjects fulfilled these criteria. Each subject performed two unilateral Wingate tests (ULWAnT), one with each leg. PP (Watts) and TMW (Joules) of the left and right leg were averaged for each individual. Ln(mass), in(stature), age, age(2), gender, and age x gender were used as predictors for in(PP) and ln(TMW). The applicability of the prediction equation was tested on individuals who were less than the 10(th) centile or greater than the 90(th) centile for stature, body mass and BMI. All independent variables were statistically significant (P90th centile for stature, body mass, or BMI. the prediction equations overestimated PP and TMW in children, adolescents and young adults who were heavier than the reference subjects, as indicated by a relatively high body mass or high BMI for age or were taller than the reference subjects. The findings might reflect a deficit in anaerobic capacity in children, adolescents and young adults with relatively large body size for their age.

  20. Self-Presentation and Interaction in Blogs of Adolescents and Young Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Kozarian, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzed 124 blogs, chronological, journal-type entries published on public hosting Web sites, as new and popular places for adolescents and emerging adults aged 15 to 19 to play openly with their self-presentation, an important aspect of identity exploration. Findings indicate that most young persons write emotionally toned entries;…

  1. Trumping shame by blasts of Noise: Narcissism, Self-Esteem, Shame, and Aggression in Young Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, S.; Bushman, B.J.; Stegge, G.T.M.; Olthof, T.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment tested how self-views influence shame-induced aggression. One hundred and sixty-three young adolescents (M = 12.2 years) completed measures of narcissism and self-esteem. They lost to an ostensible opponent on a competitive task. In the shame condition, they were told that their

  2. Impact of Group Sandtray Therapy on the Self-Esteem of Young Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Pei; Armstrong, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of group sandtray therapy was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design with young adolescent girls (n = 37) identified as having low self-esteem. A split-plot analysis of variance (SPANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences between participants in the treatment and control groups in self-esteem on five…

  3. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…

  4. Post-Traumatic Growth and Resilience in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greup, Suzanne R.; Kaal, Suzanne E. J.; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Thong, Melissa S. Y.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Prins, Judith B.; Husson, Olga

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and resilience among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. A literature search in Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Cinahl was carried out. Thirteen articles

  5. Building the bridge between rhabdomyosarcoma in children, adolescents and young adults: the road ahead.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaal, J.C. van; Bont, E.S. de; Kaal, S.E.J.; Versleijen-Jonkers, Y.M.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare type of soft tissue sarcoma that mainly affects children, but also occurs in adolescents and (young) adults (AYA). Despite dramatic survival improvements reported by international study groups in children over the past decades, the awareness of a dismal outcome for

  6. Socialisation into organised sports of young adolescents with a lower socio-economic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Niek; Verbeek, Jan; van der Zwan, Joris; van Hilvoorde, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating sport socialisation often focussed on the barriers for youngsters from lower socio-economic status (SES) families to participate in sport. In the present study, the socialisation into sports of young adolescents from lower SES families that do participate in organised sports

  7. The Relation between Family Structure and Young Adolescents' Appraisals of Family Climate and Parenting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdek, Lawrence A.; Fine, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    Young adolescents who lived with both biological parents, single divorced mother, single divorced father, mother and stepfather, father and stepmother, or multiply divorced parent appraised dimensions of family climate and dimensions of parenting. Differences among family structures were found on warmth, conflict, permissive parenting, and…

  8. The Salience of Adolescent Romantic Experiences for Romantic Relationship Qualities in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Stephanie D.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual links between aspects of adolescents' dating experiences (i.e., involvement and quality; ages 15-17.5) and qualities of their romantic relationships in young adulthood (ages 20-21) were examined in a prospective longitudinal design. Even after accounting for earlier relationship experiences with parents and peers, aspects of adolescent…

  9. Romantic relationships and sexuality in adolescence and young adulthood : The role of parents, peers, and partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Yu, Rongqin; Dekovic, Maja; Meeus, Wim H J

    2015-01-01

    The formation of romantic relationships and the engagement in sexual behaviours are considered normative and salient developmental tasks for adolescents and young adults. These developmental tasks are increasingly viewed from an ecological perspective, thus not only as individual processes, but also

  10. Romantic relationships and sexuality in adolescence and young adulthood: The role of parents, peers, and partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bongardt, D.; Yu, R.; Deković, M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of romantic relationships and the engagement in sexual behaviours are considered normative and salient developmental tasks for adolescents and young adults. These developmental tasks are increasingly viewed from an ecological perspective, thus not only as individual processes, but also

  11. Macrostructural narrative language of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome or fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestack, Lizbeth H; Palmer, Meghan; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2012-02-01

    To gain a better understanding of language abilities, the expressive macrostructural narrative language abilities of verbally expressive adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) and those with fragile X syndrome (FXS) were examined. The authors evaluated 24 adolescents and young adults with DS, 12 male adolescents and young adults with FXS, and 21 younger children with typical development (TD). Narrative samples were assessed at the macrostructural level using the narrative scoring scheme (Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts, & Dunaway, 2010). Three group comparisons were made using (a) the full sample matched on nonverbal mental age, (b) a subset of the participants individually matched on nonverbal mental age, and (c) a subset of participants individually matched on mean length of utterance. Study analyses revealed that the DS and FXS groups significantly outperformed the TD group on a limited number of narrative scoring scheme measures. No significant differences emerged between the DS and FXS groups. The study's results suggest that some aspects of macrostructural narrative language may be relative strengths for adolescents and young adults with DS and those with FXS. These results can be used to create more nuanced and informed approaches to assessment and intervention for these populations.

  12. Adolescent and Young Adult Male Sex Offenders: Understanding the Role of Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.

    2013-01-01

    The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…

  13. Relations of low frustration tolerance beliefs with stress, depression, and anxiety in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Adela; Yarcheski, Thomas J; Hanks, Michele M

    2007-02-01

    Young adolescents (N=144; 66 boys, 78 girls), ages 12 to 14 years (M=12.2, SD=.8), who reported lower scores on the Low Frustration Tolerance Beliefs Instrument had higher scores on the Perceived Stress Scale and the Profile of Mood States Subscales of Depression and Anxiety.

  14. Violence Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents and Young Adults Disconnected from School and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Tamar; Turner, Alezandria K.; Tandon, S. Darius

    2010-01-01

    The psychological effects of exposure to different types of violence among urban adolescents and young adults are not yet well understood. This study investigated exposure to neighborhood violence, relationship violence, and forced sex among 677 urban African Americans aged 16-23 enrolled at an employment and training center. We assessed…

  15. What Art Educators Can Learn from the Fan-Based Artmaking of Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manifold, Marjorie Cohee

    2009-01-01

    The explanations of 101 adolescents and young adults, who are fans of popular culture narratives and make art inspired by these phenomena, provide insight into why these youth were drawn to create fan-based artworks, how they learned to make these art forms, and what the creative activities mean to them. Emergent themes highlight (a) the…

  16. Detained Adolescent Females' Multiple Mental Health and Adjustment Problem Outcomes in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, E.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; Krabbendam, A. A.; Beekman, A. T. F.; Doreleijers, T. A. H.; Jansen, L. M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Method: Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 SD = 0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age = 20.0,…

  17. Many Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers Have Chronic Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2012 study showed that people who’d had cancer as adolescents and young adults were more likely to be current smokers, be obese, have various chronic conditions, be disabled, and have poor mental and physical health. The findings highlight the importance of addressing the special needs and concerns of this population.

  18. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young with end-stage nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saudek, Frantisek; Pruhová, Stepánka; Boucek, Peter

    2004-01-01

    -onset diabetes of the young (MODY). SPK was performed in a 47-year old man who has MODY3 because of a Arg272His mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alphagene. He developed overt diabetes mellitus at 19 years and end-stage diabetic nephropathy 26 years thereafter. Before SPK, the patient had measurable...... fasting serum C-peptide levels, but lacked beta-cell response to intravenous glucose and glucagon. He was treated with 34 IU of insulin per day. At 2 years post-transplantation, the patient remains normoglycemic and insulin independent. A hyperglycemic clamp test showed a normal beta-cell function...

  19. Empowerment in adolescents and young adults with cancer: Relationship with health‐related quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaal, Suzanne E.J.; Husson, Olga; van Duivenboden, Saskia; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten‐Horst, Eveliene; Servaes, Petra; Prins, Judith B.; van den Berg, Sanne W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The difficulties adolescents and young adults (AYAs) encounter during a cancer experience may result in a reduction in or absence of empowerment. The aims of the current study were to assess levels of empowerment and associated (demographic, clinical, or psychological) factors and examine the association between empowerment and health‐related quality of life (HRQOL) among AYA patients with cancer. METHODS Patients aged 18 to 35 years at time of cancer diagnosis and who were seen by 1 of the members of the specialized multidisciplinary AYA team of the Radboud University Medical Center were invited to complete questionnaires regarding empowerment; HRQOL; and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics (autonomy, coping, unmet social support needs, and psychological distress). RESULTS A total of 83 AYA patients completed the questionnaires. The mean age of the participants at the time of diagnosis was 27.5 years. The vast majority had been treated with chemotherapy (86%), had a more advanced stage of disease, and had completed treatment at the time of participation (74%). The mean empowerment level was 154.1 (standard deviation, 17.8) with a range of 114 to 200. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the autonomy subscales of self‐awareness (β = .35), capacity for managing new situations (β = .19), and social support (β = .35) were found to be positively associated with empowerment. Coping difficulties (β = ‐.19) were found to be negatively associated with empowerment. Empowerment was independently associated with physical (β = .31), psychological (β = .50), social (β = .39), religious (β = .33), and total HRQOL (β = .52; all Pempowerment were associated with low levels of autonomy and social support, female sex, and coping difficulties among AYA patients with cancer. Recognizing these patients as candidates for empowerment interventions ultimately could help to improve HRQOL in late adolescence and young adulthood. Cancer

  20. Empowerment in adolescents and young adults with cancer: Relationship with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaal, Suzanne E J; Husson, Olga; van Duivenboden, Saskia; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Servaes, Petra; Prins, Judith B; van den Berg, Sanne W; van der Graaf, Winette T A

    2017-10-15

    The difficulties adolescents and young adults (AYAs) encounter during a cancer experience may result in a reduction in or absence of empowerment. The aims of the current study were to assess levels of empowerment and associated (demographic, clinical, or psychological) factors and examine the association between empowerment and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among AYA patients with cancer. Patients aged 18 to 35 years at time of cancer diagnosis and who were seen by 1 of the members of the specialized multidisciplinary AYA team of the Radboud University Medical Center were invited to complete questionnaires regarding empowerment; HRQOL; and sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics (autonomy, coping, unmet social support needs, and psychological distress). A total of 83 AYA patients completed the questionnaires. The mean age of the participants at the time of diagnosis was 27.5 years. The vast majority had been treated with chemotherapy (86%), had a more advanced stage of disease, and had completed treatment at the time of participation (74%). The mean empowerment level was 154.1 (standard deviation, 17.8) with a range of 114 to 200. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the autonomy subscales of self-awareness (β = .35), capacity for managing new situations (β = .19), and social support (β = .35) were found to be positively associated with empowerment. Coping difficulties (β = -.19) were found to be negatively associated with empowerment. Empowerment was independently associated with physical (β = .31), psychological (β = .50), social (β = .39), religious (β = .33), and total HRQOL (β = .52; all Pempowerment were associated with low levels of autonomy and social support, female sex, and coping difficulties among AYA patients with cancer. Recognizing these patients as candidates for empowerment interventions ultimately could help to improve HRQOL in late adolescence and young adulthood. Cancer 2017;123:4039-47. © 2017 The

  1. Application of the health promotion model to predict stages of exercise behaviour in Iranian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymoori, P; Niknami, S; Berry, T; Ghofranipour, F; Kazemnejad, A

    2009-01-01

    A cluster random sample of 1073 students in the Islamic Republic of Iran (mean age 14.37 years) completed a self-report questionnaire consisting of an exercise measure, selected constructs of Pender's health promotion model and an assessment of stages of behaviour change in exercise. In multivariate discriminant analysis, exercise self-efficacy, perceived barriers to exercise, perceived benefits of exercise and exercise behaviour were significant predictors of the stage of exercise behaviour change for both female and male adolescents. The findings support the importance of self-efficacy for engaging in physical activity for both sexes of Iranian adolescents. The barriers faced by Iranian girls should be considered in interventions to increase physical activity rates.

  2. Relationships among obesity, physical activity and sedentary behavior in young adolescents with and without lifetime asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; Rhee, Hyekyun; Kitzman, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    To examine the inter-relationships among body mass index (BMI), physical activity, sedentary behavior and gender in urban, low-income, primarily African American young adolescents with or without lifetime asthma. Data were collected in 2002-2004 from 626 12-year old adolescents who were children of women who participated in the New Mother's Study in Memphis, TN (1990-1991). Adolescents with and without asthma were compared on BMI, physical activity and sedentary behavior. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association of asthma, gender and BMI with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Complete data were available for 545 adolescents. Eleven percent of adolescents had lifetime asthma. Asthma and gender were associated with high-intensity physical activity (p Adolescents with asthma participated in less physical activity and girls participated less than boys. Gender was associated with sedentary behavior (p Adolescents with asthma are less physically active than those without asthma and girls are less active than boys. Clinicians who provide care for adolescents with asthma are encouraged to assess physical activity/sedentary behavior and provide guidance that promotes active lifestyles. A longitudinal study is needed to shed light on the unique contribution of asthma separated from the effects of overweight/obesity on physical activity and sedentary behaviors.

  3. Dominance-Popularity Status, Behavior, and the Emergence of Sexual Activity in Young Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy H. de Bruyn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the sexual activity levels of several subtypes of middle adolescents (age 14–15 years. The subtype profiles were based on dominance-popularity status and a range of behaviors associated with dominance and popularity. In addition, gender differences in behavioral profiles were examined among dominant-popular, sexually active young adolescents. Results showed that socially dominant and popular young adolescent boys who exhibited a highly aggressive profile were more sexually active than their low-status and non-aggressive male peers; dominant-popular girls who were very attractive and gossips were more sexually active than their female peers. The results are discussed from an evolutionary psychological framework.

  4. Bridges and barriers to successful transitioning as perceived by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, Ellen; Ruttenberg, Jean; Segal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this thematic content analysis we examined the expectations, and perceived facilitators of (referred to as bridges) and barriers to transition to community as reported by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were adolescents/young adults, ages 18-23 years were from the East Coast of the United States. Seventy percent of adolescents hoped for employment (n = 10). Thirty percent desired to find a partner and raise a family. Perceived barriers were: self-assessed behavioral problems, self-assessed associated features, other personal factors, and institutional factors. Bridges to facilitate transition were: accommodations in the community, cognitive abilities, personal qualities/strengths, and mentor's qualities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intimate partner violence and depressive symptoms during adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendi L; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D

    2014-03-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms during adolescence and young adulthood (N = 1,273) while controlling for time-stable and time-varying correlates. Results show temporal changes in depressive symptoms, such that increases in depressive symptoms correspond to IPV exposure. While prior work has theorized that certain populations may be at increased psychological vulnerability from IPV, results indicate that both perpetration and victimization are associated with increases in depressive symptoms for both men and women, and irrespective of whether IPV exposure occurred in adolescence or young adulthood. Cumulative exposure to IPV does not appear to increase depressive symptoms beyond the effect observed for the most recent IPV exposure, but physical maltreatment by a parent does appear to diminish the association between IPV perpetration and depressive symptoms for a small subset of the sample.

  6. Parenting stressors and young adolescents' depressive symptoms: Does high vagal suppression offer protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Anne C; Buehler, Cheryl; Buchanan, Christy M; Weymouth, Bridget B

    2017-03-01

    Grounded in a dual-risk, biosocial perspective of developmental psychopathology, this study examined the role of higher vagal suppression in providing young adolescents protection from four parenting stressors. It was expected that lower vagal suppression would increase youth vulnerability to the deleterious effects of these parenting stressors. Depressive symptoms were examined as a central marker of socioemotional difficulties during early adolescence. The four parenting stressors examined were interparental hostility, maternal use of harsh discipline, maternal inconsistent discipline, and maternal psychological control. Participants were 68 young adolescents (Grade 6) and their mothers. Greater vagal suppression provided protection (i.e., lower depressive symptoms) from interparental hostility, harsh discipline, and maternal psychological control for boys but not for girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry: conceptualizing theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Kelly; Proffitt, Tina-Marie; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Wood, Stephen J; Cumner, Marnie; Brewer, Warrick J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, clinical neuropsychology has made significant contributions to the understanding of brain-behavior relationships, particularly in neurological conditions. During the past several decades, neuropsychology has also become established as an important discipline in psychiatric settings. Cognition is increasingly recognized as being core to psychiatric illnesses and predictive of functional outcomes, augmenting theories regarding symptomatology and illness progression. Adult-type psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and other psychotic, mood, anxiety, eating, substance-related, and personality disorders) typically emerge during adolescence or young adulthood, a critical neurodevelopmental period. Clinical neuropsychological assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients is particularly valuable in informing clinical formulation and intervention and can be therapeutic across a number of levels. This article articulates the theoretical considerations and practical challenges and applications of clinical neuropsychology within adolescent and young-adult psychiatry. The importance of considering the neurodevelopmental context and its relationship to current theoretical models underpinning clinical practice are discussed.

  8. Socialization and individual antecedents of adolescents' and young adults' moral motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-02-01

    Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants' responses to two hypothetical moral dilemmas in terms of action decisions, emotion attributions, and justifications. Socialization was measured by the perceived quality of friendship, parent-child relationships, and educational background. The importance attached to social justice and various personality traits were also assessed. Adolescents' moral motivation was positively associated with the quality of their parent-child relationship and the importance of social justice. Young adults' moral motivation was predicted by the perceived quality of friendships, the importance of social justice, and agreeableness. For both groups, moral motivation was greater in females. The theoretical implications of the findings for the development of moral motivation are discussed.

  9. Cognitive Gains from Gist Reasoning Training in Adolescents with Chronic-Stage Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori G. Cook

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI typically demonstrate good recovery of previously acquired skills. However, higher-order and later emergent cognitive functions are often impaired and linked to poor outcomes in academic and social/behavioral domains. Few control trials exist that test cognitive treatment effectiveness at chronic recovery stages. The current pilot study compared the effects of two forms of cognitive training, gist reasoning (top-down versus rote memory learning (bottom-up, on ability to abstract meanings, recall facts, and utilize core executive functions (i.e., working memory, inhibition in 20 adolescents (ages 12-20 who were six months or longer post-TBI. Participants completed eight 45-minute sessions over one month. After training, the gist reasoning group (n = 10 exhibited significant improvement in ability to abstract meanings and increased fact recall. This group also showed significant generalizations to untrained executive functions of working memory and inhibition. The memory training group (n = 10 failed to show significant gains in ability to abstract meaning or on other untrained specialized executive functions, although improved fact recall approached significance. These preliminary results suggest that relatively short-term training (6 hours utilizing a top-down reasoning approach is more effective than a bottom-up rote learning approach in achieving gains in higher-order cognitive abilities in adolescents at chronic stages of TBI. These findings need to be replicated in a larger study; nonetheless, the preliminary data suggest that traditional cognitive intervention schedules need to extend to later-stage training opportunities. Chronic-stage, higher-order cognitive trainings may serve to elevate levels of cognitive performance in adolescents with TBI.

  10. Differences in the early stages of social information processing for adolescents involved in bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Alexa; Lee, Kirsty; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Bullying victimization has commonly been associated with deficiencies in social information processing (SIP). In contrast, findings regarding bullying perpetration are mixed, with some researchers claiming that bullies may have superior SIP abilities than victimized or uninvolved youth. This study investigated the effects of bullying and victimization on early SIP; specifically the recognition and interpretation of social information. In stage 1, 2,782 adolescents (11–16 years) were screened ...

  11. Stages of change in physical activity-related behavior in adolescents from a Brazilian state capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the stages of change in physical activity-related behavior (EMCRAF and their association with gender and age. A total of 1108 high school students of both sexes, from Florianópolis, State of Santa Catarina, took part in this study. A questionnaire was used to assess EMCRAF. A higher proportion of boys were in the maintenance stage (48.1% and a higher proportion of girls were in contemplation (24.7% and pre-contemplation (6.4% stages. Gender factor male and age range 17-18 were protective factors, which increased the likelihood of physically active behavior. Girls aged 17-18 were twice as likely to be in the contemplation stage than boys. It is important to expand knowledge about EMCRAF in adolescents and their associations with gender and age because a considerable number of behaviors established during this period of life can last into adulthood.

  12. Comparison of adolescent, young adult, and adult women's maternity experiences and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Heaman, Maureen; Fell, Deshayne; Chalmers, Beverley

    2012-05-01

    Pregnant adolescents face unique challenges. Understanding the experiences, knowledge, and behaviors of adolescents during the pregnancy and postpartum periods may contribute to improvement of their maternity care. The purpose of this study was to compare the maternity experiences, knowledge, and behaviors of adolescent, young adult, and adult women by using a nationally representative sample. This study used data from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (N = 6421). The weighted proportions of each variable were calculated by using survey sample weights. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios. Bootstrapping techniques were used to calculate variance estimates for prevalence and 95% confidence intervals. Adolescents and young adults were more likely to experience physical abuse in the previous 2 years, initiate prenatal care late, not take folic acid before or during pregnancy, have poor prenatal health behaviors, have a lower cesarean delivery rate, have lower breastfeeding initiation and duration rates, experience more stressful life events, experience postpartum depression symptoms, and rate their infant's health as suboptimal than adult women. Adolescents were more likely to rate their own health as suboptimal. Adolescents have unique needs during pregnancy and postpartum. Health care professionals should seek to provide care in a manner that acknowledges these needs.

  13. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  14. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (psadolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Psychiatric Disorders in Young Adults Diagnosed with Juvenile Fibromyalgia in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Tran, Susan T.; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Ting, Tracy V.; Sil, Soumitri; Strotman, Daniel; Noll, Jennie; Powers, Scott; Arnold, Lesley M.; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM) have increased rates of psychiatric disorders, but no studies have examined psychiatric disorders in adolescents with JFM when they enter young adulthood. This study examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young adults diagnosed with JFM during adolescence and the relationship between mental health diagnoses and physical functioning. Methods Ninety-one young adults (Mage = 21.60, SD=1.96) with a history of JFM being followed as part of a prospective longitudinal study, and 30 matched healthy controls (Mage = 21.57, SD = 1.55) completed a structured interview of psychiatric diagnoses and a self-report measure of physical impairment. Results Young adults with a history of JFM were more likely to have current and lifetime history of anxiety disorders (70.3% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (33.3% for both; both p's disorders (29.7% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (10% and 40%; p's disorder was significantly related to impairment in physical functioning (F (1, 89) = 8.30, p disorders are prevalent in young adulthood for individuals with a history of JFM, and a current major mood disorder is associated with greater physical impairment. Greater attention to early identification and treatment of mood disorders in patients with JFM is warranted. PMID:26373565

  16. Sleep problems in adolescence and overweight/obesity in young adults: is there a causal link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A R; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to explore if there is a causal association between adolescence sleep problems and overweight/obesity (Ow/Ob) in young adults. Youth self-reports were used to explore if adolescence (mean age 13.90 years, SD ±0.32) sleep problems lead to general Ow/Ob, computed from body mass index (n = 1075), or abdominal Ow/Ob, computed from waist circumference and waist to height ratio (n = 1179), in young adults (mean age 20.65 years, SD±0.82). Directed acyclic graphs were used to identify potential confounders, modified Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used to model the associations, and inverse probability weights were used to account for loss to follow-up. At adolescence, 27.37% of the subjects reported having frequent sleep problems, and about a fifth of these subjects (22.65%) developed general Ow/Ob at young adulthood. Unadjusted regression analysis indicates a link between adolescent sleep problems and general Ow/Ob in young adults (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.03), and this link was robust to adjustment for potential confounders (IRR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.07-2.02). However, no such association was seen for adolescence sleep problems, and abdominal Ow/Ob computed from waist circumference (IRR: 1.30, 95% CI: 0.91-1.87) and waist to height ratio (IRR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.86-1.88). Although there is evidence for a causal association between sleep problems and general Ow/Ob, the link between sleep problems and abdominal Ow/Ob needs more research to produce conclusive results. Nonetheless, behavioral interventions encouraging healthy sleep practice in young subjects are likely to influence future Ow/Ob outcome. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Tobacco industry control of menthol in cigarettes and targeting of adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Alpert, Hillel R; Koh, Howard K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-09-01

    We examined whether tobacco manufacturers manipulate the menthol content of cigarettes in an effort to target adolescents and young adults. We analyzed data from tobacco industry documents describing menthol product development, results of laboratory testing of US menthol brands, market research reports, and the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The tobacco industry attracted new smokers by promoting cigarettes with lower menthol content, which were popular with adolescents and young adults, and provided cigarettes with higher menthol content to long-term smokers. Menthol cigarette sales remained stable from 2000 to 2005 in the United States, despite a 22% decline in overall packs sold. Tobacco companies manipulate the sensory characteristics of cigarettes, including menthol content, thereby facilitating smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. Menthol brands that have used this strategy have been the most successful in attracting youth and young adult smokers and have grown in popularity.

  18. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer Study-A Methodological Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, N. L.; Maurer, E.; Largent, J.; Kent, E.; Sender, E.; Culver, H. A.; Morris, R. A.; Sender, E.

    2009-01-01

    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0-39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

  19. [Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-09-01

    To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirty-two anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bone lenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. The persistence of the association between adolescent cannabis use and common mental disorders into young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Coffey, Carolyn; Romaniuk, Helena; Swift, Wendy; Carlin, John B; Hall, Wayne D; Patton, George C

    2013-01-01

    Debate continues about whether the association between cannabis use in adolescence and common mental disorders is causal. Most reports have focused on associations in adolescence, with few studies extending into adulthood. We examine the association from adolescence until the age of 29 years in a representative prospective cohort of young Australians. Nine-wave, 15-year representative longitudinal cohort study, with six waves of data collection in adolescence (mean age 14.9-17.4 years) and three in young adulthood (mean age 20.7, 24.1 and 29.1 years). Participants were a cohort of 1943 recruited in secondary school and surveyed at each wave when possible from mid-teen age to their late 20s. Victoria, Australia. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) at each adolescent wave, and as Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)-defined ICD-10 major depressive episode and anxiety disorder at 29 years. Frequency of cannabis use was measured in the past 6 months in adolescence. Cannabis use frequency in the last year and DSM-IV cannabis dependence were assessed at 29 years. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of these outcomes with cannabis use and dependence were estimated as odds ratios (OR), using multivariable logistic regression models, with the outcomes of interest, major depressive episode (MDE) and anxiety disorder (AD) at 29 years. There were no consistent associations between adolescent cannabis use and depression at age 29 years. Daily cannabis use was associated with anxiety disorder at 29 years [adjusted OR 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI):cannabis dependence (adjusted OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.4). Among weekly+ adolescent cannabis users, those who continued to use cannabis use daily at 29 years remained at significantly increased odds of anxiety disorder (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2). Regular (particularly daily) adolescent cannabis use is associated consistently with anxiety, but not

  1. Urological Survivorship Issues Among Adolescent Boys and Young Men Who Are Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhu, Troy; Ross, Sherry; Coward, R Matthew

    2018-01-27

    Urological survivorship issues encompass an area that may potentially be overlooked after treatment of childhood cancer in adolescent boys and young men. Side effects of cancer therapy may include subsequent development of erectile dysfunction (ED), hypogonadism, and infertility in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to focus on the etiology and prevalence of the range of sexual and gonadal dysfunction in adolescent boys and young men who are cancer survivors, while discussing current recommendations for evaluation and treatment. We performed a literature review of articles evaluating hypogonadism, sexual dysfunction, ED, and infertility in young men cancer survivors. There is compelling evidence that significant survivorship issues are faced by boys entering adulthood after completing cancer therapy. Overall, young men cancer survivors are much more likely to report symptoms of sexual dysfunction than the general population of men. These patients can develop ED due to physiologic and psychological changes that take place with diagnosis of a malignancy and subsequent treatment. Primary hypogonadism can arise due to pelvic radiation or chemotherapy, and central hypogonadism may arise from pituitary insufficiency after brain radiation or surgery. Infertility develops from direct damage to the Sertoli cells and germinal epithelium from radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Cancer survivors who are men should therefore be screened for these important urological survivorship issues, although exact surveillance strategies remain unclear. Urological survivorship issues including ED, hypogonadism, and infertility are common among cancer survivors and result in significant morbidity. Due to the medical complexity of cancer survivorship, the population of adolescent and young adult survivors would benefit from a network of multidisciplinary survivorship experts to aid the transition into adulthood. Improved research efforts may help to clarify risk factors and to develop

  2. Of Sex and Romance: Late Adolescent Relationships and Young Adult Union Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, R Kelly; Crissey, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2007-11-11

    To better understand the social factors that influence the diverse pathways to family formation young adults experience today, this research investigates the association between opposite-gender relationships during late adolescence and union formation in early adulthood. Using data from the first and third waves of the Add Health (n = 4,911), we show that, for both men and women, there is continuity between adolescent and adult relationship experiences. Those involved in adolescent romantic relationships at the end of high school are more likely to marry and to cohabit in early adulthood. Moreover, involvement in a nonromantic sexual relationship is positively associated with cohabitation, but not marriage. We conclude that the precursors to union formation patterns in adulthood are observable in adolescence.

  3. The association of puberty and young adolescent alcohol use: do parents have a moderating role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Karen; Kelly, Adrian B; Chan, Gary C K; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C; Williams, Joanne W

    2014-10-01

    To explore the extent to which parent-adolescent emotional closeness, family conflict, and parental permissiveness moderate the association of puberty and alcohol use in adolescents (aged 10-14). Cross-sectional survey of 7631 adolescents from 231 Australian schools. Measures included pubertal status, recent (30day) alcohol use, parent-adolescent emotional closeness, family conflict, parental permissiveness of alcohol use and peer alcohol use. The analysis was based on a two-level (individuals nested within schools) logistic regression model, with main effects entered first, and interaction terms added second. The interaction of family factors and pubertal stage did not improve the fit of the model, so a main effect model of family factors and pubertal stage was adopted. There were significant main effects for pubertal stage with boys in middle puberty at increased odds of alcohol use, and girls in advanced puberty at increased odds of alcohol use. Puberty and family factors were strong predictors of adolescent alcohol use, but family factors did not account for variation in the association of pubertal stage and alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savage J Maurice

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. Methods Males (n 245 and females (n 231 were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD age 22 (1.6 y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%, 'medium' (M1; middle 50% or 'high' (H1; highest 25% categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2 were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 × 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (κ statistics. Results Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (κ ≤ 0.20 in both sexes, indicating substantial drift of subjects between the low, medium and high categories over time. The tracking of physical activity in males was fair (κ 0.202, but was poor in females (κ 0.021. In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (κ 0.540, κ 0.307, κ 0.357 respectively than in males (κ 0.337, κ 0.199, κ 0.216 respectively. Conclusions The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in young adulthood. In

  5. Adolescents' and young adults' perception of homosexuality and related factors in three Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongliang; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Tu, Xiaowen; Cheng, Yan; Emerson, Mark R; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    Adolescents' and young adults' perception of homosexuality plays an important role in the marginalization and stigmatization of the homosexual, thereby influencing his or her health. This article aims to study that perception and to examine its predictors in three Asian cities that are culturally dominated by Confucianism. From May 2006 to January 2007, a cross-sectional survey of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15-24 years old, in both urban and rural sites of three Asian cities (Hanoi in Vietnam, Shanghai in the mainland of China, and Taipei in Taiwan) was conducted through interview and computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify the predictors for their perception of homosexuality. The percentage of adolescents and young adults who hold a positive view of homosexuality (i.e., thought it was normal and/or acceptable) was low, especially in Hanoi and Shanghai; these figures increased from Hanoi to Shanghai to Taipei for both males and females. Overall, those factors significantly associated with adolescents' and young adults' perception of homosexuality included individuals' demographic characteristics (urban/rural, age, economic status, student status, and educational level), preferred origin of movies/videos, self-identified sexual orientation, sexual and reproductive health knowledge, family values, gender role values, and attitudes toward premarital sex. In these three Asian cities composed of populations whose views are largely influenced by Confucianism, adolescents and young adults mainly hold a negative perception of homosexuality. The most common and important predictors for a respondent's perception of homosexuality were his or her knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and how traditional his/her values may be. Greater attention needs to be paid to the popularization of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health including homosexuality

  6. Parent-Youth Closeness and Youth's Suicidal Ideation: The Moderating Effects of Gender, Stages of Adolescence, and Race or Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruth X.

    2005-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents studied at two points in time are used to examine gender-specific influence of parent-youth closeness on youth's suicidal ideation and its variations by stages of adolescence and race or ethnicity. Logistic regression analyses yielded interesting findings: (a) Closeness with fathers…

  7. Changes in smoking behaviour among young women over life stage transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Liane; Dobson, Annette; Russell, Anne

    2004-08-01

    To examine changes in smoking behaviour among young women over four life stages: leaving home; employment or attending college or university; marriage; and parenthood. Young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health completed postal questionnaires in 1996 and 2000. Unmarried women who moved out of their parents' home between 1996 and 2000 had higher odds of adopting smoking than those who had not lived with their parents at either time (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6). Married women had lower odds of resuming smoking after quitting (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7) than unmarried women. Women who were pregnant in 2000 had higher odds of quitting smoking (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.6) and women who were pregnant in 1996 and not in 2000 had higher odds of starting to smoke again (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.2) than women who were not pregnant. The odds of being a current smoker or adopting smoking were significantly greater for women who binge drank alcohol or used cannabis and other illicit drugs. Adoption, maintenance and cessation of smoking among young women is strongly related to major life stage transitions, illicit drug use and alcohol consumption. Life changes such as marriage and actual or contemplated pregnancy provide opportunities for targeted interventions to help women quit smoking and not relapse after having a baby. Legislation to control smoking on licensed premises would reduce the social pressure on women to smoke.

  8. Longitudinal Trajectory of Adolescent Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Understanding the Effect of Mental Health Service Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Yi; Corvo, Kenneth; Lee, Yookyong; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2017-01-01

    Research on the impact of exposure to community violence tends to define victimization as a single construct. This study differentiates between direct and indirect violence victimization in their association with mental health problems and mental health service use. This study includes 8947 individuals from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and examines (1) whether sub-types of adolescent victimization are linked to depressive symptoms; (2) whether adolescent victimization is linked with mental health service use; and (3) the role of mental health service use in attenuating symptoms arising from victimizations. Adolescents witnessing community violence were more likely to experience depressive symptoms during adolescence but not during their young adulthood; direct exposure to violence during adolescence does not predict depressive symptoms in adolescence but does in adulthood. Use of mental health service mediates report of depressive symptoms for adolescent witnessing community violence.

  9. Do health complaints in adolescence negatively predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara B; Magnusson, Charlotta

    2017-12-01

    Self-reported psychological and psychosomatic health complaints, such as nervousness, sadness, headache and stomach-ache, are common among adolescents, particularly among girls, and studies suggest that the prevalence has risen among adolescent girls during the last few decades. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the potential long-term consequences of such health complaints. The aim of the current study was to assess whether psychological and psychosomatic health complaints in adolescence predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood among women and men. The data used are from the Swedish Young-LNU, which is based on a nationally representative sample with self-reported survey information from adolescents aged 10-18 years in 2000 and from the same individuals at ages 20-28 in 2010 ( n=783). Information was also collected from parents and from official registers. Linear probability models showed that self-reported psychological complaints in adolescence were associated with a lower chance of having entered tertiary education 10 years later. This association was accounted for by differences in grade point average (GPA), suggesting that GPA may mediate the association between psychological complaints and later education. The pattern was similar for both genders. Furthermore, among men, psychosomatic complaints in adolescence were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of having entered tertiary education 10 years later when adjusting for GPA and social class in adolescence. A similar but non-significant tendency was found among women. The findings suggest that health complaints in adolescence may have long-term consequences in terms of lower educational attainment.

  10. High cardiovascular risk in severely obese young children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, N.M.A. van; Renders, C.M.; Veer, M. van de; Buuren, S. van; Baan-Slootweg, O.H. van der; Kist-van Holthe, J.E.; HiraSing, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese children and adolescents. Methods: A nationwide prospective surveillance study was carried out from July 2005 to July 2007 where paediatricians were asked to report all new cases of severe obesity in 2-18-year-old

  11. Patterns and Correlates for Bullying among Young Adolescents in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Acquah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is relatively common and is considered to be a public health problem among adolescents worldwide. The present study examined the risk factors associated with bullying behavior among adolescents in a lower-middle-income country setting. Data on 6235 adolescents aged 11–16 years, derived from the Republic of Ghana’s contribution to the Global School-based Health Survey, were analyzed using bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analysis. A high prevalence of bullying was found among Ghanaian adolescents. Alcohol-related health compromising behaviors (alcohol use, alcohol misuse and getting into trouble as a result of alcohol increased the risk of being bullied. In addition, substance use, being physically attacked, being seriously injured, hunger and truancy were also found to increase the risk of being bullied. However, having understanding parents and having classmates who were kind and helpful reduced the likelihood of being bullied. These findings suggest that school-based intervention programs aimed at reducing rates of peer victimization should simultaneously target multiple risk behaviors. Teachers can also reduce peer victimization by introducing programs that enhance adolescents’ acceptance of each other in the classroom.

  12. Time Perspective and Indecision in Young and Older Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    Career choices involve an orientation towards the future and the propensity to planning. The "mental picture" of the past, present and future was defined by Savickas as time perspective. The present paper reports the findings of two studies examining time perspective in Italian adolescents. The first study surveyed 498 students aged…

  13. International summit on the nutrition of adolescent girls and young women: consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy; Bagby, Susan; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Dewey, Kathryn; Fall, Caroline; Gregory, Fred; Hay, William; Rhuman, Lisa; Caldwell, Christine Wallace; Thornburg, Kent L

    2017-07-01

    An international summit focusing on the difficult challenge of providing adequate nutrition for adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries was held in Portland, Oregon in 2015. Sixty-seven delegates from 17 countries agreed on a series of recommendations that would make progress toward improving the nutritional status of girls and young women in countries where their access to nutrition is compromised. Delegate recommendations include: (1) elevate the urgency of nutrition for girls and young women to a high international priority, (2) raise the social status of girls and young women in all regions of the world, (3) identify major knowledge gaps in the biology of adolescence that could be filled by robust research efforts, (4) and improve access to nutrient-rich foods for girls and young women. Attention to these recommendations would improve the health of young women in all nations of the world. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Dysfunction of the frontolimbic region during swear word processing in young adolescents with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, J-W; Choi, J; Cho, H; Lee, S-K; Kim, D J

    2015-08-25

    Although the Internet is an important tool in our daily life, the control of Internet use is necessary to address difficult problems. This study set out with the aim of assessing the cognitive control of affective events in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and has examined the influence of IGD on neural activities with regard to swear words in young adolescents. We demonstrated the differences between adolescents with IGD and healthy control adolescents (HC) with respect to swear, negative and neutral word conditions. Swear words induced more activation in regions related to social interaction and emotional processing such as the superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) when compared with negative words. In this study, adolescents with IGD exhibited reduced activation in the right OFC related to cognitive control and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) related to social rejection during the swear word condition. In addition, adolescents with IGD were negatively correlated with activity in the right amygdala toward swear words, indicating the important role of the amygdala in the control of aggression in adolescents with IGD. These findings enhance our understanding of social-emotional perception in adolescents with IGD.

  15. Do sexual maturation stages affect flexibility in adolescent boys aged 14 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbur, N O; Düzgün, I; Derman, O; Baltaci, G

    2005-03-01

    Pubertal changes constitute a background for development of motor abilities and flexibility as an important component of physical fitness. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the flexibility is actually related to sexual maturation stages in adolescent boys. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 69 healthy boys aged 14 years. Before testing, all participants performed a 3 min warm up and static stretch routine, emphasizing the lower body. The flexibility tests were performed in a counterbalanced design. Sit-and-reach test and goniometric measurement of hamstring flexibility was administered. The results of flexibility tests and body measures were analysed for cross-sectional comparison. Groups were formed according to Tanner's classification and consisted of boys in Stage II, III, IV, V, respectively. The results of sit and reach test scores and goniometric measurements did not correlate with age in months, height, weight and BMI; and furthermore they did not correlate with the sexual maturation stages (p>0.05). The sit and reach test scores were significantly correlated with goniometric measurements (right: r=0.653, p=0.00; left: r=0.638, p=0.00). The results suggest that sexual maturation stages in pubertal period would not be effective in determining the flexibility. Besides, sexual maturation is not a cause of decreased flexibility in adolescent boys aged 14 years.

  16. Speeding up PET/MR for cancer staging of children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghighi, Maryam; Pisani, Laura Jean; Sun, Ziyan; Klenk, Christopher; Madnawat, Himani; Owen, Daniel; Quon, Andrew; Moseley, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford, CA (United States); Fineman, Sandra Luna [Stanford University, Department of Pediatrics, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States); Advani, Ranjana [Stanford University, Department of Medicine, Stanford Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States); Von Eyben, Rie [Stanford University, Department of Radiation and Oncology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Combining {sup 18}F-FDG PET with whole-body MR for paediatric cancer staging is practically feasible if imaging protocols can be streamlined. We compared {sup 18}F-FDG PET/STIR with accelerated {sup 18}F-FDG PET/FSPGR for whole-body tumour imaging in children and young adults. Thirty-three children and young adults (17.5 ± 5.5 years, range 10-30) with malignant lymphoma or sarcoma underwent a {sup 18}F-FDG PET staging examination, followed by ferumoxytol-enhanced STIR and FSPGR whole-body MR. {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans were fused with MR data and the number and location of tumours on each integrated examination were determined. Histopathology and follow-up imaging served as standard of reference. The agreement of each MR sequence with the reference and whole-body imaging times were compared using Cohen's kappa coefficient and Student's t-test, respectively. Comparing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/FSPGR to {sup 18}F-FDG PET/STIR, sensitivities were 99.3 % for both, specificities were statistically equivalent, 99.8 versus 99.9 %, and the agreement with the reference based on Cohen's kappa coefficient was also statistically equivalent, 0.989 versus 0.992. However, the total scan-time for accelerated FSPGR of 19.8 ± 5.3 minutes was significantly shorter compared to 29.0 ± 7.6 minutes for STIR (p = 0.001). F-FDG PET/FSPGR demonstrated equivalent sensitivities and specificities for cancer staging compared to {sup 18}F-FDG PET/STIR, but could be acquired with shorter acquisition time. (orig.)

  17. Health effects of energy drinks on children, adolescents, and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Sara M; Schaechter, Judith L; Hershorin, Eugene R; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2011-03-01

    To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. We searched PubMed and Google using "energy drink," "sports drink," "guarana," "caffeine," "taurine," "ADHD," "diabetes," "children," "adolescents," "insulin," "eating disorders," and "poison control center" to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research.

  18. Adolescent and young adult medicine in Australia and New Zealand: towards specialist accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Susan M; Farrant, Bridget; Hall, Anganette; Kennedy, Andrew; Payne, Donald; Steinbeck, Kate; Vogel, Veronica

    2016-08-01

    In Australia and New Zealand, a critical mass of academic and clinical leadership in Adolescent Medicine has helped advance models of clinical services, drive investments in teaching and training, and strengthen research capacity over the past 30 years. There is growing recognition of the importance of influencing the training of adult physicians as well as paediatricians. The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) is responsible for overseeing all aspects of specialist physician training across the two countries. Following advocacy from adolescent physicians, the RACP is advancing a three-tier strategy to build greater specialist capacity and sustain leadership in adolescent and young adult medicine (AYAM). The first tier of the strategy supports universal training in adolescent and young adult health and medicine for all basic trainees in paediatric and adult medicine through an online training resource. The second and third tiers support advanced training in AYAM for specialist practice, based on an advanced training curriculum that has been approved by the RACP. The second tier is dual training; advanced trainees can undertake 2 years training in AYAM and 2 years training in another area of specialist practice. The third tier consists of 3 years of advanced training in AYAM. The RACP is currently seeking formal recognition from the Australian Government to have AYAM accredited, a process that will be subsequently undertaken in New Zealand. The RACP is expectant that the accreditation of specialist AYAM physicians will promote sustained academic and clinical leadership in AYAM to the benefit of future generations of young Australasians.

  19. Detained adolescent females' multiple mental health and adjustment problem outcomes in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, E; Vermeiren, R R J M; Krabbendam, A A; Beekman, A T F; Doreleijers, T A H; Jansen, L M C

    2013-09-01

    Although prior studies have shown that detained females are marked by significant adverse circumstances, little is known about their adult outcomes. Prospective follow-up study of 184 (80.4% of original sample of 229) detained adolescent females who were reassessed 4.5 (SD=0.6) years later in young adulthood (mean age=20.0, SD=1.4) on mental health and adjustment outcomes. Associations between these outcomes and detained females' behavior problems and offense history were examined. In the total sample, 59.0% had one or more mental health problems at follow-up, whereas 96.2% were facing at least one adjustment problem. Subjects with a personality disorder (PD) reported more adjustment problems compared to subjects without PD. Mental health and adjustment problems in young adulthood were predicted by detained adolescent females' behavior problems and offense history. Detained adolescent females suffered from multiple mental health and adjustment problems in young adulthood. Females who developed PD were most impaired. Results of this study underline the compelling need for continued and gender-specific interventions. The identification of predictors during detention for poor adult outcomes can serve as targets for intervention. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence as a predictor of medical and social welfare benefits in young adulthood: The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, C; Straume, B; Kvernmo, S

    2017-11-01

    Pain in adolescence is associated with mental health problems, the main reason for work disability in young adults. This study explores the relationship between multisite musculoskeletal pain in adolescence and later medical (sickness and medical rehabilitation benefits) and social welfare benefits, adjusted for sociodemographic, adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems. Data were obtained by linkage between the National Insurance Registry (2003-11) and the Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study, a school-based survey in North Norway (2003-05), accepted by 3987 fifteen- to sixteen-year-olds (68% of the total population). The start of the follow-up time was July 1st of the corresponding year the participants responded to the health study. Musculoskeletal pain was measured by the number of musculoskeletal pain sites. We found a positive linear relationship between adolescent musculoskeletal pain sites and the occurrence of medical and social welfare benefits in young adulthood (p ≤ 0.001). Adolescent musculoskeletal pain was a significant predictor of sickness (p adolescent psychosocial and mental health problems. The most important adolescent psychosocial predictors were externalizing problems, less parental involvement and adverse life events. Adolescent multisite musculoskeletal pain was found to be an important predictor of later sickness and social welfare benefit receipt from adolescence to young adulthood. Adolescents with multisite musculoskeletal pain are at substantially increased risk of health and social difficulties into young adulthood. Identification and interventions for these adolescent problems could alleviate this risk and be a sound socioeconomic investment. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  1. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. ALFaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  2. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  3. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  4. Mexican-origin parents' differential treatment and siblings' adjustment from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Jenny; McHale, Susan M; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-12-01

    Parents' differential treatment is a common family dynamic that has been linked to youth's well-being in childhood and adolescence in European American families. Much less is known, however, about this family process in other ethnic groups. The authors examined the longitudinal associations between parents' differential treatment (PDT) and both depressive symptoms and risky behaviors of Mexican-origin sibling pairs from early adolescence through young adulthood. They also tested the moderating roles of cultural orientations as well as youth age, gender and sibling dyad gender constellation in these associations. Participants were mothers, fathers, and 2 siblings from 246 Mexican-origin families who participated in individual home interviews on 3 occasions over 8 years. Multilevel models revealed that, controlling for dyadic parent-child relationship qualities (i.e., absolute levels of warmth and conflict), adolescents who had less favorable treatment by mothers relative to their sibling reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior, on average. Findings for fathers' PDT emerged at the within-person level indicating that, on occasions when adolescents experienced less favorable treatment by fathers than usual, they reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior. However, some of these effects were moderated by youth age and cultural socialization. For example, adolescents who experienced relatively less paternal warmth than their siblings also reported poorer adjustment, but this effect did not emerge for young adults; such an effect also was significant for unfavored youth with stronger but not weaker cultural orientations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Association Between Adolescent Obesity and Disability Incidence in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedwig; Pantazis, Athena; Cheng, Phoebe; Dennisuk, Lauren; Clarke, Philippa J; Lee, Joyce M

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between obesity during adolescence and development of disability during young adulthood. A cohort of 8,032 individuals aged 11-21 years enrolled in 1994-1995 (Wave I) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, followed up in 1996 (Wave II) and in 2001-2002 (Wave III). Individuals were divided into four categories based on weight and height of Wave II and Wave III: (1) developing obesity; (2) persistent obesity; (3) no obesity; and (4) obesity reversal. Disability was measured in Wave III using a measure of functional limitations and the Short Form 36 physical functioning scale. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of disability as a function of weight category. Compared with their nonobese peers, adolescents developing obesity (adjusted odds ratio: 1.83 [95% confidence interval: 1.51-2.22]) and with persistent obesity (adjusted odds ratio: 2.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.64-2.67]) had a higher odds of having a functional limitation in Wave III. Developing obesity and persistent obesity during adolescence were significantly associated with increased disability in young adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder(ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within families, poor peer relationships, peer rejection, and academic difficulties. Little examination of functional outcomes in adulthood associated with ODD has been undertaken. Data for the present analyses come from a clinic referred sample of 177 boys aged 7-12 followed up annually to age 18 and again at age 24. Annual parental report of psychopathology through adolescence was used to predict self-reported functional outcomes at 24. Controlling for parent reported symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Conduct disorder (CD), depression and anxiety, ODD symptoms from childhood through adolescence predicted poorer age 24 functioning with peers, poorer romantic relationships, a poorer paternal relationship, and having nobody who would provide a recommendation for a job. CD symptoms predicted workplace problems, poor maternal relationship, lower academic attainment, and violent injuries. Only parent reported ODD symptoms and child reported CD symptoms predicted a composite of poor adult outcomes. Oppositional defiant disorder is a disorder that significantly interferes with functioning, particularly in social or interpersonal relationships. The persistence of impairment associated with ODD into young adulthood calls for a reconsideration of ODD as a disorder limited to childhood. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Knowledge and disclosure of HIV status among adolescents and young adults attending an adolescent HIV clinic in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenu, Ernest; Obo-Akwa, Adjoa; Nuamah, Gladys B; Brefo, Anita; Sam, Miriam; Lartey, Margaret

    2014-11-26

    In Ghana it is estimated that 1.2% of HIV infections occur in young people aged 15-24 but the representation in our clinics is small. Adherence to treatment, appointment keeping and knowledge of HIV status remains a challenge. Disclosure has been shown to result in better adherence to therapy, good clinical outcomes, psychological adjustment and reduction in the risk of HIV transmission when the young person becomes sexually active. A baseline study was conducted to ascertain if adolescents and young adults knew their HIV status and their knowledge on HIV. Informed consent and assent were obtained from willing participants. Self-administered questionnaires on general knowledge of HIV, HIV treatment and disclosure were collected and analyzed. Thirty-four young persons participated in the study. The mean age was 16.9±SD 2.5 and 62% (21/32) were female. All of them were still in school. Eighty-five percent were aware that young people their age could fall sick, 91% had heard of HIV, 70% knew someone with HIV and 45% thought that adolescents were not at risk of HIV. On modes of HIV transmission, 66.7% knew HIV was transmitted through sex and 63.6% knew about mother to child transmission. Fifty three percent (18/34) knew their HIV status, 50% (17/34) were on antiretroviral and 35% (6/17) of them admitted to missing ARV doses. One person who said he was HIV negative and another who did not know his status were both on ARVs. Disclosure of HIV status to adolescents and young people is dependent on a complex mix of factors and most practitioners recommend an age and developmentally appropriate disclosure. Thus it is highly individualized. The knowledge and awareness of HIV was 91% compared to 97% of adults in the most recent Ghana Demographic and Health Survey however only about two thirds had acceptable in depth knowledge on HIV. Only half knew their HIV status which was not the best considering their ages. There is the need to strengthen education to young persons with

  8. Media use and depression: exposure, household rules, and symptoms among young adolescents in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, David S; Hswen, Yulin; Rich, Michael

    2015-02-01

    To determine the longitudinal and cross-sectional associations between different types of electronic media use (mobile phones, TV, computers, video games, and music) and young adolescents' depressive symptoms, and to explore the potential for household media rules to reduce young people's depression. 126 young adolescents were recruited from the Northeastern USA. Each type of media use was assessed using survey questions, time use diaries, and ecological momentary assessment. The Beck Depression Index for Primary Care was administered at baseline and 1 year later as part of a questionnaire that also included items assessing the presence of household rules about TV and video games. Baseline use of mobile phones and TV viewing were associated with higher levels of depression 1 year later controlling for demographic information and baseline depression score. Having household rules about TV at baseline predicted lower levels of depression at follow-up. Both TV viewing and mobile phone use may contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Implementing household rules about the duration and content of TV could help reduce depression in young adolescents.

  9. Severe Obesity in Adolescents and Young Adults Is Associated With Subclinical Cardiac and Vascular Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amy S; Dolan, Lawrence M; Khoury, Philip R; Gao, Zhiqan; Kimball, Thomas R; Urbina, Elaine M

    2015-07-01

    Severe obesity is the fastest growing subgroup of obesity in youth. We sought to explore the association between severe obesity and subclinical measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function in adolescents and young adults. This was a cross-sectional comparison of 265 adolescents and young adults with severe obesity (defined as body mass index [BMI] ≥120% of the 95th percentile) to 182 adolescents and young adults with obesity (defined as BMI ≥100-119th of the 95th percentile) at tertiary medical center. Noninvasive measures of cardiac and vascular structure and function were assessed. Participants were a mean age of 17.9 years, 62% were non-Caucasian, and 68% were female. Systolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, IL-6, and frequency of type 2 diabetes were higher in participants with severe obesity (all P obesity as measured by higher left ventricular mass index, worse diastolic function, higher carotid intima media thickness, and pulse wave velocity and lower brachial distensibility (all P obesity (compared with obesity) was independently associated with each of the above outcomes after adjustment for age, race, sex, blood pressure, lipids, and inflammatory markers (P young adults with severe obesity have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile and worse cardiac and vascular structure and function. More importantly, severe obesity is independently associated with these subclinical cardiac and vascular changes.

  10. SCREENING FOR SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY IN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C.; Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Montag-Leifling, Karen; Acton, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Although studies have assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), few have been conducted since the advent of new medical treatments (e.g., nebulized antibiotics, ThAIRpy Vest). Study objectives were to: 1) document symptoms of depression and anxiety for adolescents and young adults with CF and compare with normative values, 2) examine the associations among depressive/anxiety symptoms and gender, age, lung function, and body mass index, and 3) determine the relations between adolescent and caregiver symptoms of depression and anxiety. Methods Patients and caregivers completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anytime (e.g. beginning or end) during routine CF clinic appointments. Results Participants included 59 adolescents/young adults with CF (Mage = 15.8 years, 54% female, 98% Caucasian, MFEV1 % predicted = 84.6) and caregivers of 40 adolescents. Although symptom scores were in the normative range for patients with CF (MDepression = 2.27 and MAnxiety = 5.59), 3% and 32% exhibited clinically elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were significantly associated with age (r = 0.28, 0.36). Symptoms of depression and anxiety were also positively correlated (r = 0.48). Females endorsed higher anxiety symptoms than males. While adolescent and caregiver anxiety scores were not related, higher caregiver depressive symptoms were associated with older patient age and worse lung function. Conclusions Data from the current study suggest low levels of depressive symptoms and substantial levels of anxiety symptoms in adolescents and young adults with CF. Consistent with prior literature, depressive symptoms appear higher in older patients and are significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. Caregiver symptomology appears to be more affected by an adolescent’s health status, suggesting a need to screen caregivers when health begins to decline

  11. Recommendations on Arresting Global Health Challenges Facing Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    The health challenges faced by young people are more complex than adults and can compromise their full growth and development. Attention must be paid to the health of this age group, yet adolescents and youth remain largely invisible and often disappear from the major global datasets. The aim of this paper is to discuss the global health challenges faced by adolescents and youth, global legislations and guidelines pertaining to this particular age group, recommendations to arrest these challenges, and research priorities. Major direct and indirect global health risks faced by adolescents include early pregnancy and childbirth, femicide, honor killing, female genital mutilation, nutritional habits and choices, social media, and peer pressure. There are no standard legal age cut-offs for adulthood; rather, the age varies for different activities, such as age of consent or the minimum age that young people can legally work, leave school, drive, buy alcohol, marry, be held accountable for criminal action, and make medical decisions. This reflects the fact that the existing systems and structures are focused on either children or adults, with very few investments and interventions directed specifically to young people. Existing legislation and guidelines need transformation to bring about a specific focus on adolescents in the domains of substance use and sexual behaviors, and the capacity for adolescent learning should be exploited through graduated legal and policy frameworks. Sustainable development goals provide an opportunity to target this neglected and vulnerable age group. A multisectoral approach is needed to bring about healthy change and address the challenges faced by adolescents and youth, from modifications at a broader legislative and policy level to ground-level (community-level) implementations. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and factors associated with stages of behavior change for physical activity in adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloyse Elaine Gimenes; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade

    2017-06-01

    To analyze prevalence and factors associated with stages of behavior change for physical activity in adolescents. A search was performed in SciELO, PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and LILACS. The search terms were "behavior change" OR "stages of change" OR "stages of readiness" OR "readiness to change" OR "transtheoretical model" OR "process to change" OR "decisional balance", and "motor activity" OR "physical activity" OR "physical exercise" and "adolescent" OR "students". After the eligibility criteria, 18 articles were selected. The highest prevalence of adolescents in the precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages was found in the Germany, South Korea, and Iran while there were more adolescents in the action and maintenance in South Korea and Brazil. The evidence of association indicated that females are more likely to be in precontemplation, contemplation and preparation. The evidence was inconclusive for age (in relation to the precontemplation, contemplation, action and maintenance stages), economic status (all stages), shift of study (when stratified by gender) and body composition (all stages). No association was found with parental level of education. The findings can help to guide interventions and further research on the topic of behavior changes for physical activity in adolescents.

  13. Birth Order and Educational Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Boden, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between birth order and later educational outcomes in a birth cohort of more than 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of twenty-five. Being later born was associated with gaining fewer educational qualifications at secondary level and beyond. The use of nested models to control for the confounding…

  14. Coping with stressors in late adolescence/young adulthood: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need to establish ways to enhance adequate coping in young people in order to minimise stress and ward off negative consequences such as addiction, depression and other pathologies that compromise health. This study aimed to ascertain whether discovering meaning in life and developing a strong sense of coherence ...

  15. How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Cassandra A; Papandonatos, George; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Kazura, Alessandra; Shiu, Shang-Ying; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend smoking status was by far the strongest predictor across smoking stages. Gender differences indicated males with one or more daily smoking friends are at higher risk for regular smoking relative to females. Fathers' smoking status had a direct effect on teen smoking across all stages, whereas mothers' smoking was significant in influencing which stage of smoking teens exhibited. Moreover, maternal smoking status had an indirect effect by moderating the association between teen smoking and the closeness of the mother-teen relationship. Mothers who smoke were found to have a stronger impact on the transition to regular smoking compared to mothers who do not smoke regardless of the number of smoking friends the teen reports. Results have implications for stage-matched and family-based prevention and intervention programs.

  16. Homotypic versus heterotypic continuity of anxiety symptoms in young adolescents : Evidence for distinctions between DSM-IV subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, Robert F.; Dieleman, Gwen; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    Objective: to investigate homotypic and heterotypic longitudinal patterns of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoPh), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in young adolescents from the Dutch general population.

  17. Trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood: the role of self-esteem and body-related predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawana, Jennine S; Morgan, Ashley S

    2014-04-01

    Although depression is a common issue among youth, it is unclear how important developmental factors, such as body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and eating-and weight-related disturbances relate to the development of depression across adolescence and into young adulthood. Gender differences in these relationships and the specific nature of these relationships among adolescent boys and young men require further study. Using multilevel growth curve modeling, this study examined the effects of BMI, self-esteem, and eating- and weight-related disturbances (i.e., body dissatisfaction and weight management effort) and their interactive effects with gender on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms using the Canadian-based National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 4,359 ages 12-21, 48.7 % female). On average, depressive symptoms decreased slightly at ages 12 through 14, began to increase from ages 14 through 17, and then began to decrease through age 21. Adolescent girls were at increased risk for depressive symptoms throughout adolescence and young adulthood compared to boys. This effect was compounded by low levels of self-esteem across adolescence and young adulthood. Engaging in weight management effort was associated with lower initial levels of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The study's findings contribute to basic etiologic research regarding the trajectory of depressive symptoms in adolescence and young adulthood suggesting that mid-adolescents may be most vulnerable to depression compared to other adolescent age groups. The findings also underscore the importance of fostering positive self-esteem among adolescent girls and young women to prevent depression and exploring the protective effect of specific weight management strategies in future research.

  18. Continuity, psychosocial correlates, and outcome of problematic substance use from adolescence to young adulthood in a community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhausen, H C; Eschmann, S; Winkler Metzke, C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The study of the continuity, psychosocial correlates, and prediction of problematic substance use (PSU) across time from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Substance use was studied in a cohort of N = 593 subjects who had been assessed at three times between adolescence and young adulthood within the Zurich Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS). Based on the frequency of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption, groups with PSU were defined at each of the thr...

  19. The Longitudinal Association between Competitive Video Game Play and Aggression among Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal association between competitive video game play and aggression among young adults and adolescents was examined. Young adults (N = 1,132; M[subscript age] = 19 years) were surveyed annually over 4 years about their video game play and aggression, and data from a 4-year longitudinal study of adolescents (N = 1,492; M[subscript…

  20. Family relationships, quality of life and social competence in Colombian adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Carrillo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to assess the infl uence of family relationships on two central aspects of individual functioning: social competence and quality of life in a sample of 103 Colombian adolescents and young adults. Results revealed different signifi cant associations for men and women between the study variables (relationships with parents and sibling, quality of life and social competence. Results are discussed based on the literature on differential effects of family relationships on adolescents’ and young adults’ psychological and social well-being.

  1. Differences in the early stages of social information processing for adolescents involved in bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Alexa; Lee, Kirsty; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-11-01

    Bullying victimization has commonly been associated with deficiencies in social information processing (SIP). In contrast, findings regarding bullying perpetration are mixed, with some researchers claiming that bullies may have superior SIP abilities than victimized or uninvolved youth. This study investigated the effects of bullying and victimization on early SIP; specifically the recognition and interpretation of social information. In stage 1, 2,782 adolescents (11-16 years) were screened for bullying involvement, and in stage 2, 723 of these participants (mean age = 13.95) were assessed on measures of emotion recognition, hostile attribution bias, and characterological self-blame (CSB). No associations between bullying and early SIP were found. In contrast, victimization was associated with more hostile attribution bias and CSB attributions. Girls performed better than boys on the emotion recognition task while boys showed greater hostile attribution biases. No interaction effects of bullying or victimization with gender were found. Follow-up categorical analyses that considered pure victims versus victims who also bullied (bully-victims) on SIP, found a similar pattern of findings. These findings suggest that those who purely bully others are neither superior nor deficient in the early stages of SIP. Victimized adolescents, however, show biases in their interpretations of social situations and the intentions of others. These biases may lead to maladaptive responses and may increase risk for further victimization by peers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Resilience in Illness Model Part 2: Confirmatory Evaluation in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Joan E; Kintner, Eileen K; Robb, Sheri L; Stump, Timothy E; Monahan, Patrick O; Phillips, Celeste; Stegenga, Kristin A; Burns, Debra S

    Empirically derived and tested models are necessary to develop effective, holistic interventions to improve positive health outcomes in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer, yet few exist. This article is the second of 2 articles reporting on evaluation of the Resilience in Illness Model (RIM) as a predictive model to guide positive health research and practice. The aim of this study was to report the confirmatory model evaluation of the RIM. A confirmatory evaluation of RIM was done using baseline data from a sample of 113 AYA aged 11 to 24 years who were undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant and enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention to enhance resilience. Data were analyzed using latent variable structural equation modeling. Goodness-of-fit indices supported RIM as a confirmed model that accounted for large amounts of variance in the outcomes of self-transcendence (62%) and resilience (72%), and in 3 of 5 mediators, specifically social integration (74%), courageous coping (80%), and hope-derived meaning (87%), as well as small to moderate amounts of variance in the remaining mediators of defensive coping (1%) and family environment (35%). Findings establish the RIM as a plausible predictive framework for explaining ways AYA with cancer transcend their illness and achieve resilience resolution and for guiding intervention studies in this population. Additional research is needed to explore RIM's transferability based on stage of illness, other chronic diseases, and cultural diversity. Results support the RIM as an appropriate guide for developing and evaluating interventions to foster positive adjustment in AYA with cancer.

  3. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  4. Family factors in shaping parental attitudes in young students at the stage of entering adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Karabanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood is a process of promoting the child’s progressive development and achieving personal autonomy. Social, family and psychological factors of formation of parental attitudes of the person at the stage of entering adulthood are considered. The mechanisms of the parental family influence on parental attitudes are analyzed. Parenting and children raising are recognized by modern young students as a significant family value with priority of professional and social activity. The revealed gender differences prove a higher assessment of the importance of parenthood and the upbringing of children among males rather than females, who have strongly prioritize their professional careers as compared to parenthood. Young women’s expectations of difficulties in the future of family life are related to child birth and upbringing. The experience of emotional relations in one’s own parent family is proved to determine the importance of parenting for young adults. Positive expectations of student youth regarding future family life and a certain underestimation of the difficulties of the transitional periods of the family life cycle are revealed. The greatest difficulties are predicted by students in connection with the period of child expectation and the first year of child life. The beginning of parental function realization, child raising, economic and household functioning of the family and mutual adaptation of the spouses are listed as the most difficulties in family life cycle. Family factors that determine expectations about difficulties and subjective satisfaction with family life include gender, experience of romantic partnership, full or incomplete family in origin, chronological age.

  5. "It is challenging… oh, nobody likes it!": a qualitative study exploring Mozambican adolescents and young adults' experiences with contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurchande, Rehana; Coene, Gily; Schockaert, Ingrid; Macia, Manuel; Meulemans, Herman

    2016-07-30

    By focusing upon formal sex education programmes, the Mozambican government has significantly enhanced the general health of adolescents and young adults. However, when it comes to contraception, little is known about how adolescents and young adults actually behave. Based upon a qualitative study in two settings in Maputo province - Ndlavela and Boane - this paper explores the knowledge and practices of contraception among adolescents and young adults. A total of four focus group discussions, 16 in-depth interviews, four informal conversations, and observations were equally divided between both study sites. Discrepancies between what adolescents and young adults know and what they do quickly became evident. Ambivalent and contradictory practices concerning contraceptive use was the result. As well, young people had numerous interpretations of risk-taking when not using contraceptives. These inconsistencies are influenced by social and medical barriers such as restricted dialogue on sexuality among adolescents and young adults and their parents and peers. Additionally, ideas about indigenous contraceptives, notions of masculinity and femininity, misconceptions and fear of the side effects of contraceptives, make people of all ages wary of modern birth control. Other barriers include imposed contraceptive choice - meaning no choice, overly technical medical language used at clinics and the absence of healthcare workers more attuned to the needs of adolescents and young adults. Adolescents and young adults have numerous - often erroneous - opinions about contraception, leading to inconsistent use as well as vague perceptions of risk-taking. Moreover, social norms and cultural gender roles often contradict and hinder risk-avoiding behaviour. Therefore, in order to improve young people's health, policymakers must address the reasons behind this ambivalence and inconsistency.

  6. Temporal Effects of Child and Adolescent Exposure to Neighborhood Disadvantage on Black/White Disparities in Young Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz-Wirtz, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of duration and timing of exposure to neighborhood disadvantage from birth through age 17 years on obesity incidence in early adulthood and black/white disparities therein. Individual- and household-level data from the 1970-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics are merged with census data on respondents' neighborhoods (n = 1,498). Marginal structural models with inverse probability of treatment and censoring weights are used to quantify the probability of being obese at least once between ages 18 and 30 years as a function of cumulative exposure to neighborhood disadvantage throughout childhood and adolescence or during each of three developmental stages therein. Longer term exposure to neighborhood disadvantage from ages 0-17 years is more common among blacks than among whites and is associated with significantly greater odds of being obese at least once in early adulthood. Exposure to neighborhood-level deprivation during adolescence (ages 10-17 years) appears more consequential for future (young adult) obesity than exposure that occurs earlier in childhood. The duration and timing of exposure to neighborhood disadvantage during childhood and adolescence are associated with obesity incidence in early adulthood for both blacks and whites. However, given inequalities in the likelihood and persistence of experiencing neighborhood disadvantage as children and youth, such adverse effects are likely to be more concentrated among black versus white young adults. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Developmental changes in consistency of autobiographical memories: adolescents' and young adults' repeated recall of recent and distance events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkina, Marina; Merrill, Natalie A; Bauer, Patricia J

    2017-09-01

    Autobiographical memories contribute continuity and stability to one's self yet they also are subject to change: they can be forgotten or be inconsistently remembered and reported. In the present research, we compared the consistency of two reports of recent and distant personal events in adolescents (12- to 14-year-olds) and young adults (18- to 23-year-olds). In line with expectations of greater mnemonic consistency among young adults relative to adolescents, adolescents reported the same events 80% of the time compared with 90% consistency among young adults; the significant difference disappeared after taking into consideration narrative characteristics of individual memories. Neither age group showed high levels of content consistency (30% vs. 36%); young adults were more consistent than adolescents even after controlling for other potential predictors of content consistency. Adolescents and young adults did not differ in consistency of estimating when their past experiences occurred. Multilevel modelling indicated that the level of thematic coherence of the initial memory report and ratings of event valence significantly predicted memory consistency at the level of the event. Thematic coherence was a significant negative predictor of content consistency. The findings suggest a developmental progression in the robustness and stability of personal memories between adolescence and young adulthood.

  8. Restrictive Eating Disorders and Skeletal Health in Adolescent Girls and Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Darcey; Gordon, Catherine M

    2017-05-01

    This article reviews the effects of restrictive eating disorders on bone health. The relationship between eating disorders and amenorrhea is discussed in detail. The pathologic impact of malnutrition on bone is explored by examining the results of studies using various available imaging techniques. The multiple hormonal alterations seen in adolescents and young women with anorexia nervosa are reviewed, as well as how these alterations may influence bone turnover, density, structure, and strength. The diagnostic clinical evaluation for adolescents and young women with these disorders is also outlined. Available treatment options, including those that hold promise for efficacy, as well as those we deemed to be ineffective, are considered from both the clinical and mechanistic standpoints. Finally, future research opportunities are offered, including intriguing work in the area of fat and bone interactions.

  9. Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guldane Cengiz Seval

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review were to discuss standard and investigational treatment strategies for adolescent and young adult with acute myeloid leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML in adolescent and young adult patients (AYAs may need a different type of therapy than those currently used in children and older patients. As soon as AML is diagnosed, AYA patient should be offered to participate in well-designed clinical trials. The standard treatment approach for AYAs with AML is remission induction chemotherapy with an anthracycline/cytarabine combination, followed by either consolidation chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation, depending on the ability of the patient to tolerate intensive treatment and cytogenetic features. Presently, continuing progress of novel drugs targeting specific pathways in acute leukemia may bring AML treatment into a new era.

  10. Factorial validity of the Problematic Facebook Use Scale for adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Claudia; Vieno, Alessio; Altoè, Gianmarco; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Recent research on problematic Facebook use has highlighted the need to develop a specific theory-driven measure to assess this potential behavioral addiction. The aim of the present study was to examine the factorial validity of the Problematic Facebook Use Scale (PFUS) adapted from Caplan's Generalized Problematic Internet Scale model. Methods A total of 1,460 Italian adolescents and young adults (aged 14-29 years) participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed in order to assess the factorial validity of the scale. Results Results revealed that the factor structure of the PFUS provided a good fit to the data. Furthermore, results of the multiple group analyses supported the invariance of the model across age and gender groups. Discussion and conclusions This study provides evidence supporting the factorial validity of the PFUS. This new scale provides a theory-driven tool to assess problematic use of Facebook among male and female adolescents and young adults.

  11. Are young adolescents' social and emotional skills protective against involvement in violence and bullying behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polan, Julie C; Sieving, Renee E; McMorris, Barbara J

    2013-07-01

    This study examined relationships between social-emotional skills and involvement in bullying and violence among young adolescents from ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods. Data were from 171 sixth- and seventh-grade students involved in a larger intervention study. Analyses examined relationships between social-emotional skills measures (intrapersonal skills, stress management skills, interpersonal skills) and involvement in violence, physical bullying, and relational aggression. Of social-emotional skills indicators, interpersonal skills and stress management skills demonstrated significant bivariate relationships with each of the bullying and violence outcomes. In multivariate models, greater interpersonal skills and greater stress management skills were significantly associated with lower odds of violence involvement. Greater stress management skills were also significantly associated with lower levels of physical bullying and relational aggression. Findings suggest that efforts to foster development of young adolescents' social-emotional skills may, in turn, reduce their risk for involvement in bullying and violence.

  12. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Adolescents who assault their parents:a different family profile of young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Lourdes; Cano, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Some authors have proposed that the mechanisms underlying adolescent-to-parent abuse seem to be different from other forms of juvenile delinquency. Given that this aggression is exerted within the family setting, our study was aimed to explore if there was a differential family profile for those adolescents who commit a parent abuse offense compared to those who commit other types of offenses. Judicial files of 1,046 young offenders from the Juvenile Justice Service of Jaén (Spain) were examined. The final sample (654 young offenders) was divided into 2 groups: those who had committed offenses against a parent (parent abuse group) and those who had committed other types of offenses (other offenses group). Results showed that families with parent abuse have differential characteristics, especially regarding the family size, type of household, parenting styles, and the patterns of interactions between the family members.

  14. High short-term effectiveness of modulated dry bed training in adolescents and young adults with treatment-resistant enuresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, I.; Cobussen-Boekhorst, J.G.L.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Mulder, Z.; Steffens, M.G.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Van Capelle, J.W.; Blanker, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Two percent of adolescents and young adults suffer from therapy-resistant enuresis, with considerable negative impact on self-esteem and relationships. We evaluated the effect of a Modulated Dry Bed Training (MDBT) in a previously therapyresistant group of adolescents with

  15. Self-Surveillance by Adolescents and Young Adults Transitioning to Self-Management of a Chronic Genetic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, Ellen; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Pyeritz, Reed E.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with Marfan syndrome (MFS) use information from self-surveillance to manage their disorder. Thirty-seven male and female adolescents with MFS aged 14 to 21 years were interviewed. They identified 58 distinct self-surveillance behaviors that fell into four categories and multiple subcategories (SCs): tracking phenotype…

  16. The Effects of Mother's Marital Status on Adolescent and Young Adult Health and Economic Well-Being among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVeist, Thomas A.; Zeno, Tia L.; Fesahazion, Ruth G.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the effects of being raised by married parents during childhood on health and well-being in adolescence and young adulthood in a longitudinal sample of African Americans. This study aims to address the following three questions: Does childhood with married parents lead to better health and well-being during adolescence? Does…

  17. Prevalence, Patterns, and Predictors of Sleep Problems and Daytime Sleepiness in Young Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molitor, Stephen J.; Oddo, Lauren E.; Eadeh, Hana-May; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Becker, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of multiple types of sleep problems in young adolescents with ADHD. Method: 262 adolescents comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD and their caregivers completed well-validated measures of sleep problems and daytime sleepiness. Participants also completed measures related…

  18. Risk and Protective Factors for Cigarette Use in Young Adolescents in a School Setting: What Could Be Done Better?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlui, M.; Jahan, N. K.; Majid, H. A.; Jalaludin, M. Y.; Murray, L.; Cantwell, M.; Su, T. T.; Al-Sadat, N.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking among Malaysian adolescents remains a public health concern despite concerted efforts in tobacco control. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and determinants of current-smoking status in young adolescents. This cross sectional study used the first round of the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Research Team's prospective cohort study. It was conducted in three States of the Central and Northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia between March and May 2012. The study used...

  19. Fatigue, depressive symptoms, and anxiety from adolescence up to young adulthood: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Wolbeek, Maike; van Doornen, Lorenz J P; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Tersteeg-Kamperman, Marijke D J; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2011-08-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint among adolescents. We investigated the course of fatigue in females during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood and examined psychological, immunological, and life style risk factors for development of fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-related symptoms. Six hundred and thirty-three healthy females (age 14.63±1.37 years) filled out questionnaires measuring fatigue severity, depressive symptoms, anxiety, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-related symptoms, sleep features, and life style characteristics at baseline and 4½ years thereafter. Of 64 participants LPS- and CD2CD28-induced cytokine data at baseline were available. The best predictor of fatigue in young adulthood was previous fatigue severity. In participants who were non-fatigued during adolescence and who experienced a notable increase in fatigue, fatigue development was preceded by emotional problems and CFS-related complaints during adolescence. Increases as well as decreases in fatigue severity were accompanied by respectively increase and decrease in depressive symptoms and anxiety, suggesting that these symptoms cluster and co-vary over time. Higher interferon (IFN)-γ, higher IFN-γ/interleukin (IL)-4 ratio, lower tumor necrosis factor-α and lower IL-10 at baseline were related to fatigue severity at follow up. The rise in total number of CFS-related symptoms at follow up was predicted by anxiety and decreased physical activity during adolescence. Sleep and substance use were associated with fatigue severity and anxiety and depression. In conclusion, vulnerability to develop fatigue and associated symptoms in young adulthood can to a certain extent be identified already years before the manifestation of complaints. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Age at Primary Malignancy Determines Survival in Adolescent and Young Adults That Develop a Secondary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Briana J; Goldfarb, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Second malignancy status is a risk factor for death in adolescent and young adults (AYAs) (ages 15-39) with thyroid cancer (TC). This study investigates whether age at primary malignancy (PM) is an independent predictor of overall survival (OS) for AYA patients diagnosed with secondary TC who have survived ≥5 years from their PM. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program (SEER) multiple-primary session (SEER-9 [1973-2010] and SEER-13 [1992-2010]) identified all secondary TCs in patients malignant neoplasm (SMN) diagnosed as an AYA were categorized by age at PM (pediatric cancer survivors were identified; 71 had a pediatric PM and 357 an AYA PM. Median OS after a pediatric PM was 35.76 years and 33.22 years after an AYA-PM (p = 0.023); only one death was due to TC. Race, site and stage of PM, marital status, and three or more independent PMs also influenced OS (all p cancers, and a higher stage of their first malignancy are more likely to die. For AYA patients with thyroid SMNs, having a prior AYA PM (compared to a pediatric PM), Black race, and having three or more independent tumors predicted a decreased OS, independent of PM type or PM/SMN stage.

  1. Short-Term Effects of Isotonic Handgrip Exercise on Cardiovascular Autonomic Reactivity in Healthy Young Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Nileshkumar H Patel, Hasmukh D Shah, Wasim A Shaikh, Sushil K Singh

    2015-01-01

    "Background: Exercise is a potent stimulus for sympathetic nervous system activation. But the compliance of people for routine form of exercise for BP control has not been very encouraging. Objective of the study was to determine the short-term effects of isotonic handgrip exercise on cardiovascular autonomic reactivity in healthy adolescents and to find a user friendly exercise which help in reducing blood pressure. Method and Materials: Present study was conducted on 50 young healt...

  2. Differentiating Anxiety and Depression in Relation to the Social Functioning of Young Adolescents With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Vaughn, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depressive symptoms in relation to the social functioning of young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and builds upon prior work by incorporating youths' self-reports of internalizing symptoms and examining distinct anxiety and depression dimensions to increase specificity. Participants were 310 young adolescents (ages 10-14; 71% male, 78% Caucasian) diagnosed with ADHD. Youth provided ratings of anxiety/depression, and parents provided ratings of their own depression. Parents and youth both reported on youths' social skills and perceived social acceptance. Path analyses indicated that above and beyond child demographics, ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptom severity, and parents' own depression, self-reported social anxiety and anhedonia were both associated with lower youth-reported social skills and both parent- and youth-reported social acceptance. Negative self-evaluation was associated with poorer parent-reported social skills. Finally, harm avoidance was positively associated with both youth- and parent-reported social skills. A path analysis using comorbid diagnoses (rather than symptom dimensions) indicated that that having a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder or depression diagnosis (but not a comorbid anxiety diagnosis) was associated with poorer parent-reported social functioning. Results demonstrate that the relation between internalizing symptoms and social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD is nuanced, with social anxiety and anhedonia symptoms associated with lower social skills and social acceptance in contrast to harm avoidance being associated with higher ratings of social skills (and unrelated to social acceptance). In terms of comorbid diagnoses, depression is more clearly related than anxiety to poorer social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD. These results point to the importance of attending to specific facets of anxiety and depression in

  3. Patterns of Symptoms of Perinatal Depression and Stress in Late Adolescent and Young Adult Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosamar; Goyal, Deepika; Burke-Aaronson, Amanda C; Gay, Caryl L; Lee, Kathryn A

    To compare symptoms of depression, maternal adjustment, and perceived stress in late adolescent and young adult mothers and to examine the patterns of these symptoms during the first 3 months after birth. Secondary analysis of existing longitudinal data. San Francisco Bay Area, with participants in their home environments. Ethnically diverse women expecting their first infants recruited during the third trimester from childbirth education classes and antenatal clinics. The final sample included 34 participants in the late adolescent group (18-20 years) and 48 participants in the young adult group (21-24 years). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to assess depression symptoms, the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale was used to assess maternal adjustment, and the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess perceived stress. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to examine changes over time in depression, maternal adjustment, and perceived stress scores. Compared with young adult participants, late adolescent participants had greater mean depression scores (F (1, 61)  = 8.02, p = .006) and perceived stress scores (F (1, 62)  = 9.45, p = .003) at all time points. Scores for maternal adjustment could not be compared because of the low internal validity of the instrument. Our results indicated that late adolescent mothers may have more symptoms of depression and stress in late pregnancy and the early postpartum period than young adult mothers. Clinicians in maternity and pediatric settings should be vigilant in screening for depression and stress in this vulnerable population during their transitions to motherhood. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adolescent and Young Adult Injuries in Developing Economies: A Comparative Analysis from Oman and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Taber, Niloufer; Mehmood, Amber; Hung, Yuen Wai; Botchey, Isaac; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Hyder, Adnan A

    Adolescence is a distinct period of rapid and dramatic biological, cognitive, psychological, and social development. The burden of injuries among young people (aged 10-24) is both substantial and maldistributed across regions and levels of economic development. Our objective was to compare sociodemographic correlates of injury cause, intentionality, and mortality between Kenya and Oman, 2 countries with different levels of economic development and position in the demographic and epidemiologic transitions. Data on 566 patients in Oman and 5859 in Kenya between 10 and 24 years old were extracted from 2 separate multicenter trauma registries. Multivariable log binomial and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate social and demographic factors associated with injury cause, intentionality, and mortality. Literature on adolescent development was used to parameterize variables, and Akaike information criteria were used in the final model selections. The trauma registry data indicated a substantial burden of adolescent and young adult injury in both Oman and Kenya, particularly among males. The data indicated significant differences between countries (P < .001) in age category, gender distributions, level of education, occupation, cause of injury, and place where injury occurred. Consistent with other literature, road traffic injuries emerged as the most common type of injury as well as the most severe and fatal, with interpersonal violence also resulting in severe injury across contexts. Both road traffic injuries and interpersonal violence were more common among older adolescents and young adults. Education and being in school were protective against injury, after controlling for gender, age category, occupation, and country. A rising burden of injuries among young people has been documented in every region of the world, irrespective on income status or level of development. Cost-effective injury control measures targeting this age group exist, including involvement

  5. Language comprehension profiles of young adolescents with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Ashley; Kover, Sara T; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the authors sought to characterize the language phenotype of fragile X syndrome (FXS), focusing on the extent of impairment in receptive syntax, within-syndrome variability in those impairments in relation to gender, and the syndrome specificity of those impairments. The Test for Reception of Grammar, Version 2 ( Bishop, 2003), was used to examine the overall receptive syntactic skills of adolescents with FXS ( n = 35; 30 males, 5 females), adolescents with Down syndrome (DS; n = 28; 18 males, 10 females), and younger typically developing (TD) children ( n = 23; 14 males, 9 females) matched on nonverbal cognition. Performance on specific grammatical constructions and error types was examined for a subset of matched participants. Participants with FXS had overall receptive syntax scores that were lower than those of the TD participants but higher than those of the participants with DS; however, there was no difference in performance between the FXS and DS groups when females were excluded. Grammatical constructions that were especially difficult for participants with FXS and those with DS were identified, especially relative clause constructions and reversible constructions requiring attention to word order encoded by syntactic features. The current findings have implications for understanding the nature of the language learning difficulties of individuals with FXS and for language interventions.

  6. The dilemmas of parents of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparacino, P S; Tong, E M; Messias, D K; Foote, D; Chesla, C A; Gilliss, C L

    1997-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of parents' experiences as their children with congenital heart disease mature through adolescence and young adulthood. A qualitative pilot study. The physician practices of the pediatric cardiology service of a large university medical center. Eight parents of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease. Each parent was separately interviewed with use of a semistructured interview guide. Our study has identified seven themes--the dilemmas of normality, disclosure dilemmas, the challenge of uncertainty, illness management dilemmas and strategies, social integration versus social isolation, the impact of illness on the family, and coping--with which parents have struggled through-out their adolescent's and young adult's life. It was not possible to determine whether the experiences described by these parents are unique. Parents experience distress, as outlined in the seven themes. They need assistance to determine what is "normal" for their child and how to monitor their child's health and safety. Further research is needed to develop specific interventions.

  7. Mobile Internet Usage among Adolescents and Young Adults in Iran: A Sociological Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ghasemi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the phenomenon of the tendency of adolescents and young adults to the mobile Internet as a social issue in the information era. The phenomenon of the Internet and the mobile Internet has risen in the developed counties as a consequence of increase in the development of electronic communication networks and it has many functions for individuals, family and society. This paper is derived from a survey research in 2013 on the status of this phenomenon in Iran. The statistical population of this research is the adolescents and young adults from 13 to 22 years old in Isfahan who have access to the mobile Internet. The sample population is 193 and the results indicate that there is an intense tendency to the mobile Internet in Iran. This seems normal in comparison with the developed countries. Also, according to the results of the study, 90.3% of adolescents and young people have mobile phones and mobile Internet and have access to the Internet mostly via the Irancell SIM cards and mobile Wi-Fi (they do not use Rightel due to the prohibition of senior clergies. Due to the easy access, the mobile Internet is their favorite. More than browsers, they use online games and social networks (especially Facebook. According to this study no social impairment (eg. Internet addiction, lack of accountability, educational impairment, social isolation, etc because of the adolescents’ tendency to the mobile Internet was observed in them.

  8. Contraception: the Need for Expansion of Counsel in Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridgen, Olivia; Sehovic, Ivana; Bowman, Meghan L; Reed, Damon; Tamargo, Christina; Vadaparampil, Susan; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about oncology provider recommendations regarding best practices in contraception use during cancer treatment and through survivorship for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. This review examined the literature to identify related studies on contraception recommendations, counseling discussions, and methods of contraception in the AYA oncology population. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, including all peer-reviewed journals with no publication date exclusions. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of the following phrases or keywords: "oncology OR cancer" AND "contraception, family planning, contraceptive devices, contraceptive agents, intrauterine devices OR IUD, vaccines, spermatocidal agents, postcoital, immunologic, family planning, vasectomy, tubal ligation, sterilization" AND "young adult OR adolescent" AND "young adult AND adolescent". Reviewers assessed articles using the "Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies" which considers: (1) selection bias; (2) study design; (3) confounders; (4) blinding; (5) data collection methods; and (6) withdrawals and dropouts. A total of five articles were included and all studies were quantitative. Results showed no consistent recommendations among providers, references to guidelines, or methods of contraceptive types. Provider guidelines for discussions with AYA patients should be expanded to provide comprehensive, consistent, and quality cancer care in the AYA population.

  9. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  10. Quality of relationships with parents and friends in adolescence predicts metabolic risk in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Katherine B; Hoyt, Lindsay Till; Sumner, Jennifer A; McDade, Thomas W; Adam, Emma K

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to examine whether family and peer relationships in adolescence predict the emergence of metabolic risk factors in young adulthood. Participants from a large, nationally representative cohort study (N = 11,617 for these analyses) reported on their relationship experiences with parents and close friends during adolescence. Fourteen years later, interviewers collected blood samples, as well as anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Blood samples were analyzed for HbA1c. Ordered logistic regressions revealed that for females, supportive parent-child relationships and close male friendships in adolescence were associated with reduced odds of having elevated metabolic risk markers in young adulthood. These effects remained significant even after controlling for baseline measures of body mass index (BMI) and health and demographic covariates. The protective effects of close relationships were not significant for males, however. Exploratory analyses with 2-parent families revealed that supportive father-child relationships were especially protective for females. These findings suggest that, for females, close and supportive relationships with parents and male friends in adolescence may reduce the risk of metabolic dysregulation in adulthood. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Do Thai parents discuss sex and AIDS with young adolescents? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meechamnan, Chutima; Fongkaew, Warunee; Chotibang, Jutamas; McGrath, Barbara Burns

    2014-03-01

    This qualitative study explored parents' and young adolescents' perceptions of communication related to sex and HIV/AIDS. Focus group discussions and group discussion were conducted among 67 adolescents and 30 parents. For the adolescents, group discussion using participatory activities was conducted, followed by five focus group discussions. Group discussions using participatory activities were conducted among parents. Thematic analysis indicated that the adolescents received inadequate information about sex and AIDS from their parents, whom they feared as providing negative judgment, and this represented a key barrier to such discussions. Their parents, on the other hand, reported that they believed their children were still too young to learn about and engage in sexual activities. The parents perceived barriers to communication included a lack of confidence and feelings of embarrassment. Nevertheless, they also recognized their important role in their child's sexual education. Collectively, these results draw attention to the need for a culturally appropriate program to strengthen parent-child communication skills for the topics of sex and HIV/AIDS. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Alcohol Consumption during Adolescence and Risk of Diabetes in Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is very limited data available on the association between underage drinking and risk of diabetes. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between alcohol use during adolescence and the risk of diabetes while controlling for a wide range of confounders, including parental alcohol use. Methods. This population-based study used data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health. Participants were initially recruited in 1994-1995 (Wave I, then followed up in 1996 (Wave II and in 2001-2002 (Wave III, and in 2008-2009 (Wave IV. Analysis included 2,850 participants (46% male who were successfully followed up at Waves I, III, and IV without a known diagnosis of diabetes at Waves I and III and who provided all necessary information for the analysis. Results. During adolescence, frequent alcohol consumption at levels reaching 5 or more drinks, 3–7 days/week, substantially increased the risk of diabetes in young adulthood, with an odds ratio of 12.57 (95% CI 4.10–38.61 compared to current abstainers. Conclusions. Heavy alcohol use during adolescence may increase the risk of diabetes in young adulthood. The Significant finding of the Study.

  13. Course of alcohol symptoms and social anxiety disorder from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jessica J; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S; Kim, Kevin H; Blaze, Thomas J; Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy

    2015-06-01

    There is limited knowledge of the course of social anxiety disorder (SAD) from adolescence into adulthood, and how SAD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms change together over time. The current study examined how persistent and adolescent-limited SAD relate to alcohol symptom trajectories across adolescence and into adulthood, as well as gender differences in the course of SAD and AUD symptoms. Participants were 788 youth (ages 12 to 18 at the baseline assessment; 46.2% female; 80.5% White) recruited from the community (n = 220) and from clinical programs (n = 568). Youth completed clinical interviews on their lifetime history of AUD symptoms and SAD at baseline and were followed through age 25. Multivariate polynomial growth mixture modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories for SAD and AUD symptoms separately, then together in a dual trajectory model. Gender differences were examined using a classify-analyze approach. Three SAD trajectory classes were identified: adolescent-limited (15%), persistent (6%), and no SAD (79%). For AUD symptoms, 5 trajectories were identified: severe (10%), moderate (22%), remitting (18%), young adult onset (22%), and stable low (28%). Those with a history of SAD were about twice as likely to be in the severe AUD symptom class compared to those without a history of SAD. Compared to those with persisting SAD, those in the adolescent-limited SAD class were more likely to belong to the stable low AUD trajectory. Compared to males with SAD, females with SAD were less likely to be in the moderate AUD symptom class and were more likely to be in stable low and young adult onset AUD symptom classes. A history of SAD was associated with membership in the severe AUD trajectory group. The association of gender with SAD and AUD differed depending on developmental period. Future research should examine whether treating SAD in early adolescence may prevent subsequent AUD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on

  14. Psychiatric Disorders in Young Adults Diagnosed with Juvenile Fibromyalgia in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Tran, Susan T; Lynch-Jordan, Anne M; Ting, Tracy V; Sil, Soumitri; Strotman, Daniel; Noll, Jennie G; Powers, Scott W; Arnold, Lesley M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents with juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) have increased rates of psychiatric disorders, but to our knowledge no studies have examined psychiatric disorders in adolescents with JFM when they enter young adulthood. This study examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young adults diagnosed with JFM during adolescence and the relationship between mental health diagnoses and physical functioning. Ninety-one young adults (mean age 21.60, SD 1.96) with a history of JFM being followed as part of a prospective longitudinal study and 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 21.57, SD 1.55) completed a structured interview of psychiatric diagnoses and a self-report measure of physical impairment. Young adults with a history of JFM were more likely to have current and lifetime histories of anxiety disorders (70.3% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (33.3% for both, both p < 0.001). Individuals with JFM were also more likely to have current and lifetime histories of major mood disorders (29.7% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (10% and 40%, p < 0.05). The presence of a current major mood disorder was significantly related to impairment in physical functioning [F (1, 89) = 8.30, p < 0.01] and role limitations attributable to a physical condition [F (1, 89) = 7.09, p < 0.01]. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent in young adulthood for individuals with a history of JFM, and a current major mood disorder is associated with greater physical impairment. Greater attention to early identification and treatment of mood disorders in patients with JFM is warranted.

  15. Adolescent and young adult oncology: transition of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, David R; Brugieres, Laurence

    2008-05-01

    The fundamental purposes underlying formal health care transition from the pediatric to adult setting for young adult survivors of childhood cancer are to facilitate the continuous, medically and developmentally appropriate implementation of risk-based guidelines for the monitoring and management of late effects of childhood cancer and its treatment; and to support the normal maturational processes involved with growing from childhood to adulthood. To achieve these, this article identifies specific goals and action items in the following key areas: Models of Transitional Care, Survivor/Family Education, Post-Transitional Care Outcomes, Education of Health Care Professionals, and Health Care Policy and Advocacy. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The Effect of Frequency Transposition on Speech Perception in Adolescents and Young Adults with Profound Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, J.; Smith, J.; Valero, J.; Rubio, I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a clinical trial evaluating outcomes of a frequency-lowering technique for adolescents and young adults with severe to profound hearing impairment. Outcomes were defined by changes in aided thresholds, speech perception, and acceptance. The participants comprised seven young people aged between 13 and 25 years. They were…

  17. The unique contribution of attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks to the prediction of adolescents' and young adults' alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roek, M.A.E.; Spijkerman, R.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Lemmers, A.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and

  18. Adolescent and Young Adult Mothers' Relationship Quality during the Transition to Parenthood: Associations with Father Involvement in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Christina B.; McNerney, Christopher M.; Reiter, Michael J.; Leaman, Suzanne C.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child-Well-being Study were used to examine predictors of involvement among fathers of young children (N = 2,215) born to adolescent and young adult mothers (ages 14-25; N = 2,850). Participants were interviewed immediately following their baby's birth and at 3-years postpartum regarding co-parental relationship…

  19. Young Adult Literature and Adolescent Identity across Cultures and Classrooms: Contexts for the Literary Lives of Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsup, Janet, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Taking a critical, research-oriented perspective, this exploration of the theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical connections between the reading and teaching of young adult literature and adolescent identity development centers around three key questions: (1) Who are the teens reading young adult literature?; (2) Why should teachers teach young…

  20. Smoking in young adulthood among African Americans: Interconnected effects of supportive parenting in early adolescence, proinflammatory epitype, and young adult stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Mandara, Jelani; Philibert, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    We examined two potentially interacting, connected pathways by which parental supportiveness during early adolescence (ages 1-13) may come to be associated with later African American young adult smoking. The first pathway is between parental supportiveness and young adult stress (age 19), with stress, in turn, predicting increased smoking at age 20. The second pathway is between supportive parenting and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene methylation (i.e., TNFm), a proinflammatory epitype, with low levels indicating greater inflammatory potential and forecasting increased risk for smoking in response to young adult stress. In a sample of 382 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from early adolescence (age 10-11) to young adulthood (age 20), supportive parenting indirectly predicted smoking via associations with young adult stress, IE = -0.071, 95% confidence interval [-0.132, -0.010]. In addition, supportive parenting was associated with TNFm measured at age 20 (r = .177, p = .001). Further, lower TNFm was associated with a significantly steeper slope (b = 0.583, p = .003) of increased smoking in response to young adult stress compared to those with higher TNFm (b = 0.155, p = .291), indicating an indirect, amplifying role for supportive parenting via TNFm. The results suggest that supportive parenting in early adolescence may play a role in understanding the emergence of smoking in young adulthood.

  1. Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Oncology Nurses Report Attitudes and Barriers to Discussing Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel Murray, Alexandra; Chrisler, Joan C; Robbins, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    Fertility issues have been found to be an important topic for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Medical technology has made fertility preservation (FP) increasingly effective for postpubertal patients whose treatment course may inhibit their future ability to achieve biologic parenthood. Oncology providers' recommendations have been shown to vary, potentially affecting patients' decision-making processes regarding FP. This study was designed to assess oncology nurses' recommendations for patients to consider FP options and to explore what patient-related factors may influence discussion of FP with AYAs with cancer. 116 oncology nurses participated in this study and were randomized to read one of four vignettes about a patient whose proposed treatment course could affect his or her fertility. Participants' recommendations to partake in FP were analyzed to test for differences by patient age and gender. Open-ended responses to questions about their experiences as oncology nurses were analyzed descriptively. Nurses strongly recommended that all patients explore FP options before the start of treatment. Oncology nurses endorsed stronger opinions that young adult female patients should be given independent decision-making power to delay treatment for FP, compared to male and female adolescent patients and young adult male patients. Participants mentioned barriers to discussions that included concerns about exacerbating negative emotions and the decision-making capacity of young patients.

  2. Vegetarian-style dietary pattern during adolescence has long-term positive impact on bone from adolescence to young adulthood: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Elham Z; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Kontulainen, Saija; Whiting, Susan; Szafron, Michael; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2018-02-28

    The amount of bone accrued during adolescence is an important determinant of later osteoporosis risk. Little is known about the influence of dietary patterns (DPs) on the bone during adolescence and their potential long-term implications into adulthood. We examined the role of adolescent DPs on adolescent and young adult bone and change in DPs from adolescence to young adulthood. We recruited participants from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (1991-2011). Data from 125 participants (53 females) for adolescent analysis (age 12.7 ± 2 years) and 115 participants (51 females) for adult analysis (age 28.2 ± 3 years) were included. Bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of total body (TB), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Adolescent dietary intake data from multiple 24-h recalls were summarized into 25 food group intakes and were used in the principal component analysis to derive DPs during adolescence. Associations between adolescent DPs and adolescent or adult BMC/BMD were analyzed using multiple linear regression and multivariate analysis of covariance while adjusting for sex, age, the age of peak height velocity, height, weight, physical activity and total energy intake. Generalized estimating equations were used for tracking DPs. We derived five DPs including "Vegetarian-style", "Western-like", "High-fat, high-protein", "Mixed" and "Snack" DPs. The "Vegetarian-style" DP was a positive independent predictor of adolescent TBBMC, and adult TBBMC, TBaBMD (P adolescent TBaBMD and young adult TBBMC, TBaBMD, FNBMC and FNaBMD were 5%, 8.5%, 6%, 10.6% and 9% higher, respectively, in third quartile of "Vegetarian-style" DP compared to first quartile (P adolescence to adulthood. There were an upward trend in adherence to "Vegetarian-style" DP and an downward trend in adherence to "High-fat, high-protein" DP from adolescence to young adulthood (P adolescence

  3. [The actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and mother-adolescent communication on depression in mothers and adolescents in Kirogi families according to adolescent' development stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Kyung; Shin, Sung Hee

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to compare the level of depression, self-esteem and mother-adolescent (M-A) communication perceived by both mothers and adolescents between the early adolescent (E-A) group and the late adolescent (L-A) group; and to examine the actor effect and the partner effect of self-esteem and M-A communication on depression in mothers and adolescents. Participants were 107 Kirogi families who resided in the Midwest region of the U. S. Data were collected from September, 2008 to March, 2009 using the scales of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), Self-esteem and Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory. Mothers in E-A group reported higher scores on depression than mothers in L-A group. Adolescents in L-A group reported higher scores on depression and lower scores on self-esteem than adolescents in E-A group. In the E-A group, mothers' self-esteem had big actor effect on mothers' depression and partner effect on adolescents' depression. In the L-A group, self-esteem of mothers and adolescents had actor effect on their depression respectively without partner effect. M-A communication of mothers influences mothers' depression negatively and adolescents' depression positively. In both group, M-A communication influences their depression with mediating effect of self-esteem. To promote Kirogi families' mental health, programs for mothers and adolescents should be developed differently according to adolescents' development stage.

  4. The experience of transition in adolescents and young adults transferring from paediatric to adult care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fegran, Liv; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Aagaard, Hanne

    : To synthesize qualitative studies on how adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases experience transition from paediatric to adult care. Methods: Literature search in major databases covering the years from 1999 to November 2010 was performed. Further forward citation snowballing search was conducted...... responsibility. Conclusion: Young adults’ transition experiences seem to be commensurable across diagnoses and cultures. Feelings of not belonging and being redundant during the transfer process moving from paediatric to adult ward, is striking. Appreciating young adults’ need to be acknowledged and valued......Introduction: Despite research and implementation of transition models in the last decades, transfer from paediatric to adult care still poses great challenges. Predominantly studies on health care transition have been based on the perspective of experts or health care professionals. Aim...

  5. Age-varying associations between non-marital sexual behavior and depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how non-marital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. PMID:27854469

  6. Measuring neighborhood connection and the association with violence in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Sieving, Renee E; Harpin, Scott A; Hearst, Mary O

    2008-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to construct measures of adolescent neighborhood connection and test the association of these measures with violence-related behaviors. This study uses data from the baseline Lead Peace-Plus evaluation survey completed by sixth-grade students (n = 118). The survey was conducted in Fall 2006 in four urban community schools with similar ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged student bodies. The survey instrument, tailored for adolescents, included questions about violence involvement in the past year, as well as youth perceptions of and interactions with others in their neighborhood. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to construct neighborhood connectedness scales. Mixed-model logistic regression was used to examine relationships of these scales with students' violent behaviors, adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors. The first factor, intention to contribute, was composed of five items (alpha = .86) that indicated whether adolescents value and intend to work to improve their neighborhoods. The factor, neighborhood social resources, was composed of eight items (alpha = .76) that reflected adolescents' familiarity with neighbors and perceptions that their neighbors could provide support. Students with lower levels of both neighborhood connection measures were more likely to report violent behaviors in the past year. However, the trends were statistically significant only for relationships between intention to contribute and violence indicators. Neighborhood connection can be measured with reliability in middle school students. Cultivating young adolescents' intentions to contribute to their neighborhoods may be an effective strategy for reducing youth violence.

  7. Longitudinal Trajectory of the Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Substance Use From Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung Gun; Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Lohrmann, David K; Song, Tae Min

    2018-01-01

    We examined the longitudinal trajectory of substance use (binge drinking, marijuana use, and cocaine use) in relation to self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood. Generalized estimating equation models were fit using SAS to investigate changes in the relation between self-esteem and each substance use (binge drinking, marijuana use, and cocaine use) from adolescence to young adulthood. Data were drawn from the 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students in the United States (N = 6504). Self-esteem was a significant predictor for the use of all 3 substances at 15 years of age (ps self-esteem no longer predicted binge drinking and marijuana use in the controlled model. It appears that self-esteem loses its protective role against substance use except cocaine use as adolescents transition to young adulthood. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  8. Research in the Integration of Behavioral Health for Adolescents and Young Adults in Primary Care Settings: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laura P; McCarty, Carolyn A; Radovic, Ana; Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff

    2017-03-01

    Despite the recognition that behavioral and medical health conditions are frequently intertwined, the existing health care system divides management for these issues into separate settings. This separation results in increased barriers to receipt of care and contributes to problems of underdetection, inappropriate diagnosis, and lack of treatment engagement. Adolescents and young adults with mental health conditions have some of the lowest rates of treatment for their conditions of all age groups. Integration of behavioral health into primary care settings has the potential to address these barriers and improve outcomes for adolescents and young adults. In this paper, we review the current research literature for behavioral health integration in the adolescent and young adult population and make recommendations for needed research to move the field forward. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Frequency, course and correlates of alcohol use from adolescence to young adulthood in a Swiss community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimgartner Annina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have analyzed the frequency of alcohol use across time from adolescence to young adulthood and its outcome in young adulthood. A Swiss longitudinal multilevel assessment project using various measures of psychopathology and psychosocial variables allowed for the study of the frequency and correlates of alcohol use so that this developmental trajectory may be better understood. Method Alcohol use was studied by a questionnaire in a cohort of N = 593 subjects who had been assessed at three times between adolescence and young adulthood within the Zurich Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS. Other assessment included questionnaire data measuring emotional and behavioural problems, life events, coping style, self-related cognitions, perceived parenting style and school environment, and size and efficiency of the social network. Results The increase of alcohol use from early adolescence to young adulthood showed only a few sex-specific differences in terms of the amount of alcohol consumption and the motives to drink. In late adolescence and young adulthood, males had a higher amount of alcohol consumption and were more frequently looking for drunkenness and feeling high. Males also experienced more negative consequences of alcohol use. A subgroup of heavy or problem drinkers showed a large range of emotional and behavioural problems and further indicators of impaired psychosocial functioning both in late adolescence and young adulthood. Conclusion This Swiss community survey documents that alcohol use is problematic in a sizeable proportion of youth and goes hand in hand with a large number of psychosocial problems.

  10. Chronic MDMA induces neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adolescent and young adult rats: Down-regulation of apoptotic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2015-07-01

    While hippocampus is a brain region particularly susceptible to the effects of MDMA, the cellular and molecular changes induced by MDMA are still to be fully elucidated, being the dosage regimen, the species and the developmental stage under study great variables. This study compared the effects of one and four days of MDMA administration following a binge paradigm (3×5 mg/kg, i.p., every 2 h) on inducing hippocampal neurochemical changes in adolescent (PND 37) and young adult (PND 58) rats. The results showed that chronic MDMA caused hippocampal protein deficits in adolescent and young adult rats at different levels: (1) impaired serotonergic (5-HT2A and 5-HT2C post-synaptic receptors) and GABAergic (GAD2 enzyme) signaling, and (2) decreased structural cytoskeletal neurofilament proteins (NF-H, NF-M and NF-L). Interestingly, these effects were not accompanied by an increase in apoptotic markers. In fact, chronic MDMA inhibited proteins of the apoptotic pathway (i.e., pro-apoptotic FADD, Bax and cytochrome c) leading to an inhibition of cell death markers (i.e., p-JNK1/2, cleavage of PARP-1) and suggesting regulatory mechanisms in response to the neurochemical changes caused by the drug. The data, together with the observed lack of GFAP activation, support the view that chronic MDMA effects, regardless of the rat developmental age, extends beyond neurotransmitter systems to impair other hippocampal structural cell markers. Interestingly, inhibitory changes in proteins from the apoptotic pathway might be taking place to overcome the protein deficits caused by MDMA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of transition readiness in adolescents and young adults with chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul T; Paul, Gabrielle V; LaCount, Stephanie; Peng, Juan; Spencer, Charles H; Higgins, Gloria C; Boyle, Brendan; Kamboj, Manmohan; Smallwood, Christopher; Ardoin, Stacy P

    2017-09-09

    Transition from pediatric to adult health care is a vulnerable period for adolescents and young adults. Challenges include paucity of validated measures to assess patients' transition readiness. We evaluated the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) in adolescents and young adults with rheumatic, gastrointestinal, and endocrine disorders. We examined whether baseline TRAQ scores and other demographic variables predicted transition to adult care over a three year follow up period. In this descriptive study at a single institution, eighty-nine adolescents at a single pediatric academic medical center completed demographic and medical history surveys and the TRAQ and were followed over 3 years by telephone interview to determine whether they had transitioned to adult subspecialty care. Transition was defined as attending at least one adult subspecialty appointment. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine whether TRAQ scores predicted time to transition. Of the participants, 56% had rheumatic, 21% endocrine, and 23% gastrointestinal conditions. The TRAQ self-management domain score was not significantly associated with age, gender, socioeconomic status, or specialty. The TRAQ self-advocacy score increased with age. Baseline TRAQ scores did not predict transition or time to transition over three years. In this cohort of adolescents and young adults who were 16 to 23 years of age at enrollment, 48% transitioned to adult care over three years of follow up. Nearly half reported not discussing transition with provider or seeing provider independently for part of visit. Older age but not other demographic variables nor baseline TRAQ score predicted transition or time to transition to an adult subspecialty provider; however, a there was a trend towards shorter time to transition with the highest quartile TRAQ scores.

  12. The Relation between Gray Matter Morphology and Divergent Thinking in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolie, Kiki; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task) and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test) domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15–17 and 20 young adults aged 25–30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency) was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted. PMID:25514366

  13. Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Sara M.; Schaechter, Judith L.; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Google using “energy drink,” “sports drink,” “guarana,” “caffeine,” “taurine,” “ADHD,” “diabetes,” “children,” “adolescents,” “insulin,” “eating disorders,” and “poison control center” to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. RESULTS: According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. CONCLUSIONS: Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research. PMID:21321035

  14. The relation between gray matter morphology and divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Cousijn

    Full Text Available Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15-17 and 20 young adults aged 25-30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted.

  15. Violence Victimization, Social Support, and Papanicolaou Smear Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Heinze, Justin E; Lang, Ian; Mistry, Ritesh; Buu, Anne; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-12-01

    African American youth are among those at greatest risk for experiencing violence victimization. Notably, the mortality rate of cervical cancer for African American women is also twice that of white women. To date, we know of no literature using longitudinal data to examine how violence victimization relates to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results or cervical cancer in this population. Our study examines how violence victimization during adolescence (age 15 to 18) influences psychological distress, perceived social support, heavy substance abuse, and sexual risk behaviors during emerging adulthood (age 20 to 23), and subsequent Pap smear outcomes during young adulthood (age 29 to 32). This study is based on 12 waves of data collected in a longitudinal study of 360 African American women from mid-adolescence (ninth grade, mean age = 14.8 years) to young adulthood (mean age = 32.0 years). We used structural equation modeling analysis to examine the hypothesized model. Violence victimization during adolescence had a direct effect on decreased social support, increased psychological distress, and increased heavy cigarette use during emerging adulthood. Better social support was also associated with fewer sexual partners during emerging adulthood and lower odds of abnormal Pap smear results during young adulthood. The effect of violence victimization on abnormal Pap smear was mediated by social support. Our results show that violence victimization during adolescence has long-term negative effects through multiple pathways that persist into adulthood. Our findings also suggest that social support may help to compensate against other risk factors. Interventions designed to address the perceived support may help victims cope with their experience.

  16. The relation between gray matter morphology and divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousijn, Janna; Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Zanolie, Kiki; Kleibeuker, Sietske W; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task) and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test) domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15-17 and 20 young adults aged 25-30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency) was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted.

  17. A prospective study of overeating, binge eating, and depressive symptoms among adolescent and young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Hayley H; Haines, Jess; Austin, S Bryn; Field, Alison E

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and overeating and binge eating among adolescent and young adult females in the United States. We investigated incident overeating, binge eating, and depressive symptoms among 4,798 females in the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort study of adolescents and young adults throughout the United States. Participants who reported at least monthly episodes of eating a very large amount of food in a short amount of time in the past year, but not experiencing a loss of control, were classified as overeaters. Those who reported a loss of control while overeating were classified as binge eaters. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the McKnight Risk Factor Survey. Participants were followed between 1999 and 2003. Generalized estimating equations were used for lagged analysis with time-varying covariates. Analyses were adjusted for age, age at menarche, body mass index, and follow-up time. Females reporting depressive symptoms at baseline were two times more likely than their peers to start overeating (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 2.5) and binge eating (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.7, 3.0) during the follow-up. Similarly, females engaging in overeating (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.1, 3.4) or binge eating (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9) at baseline were two times more likely than their peers to develop depressive symptoms during the follow-up. These results indicate that it is important to consider depressive symptoms in overeating and binge eating prevention and treatment initiatives targeting adolescent and young adult females. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing Growth Trajectories of Risk Behaviors from Late Adolescence through Young Adulthood: An Accelerated Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S.; Croudace, Tim J.; Brown, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Risk behaviors such as substance use or deviance are often limited to the early stages of the life course. Whereas the onset of risk behavior is well studied, less is currently known about the decline and timing of cessation of risk behaviors of different domains during young adulthood. Prevalence and longitudinal developmental patterning of…

  19. The Role of Adolescent Friendship Group Integration and Cohesion in Weapon-Related Violent Crime as a Young Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Marlon P; Antonaccio, Olena P; French, Michael T; Zakletskaia, Larissa I

    2017-08-01

    Weapon-related violent crime is a serious, complex, and multifaceted public health problem. The present study uses data from Waves I and III of Add Health (n = 10,482, 54% female) to examine how friendship group integration and cohesion in adolescence (ages 12-19) is associated with weapon-related criminal activity as a young adult (ages 18-26). Results indicate that greater cohesion in friendship groups is associated with significantly lower weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. In addition, for adolescent girls, a greater number of close friendship ties-an indicator of friendship group integration-is associated with less weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood. These findings suggest that school-based initiatives to facilitate inclusive and cohesive adolescent peer communities may be an effective strategy to curb weapon-related criminal activity in young adulthood.

  20. Body mass index, self-esteem and weight contentment from adolescence to young adulthood and women's risk for sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Michael J; Williams, Amanda L

    2014-12-01

    Background Women's risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were examined in terms of adolescent and young adult weight status, self-esteem trajectories and weight contentment using two waves of a nationally representative dataset. Using Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem and weight contentment were examined during adolescence and young adulthood to assess the likelihood of STDs among 4000 young adult single women. Change in BMI, specifically weight loss between adolescence and young adulthood, significantly increased women's risk for STDs. Continuously low self-esteem during adolescence and young adulthood significantly increased women's risk for STDs. When women's contentment with their weight decreased from adolescence to young adulthood, women's risk for STDs was greater. Regardless of other variables, Black women were more likely to have an STD. RESULTS suggest that women's self-perception is important in reducing sexual risk; specifically, patterns of self-esteem, BMI and weight contentment across developmental periods should be a critical focus of research and practice related to adolescent and young adult sexual health. There are many known benefits to fostering self-esteem during adolescence and findings from this study add STD prevention among young women to this list. RESULTS emphasise the needed prevention during adolescence to address self-perspective and self-esteem for the long-term sexual well-being of young women.

  1. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Testicular function in young men in long-term remission after treatment for the early stages of Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Geisler, C; Hansen, M M

    1984-01-01

    16 young men in long-term remission after standard treatment for the early stages of Hodgkin's disease were examined for testicular function 48 to 125 months after termination of therapy. The patients had received mantle field irradiation, plus either irradiation of infradiaphragmatic lymph nodes...... to chemotherapy, especially including alkylating agents....

  3. Longitudinal trends in race/ethnic disparities in leading health indicators from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Chantala, Kim; Udry, J Richard

    2006-01-01

    To use ethnically diverse, national data to examine longitudinal trends in race/ethnic disparities in 20 leading health indicators from Healthy People 2010 across multiple domains from adolescence to young adulthood. Much of what is known about health disparities is based on cross-sectional measures collected at a single time point. Nationally representative data for more than 14 000 adolescents enrolled in wave I (1994-1995) or wave II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and followed up into adulthood (wave III; 2001-2002). We fit longitudinal regression models to assess and contrast the trend in health indicators among racial/ethnic groups of adolescents as they transition into adulthood. Diet, inactivity, obesity, tobacco use, substance use, binge drinking, violence, sexually transmitted diseases, mental health, and health care access. Diet, inactivity, obesity, health care access, substance use, and reproductive health worsened with age. Perceived health, mental health, and exposure to violence improved with age. On most health indicators, white and Asian subjects were at lowest and Native American subjects at highest risk. Although white subjects had more favorable health in adolescence, they experienced greatest declines by young adulthood. No single race/ethnic group consistently leads or falters in health across all indicators. Longitudinal data indicate that, for 15 of 20 indicators, health risk increased and access to health care decreased from the teen and adult years for most US race/ethnic groups. Relative rankings on a diverse range of health indicators (and patterns of change over time) vary by sex and race/ethnicity, causing disparities to fluctuate over time.

  4. Binge drinking during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with deficits in verbal episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbia, Carina; Cadaveira, Fernando; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Corral, Montse

    2017-01-01

    Binge drinking (BD), a harmful pattern of alcohol consumption, is common during adolescence. Young adults with alcohol use disorders exhibit hippocampal alterations and episodic memory deficits. However, it is not known how these difficulties progress in community BD adolescents. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between BD trajectory and verbal episodic memory during the developmental period spanning from adolescence and to early adulthood. An initial sample of 155 male and female first-year university students with no other risk factors were followed over six years. Participants were classified as stable non-BDs, stable BDs and ex-BDs according to the third AUDIT item. At baseline, participants comprised 36 ♂/ 40 ♀ non-BDs (18.58 years), 40 ♂/ 39 ♀ BDs (18.87 years), and at the third follow-up, they comprised 8 ♂/ 8 ♀ stable non-BDs (25.49 years), 2 ♂/ 2 ♀ stable BDs (25.40) and 8 ♂/ 12 ♀ ex-BDs (24.97 years). Episodic memory was assessed four times with the Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III) and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Generalized linear mixed models were applied. The results showed that, relative to non-BDs, stable BDs presented difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest. These difficulties remained stable over time. The short-term ex-BDs continued to display difficulties in immediate and delayed recall in the Logical Memory subtest, but long-term ex-BDs did not. The effects were not influenced by age of alcohol onset, frequency of cannabis use, tobacco use or psychopathological distress. In conclusion, BD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with episodic memory deficits. Abandoning the BD pattern may lead to partial recovery. These findings are consistent with the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol.

  5. A longitudinal population-based study of factors in adolescence predicting homelessness in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bree, Marianne B M; Shelton, Katherine; Bonner, Adrian; Moss, Sebastian; Thomas, Hollie; Taylor, Pamela J

    2009-12-01

    Almost everything known about risk factors for homelessness is based on cross-sectional studies of non-random samples. Furthermore, most studies have focused on a small number of risk factors and have not evaluated their relative importance. Our aim was to examine which factors, in a population-based sample of adolescents, independently predict homelessness in young adults. Participants (n = 10,433) in the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were initially selected through systematic random sampling of US high schools. Interviews were conducted at home in 1994-1995 when the participants were 11-18 years of age and again in 2001 when participants were 18-28 years of age. We examined the relationships between a range of risk factors reported in adolescence (mood-related problems, substance involvement, delinquency, personality, quality of family relations, neighborhood quality, school adjustment, religious affiliation, perpetration of violence, and experiences of victimization) and experiences of homelessness reported in young adulthood, using regression analysis. Each risk factor predicted homelessness. However, only family relationship quality (odds ratio [OR] = .79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .69-.90), school adjustment problems (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.35-1.82), and experiences of victimization (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.11-1.45) were found to independently predict homelessness. Among a range of well-established risk factors, a troubled family background, school adjustment problems and experiences of victimization were found to be the strongest predictors of homelessness in a general population of young people. Our findings suggest possibilities for the early identification of young persons at risk for homelessness through schools, agencies offering family-based support, and clinical services.

  6. Young lives disrupted: gender and well-being among adolescent Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Jocelyn; Sbeity, Farah; Schlecht, Jennifer; Harfouche, Manale; Yamout, Rouham; Fouad, Fouad M; Manohar, Seema; Robinson, Courtland

    2017-01-01

    The conflict in Syria that began in 2011 has resulted in the exodus of over 5 million Syrian refugees to neighbouring countries, with more than one million refugees currently registered by UNHCR in Lebanon. While some are living in tented settlements, the majority are living in strained conditions in rented accommodation or collective shelters in the Bekaa Valley next to Syria. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable in any crisis. In 2013-4, the American University in Beirut in collaboration with the Women's Refugee Commission, Johns Hopkins and Save the Children, sought to understand the specific experiences of very young adolescents, those 10-14 years of age, in this protracted crisis context. The study was conducted in 2014 in Barelias and Qabelias - two urban areas located close to each other in the Beka'a valley that has a large concentration of Syrian refugees. Focus group discussions (FGDs), including community mapping and photo elicitation, were conducted with 10-12 and 13-14 year old Syrian refugee adolescents, in order to obtain information about their experiences and perspectives. FGDs were also implemented with 15-16 year old Syrian refugees and separately also with adult refugees, to consider their perspectives on the needs and risks of these adolescents. A total of 16 FGD (8 for each sex, with 6-9 participants in each) were conducted in Arabic across the two sites, with 59 female participants and 59 male participants. The experiences and risks faced by these adolescents were significantly impacted by economic strain and loss of educational opportunities during displacement, and only a minority of adolescents in the study reported attending school. Additionally, on-going protection risks for girls were felt to be higher due to the crisis and displacement. In Lebanon this has resulted in increased risks of child marriage and limitations in mobility for adolescent girls. Adolescents, themselves expressed tensions with their Lebanese counterparts and

  7. The sensitivity to replacement and displacement of the eyes region in early adolescence, young and later adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozana eMeinhardt-Injac

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests a rather gradual developmental trajectory for processing vertical relational face information, lasting well into late adolescence (de Heering and Schlitz, 2012. Results from another recent study (Tanaka et al., 2014 indicate that children and young adolescents use a smaller spatial integration field for faces than do adults, which particularly affects assessment of long-range vertical relations. Here we studied sensitivity to replacement of eyes and eyebrows (F, variation of inter-eye distance (H and eye height (V in young adolescents (11-12 years, young (21-25 years and middle-age adults (51-62 years. In order to provide a baseline for potential age effects the sensitivity to all three types of face manipulations was calibrated to equal levels for the young adults group. Both the young adolescents and the middle age adults showed substantially lower sensitivity compared to young adults, but only the young adolescents had selective impairment for V relational changes. Their inversion effects were at similar levels for all types of face manipulations, while in both adult groups the inversion effects for V were considerably stronger than for H or F changes. These results suggest that young adolescents use a limited spatial integration field for faces, and have not reached a mature state in processing vertical configural cues. The H-V asymmetry of inversion effects found for both adult groups indicates that adults integrate across the whole face when they view upright stimuli. However, the notably lower sensitivity of middle-age adults for all types of face manipulations, which was accompanied by a strong general same bias, suggests early age-related decline in attending cues for facial difference.

  8. Hypertension awareness and control among young adults in the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; McGinty, Shannon; Richmond, Tracy K; Gillman, Matthew W; Field, Alison E

    2014-08-01

    Young adults are less likely than older adults to be aware they have hypertension or to be treated for hypertension. To describe rates of hypertension awareness and control in a cohort of young adults and understand the impact of health insurance, utilization of preventive care, and self-perception of health on rates of hypertension awareness and control in this age group. Cross-sectional study of 13,512 young adults participating in Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in 2007-2008. We defined hypertension as an average of two measured systolic blood pressures (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressures (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, or self-report of hypertension. We defined hypertension awareness as reporting having been told by a health care provider that one had high blood pressure, and assessed awareness among those with uncontrolled hypertension. We considered those aware of having hypertension controlled if their average measured SBP was young adults with hypertension, 2,531 (76%) were uncontrolled, and 1,893 (75%) of those with uncontrolled hypertension were unaware they had hypertension. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, income, education, alcohol and tobacco use, young adults with uncontrolled hypertension who had (vs. didn't have) routine preventive care in the past 2 years were 2.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-3.55) to be aware, but young adults who believed they were in excellent (vs. less than excellent) health were 64% less likely to be aware they had hypertension (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.57). Neither preventive care utilization nor self-rated health was associated with blood pressure control. In this nationally representative group of young adults, rates of hypertension awareness and control were low. Efforts to increase detection of hypertension must address young adults' access to preventive care and perception of their need for care.

  9. Long-acting reversible contraception for adolescents and young adults: patient and provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Megan L; Frohwirth, Lori; Jerman, Jenna; Popkin, Ronna; Ethier, Kathleen

    2013-04-01

    To describe and explore provider- and patient-level perspectives regarding long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) for teens and young adults (ages 16-24). Data collection occurred between June and December 2011. We first conducted telephone interviews with administrative directors at 20 publicly funded facilities that provide family planning services. At 6 of these sites, we conducted a total of 6 focus group discussions (FGDs) with facility staff and 48 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with facility clients ages 16-24. Staff in the FGDs did not generally equate being a teen with ineligibility for IUDs. In contrast to staff, one-quarter of the young women did perceive young age as rendering them ineligible. Clients and staff agreed that the "forgettable" nature of the methods and their duration were some of LARC's most significant advantages. They also agreed that fear of pain associated with both insertion and removal and negative side effects were disadvantages. Some aspects of IUDs and implants were perceived as advantages by some clients but disadvantages by others. Common challenges to providing LARC-specific services to younger patients included extra time required to counsel young patients about LARC methods, outdated clinic policies requiring multiple visits to obtain IUDs, and a perceived higher removal rate among young women. The most commonly cited strategy for addressing many of these challenges was securing supplementary funding to support the provision of these services to young patients. Incorporating young women's perspectives on LARC methods into publicly funded family planning facilities' efforts to provide these methods to a younger population may increase their use among young women. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.

  10. The adolescent and young adult with cancer: state of the art--brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelman, Sidnei

    2013-08-01

    The management of adolescents and young adults with brain tumors, which consist of many different histologic subtypes, continues to be a challenge. Better outcome with a decrease of the side effects of the disease and therapy and improvement of quality of life has been demonstrated in recent decades for some tumors. Significant differences in survival and cure are also observed between adult and pediatric tumors of the same histologic grade. Genetic, developmental, and environmental factors likely influence the type of tumor and response observed, even though no clear pathologic features differentiate these lesions among children, adolescents, and adults. Similarly, treatment strategies are not identical among these populations; most patients receive surgery, followed by radiation therapy and multiagent chemotherapy. Advances in understanding the biology underlying the distribution of tumors in adolescents and young adults may influence the development of prospective trials. A more individualized view of these tumors will likely influence stratification of patients in future studies as well as selection for targeted agents. Accordingly, outcomes may improve and long-term morbidities may decrease.

  11. Adolescent personality profiles, neighborhood income, and young adult alcohol use: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Lynsay; Rettew, David; Althoff, Robert R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Ligthart, Lannie; Hudziak, James J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-12-01

    Personality traits and socioeconomic factors such as neighborhood income have been identified as risk factors for future alcohol abuse, but findings have been inconsistent possibly due to interactions between risk and protective factors. The present study examined the prediction of drinking behavior using empirically derived multi-trait patterns and tested for moderation by average neighborhood income. Using latent profile analysis (LPA) in a sample of 863 Dutch adolescents, four empirical personality profiles based on 6 traits were observed: Extraverted, Dysregulated, Neurotic, and Regulated. Dysregulated and Extraverted youth drank higher quantities of alcohol more frequently in young adulthood relative to the Regulated group, above and beyond the effects of baseline adolescent drinking, age, and sex. Profile levels of neuroticism did not appear to affect drinking behavior. Average neighborhood income did not moderate adolescent personality and young adult drinking. These findings suggest that future alcohol research should consider individual trait patterns to inform prevention and intervention efforts, and theories implicating both positive and negative emotionality traits as risk factors for drinking are preferable to those emphasizing the importance of the latter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The meaning of surviving cancer for Latino adolescents and emerging young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barbara L; Volker, Deborah L; Vinajeras, Yolanda; Butros, Linda; Fitchpatrick, Cynthia; Rossetto, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer are an understudied population with unique developmental and medical needs that extend well beyond their active treatment. Survivors diagnosed as AYAs may experience both physical and emotional late effects. In particular, the experiences of Latino cancer survivors have not been explored. The purpose of this study was to conduct interviews with AYA Latino cancer survivors to inform professionals working with these survivors. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach was selected based on the focus on experiences and meanings of Latino adolescents' cancer survivorship. Phenomenology allows for understanding the subjective meaning and lived experience of populations that are understudied or marginalized. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants. Enrolled in the study were Latino AYAs between the ages of 14 and 21 years, after treatment. Interviews revealed 7 themes regarding the experience and meaning of survivorship for this population: gratitude, humor/positive attitude, empathy for younger children with cancer, God and faith, cancer happens for a reason/cancer changed my life, familial support, and staff relationships. Latino AYA cancer survivors develop meaning out of unique cancer experiences. Programs need to be developed specifically to address Latino adolescents and young adult survivors of cancer.

  13. Shared meals among young adults are associated with better diet quality and predicted by family meal patterns during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Fulkerson, Jayne; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-05-01

    To describe shared meal patterns and examine associations with dietary intake among young adults. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study (Project EAT: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Participants completed surveys and FFQ in high-school classrooms in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, USA in 1998-1999 (mean age = 15·0 years, 'adolescence') and follow-up measures online or by mail in 2008-2009 (mean age = 25·3 years, 'young adulthood'). There were 2052 participants who responded to the 10-year follow-up survey and reported on frequency of having shared meals. Among young adults, the frequency of shared meals during the past week was as follows: never (9·9 %), one or two times (24·7 %), three to six times (39·1 %) and seven or more times (26·3 %). Having more frequent family meals during adolescence predicted a higher frequency of shared meals in young adulthood above and beyond other relevant sociodemographic factors such as household composition and parental status. Compared with young adults who never had family meals during adolescence, those young adults who reported seven or more family meals per week during adolescence had an average of one additional shared meal per week. Having more frequent shared meals in young adulthood was associated with greater intake of fruit among males and females, and with higher intakes of vegetables, milk products and some key nutrients among females. Nutrition professionals should encourage families of adolescents to share meals often and establish the tradition of eating together, and work with young adults to ensure that healthy food and beverage choices are offered at mealtimes.

  14. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Transition of care for young adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: rationale and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, David R

    2010-11-10

    Young adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer are an ever-growing population of patients, many of whom remain at lifelong risk for potentially serious complications of their cancer therapy. Yet research shows that many of these older survivors have deficient health-related knowledge and are not engaging in recommended health promotion and screening practices that could improve their long-term outcomes. The purpose of this review is to address these disparities by discussing how formal transition of care from pediatric to adult-focused survivorship services may help meet the unique medical, developmental, and psychosocial challenges of these young adults. Literature review and discussion. This article summarizes current research documenting the medical needs of young adult survivors, their suboptimal compliance with recommended follow-up, and the rationale, essential functions, current models, and innovative approaches for transition of follow-up care. Systematic health care transition constitutes the standard of care for young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In developing a transitional care program, it is necessary to consider the scope of services to be provided, available resources, and other local exigencies that help determine the optimal model for use. Additional research is needed to improve health services delivery to this population. Effective advocacy is needed, particularly in the United States, to ensure the availability of uninterrupted health insurance coverage for survivorship services in young adulthood.

  16. Age estimation by dental developmental stages in children and adolescents in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with

  17. How accurate are adolescents in portion-size estimation using the computer tool young adolescents' nutrition assessment on computer (YANA-C)?

    OpenAIRE

    Vereecken, Carine; Dohogne, Sophie; Covents, Marc; Maes, Lea

    2010-01-01

    Computer-administered questionnaires have received increased attention for large-scale population research on nutrition. In Belgium-Flanders, Young Adolescents' Nutrition Assessment on Computer (YANA-C) has been developed. In this tool, standardised photographs are available to assist in portion-size estimation. The purpose of the present study is to assess how accurate adolescents are in estimating portion sizes of food using YANA-C. A convenience sample, aged 11-17 years, estimated the amou...

  18. Translation and validation of the condom self-efficacy scale with Thai adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Sathja; Hanna, Kathleen M; Rodcumdee, Branom

    2005-01-01

    To translate the 14-item Condom Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) into Thai and to validate the Thai version of the Condom Self-efficacy Scale (CSES-T) among Thai adolescents and young adults. The CSES was translated using a back-translation technique and validated with a cluster-based sample of 425 participants aged 18 to 22 years from eight randomly selected private vocational schools in Bangkok. Participants completed anonymous self-administered scales. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to identify latent factors. Factor analysis indicated three factors: communication, correct use, and consistent use. Items loading on the original CSES also loaded on the same factors of the CSES-T except one item. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .85 for the total scale, .70 for consistent use, .79 for correct use, and .80 for communication. Based on psychometric properties, the CSES-T is a valid and reliable tool. It is culturally appropriate for Thai young adults. Thai researchers and health care providers can use the CSES-T to assess adolescents' and young adults' self-efficacy to use condoms as well as to further develop and evaluate interventions to increase condom use.

  19. A systematic review of literature on psychosocial aspects of gynecomastia in adolescents and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Young, Cara; Harrison, Tracie; Caridi, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Gynecomastia represents a serious psychosocial challenge for many adolescent and young adult males, but short of surgery, little attention has been given to this concern. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a systematic review of the literature about psychosocial correlates, psychosocial interventions, and quality of research evidence about young males with gynecomastia. From an initial 233 published papers, 10 studies were identified and reviewed. Five were descriptive case studies and included no statistical analyses. The other studies were all conducted with small samples. Despite the limited evidence, findings suggest that many young men suffer emotional distress concerning gynecomastia, but this distress has received few interventions beyond surgical removal of the breast tissue. Future studies are needed to address this problem more fully so that more aggressive measures such as frequent assessments of the physical and psychosocial aspects of the condition can be done by healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Normalizing lower extremity strength data for children, adolescents, and young adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Engsberg, Jack R

    2009-08-01

    The traditional method for normalizing quantitative strength data is to divide force or torque by body mass. We have previously shown that this method is not appropriate for able-bodied children and young adults and that normalization using allometric scaling is more effective. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of applying existing normalization equations for lower extremity strength to children, adolescents, and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and, if appropriate, to develop CP-specific normalization equations using allometric scaling. We measured the maximum torque generated during hip abduction/adduction, knee extension/flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion in 96 subjects with spastic diplegia CP ages 4-23 years. Traditional mass normalization (Torque/Mass1.0) and allometric scaling equations from children without disability (Torque/Mass1.6 for hip and knee; Torque/Mass1.4 for ankle) were not effective in eliminating the influence of body mass. Normalization using CP-specific allometric scaling equations was effective using both muscle-specific and common (Torque/Mass0.8 for ankle plantar flexors; Torque/Mass1.4 for all others) scaling relationships. For the first time, normalization equations have been presented with demonstrated effectiveness in adjusting strength measures for body size in a group of children, adolescents, and young adults with CP.

  1. Understanding Motivations for Abstinence among Adolescent Young Women: Insights into Effective Sexual Risk Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893

  2. Use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among privately-insured adolescents and young adults with primary vs. secondary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Esther Y.; Cohn, Lisa; Freed, Gary; Rocchini, Albert; Kershaw, David; Ascione, Frank; Clark, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among adolescents and young adults with primary vs. secondary hypertension Methods We conducted retrospective cohort analysis of claims data for adolescents and young adults (12–21 years) with ≥ 3 years of insurance coverage (≥ 11 months/year) in a large private managed care plan during 2003–2009 with diagnosis of primary hypertension or secondary hypertension. We examined their use of antihypertensive medications and identified demographic characteristics and presence of obesity-related comorbidities. For the subset receiving antihypertensive medications, we examined their diagnostic test use (echocardiograms, renal ultrasounds, and electrocardiograms (EKG)). Results Study sample included 1232 adolescents and young adults; 84% had primary hypertension and 16% had secondary hypertension. Overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 2.6%. One-quarter (28%) with primary hypertension had ≥1 antihypertensive medication whereas 65% with secondary hypertension had ≥1 antihypertensive medication. Leading prescribers of antihypertensives for subjects with primary hypertension were primary care physicians (PCP) (80%) whereas antihypertensive medications were equally prescribed by PCPs (43%) and subspecialists (37%) for subjects with secondary hypertension. Conclusions The predominant hypertension diagnosis among adolescents and young adults is primary hypertension. Antihypertensive medication use was higher among those with secondary hypertension compared to those with primary hypertension. Further study is needed to determine treatment effectiveness and patient outcomes associated with differential treatment patterns used for adolescents and young adults with primary vs. secondary hypertension. PMID:24492018

  3. An Overview of Recent Findings on Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents and Young Adults at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pontillo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have shown that anxiety is particularly frequent in the Clinical High Risk (CHR for psychosis population. Notably, social anxiety disorder is identified as one of the most common anxiety disorders in CHR adolescents and young adults. Despite this, the frequency and the clinical significance of social anxiety in this population have been underestimated. Methods: A selective review of literature published between 2011 and 2017 on social anxiety disorder in CHR adolescents and young adults. Results: Five studies are included. In particular, three studies demonstrated that CHR adolescents and young adults have higher levels of anxiety compared to controls. Furthermore, anxiety, including social anxiety, is related to the severity of psychotic symptoms. The other studies included show inconsistent results regarding the possible relationship between social anxiety and social functioning. Conclusions: To date, the eidence concerning the comorbidity of social anxiety disorder and CHR in adolescents and young adults is not sufficient to provide clear guidelines for clinical practice. Future longitudinal studies on larger samples of the CHR adolescents and young adults are required to examine the relationship between social anxiety disorder and the presence of attenuated psychotic symptomatology.

  4. Young men's intimate partner violence and relationship functioning: long-term outcomes associated with suicide attempt and aggression in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D C R; Capaldi, D M

    2011-04-01

    Longitudinal research supports that suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescence predict maladjustment in young adulthood. Prior research supports links between suicide attempt and aggression, perhaps because of a propensity for impulsive behavior in states of high negative affect that underlies both problems. Such vulnerability may increase risk for intimate partner violence and generally poor young adulthood relational adjustment. A total of 153 men participated in annual assessments from ages 10-32 years and with a romantic partner at three assessments from ages 18-25 years. Multi-method/multi-informant constructs were formed for parent/family risk factors, adolescent psychopathology (e.g. suicide-attempt history, mother-, father-, teacher- and self-reported physical aggression) and young adulthood relational distress (jealousy and low relationship satisfaction) and maladaptive relationship behavior (observed, self- and partner-reported physical and psychological aggression toward a partner, partner-reported injury, official domestic violence arrest records and relationship instability). Across informants, adolescent aggression was correlated with suicide-attempt history. With few exceptions, aggression and a suicide attempt in adolescence each predicted negative romantic relationship outcomes after controlling for measured confounds. Adolescent aggression predicted young adulthood aggression toward a partner, in part, via relationship dissatisfaction. Boys' aggression and suicide-attempt history in adolescence each predict poor relationship outcomes, including partner violence, in young adulthood. Findings are consistent with the theory of a trait-like vulnerability, such as impulsive aggression, that undermines adaptation across multiple domains in adolescence and young adulthood. Prevention and intervention approaches can target common causes of diverse public health problems.

  5. Gender-based violence against adolescent and young adult women in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Latimore, Amanda D; Yasutake, Suzumi; Haviland, Miriam; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Blum, Robert W; Sonenstein, Freya; Astone, Nan Marie

    2015-02-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a global health and human rights issue with individual and social determinants. Youth are considered high risk; national influences include norms, policies and practices. By age, nation, and region, we contrast key GBV indicators, specifically intimate partner violence (IPV) and forced sexual debut among adolescent and young adult women using Demographic and Health Surveys across low- and middle-income countries. National prevalence estimates were generated among adolescents (15-19 years) and young adults (20-24 years) for lifetime and the past-year physical and sexual IPV among ever-married/cohabitating women (30 nations) and forced sexual debut among sexually experienced women (17 nations). Meta-analyses provided regional estimates and cross-national comparisons, and compared the past-year IPV prevalence among adolescent and young adult women to adult women. An estimated 28% of adolescent and 29% of young adult women reported lifetime physical or sexual IPV, most prevalent in the East and Southern Africa region. Regional and cross-national variation emerged in patterns of violence by age; overall, young adult women demonstrated higher risk for the past-year IPV relative to adult women (meta-analysis odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.37) and adolescents had a comparable risk (meta-analysis odds ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, .91-1.23). Forced sexual debut was estimated at 12% overall, highest in the East and Southern Africa region. GBV is pervasive among adolescent and young adult women in low- and middle-income countries. The unique risk to youth varies across nations, suggesting an age-place interaction. Future research is needed to clarify contextual determinants of GBV. Findings provide direction for integrating youth within GBV prevention efforts. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep in Adolescents and Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: Associations with Diabetes Management and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaser, Sarah S; Ellis, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    To describe sleep in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes and explore the association between sleep disturbances, diabetes management and glycemic control. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 159, mean age = 16.4, 43% female, 69% white, mean A1C = 9.3%) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess sleep quantity and quality and sleep disturbances. Frequency of blood glucose monitoring (meter downloads) was used as a measure of diabetes management. Average sleep duration was 7.4 hours, below the recommended duration for this age. Adolescents using insulin pumps reported fewer sleep disturbances and longer sleep duration than those on injections, and older adolescents reported less sleep than younger adolescents. Poorer sleep duration was related to poorer diabetes management and better self-reported sleep quality was associated with better glycemic control for males but not for females. Assessing for and treating sleep disturbances in adolescents may improve diabetes management.

  7. Dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Hannah J; Draffin, Claire R; Woodside, Jayne V; Cardwell, Chris R; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Gallagher, Alison M; Neville, Charlotte E; McKinley, Michelle C

    2014-11-28

    Dietary pattern (DP) analysis allows examination of the combined effects of nutrients and foods on the markers of CVD. Very few studies have examined these relationships during adolescence or young adulthood. Traditional CVD risk biomarkers were analysed in 12-15-year-olds (n 487; Young Hearts (YH)1) and again in the same individuals at 20-25 years of age (n 487; YH3). Based on 7 d diet histories, in the present study, DP analysis was performed using a posteriori principal component analysis for the YH3 cohort and the a priori Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated for both YH1 and YH3 cohorts. In the a posteriori DP analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the 'healthy' DP were found to have lower pulse wave velocity (PWV) and homocysteine concentrations, the 'sweet tooth' DP were found to have increased LDL concentrations, and decreased HDL concentrations, [corrected] the 'drinker/social' DP were found to have lower LDL and homocysteine concentrations, but exhibited a trend towards a higher TAG concentration, and finally the 'Western' DP were found to have elevated homocysteine and HDL concentrations. In the a priori dietary score analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the Mediterranean diet were found to exhibit a trend towards a lower PWV. MDS did not track between YH1 and YH3, and nor was there a longitudinal relationship between the change in the MDS and the change in CVD risk biomarkers. In conclusion, cross-sectional analysis revealed that some associations between DP and CVD risk biomarkers were already evident in the young adult population, namely the association between the healthy DP (and the MDS) and PWV; however, no longitudinal associations were observed between these relatively short time periods.

  8. A qualitative study exploring perceived barriers to infant feeding and caregiving among adolescent girls and young women in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Kristy M; Mukta, Umme S; Jalal, Chowdhury S B; Sellen, Daniel W

    2015-08-11

    Infant feeding and caregiving by adolescent girls and young women in rural Bangladesh remains relatively understudied despite high potential vulnerability of younger mothers and their children due to poverty and high rates of early marriage and childbearing. This key knowledge gap may hamper the effectiveness of maternal, infant and child health interventions not specifically tailored to teenage mothers. This study aimed to narrow this gap by documenting key barriers to optimal infant and young child feeding and caregiving perceived by adolescent girls and young women in rural Bangladesh. Focus group discussions and in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 70 adolescent girls and young women participating in a community-based adolescent empowerment program in two rural regions of northwestern Bangladesh. Participants were stratified into three groups: unmarried, married without child, and married with child(ren). Thematic analysis was performed to elucidate dominant ideas regarding challenges with child feeding and caregiving across participant strata. Participants in all three strata and in both geographical regions attributed actual and anticipated caregiving difficulties to five major contextual factors: early marriage, maternal time allocation conflicts, rural life, short birth intervals, and poverty. Indications are that many girls and young women anticipate difficulties in feeding and caring for their future children from an early age, and often prior to motherhood. Participants articulated both perceived need and unmet demand for additional education in infant and young child feeding, childcare, and family planning techniques. Provision during adolescence of appropriate education, services and financial aid to support best practices for infant feeding and childcare could significantly improve maternal self-efficacy, mental health, nutrition security and young childcare, nutrition and health in rural Bangladesh. Lessons learned can be applied

  9. Young adult outcomes of children growing up with chronic illness: an analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Haydon, Abigail A; Ford, Carol Ann; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2011-03-01

    To examine young adult outcomes in a nationally representative US cohort of young adults growing up with a chronic illness. Secondary analysis of nationally representative data from wave III (in 2001) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. United States. The analytic sample comprised 13 236 young adults aged 18 to 28 years at wave III. Self-report of a chronic physical illness (asthma, cancer, diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy) in adolescence. Respondents with asthma or nonasthmatic chronic illness (cancer, diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy) were compared with individuals without these conditions. Self-report of high school graduation, ever having employment, currently having employment, living with a parent/guardian, and ever receiving public assistance. Three percent of young adults had nonasthmatic chronic illness (cancer, diabetes, or epilepsy), and 16.0% had asthma. Most young adults with chronic illness graduated high school (81.3%) and currently had employment (60.4%). However, compared with healthy young adults, those with nonasthmatic chronic illness were significantly less likely to graduate high school, ever have had employment, or currently have employment and were more likely to receive public assistance. Compared with young adults with asthma, those with nonasthmatic chronic illness again had significantly worse young adult outcomes on all measures. Most young adults growing up with a chronic illness graduate high school and have employment. However, these young adults are significantly less likely than their healthy peers to achieve these important educational and vocational milestones.

  10. Young Schema Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Specificity in Relation to Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulei; Wang, Jianping; Yu, Wei; He, Li; Oei, Tian P S

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the factor structure of Young Schema Questionnaire-short form (YSQ-SF) in a sample of Chinese adolescents, and to explore which maladaptive schemas were associated with anxiety symptoms. YSQ-SF was administered to 983 nonclinical Chinese adolescents aged 13-17 years. Confirmatory factor analyses with weighted least squares means and variance adjusted estimation were conducted to examine the factor structure of YSQ-SF. Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify schemas associated with anxiety symptoms. A bifactor model with 15 correlated factors fitted the data better than other priori defined models. Stepwise regressions showed Vulnerability to harm, Abandonment, Emotional inhibition, Subjugation, and Unrelenting standards schemas were associated with anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, different anxiety symptoms were associated with common and distinctive schemas. Maladaptive schemas were already stably formed in Chinese adolescents, however there's no robust evidence for the existence of domain. The explanatory value of maladaptive schemas for understanding psychopathology of anxiety in adolescence is discussed.

  11. Being a Young Migrant in Italy: The Effect of Perceived Social Support in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasso, Paola; Borraccino, Alberto; Lazzeri, Giacomo; Charrier, Lorena; Berchialla, Paola; Cavallo, Franco; Lemma, Patrizia

    2017-11-15

    Parental and peer support seems to be a favourable determining factor in the acculturation process among young immigrants. We aimed to assess the level of perceived support among first- and second-generation adolescent immigrants and compare it to that perceived by the adolescents from the host population. Using Italian HBSC survey data collected in 2013-2014, first- and second-generation immigrants aged 11, 13 and 15 years were classified according to their ethnic background as being from Western countries, Eastern European countries, or from non-Western/non-European countries. The domains of teacher, classmate, family, and peer support was measured through multidimensional, standardised, validated scales. Analyses were run on a 47,399 valid responses (2195 from Western countries, 2424 from Eastern European countries, and 2556 from non-Western/non-European countries). Adolescent immigrants from Eastern European countries and non-Western/non-European countries reported significantly lower support than their peers from the host population in all explored domains. Girls perceived a lower level of classmate and family support compared to boys across all ethnic backgrounds. We observed two different immigration patterns: the Western pattern, from more affluent countries, and the Eastern pattern. Among the latter, second-generation immigrants showed the lowest level of support in all domains. Increasing family connections and developing peer networks should favour the acculturation process among adolescent immigrants.

  12. Management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 in adolescent and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Karin; Weitzen, Sherry; Wu, Lily; Phipps, Maureen G; Boardman, Lori A

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate regression rates among adolescents (aged managed expectantly and to determine factors associated with disease regression. Cohort study using a colposcopic database of 2,996 women seen between August 1999 and November 2005. Colposcopy clinic in urban, tertiary care medical center. Adolescents with CIN 2. Routine management consisted of two options: immediate treatment or repeat colposcopic evaluation in 6 months. For those managed conservatively, regression was defined either as a subsequent normal colposcopy and/or biopsy and at least 2 smears read as negative for epithelial abnormality or at least 3 consecutive negative smears if repeat colposcopy was not performed. Demographic information, including age, was assessed to determine possible associations with disease regression. Of the 93 adolescents, 53 (57%) elected to undergo immediate treatment with a diagnostic excisional procedure, and 40 (43%) chose management with colposcopic follow-up. Of those treated, high-grade disease (CIN 2+) was found in 40 (75%). Of the 36 young women followed conservatively (4 were lost to follow-up), regression after a median follow-up time of 378 days was documented in 14 (39%). Of the 22 adolescents not fulfilling our criteria for regression, only 3 had evidence of CIN 2 or worse during follow-up. The remaining 19 had either CIN 1 or mildly abnormal cytologic results. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates indicated younger age (management in this population should consist of cytologic and colposcopic follow-up.

  13. Mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviours among young migrants: multicentre study of European adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Paul; Keeley, Helen; Cannon, Mary; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Banzer, Raphaela; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cozman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Kereszteny, Agnes; Bitenc, Ursa Mars; Nemes, Bogdan; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Sisask, Merike; Tubiana, Alexandra; Värnik, Peeter; Hoven, Christina W.; Wasserman, Danuta

    2017-01-01

    Background Migration has been reported to be associated with higher prevalence of mental disorders and suicidal behaviour. Aims To examine the prevalence of emotional and behavioural difficulties, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among migrant adolescents and their non-migrant peers. Method A school-based survey was completed by 11 057 European adolescents as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study. Results A previous suicide attempt was reported by 386 (3.6%) adolescents. Compared with non-migrants, first-generation migrants had an elevated prevalence of suicide attempts (odds ratio (OR) 2.08; 95% CI 1.32–3.26; P=0.001 for European migrants and OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.06–3.27; P=0.031 for non-European migrants) and significantly higher levels of peer difficulties. Highest levels of conduct and hyperactivity problems were found among migrants of non-European origin. Conclusions Appropriate mental health services and school-based supports are required to meet the complex needs of migrant adolescents. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:29234521

  14. [Body image, psychological symptoms and eating disorders among Chilean adolescents and young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat-Mandich, Claudia; Díaz-Castrillón, Fernanda; Lizana-Calderón, Paula; Castro, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The construction of body image is crucial during adolescent development. Several studies show that body dissatisfaction is common, especially among women. This is a risk factor for eating behavior disorders. To describe psychological variables and dimensions about body image among adolescents and young adults. Three self-administered questionnaires, MBSRQ (Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire) that measures body image, Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) that measures the presence of psychological and psychiatric symptoms and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), which measures eating problems, were applied to 1,438 students aged 19 ± 2.7 years (53% women) from three Chilean regions. Sixty five percent of respondents would like to weigh less. Compared with men, women have greater psychological distress, concerns about their appearance and their weight, are more obsessed with thinness, and have fewer behaviors aimed at solving these problems. A high percentage of respondents want to lose weight. In addition, women have serious desires and search for thinness.

  15. Psychophysiological deficits in young adolescents with psychosis or ADHD: Preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydkjær, Jacob; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    adolescents (age 12-17 years) with either first episode psychosis or ADHD and age and gender matched healthy controls has been recruited. The assessments include a diagnostic interview, psychopathological ratings and psychophysiological assessment of prepulse inhibiton of the startle reflex (PPI) with high....... No significant group difference was found in the lower intensity prepulse trials. Conclusion: The preliminary results indicate lower levels of PPI in adolescents with early onset psychosis than in young patients with ADHD. If these results hold in the final analyses then this knowledge may contribute to better......Background: Schizophrenia and ADHD share a number of attention related symptoms and cognitive impairments. Early onset psychosis may precede a development of schizophrenia and must be distinguished from ADHD. Psychophysiological deficits are studied as endophenotypic markers of psychosis and may...

  16. Heterosocial involvement, peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction among young adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondoli, Dawn M; Corning, Alexandra F; Salafia, Elizabeth H Blodgett; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia. PMID:26855554

  18. Suicidal Behaviour Among Adolescents and Young Adults with Self-Reported Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Rhodes, Anne E; Kimber, Melissa; Duncan, Laura; Boyle, Michael H; Georgiades, Katholiki; Gonzalez, Andrea; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the: (1) 12-mo prevalence of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts in a population sample of adolescents and young adults with and without chronic illness; (2) associations among chronic illness and suicidal thoughts and behaviour (STB); and, (3) moderating roles of mood and substance use disorder on this association. Individuals were aged 15 to 30 y ( n = 5,248) from the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. Twelve-month STB and psychiatric disorder were measured using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Multinomial logistic regression examined associations between chronic illness and STB, adjusting for relevant sociodemographic and health characteristics. Product term interactions among chronic illness, mood, and substance use disorders were included in the regression models to examine potential moderating effects. Prevalence of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts was higher in individuals with chronic illness ( P < 0.01 for all). After adjustment, chronic illness increased the odds for suicidal thoughts [OR = 1.28 (1.01 to 1.64)], plans [OR = 2.34 (1.22 to 4.39)], and attempts [OR = 4.63 (1.52 to 14.34)]. In the presence v. absence of a mood disorder, the odds for suicidal thoughts were higher among individuals with chronic illness [OR = 1.89 (1.06 to 5.28)]. Suicidal thoughts and behaviours are common among adolescents and young adults with chronic illness, particularly among those with comorbid mood disorders. Health professionals should routinely ask about STB during assessments of their adolescent and young adult patients.

  19. Who cares for adolescents and young adults with cancer in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Helena T G; Balmant, Nathalie V; de Paula Silva, Neimar; Santos, Marceli de O; Reis, Rejane de S; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2017-09-06

    Approximately 6% of all cancers arise in adolescents and young adults. Currently, the ward type best placed to treat this patient group remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate exactly where adolescents and young adults with cancer are treated in Brazil. Data were extracted from 271 Brazilian hospital-based cancer registries (2007-2011), including all five national regions (North, Northeast, Midwest, South, and Southeast). Variables included gender, age, ethnicity, National Code of Health Establishment, hospital unit state, and region. Tumors were classified according to the World Health Organization classification for adolescents and young adults with cancer. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were computed by unconditional logistic regression. Most patients were managed on medical oncology wards, followed by pediatric oncology and then by non-specialist wards. Of patients aged 15-19 years, 49% were managed on pediatric wards; most of the older patients (96%; aged 20-24) were managed on adult wards. Patients were more likely to be seen in medical oncology wards as their age increased (OR=2.03 [1.98-2.09]), or if they were based in the South (OR=1.50 [1.29-1.73]). Conversely, bone tumors were less likely to be treated (decreased OR) on medical oncology wards, regardless of age, gender, and region. An elevated risk of treatment on medical oncology wards was observed for older patients and those treated in the South. Bone tumors were generally treated in pediatric oncology wards, while skin cancers were treated in medical oncology wards, regardless of age, gender, and region. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  20. Binge eating and emotional eating behaviors among adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katharine; Woo, Julia; Timmins, Vanessa; Collins, Jordan; Islam, Alvi; Newton, Dwight; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates nutritional behavior among adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder (BP) in comparison to those without history of major psychiatric disorder. 131 participants (82 BP, 49 controls) with a mean age of 16.11 ± 1.61 years were included. The self-reported Quick Weight, Activity, Variety & Excess (WAVE) Screener was used to assess dietary habits, yielding a total nutritional score as well as Excess, Variety, and Household Food Insecurity subscale scores. Specifically, the Variety subscale was used to measure daily consumption of essential nutrients; the Excess subscale measured unhealthy eating behaviors such as binge eating and excessive intake of fat and sugar; and the Household Food Insecurity subscale was used to detect food insecurity. Within-group analysis was conducted on participants with BP to identify correlates of unhealthy diet. BP participants scored significantly lower than controls on the WAVE (t=2.62, p=0.010), specifically the Excess subscale (t=3.26, p=0.001). This was related to higher prevalence of binge eating and emotional eating behaviors among participants with BP compared to controls. Within-group analyses showed that self-reported emotional dysregulation/impulsivity was associated with maladaptive nutritional behaviors (t=3.38, p=0.035). Cross-sectional design. Within-group analyses were underpowered. Diet quality was measured using a brief self-report screener. Adolescents and young adults with BP have poorer nutritional behaviors compared to controls, and this difference is related to stress-induced eating. This demonstrates the need to screen for stress-induced eating and to intervene when needed in order to optimize nutritional behaviors among adolescents and young adults with BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrition, lifestyle factors, and mental health in adolescents and young adults living in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Julia; Aldrian, Ulrike; Stüger, Hans Peter; Kiefer, Ingrid; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Due to an alarming trend of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, along with the sparse data on dietary habits and lifestyle factors, the present study aims to analyze the current nutritional behavior as well as the lifestyle and mental health of adolescents and young adults living in Austria. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 500 respondents (aged between 14 and 24 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire on nutrition behavior, mental health, and lifestyle factors by Internet survey. Only 50% of the participants ate breakfast daily and 10% did not eat breakfast at all. About 47% of the respondents consumed milk and milk products daily. Furthermore, only 31% ate fruit and 21% ate vegetables at least once a day, and 46% ate fish seldom or never. Nearly 28% of young people liked to eat fast food twice or thrice a week and more, with males more often replacing a meal with a fast food product (36%) than females (21%). About 46% of the respondents engaged in physical activity only once a week (or more rarely). A fifth of our respondents (23%) spent more than 2 h a day using various social networks, with Facebook being the most popular social network among the respondents. Around 27% claimed to be smokers, with more female (33%) than male (20%) smoker. In terms of sleeping habits, 19% slept <6 h a day. Regarding well-being, 44% were more likely to feel stressed, 35% stated that they were tense, and 43% felt tired and listless. Eating together, physical activity, and sleep patterns showed positive effects on well-being, whereas higher consumption of fast food/snacks/soft drinks and alcoholic drinks/energy drinks was associated with relatively lower well-being. Unhealthy eating habits, suboptimal physical activity, and smoking are still prominent in a sample of Austrian adolescents and young people. In addition, stress and tiredness are also relevant problems in this collective.

  2. The Age-IPV Curve: Changes in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration during Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has evolved over the last decade with increasing interest in how IPV develops over adolescence and young adulthood. Studies examining patterns of IPV over time have generally focused on victimization with less attention to temporal shifts in perpetration. While it is generally assumed that IPV peaks during young adulthood, this has not been empirically verified and documented. Additionally, prior longitudinal analyses of IPV have focused on identifying trajectories and their accompanying risk factors, with less attention given to within-individual change in IPV experiences across and within relationships. Drawing on five waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), we examined patterns of the perpetration of IPV among a diverse sample of adolescents and young adults (51.1% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic White, 24.6% non-Hispanic Black, 11.5% Hispanic) spanning the ages of 13–28 years (N = 1,164). Analyses demonstrated that IPV patterns deviate from the age-crime curve, with women’s involvement in IPV increasing, while their involvement in other antisocial behaviors is decreasing. Traditional behavioral and psychological risk factors (delinquency, alcohol and drug use, depressive symptoms) accounted for some of the age variation in IPV for men, but these factors did not account for age variation in IPV among women. Relationship risk factors including frequency of disagreements, trust, jealousy, validation and self-disclosure, however, accounted for substantial portions of the age-IPV perpetration relationship for male and female youth. These findings reinforce recent calls for prevention efforts that focus on the development and maintenance of healthy relationships. PMID:25081024

  3. Intimate partner violence in late adolescence and young adulthood and subsequent cardiovascular risk in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Alonso, Alvaro; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Spencer, Rachael A; Brady, Sonya S; Resnick, Michael D; Borowsky, Iris W; Connett, John E; Krueger, Robert F; Nguyen-Feng, Viann N; Feng, Steven L; Suglia, Shakira F

    2016-06-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been linked to adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) in late adolescence and young adulthood and CVD risk later in adulthood. To examine whether IPV perpetration and victimization experienced in late adolescence and young adulthood are associated with CVD risk among adults in the United States and whether this relationship differs by sex. Data include 9976 participants (50% female) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Physical and sexual IPV were measured at wave 3 (2001/02) with items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Participants'30-year risk of CVD was calculated at wave 4 (2008/09) using a Framingham prediction model. Linear regression models adjusted for confounders and IPV by sex interaction terms were tested to examine the relationship. The mean CVD risk score was 13.18% (95% CI: 12.71, 13.64). Aone-standard deviation increase in the victimization score was associated with a 0.28% (95% CI: 0.03, 0.54) increase in CVD risk. Perpetration was similarly positively associated with CVD risk (beta: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.62). When measured as a composite, all violence types were associated with increased CVD risk but only prior exposure to both victimization and perpetration reached statistical significance (0.62%, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.22). No differences by sex were detected. Effect sizes are not large, but early detection of increased CVD risk in this relatively young population is notable and worthy of further study to inform the clinical response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W

    The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement : Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did ( n =31) or did not ( n =50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia.

  5. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S.

    2017-01-01

    Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers. PMID:28588530

  6. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S

    2017-01-01

    Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today's culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women ( n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  7. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Dhir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies, editing (cropping and filtering, and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%. The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  8. Cell-based therapy improves function in adolescents and young adults with patellar osteochondritis dissecans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Bryon J X; Buhary, Kizher; Tai, Bee-Choo; Hui, James H

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances have been made in using chondrocytes and other cell-based therapy to treat cartilage defects in adults. However, it is unclear whether these advances should be extended to the adolescent and young adult-aged patients. We assessed cell-based surgical therapy for patellar osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in adolescents and young adults by (1) determining function with the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective and Lysholm-Gillquist scores; and (2) evaluating activity level using the Tegner-Lysholm scale. We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients between 12 and 21 years of age (mean 16.8 years) treated for OCD lesions involving the patella from 2001 to 2008. Twenty patients had autologous chondrocyte implantation and three patients had cultured bone marrow stem cell implantation. There were 19 males and four females. We obtained preoperative CT scans to assess patella subluxation, tilt, and congruence angle to determine choice of treatment. We obtained IKDC subjective knee evaluation scores, Tegner-Lysholm activity levels, and Lysholm-Gillquist knee scores preoperatively and at 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Mean IKDC score, Tegner-Lysholm outcomes, and Lysholm-Gillquist scale improved from 45, 2.5, and 50, respectively, at surgery to 75, 4, and 70, respectively, at 24-month followup. Complications include periosteal hypertrophy observed in two patients. Cell-based therapy was associated with short-term improvement in function in adolescents and young adults with patellar OCD. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Stability and change in patterns of eating disorder symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Carolyn M; Miller, Jonathan; Ackard, Diann M; Loth, Katie A; Wall, Melanie M; Haynos, Ann F; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-07-01

    Using a community adolescent sample, we aimed to (a) empirically derive eating disorder (ED) symptom groups, (b) examine the longitudinal stability of those groups over 10 years, and (c) identify risk factors associated with ED group stability and transition through young adulthood. Young people (N = 2,287) from the Project EAT cohort participated at baseline (1998-1999) and at 10-year follow-up (2008-2009). Participants completed anthropometric measures at baseline and self-report surveys on disordered eating symptoms and risk factors at both time points. Latent transition modeling was used to test the first two aims and multinomial logistic regression was used for the third aim. Three groups emerged and were labeled as: (a) asymptomatic, (b) dieting, (c) disordered eating (e.g., binge eating, compensatory behaviors). Stability of group membership over 10 years was highest for those in the asymptomatic group, while those in the dieting group showed equal likelihood of transitioning to any group. There was a 75% chance that those in the disordered eating group would continue to belong to a symptomatic group 10 years later. We found that these transitions could be predicted by baseline risk factors. For example, adolescents with one standard deviation higher depressive symptoms than their peers had 53% higher odds (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.09-2.16) of transitioning from the asymptomatic group to the disordered eating group. Transition among ED groups is relatively common during adolescence and early adulthood. By targeting risk factors such as self-esteem and familial factors in early adolescence, prevention efforts may be improved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Reproductive health education and sexual risk among high-risk female adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.

  11. Iyengar yoga for adolescents and young adults with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C; Seidman, Laura C; Sternlieb, Beth; Zeltzer, Lonnie K; Tsao, Jennie C I

    2014-08-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, disabling condition that greatly compromises patient functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a 6-week twice per week Iyengar yoga (IY) program on IBS symptoms in adolescents and young adults (YA) with IBS compared with a usual-care waitlist control group. Assessments of symptoms, global improvement, pain, health-related quality of life, psychological distress, functional disability, fatigue, and sleep were collected pre- and posttreatment. Weekly ratings of pain, IBS symptoms, and global improvement were also recorded until 2-month follow-up. A total of 51 participants completed the intervention (yoga = 29; usual-care waitlist = 22). Baseline attrition was 24%. On average, the yoga group attended 75% of classes. Analyses were divided by age group. Relative to controls, adolescents (14-17 years) assigned to yoga reported significantly improved physical functioning, whereas YA (18-26 years) assigned to yoga reported significantly improved IBS symptoms, global improvement, disability, psychological distress, sleep quality, and fatigue. Although abdominal pain intensity was statistically unchanged, 44% of adolescents and 46% of YA reported a minimally clinically significant reduction in pain following yoga, and one-third of YA reported clinically significant levels of global symptom improvement. Analysis of the uncontrolled effects and maintenance of treatment effects for adolescents revealed global improvement immediately post-yoga that was not maintained at follow-up. For YA, global improvement, worst pain, constipation, and nausea were significantly improved postyoga, but only global improvement, worst pain, and nausea maintained at the 2-month follow-up. The findings suggest that a brief IY intervention is a feasible and safe adjunctive treatment for young people with IBS, leading to benefits in a number of IBS-specific and general functioning domains for YA. The age-specific results

  12. Regional hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy in paediatric, adolescent and young adult patients: current and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, Georg; Budach, Volker; Keilholz, Ulrich; Wust, Peter; Eggert, Angelika; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2016-01-01

    Here we evaluate the current status of clinical research on regional hyperthermia (RHT) in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy in paediatric oncology. Data were identified in searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using medical subject headings including hyperthermia, cancer, paediatric oncology, children, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Currently, only two RHT centres exist in Europe which treat children. Clinical RHT research in paediatric oncology has as yet been limited to children with sarcomas and germ cell tumours that respond poorly to or recur after chemotherapy. RHT is a safe and effective treatment delivering local thermic effects, which may also stimulate immunological processes via heat-shock protein reactions. RHT is used chiefly in children and adolescents with sarcomas or germ cell tumours located in the abdomino-pelvic region, chest wall or extremities to improve operability or render the tumour operable. It could potentially be combined with radiation therapy in a post-operative R1 setting where more radical surgery is not possible or combined with chemotherapy instead of radiation therapy in cases where the necessary radiation dose is impossible to achieve or would have mutilating consequences. RHT might also be an option for chemotherapy intensification in the neoadjuvant first-line treatment setting for children and adolescents, as was recently reflected in the promising long-term outcome data in adults with high-risk soft tissue sarcomas (EORTC 62961/ESHO trial). The limited data available indicate that combining RHT with chemotherapy is a promising option to treat germ cell tumours and, potentially, sarcomas. RHT may also be beneficial in first-line therapy in children, adolescents and young adults. The research should focus on optimising necessary technical demands and then initiate several clinical trials incorporating RHT into interdisciplinary treatment of children

  13. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J; Sargent, James D

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012-2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary fully adjusted models, baseline e-cigarette use was independently associated with progression to smoking

  14. Long-term prognosis of transient lone bilateral blindness in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, S; Dennis, M; Warlow, C; Jordan, N; Sagar, H

    1994-01-01

    We describe a group of 14 patients aged 8-38 years at presentation who had one or more sudden transient attacks of bilateral blindness. Eight patients described bilateral blindness as their only symptom whereas six others experienced some mild associated symptoms. Visual loss always developed within seconds and attacks were often precipitated by exercise, stress, or postural change. Of 13 patients available for review, none suffered a major vascular event during a mean follow up of 10 years. When adolescents and young adults present with transient bilateral blindness, investigations are unlikely to reveal a cause and the long-term prognosis appears benign. PMID:8006656

  15. Regulatory barriers to clinical trial enrollment of adolescent and young adult oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgenhauer, Judy; Hooke, Mary C

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer may face unique challenges if they and their families wish to participate in clinical oncology trials. Regulatory guidelines and funding requirements put in place to protect patients may actually raise barriers to enrollment in clinical trials. Hospital age guidelines may need to be readdressed to better suit the needs of AYA patients. Finally, the creation of the National Clinical Trials Network will provide new opportunities for pediatric and medical oncologists to collaborate in the care of AYA patients. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Predicting antisocial behavior among latino young adolescents: an ecological systems analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamon, Mary Keegan; Mulder, Cray

    2005-01-01

    The authors used data from a national sample of 420 Latino young adolescents to examine multiple predictors of antisocial behavior within an ecological systems framework. They found that boys and youths who lived a higher proportion of their life in poverty exhibited higher levels of antisocial behavior, and mothers' acculturation was associated with lower levels. Neighborhood and school environments, exposure to deviant peer pressure, and 3 parenting practices--parent-youth attachment, physical punishment, and mothers' monitoring--were related to Latino youth antisocial behavior. Neighborhood quality and peer pressure explained the relation between poverty and an increased risk for antisocial behavior.

  17. Effective peer-to-peer support for young people with end-stage renal disease: a mixed methods evaluation of Camp COOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Camp COOL programme aims to help young Dutch people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) develop self-management skills. Fellow patients already treated in adult care (hereafter referred to as ‘buddies’) organise the day-to-day program, run the camp, counsel the attendees, and also participate in the activities. The attendees are young people who still have to transfer to adult care. This study aimed to explore the effects of this specific form of peer-to-peer support on the self-management of young people (16–25 years) with ESRD who participated in Camp COOL (CC) (hereafter referred to as ‘participants’). Methods A mixed methods research design was employed. Semi-structured interviews (n = 19) with initiators/staff, participants, and healthcare professionals were conducted. These were combined with retrospective and pre-post surveys among participants (n = 62), and observations during two camp weeks. Results Self-reported effects of participants were: increased self-confidence, more disease-related knowledge, feeling capable of being more responsible and open towards others, and daring to stand up for yourself. According to participants, being a buddy or having one positively affected them. Self-efficacy of attendees and independence of buddies increased, while attendees’ sense of social inclusion decreased (measured as domains of health-related quality of life). The buddy role was a pro-active combination of being supervisor, advisor, and leader. Conclusions Camp COOL allowed young people to support each other in adjusting to everyday life with ESRD. Participating in the camp positively influenced self-management in this group. Peer-to-peer support through buddies was much appreciated. Support from young adults was not only beneficial for adolescent attendees, but also for young adult buddies. Paediatric nephrologists are encouraged to refer patients to CC and to facilitate such initiatives. Together with nephrologists in adult

  18. Prevalence and severity of fatigue in adolescents and young adults with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Doser, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and severity of fatigue in adolescents and young adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) compared with healthy controls (HCs) and to examine associations between fatigue and gender, age and level of education. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 15......-30 year old patients with ABI and a convenience sample of 15-30 year old HCs. All participants completed the 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Pathological fatigue was defined as "General Fatigue" ≥12. Adjusted mean differences between groups were calculated using multivariate analysis...... had elevated scores on the "Reduced Activity" and "Mental Fatigue" subscales. Age was not associated with any of the subscale scores. CONCLUSION: Young patients with ABI had markedly higher prevalence and severity of fatigue than HCs. Age (15-30 years) was not associated with fatigue. No clear...

  19. Brief Introduction of NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines for Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is always a main factor threatening human’s health and life, and its incidence and mortality are gradually increasing in recent years. However, some advances have been made with the unremitting efforts and exploration human made and the improvement is mainly made in cancer treatment of young children and older adults, while little in adolescent and young adult (AYA patients, who are generally defined as individuals of 15 to 39 years old at the time of initial cancer diagnosis due to many factors. To highlight the issues of this unique population, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN absorbs a large amount of information and previous researches and develops a set of clinical practice guidelines. Though the guidelines are more supportive care guidelines than treatment guidelines, they give us the opportunity to learn the latest international developments in AYA treatment and more survival chance for the treatment of AYA patients.

  20. Human papillomavirus vaccine and sexual behavior among adolescent and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddon, Nicole C; Leichliter, Jami S; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines to prevent certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated cancers are recommended for routine use among young women. Nationally representative reports of vaccine uptake have not explored the relationship between HPV vaccine initiation and various sexual behaviors. Explore sexual behavior and demographic correlates of HPV vaccine initiation from a nationally representative survey of adolescent and young adult women. In 2007-2008, a total of 1243 girls/women aged 15-24 years responded to questions about receiving HPV vaccine in the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). In 2010, demographic and sexual behavior correlates were evaluated in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age. HPV vaccine initiation was higher among those aged 15-19 years than those aged 20-24 years (30.3% vs 15.9%, p19 years. No association was found between HPV vaccination and risky sexual behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy of the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program: rationale and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Kylie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition to adolescence is a time of increased vulnerability for risk taking and poor health, social and academic outcomes. Parents have an important role in protecting their children from these potential harms. While the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing problem behavior has been demonstrated, it is not known if parenting programs that target families prior to the onset of significant behavioral difficulties in early adolescence (9-14 years improve the wellbeing of adolescents and their parents. This paper describes the rationale and methodology of a randomised controlled trial testing the efficacy of a parenting program for the promotion of factors known to be associated with positive adolescent outcomes, such as positive parenting practices, parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent behavior. Methods/Design One hundred and eighty parents were randomly allocated to an intervention or wait list control group. Parents in the intervention group participated in the ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program, a 6-session behavioral family intervention program which also incorporates acceptance-based strategies. Participants in the Wait List control group did not receive the intervention during a six month waiting period. The study was designed to comply with recommendations of the CONSORT statement. The primary outcome measures were reduction in parent-adolescent conflict and improvements in parent-adolescent relationships. Secondary outcomes included improvements in parent psychosocial wellbeing, parenting self-efficacy and perceived effectiveness, parent-adolescent communication and adolescent behavior. Conclusions Despite the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child behavioral difficulties, very few parenting programs for preventing problems in adolescents have been described in the peer reviewed literature. This study will provide data which can be used to examine the efficacy of a

  2. Exploring gender and identity issues among female adolescent and young adults who connect in an anonymous platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounders, Kathrynn; Stowers, Kirsten; Wilcox, Gary; Love, Brad; Mackert, Michael

    2017-04-01

    There has been an increased usage of online cancer support groups as a resource for health-related information and social support. This work analyzes message blog posts from an anonymous online support community to better understand issues related to gender and identity among female adolescent and young adults. This work sheds further light into the nuances of gender and identity issues including motherhood and reproductive issues, physical appearance, and romantic relationships. Specifically, findings reveal that female adolescent and young adults experience issues pertaining to infertility, feeling like a bad mom, hair loss, scarring, dating, and intimacy. These findings of this work offer further guidance about how healthcare providers and caregivers can attempt to meet the needs of female adolescent and young adults.

  3. Transition from pediatric to adult care for adolescents and young adults with a disorder of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, Stephanie E; Chalmers, Laura J; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2012-04-01

    Over the past twenty years, there has been an increasing awareness of the transition to adult-oriented health care in adolescents and young adults with a chronic illness. While general guidelines for health care transition have been established, some have called for illness-specific guidelines which are tailored to the needs of specific illness populations. The current paper sought to outline illness-specific guidelines for health care transition in adolescents and young adults with disorders of sex development based upon the recent American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. We also suggest indicators of successful transition for adolescents and young adults with disorders of sex development as well as areas for future research.

  4. The combined influence of genetic factors and sedentary activity on body mass changes from adolescence to young adulthood: the National Longitudinal Adolescent Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, M; North, K E; Monda, K L; Lange, E M; Lange, L A; Guo, G; Gordon-Larsen, P

    2011-01-01

    an increase in sedentary activities is likely a major contributor to the rise in obesity over the last three decades. Little research has examined interactions between genetic variants and sedentary activity on obesity phenotypes. High levels of sedentary activity during adolescence may interact with genetic factors to influence body mass changes between adolescence and young adulthood, a high risk period for weight gain. in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, siblings and twin pairs (16.5 ± 1.7 years) were followed into young adulthood (22.4 ± 1.8 years). Self-reported screen time (TV, video, and computer use in h/week) and body mass index (kg/m(2) ), calculated from measured height and weight at adolescence and at young adulthood, were available for 3795 participants. We employed a variance component approach to estimate the interaction between genotype and screen time for body mass changes. Additive genotype-by-screen time interactions were assessed using likelihood-ratio tests. Models were adjusted for race, age, sex, and age-by-sex interaction. the genetic variation in body mass changes was significantly larger in individuals with low ( δ(G) = 27.59 ± 1.58) compared with high (δ(G) = 18.76 ± 2.59) levels of screen time (p adolescence. Our findings demonstrate that sedentary activities during adolescence may interact with genetic factors to influence body mass changes between adolescence and young adulthood. Accounting for obesity-related behaviours may improve current understanding of the genetic variation in body mass changes. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Benefits of a transfer clinic in adolescent and young adult kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Rory F; Toulany, Alene; Kaufman, Miriam; Schiff, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients have worse graft outcomes than older and younger age groups. Difficulties in the process of transition, defined as the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents with chronic health conditions from child to adult-centered health care systems, may contribute to this. Improving the process of transition may improve adherence post-transfer to adult care services. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a kidney transplant transfer clinic for adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients transitioning from pediatric to adult care improves adherence post-transfer. We developed a joint kidney transplant transfer clinic between a pediatric kidney transplant program, adult kidney transplant program, and adolescent medicine at two academic health centers. The transfer clinic facilitated communication between the adult and pediatric transplant teams, a face-to-face meeting of the patient with the adult team, and a meeting with the adolescent medicine physician. We compared the outcomes of 16 kidney transplant recipients transferred before the clinic was established with 16 patients who attended the clinic. The primary outcome was a composite measure of non-adherence. Non-adherence was defined as either self-reported medication non-adherence or displaying two of the following three characteristics: non-attendance at clinic, non-attendance for blood work appointments, or undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels within 1 year post-transfer. The two groups were similar at baseline, with non-adherence identified in 43.75 % of patients. Non-adherent behavior in the year post-transfer, which included missing clinic visits, missing regular blood tests, and undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels, was significantly lower in the cohort which attended the transfer clinic (18.8 versus 62.5 %, p = 0.03). The median change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the year following transfer

  6. Benefits of a Transfer Clinic in Adolescent and Young Adult Kidney Transplant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory F. McQuillan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients have worse graft outcomes than older and younger age groups. Difficulties in the process of transition, defined as the purposeful, planned movement of adolescents with chronic health conditions from child to adult-centered health care systems, may contribute to this. Improving the process of transition may improve adherence post-transfer to adult care services. Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a kidney transplant transfer clinic for adolescent and young adult kidney transplant recipients transitioning from pediatric to adult care improves adherence post-transfer. Methods: We developed a joint kidney transplant transfer clinic between a pediatric kidney transplant program, adult kidney transplant program, and adolescent medicine at two academic health centers. The transfer clinic facilitated communication between the adult and pediatric transplant teams, a face-to-face meeting of the patient with the adult team, and a meeting with the adolescent medicine physician. We compared the outcomes of 16 kidney transplant recipients transferred before the clinic was established with 16 patients who attended the clinic. The primary outcome was a composite measure of non-adherence. Non-adherence was defined as either self-reported medication non-adherence or displaying two of the following three characteristics: non-attendance at clinic, non-attendance for blood work appointments, or undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels within 1 year post-transfer. Results: The two groups were similar at baseline, with non-adherence identified in 43.75 % of patients. Non-adherent behavior in the year post-transfer, which included missing clinic visits, missing regular blood tests, and undetectable calcineurin inhibitor levels, was significantly lower in the cohort which attended the transfer clinic (18.8 versus 62.5 %, p = 0.03. The median change in estimated glomerular

  7. Integrative Review: Delivery of Healthcare Services to Adolescents and Young Adults During and After Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer L

    The purpose of this integrative review is to summarize evidence describing delivery of healthcare services to adolescents while in foster care and to young adults after they exit foster care. The long-term, deleterious effect of abuse and/or neglect by caregivers among youth who have been placed in foster care is grounded in empirical evidence demonstrating the relationship between long-term health needs and exposure to trauma in childhood. Evidence is needed to provide culturally-specific care and also to identify knowledge gaps in the care of adolescents and young adults who have been in the foster care system. Peer-reviewed research studies published between 2004 and 2014 that include samples of youth 12 to 30 years of age are included in the review. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Physical and behavioral healthcare needs among youth with foster care experience are significant. The ability to adequately meet health needs are inextricable from the ability to negotiate resources and to successfully interact with adults. Challenges that youth with foster care histories experience when transitioning into young adulthood are comparable to other populations of vulnerable youth not in foster care. Nurses must use each healthcare encounter to assess how the social determinants of health facilitate or impede optimal health among youth with foster care experience. The development of integrated intervention strategies to inform best practice models is a priority for current and former foster care youth as they transition into young adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring abortion attitudes of US adolescents and young adults using social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna L; Gerns Storey, Helen L; Prager, Sarah W

    2015-03-01

    To explore the use of social media for recruitment of adolescents and young adults in the United States and to describe how they learn and feel about abortion. Americans 13-29years of age were recruited through web-based social media to complete an online survey about sex and pregnancy-related decision making, including abortion. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the study population's demographics and prevalence of sexual experience to national databases [US Census and National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)] and to describe abortion attitudes and related topics. Survey completion rate was 78% and 996 participants' responses were analyzed. The study population appeared diverse with respect to gender, ethnicity, race and geographic distribution with some similarities to the US Census and was sexually active at an earlier age compared to the NSFG. While the majority of participants supported abortion (74%), acceptance of abortion for themselves or their partners varied based on circumstances. The media were the most popular sources of information for learning about sex and abortion (73% and 68%, respectively). Parents had the most influence on individuals' abortion stances compared to other sources. Social media recruitment, compared to traditional methods, has the potential to reach a geographically, ethnically and racially diverse group of young people to study sensitive topics in an economical and expedient fashion. Similar to the general population, the study population's abortion views fell on a spectrum with overall supportive attitudes toward abortion. The media served as common sources of information for learning about both sex and abortion. Web-based social media offer a novel recruiting strategy to study sensitive topics such as abortion attitudes among difficult-to-reach populations such as adolescents and young adults. The presented findings begin characterizing young people's abortion attitudes, offering a foundation for more in-depth research

  9. Racial differences in the consequences of childhood maltreatment for adolescent and young adult depression, heavy drinking, and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chioun; Cronley, Courtney; White, Helene Raskin; Mun, Eun-Young; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in the consequences of childhood maltreatment for depression, heavy drinking, and violence during adolescence and young adulthood among black and white young men. Data were obtained from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a prospective longitudinal study of urban males (N = 971, 56% black). Childhood maltreatment was defined as substantiated physical or sexual abuse, physical neglect, emotional maltreatment, or moral/legal/educational maltreatment, with the first referral before 12 years of age. Self-reports of depressive symptoms and heavy drinking (consuming more than six drinks on a single occasion) and official, parent, and self-reports of violent offending were assessed between 12 and 17 years of age (adolescence) and at 24/25 years of age (young adulthood). Regression analyses were conducted to examine childhood maltreatment and race, as well as maltreatment-by-race interactions, as predictors of the three outcomes. Prevalence of childhood maltreatment was higher for black than for white boys; however, there were no racial differences in timing, type, severity, and chronicity of maltreatment. When socioeconomic status and cohort were controlled, childhood maltreatment significantly predicted depressive symptoms and violence in adolescence but none of the outcomes in young adulthood. Race was a significant predictor of heavy drinking and violence during adolescence, and of all three outcomes in young adulthood. No significant race-by-maltreatment interaction effects were found. Childhood maltreatment has similar negative consequences for black and white male youth during adolescence. Extending intervention efforts through adolescence is important to alleviate these problems among victims. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Emergency Department Visits for Drug-Related Suicide Attempts Involving Antidepressants by Adolescents and Young Adults: 2004 to 2008. The DAWN Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, adolescents made 23,124 visits to the emergency department (ED) for drug-related suicide attempts, and young adults made 38,036 such visits; of these visits, 23.0 percent (5,312 visits) among adolescents and 17.6 percent (6,700 visits) among young adults involved antidepressants. Among ED visits for suicide attempts involving…

  11. A Different Kind of Kid, a Different Kind of Teacher Education: Middle Grades Teachers Reflect on Their Preparation to Teach Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochanji, Moses K.; Chen, Rong-Ji; Daniels, Erika; Deringer, Marlene L.; McDaniel, Janet; Stowell, Laurie; Cambra-Adamson, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Good teaching at the middle grades comes out of a deep understanding of the unique cognitive, physical, social, emotional, and moral needs of young adolescents. Specialized preparation therefore is necessary to help teacher candidates understand how to operationalize the intersection of young adolescent development and the effective pedagogy that…

  12. Parental Smoking and Adolescent Smoking Stages: The Role of Parents' Current and Former Smoking, and Family Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Bricker, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of parents’ current and former smoking in predicting adolescent smoking acquisition stages. Participants were 7,426 students from 33 schools in the Netherlands. Participants’ survey data were gathered at baseline and at two-year follow-up. Logistic regression models

  13. Application of the Social Cognitive theory to predict stages of change in exercise for Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edio Luiz Petroski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is characterized by a peak decline in physical activity levels. Psychological theories, such as Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model have been applied in order to explain the regularity of youth physical activity adherence. These theories, however, are rarely applied to study physical activity behavior in Brazilian adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine personal, behavioral and environmental characteristics associated with different stages of exercise behavior among a sample of Brazilian adolescents. The participants were 488 high-school students (57.5% boys with ages ranging from 14 to 17 years. Valid and reliable instruments were used to measure self-reported physical activity, social cognitive variables and also stages of change in exercise behavior. Multivariate discriminant analyses and One-Way ANOVA were performed to identify associations among these variables and stages of change. Self-efficacy was a significant predictor (p RESUMO A adolescência é caracterizada pelo acentuado declínio nos níveis de atividade física. Teorias psicológicas como a teoria cognitivo-social e o modelo transteorético têm sido empregadas para tentar explicar a aderência dos jovens à atividade física regular. No entanto, tais teorias raramente têm sido utilizadas para estudar a atividade física em adolescentes brasileiros. O propósito do presente estudo foi examinar características pessoais, comportamentais e ambientais associadas com os diferentes estágios de comportamento relacionados ao exercício físico em uma amostra de adolescentes brasileiros. Participaram do estudo 488 estudantes do ensino médio (57,5% garotos com idades entre 14 e 17 anos. Medidas fidedignas e válidas foram empregadas para medir variáveis cognitivo-sociais, atividade física auto-reportada e estágios de mudança de comportamento relacionados ao exercício. A análise múltipla discrimante a analise de vari

  14. Online group-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents and young adults after cancer treatment: A multicenter randomised controlled trial of Recapture Life-AYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom-Daly Ursula M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cancer diagnosis is 2.9 times more likely to occur during the adolescent and young adult years than in younger children. This spike in incidence coincides with a life stage characterised by psychological vulnerability as young people strive to attain numerous, critical developmental milestones. The distress young people experience after cancer treatment seriously jeopardises their ability to move into well-functioning adulthood. Methods/Design This article presents the protocol of the Recapture Life study, a phase II three-arm randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a new intervention in reducing distress and improving quality of life for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. The novel intervention, “ReCaPTure LiFe” will be compared to a both a wait-list, and a peer-support group control. Ninety young people aged 15–25 years who have completed cancer treatment in the past 1–6 months will be recruited from hospitals around Australia. Those randomised to receive Recapture Life will participate in six, weekly, 90-minute online group sessions led by a psychologist, involving peer-discussion around cognitive-behavioural coping skills (including: behavioural activation, thought challenging, communication and assertiveness skills training, problem-solving and goal-setting. Participants randomised to the peer-support group control will receive non-directive peer support delivered in an identical manner. Participants will complete psychosocial measures at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention. The primary outcome will be quality of life. Secondary outcomes will include depression, anxiety, stress, family functioning, coping, and cancer-related identity. Discussion This article reviews the empirical rationale for using group-based, online cognitive-behavioural therapy in young people after cancer treatment. The potential challenges of delivering skills

  15. Early marriage and intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane

    2014-03-01

    Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.

  16. The successful pharmacological treatment of adolescents and young adults with borderline personality disorder: a preliminary open trial of flupenthixol.

    OpenAIRE

    Kutcher, S; Papatheodorou, G; Reiter, S; Gardner, D

    1995-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a significantly disabling disturbance often arising in adolescents or young adults. In the absence of demonstrated effective treatments in this population, this open prospective study evaluated the effect of low dose (3 mg per day) flupenthixol in 13 rigorously diagnosed adolescents with borderline personality disorder. Therapeutic outcome over eight weeks of treatment assessed across measures of impulsivity, depression/dysphoria, general psychopathology and...

  17. Association between adolescent substance use and obesity in young adulthood: a group-based dual trajectory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y C; Lanza, H Isabella; Anglin, M Douglas

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated whether and how trajectories of substance use in adolescence were associated with obesity trajectories in young adulthood. We hypothesized that: (1) exposure to persistent substance use throughout adolescence may heighten obesity risk in young adulthood; and (2) such associations may differ once gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and obesity status in adolescence, are considered. The study included 5141 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and utilized biennial data across the 12 assessments (1986-2008) to examine trajectories of substance use behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use) from ages 12 to 18 and obesity trajectories from ages 20 to 24. Group-based dual trajectory modeling was applied to examine sequential associations of trajectories of each type of substance use behavior with obesity trajectories. Three distinctive trajectory patterns were respectively identified for cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use from ages 12 to 18, as well as for obesity status (BMI ≥ 30) from ages 20 to 24. Taking into account gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and obesity status in adolescence, adolescents with the most problematic smoking trajectory (High-decreasing) were more likely to exhibit a High-obesity trajectory from ages 20 to 24. Also, adolescents with an Increasing marijuana use trajectory were more likely to exhibit an Increased obesity trajectory in young adulthood. The current study demonstrates that adolescent substance use is associated with subsequent obesity in young adulthood. The associations appear to differ based on the type of substance use and patterns of use. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Research in the Integration of Behavioral Health for Adolescents and Young Adults in Primary Care Settings: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, LP; McCarty, CA; Radovic, A; Suleiman, AB

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine Despite the recognition that behavioral and medical health conditions are frequently intertwined, the existing health care system divides management for these issues into separate settings. This separation results in increased barriers to receipt of care and contributes to problems of underdetection, inappropriate diagnosis, and lack of treatment engagement. Adolescents and young adults with mental health conditions have some of the lowest rat...

  19. Association between Adolescent Substance Use and Obesity in Young Adulthood: A Group-based Dual Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y.C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated whether and how trajectories of substance use in adolescence were associated with obesity trajectories in young adulthood. We hypothesized that: (1) exposure to persistent substance use throughout adolescence may heighten obesity risk in young adulthood; and (2) such associations may differ once gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and obesity status in adolescence, are considered. Methods The study included 5,141 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and utilized biennial data across the 12 assessments (1986-2008) to examine trajectories of substance use behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use) from ages 12 to 18 and obesity trajectories from ages 20 to 24. Group-based dual trajectory modeling was applied to examine sequential associations of trajectories of each type of substance use behavior with obesity trajectories. Results Three distinctive trajectory patterns were respectively identified for cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use from ages 12 to 18, as well as for obesity status (BMI ≥ 30) from ages 20 to 24. Taking into account gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and obesity status in adolescence, adolescents with the most problematic smoking trajectory (High-decreasing) were more likely to exhibit a High-obesity trajectory from ages 20 to 24. Also, adolescents with an Increasing marijuana use trajectory were more likely to exhibit an Increased obesity trajectory in young adulthood. Conclusions The current study demonstrates that adolescent substance use is associated with subsequent obesity in young adulthood. The associations appear to differ based on type of substance use and patterns of use. PMID:23899428

  20. Measuring Neighborhood Connection and the Association with Violence in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Sieving, Renee E.; Harpin, Scott A.; Hearst, Mary O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to construct measures of adolescent neighborhood connection and test the association of these measures with violence-related behaviors. Methods This study uses data from the baseline Lead Peace-Plus evaluation survey completed by 6th grade students (n=118). The survey was conducted in Fall, 2006 in four urban community schools with similar ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged student bodies. The survey instrument, tailored for adolescents, included questions about violence involvement in the past year, as well as youth perceptions of and interactions with others in their neighborhood. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to construct neighborhood connectedness scales. Mixed-model logistic regression was used to examine relationships of these scales with students' violent behaviors, adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Results Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors. The first factor, Intention to Contribute, was composed of five items (α = 0.86) that indicated whether adolescents value and intend to work to improve their neighborhoods. The factor, Neighborhood Social Resources, was composed of eight items (α = 0.76) that reflected adolescents' familiarity with neighbors and perceptions that their neighbors could provide support. Students with lower levels of both neighborhood connection measures were more likely to report violent behaviors in the past year. However, the trends were statistically significant only for relationships between Intention to Contribute and violence indicators. Conclusions Neighborhood connection can be measured with reliability in middle school students. Cultivating young adolescents' intentions to contribute to their neighborhoods may be an effective strategy for reducing youth violence. PMID:18848677

  1. Long-term Follow-up of Neonatal Brachial Plexopathy: Psychological and Physical Function in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lesley; Mills, Janith; Richard, Heather M; Riddle, Russell; Ezaki, Marybeth; Oishi, Scott

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) has been increasing since the early 1980s. No known studies have examined long-term psychological health and quality of life (QOL) in young adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial and intellectual aspects of NBPP during adolescence into young adulthood. A total of 31 patients were enrolled in the adolescent group (16 to 18 y) and 25 in the young adult group (23 to 28 y). Clinical assessment included functional ability, range of motion and strength, weight and body mass index, and education level. Patients were administered measures of psychiatric symptomatology, self-concept, QOL, and cognitive function. Narakas injury level for the adolescent group included 11 level I, 6 level II, 8 level III, and 6 level IV. The young adult group had 10 level I, 2 level II, 9 level III, and 4 level IV. The degree of physical impairment determined by the Modified Mallet Classification showed persistent impairment in both groups. The average DASH scores were higher than the normal range for the adolescent and young adult groups. Forty-five percent of the adolescents and 68% of the young adults were either overweight or obese. All received high school diplomas with 20 of the young adults pursuing higher education.Scores on measures of psychiatric symptomatology and self-concept showed that both groups fell within the normal range. QOL for both groups was also within the normal range. All participants scored average to above average on the cognitive assessment. All measurements were patient reported. Patients with NBPP can adapt and participate in most activities. This patient sample demonstrated persistent functional limitations and a higher rate of comorbid obesity. However, these patients function psychologically and cognitively within the normal range and many have pursued higher education. Level IV.

  2. Evaluation and preservation of fertility in adolescent and young adult patients with testicular cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Jennifer; Fernbach,; Stahl,

    2013-01-01

    Jennifer M Levine,1 Alison E Fernbach,1 Peter J Stahl21Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Urology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Testicular cancer is the most common cancer affecting young adult males. With survival rates in the range of 70%–99% depending on stage, it is critical to address the long-term consequences of diagnosis and treatment. Maintaining the ability to have biologic children has been identified as an area of importance for lo...

  3. Measuring Adolescent Life Satisfaction: Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in a Sample of Italian Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of 1,515 Italian (females = 60.26%, males = 39.74%) adolescents and young adults (M[subscript age] = 17.6 years, SD = 1.21). Results confirmed the unidimensionality, good reliability, and concurrent validity of the…

  4. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood : Do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Reijneveld, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. Methods: We analyzed data from the first, third, and

  5. [Psychosocial impact of cancer on Moroccan adolescent and young adult: experience of National Institute of Oncology of Rabat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulaamane, Lamiaa; Essaadi, Ismail; Lalya, Issam; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2011-10-01

    Cancer is an uncommon disease; its imaginary concept is very particularly on adolescent and young adults. It disturbs their lives on the whole. The purpose of this study is to describe the specific psychosocial effects of cancer on adolescent and young adults in Moroccan population in order to help physicians educate and counsel future young patients and their families. During the period from January to July 2009, patients aged between 15 and 30 years with histologically confirmed cancer, were prospectively interviewed by a questionnaire covering socio-epidemiological characteristics, repercussions of disease on physical, psychic, sexual and religious practices. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of cancer, particularly on this young North African population, which is underrepresented in the psychosocial cancer literature.

  6. School-based HPV immunization of young adolescents: effects of two brief health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Vaughn I; Auslander, Beth A; Cox, Dena S; Rosenthal, Susan L; Rupp, Richard E; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent immunization rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) are low and interventions within school-based health centers (SBHCs) may increase HPV uptake and series completion. We examined the effect of a parent health message intervention on HPV vaccination intent, first dose uptake and series completion among adolescents who received care at SBHCs. Via computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI), 445 parents of young adolescents were randomly assigned to 2 two-level interventions using a 2 × 2 design (rhetorical question (RQ) or no-RQ and one-sided or two-sided message). The RQ intervention involved asking the parent a question they were likely to endorse (e.g., "Do you want to protect your daughter from cervical cancer?") with the expectation that they would then behave in a manner consistent with their endorsement (i.e., agree to vaccinate). For the one-sided message, parents were given information that emphasized the safety and effectiveness of HPV vaccine, whereas the two-sided message acknowledged that some parents might have concerns about the vaccine, followed by reassurance regarding the safety and effectiveness. At CATI conclusion, parents indicated intentions to have their adolescents vaccinated. Parents who endorsed any intent were sent a consent form to return and all adolescents with signed returned consents were vaccinated at SBHCs. Medical records were reviewed for uptake/completion. Parents were 87% female; adolescents were 66% male and racially/ethnically diverse. 42.5% of parents indicated some intention to immunize, 51.4% were unsure, and 6.1% were not interested. 34% (n = 151) of adolescents received their first dose with series completion rates of 67% (n = 101). The RQ component of the intervention increased intention to vaccinate (RR = 1.45; 95%CI 1.16,1.81), but not first dose uptake or series completion. The 1-sided and 2-sided messages had no effect. This brief, RQ health intervention enhanced intent, but did not impact vaccination

  7. Domestic burns among children, adolescents and young adults: urgency and emergency cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Gonçalves Brito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze domestic burns caused by the exposure to electric current/radiation/temperature, smoke/fire/flames and contact with a source of heat/hot substances, in children, adolescents and young adults treated at an urgency/emergency service of reference. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with victims (0 to 24 years of age of home burns treated at an urgency/emergency service of a capital city located in the center-west region of Brazil, in 2013. In total, 84 victims of home burns were studied, with prevalence of female victims (59.5% and age group of 1-4 years of age (27.4%. The most frequent burns were caused by contact with a source of heat/hot substances (82.1% and exposure to smoke/fire/flames (15.5%. The body areas most commonly affected by home burns were head, trunk, and upper and lower limbs (90.5%, with prevalence of second-degree burns (40.5%. Home burns significantly affect children, adolescents and young adults, particularly female subjects, highlighting the importance of providing preventive and educational activities to female victims.

  8. Associations among evening snacking, screen time, weight status, and overall diet quality in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J; Fryer, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among evening snacking (food choices, portion sizes), afterschool-evening screen time, overall diet quality, and weight status. Participants consisted of 1008 young adolescents (secondary analyses, n = 651) from schools in Windsor-Essex, Ontario. The Web-based Food Behaviour Questionnaire, including a 24-h diet recall, was used to assess eating and screen time behaviours (television and video and computer games), as well as nutrient intake; height and weight for BMI were measured using a stadiometer. Results indicated that the majority of participants (62%) consumed an evening snack that contributed approximately 11% of their daily caloric intake. Evening snacking was associated with an overall good diet quality compared with that of non-evening snackers (p snack servings of vegetables and fruit (p snack food portion sizes (p snacking factors, participants with greater than 6 h of afterschool-evening screen time were less likely to have a good overall diet quality compared with those with less than 1 h of afterschool-evening screen time. Therefore, increased screen time, because it is associated with greater evening snack portion sizes and overall poor diet quality, is of great concern regarding young adolescents' evening behaviour.

  9. Adolescents' and young adults' conceptions of civil liberties: freedom of speech and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, C C

    1995-02-01

    This study examined adolescents' and young adults' conceptions of freedom of speech and religion (civil liberties). 48 adolescents and young adults in 3 grade levels (mean ages 12-8, 16-10, and 19-6) were administered a structured interview containing assessments of civil liberties in general, in straightforward (unconflicted) applications, and in conflict with other social and moral concerns, including law, physical and psychological harm, and equality of opportunity. Freedom of speech and religion were conceptualized as universal rights and applied to social events in unconflicted contexts at all ages. A diverse array of rationales, differentiated according to type of freedom, were used at all ages to ground conceptions of universal freedoms. Judgments of civil liberties in conflicts exhibited several sources of variation, including developmental differences, situational or contextual variation determined by the particular types of issues in conflict, and individual differences. Results are consistent with the proposition that judgments of civil liberties reflect age-related patterns of coordination of delimited social and moral concepts rather than general orientations.

  10. Risk Factors for Disordered Eating in Overweight Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wall, Melanie M; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for disordered eating among overweight youth, a subset of the population particularly at risk for such behaviors. A population-based sample of overweight youth (n = 553) self-reported their disordered eating (binge eating, extreme weight control behaviors), depression-related symptoms, body dissatisfaction, and weight-related teasing at 5-year intervals spanning early/middle adolescence (Time 1; T1), middle adolescence/early young adulthood (Time 2; T2), and early/middle young adulthood (Time 3; T3). Using logistic regression, we found that T2 depression-related symptoms (p = .02) and body dissatisfaction (p = .01), and increases in body dissatisfaction from T1 to T2 (p = .03), predicted disordered eating incidence at T3. Depression-related symptoms and body dissatisfaction appear to be important risk factors for disordered eating among overweight youth. Eating disorder prevention programs should address these factors along with behaviors maintaining or exacerbating excess weight status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Mental health of the male adolescent and young man: the Copenhagen statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Shah, Lesha D; Trelles, Pilar; Lin, Shih-Ku; Christensen, Dinne Skjærlund; Walther, Andreas; Sher, Leo

    2018-04-20

    Male adolescents and young men benefit when their mental health care is specialized to match their unique gendered and developmental needs. Sensitivity to the social circumstances of this population is important; additionally, the emerging ability to tailor care through knowledge gleaned from the intersection of psychiatry, neurology, and endocrinology informs care. This article summarized the views of six experts in the area of the adolescent and young adult male mental health. These experts were select members of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry's Task Force on Men's Mental Health. They convened to present two symposia on the topic of men's mental health at the 13th World Congress of Biological Psychiatry (WCBP) in Copenhagen, Denmark in 2017. In these works, a special focus is paid to addictive disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, aggression, and brain development. Collectively, the authors present an argument for the merits of a male-specific model of mental health care to advance the overall well-being of this population. Men's mental health should be recognized as a social issue as much as a medical issue, with special attention paid to problems such as unemployment, familial disruption, and substance abuse. These problems, and especially those of major societal impact including violence and suicide which are much more frequently the product of male youth and men, should have more male-tailored options for service provision that respond to men's mental health needs.

  12. Triad of physical activity, aerobic fitness and obesity in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffart, Laurien M; Roebroeck, Marij E; Rol, Mathilde; Stam, Henk J; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensively and objectively assess physical activity, aerobic fitness and body fat in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele and to investigate their relationships. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-one persons (26 males) with myelomeningocele aged 21.1 (standard deviation) 4.5) years. Physical activity was measured with an accelerometry-based activity monitor. Aerobic fitness was defined as the maximum oxygen uptake during the last minute of a maximal exercise test. Body fat was assessed using sum of 4 skin-folds and body mass index. Correlations were studied using multiple regression analyses. Thirty-nine percent of the participants were inactive and another 37% were extremely inactive. Aerobic fitness was 42% lower than normative values and 35% were obese. Ambulatory status was related to daily physical activity (beta = 0.541), aerobic fitness (beta = 0.397) and body fat (beta = -0.243). Gender was related to aerobic fitness (beta = -0.529) and body fat (beta = 0.610). Physical activity was related to aerobic fitness in non-ambulatory persons with myelomeningocele (beta = 0.398), but not in ambulatory persons. Adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele were physically inactive, had poor aerobic fitness and high body fat. Differences exist between subgroups regarding gender and ambulatory status.

  13. Dental caries' experience, prevalence and severity in Mexican adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cortés, José O; Medina-Solís, Carlo E; Loyola-Rodriguez, Juan P; Mejía-Cruz, Jorge A; Medina-Cerda, Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Pontigo-Loyola, América P

    2009-01-01

    Determining dental caries' experience, prevalence and severity in students applying for degree courses at San Luis Potosi University (UASLP). A cross-sectional study was carried out involving adolescents and young adults (16 to 25 years old) applying for undergraduate courses at UASLP (approximately 10 %, n=1 027). Two standardized examiners undertook dental examinations; DMFT index, prevalence (DMFT>0), severity (DMFT>3 and DMFT>6) and significant caries index (SiC) were calculated. STATA 9.0 non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis. Mean age was 18.20+/-1.65; 48.0% were female. The DMFT index was 4.04+/-3.90 and caries prevalence was 74.4%. Regarding caries' severity, 48.8% had MDFT>3 and 24% DMFT>6. The SiC index was 8.64. Females had higher caries experience than males (4.32+/-4.01 cf 3.78+/-3.78; p0.05). Age was associated with both experience (pcaries' severity (pcaries' experience, prevalence and severity were observed in this sample of adolescents and young adults. Restorative experience was high (59.5%) compared to studies carried out in other parts of Mexico and Latin-America.

  14. Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Life After Treatment in Their Own Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, Wendy L; Ogle, Sue; Reilly, Maureen; Barakat, Lamia; Lucas, Matthew S; Ginsberg, Jill P; Fisher, Michael J; Volpe, Ellen M; Deatrick, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    To date, there are few studies that examine the perspectives of older survivors of childhood brain tumors who are living with their families in terms of their sense of self and their role in their families. The aim of this study was to describe how adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood brain tumors describe their health-related quality of life, that is, their physical, emotional, and social functioning. This qualitative descriptive study included a purposive sample of 41 adolescent and young adult survivors of a childhood brain tumor who live with their families. Home interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Directed content analytic techniques were used to analyze data using health-related quality of life as a framework. This group of brain tumor survivors described their everyday lives in terms of their physical health, neurocognitive functioning, emotional health, social functioning, and self-care abilities. Overall, survivors struggle for normalcy in the face of changed functioning due to their cancer and the (late) effects of their treatment. Neurocognitive issues seemed most compelling in the narratives. The importance of families went beyond the resources, structure, and support for functioning. Their families provided the recognition that they were important beings and their existence mattered to someone. The value and complexity of care coordination were highlighted by the multifaceted needs of the survivors. Advocacy for appropriate and timely educational, vocational, and social support is critical as part of comprehensive cancer survivorship care.

  15. Spirituality in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Sharon B

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been found to have a positive impact on adults with cancer, but these concepts have not been well examined in adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer. AYA often question and struggle with their religious and spiritual beliefs, so it is not clear if spirituality and religion have the same positive impact on this age group. The purpose of this review of literature was to examine the research that has been conducted in spirituality in AYA with cancer. The review covered the years from 1980 to present. The terms cancer, adolescents, and young adults as well as the phrases spirit* and relig* were used to capture the different variations of words. Nine articles were found that explored spirituality and religiosity in AYA with cancer. This review highlighted the need for clarifying the terms used in describing the concept. This lack of continuity in terms makes it difficult to compare the studies. The methods used to measure spirituality are varied. Pediatric oncology nurses need to be sensitive to the spiritual needs of their patients. This can be accomplished by keeping an open line of communication and ensuring uninterrupted time to pray or read scriptures. Because of the variety of ways to express spirituality, the important first step is to ask what spirituality means to them. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  16. Effective Transitional Therapy for Adolescent and Young Adult Patients With Cancer: An Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, Katherine J; Tariman, Joseph D

    2016-08-01

    The adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer community has demonstrated a need for psychosocial help transitioning from acute cancer care to survivorship while navigating appropriate developmental challenges. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to examine the transition of AYAs from life as patients with cancer to life as cancer survivors and to evaluate the most effective, therapeutic ways to make this transition. This integrative literature review focused on articles published from 2008-2015 using PubMed, CINAHL®, and PsycINFO. Key search terms were cancer, [adaptation, psychological], adolesc*, and young adult. Outcomes were evaluated using the Adaptation Model of Nursing. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria, but only four empirically examined interventions. Eighteen studies demonstrated AYAs' unmet needs and suggested important therapeutic components. The four empirically examined interventions were dynamic group therapy, online cognitive-behavioral therapy, an online cancer forum, and an educational cancer retreat. Eighteen therapeutic themes were identified as integral to a complete and healthy transition. Five of these themes seemed to be of particular importance.

  17. Optimal management of venous thromboembolism in adolescent and young adult oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKillop S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah McKillop,1 Cynthia Wu,2 Aisha Bruce,1 Joseph Brandwein2 1Division of Immunology, Hematology, Oncology, Palliative Care and Environmental Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 2Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a serious complication experienced by adolescents and young adults (AYAs diagnosed with cancer. Data exist in the adult literature to guide the management of cancer-associated thrombosis. Unfortunately, little is known regarding the epidemiology of cancer-associated thrombosis in AYAs. As a result, evidence on the treatment and prevention of thrombosis in this vulnerable population is lacking, posing a great challenge to physicians caring for AYAs with cancer. It is clear that the basic principles of VTE likely apply to AYAs and that low-molecular-weight heparin is the drug of choice for the treatment of VTE regardless of age. We review the available data on the epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and management of AYAs with cancer and VTE. Recognizing the lack of accepted guidelines for the prevention or management of VTE in this population, we offer expert opinion recommendations to serve as guidance to improve management of thrombosis in AYA cancer patients. Keywords: adolescents, young adults, thrombosis, cancer, venous thromboembolism, anticoagulation

  18. Young, talented and injured: Injury perceptions, experiences and consequences in adolescent elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Rosen, Philip; Kottorp, Anders; Fridén, Cecilia; Frohm, Anna; Heijne, Annette

    2018-03-03

    Even though injury is common in elite sports, there is still a lack of knowledge of young athletes' injury perception both during and after injury. The aim of this mixed-method study was, therefore, to explore, in-depth, data on injury consequences and adolescent elite athletes' perceptions and experience of injury. Three hundred and forty adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), from 16 different sports, were bi-weekly monitored over 52 weeks using a valid questionnaire. Twenty athletes from the same cohort were interviewed in focus groups about injury experience and perceptions. The results show that the average bi-weekly prevalence of injury was 38.7% (95% CI 37.3-40.1), with 30.0% (n = 102) of the athletes injured for more than half of all reporting times. An overarching theme from the focus groups highlighted the risk among young athletes of a loss of identity while injured. The findings support several suggestions that may improve the rehabilitation process and enhance rehabilitation outcomes: (a) provide clear pathways to the medical team, (b) recognize the identity loss, (c) involve the injured athletes with the rest of the teammates and (d) educate athletes about how to interpret pain signals. Future research should explore and evaluate the effectiveness and generalization of such interventions.

  19. How perfectionism and ineffectiveness influence growth of eating disorder risk in young adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D; Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-03-01

    While perfectionism is widely considered to influence risk for eating disorders, results of longitudinal studies are mixed. The goal of the current study was to investigate a more complex model of how baseline perfectionism (both high personal standards and self-critical evaluative concerns) might influence change in risk status for eating disorders in young adolescent girls, through its influence on ineffectiveness. The study was conducted with 926 girls (mean age of 13 years), and involved three waves of data (baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up). Latent growth curve modelling, incorporating the average rate at which risk changed over time, the intercept (initial status) of ineffectiveness, and baseline perfectionism, was used to explore longitudinal mediation. Personal standards was not supported as contributing to risk but results indicated that the higher mean scores on ineffectiveness over the three waves mediated the relationship between higher baseline self-critical evaluative concerns and both measures of eating disorder risk. The relationship between concern over mistakes and change in risk was small and negative. These results suggest the usefulness of interventions related to self-criticism and ineffectiveness for decreasing risk for developing an eating disorder in young adolescent girls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurocognitive effects of aripiprazole in adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Huang, Yu-Shu; Tang, Ching-Shu; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chou, Miao-Chun; Chen, Chih-Ken

    2012-09-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder have neurocognitive impairments, which are associated with poor functional outcomes. This study evaluated the neurocognitive effects of aripiprazole in adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder. This was a 24-week, observational, prospective study performed in Taiwan. Participants in the study were clinically diagnosed as having bipolar disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). In total, 28 patients participated and were administered aripiprazole. Neurocognitive function was assessed as a change from baseline in the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The 28 patients had a mean age of 18.5 ± 3.3 years. During the 24-week aripiprazole treatment, these patients had significant improvements in omission score (χ(2) = 7.83, P = 0.050) and detectability scores (χ(2) = 13.79, P = 0.003) in the CPT, and perseverative errors (χ(2) = 17.42, P = 0.001) in the WCST. The WCST perseverative errors scores were significantly associated with general symptom scores in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (β = - 1.34, P = 0.024). No significant differences were found between the neurocognitive functions of patients with manic, depressive and mixed episodes from baseline to week 24. Adolescents and young adults with bipolar disorder experienced significant neurocognitive function improvements after treatment with aripiprazole. A randomized, controlled design is warranted to determine whether these improvements are associated with aripiprazole or the course of bipolar disorder.